WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary science objectives

  1. Swarm Science objectives and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, Hermann; Hulot, Gauthier

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme to be launched in 2009. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The innovative constellation concept and a unique set of dedicated instrume...

  2. Swarm Science objectives and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, Hermann; Hulot, Gauthier

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme to be launched in 2009. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The innovative constellation concept and a unique set of dedicated instrume......Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme to be launched in 2009. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The innovative constellation concept and a unique set of dedicated...... instruments will provide the necessary observations that are required to separate and model the various sources of the geomagnetic field. This will provide new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth’s interior and Sun-Earth connection processes....

  3. SMOS Measurements Preliminary Validation: Objectives and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Roberto; Gourrion, Jerome; Gabarró, Carolina; Talone, Marco; Portabella, Marcos; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Lopez de Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Camps, Adriano; Monerris, Alessandra; Font, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    The Earth Explorer Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was successfully launched on November 2nd, 2009, in the framework of the European Space Agency Living Planet programme. It will provide long-awaited remotely-sensed Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) maps over the oceans with a 3-day revisiting time [1]. The SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre (SMOS-BEC) in Barcelona, Spain, will be involved in several activities at different levels of the salinity retrieval processing chain, which are classified according to the objectives/issues being addressed. In particular, those described hereafter refer to the validation of the products and the consolidation/improvement of the salinity retrieval procedure itself [2]. This will be carried out by performing specific comparisons against modelled brightness temperatures (TB) or external salinity data sources. Due to start at the beginning of the Commissioning Phase, the post-launch 6-month checkout and calibration period, these studies will continue through the nominal satellite operation phase. They will support the choice of an optimal data selection strategy in regard to the existing trade-off, for instance the Ascending/Descending tracks selection, the AF-FOV/EAF-FOV (Alias-Free Field Of View/Extended Alias-Free Field Of View) selection, and some possible across-track data filtering. Moreover, they will help in the definition of an optimal processing configuration (separated polarization retrieval versus first Stokes parameter retrieval). Concerning the TB, the approach is to perform inter-comparisons of the TB departures (SMOS TB minus modelled TB, assuming knowledge of auxiliary information and proper TB direct modelling). The TB departures statistics analysis will be performed at both Antenna and Earth-surface levels. In order to obtain the latter product, a surface TB module is being derived taking into account the various TB perturbing sources. The comparison with forward-modelled TB will help to devise an optimum

  4. Science objectives in the lunar base advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1988-01-01

    The author considers the potential function of astronomy in planning for a lunar base during the 21st century. He is one of the leading advocates for a permanent settlement on the Moon and has given considerable thought to the possible impact of such a station on science. He considers the rationale for a lunar base, research on the Moon, and the definition of science objectives.

  5. Objective styles in northern field science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Jeff

    2015-08-01

    Social studies of science have often treated natural field sites as extensions of the laboratory. But this overlooks the unique specificities of field sites. While lab sites are usually private spaces with carefully controlled borders, field sites are more typically public spaces with fluid boundaries and diverse inhabitants. Field scientists must therefore often adapt their work to the demands and interests of local agents. I propose to address the difference between lab and field in sociological terms, as a difference in style. A field style treats epistemic alterity as a resource rather than an obstacle for objective knowledge production. A sociological stylistics of the field should thus explain how objective science can co-exist with radical conceptual difference. I discuss examples from the Canadian North, focussing on collaborations between state wildlife biologists and managers, on the one hand, and local Aboriginal Elders and hunters, on the other. I argue that a sociological stylistics of the field can help us to better understand how radically diverse agents may collaborate across cultures in the successful production of reliable natural knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research Statement of John Neumann, Director...on Science , Space, and Technology, House of Representatives For Release on Delivery Expected at 10:00 a.m. ET Wednesday, May 24th, 2017 GAO-17...testimony before the Subcommittee on Research and Technology and the Subcommittee on Oversight, Committee on Science , Space, and Technology, House of

  7. ORES - Objective Referenced Evaluation in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Terry

    Science process skills considered important in making decisions and solving problems include: observing, classifying, measuring, using numbers, using space/time relationships, communicating, predicting, inferring, manipulating variables, making operational definitions, forming hypotheses, interpreting data, and experimenting. This 60-item test,…

  8. Co-opting Science: A preliminary study of how students invoke science in value-laden discussions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    '. As a preliminary step, this study investigated how Danish upper secondary biology students actually interwove science facts and values in socio-scientific discussions. In particular, the focus was the argumentative effects of different ways of blurring the fact-value distinction. The data consisted...... that the students regularly co-opted science to make it appear that their evaluative claims were more solidly supported than those of their opponents. Further, the students tended to co-opt science content so as to redefine what the issue or object of contention should be. The findings suggest that assessment...

  9. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  10. Beyond Objectivity and Subjectivity: The Intersubjective Foundations of Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Michael F

    2016-12-01

    The question of whether psychology can properly be regarded as a science has long been debated (Smedslund in Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50, 185-195, 2016). Science is typically understood as a method for producing reliable knowledge by testing falsifiable claims against objective evidence. Psychological phenomena, however, are traditionally taken to be "subjective" and hidden from view. To the extent that science relies upon objective observation, is a scientific psychology possible? In this paper, I argue that scientific psychology does not much fail to meet the requirements of objectivity as much as the concept of objectivity fails as a methodological principle for psychological science. The traditional notion of objectivity relies upon the distinction between a public, observable exterior and a private, subjective interior. There are good reasons, however, to reject this dichotomy. Scholarship suggests that psychological knowledge arises neither from the "inside out" (subjectively) nor from the outside-in (objectively), but instead intersubjective processes that occur between people. If this is so, then objectivist methodology may do more to obscure than illuminate our understanding of psychological functioning. From this view, we face a dilemma: Do we, in the name of science, cling to an objective epistemology that cuts us off from the richness of psychological activity? Or do we seek to develop a rigorous intersubjective psychology that exploits the processes through which we gain psychological knowledge in the first place? If such a psychology can produce systematic, reliable and useful knowledge, then the question of whether its practices are "scientific" in the traditional sense would become irrelevant.

  11. Preliminary Development of an Object-Oriented Optimization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-gi

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a FORTRAN-based object-oriented optimization (O3) tool that leverages existing tools and practices and allows easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. The object-oriented framework can integrate the analysis codes for multiple disciplines, as opposed to relying on one code to perform analysis for all disciplines. Optimization can thus take place within each discipline module, or in a loop between the central executive module and the discipline modules, or both. Six sample optimization problems are presented. The first four sample problems are based on simple mathematical equations; the fifth and sixth problems consider a three-bar truss, which is a classical example in structural synthesis. Instructions for preparing input data for the O3 tool are presented.

  12. NEOWISE Observations of Near-Earth Objects: Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A; Bauer, J; Masiero, J; McMillan, R S; Cutri, R M; Walker, R; Wright, E; Eisenhardt, P; Tholen, D J; Spahr, T; Jedicke, R; Denneau, L; DeBaun, E; Elsbury, D; Gautier, T; Gomillion, S; Hand, E; Mo, W; Watkins, J; Wilkins, A; Bryngelson, G L; Molina, A Del Pino; Desai, S; Camus, M Go'mez; Hidalgo, S L; Konstantopoulos, I; Larsen, J A; Maleszewski, C; Malkan, M A; Mauduit, J -C; Mullan, B L; Olszewski, E W; Pforr, J; Saro, A; Scotti, J V; Wasserman, L H

    2011-01-01

    With the NEOWISE portion of the \\emph{Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 $\\mu$m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniformity in sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981$\\pm$19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500$\\pm$3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken powe...

  13. POOLkits: Applying Object Oriented Principles from Software Engineering to Physics Object Oriented Learning -- Preliminary Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, Thomas; Aubrecht, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    Object-oriented development depends upon the creation of generic pieces that can be built into more complex parts. In physics, we begin teaching basic principles and then develop more complex systems, a fertile environment to develop learning objects. Each learning object consists of observable quantities, such as the physical properties of a block of wood, and operators that act on the object, such as force. Additionally, each object can also include an assessment operator that evaluates the impact of the learning object on student comprehension. The physics object-oriented learning kits (POOLkits) will be developed to enhance student understanding of physics concepts, as well as, build a framework for developing a software object based on the physics concept. A POOLkit can be extended, similar to the concept of extending classes in object-oriented programming, as physics knowledge expands. The expectation for these POOLkits would be to provide physics students with a solid foundation in the first principles to be able to derive more complex formulae and have the understanding of the process with a secondary benefit of enhancing the object-oriented programming capabilities of physics students.

  14. [Influence of preliminary information about mass on anticipatory muscle activity during catching of falling object].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazennikov, O V; Lipshits, M I

    2010-01-01

    Heavy or light object fell into the cup held between thumb and index fingers of sitting subject. The anticipatory muscle activity and the grip force applied to cup depended on the mass of object while the temporal parameters (time of beginning of muscle activity, duration of the activity, the time of grip force maximum) were constant. The preliminary verbal information about mass of the falling object was enough for predictive force programming. Without such information, i.e. during fall the object of unknown mass the anticipatory activity was planned in expectation of heavy weight.

  15. Geometrical objects architecture and the mathematical sciences 1400-1800

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume explores the mathematical character of architectural practice in diverse pre- and early modern contexts. It takes an explicitly interdisciplinary approach, which unites scholarship in early modern architecture with recent work in the history of science, in particular, on the role of practice in the scientific revolution. As a contribution to architectural history, the volume contextualizes design and construction in terms of contemporary mathematical knowledge, attendant forms of mathematical practice, and relevant social distinctions between the mathematical professions. As a contribution to the history of science, the volume presents a series of micro-historical studies that highlight issues of process, materiality, and knowledge production in specific, situated, practical contexts. Our approach sees the designer’s studio, the stone-yard, the drawing floor, and construction site not merely as places where the architectural object takes shape, but where mathematical knowledge itself is depl...

  16. Object-Oriented Heterogeneous Database for Materials Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hansen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the scientific database research underway at the Oregon Graduate Institute, we are collaborating with materials scientists in the research and development of an extensible modeling and computation environment for materials science. Materials scientists are prolific users of computers for scientific research. Modeling techniques and algorithms are well known and refined, and computerized databases of chemical and physical property data abound. However, applications are typically developed in isolation, using information models specifically tailored for the needs of each application. Furthermore, available computerized databases in the form of CDs and on-line information services are still accessed manually by the scientist in an off-line fashion. Thus researchers are repeatedly constructing and populating new custom databases for each application. The goal of our research is to bridge this gulf between applications and sources of data. We believe that object-oriented technology in general and data-bases in particular, provide powerful tools for transparently bridging the gap between programs and data. An object-oriented database that not only manages data generated by user applications, but also provides access to relevant external data sources can be used to bridge this gap. An object-oriented database for materials science data is described that brings together data from heterogeneous non-object-oriented sources and formats, and presents the user with a single, uniform object-oriented schema that transparently integrates these diverse databases. A unique multilevel architecture is presented that provides a mechanism for efficiently accessing both heterogeneous external data sources and new data stored within the database.

  17. Energy and the social sciences. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    The social science literature pertaining to energy problems is reviewed, and preliminary suggestions for research projects and research strategy are presented. Much of the social science literature on energy is in the field of economics, where such themes as econometric models, pricing policy, taxation, and government-industry interactions are discussed. Among the suggested research efforts is a study of proper economic criteria for determining rates of development of alternative sources of energy. The political science literature on energy is not well developed, but a review of it indicates interesting possibilities for research. The kinds of social and political institutions that would be most effective in an energy-constrained economy should be studied, and a comparative study of institutions now in existence in the United States and other countries is suggested. The social effects of centralized, comprehensive decision-making, which might be necessary in the event of significant shortages of energy, should be studied. The roles of community groups, interest groups, the media, government, etc., in decision-making should receive continuing attention. In the fields of sociology and psychology there is a need for more understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of individuals about energy matters. The ways in which people adapt to energy shortages and changes in energy prices should be a subject for continuing studies. It is suggested that plans be made for surveys of coping strategies under emergency conditions as well as under conditions of gradual change. A possible long-range reaction to energy shortages and high prices might be a decrease in living-space available to individuals and families, and the work of psychologists in this area should be analyzed. 41 references.

  18. The EJSM Jupiter-Europa Orbiter: Science Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Clark, K.; Greeley, R.; Hendrix, A. R.; Lebreton, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Europa is believed to shelter an ocean between its geodynamically active icy shell and its rocky mantle, where the conditions for habitability may be fulfilled. With a warm, salty, water ocean and plausible chemical energy sources, Europa is the astrobiological archetype for icy satellite habitability. It is also a geophysical wonderland of interrelated ice shell processes that are intimately related to the ocean and tides, and of complex interactions among its interior, surface, atmosphere, and magnetospheric environments. The Jupiter-Europa Orbiter (JEO) is one component of the proposed multi-spacecraft Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). We focus here on the science objectives and heritage of JEO.

  19. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    and make direct measurements. With this in mind, NASA initiated development of a payload named RESOLVE (Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) that could be flown to the lunar poles and answer the questions surrounding the hydrogen: what's its form? how much is there? how deep or distributed is it? To do this, RESOLVE will use a drill to take a 1-2 meter core sample, crush and heat sample segments of the core in an oven and monitor the amount and type of volatile gases that evolve with a gas chromatograph (GC). RESOLVE will also selectively capture both hydrogen gas and water as a secondary method of quantification. A specialized camera that is coupled with a Raman spectrometer will allow core samples to be microscopically examined while also determining its mineral composition and possible water content before heating. Because RESOLVE is aimed at demonstrating capabilities and techniques that might be later used for ISRU, a multi-use oven is utilized with the ability to produce oxygen using the hydrogen reduction method. SCIENCE BENEFITS: In the process of answering the hydrogen question, the RESOLVE instrument suite will provide data that can address a number of other scientific questions and debate issues, especially the sources of volatiles and reactions that might take place in cold traps. It should be noted that the original instrument suite for RESOLVE was selected to accomplish the largest number of ISRU and science objectives as possible within the limited funding available. Complementary instruments are noted when additional science objectives can be accomplished. Incorporation of these new instruments into RESOLVE and potential partnerships is an area of near-term interest. Sources of Volatiles: The main proposed sources are episodic comet impacts, moreor- less continuous micrometeorite (both comet and asteroidal) impacts, solar wind bombardment, occasional volcanic emissions from the interior, and episodic delivery of

  20. Science Objectives of the FOXSI Small Explorer Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Alaoui, Meriem; Allred, Joel C.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Battaglia, Marina; Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; Drake, James; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Glesener, Lindsay; Grefenstette, Brian; Hannah, Iain; Holman, Gordon D.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Ireland, Jack; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Jeffrey, Natasha; Klimchuk, James A.; Kontar, Eduard; Krucker, Sam; Longcope, Dana; Musset, Sophie; Nita, Gelu M.; Ramsey, Brian; Ryan, Daniel; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Vilmer, Nicole; White, Stephen M.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    Impulsive particle acceleration and plasma heating at the Sun, from the largest solar eruptive events to the smallest flares, are related to fundamental processes throughout the Universe. While there have been significant advances in our understanding of impulsive energy release since the advent of RHESSI observations, there is a clear need for new X-ray observations that can capture the full range of emission in flares (e.g., faint coronal sources near bright chromospheric sources), follow the intricate evolution of energy release and changes in morphology, and search for the signatures of impulsive energy release in even the quiescent Sun. The FOXSI Small Explorer (SMEX) mission concept combines state-of-the-art grazing-incidence focusing optics with pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of hard X-rays for the first time on a solar observatory. We present the science objectives of FOXSI and how its capabilities will address and resolve open questions regarding impulsive energy release at the Sun. These questions include: What are the time scales of the processes that accelerate electrons? How do flare-accelerated electrons escape into the heliosphere? What is the energy input of accelerated electrons into the chromosphere, and how is super-heated coronal plasma produced?

  1. The Habitable Exoplanet (HabEx) Imaging Mission: preliminary science drivers and technical requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennesson, Bertrand; Gaudi, Scott; Seager, Sara; Cahoy, Kerri; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Feinberg, Lee; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, Jeremy; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Tamura, Motohide; Mouillet, David; Prusti, Timo; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Robinson, Tyler; Rogers, Leslie; Scowen, Paul; Somerville, Rachel; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stern, Daniel; Still, Martin; Turnbull, Margaret; Booth, Jeffrey; Kiessling, Alina; Kuan, Gary; Warfield, Keith

    2016-07-01

    HabEx is one of four candidate flagship missions being studied in detail by NASA, to be submitted for consideration to the 2020 Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics for possible launch in the 2030s. It will be optimized for direct imaging and spectroscopy of potentially habitable exoplanets, and will also enable a wide range of general astrophysics science. HabEx aims to fully characterize planetary systems around nearby solar-type stars for the first time, including rocky planets, possible water worlds, gas giants, ice giants, and faint circumstellar debris disks. In particular, it will explore our nearest neighbors and search for signs of habitability and biosignatures in the atmospheres of rocky planets in the habitable zones of their parent stars. Such high spatial resolution, high contrast observations require a large (roughly greater than 3.5m), stable, and diffraction-limited optical space telescope. Such a telescope also opens up unique capabilities for studying the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies. We present some preliminary science objectives identified for HabEx by our Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT), together with a first look at the key challenges and design trades ahead.

  2. The Habitable Exoplanet (HabEx) Imaging Mission: Preliminary Science Drivers and Technical Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, B. Scott; Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission Science and Technology Definition Team

    2017-01-01

    HabEx is one of four candidate flagship missions being studied in detail by NASA, to be submitted for consideration to the 2020 Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics for possible launch in the 2030s. It will be optimized for direct imaging and spectroscopy of potentially habitable exoplanets, and will also enable a wide range of general astrophysics science. HabEx aims to fully characterize planetary systems around nearby solar-type stars for the first time, including rocky planets, possible water worlds, gas giants, ice giants, and faint circumstellar debris disks. In particular, it will explore our nearest neighbors and search for signs of habitability and biosignatures in the atmospheres of rocky planets in the habitable zones of their parent stars. Such high spatial resolution, high contrast observations require a large (roughly greater than 3.5m), stable, and diffraction-limited optical space telescope. Such a telescope also opens up unique capabilities for studying the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies. We present some preliminary science objectives identified for HabEx by our Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT), together with a first look at the key challenges and design trades ahead.

  3. The laboratory in higher science education: Problems, premises and objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.; Meester, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    A university study in the natural sciences, devoid of a practical component such as laboratory work is virtually unthinkable. One could even go so far as saying that it is extremely rare for anyone to question the necessity of laboratory work in either high school or university science curricula. La

  4. Preliminary Results of Earthquake-Induced Building Damage Detection with Object-Based Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, A.; Uca Avci, Z. D.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes are the most destructive natural disasters, which result in massive loss of life, infrastructure damages and financial losses. Earthquake-induced building damage detection is a very important step after earthquakes since earthquake-induced building damage is one of the most critical threats to cities and countries in terms of the area of damage, rate of collapsed buildings, the damage grade near the epicenters and also building damage types for all constructions. Van-Ercis (Turkey) earthquake (Mw= 7.1) was occurred on October 23th, 2011; at 10:41 UTC (13:41 local time) centered at 38.75 N 43.36 E that places the epicenter about 30 kilometers northern part of the city of Van. It is recorded that, 604 people died and approximately 4000 buildings collapsed or seriously damaged by the earthquake. In this study, high-resolution satellite images of Van-Ercis, acquired by Quickbird-2 (Digital Globe Inc.) after the earthquake, were used to detect the debris areas using an object-based image classification. Two different land surfaces, having homogeneous and heterogeneous land covers, were selected as case study areas. As a first step of the object-based image processing, segmentation was applied with a convenient scale parameter and homogeneity criterion parameters. As a next step, condition based classification was used. In the final step of this preliminary study, outputs were compared with streetview/ortophotos for the verification and evaluation of the classification accuracy.

  5. Appropriating religion: understanding religion as an object of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Wiebe

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author focuses on the study of religion as a scientific project, for it is the scientific interest in religion which has constituted the grounds for admitting the study of religion into the curriculum of the modern Western university. Despite that academic legitimation, however, the study of religion in the setting of the modern research university is not held in high esteem relative to the other sciences. It if the scientific study of religion is to be legitimately ensconced in the modern research university, the notion of religion will have to be wholly appropriated by science; only then will we be able to establish a conceptual foundation from which to make valid knowledge claims about religion on a level commensurate with the pronouncements of the natural and social sciences. Indeed, to go one step further, given the hold on the concept of religion by those committed to the humanistic study of religion, we might need to talk here not of the appropriation but of expropriation of religion by science—that is, of wresting ownership of the concept from the humanists by using it solely as a taxonomic device to differentiate and explain a peculiar range of human behaviour demonstrated in religious practices.

  6. Causality and complexity: the myth of objectivity in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, Donald C

    2007-10-01

    Two distinctly different worldviews dominate today's thinking in science and in the world of ideas outside of science. Using the approach advocated by Robert M. Hutchins, it is possible to see a pattern of interaction between ideas in science and in other spheres such as philosophy, religion, and politics. Instead of compartmentalizing these intellectual activities, it is worthwhile to look for common threads of mutual influence. Robert Rosen has created an approach to scientific epistemology that might seem radical to some. However, it has characteristics that resemble ideas in other fields, in particular in the writings of George Lakoff, Leo Strauss, and George Soros. Historically, the atmosphere at the University of Chicago during Hutchins' presidency gave rise to Rashevsky's relational biology, which Rosen carried forward. Strauss was writing his political philosophy there at the same time. One idea is paramount in all this, and it is Lakoff who gives us the most insight into how the worldviews differ using this idea. The central difference has to do with causality, the fundamental concept that we use to build a worldview. Causal entailment has two distinct forms in Lakoff 's analysis: direct causality and complex causality. Rosen's writings on complexity create a picture of complex causality that is extremely useful in its detail, grounding in the ideas of Aristotle. Strauss asks for a return to the ancients to put philosophy back on track. Lakoff sees the weaknesses in Western philosophy in a similar way, and Rosen provides tools for dealing with the problem. This introduction to the relationships between the thinking of these authors is meant to stimulate further discourse on the role of complex causal entailment in all areas of thought, and how it brings them together in a holistic worldview. The worldview built on complex causality is clearly distinct from that built around simple, direct causality. One important difference is that the impoverished causal

  7. Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Science and Technology Div.

    This guide lists information sources dealing with unidentified flying objects (UFOs). Not meant to be a comprehensive bibliography, this compilation is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target." Included are: (1) subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which publications on this subject…

  8. Spacelab 1 - Scientific objectives, life sciences, space plasma physics, astronomy and solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the accomplishments of the Spacelab 1 complement to the Shuttle mission of Nov. 28, 1983, is presented. Consideration is given to scientific results in the fields of life sciences, materials sciences, atmospheric physics, and earth observations. A table is given which lists the scientific objectives and the percentage of objectives accomplished in each field.

  9. The OCO-3 Mission : Overview of Science Objectives and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, Annmarie; Bennett, Matthew; Basilio, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    maps of 100km by 100km could be gathered in the Amazon or key agricultural regions. In addition, there is potential to utilize data from ISS instruments ECOSTRESS (ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station) and GEDI (Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation), which measure other key variables of the control of carbon uptake by plants, to complement OCO-3 data in science analysis.

  10. Co-opting Science: A preliminary study of how students invoke science in value-laden discussions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    that the students regularly co-opted science to make it appear that their evaluative claims were more solidly supported than those of their opponents. Further, the students tended to co-opt science content so as to redefine what the issue or object of contention should be. The findings suggest that assessment...

  11. The Role of Authentic Objects in Museums of the History of Science and Technology: Findings from a Visitor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, Constanze; Schwan, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    One characteristic of science centers and science museums is that they communicate scientific findings by presenting real scientific objects. In particular, science museums focus on the historical context of scientific discoveries by displaying authentic objects, defined as original objects that once served a science-related, real-world purpose…

  12. The Square Kilometre Array Science Data Processor. Preliminary compute platform design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekema, P. C.; van Nieuwpoort, R. V.; Bal, H. E.

    2015-07-01

    The Square Kilometre Array is a next-generation radio-telescope, to be built in South Africa and Western Australia. It is currently in its detailed design phase, with procurement and construction scheduled to start in 2017. The SKA Science Data Processor is the high-performance computing element of the instrument, responsible for producing science-ready data. This is a major IT project, with the Science Data Processor expected to challenge the computing state-of-the art even in 2020. In this paper we introduce the preliminary Science Data Processor design and the principles that guide the design process, as well as the constraints to the design. We introduce a highly scalable and flexible system architecture capable of handling the SDP workload.

  13. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Preliminary Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varble, Adam [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Nesbitt, Steve [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Salio, Paola [Univ. of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zipser, Edward [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); van den Heever, Susan [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); McFarquhar, Greg [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Kreidenweis, Sonia [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); DeMott, Paul [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Jensen, Michael [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Houze, Jr., Robert [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rasmussen, Kristen [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Leung, Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Romps, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gochis, David [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Avila, Eldo [National Univ. of Cordoba (Argentina); Williams, Christopher [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    well as blowing dust are common in the austral spring, while changes in land surface properties as the wet season progresses impact surface fluxes and boundary layer evolution on daily and seasonal time scales that feed back to cloud and rainfall generation. This range of environmental conditions and cloud properties coupled with a high frequency of events makes this an ideal location for improving our understanding of cloud-environment interactions. The following primary science questions will be addressed through coordinated first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1), mobile C-band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR2), guest instrumentation, and potential ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream-1 (G-1) observations: 1. How are the properties and lifecycles of orographically generated cumulus humulis, mediocris, and congestus clouds affected by environmental kinematics, thermodynamics, aerosols, and surface properties? How do these cloud types alter these environmental conditions? 2. How do environmental kinematics, thermodynamics, and aerosols impact deep convective initiation, upscale growth, and mesoscale organization? How are soil moisture, surface fluxes, and aerosol properties altered by deep convective precipitation events and seasonal accumulation of precipitation? This multi-faceted experiment involves a long term 8.5-month Extended Observing Period (EOP, 15 August, 2018-30 April, 2019) as well as a 6-week Intensive Observation Period (IOP, 1 November-15 December) that will coincide with the international multi-agency RELAMPAGO field campaign.

  14. Everyday objects of learning about health and healing and implications for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitari, Wanja

    2006-02-01

    The role of science education in rural development is of great interest to science educators. In this study I investigated how residents of rural Kirumi, Kenya, approach health and healing, through discussions and semistructured and in-depth interviews with 150 residents, 3 local herbalists, and 2 medical researchers over a period of 6 months. I constructed objects of learning by looking for similarities and differences within interpretive themes. Objects of learning found comprise four types of personal learning tools, three types of relational learning tools, three genres of moral obligation, and five genres of knowledge guarding. Findings show that rural people use (among other learning tools) inner sensing to engage thought processes that lead to health and healing knowledge. The sociocultural context is also an important component in learning. Inner sensing and residents' sociocultural context are not presently emphasized in Kenyan science teaching. I discuss the potential use of rural objects of learning in school science, with specific reference to a health topic in the Kenyan science curriculum. In addition, the findings add to the literature in the Science, Technology, Society, and Environment (STSE) approach to science education, and cross-cultural and global science education.

  15. Evolution of hydrological sciences from dimensions of object, discipline and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, L. L.; Gong, L. Y.; B. Yong; Yuan, F; Y. Liu; Jiang, S.H.; Chen, T.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution routes and development stages in hydrological sciences are summarised from the following three dimensions: research object, discipline and methodology, by means of the descriptive-explanatory-humanistic ideology. Modern technical breakthroughs and socioeconomic developments have promoted hydrology from geographical hydrology, engineering or applied hydrology to water resources hydrology in terms of the focus of research objectives or problems. It has b...

  16. Investigating Consistency of Questions in Primary and Middle School Science Textbooks with Objectives in Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    Due to problems related their content and use; textbooks do not achieve the expected effect in learning although they are one of the most important elements of the science curriculum. Questions in textbooks are also important criteria in determining the effect of textbooks. In this study, it was aimed to compare questions in four different science…

  17. Learning Science Using AR Book: A Preliminary Study on Visual Needs of Deaf Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megat Mohd. Zainuddin, Norziha; Badioze Zaman, Halimah; Ahmad, Azlina

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that is projected to have more significant role in teaching and learning, particularly in visualising abstract concepts in the learning process. AR is a technology is based on visually oriented technique. Thus, it is suitable for deaf learners since they are generally classified as visual learners. Realising the importance of visual learning style for deaf learners in learning Science, this paper reports on a preliminary study of on an ongoing research on problems faced by deaf learners in learning the topic on Microorganisms. Being visual learners, they have problems with current text books that are more text-based that graphic based. In this preliminary study, a qualitative approach using the ethnographic observational technique was used so that interaction with three deaf learners who are participants throughout this study (they are also involved actively in the design and development of the AR Book). An interview with their teacher and doctor were also conducted to identify their learning and medical problems respectively. Preliminary findings have confirmed the need to design and develop a special Augmented Reality Book called AR-Science for Deaf Learners (AR-SiD).

  18. Secondary school science teaching, 1970--1992: Objectives as stated in periodical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemby, Brian Franklin

    Purpose of the study. The major purpose of this study was to identify and classify objectives for teaching science in secondary schools in the United States during the period 1970--1992. These objectives were identified by objective statements in articles from selected professional periodicals. Procedure. The 1970--1992 period was divided into two subperiods on the basis of major historical events. Selected professional periodicals were searched for statements of objectives of secondary school science teaching. These statements were catalogued into Knowledge, Process, Attitude and Interest, or Cultural Awareness categories. The resulting data were classified within and across the two subperiods according to frequency of occurrence, category, authorship, and year. Findings. The major findings of this investigation included the following: (1) Authors in Higher Education produced the most articles, both research-oriented and nonresearch-oriented, and the most statements in each subperiod. Miscellaneous authors produced the least articles and statements. (2) Statements in the Process category were most frequent in the two subperiods. (3) The "most important" objectives for secondary school science teaching were Philosophical, sociological, and political aspects (from the Cultural Awareness category), Processes, skills, and techniques (from the Process category), and Major facts, principles, or fundamentals (from the Knowledge category). (4) Attitude and Interest objectives were consistently ranked as least important throughout the study. (5) The ranking of "most important" objectives in research-oriented articles generally agreed with the ranking in articles as a whole. Conclusions. Based on the findings of this investigation, the following conclusions were made: (1) The objectives for teaching secondary school science were influenced by historical events, especially the Vietnam War, the Cold War, the AIDS pandemic, and the publication of A Nation at Risk: The

  19. Reaching Consensus on Essential Biomedical Science Learning Objectives in a Dental Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Leandra; Walton, Joanne N; Walker, Judith; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2016-04-01

    This article describes how the University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry reached consensus on essential basic biomedical science objectives for DMD students and applied the information to the renewal of its DMD curriculum. The Delphi Method was used to build consensus among dental faculty members and students regarding the relevance of over 1,500 existing biomedical science objectives. Volunteer panels of at least three faculty members (a basic scientist, a general dentist, and a dental specialist) and a fourth-year dental student were formed for each of 13 biomedical courses in the first two years of the program. Panel members worked independently and anonymously, rating each course objective as "need to know," "nice to know," "irrelevant," or "don't know." Panel members were advised after each round which objectives had not yet achieved a 75% consensus and were asked to reconsider their ratings. After a maximum of three rounds to reach consensus, a second group of faculty experts reviewed and refined the results to establish the biomedical science objectives for the renewed curriculum. There was consensus on 46% of the learning objectives after round one, 80% after round two, and 95% after round three. The second expert group addressed any remaining objectives as part of its review process. Only 47% of previous biomedical science course objectives were judged to be essential or "need to know" for the general dentist. The consensus reached by participants in the Delphi Method panels and a second group of faculty experts led to a streamlined, better integrated DMD curriculum to prepare graduates for future practice.

  20. Relative effectiveness of physical and virtual manipulatives for conceptual change in science: how falling objects fall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, Adrianus W.; Ehrenhard, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study offers new insights into the ongoing debate about whether physical and virtual materials are equally effective in inquiry-based science instruction. Physical materials were predicted to have a surplus value when haptic feedback helps discern object characteristics or when the perceived

  1. Consistency from the perspective of an experimental systems approach to the sciences and their epistemic objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jörg Rheinberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the development of the modern sciences is rooted in experiment. Yet for a long time, experimentation did not occupy a prominent role, neither in philosophy nor in history of science. With the 'practical turn' in studying the sciences and their history, this has begun to change. This paper is concerned with systems and cultures of experimentation and the consistencies that are generated within such systems and cultures. The first part of the paper exposes the forms of historical and structural coherence that characterize the experimental exploration of epistemic objects. In the second part, a particular experimental culture in the life sciences is briefly described as an example. A survey will be given of what it means and what it takes to analyze biological functions in the test tube.

  2. From object to subject: hybrid identities of indigenous women in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    The use of hybridity today suggests a less coherent, unified and directed process than that found in the Enlightenment science's cultural imperialism, but regardless of this neither concept exists outside power and inequality. Hence, hybridity raises the question of the terms of the mixture and the conditions of mixing. Cultural hybridity produced by colonisation, under the watchful eye of science at the time, and the subsequent life in a modern world since does not obscure the power that was embedded in the moment of colonisation. Indigenous identities are constructed within and by cultural power. While we all live in a global society whose consequences no one can escape, we remain unequal participants and globalisation remains an uneven process. This article argues that power has become a constitutive element in our own hybrid identities in indigenous people's attempts to participate in science and science education. Using the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand (called Māori) as a site of identity construction, I argue that the move from being the object of science to the subject of science, through science education in schools, brings with it traces of an earlier meaning of `hybridity' that constantly erupts into the lives of Māori women scientists.

  3. Science objectives and performances of NOMAD, a spectrometer suite for the ExoMars TGO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Neefs, E.; Drummond, R.; Thomas, I. R.; Daerden, F.; Lopez-Moreno, J.-J.; Rodriguez, J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.; Allen, M.; Altieri, F.; Bolsée, D.; Clancy, T.; Delanoye, S.; Depiesse, C.; Cloutis, E.; Fedorova, A.; Formisano, V.; Funke, B.; Fussen, D.; Geminale, A.; Gérard, J.-C.; Giuranna, M.; Ignatiev, N.; Kaminski, J.; Karatekin, O.; Lefèvre, F.; López-Puertas, M.; López-Valverde, M.; Mahieux, A.; McConnell, J.; Mumma, M.; Neary, L.; Renotte, E.; Ristic, B.; Robert, S.; Smith, M.; Trokhimovsky, S.; Vander Auwera, J.; Villanueva, G.; Whiteway, J.; Wilquet, V.; Wolff, M.

    2015-12-01

    The NOMAD spectrometer suite on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter will map the composition and distribution of Mars' atmospheric trace species in unprecedented detail, fulfilling many of the scientific objectives of the joint ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission. The instrument is a combination of three channels, covering a spectral range from the UV to the IR, and can perform solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. In this paper, we present the science objectives of the instrument and how these objectives have influenced the design of the channels. We also discuss the expected performance of the instrument in terms of coverage and detection sensitivity.

  4. A Web-Based Resource Model for eScience: Object Reuse & Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Lagoze, Carl; Nelson, Michael; Warner, Simeon; Sanderson, Robert; Johnston, Pete

    2008-01-01

    Work in the Open Archives Initiative - Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) focuses on an important aspect of infrastructure for eScience: the specification of the data model and a suite of implementation standards to identify and describe compound objects. These are objects that aggregate multiple sources of content including text, images, data, visualization tools, and the like. These aggregations are an essential product of eScience, and will become increasingly common in the age of data-driven scholarship. The OAI-ORE specifications conform to the core concepts of the Web architecture and the semantic Web, ensuring that applications that use them will integrate well into the general Web environment.

  5. Life science research objectives and representative experiments for the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C. (Editor); Arno, Roger D. (Editor); Mains, Richard (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A workshop was convened to develop hypothetical experiments to be used as a baseline for space station designer and equipment specifiers to ensure responsiveness to the users, the life science community. Sixty-five intra- and extramural scientists were asked to describe scientific rationales, science objectives, and give brief representative experiment descriptions compatible with expected space station accommodations, capabilities, and performance envelopes. Experiment descriptions include hypothesis, subject types, approach, equipment requirements, and space station support requirements. The 171 experiments are divided into 14 disciplines.

  6. Research Objects for Sharing and Exchanging Research Data and Methods in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Pérez, José Manuel; Palma, Raul

    2016-04-01

    Scientists in data-intensive disciplines increasingly call for models that go beyond the publication of datasets, allowing systematic capture of the lifecycle of scientific investigations and providing a single entry point for accessing information about (to name a few) the hypotheses investigated, the datasets used, the computations, observations and experiments carried out, their outcomes and provenance, the conclusions and findings that were derived, and even the scientists involved in a particular investigation. In this scenario, Research Objects provide a structured means to encapsulate such information and the associated methods involved, along with essential metadata and annotations aimed at both humans and computers. Research objects are therefore portable units of scientific knowledge that enable the sharing, preservation, scholarly communication, validation, and re-use of scientific outcomes. In this presentation we will focus on the application of the Research Object concept in observational disciplines and particularly Earth Science. We will present the main concepts behind research objects and discuss the challenges involved in the extension and adaptation of existing practices, modelling vocabularies, middleware and tools for these disciplines. By deploying research object technologies in Earth Science, we aim to enhance the portability of scientific materials and methods, the collaboration capabilities within and between teams of earth scientists, the quality and long-term preservation capabilities of the methods, and the means to communicate, validate and measure the impact of scientific outcomes. This work is being conducted in the context of the Horizon2020 EVER-EST project, the main objective of which is the development of a research object-centric virtual research environment for Earth Science communities.

  7. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  8. The opinion of post graduate students on objective structured clinical examination in Anaesthesiology: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The scenario in medical education is changing with objective structured clinical examination (OSCE being introduced as an assessment tool. Its successful implementation in anaesthesiology postgraduate evaluation process is still limited. We decided to to evaluate the effectiveness of OSCE and compare it to conventional examinations as formative assessment tools in anaesthesiology. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional comparative study in defined population of anaesthesiology postgraduate students to evaluate the effectiveness of OSCE as compared to conventional examination as formative assessment tool in anaesthesiology. Thirty-five students appeared for the conventional examination on the 1st day and viva voce on the 2nd day and OSCE on the last day. At the conclusion of the assessment, all the students were asked to respond to the perception evaluation questionnaire. We analysed the perception of OSCE among the students. Results: Results showed a positive perception of the objective structured physical examination (OSCE as well as structured 9 (25.7%, fair 19 (54.2% and unbiased 13 (37.1% with more standardised scoring 9 (25.7%. The students perceived OSCE to be less stressful than other examination. Thirty-one (88.5% students agreed that OSCE is easier to pass than conventional method and 29 (82.5% commented that the degree of emotional stress is less in OSCE than traditional methods. Conclusion: OSCE is better evaluation tool when compared to conventional examination.

  9. Factors associated with medical student test anxiety in objective structured clinical examinations: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students’ motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients. Participants’ test anxiety levels were measured using the Korean Achievement Emotions Questionnaire. Participants rated their responses using a five-point Likert-type scale. Univariate analysis was performed to examine relationships between the variables. Results A total of 94 students completed the questionnaire (a 93% response rate). No differences in the participants’ test anxiety scores were observed across genders, entry-levels, or years in medical school. Participants’ test anxiety on the OSCE showed moderate association with their class-related achievement emotions (i.e., anxiety and boredom), where r = 0.46 and 0.32, p OSCE (r = -0.21, p OSCE. These findings have implications for developing effective educational interventions for helping students cope with such a stress by enhancing our understanding of the various factors that influence their test anxiety in OSCEs. PMID:28035056

  10. Science objectives and first results from the SMART-1/AMIE multicolour micro-camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Langevin, Y.; Barucci, M. A.; Plancke, P.; Koschny, D.; Almeida, M.; Sodnik, Z.; Mancuso, S.; Hofmann, B. A.; Muinonen, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shkuratov, Yu.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE), on-board SMART-1, the first European mission to the Moon, is an imaging system with scientific, technical and public outreach objectives. The science objectives are to image the lunar South Pole, permanent shadow areas (ice deposit), eternal light (crater rims), ancient lunar non-mare volcanism, local spectrophotometry and physical state of the lunar surface, and to map high latitudes regions (south) mainly at far side (South Pole Aitken basin). The technical objectives are to perform a Laserlink experiment (detection of laser beam emitted by ESA/Tenerife ground station), flight demonstration of new technologies and on-board autonomy navigation. The public outreach and educational objectives are to promote planetary exploration and space. We present here the first results obtained during the cruise phase.

  11. Smart learning objects for smart education in computer science theory, methodology and robot-based implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Stuikys, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents the challenges, vision and context to design smart learning objects (SLOs) through Computer Science (CS) education modelling and feature model transformations. It presents the latest research on the meta-programming-based generative learning objects (the latter with advanced features are treated as SLOs) and the use of educational robots in teaching CS topics. The introduced methodology includes the overall processes to develop SLO and smart educational environment (SEE) and integrates both into the real education setting to provide teaching in CS using constructivist a

  12. Using TOSCE (Team Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the second national medical sciences olympiad in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Amini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Second National Medical Sciences Olympiad was done in Shiraz in August 2010 with aim of indentifying scientifically talented individuals, motivating students and orienting extracurricular activities. This Olympiad was done in 3 areas, basic sciences, clinical sciences and management. In clinical sciences, we used TOSCE (Team Objective Structured Clinical Examination. In this article we report the details of this exam and participants′ satisfaction. Materials and Methods: This Olympiad in Clinical Medical Sciences was held in 2 levels: Individual and team. In the team stage, 9 teams from 9 universities participated. We used TOSCE for measuring clinical competency of teams. Each team consisted of 3 students. We designed 12 stations based on emergency medicine in medical and surgical fields. The time considered for each station was 15 min, after doing this exam the view of students was measured using a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: Most of the students believed that TOSCE was a useful examination for measuring competency. More than 50% of students reported that success in this exam needs clinical competency, team work and problem solving ability. Nearly, half (48.1% of students believed that 15 min is not enough for each station and they need more time. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that this kind of exam is useful for measuring clinical competency from students′ viewpoint .

  13. Boundary objects in complementary and alternative medicine: acupuncture vs. Christian Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Kellie

    2015-03-01

    Nearly four in ten American use complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) each year. Even with a large number of patients, CAM practitioners face scrutiny from physicians and biomedical researchers who, in an era of evidence-based medicine, argue there is little evidence to support CAM treatments. Examining how CAM has or has not been integrated into American health care is crucial in understanding the contemporary boundaries of healthcare systems. An analytical tool from science and technology studies, boundary objects, can help scholars of medicine understand which practices become integrated into these systems. Using a comparative analysis based on archival and interview data, this paper examines the use of boundary objects in two alternative medical practices - acupuncture and Christian Science. While boundary objects alone cannot explain what health practices succeed or fail, juxtaposing the use of boundary objects by different CAM groups identifies the work boundary objects do to facilitate integration and the conditions under which they "work." I find that acupuncturists' use of sterile needles as a boundary objects assists in their effective integration into U.S. healthcare because needles are both a symbol of biomedical prowess and a potentially unsafe device requiring regulation. Christian Scientists' use of the placebo effect as a boundary object has not succeeded because they fail to acknowledge the different contextual definitions of the placebo effect in biomedical communities. This comparative analysis highlights how context affects which boundary objects "work" for CAM practices and theorizes why alternative health practices succeed or fail to become integrated into healthcare systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Delphi Technique in Identifying Learning Objectives for the Development of Science, Technology and Society Modules for Palestinian Ninth Grade Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualrob, Marwan M. A.; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines how learning objectives based upon science, technology and society (STS) elements for Palestinian ninth grade science textbooks were identified, which was part of a bigger study to establish an STS foundation in the ninth grade science curriculum in Palestine. First, an initial list of STS elements was determined. Second,…

  15. Factors associated with medical student test anxiety in objective structured clinical examinations: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee

    2016-12-29

    To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students' motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients. Participants' test anxiety levels were measured using the Korean Achievement Emotions Questionnaire. Participants rated their responses using a five-point Likert-type scale. Univariate analysis was performed to examine relationships between the variables. A total of 94 students completed the questionnaire (a 93% response rate). No differences in the participants' test anxiety scores were observed across genders, entry-levels, or years in medical school. Participants' test anxiety on the OSCE showed moderate association with their class-related achievement emotions (i.e., anxiety and boredom), where r = 0.46 and 0.32, p anxiety on the OSCE. These findings have implications for developing effective educational interventions for helping students cope with such a stress by enhancing our understanding of the various factors that influence their test anxiety in OSCEs.

  16. Preliminary correlational data on the relationships between undergraduates' spatial reasoning skills and their ability to learn space science concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, I.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    We tacitly assume that space science is a conceptual domain deeply entrenched in three dimensions and that learners need to utilize spatial thinking to develop understanding of the field. In particular, cognitive science generally views students' spatial thinking abilities as something that can be enhanced through purposeful instruction, whereas aptitude and ability to learn complex ideas might be immutable. Yet, precise investigations into the underlying relationship between students' spatial reasoning ability and their ability to learn space science content in K-12 and college science classes have yet to reveal insight into how students cognitively engage in learning space science. In response, researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research describe preliminary data describing a first-steps correlational study of 170 non-science majoring undergraduate students. Using a single group, multiple-measures, longitudinal study design, students' cognition is measured for pretest and posttest gains in space science understanding using established assessment tools, including the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) over the duration of instruction. In the middle of the semester they are tested for spatial reasoning ability using a subset of an established spatial thinking assessment tools (such as a modified Purdue Rotations Test). Preliminary results suggest some instructional techniques can be predicted as successful a priori while others are as yet unresolved. This work is supported, in part, by the Wyoming Excellence in Higher Education Endowment.

  17. Data science education: a preliminary analysis of the U.S landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves Curty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data scientists has received great attention in recent years following the demands of the labor market stimulated by the open science and big data era. Originally widespread in 2008 and, since then, present in many different industries and applications; data science was announced in 2012 as the most attractive and one of the best paid jobs of the century, culminating with an increasing supply of training courses. Objective: Characterize and understand the formative aspects of data scientists. Methodology: This article describes part of a survey research based on analysis of 93 degrees in data science offered by US institutions. Results: The content analysis of the information publicized on the websites of the identified programs provides evidence that this professional is trained to deal with issues related to the collection, treatment, processing, analysis, visualization and curation of large and heterogeneous data collections in order to solving real-life and practical problems. Conclusion: Findings also revealed that, in general, training in science data places great emphasis on statistical skills, mathematics and computing, including programming and advanced modeling, many of which are placed as prerequisites for admission in these programs.

  18. Alignment of Assessment Objectives with Instructional Objectives Using Revised Bloom's Taxonomy--The Case for Food Science and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jideani, V. A.; Jideani, I. A.

    2012-01-01

    Nine food science and technology (FST) subjects were assessed for alignment between the learning outcomes and assessment using revised Bloom's taxonomy (RBT) of cognitive knowledge. Conjoint analysis was used to estimate the utilities of the levels of cognitive, knowledge, and the attribute importance (cognitive process and knowledge dimension)…

  19. Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, B.H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R. L.; Sibek, D. G.; Ukhorskiy, A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission addresses how populationsof high energy charged particles are created, vary, and evolve in space environments,and specifically within Earths magnetically trapped radiation belts. RBSP, with a nominallaunch date of August 2012, comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for atleast 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 5.8 RE, 10).The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal effects over spatial scales rangingfrom 0.1 to 5 RE. The uniquely comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the twospacecraft, measures all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields (E and B),and wave distributions (dE and dB) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions.Here we summarize the high level science objectives for the RBSP mission, providehistorical background on studies of Earth and planetary radiation belts, present examples ofthe most compelling scientific mysteries of the radiation belts, present the mission design ofthe RBSP mission that targets these mysteries and objectives, present the observation andmeasurement requirements for the mission, and introduce the instrumentation that will deliverthese measurements. This paper references and is followed by a number of companionpapers that describe the details of the RBSP mission, spacecraft, and instruments.

  20. The language of objects: Christian Jürgensen Thomsen's science of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-03-01

    The Danish amateur scholar Christian Jürgensen Thomsen has often been described as a founder of modern "scientific" archaeology. Thomsen's innovation, this essay argues, reflects developments within neighboring fields, such as philology and history. He reacted against historians who limited themselves to histories of texts and therefore abandoned the earliest human history. Instead, he proposed a new history of objects, which included the entire history of humankind. Thomsen's work as director of the Royal Museum of Nordic Antiquities in Copenhagen was especially important for this renewal. The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences, such as geology and comparative anatomy. From the 1840s, Thomsen's museum became a model for how the study of human artifacts could deliver scientific insights into human nature and the laws of human development.

  1. Psychotherapy and Its Role in Psychiatric Practice: A Position Paper. II. Objective, Subjective, and Intersubjective Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Yakov; John, Nicholas; Scott, Rowan; Tomy, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    In the first article in this 2-part series, we outlined a psychobiological model of psychiatric treatment and reviewed the evidence showing psychotherapy to be a form of biological intervention that induces lasting alterations in brain structure and function. In this second article, we focus on the adaptive model of psychopathology, the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions, the synergistic effects of combined psychotherapy and psychopharmacology treatments, and attention to the patient's subjective experience and the doctor-patient alliance to complement an "objective" case formulation. The evidence strongly suggests the need for an integrated treatment approach based on the objective, subjective, and intersubjective science that forms the foundation of psychiatry as a clinical discipline, in which psychotherapy and psychopharmacology are seen as complementary treatments within a systemic approach to psychiatric care and training. What emerges is the integrated psychobiological model of care with a complex treatment matrix unique to each patient-provider pair and comprised of biological, experiential, and relational domains of treatment which form the foundation of psychiatry as a science of attachment and meaning.

  2. SciDB versus Spark: A Preliminary Comparison Based on an Earth Science Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T.; Kuo, K. S.; Doan, K.; Oloso, A.

    2015-12-01

    We compare two Big Data technologies, SciDB and Spark, for performance, usability, and extensibility, when applied to a representative Earth science use case. SciDB is a new-generation parallel distributed database management system (DBMS) based on the array data model that is capable of handling multidimensional arrays efficiently but requires lengthy data ingest prior to analysis, whereas Spark is a fast and general engine for large scale data processing that can immediately process raw data files and thereby avoid the ingest process. Once data have been ingested, SciDB is very efficient in database operations such as subsetting. Spark, on the other hand, provides greater flexibility by supporting a wide variety of high-level tools including DBMS's. For the performance aspect of this preliminary comparison, we configure Spark to operate directly on text or binary data files and thereby limit the need for additional tools. Arguably, a more appropriate comparison would involve exploring other configurations of Spark which exploit supported high-level tools, but that is beyond our current resources. To make the comparison as "fair" as possible, we export the arrays produced by SciDB into text files (or converting them to binary files) for the intake by Spark and thereby avoid any additional file processing penalties. The Earth science use case selected for this comparison is the identification and tracking of snowstorms in the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. The identification portion of the use case is to flag all grid cells of the MERRA high-resolution hourly data that satisfies our criteria for snowstorm, whereas the tracking portion connects flagged cells adjacent in time and space to form a snowstorm episode. We will report the results of our comparisons at this presentation.

  3. Opportunity of objective account of the colorimetric procedure using benzidine indicative at establishing the preliminary presence of blood on the material evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Konovalenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a modification of the colorimetric method for the preliminary establishment of presence of blood in the stainson the material evidences using benzidine test. The proposed modification is accompanied by photometric accounting and computer processing of the results. Performance, objectivity, as well as other features and advantages of this method when used in forensic practice are described in detail.

  4. Science case and requirements for the MOSAIC concept for a multi-object spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C. J.; Puech, M.; Barbuy, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Cuby, J.-G.; Guenther, E.; Hammer, F.; Jagourel, P.; Kaper, L.; Morris, S. L.; Afonso, J.; Amram, P.; Aussel, H.; Basden, A.; Bastian, N.; Battaglia, G.; Biller, B.; Bouché, N.; Caffau, E.; Charlot, S.; Clénet, Y.; Combes, F.; Conselice, C.; Contini, T.; Dalton, G.; Davies, B.; Disseau, K.; Dunlop, J.; Fiore, F.; Flores, H.; Fusco, T.; Gadotti, D.; Gallazzi, A.; Giallongo, E.; Gonçalves, T.; Gratadour, D.; Hill, V.; Huertas-Company, M.; Ibata, R.; Larsen, S.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lemasle, B.; Maraston, C.; Mei, S.; Mellier, Y.; Östlin, G.; Paumard, T.; Pello, R.; Pentericci, L.; Petitjean, P.; Roth, M.; Rouan, D.; Schaerer, D.; Telles, E.; Trager, S.; Welikala, N.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months we have revisited the science requirements for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These efforts span the full range of E-ELT science and include input from a broad cross-section of astronomers across the ESO partner countries

  5. Connecting Science Research and Education While Investigating Trans-Neptunian Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, M. W.; Keller, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Research and Education Cooperative Occultation Network (RECON) is an innovative citizen science project to determine the sizes of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) as well as search for satellites and rings. We have more than 50 operating sites set from Oroville, WA south to Yuma, AZ with roughly 50 km average spacing. The full phase of the project started in April 2015 after all the participant training was completed. Each site is provided with a 0.28 cm telescope and video recording equipment to observe the occultation signatures. The system can be used on stars as faint as magnitude 16. Each site is formed from the community with teachers, amateur astronomers, and community members that are then also tasked with engaging students to conduct the observational campaigns. Most of the students are of high-school age but we have involvement from younger and older students, depending on the community. We have conducted numerous campaigns so far and have begun publishing scientific results. In addition to presenting a quick overview of results from these observation campaigns, we will describe lessons learned about recruitment, preparation, and retention of citizen scientists from rural communities to conduct authentic astronomy research. In our experience, recruitment and preparation were far easier than anticipated. The biggest challenge to the ongoing operation of RECON is due to the typical turnover rate among high-school teachers. Our team design is built to withstand the departure of one or two key people but some communities are small enough that we cannot build big enough teams for proper resiliency. Despite these challenges, we have successfully built a unique scientific community working to explore the Kuiper Belt. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. AST-1212159 and AST-1413287. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not

  6. Science objectives and Expected performances of NOMAD, an ExoMars TGO instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S.; Vandaele, A. C.; Thomas, I.; Daerden, F.; Depiesse, C.; Drummond, R.; Neary, L.; Willame, Y.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.

    2015-10-01

    NOMAD, the "Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery" spectrometer suite is part of the payload of the 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. This instrument suite will probe the atmosphere of Mars in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions covering 0.2 - 0.65 and 2.2 - 4.3μm. Thanks to its very high spectral resolution and multiple channels and observational modes, NOMAD will be able to detect a wide range of atmospheric trace gases, many of which are important markers of geophysical and/or biogenic activity. We will present the instrument, its science objectives and the performances we expect based on simulations we have done so far.

  7. The SPEDE experiment on SMART-1: Instrument, mission, and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälkki, A.; Schmidt, W.; Laakso, H.; Grard, R.; Escoubet, C. P.; Wahlund, J. E.; Blomberg, L.; Marklund, G.; Johlander, B.

    2003-04-01

    The SPEDE (Spacecraft Potential, Electron and Dust Experiment) experiment, consisting of two electric sensors and an electronics unit, will measure the electron flux and wave electric fields on the SMART-1 mission. The purpose of the SPEDE experiment is to monitor 1) the disturbances (electron flux, wave electric fields, and spacecraft potential variations) induced by the propulsion system, and 2) the variability of the electron density and wave electric fields first during the Earth spiraling phase and then during the Moon phase. The Moon has no magnetic field nor atmosphere, and therefore it is continuously exposed to the interplanetary space environment. The fast solar wind stream hits the dayside lunar surface and produces a tenuous wake. On a lunar orbit, the SPEDE observations are used for studying the solar wind moon interaction processes. The coupling of the solar wind with the surface produce disturbances at the edge of the wake region, which will be monitored with the SPEDE observations. When the Moon is immersed in the Earth’s magnetosphere, different kinds of interaction processes will occur. In this presentation we will introduce the SPEDE instrument and its capabilities, and discuss the science objectives and the science plan.

  8. Long-term Science Data Curation Using a Digital Object Model and Open-Source Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J.; Lenhardt, W.; Wilson, B. E.; Palanisamy, G.; Cook, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Scientific digital content, including Earth Science observations and model output, has become more heterogeneous in format and more distributed across the Internet. In addition, data and metadata are becoming necessarily linked internally and externally on the Web. As a result, such content has become more difficult for providers to manage and preserve and for users to locate, understand, and consume. Specifically, it is increasingly harder to deliver relevant metadata and data processing lineage information along with the actual content consistently. Readme files, data quality information, production provenance, and other descriptive metadata are often separated in the storage level as well as in the data search and retrieval interfaces available to a user. Critical archival metadata, such as auditing trails and integrity checks, are often even more difficult for users to access, if they exist at all. We investigate the use of several open-source software frameworks to address these challenges. We use Fedora Commons Framework and its digital object abstraction as the repository, Drupal CMS as the user-interface, and the Islandora module as the connector from Drupal to Fedora Repository. With the digital object model, metadata of data description and data provenance can be associated with data content in a formal manner, so are external references and other arbitrary auxiliary information. Changes are formally audited on an object, and digital contents are versioned and have checksums automatically computed. Further, relationships among objects are formally expressed with RDF triples. Data replication, recovery, metadata export are supported with standard protocols, such as OAI-PMH. We provide a tentative comparative analysis of the chosen software stack with the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) reference model, along with our initial results with the existing terrestrial ecology data collections at NASA’s ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center for

  9. Aero-gravity Assisted Manoeuvers within Preliminary Interplanetary Mission Design: a Multi-objective Evolutive Algorithm Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povoleri, A.; Lavagna, M.; Finzi, A. E.

    The paper presents a new approach to deal with the preliminary space mission analysis design of particularly complex trajectories focused on interplanetary targets. According to an optimisation approach, a multi-objective strategy is selected on a mixed continuous and discrete state variables domain in order to deal with possible multi-gravity assist manoeuvres (GAM) as further degrees of freedom of the problem, in terms of both number and planets sequence selection to minimize both the ?v expense and the time trip time span. A further added value to the proposed algorithm stays in that, according to planets having an atmosphere, aero-gravity assist manoeuvres (AGAM) are considered too within the overall mission design optimisation, and the consequent optimal control problem related to the aerodynamic angles history, is solved. According to the target planet different capture strategies are managed by the algorithm, the aerocapture manoeuvre too, whenever possible (e.g. Venus, Mars target planets). In order not to be trapped in local solution the Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) have been selected to solve such a complex problem. Simulations and comparison with already designed space missions showed the ability of the proposed architecture in correctly selecting both the sequences and the planets type of either GAMs or AGAMs to optimise the selected criteria vector, in a multidisciplinary environment, switching on the optimal control problem whenever the atmospheric interaction is involved in the optimisation by the search process. Symbols δ = semi-angular deviation for GAM between the v∞ -, v∞ + inoutcoming vectors [rad] φ = Angular deviation for AGAM between the v∞ -, v∞ + inoutcoming vectors [rad] ρ = Atmospheric density [kgm-3 ] γ = Flight path angle [rad] µ = Bank angle [rad] δ?ttransf j = j-th heliocentric transfer time variation with respect to the linked conics solution ?|v∞| = Relative velocity losses because of drag [ms-1 ] ωI = i

  10. Are scientists objective? An investigation of appraisal resources in English popular science articles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esmat Babaii; Mahmood Reza Atai; Mavadat Saidi

    2017-01-01

    .... These all have prompted popularizing of science within the last few decades. The current study aimed to explore the frequency of evaluative resources of Appraisal in English popular science articles (PSAs hereafter...

  11. NEOSurvey 1: Initial results from the Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Trilling, David E; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are small Solar System bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey --- a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in eta, the beaming parameter used in our thermal modelin...

  12. Towards a cooperation between the arts, space science research and the European Space Agency - Preliminary findings of the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Sarah Jane; Imhof, Anna Barbara; Waldvogel, Christian; Kotler, J. Michelle; Peljhan, Marko

    2014-12-01

    The arts offer alternative insights into reality, which are explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency [4] and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS) held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop initiatives between the arts, sciences and ESA. The aim was to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication that aims to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space-related channels. The consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration. Potential ways to provide a sustainable cooperation within and between the various groups were discussed. We present the preliminary findings including a number of measures and mechanisms to initiate and conduct such an initiative. Plausible organisational measures, procedures and consequences, as well as a proposition on how to proceed are also discussed. Overall, the involvement and cooperation between the arts, space science research and ESA will enhance in the citizens of the ESA member states the sense of public ownership of ESA results, and participation in ESA's research.

  13. Determining the Factors That Affect the Objectives of Pre-Service Science Teachers to Perform Outdoor Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Ersin; Erten, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether pre-service teachers have an aim to perform outdoor education activities within the scope of science and technology course; by which factors this aim is affected, through The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the opinions of pre-service teachers. Accordingly, the study was designed as mixed research…

  14. Alice in Oman: A Study on Object-First Approaches in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Khizar; Al-Shukaili, Naeem Ali; Sultan, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    The success of university-level education depends on the quality of underlying school education and any deficiency therein may be detrimental to a student's career. This may be more glaring with Computer Science education, given its mercurial nature. In the developing countries, the Computer Science school curricula are usually stuffed with…

  15. The Close-Up Imager Onboard the ESA ExoMars Rover: Objectives, Description, Operations, and Science Validation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Jean-Luc; Westall, Frances; Hofmann, Beda A.; Spray, John; Cockell, Charles; Kempe, Stephan; Griffiths, Andrew D.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Colangeli, Luigi; Koschny, Detlef; Föllmi, Karl; Verrecchia, Eric; Diamond, Larryn; Josset, Marie; Javaux, Emmanuelle J.; Esposito, Francesca; Gunn, Matthew; Souchon-Leitner, Audrey L.; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Korablev, Oleg; Erkman, Suren; Paar, Gerhard; Ulamec, Stephan; Foucher, Frédéric; Martin, Philippe; Verhaeghe, Antoine; Tanevski, Mitko; Vago, Jorge L.

    2017-07-01

    The Close-Up Imager (CLUPI) onboard the ESA ExoMars Rover is a powerful high-resolution color camera specifically designed for close-up observations. Its accommodation on the movable drill allows multiple positioning. The science objectives of the instrument are geological characterization of rocks in terms of texture, structure, and color and the search for potential morphological biosignatures. We present the CLUPI science objectives, performance, and technical description, followed by a description of the instrument's planned operations strategy during the mission on Mars. CLUPI will contribute to the rover mission by surveying the geological environment, acquiring close-up images of outcrops, observing the drilling area, inspecting the top portion of the drill borehole (and deposited fines), monitoring drilling operations, and imaging samples collected by the drill. A status of the current development and planned science validation activities is also given.

  16. Are scientists objective? An investigation of appraisal resources in English popular science articles

    OpenAIRE

    Esmat Babaii; Mahmood Reza Atai; Mavadat Saidi

    2017-01-01

    With the increasingly growing technological advances and their consequences for societies, the public has the right to be engaged in the outcomes of science. On the one hand, the public are interested in acquiring information about the results of scientists’ experiments. On the other hand, the scientists are willing to share their feelings about their discoveries with the public in order to achieve wider audience. These all have prompted popularizing of science within the last few...

  17. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S-1920S: "OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY"/"REFLEXOLOGY" AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20(th) century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled "objective psychology" and from the 1910s renamed "reflexology." The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's "objective psychology" and "reflexology" occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20(th) century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that "objective psychology" and "reflexology" had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, "experimental pedagogy" in the pre-revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet "pedology" during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned "objective psychology"/"reflexology" as a transformative scientific movement.

  18. Exploring Preschoolers' Engagement and Perceived Physical Competence in an Autonomy-Based Object Control Skill Intervention: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel; Robinson, Leah; Webster, E. Kipling; Barber, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe children's engagement during two (high and low) autonomy-based climates. Twenty-five preschool children participated in a nine-week object control skill intervention. Children completed the object control subscale of the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd Edition and the perceived physical competence…

  19. The Objective Force Soldier/Soldier Team. Volume II - The Science and Technology Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Number 703767-9007 DSN 427-9007 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39.18 DISCLAIMER This report is the product of the Army Science...MOSAIC. Commercial technology air interfaces and protocols, such as CDMA , Bluetooth, and Personnel Data Assistants (PDAs) will provide technology

  20. Are scientists objective? An investigation of appraisal resources in English popular science articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Babaii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly growing technological advances and their consequences for societies, the public has the right to be engaged in the outcomes of science. On the one hand, the public are interested in acquiring information about the results of scientists’ experiments. On the other hand, the scientists are willing to share their feelings about their discoveries with the public in order to achieve wider audience. These all have prompted popularizing of science within the last few decades. The current study aimed to explore the frequency of evaluative resources of Appraisal in English popular science articles (PSAs hereafter in the field of Nutrition. A total of 40 English popularized articles published in four popular sources, WebMD, Better Nutrition, Science Daily, and New York Times, were analyzed in terms of three main categories and subcategories of Appraisal Theory. The results of the analysis revealed that authors used more Attitude resources followed by Graduation and Engagement resources. With regard to subcategories of three main categories, the authors of English PSAs included more cases of appreciation, force, and heterogloss resources. The findings indicated that the authors of PSAs tend to insert their feelings about their discoveries through employing Appraisal resources. The results might be used to embed Appraisal resources in EAP materials in order to equip the would-be scientists with a helpful tool to meet the expectations of another group of their intended audience, i.e. general public, in addition to fulfilling the requirements of their academic discourse community.

  1. Multiple Objectives Achieved with a Germination Experiment in a Science Education Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Ken; Warners, David

    2007-01-01

    In our college course, "Life Science for Elementary School Teachers," our investigation assesses the germination success of an invasive plant, purple loosestrife, compared to native wildflowers. Topics addressed include the scientific method, experimental design, seed dormancy, plant competition, ethno-botany, and success of non-native plants. The…

  2. Are Scientists Objective? An Investigation of Appraisal Resources in English Popular Science Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaii, Esmat; Atai, Mahmood Reza; Saidi, Mavadat

    2017-01-01

    With the increasingly growing technological advances and their consequences for societies, the public has the right to be engaged in the outcomes of science. On the one hand, the public are interested in acquiring information about the results of scientists' experiments. On the other hand, the scientists are willing to share their feelings about…

  3. An analysis of complex multiple-choice science-technology-society items: Methodological development and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Alonso, Ángel; Manassero-Mas, María-Antonia; Acevedo-Díaz, José-Antonio

    2006-07-01

    The scarce attention to the assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for teaching science-technology-society (STS) issues, due to the dialectical, tentative, value-laden, and polemic nature of most STS topics. This paper tackles the methodological difficulties of the instruments that monitor views related to STS topics and rationalizes a quantitative methodology and an analysis technique to improve the utility of an empirically developed multiple-choice item pool, the Questionnaire of Opinions on STS. This methodology embraces an item-scaling psychometrics based on the judgments by a panel of experts, a multiple response model, a scoring system, and the data analysis. The methodology finally produces normalized attitudinal indices that represent the respondent's reasoned beliefs toward STS statements, the respondent's position on an item that comprises several statements, or the respondent's position on an entire STS topic that encompasses a set of items. Some preliminary results show the methodology's ability to evaluate the STS attitudes in a qualitative and quantitative way and for statistical hypothesis testing. Lastly, some applications for teacher training and STS curriculum development in science classrooms are discussed.

  4. 29 CFR 1980.106 - Objections to the findings and the preliminary order and request for a hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 806 OF THE CORPORATE AND CRIMINAL FRAUD ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 2002, TITLE... communication will be considered to be the date of filing; if the objection is filed in person, by...

  5. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, H. E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, C.; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J. J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M. J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-09-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  6. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, Horton E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, C.; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J.J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M.J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  7. Photometric Monitoring of Active Galactic Nuclei in the Center for Automated Space Science: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, Ryan; Deckard, Monica; Guilaran, Fonsie; Watson, Casey; Carini, Michael; Gelderman, Richard; Neely, William

    1997-02-01

    In this paper, we will present preliminary results of our program to photometrically monitor a set of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) known as Blazars. Using CCDs as N-star photometers and a technique known as aperture photometry, we can achieve close to 0.02 magnitude precision with small to midsize telescopes. Blazars are highly luminous and highly variable; studying these variations provides insight into the central engines producing the high luminosities. we report on our reduction and analysis of CCD data obtained at one of our collaborating institutions, the NF Observatory at Western New Mexico University. CCD data obtained at the Western Kentucky University 24 inch telescope will also be discussed.

  8. [Rationalities of knowledge production: on transformations of objects, technologies and information in biomedicine and the life sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Norbert W

    2009-09-01

    Since decades, scientific change has been interpreted in the light of paradigm shifts and scientific revolutions. The Kuhnian interpretation of scientific change however is now more and more confronted with non-disciplinary thinking in both, science and studies on science. This paper explores how research in biomedicine and the life sciences can be characterized by different rationalities, sometimes converging, sometimes contradictory, all present at the same time with varying ways of influence, impact, and visibility. In general, the rationality of objects is generated by fitting new objects and findings into a new experimental context. The rationality of hypotheses is a move towards the construction of novel explanatory tools and models. This is often inseparable meshing with the third, the technological rationality, in which a technology-driven, self-supporting and sometimes self-referential refinement of methods and technologies comes along with an extension into other fields. During the second and the third phase, the new and emerging fields tend to expand their explanatory reach not only across disciplinary boundaries but also into the social sphere, creating what has been characterized as "exceptionalism" (e.g. genetic exceptionalism or neuro-exceptionalism). Finally, recent biomedicine and life-sciences reach a level in which experimental work becomes more and more data-driven because the technologically constructed experimental systems generate a plethora of findings (data) which at some point start to blur the original hypotheses. For the rationality of information the materiality of research practices becomes secondary and research objects are more and more getting out of sight. Finally, the credibility of science as a practice becomes more and more dependent on consensus about the applicability and relevance of its results. The rationality of interest (and accountability) has become more and more characteristic for a research process which is no longer

  9. Science Objectives for an X-Ray Microcalorimeter Observing the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Laming, J Martin; Alexander, D; Aschwanden, M; Bailey, C; Bandler, S; Bookbinder, J; Bradshaw, S; Brickhouse, N; Chervenak, J; Christe, S; Cirtain, J; Cranmer, S; Deiker, S; DeLuca, E; Del Zanna, G; Dennis, B; Doschek, G; Eckart, M; Fludra, A; Finkbeiner, F; Grigis, P; Harrison, R; Ji, L; Kankelborg, C; Kashyap, V; Kelly, D; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C; Klimchuk, J; Ko, Y -K; Landi, E; Linton, M; Longcope, D; Lukin, V; Mariska, J; Martinez-Galarce, D; Mason, H; McKenzie, D; Osten, R; Peres, G; Pevtsov, A; Porter, K Phillips F S; Rabin, D; Rakowski, C; Raymond, J; Reale, F; Reeves, K; Sadleir, J; Savin, D; Schmelz, J; Smith, R K; Smith, S; Stern, R; Sylwester, J; Tripathi, D; Ugarte-Urra, I; Young, P; Warren, H; Wood, B

    2010-01-01

    We present the science case for a broadband X-ray imager with high-resolution spectroscopy, including simulations of X-ray spectral diagnostics of both active regions and solar flares. This is part of a trilogy of white papers discussing science, instrument (Bandler et al. 2010), and missions (Bookbinder et al. 2010) to exploit major advances recently made in transition-edge sensor (TES) detector technology that enable resolution better than 2 eV in an array that can handle high count rates. Combined with a modest X-ray mirror, this instrument would combine arcsecondscale imaging with high-resolution spectra over a field of view sufficiently large for the study of active regions and flares, enabling a wide range of studies such as the detection of microheating in active regions, ion-resolved velocity flows, and the presence of non-thermal electrons in hot plasmas. It would also enable more direct comparisons between solar and stellar soft X-ray spectra, a waveband in which (unusually) we currently have much b...

  10. The hydrogen emission of young stellar objects : Key science for next-generation instruments and facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, Paulo J. V.; Benisty, Myriam; Rajabi, Samira; Dougados, Catherine; Massi, Fabrizzio; Bacciotti, Francesca; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Malbet, Fabien; Podio, Linda; Renard, Stephanie; Whelan, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen emission line is a defining characteristic of young stellar objects probing the planet forming regions of the disks. The limiting sensitivity of current interferometers has precluded it's detailed study. We'll review our current understanding of hydrogen emission, recent results and pro

  11. The Science Case for Multi-Object Spectroscopy on the European ELT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Chris; Puech, Mathieu; Afonso, Jose; Almaini, Omar; Amram, Philippe; Aussel, Hervé; Barbuy, Beatriz; Basden, Alistair; Bastian, Nate; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Biller, Beth; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Bouché, Nicholas; Bunker, Andy; Caffau, Elisabetta; Charlot, Stephane; Cirasuolo, Michele; Clenet, Yann; Combes, Francoise; Conselice, Chris; Contini, Thierry; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Dalton, Gavin; Davies, Ben; de Koter, Alex; Disseau, Karen; Dunlop, Jim; Epinat, Benoît; Fiore, Fabrizio; Feltzing, Sofia; Ferguson, Annette; Flores, Hector; Fontana, Adriano; Fusco, Thierry; Gadotti, Dimitri; Gallazzi, Anna; Gallego, Jesus; Giallongo, Emanuele; Gonçalves, Thiago; Gratadour, Damien; Guenther, Eike; Hammer, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Huertas-Company, Marc; Ibata, Roridgo; Kaper, Lex; Korn, Andreas; Larsen, Søren; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Lemasle, Bertrand; Maraston, Claudia; Mei, Simona; Mellier, Yannick; Morris, Simon; Östlin, Göran; Paumard, Thibaut; Pello, Roser; Pentericci, Laura; Peroux, Celine; Petitjean, Patrick; Rodrigues, Myriam; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Rouan, Daniel; Sana, Hugues; Schaerer, Daniel; Telles, Eduardo; Trager, Scott; Tresse, Laurence; Welikala, Niraj; Zibetti, Stefano; Ziegler, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    This White Paper presents the scientific motivations for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) on the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The MOS case draws on all fields of contemporary astronomy, from extra-solar planets, to the study of the halo of the Milky Way and its satellites, and from r

  12. Preliminary Results from NEOWISE: An Enhancement to the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer for Solar System Science

    OpenAIRE

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; McMillan, R. S.; Wright, E.; Walker, R.; Jedicke, R.; Spahr, T.; Tholen, D.; Alles, R; Beck, R.

    2011-01-01

    The \\emph{Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} has surveyed the entire sky at four infrared wavelengths with greatly improved sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to its predecessors, the \\emph{Infrared Astronomical Satellite} and the \\emph{Cosmic Background Explorer}. NASA's Planetary Science Division has funded an enhancement to the \\WISE\\ data processing system called "NEOWISE" that allows detection and archiving of moving objects found in the \\WISE\\ data. NEOWISE has mined the \\WIS...

  13. The Scheme and the Preliminary Test of Object-Oriented Simultaneous 3D Geometric and Physical Change Detection Using GIS-guided Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang LI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current methods of remotely sensed image change detection almost assume that the DEM of the surface objects do not change. However, for the geological disasters areas (such as: landslides, mudslides and avalanches, etc., this assumption does not hold. And the traditional approach is being challenged. Thus, a new theory for change detection needs to be extended from two-dimensional (2D to three-dimensional (3D urgently. This paper aims to present an innovative scheme for change detection method, object-oriented simultaneous three-dimensional geometric and physical change detection (OOS3DGPCD using GIS-guided knowledge. This aim will be reached by realizing the following specific objectives: a to develop a set of automatic multi-feature matching and registration methods; b to propose an approach for simultaneous detecting 3D geometric and physical attributes changes based on the object-oriented strategy; c to develop a quality control method for OOS3DGPCD; d to implement the newly proposed OOS3DGPCD method by designing algorithms and developing a prototype system. For aerial remotely sensed images of YingXiu, Wenchuan, preliminary experimental results of 3D change detection are shown so as to verify our approach.

  14. SUSTAINABILITY LOGISTICS BASING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE DEMONSTRATION; 50, 300, 1000 PERSON BASE CAMP, ANALYSIS OF FY12 OPERATIONALLY RELEVANT TECHNICAL BASELINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    BASING – SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE – DEMONSTRATION; 50, 300, 1000-PERSON BASE CAMP, ANALYSIS OF FY12 OPERATIONALLY RELEVANT TECHNICAL...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) January 2012 – November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SUSTAINABILITY LOGISTICS BASING – SCIENCE AND...Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center’s Sustainability/Logistics-Basing - Science and Technology Objective – Demonstration to

  15. The Moon Zoo citizen science project: Preliminary results for the Apollo 17 landing site

    CERN Document Server

    Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Tar, Paul; Thacker, Neil; Crawford, Ian A; Joy, Katherine H; Grindrod, Peter M; Lintott, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review high spatial resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), onboard NASAs LRO spacecraft, and perform characterisation such as measuring impact crater sizes and identify morphological features of interest. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. We have tested various methodologies and parameters therein to interrogate and reduce the Moon Zoo crater location and size dataset against a validated expert survey. We chose the Apollo 17 region as a test area since it offers a broad range of cratered terrains, including secondary-rich areas, older maria, and uplands. The assessment involved parallel testing in three key areas: (1) filtering of data to remove problematic mark-ups; (2) clustering methods of multiple notations per crater; and (3) derivation of alternative crater degradation indices, based on the s...

  16. Preliminary Assessment of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, David W.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed inside Gale Crater. This landing was only the seventh successful landing and fourth rover to be delivered to Mars. Weighing nearly one metric ton, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover ever sent to investigate another planet. Safely landing such a large payload required an innovative Entry, Descent, and Landing system, which included the first guided entry at Mars, the largest supersonic parachute ever flown at Mars, and a novel and untested Sky Crane landing system. A complete, end-to-end, six degree-of-freedom, multibody computer simulation of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing sequence was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. In-flight data gathered during the successful landing is compared to pre-flight statistical distributions, predicted by the simulation. These comparisons provide insight into both the accuracy of the simulation and the overall performance of the vehicle.

  17. Exploring Venus with high-altitude balloons: Science objectives and mission architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Kevin; Limaye, Sanjay; Zahnle, Kevin; Atreya, Sushil K.

    Following the trailblazing flights of the 1985 twin Soviet VEGA balloons, missions to fly in the high atmosphere of Venus near 55 km altitude have been proposed to both NASA's Discovery Program and ESA's Cosmic Vision. Such missions would address a variety of fundamental science issues highlighted in a variety of high-level NASA-authorized science documents in recent years, including the Decadal Study, various NASA roadmaps, and recommendations coming out of the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG). Such missions would in particular address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state, including detailed measurements of (1) trace gases associated with Venus's active photoand thermo-chemistry and (2) measurements of vertical motions and local temperature which characterize convective and wave processes. As an example of what can be done with a small mission (less than 500M US dollars), the Venus Aerostatic-Lift Observatories for in-situ Research (VALOR) Discovery mission will be discussed. This mission would fly twin balloon-borne aerostats over temperate and polar latitudes, sampling rare gases, chemicals and dynamics in two distinct latitude regions for several days. A variety of scenarios for the origin, formation, and evolution of Venus would be tested by sampling all the noble gases and their isotopes, especially the heaviest elements never reliably measured previously: xenon and krypton. Riding the gravity and planetary waves of Venus, the VALOR balloons would sample the chemistry, meteorology and dynamics of Venus's sulfur-cloud region. Tracked by an array of Earth-based telescopes, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds would be measured with unprecedented precision. Such measurements would help to develop a fundamental understanding of (1) the circulation of Venus, especially its enigmatic super-rotation, (2) the nature of Venus's sulfur cycle, key to Venus's current climate, and (3) how Venus formed and evolved over the aeons.

  18. Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Tim

    2010-05-01

    In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on ‘Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a ‘semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews

  19. Disability in major depression related to self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Elizabeth M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although major depression (MD is associated with high levels of disability, the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and self-rated disability are poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between self-rated disability in persons with MD and both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive functioning. Methods Twenty-one persons with MD and 21 control participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and z-scores representing deviations from control performance were calculated and averaged across the domains of psychomotor speed, initial learning, memory retention and executive function. Self-ratings of cognitive deficits (SRCDs were reported on a 6-point scale for overall rating of cognitive change, speed of thinking, concentration, and short-term memory. Disability scores for self-rated physical, mental-health and functional (ie. days out of role disability were computed from the Brief-Disability Questionnaire and the SF-12 'mental component' subscale. Results Persons with MD had a mean age of 53.9 years (SD = 11.0, 76% female and had moderate to high depression severity (mean HDRS 21.7, sd = 4.4. As expected, depression severity was a strong predictor of physical (r = 0.7, p Conclusion While depression severity is associated with disability, the contributions of both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits are substantial and contribute uniquely and differentially to various forms of disability. Efforts directed at reducing cognitive deficits in depression may have the potential to reduce disability.

  20. Integration einer OSCE in das zahnmedizinische Physikum [Integration of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE into the Dental Preliminary Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratzmann, Anja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: In the pre-clinical phase of the study of dentistry at the University of Greifswald, the course “Early Patient Contact (EPC” is conducted within the framework of Community Medicine/Dentistry. The course is based on three pillars: the patient visiting program, special problem-oriented seminars, and communication training for doctors. The essential goal consists of providing students with real patient contact right at the beginning of their study of dentistry, thus making the study of dentistry patient-based very early on. Students are trained in taking comprehensive anamneses and recording clinical findings.Methods: Within the framework of the dental preliminary exams, the course is evaluated using an OSCE on a standardized patient. Furthermore, the added value of an additional training unit (conducting anamnesis and clinical examination in preparation for the OSCE was evaluated. The exam results of a group without training (control group were compared with those of a group with training (intervention group.Results: The intervention group performed significantly better than the control on the following items: the total number of points achieved on the OSCE early patient contact, and in the most important points of the anamnesis and clinical examination. In addition, the intervention group tended to score higher in terms of the item “oral health status”.Conclusion: The present study showed a positive effect of an additional training unit on students’ performance in the OSCE. Taking the limitations of the study and the results of a literature review into account, we recommend conducting such training as preparation for the OSCE.[german] Einleitung: An der Universität Greifswald wird im vorklinischen Abschnitt des Studienganges der Zahnmedizin im Rahmen der Community Medicine/Dentistry der Kurs „Der Frühe Patientenkontakt (FPK“ durchgeführt. Der Kurs basiert auf drei Prinzipien: dem Patientenbesuchsprogramm

  1. Science Case and Requirements for the MOSAIC Concept for a Multi-Object Spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Barbuy, B; Bonifacio, P; Cuby, J -G; Guenther, E; Hammer, F; Jagourel, P; Kaper, L; Morris, S L; Afonso, J; Amram, P; Aussel, H; Basden, A; Bastian, N; Battaglia, G; Biller, B; Bouché, N; Caffau, E; Charlot, S; Clenet, Y; Combes, F; Conselice, C; Contini, T; Dalton, G; Davies, B; Disseau, K; Dunlop, J; Fiore, F; Flores, H; Fusco, T; Gadotti, D; Gallazzi, A; Giallongo, E; Gonçalves, T; Gratadour, D; Hill, V; Huertas-Company, M; Ibata, R; Larsen, S; Fèvre, O Le; Lemasle, B; Maraston, C; Mei, S; Mellier, Y; Östlin, G; Paumard, T; Pello, R; Pentericci, L; Petitjean, P; Roth, M; Rouan, D; Schaerer, D; Telles, E; Trager, S; Welikala, N; Zibetti, S; Ziegler, B

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months we have revisited the science requirements for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These efforts span the full range of E-ELT science and include input from a broad cross-section of astronomers across the ESO partner countries. In this contribution we summarise the key cases relating to studies of high-redshift galaxies, galaxy evolution, and stellar populations, with a more expansive presentation of a new case relating to detection of exoplanets in stellar clusters. A general requirement is the need for two observational modes to best exploit the large (>40 sq. arcmin) patrol field of the E-ELT. The first mode ('high multiplex') requires integrated-light (or coarsely resolved) optical/near-IR spectroscopy of >100 objects simultaneously. The second ('high definition'), enabled by wide-field adaptive optics, requires spatially-resolved, near-IR of >10 objects/sub-fields. Within the context of the conceptual study for an ELT-MOS called MO...

  2. The Moon Zoo citizen science project: Preliminary results for the Apollo 17 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Bamford, Steven; Tar, Paul; Thacker, Neil; Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.; Grindrod, Peter M.; Lintott, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review high spatial resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), onboard NASA's LRO spacecraft, and perform characterisation such as measuring impact crater sizes and identify morphological 'features of interest'. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. We have tested various methodologies and parameters therein to interrogate and reduce the Moon Zoo crater location and size dataset against a validated expert survey. We chose the Apollo 17 region as a test area since it offers a broad range of cratered terrains, including secondary-rich areas, older maria, and uplands. The assessment involved parallel testing in three key areas: (1) filtering of data to remove problematic mark-ups; (2) clustering methods of multiple notations per crater; and (3) derivation of alternative crater degradation indices, based on the statistical variability of multiple notations and the smoothness of local image structures. We compared different combinations of methods and parameters and assessed correlations between resulting crater summaries and the expert census. We derived the optimal data reduction steps and settings of the existing Moon Zoo crater data to agree with the expert census. Further, the regolith depth and crater degradation states derived from the data are also found to be in broad agreement with other estimates for the Apollo 17 region. Our study supports the validity of this citizen science project but also recommends improvements in key elements of the data acquisition planning and production.

  3. Visible Wavelength Reflectance Spectra of Near-Earth Objects from Apache Point Observatory: Science Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammergren, Mark; Brucker, Melissa; Nault, Kristie A.; Gyuk, Geza

    2016-10-01

    In January 2015 we began a program of near-Earth object (NEO) astrometric follow-up and physical characterization using a 17% share of time on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our roughly 500 hours of annual observing time are split into 2 hour runs usually in the middle of every other night (see poster by K. Nault et al.), and frequent half-night runs devoted to physical characterization (this poster). NEO surface compositions are investigated with 0.36-1.0 μm reflectance spectroscopy using the Dual Imaging Spectrograph instrument. As of June 22, 2016 we have obtained reflectance spectra of 129 unique NEOs, ranging in diameter from approximately 5 m to 6 km.Highlights of this work presented here include 106 spectra of (357439) 2004 BL86 spanning 3 hours 4.5 minutes, more than a full rotation, and spectra of 18 objects with diameters comparable to historical Earth impactors (e.g., Tunguska, Chelyabinsk and smaller bolides).This work is based on observations obtained with the APO 3.5-meter telescope, which is owned and operated by ARC. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA NEOO award NNX14AL17G, and thank the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics for observing time in 2014.

  4. Realizing On-Orbit SI Traceability: Experimental Considerations and Science Objectives in the Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Gero, P. J.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.; Revercomb, H. E.; Best, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    The concept of on-orbit SI traceability for Earth observations provides a new paradigm for proving that, over the lifetime of a satellite mission, a claimed level of measurement accuracy was in fact achieved. This proof rests on a combination of independent physical tests of sensor performance on-orbit combined with exhaustive evaluation of the sensor calibration against standards that have demonstrable links to the international definition of measurement units and are maintained and verified by independent institutions, the world's National Measurement Institutes (NMIs). The successful precedent for this measurement strategy in climate research is reviewed and contrasted with other strategies that have been considered to verify the accuracy of measured climate trends. The detailed application of the paradigm of on-orbit SI traceability to the infrared portion of the CLimate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Earth Observatory (CLARREO) is discussed. This discussion identifies the physical basis for spectral infrared calibration which can be reproduced at any time, anywhere in the world. Demonstrating that the physical model which underpins calibration standards that can be linked to internationally-recognized measurement standards is applicable over the lifetime of a satellite mission requires new technological developments. The scientific objectives of the CLARREO mission include obtaining strong observational constraints on radiative processes that are largely responsible for the uncertainty in decadal climate forecasting. The role these technological developments, along with other sensor characteristics, play in the achievement of CLARREO scientific objectives are summarized.

  5. ICESat-2: An overview of science objectives, development status, expected performance, and data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, T.; Neumann, T.; Anthony, M.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2's (ICESat-2) mission objectives are to quantify polar ice sheet contributions to sea level change, quantify regional signatures of ice sheet changes to assess driving mechanisms, estimate sea ice thickness, and to enable measurements of canopy height as a basis for estimating large-scale biomass. With a scheduled launch date of October 2017 most of the flight hardware has been assembled and algorithm development for its standard geophysical products is well underway. The spacecraft, built by Orbital ATK, is completed and is undergoing testing. ICESat-2's single instrument, the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), is built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and by the time of the Fall Meeting will have completed optical alignment and integration, and will start with its final testing. At the same time, airborne laser altimeter data are being used for algorithm development. This talk will give an overview of the design of ICESat-2, of its hardware and software status, as well as examples of ICESat-2's coverage and what the data will look like.

  6. The Science Case for Multi-Object Spectroscopy on the European ELT

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Chris; Afonso, Jose; Almaini, Omar; Amram, Philippe; Aussel, Hervé; Barbuy, Beatriz; Basden, Alistair; Bastian, Nate; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Biller, Beth; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Bouché, Nicholas; Bunker, Andy; Caffau, Elisabetta; Charlot, Stephane; Cirasuolo, Michele; Clenet, Yann; Combes, Francoise; Conselice, Chris; Contini, Thierry; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Dalton, Gavin; Davies, Ben; de Koter, Alex; Disseau, Karen; Dunlop, Jim; Epinat, Benoît; Fiore, Fabrizio; Feltzing, Sofia; Ferguson, Annette; Flores, Hector; Fontana, Adriano; Fusco, Thierry; Gadotti, Dimitri; Gallazzi, Anna; Gallego, Jesus; Giallongo, Emanuele; Gonçalves, Thiago; Gratadour, Damien; Guenther, Eike; Hammer, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Huertas-Company, Marc; Ibata, Roridgo; Kaper, Lex; Korn, Andreas; Larsen, Søren; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Lemasle, Bertrand; Maraston, Claudia; Mei, Simona; Mellier, Yannick; Morris, Simon; Östlin, Göran; Paumard, Thibaut; Pello, Roser; Pentericci, Laura; Peroux, Celine; Petitjean, Patrick; Rodrigues, Myriam; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Rouan, Daniel; Sana, Hugues; Schaerer, Daniel; Telles, Eduardo; Trager, Scott; Tresse, Laurence; Welikala, Niraj; Zibetti, Stefano; Ziegler, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    This White Paper presents the scientific motivations for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) on the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The MOS case draws on all fields of contemporary astronomy, from extra-solar planets, to the study of the halo of the Milky Way and its satellites, and from resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies out to observations of the earliest 'first-light' structures in the partially-reionised Universe. The material presented here results from thorough discussions within the community over the past four years, building on the past competitive studies to agree a common strategy toward realising a MOS capability on the E-ELT. The cases have been distilled to a set of common requirements which will be used to define the MOSAIC instrument, entailing two observational modes ('high multiplex' and 'high definition'). When combined with the unprecedented sensitivity of the E-ELT, MOSAIC will be the world's leading MOS facility. In analysing the requirements we also identify a hig...

  7. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  8. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  9. Design and Preliminary Thermal Performance of the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, A. J.; Beatty, John; Kelly, Frank; Birur, Gajanana; Bhandari, Pradeep; Pauken, Michael; Illsley, Peter; Liu, Yuanming; Bame, David; Miller, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The challenging range of proposed landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover requires a rover thermal management system that is capable of keeping temperatures controlled across a wide variety of environmental conditions. On the Martian surface where temperatures can be as cold as -123 degrees Centigrade and as warm as 38 degrees Centigrade, the Rover relies upon a Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop (MPFL) and external radiators to maintain the temperature of sensitive electronics and science instruments within a -40 degrees Centigrade to 50 degrees Centigrade range. The MPFL also manages significant waste heat generated from the Rover power source, known as the Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). The MMRTG produces 110 Watts of electrical power while generating waste heat equivalent to approximately 2000 Watts. Two similar Heat Exchanger (HX) assemblies were designed to both acquire the heat from the MMRTG and radiate waste heat from the onboard electronics to the surrounding Martian environment. Heat acquisition is accomplished on the interior surface of each HX while heat rejection is accomplished on the exterior surface of each HX. Since these two surfaces need to be at very different temperatures in order for the MPFL to perform efficiently, they need to be thermally isolated from one another. The HXs were therefore designed for high in-plane thermal conductivity and extremely low through-thickness thermal conductivity by using aerogel as an insulator inside composite honeycomb sandwich panels. A complex assembly of hand welded and uniquely bent aluminum tubes are bonded onto the HX panels and were specifically designed to be easily mated and demated to the rest of the Rover Heat Recovery and Rejection System (RHRS) in order to ease the integration effort. During the cruise phase to Mars, the HX assemblies serve the additional function of transferring heat from the Rover MPFL to the separate Cruise Stage MPFL so that heat

  10. A Preliminary Assessment of Radiation and Air Activation for the Neutron Science Facility in RAON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S. C.; Lee, C. W.; Lee, E. J.; Lee, Y. O. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. C. [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The works will stay in the DAQ room during an operation for about 1 month. In order to test the characteristics of the detector, the workers are also possible to access the TOF hall after a shutdown. Therefore, the shielding analysis of the NSF is required to meet the above purpose. In view of this, we performed the calculation of the shielding concrete thickness required for a target room by using MCNPX code with a neutron source obtained from Institute for Basic Science (IBS). In addition, the dose distribution and air activation for the entire space in NSF were evaluated using MCNPX and SP-FISPACT 2010 codes. We have performed the shielding calculation with the neutron source produced from the C(d,n) reactions. The concrete thickness was evaluated for all directions of the target room, and it was confirmed by performing the calculation of dose distribution to the entire space. However, the dose rate for the beam line was high. The radioactivity of radionuclides at TOF hall do not exceeded the air concentration and release limits.

  11. Objectives, priorities, reliable knowledge, and science-based management of Missouri River interior least terns and piping plovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry; Sovada, Marsha; Stucker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Supporting recovery of federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos; tern) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus; plover) populations is a desirable goal in management of the Missouri River ecosystem. Many tools are implemented in support of this goal, including habitat management, annual monitoring, directed research, and threat mitigation. Similarly, many types of data can be used to make management decisions, evaluate system responses, and prioritize research and monitoring. The ecological importance of Missouri River recovery and the conservation status of terns and plovers place a premium on efficient and effective resource use. Efficiency is improved when a single data source informs multiple high-priority decisions, whereas effectiveness is improved when decisions are informed by reliable knowledge. Seldom will a single study design be optimal for addressing all data needs, making prioritization of needs essential. Data collection motivated by well-articulated objectives and priorities has many advantages over studies in which questions and priorities are determined retrospectively. Research and monitoring for terns and plovers have generated a wealth of data that can be interpreted in a variety of ways. The validity and strength of conclusions from analyses of these data is dependent on compatibility between the study design and the question being asked. We consider issues related to collection and interpretation of biological data, and discuss their utility for enhancing the role of science in management of Missouri River terns and plovers. A team of USGS scientists at Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has been conducting tern and plover research on the Missouri River since 2005. The team has had many discussions about the importance of setting objectives, identifying priorities, and obtaining reliable information to answer pertinent questions about tern and plover management on this river system. The objectives of this

  12. Preliminary Results from NEOWISE: An Enhancement to the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer for Solar System Science

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A; Grav, T; Masiero, J; Cutri, R M; Dailey, J; Eisenhardt, P; McMillan, R S; Wright, E; Walker, R; Jedicke, R; Spahr, T; Tholen, D; Alles, R; Beck, R; Brandenburg, H; Conrow, T; Evans, T; Fowler, J; Jarrett, T; Marsh, K; Masci, F; McCallon, H; Wheelock, S; Wittman, M; Wyatt, P; DeBaun, E; Elliott, G; Elsbury, D; Gautier, T; Gomillion, S; Leisawitz, D; Maleszewski, C; Micheli, M; Wilkins, A

    2011-01-01

    The \\emph{Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} has surveyed the entire sky at four infrared wavelengths with greatly improved sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to its predecessors, the \\emph{Infrared Astronomical Satellite} and the \\emph{Cosmic Background Explorer}. NASA's Planetary Science Division has funded an enhancement to the \\WISE\\ data processing system called "NEOWISE" that allows detection and archiving of moving objects found in the \\WISE\\ data. NEOWISE has mined the \\WISE\\ images for a wide array of small bodies in our Solar System, including Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), Main Belt asteroids, comets, Trojans, and Centaurs. By the end of survey operations in February 2011, NEOWISE identified over 157,000 asteroids, including more than 500 NEOs and $\\sim$120 comets. The NEOWISE dataset will enable a panoply of new scientific investigations.

  13. The Interactive Virtual Earth Science Teaching (InVEST) project: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, W.; Cervato, C.; Parham, T.; Larsen, M.; Cruz-Neira, C.; Boudreaux, H.

    2009-04-01

    The InVEST (Interactive Virtual Earth Science Teaching) project has as its goal the development of state-of-the-art virtual reality geoscience tools that can be used to correct student misunderstandings about some geoscience phenomena. One tool, originally developed several years ago, the virtual tornadic thunderstorm, was recently modified based on feedback from instructors given the opportunity to use the tool. The modified virtual storm will be demonstrated during the presentation. In addition, a virtual volcano application is currently under development. To steer the development of this application, a Volcanic Concept Survey was recently administered to over 600 students at six U.S. institutions with the goal of identifying areas of greatest misconception relating to volcanoes. Both mean and median scores on the instrument were exceptionally low, indicating that students generally possessed minimal understanding of volcanic systems. High scores were restricted to the simplest aspects of volcanism (terminology, basic volcano shape) while questions requiring higher thinking and deeper conceptual connections (analysis of patterns, eruptive controls, and hazards) saw much lower scores. Categorical analysis of response types revealed the extent of specific misconceptions, the most predominant of which demonstrated a failure to link tectonics to a global volcanic pattern. Eruptive catalysts and controls also appear poorly understood, as are volcanic impacts on the environment and human endeavors. The survey also included demographic information which has been analyzed. Analysis of student sources of knowledge found that over 41% of students said that they had acquired most of their understanding about volcanoes from non-traditional sources such as the popular media and Hollywood films. Application of a multiple linear regression model and an expanded model suggests that these students were much less likely to receive high scores on questions relating to understanding

  14. X-ray Powder Diffraction in Conservation Science: Towards Routine Crystal Structure Determination of Corrosion Products on Heritage Art Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnebier, Robert E; Fischer, Andrea; Eggert, Gerhard; Runčevski, Tomče; Wahlberg, Nanna

    2016-06-08

    The crystal structure determination and refinement process of corrosion products on historic art objects using laboratory high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) is presented in detail via two case studies. The first material under investigation was sodium copper formate hydroxide oxide hydrate, Cu4Na4O(HCOO)8(OH)2∙4H2O (sample 1) which forms on soda glass/copper alloy composite historic objects (e.g., enamels) in museum collections, exposed to formaldehyde and formic acid emitted from wooden storage cabinets, adhesives, etc. This degradation phenomenon has recently been characterized as "glass induced metal corrosion". For the second case study, thecotrichite, Ca3(CH3COO)3Cl(NO3)2∙6H2O (sample 2), was chosen, which is an efflorescent salt forming needlelike crystallites on tiles and limestone objects which are stored in wooden cabinets and display cases. In this case, the wood acts as source for acetic acid which reacts with soluble chloride and nitrate salts from the artifact or its environment. The knowledge of the geometrical structure helps conservation science to better understand production and decay reactions and to allow for full quantitative analysis in the frequent case of mixtures.

  15. From boundary‐work to boundary object: how biology left and re‐entered the social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In an archaeological spirit this paper comes back to a founding event in the construction of the twentieth‐century episteme, the moment at which the life‐ and the social sciences parted ways and intense boundary‐work was carried out on the biology/society border, with significant benefits for both sides. Galton and Weismann for biology, and Alfred Kroeber for anthropology delimit this founding moment and I argue, expanding on an existing body of historical scholarship, for an implicit convergence of their views. After this excavation, I look at recent developments in the life sciences, which I have named the ‘social turn’ in biology (Meloni, 2014), and in particular at epigenetics with its promise to destabilize the social/biological border. I claim here that today a different account of ‘the biological’ to that established during the Galton–Kroeber period is emerging. Rather than being used to support a form of boundary‐work, biology has become a boundary object that crosses previously erected barriers, allowing different research communities to draw from it. PMID:27818538

  16. From boundary-work to boundary object: how biology left and re-entered the social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    In an archaeological spirit this paper comes back to a founding event in the construction of the twentieth-century episteme, the moment at which the life- and the social sciences parted ways and intense boundary-work was carried out on the biology/society border, with significant benefits for both sides. Galton and Weismann for biology, and Alfred Kroeber for anthropology delimit this founding moment and I argue, expanding on an existing body of historical scholarship, for an implicit convergence of their views. After this excavation, I look at recent developments in the life sciences, which I have named the 'social turn' in biology (Meloni, 2014), and in particular at epigenetics with its promise to destabilize the social/biological border. I claim here that today a different account of 'the biological' to that established during the Galton-Kroeber period is emerging. Rather than being used to support a form of boundary-work, biology has become a boundary object that crosses previously erected barriers, allowing different research communities to draw from it.

  17. Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

  18. Preliminary results of simulation of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays in ground-based experiments on plant objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisheva, Natalia; Petrashova, Dina; Shchegolev, Boris

    The most dangerous for the astronauts and cosmonauts are the cosmic rays and drastic decrease of the tension of geomagnetic field (GMF) on the Earth orbit and in the open space. The tension in the interplanetary magnetic field is 10 nT, whereas the tension of GMF is 10 (4) nT on the Earth surface. We carried out the preliminary experiments for study the effects of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays (CR) on the plant objects (Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, Cucumis sativis). GMF was weakened by using special shielding chamber made on the basis of the amorphous alloy magnetic material. The camera is able to weaken the GMF from 48 μT till 0.192 μT. Modulation of the energetic range of the neutron component of secondary CR was performed with using of the shielding by graphite and by paraffin. The influence of hypo magnetic field and the neutron intensity were studied on the germination of seeds, the growth, the length and the side branches of the roots in the experimental samples. We found that the sensitivity to the hypo magnetic field and to the variations in energetic range of neutrons can vary from object to object. For instance, exposure of the hypo magnetic field on black bean and mung bean stimulated the growth of the roots while do not affect on the white bean. Likewise sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris (black and white bean) and Vigna radiata (mung bean) to exposure of nucleon component of cosmic rays on the Earth's surface are differed. It was found that modification of energetic range of CR by using graphite shielding leads to a change in sign of correlation between the length of roots in all experimental samples and the nucleon component of CR compared with the control samples. This is evidence that physiology of biological objects significantly are modified in hypo magnetic environment, as well as under exposure of the CR in different energetic ranges during the space flights. Our

  19. Lessons learned from curriculum changes and setting curriculum objectives at the University of Pennsylvania's Earth and Environmental Science Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent restructuring of the University of Pennsylvania’s curriculum, including a revised multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major and a proposed Environmental Science major has led to several changes, including a mandatory junior research seminar. Feedback from students indicates that a more structured curriculum has helped guide them through the multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major. The addition of mandatory courses in Statistics, Geographical and Environmental Modeling, as well as Economics and Policy has ensured that students have important skills needed to succeed after graduation. We have compiled a curriculum objective matrix to clarify both the broad and focused objectives of our curriculum and how each course helps to fulfill these objectives. An important aspect of both majors is the Senior Thesis. The junior research seminar was recently revised to help students prepare for their thesis research. Topic selection, library research, data presentation, basic research methods, advisor identification, and funding options are discussed. Throughout the course, faculty from within the department lecture about their research and highlight opportunities for undergraduates. In one assignment, students are given a few types of datasets and asked to present the data and error analysis in various formats using different software (SPSS and Excel). The final paper was a research proposal outlining the student’s Senior Thesis. Based on both the university and instructor written course evaluations, students felt they benefited most from writing their senior thesis proposal; doing assignments on data analysis, library research and critical analysis; and the faculty research lectures. The lessons learned in restructuring this flexible major and providing a research seminar in the junior year may benefit other departments considering such changes.

  20. Design space for space design: Dialogs through boundary objects at the intersections of art, design, science, and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Pangaro, Paul

    2017-05-01

    For over half a century space exploration has been dominated by engineering and technology driven practices. This paradigm leaves limited room for art and design. Yet in other parts of our lives, art and design play important roles: they stimulate new ideas and connect people to their experiences and to each other at a deeper level, while affecting our worldview as we evolve our cognitive models. We develop these models through circular conversations with our environment, through perception and making sense through our sensory systems and responding back through language and interactions. Artists and designers create artifacts through conversation cycles of sense-giving and sense-making, thus increasing variety in the world in the form of evolving messages. Each message becomes information when the observer decodes it, through multiple sense-making and re-sampling cycles. The messages form triggers to the cognitive state of the observer. Having a shared key between the artist/designer and the observer-for example, in the form of language, gestures, and artistic/design styles-is fundamental to encode and decode the information, in conversations. Art, design, science, and engineering, are all creative practices. Yet, they often speak different languages, where some parts may correspond, while others address a different variety in a cybernetic sense. These specialized languages within disciplines streamline communications, but limit variety. Thus, different languages between disciplines may introduce communication blocks. Nevertheless, these differences are desired as they add variety to the interactions, and could lead to novel discourses and possibilities. We may dissolve communication blocks through the introduction of boundary objects in the intersection of multiple disciplines. Boundary objects can ground ideas and bridge language diversity across disciplines. These artifacts are created to facilitate circular cybernetic conversations, supporting convergence

  1. Reliability and Validity of Objective Structured Clinical Examination for Residents of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Jalilian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE is used for the evaluation of the clinical competence in medicine for which it is essential to measure validity and reliability. This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of OSCE for residents of obstetrics and gynecology at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2011.Methods: A descriptive-correlation study was designed and the data of OSCE for obstetrics and gynecology were collected via learning behavior checklists in method stations and multiple choice questions in question stations. The data were analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient and Cronbach's alpha, using SPSS software (version 16. To determine the criterion validity, correlation of OSCE scores with scores of resident promotion test, direct observation of procedural skills, and theoretical knowledge was determined; for reliability, however, Cronbach's alpha was used. Total sample consisted of 25 participants taking part in 14 stations. P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant.Results: The mean OSCE scores was 22.66 (±6.85. Criterion validity of the stations with resident promotion theoretical test, first theoretical knowledge test, second theoretical knowledge, and direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS was 0.97, 0.74, 0.49, and 0.79, respectively. In question stations, criterion validity was 0.15, and total validity of OSCE was 0.77.Conclusion: Findings of the present study indicated acceptable validity and reliability of OSCE for residents of obstetrics and gynecology.

  2. NEOSurvey 1: Initial Results from the Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near-Earth Object Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η, the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  3. Linking Exposure Assessment Science With Policy Objectives for Environmental Justice and Breast Cancer Advocacy: The Northern California Household Exposure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zota, Ami; Brown, Phil; Pérez, Carla; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an urban fence-line community (neighboring an oil refinery) and a nonindustrial community in an exposure study focusing on pollutants of interest with respect to breast cancer and environmental justice. Methods. We analyzed indoor and outdoor air from 40 homes in industrial Richmond, California, and 10 in rural Bolinas, California, for 153 compounds, including particulates and endocrine disruptors. Results. Eighty compounds were detected outdoors in Richmond and 60 in Bolinas; Richmond concentrations were generally higher. Richmond's vanadium and nickel levels indicated effects of heavy oil combustion from oil refining and shipping; these levels were among the state's highest. In nearly half of Richmond homes, PM2.5 exceeded California's annual ambient air quality standard. Paired outdoor–indoor measurements were significantly correlated for industry- and traffic-related PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental carbon, metals, and sulfates (r = 0.54–0.92, P environmental injustice concerns in communities that host polluters. Community-based participatory exposure research can contribute to science and stimulate and inform action on the part of community residents and policymakers. PMID:19890164

  4. Climate-related Indicators and Data Provenance: Evaluating Coupled Boundary Objects for Science, Innovation, and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, A.; Young, A.; Brody, C.; Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Lamoureux, A.; Rice, A.; Wolfinger, F.

    2015-12-01

    Boundary object theory focuses on the role of artifacts, such as indicator images, in translation and communication across the boundaries of social groups. We use this framework for understanding how data can communicate across contexts to answer the question: Can coupling climate-related indicators with data provenance support scientific innovation and science translation? To address this question we conducted a study to understand the features and capabilities necessary for indicators and data provenance for scientific uses, using the recently online-released U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Indicators and Global Change Information System (GCIS) as linked boundary objects. We conducted semi-structured interviews with professional researchers in which we asked the researchers to explore and describe what they observed that was useful or frustrating for a subset of the USGCRP Indicators, related GCIS content, and other similar indicator and metadata websites. Participants found these sites' navigation and the labeling and description of their assets frustrating and confusing, but were able to clearly articulate the metadata and provenance information they needed to both understand and trust the indicators. In addition to identifying desired features that are likely to be specific to this audience (e.g., references or citations for indicators), scientists wanted clear, easier-to-access provenance information of the type usually recommended for documenting research data. Notably, they felt the information would be best presented in a fashion accessible to a broader audience, as those with more technical expertise should be able to infer additional contextual details given the provenance information that they had identified as key. Such results are useful for the improvement of indicator systems, such as the prototype released by USGCRP. We note in particular that the consistency of responses across the multi-disciplinary sample, which included scholars in

  5. Asteroid Moon Micro-imager Experiment (amie) For Smart-1 Mission, Science Objectives and Devel- Opment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, J.-L.; Heather, D.; Dunkin, S.; Roussel, F.; Beauvivre, S.; Kraenhenbuehl, D.; Plancke, P.; Lange-Vin, Y.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M.-C.; Dillelis, A.; Sodnik, Z.; Koschny, D.; Barucci, A.; Hofmann, B.; Josset, M.; Muinonen, K.; Pironnen, J.; Ehrenfreud, P.; Shkuratov, Y.; Shevchenko, V.

    The Asteroid Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE), which will be on board the first ESA SMART-1 mission to the Moon (launch foreseen late 2002), is an imaging sys- tem with scientific, technical and public outreach oriented objectives. The science objectives are to imagine the Lunar South Pole (Aitken basin), permanent shadow areas (ice deposit), eternal light (crater rims), ancient Lunar Non- mare volcanism, local spectro-photometry and physical state of the lunar surface, and to map high latitudes regions (south) mainly at far side (Fig. 1). The technical objectives are to perform a laser-link experiment (detection of laser beam emitted by ESA Tenerife ground station), flight demonstration of new technologies, navigation aid (feasi- bility study), and on-board autonomy investigations. Figure 3: AMIE camera ( 100m) and a mirror to image downwards. The samples used were anorthosite from northern Finland, basalt from Antarctis, meteorites and other lunar analog materials. A spectralon panel has also been used to have flat fields references. The samples were imaged with dif- Figure 1: SMART-1 camera imaging the Moon (simulated view) ferent phase angles. Figure 4 shows images obtained with In order to have spectral information of the surface of the basalt and olivine samples, with different integration times Moon, the camera is equipped with a set of filters (Fig. 2), in order to have information in all areas. introduced between the CCD and the teleobjective. Bandpass-filter No Filter, 750 nm (1) AR coating (3) Bandpass-filter 915 nm (2) Longpass-filter 960 nm (4) Band- Band- Figure 4: Basalt and Olivine sample ­ entire image (left) and passfilter passfilter 915 nm 750 nm visible part () (6) (7) Bandpass- More than 150 images were acquired during this validation filter 847 nm (5) campaign and analysis of this data will give precious in- formation about the instrument ability to image the south Figure 2: AMIE Filters in front of the detector pole of our satellite, with

  6. Fostering Empathy in Undergraduate Health Science Majors through the Reconciliation of Objectivity and Subjectivity: An Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Robert L.; Nichols, Marcia D.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for empathetic health care practitioners requires an academic curriculum suited to that need. Here we describe a series of integrated activities that were designed to foster empathy in undergraduate health science majors. By combining content and pedagogical approaches from the humanities and sciences, we asked students to reconcile…

  7. Application of Digital Object Identifiers to data sets at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, B.; Ostrenga, D.; Johnson, J. E.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Shen, S.; Teng, W. L.; Wei, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are applied to selected data sets at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The DOI system provides an Internet resolution service for unique and persistent identifiers of digital objects. Products assigned DOIs include data from the NASA MEaSUREs Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and EOS Aura High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). DOIs are acquired and registered through EZID, California Digital Library and DataCite. GES DISC hosts a data set landing page associated with each DOI containing information on and access to the data including a recommended data citation when using the product in research or applications. This work includes participation with the earth science community (e.g., Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation) and the NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project to identify, establish and implement best practices for assigning DOIs and managing supporting information, including metadata, for earth science data sets. Future work includes (1) coordination with NASA mission Science Teams and other data providers on the assignment of DOIs for other GES DISC data holdings, particularly for future missions such as Orbiting Carbon Observatory -2 and -3 (OCO-2, OCO-3) and projects (MEaSUREs 2012), (2) construction of landing pages that are both human and machine readable, and (3) pursuing the linking of data and publications with tools such as the Thomson Reuters Data Citation Index.

  8. An Analysis of Complex Multiple-Choice Science-Technology-Society Items: Methodological Development and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Alonso, Angel; Manassero-Mas, Maria-Antonia; Acevedo-Diaz, Jose-Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The scarce attention to the assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for teaching science-technology-society (STS) issues, due to the dialectical, tentative, value-laden, and polemic nature of most STS topics. This paper tackles the methodological difficulties of the instruments that monitor views related…

  9. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S–1920S: “OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY”/“REFLEXOLOGY” AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20th century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled “objective psychology” and from the 1910s renamed “reflexology.” The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's “objective psychology” and “reflexology” occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20th century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that “objective psychology” and “reflexology” had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, “experimental pedagogy” in the pre‐revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet “pedology” during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned “objective psychology”/“reflexology” as a transformative scientific movement. PMID:26910603

  10. The Jupiter icy moons explorer (JUICE): Complementarity of the payload in addressing the mission science objectives (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasset, O.; Altobelli, N.; Barabash, S.; Bruzzone, L.; Dougherty, M.; Erd, C.; Fletcher, L.; Gare, P.; Gladstone, R.; Gurvits, L.; Hartogh, P.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Iess, L.; Langevin, Y.; Palumbo, P.; Piccioni, G...; Titov, D.; Wahlund, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will give a status of the JUICE mission in the end of the definition phase, its science scenario, and the observation strategies that are foreseen with a strong emphasis on the complemen-tarity of the suite of instruments. To summarize, the instrument suite on-board JUICE will allo

  11. What Degree of Specificity for ESP Courses in EFL Contexts? A Preliminary Case Report for the Degree in Mediterranean food-and-wine Sciences and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Cianflone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note is to offer a preliminary discussion of ongoing research on the grade of language specificity necessary for the ESP syllabus designed for the degree in Mediterranean Food-and-wine Sciences and Health at the University of Messina, Italy. The present discussion originates from the perspectives presented by Hyland (2002, advocate of strict adherence to specificity issues in course design, and Huckin (2003, the proponent of a milder view. These opinions are contrasted with a learning context wherein English is a university subject read by freshmen in an environment where all lectures are given in the national idiom. The degree of specificity necessary for this EFL context accounts for learners’ needs in terms of vocabulary, grammar and rhetorical patterns to access discourses, practices and conventions pertaining to their actual studies and to the world of work. In EFL settings, this can mean that specificity results from a compromise between different pedagogical points of view.

  12. Autonomous Trans-Antartic expeditions: an initiative for advancing planetary mobility system technology while addressing Earth science objectives in Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Schenker, P.; Blamont, J.

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on Antartic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society in February to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of rovers such as are being developed for use in planetary exploration.

  13. Using Primary Literature to Teach Science Literacy to Introductory Biology Students

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Krontiris-Litowitz

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students struggle to read the scientific literature and educators have suggested that this may reflect deficiencies in their science literacy skills. In this two-year study we develop and test a strategy for using the scientific literature to teach science literacy skills to novice life science majors. The first year of the project served as a preliminary investigation in which we evaluated student science literacy skills, created a set of science literacy learning objectives al...

  14. LA RELACIÓN COMO OBJETO DE LA CIENCIA DEL DERECHO PENAL The relationship as a scientific object of criminal law science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Carrasco Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Por regla general, la "relación" como categoría central ha sido desestimada tanto por la filosofía como por la ciencia del derecho, cuestión que sin duda repercute en la ciencia del derecho penal. El presente artículo tiene por fin denotar este vacío, y presentar algunas claves por las que podría centrarse el estudio de la ciencia penal en la relación en cuanto objeto científico. Para ello, en primer lugar, se hará un estado de la cuestión en la tratativa de la relación por la filosofía y por la ciencia del derecho, para, en segundo lugar, centrarnos en las posibilidades de entender la relación como objeto de la ciencia del derecho penal.As a general rule, the "relationship" as a central theme has been overlooked as much by the field of philosophy as by legal science, which, without doubt, has repercussions on criminal justice science. This article will demonstrate this gap, and present some key points to show that the study of criminal law science of the relationship as a scientific object. Thus, in the first instance this article will explain the state of this matter (how "the relation" has been overlooked in relation to philosophy and legal science; and in the second instance, it will concentrate on the possibilities of understanding this relationship as a scientific object of criminal law science.

  15. Ciência: aquele obscuro objeto de pensamento e uso Science, that obscure object of thought and use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Paty

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Consideramos aqui o duplo aspecto da ciência. De um lado, como conhecimento e pensamento; de outro, como possibilidade de aplicações e usos, para o melhor e para o pior (como mostramos através de um exemplo específico. Ao final, chamamos a atenção para a necessidade de uma reflexão crítica (epistemológica, histórica, filosófica e social sobre a ciência, desde os níveis elementares da educação científica.In which we consider the twofold aspect of science as knowledge and thought on the one hand, and as possibility of applications and use for the best and the worse (as shown in a specific example on the other hand, and call, at the end, for the need of a criticai (epistemological, historical, philosophical, social reflection on science starting from the elementary levels of scientific education.

  16. The Development, Field Testing and Evaluation of Three Hierarchies of Behaviorally Stated Objectives for the Chemistry Content of a Course of Instruction in Physical Science for Pre-Service Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Robert Alden

    The purpose of this research was to develop hierarchies of behavioral objectives for the chemistry content of a one-semester course in physical science for preservice associate degree nursing students. Each of three content objectives was expressed by a series of behaviorally stated objectives which included a terminal objective for a unit of…

  17. Compte rendu de : Charles T. Wolfe and Ofer Gal (eds., The body as object and instrument of knowledge. Embodied empiricism in early modern science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Joly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage collectif, qui résulte en partie des travaux d’un atelier sur l’empirisme incarné dans la science moderne qui s’est tenu à l’université de Sydney en février 2009, rassemble quinze communications regroupées en trois parties : « The Body as Object », « The Body as Instrument », « Embodies Minds ». L’objectif des auteurs est de corriger la conception dominante que se font les historiens des sciences et de la philosophie de l’émergence de la philosophie expérimentale, et de l’empirism...

  18. Effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S.: Preliminary Objective and Subjective Outcome Evaluation Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two tiers of programs in the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes. In the Tier 1 Program, teaching units based on different positive youth development constructs are covered. Pre- and post-test data utilizing the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale (CPYDS and post-test subjective outcome evaluation data were collected from 546 students who participated in the 20h Tier 1 Program of the P.A.T.H.S. Project. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the program and the instructors, with 85.3% of the respondents regarding the program as helpful to them. Positive changes in the program participants in many measures of positive youth development were also observed. Although there were some increases in problem behavior in some areas, adolescent problem behavior was generally stable. The present study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

  19. Effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S.: preliminary objective and subjective outcome evaluation findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2006-11-16

    There are two tiers of programs in the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes). In the Tier 1 Program, teaching units based on different positive youth development constructs are covered. Pre- and post-test data utilizing the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale (CPYDS) and post-test subjective outcome evaluation data were collected from 546 students who participated in the 20 h Tier 1 Program of the P.A.T.H.S. Project. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the program and the instructors, with 85.3% of the respondents regarding the program as helpful to them. Positive changes in the program participants in many measures of positive youth development were also observed. Although there were some increases in problem behavior in some areas, adolescent problem behavior was generally stable. The present study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

  20. What drives the gender gap in STEM? The SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL) as a new approach to linking indicators to STI policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Schaaper, M.; Bello, A.

    2016-07-01

    There is a large imbalance in the participation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields across all of Latin American countries despite the fact that the region has one of the highest proportions of female researchers worldwide (44% according to UIS statistics). Female researchers face persisting institutional and cultural barriers, which limit the development of their careers and constrains their access to decision-making positions. In this framework, UNESCO has launched the STEM and Gender Advancement (SAGA) project, which has for objective to address the gender gap in STEM fields in all countries at all levels of education and research as well as to promote women’s participation in science. SAGA is a global UNESCO project with the support of the Swedish Government through the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). One of the outcomes of this project is the SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL), which is an innovative tool that aids in the identification of gaps in the policy mix. Additionally, the STI GOL configures the conceptual backbone of the SAGA project, by linking gender equality STI policy instruments with indicators. By using the STI GOL, and identifying the gender gaps, policy-makers will be able to implement evidence-based policies in STEM fields. The SAGA STI GOL is a new and innovative way of contributing to the development of effective gender sensitive policies in STI fields, both in education and in the workplace. Likewise, it enables the categorization of STI policies and instruments, with the objective of identifying gaps in the policy mix and aid in the creation and design of evidence-based public policies to promote gender equality. (Author)

  1. The ALMA Early Science View of FUor/EXor objects. II. The Very Wide Outflow Driven by HBC 494

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Rodríguez, D.; Cieza, L. A.; Williams, J. P.; Tobin, J. J.; Hales, A.; Zhu, Z.; Mužić, K.; Principe, D.; Canovas, H.; Zurlo, A.; Casassus, S.; Perez, S.; Prieto, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle-2 observations of the HBC 494 molecular outflow and envelope. HBC 494 is an FU Ori-like object embedded in the Orion A cloud and is associated with the reflection nebulae Re50 and Re50N. We use 12CO, 13CO and C18O spectral line data to independently describe the outflow and envelope structures associated with HBC 494. The moment-1 map of the 12CO emission shows the widest outflow cavities in a Class I object known to date (opening angle ˜ 150°). The morphology of the wide outflow is likely to be due to the interaction between winds originating in the inner disc and the surrounding envelope. The low-velocity blue- and red-shifted 13CO and C18O emission trace the rotation and infall motion of the circumstellar envelope. Using molecular line data and adopting standard methods for correcting optical depth effects, we estimate its kinematic properties, including an outflow mass on the order of 10-1 M⊙. Considering the large estimated outflow mass for HBC 494, our results support recent theoretical work suggesting that wind-driven processes might dominate the evolution of protoplanetary discs via energetic outflows.

  2. The ALMA Early Science view of FUor/EXor objects. I. Through the looking-glass of V2775 Ori

    CERN Document Server

    Zurlo, Alice; Williams, Jonathan P; Canovas, Hector; Perez, Sebastian; Hales, Antonio; Mužić, Koraljka; Principe, David A; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Tobin, John; Zhang, Yichen; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Casassus, Simon; Prieto, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    As part of an ALMA survey to study the origin of episodic accretion in young eruptive variables, we have observed the circumstellar environment of the star V2775 Ori. This object is a very young, pre-main sequence object which displays a large amplitude outburst characteristic of the FUor class. We present Cycle-2 band 6 observations of V2775 Ori with a continuum and CO (2-1) isotopologue resolution of 0.25\\as (103 au). We report the detection of a marginally resolved circumstellar disc in the ALMA continuum with an integrated flux of $106 \\pm 2$ mJy, characteristic radius of $\\sim$ 30 au, inclination of $14.0^{+7.8}_{-14.5}$ deg, and is oriented nearly face-on with respect to the plane of the sky. The \\co~emission is separated into distinct blue and red-shifted regions that appear to be rings or shells of expanding material from quasi-episodic outbursts. The system is oriented in such a way that the disc is seen through the outflow remnant of V2775 Ori, which has an axis along our line-of-sight. The $^{13}$C...

  3. The ALMA early science view of FUor/EXor objects - II. The very wide outflow driven by HBC 494

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Rodríguez, D.; Cieza, L. A.; Williams, J. P.; Tobin, J. J.; Hales, A.; Zhu, Z.; Mužić, K.; Principe, D.; Canovas, H.; Zurlo, A.; Casassus, S.; Perez, S.; Prieto, J. L.

    2017-04-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array Cycle-2 observations of the HBC 494 molecular outflow and envelope. HBC 494 is an FU Ori-like object embedded in the Orion A cloud and is associated with the reflection nebulae Re50 and Re50N. We use 12CO, 13CO and C18O spectral line data to independently describe the outflow and envelope structures associated with HBC 494. The moment-1 map of the 12CO emission shows the widest outflow cavities in a Class I object known to date (opening angle ∼150°). The morphology of the wide outflow is likely to be due to the interaction between winds originating in the inner disc and the surrounding envelope. The low-velocity blueshifted and redshifted 13CO and C18O emission trace the rotation and infall motion of the circumstellar envelope. Using molecular line data and adopting standard methods for correcting optical depth effects, we estimate its kinematic properties, including an outflow mass of the order of 10-1 M⊙. Considering the large estimated outflow mass for HBC 494, our results support recent theoretical work suggesting that wind-driven processes might dominate the evolution of protoplanetary discs via energetic outflows.

  4. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  5. The ALMA early science view of FUor/EXor objects - I. Through the looking-glass of V2775 Ori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Alice; Cieza, Lucas A.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Canovas, Hector; Perez, Sebastian; Hales, Antonio; Mužić, Koraljka; Principe, David A.; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Tobin, John; Zhang, Yichen; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Casassus, Simon; Prieto, Jose L.

    2017-02-01

    As part of an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimiter Array (ALMA) survey to study the origin of episodic accretion in young eruptive variables, we have observed the circum-stellar environment of the star V2775 Ori. This object is a very young, pre-main sequence object which displays a large amplitude outburst characteristic of the FUor class. We present Cycle-2 band 6 observations of V2775 Ori with a continuum and CO (2-1) isotopologue resolution of 0.25 arcsec (103 au). We report the detection of a marginally resolved circum-stellar disc in the ALMA continuum with an integrated flux of 106 ± 2 mJy, characteristic radius of ˜30 au, inclination of 14.0^{+7.8}_{-14.5} deg and is oriented nearly face-on with respect to the plane of the sky. The 12CO emission is separated into distinct blue and redshifted regions that appear to be rings or shells of expanding material from quasi-episodic outbursts. The system is oriented in such a way that the disc is seen through the outflow remnant of V2775 Ori, which has an axis along our line of sight. The 13CO emission displays similar structure to that of the 12CO, while the C18O line emission is very weak. We calculated the expansion velocities of the low- and medium-density material with respect to the disc to be of -2.85 (blue), 4.4 (red) and -1.35 and 1.15 km s-1 (for blue and red) and we derived the mass, momentum and kinetic energy of the expanding gas. The outflow has an hourglass shape where the cavities are not seen. We interpret the shapes that the gas traces as cavities excavated by an ancient outflow. We report a detection of line emission from the circumstellar disc and derive a lower limit of the gas mass of 3 MJup.

  6. Using Modern And Inexpensive Tools In the Classroom To Teach Spectroscopy And To Do Exciting Citizen Science On Astronomical Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, T.

    2014-12-01

    Spectroscopy is a key tool used in modern astronomical research. But, it's always been a difficult topic to teach or practice because the expense and complexity of the available tools. Over the past few years, there's been somewhat of a revolution in this field as new technologies have applied. In this presentation we'll review some new spectroscopy tools that enable educators, students and citizen scientists to do exciting spectroscopic work. With the addition of a simple, inexpensive grating, it's now possible to capture scientifically significant spectra of astronomical objects with small (6") telescopes and even just a DSLR. See the tools that citizen scientists are using to contribute data to pro-am collaborations around the world. We'll also examine a simple, surprisingly inexpensive, tripod-mounted spectrometer that can be used in the classroom for demonstrations and hands-on labs with gas tubes and other light sources. Both of the above instruments use a software program named RSpec, which is state of the art software suite that is easy to learn and easy to use. In this presentation we'll see these devices in operation and discuss how they can be used by educators to dramatically improve their teaching of this topic. You'll see how these tools can eliminate the frustration of hand-held rainbow foil and plastic spectrometers. And we'll review some exciting examples of astronomical spectra being collected by amateurs and educators.

  7. THE EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES IN THE PRIMARY EDUCATION 5TH GRADE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM IN TERMS OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRBÜZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to know the teachers’ opinions in terms of multiple intelligence theory about the objectives and activities in the units of “Earth, Sun and Moon” and the “Electricity in Our Life” in the primary education 5th grade science and technology curriculum. The survey model was used in this study. The population of this study consists of 262 5th grade teachers working in the center of Malatya. The sample consists of 190 5th grade teachers who were selected randomly. Questionnaire was used to collect data that are consisted of 70 items. Teachers are asked to select one dominant intelligence type for 65 objectives and activities. To analyze the data, the background information of teachers like seniority, graduated faculty, whether or not they had in-service education were compared to teachers opinions about which intelligence area is suitable with these objectives and activities and these comparison information was given and commented with frequencies, percentages and cross tabs. Given the results of this study, about evaluating the objectives and activities in these units, taking all activities in the teaching-learning process into consideration, it is discovered that, teachers generally focus on visual, spatial, logical and mathematical intelligence areas and they think in the same way regardless of their seniority, graduated faculty, and whether or not they had in-service education about teaching-learning theories and models. Some advices are given based on the results of this study.

  8. 客观结构化临床考试考站设置的改进%Preliminary application of the revised objective structure clinical examination stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈海波; 顾正勤; 康健; 邬喻; 徐丁; 齐隽

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨改良的客观结构化临床考试(objective structure clinical examination,OSCE)考站设置的可行性及效果.方法 选择上海交通大学新华临床医学院2008、2009级临床医学系106名学生为考试对象.分成2组,实验组32名采用改良的OSCE考试;对照组74名采用传统OSCE考试.改良的OSCE考试是在原有OSCE考站设置基础上,对操作部分的考站进行改进,均采用临床病例为题干,要求学生根据题干得出可能的诊断,并进行相应操作.教学结束后,根据两组学生参加上海交通大学医学院OSCE考试的成绩,以及实验组参加全国高等医学院校大学生临床技能大赛情况评估教学结果.相关数据采用独立样本t检验.结果 实验组学生认同新的考站设置更贴近临床.实验组学生OSCE考试成绩优于对照组学生,但两组比较差异无统计学意义.实验组32名大学生的测试平均分为(80.50±15.45),而对照组学生的测试平均分为(78.30±17.68).新的OSCE考站设置有利于学生进行技能大赛培训,新华临床医学院学生连续2年在上海交通大学医学院临床技能大赛中夺冠.结论 以案例为基础的OSCE考站设置,更贴近临床教学,更能客观地评价学生临床能力,对医学生综合能力培养具有一定积极作用.%Objective To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the revised OSCE stations.Methods 106 sstudents of grade 2008 and 2009 from Xinhua clinical medical school of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine were involved,32 of whom (experimental group) tool modified OSCE examination and 74 of whom (control group) tool traditional OSCE examination.The revised OSCE exam was the one which on the basis of original OSCE test station setup,improved the operating part of the test stand,adopted clinical cases as stem,asked the students to make possible diagnosis,and perform the corresponding operation.We evaluated the students based on the OSCE scores from the

  9. Information Update Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

  10. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat: instrument characterization techniques, instrument capabilities and solar science objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher; Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3U CubeSat launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station for deployment in early 2016. MinXSS will utilize a commercial off the shelf (COTS) X-ray spectrometer from Amptek to measure the solar irradiance from 0.5 - 30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution at 5.9 keV and a LASP developed X-ray photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder.The majority of previous solar X-ray measurements have been either at high spectral resolution with a narrow bandpass or spectrally integrating (broad band) photometers. MinXSS will conduct unique soft X-ray measurements of moderate spectral resolution over a relatively large energy range to study solar active region evolution, solar flares, and their effects on Earth’s ionosphere. This presentation focuses on the science instrument characterization involving radioactive X-ray sources and the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). Detector spectral response, spectral resolution, response linearity are discussed as well as future solar science objectives.

  11. Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources. A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Griffith, Brad; Joyce, Linda A.; Kareiva, Peter; Keller, Brian D.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Peterson, Charles H.; Scott, J. Michael; Julius, Susan Herrod; West, Jordan M.

    2008-01-01

    Climate variables are key determinants of geographic distributions and biophysical characteristics of ecosystems, communities, and species. Climate change is therefore affecting many species attributes, ecological interactions, and ecosystem processes. Because changes in the climate system will continue into the future regardless of emissions mitigation, strategies for protecting climate-sensitive ecosystems through management will be increasingly important. While there will always be uncertainties associated with the future path of climate change, the response of ecosystems to climate impacts, and the effects of management, it is both possible and essential for adaptation to proceed using the best available science. This report provides a preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources in the United States. The term “adaptation” in this document refers to adjustments in human social systems (e.g., management) in response to climate stimuli and their effects. Since management always occurs in the context of desired ecosystem conditions or natural resource management goals, it is instructive to examine particular goals and processes used by different organizations to fulfill their objectives. Such an examination allows for discussion of specific adaptation options as well as potential barriers and opportunities for implementation. Using this approach, this report presents a series of chapters on the following selected management systems: National Forests, National Parks, National Wildlife Refuges, Wild and Scenic Rivers, National Estuaries, and Marine Protected Areas. For these chapters, the authors draw on the literature, their own expert opinion, and expert workshops composed of resource management scientists and representatives of managing agencies. The information drawn from across these chapters is then analyzed to develop the key synthetic messages presented below.

  12. Preliminary results of solar constant observations with the SOLCON experiment on ATLAS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, D.; Domingo, V.; Barkstrom, B.; Lee, R. B., II; Donaldson, J.; Telljohann, U; Warren, L.; Fichot, A.

    1994-01-01

    A brief description is given of the Solar Constant (SOLCAN) experiment on Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 1, its scientific and technical objectives, as well as its measurement principle and its on board chronology of operations. A preliminary value of the solar constant during the third solar operation of the mission is also provided.

  13. Preliminary Discussion on the Science and Technology Website Information Construction%浅论科技网站信息建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓盼

    2001-01-01

    With an analysis of the characteristics of science and technology websites, the paper puts forward 4 principles for the science and technology website information construction. Ways of carrying out the science and technology website information construction are also discussed.

  14. Preliminary notes on 'Grooming the Object'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Lundsgaard, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the use of a particular gesture during the presentation of an architectural drawing – a gesture, which we refer to as ‘grooming the drawing’. On the one hand, it is related to a practical concern of the activity at hand; during the presentation the architect works...... sure that the manifold paper doesn’t move relative to the drawing underneath. He therefore often ‘grooms’ the manifold paper to straighten it out. On the other hand, the analysis reveals that although this (also) is of a practical purpose it occurs in specific positions and to serve an interactional...

  15. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats: spectrometer characterization techniques, spectrometer capabilities, and solar science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher S.; Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Mason, James P.

    2016-07-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) are twin 3U CubeSats. The first of the twin CubeSats (MinXSS-1) launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station for deployment in mid-2016. Both MinXSS CubeSats utilize a commercial off the shelf (COTS) X-ray spectrometer from Amptek to measure the solar irradiance from 0.5 to 30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution at 5.9 keV, and a LASP-developed X-ray broadband photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The majority of previous solar soft X-ray measurements have been either at high spectral resolution with a narrow bandpass or spectrally integrating (broadband) photometers. MinXSS will conduct unique soft X-ray measurements with moderate spectral resolution over a relatively large energy range to study solar active region evolution, solar flares, and the effects of solar soft X-ray emission on Earth's ionosphere. This paper focuses on the X-ray spectrometer instrument characterization techniques involving radioactive X-ray sources and the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). Spectrometer spectral response, spectral resolution, response linearity are discussed as well as future solar science objectives.

  16. The Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science data: Panchromatic Faint Object Counts from 0.2-2 microns wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Windhorst, Rogier A; Hathi, Nimish P; McCarthy, Patrick J; Ryan, Russell E; Jr.,; Yan, Haojing; Baldry, Ivan K; Driver, Simon P; Frogel, Jay A; Hill, David T; Kelvin, Lee S; Koekemoer, Anton M; Mechtley, Matt; O'Connell, Robert W; Robotham, Aaron S G; Rutkowski, Michael J; Seibert, Mark; Tuffs, Richard J; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard E; Bushouse, Howard; Calzetti, Daniela; Crockett, Mark; Disney, Michael J; Dopita, Michael A; Hall, Donald N B; Holtzman, Jon A; Kaviraj, Sugata; Kimble, Randy A; MacKenty, John W; Mutchler, Max; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abihit; Silk, Joseph I; Trauger, John; Walker, Alistair R; Whitmore, Bradley C; Young, Erick

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Early Release Science (ERS) observations in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) South field. The new WFC3 ERS data provide calibrated, drizzled mosaics in the mid-UV filters F225W, F275W, and F336W, as well as in the near-IR filters F098W (\\Ys), F125W (J), and F160W (H) in 1-2 HST orbits per filter. Together with the existing HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) GOODS-South mosaics in the BVi'z' filters, these panchromatic 10-band ERS data cover 40-50 square arcmin from from 0.2-1.7 \\mum\\ in wavelength at 0\\arcspt 07-0\\arcspt 15 FWHM resolution and 0\\arcspt 090 multidrizzled pixels to depths of AB\\cle 26.0-27.0 mag (5-sigma) for point sources, and AB\\cle 25.5-26.5 mag for compact galaxies. In this paper, we describe: a) the scientific rationale, and the data taking plus reduction procedures of the panchromatic 10-band ERS mosaics; b) the procedure of generating object catalogs across the 10 different ERS filters, and the ...

  17. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  18. The Language of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-01-01

    . The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences...

  19. Attitude of Dental Prostheses Residents of Faculty of Dentistry of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences to Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hafezeqoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is one of the most authentic ways to evaluate clinical skills. The present study aimed at evaluating the attitude of dental prostheses residents of the faculty of dentistry of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences toward this kind of examination. Methods: In this cross sectional-descriptive study, two questionnaires were designed. One questionnaire dealt with nature of OSCE and the other dealt with the attitude of residents about OSCE. After holding the OSCE in July 2012, 2013, and 2014, the questionnaires were delivered to all dental prostheses residents of the Tabriz dental faculty. In total, 40 questionnaires were filled out within three years. Questions included five-choice items based on a Likert scale. Furthermore, the students’ scores in each exam were recorded to evaluate any possible relationship between the acquired grade and the student’s attitude toward the exam. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS17 software (α=5%. Results: Most residents (62.5% referred to the large number of questions as a positive factor. In addition, a majority of residents (90% suffered from high levels of stress during OSCE. There was a close relation between the grade acquired by the residents in the examination and their attitude to OSCE as well as their evaluation about the examination. The students with better grades had more positive attitudes toward OSCE. Conclusion: Considering the satisfaction level of the students in this study, OSCE was held efficiently and may be considered as part of the training program of the residents.

  20. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S–1920S: “OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY”/“REFLEXOLOGY” AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    BYFORD, ANDY

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20th century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailo...

  1. 科普英语翻译中的语言结构顺应策略探析%Research on the Strategies of Structural Object of Adaptability in Translating Popular Science English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宁曦

    2011-01-01

    Popular science English,as a kind of important language variant of modern English,has been paid much attention.Translating popular science English directly influence on the scientific and readability of translated text.This paper uses the theory of structural object of adaptability to analyze the strategies and some notes in translating popular science English.%科普英语作为现代英语一种重要的语言变体已引起广泛重视,科普英语翻译的好坏直接影响到译文的科学性和易读性。本文从语言结构顺应理论入手,来分析科普英语翻译的策略以及翻译时的注意点。

  2. Object crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  3. Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    objectives may direct students’ learning (Duchastel and Merrill, 1973; Kapfer , 1970; Kibler et al., 1974), since such objectives may provide...matter learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(1): 67-70 (1971). Kapfer , P. G. Behavioral objectives and the curriculum processor. Educational

  4. A história da ciência e o objeto de seu estudo: confrontos entre a ciência periférica, a ciência central e a ciência marginal History of science and its object of study: confrontations amongst peripheral science, mainstream science and marginal science

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. L. Filgueiras

    2001-01-01

    The historiography of science has undergone a profound change from the traditional perspective of a few decades ago, according to which only mainstream science was worth pursuing as a research field. Such a restricted outlook was not conducive to a thorough understanding of the whole process of the construction of science. New approaches have breathed new life into the discipline, taking into account not only scientific endeavours from so-called peripheral societies, but also from different q...

  5. Defining Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Data science is gaining more and more and widespread attention, but no consensus viewpoint on what data science is has emerged. As a new science, its objects of study and scientific issues should not be covered by established sciences. Data in cyberspace have formed what we call datanature. In the present paper, data science is defined as the science of exploring datanature.

  6. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  7. A Classification Leveraged Object Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Miao; Han, Tony X.; He, Zhihai

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the state-of-the-art image classification algorithms outperform the best available object detector by a big margin in terms of average precision. We, therefore, propose a simple yet principled approach that allows us to leverage object detection through image classification on supporting regions specified by a preliminary object detector. Using a simple bag-of- words model based image classification algorithm, we leveraged the performance of the deformable model objector from 35.9%...

  8. A Preliminary Study on the Use of Mind Mapping as a Visual-Learning Strategy in General Education Science Classes for Arabic Speakers in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kenesha; Copeland-Solas, Eddia; Guthrie-Dixon, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Mind mapping was introduced as a culturally relevant pedagogy aimed at enhancing the teaching and learning experience in a general education, Environmental Science class for mostly Emirati English Language Learners (ELL). Anecdotal evidence suggests that the students are very artistic and visual and enjoy group-based activities. It was decided to…

  9. Preliminary Analysis on the Application of Linear Algebra in Materials Science%浅析向量代数在材料科学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓安强; 王玉光

    2015-01-01

    Materials Science is playing a more and more important role in modern science and technology as a comprehensive discipline.It also relates closely with the chemical industry.Mathematics, as a tool discipline, is applied to various disciplines.Selected the content of plane and its equation, dot product, cross product, mixed product, matrix transformation and coordinate transformation in vector algebra, combined the vector algebra with the specific knowledge points in Materials Science, the application of vector algebra was analyzed as a tool in material science, and a further outlook in other knowledge points in the Materials Science which needed to use mathematics knowledge was put forward.%材料科学作为一门综合性较强的学科,在现代科学和技术中发挥了越来越重要的作用,与化学工业有十分密切的关系。数学作为一门工具学科,其应用已经渗透到各个学科。选取向量代数中平面及其方程、数量积、向量积、混合积、基变换与坐标变换等内容,结合材料科学具体知识点,分析了向量代数作为一门工具在材料科学中的应用,并对材料科学其他知识点需要用到数学的地方也做了进一步的展望。

  10. How to Motivate Science Teachers to Use Science Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Trna

    2012-01-01

    A science experiment is the core tool in science education. This study describes the science teachers' professional competence to implement science experiments in teaching/learning science. The main objective is the motivation of science teachers to use science experiments. The presented research tries to answer questions aimed at the science teachers' skills to use science experiments in teaching/learning science. The research discovered the following facts: science teachers do not include s...

  11. The ClearEarth Project: Preliminary Findings from Experiments in Applying the CLEARTK NLP Pipeline and Annotation Tools Developed for Biomedicine to the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Thessen, A.; Jenkins, C. J.; Palmer, M.; Myers, S.; Ramdeen, S.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to quickly find, easily use and effortlessly integrate data from a variety of sources is a grand challenge in Earth sciences, one around which entire research programs have been built. A myriad of approaches to tackling components of this challenge have been demonstrated, often with some success. Yet finding, assessing, accessing, using and integrating data remains a major challenge for many researchers. A technology that has shown promise in nearly every aspect of the challenge is semantics. Semantics has been shown to improve data discovery, facilitate assessment of a data set, and through adoption of the W3C's Linked Data Platform to have improved data integration and use at least for data amenable to that paradigm. Yet the creation of semantic resources has been slow. Why? Amongst a plethora of other reasons, it is because semantic expertise is rare in the Earth and Space sciences; the creation of semantic resources for even a single discipline is labor intensive and requires agreement within the discipline; best practices, methods and tools for supporting the creation and maintenance of the resources generated are in flux; and the human and financial capital needed are rarely available in the Earth sciences. However, other fields, such as biomedicine, have made considerable progress in these areas. The NSF-funded ClearEarth project is adapting the methods and tools from these communities for the Earth sciences in the expectation that doing so will enhance progress and the rate at which the needed semantic resources are created. We discuss progress and results to date, lessons learned from this adaptation process, and describe our upcoming efforts to extend this knowledge to the next generation of Earth and data scientists.

  12. Preliminary results of the investigation “Women and Men Entrepreneurs in Science and Technology in Costa Rica: a contrast of gender realities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ferreto-Gutiérrez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The project is an investigation that seeks to demons­trate the contrasts of gender entrepreneurship on companies focused in Science and Technology in Costa Rica. By consulting secondary sources and experts on the topic, and deepen the field of Science and Technology. We have found a lack of documented information to take appropriate actions to guide the various actors involved at the level of Government, private sector and academia. In 2010, the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Commerce (MEIC launches two public policy of promoting SMEs and other enterprises to which state the issue of gender as a crosscutting issue. In addition, the Institute Tecnolológico Costa Rica (ITCR has defined support for SMEs and entre­preneurship as an institutional policy and transverse axis of its academic work (Institutional III Congress, which motivates venture into this line of research. Based on the above, this research proposal pretend at laying the foundations to make a gender contrast in entrepreneurs and their initiatives in science and technology and determine whether the differences or similarities impact on the performance of their companies.

  13. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  14. Agile Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  15. Cross-correlation search for continuous gravitational waves from a compact object in SNR 1987A in LIGO Science Run 5

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, L; Lasky, P D; Chung, C T Y; Darman, N S

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a cross-correlation search for gravitational waves from SNR 1987A using the second year of LIGO Science Run 5 data. The frequency band 75--450\\,Hz is searched. No evidence of gravitational waves is found. A 90\\% confidence upper limit of $h_0 \\leq 3.8\\times10^{-25}$ is placed on the gravitational wave strain at the most sensitive frequency near 150\\,Hz. This corresponds to an ellipticity of $\\epsilon \\leq 8.2\\times10^{-4}$ and improves on previously published strain upper limits by a factor $\\approx4$. We perform a comprehensive suite of validations of the search algorithm and identify several computational savings which marginally sacrifice sensitivity in order to streamline the parameter space being searched. We estimate detection thresholds and sensitivities through Monte-Carlo simulations.

  16. Dense Plasma Focus: physics and applications (radiation material science, single-shot disclosure of hidden illegal objects, radiation biology and medicine, etc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V. A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Chernyshova, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pimenov, V. N.; Demina, E. V.; Niemela, J.; Crespo, M.-L.; Cicuttin, A.; Tomaszewski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Pytel, K.; Zawadka, A.; Giannini, G.; Longo, F.; Talab, A.; Ul'yanenko, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents some outcomes obtained during the year of 2013 of the activity in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency Co-ordinated research project "Investigations of Materials under High Repetition and Intense Fusion-Relevant Pulses". The main results are related to the effects created at the interaction of powerful pulses of different types of radiation (soft and hard X-rays, hot plasma and fast ion streams, neutrons, etc. generated in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) facilities) with various materials including those that are counted as perspective ones for their use in future thermonuclear reactors. Besides we discuss phenomena observed at the irradiation of biological test objects. We examine possible applications of nanosecond powerful pulses of neutrons to the aims of nuclear medicine and for disclosure of hidden illegal objects. Special attention is devoted to discussions of a possibility to create extremely large and enormously diminutive DPF devices and probabilities of their use in energetics, medicine and modern electronics.

  17. EVALUACIÓN OBJETIVA DE LOS TRATAMIENTOS PSICOLÓGICOS: MODELOS BASADOS EN LA CIENCIA/ OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENTS: SCIENCE-BASED MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBA ELISABETH MUSTACA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have seen an increase in clinical researchthat uses the scientific method for its validation, mainly due tothe influence of the empirically supported treatments (ESTsmovement that started in the 1990s. The article describes thebackground, objectives, and results of ESTs, as well as two intervention models that complement them: one that promotesresearch on the type of therapeutic relation that guaranteesgreater success of the therapies, and one that seeks to optimizemental health care systems. The conclusion is that mostESTs are techniques based on experimental psychology, andthat the scientific method is the best tool available to addressthe complex problem of human behavior.

  18. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  19. Object theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Heiberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    possibilities to emerge. We present a study in which the Object Theatre approach is applied to redesign socially shared everyday products that are located in public places. This project demonstrates how Object Theatre offers a broad perspective form which to explore and present product interactions....... In particular, it emphasises the understanding of a product by relating and changing perspectives, and takes into account context of use and diverse social settings....

  20. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... it without totally dispersing it; depicting it as held together exclusively by the sheer 'force' of the sacred object. Firstly, the article introduces the themes and problems surrounding Durkheim's conception of the sacred. Next, it briefly sketches an outline of fashion phenomena in Durkheimian categories...

  1. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  2. On Institutionalizing and Reconstructing the Objective of the Legalization of Agricultural Science and Technology%论农业科技法制目标的重构及其制度化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮国

    2014-01-01

    In China,the objective of the legalization of agricultural science and technology is to increase cereal production greatly. It brought some adverse effects. Some agricultural sciences and technologies that are negative to environment were used and the methods of traditional agricultural production were lost. The quality and safety of agricultural products are very low and the environment and resources of agriculture were damaged. Based on the idea of sustainable development, the objective of the legalization of agricultural science and technology should be shifted to the model of"ecology and production coordinated".%我国农业科技立法及政策性文件表明当下我国农业科技法制的目标为“产量确保型”。其对产量的过分强调招致环境负面型农业科技的普遍适用及传统生态型农业生产方式的灭失,以至于农产品尤其是食用农产品质量安全隐患严重,农业环境资源破坏严重等问题。本文基于可持续发展理念下农业的多功能性,提出我国农业科技法制的目标应转向“生态产量协调型”,并在技术控制主义理念指导下使该目标获得制度化。

  3. Bridging the Gap of Practice and Research: A Preliminary Investigation of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳寂絹 Chi-Chuan Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gap between practice and research is commonly found in disciplines with both ofprofessional practitioners and academic researchers. How to bridge the gap is also acontinuing concern in the field of Library and Information Studies. This article describes therecent development of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information ScienceResearch (EBLIP, and provides analysis of the journal EBLIP including its authors’backgrounds, methods, and topics. The results show that the United States and Canadaare the two major nations of contributors; more than 70% of first authors are librarians; 76%of the articles were contributed by one single institute, co-authorship by cross-nationinstitutes were rarely seen, and demonstrates local research interests; type of co-authoredagency is primarily among libraries; 60% methods employed include questionnaires,interviews and content analysis; the coverage of topics is rather broad, and the top threecategories of research topics include Information Literacy & Instruction, Information Needs& Seeking Behavior, and Reference Services / Digital Reference Services (15%, 10%, and8%; many datasets were obtained from real library practice, and 72% of articles provide specific implications for applications which highlight the value of implementation. Manylibrarians have the research capability, and this article serves as a purpose to introduce theevidence-based research and encourage more such research done in Taiwan. Hopefully itmay benefit and further enhance the quality of library decision-making and their professionalimage.

  4. Challenges of conservation: working objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Elizabeth Pye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concepts and practice of museum conservation, and the role of conservation in preserving both material and significance of objects. It explores the conservation of science and industry collections and the fact that the significance of many of these objects lies in their operation. It considers alternatives to operating original objects but emphasises the value of experiencing the real thing, and argues that visitors should be given greater physical access to museum objects, including being enabled to handle and work functioning objects. It finishes by calling for research into the effects of operation on the objects themselves, and into what constitutes a satisfying experience of working objects.

  5. Objective becoming

    CERN Document Server

    Skow, Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Bradford Skow presents an original defense of the 'block universe' theory of time, often said to be a theory according to which time does not pass. Along the way, he provides in-depth discussions of alternative theories of time, including those in which there is 'robust passage' of time or 'objective becoming': presentism, the moving spotlight theory of time, the growing block theory of time, and the 'branching time' theory of time. Skow explains why the moving spotlight theory is the best of these arguments, and rebuts several popular arguments against the thesis that time passes. He surveys the problems that the special theory of relativity has been thought to raise for objective becoming, and suggests ways in which fans of objective becoming may reconcile their view with relativistic physics. The last third of the book aims to clarify and evaluate the argument that we should believe that time passes because, somehow, the passage of time is given to us in experience. He isolates three separate arguments thi...

  6. Surviving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Murjas, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Surviving Objects (2012) is a devised multi-media practice-as-research performance based on extensive interviews conducted with my elderly mother and recorded on a hand-held device. Our conversations concern her experiences as a child refugee following violent deportation by the Soviet Army from Eastern Poland to Siberia (1941), and her subsequent route, via Persia, to a British-run refugee camp in Northern Rhodesia, where she remained for 6 years before arriving in the UK. In order to aid my...

  7. Objective thermomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fülöp, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    An irreversible thermodynamical theory of solids is presented where the kinematic quantities are defined in an automatically objective way. Namely, auxiliary elements like reference frame, reference time and reference configuration are avoided by formulating the motion of the continuum on spacetime directly, utilizing the Weyl-Matolcsi description of spacetime. This restricts the range of definable kinematic quantities heavily. Solids are distinguished from fluids by possessing not only an instantaneous metric tensor but a relaxed metric, too, that represents the natural geometric structure of the solid. The comparison of the instantaneous metric to the relaxed one is the basis of the definition of the elastic state variable, the elastic deformedness tensor. Thermal expansion is conceived as the temperature dependence of the relaxed metric. As opposed to this reversible type of change, plasticity means an irreversible change in the relaxed metric, and is describable via a plastic change rate tensor. The relat...

  8. Science Process Skills in Science Curricula Applied in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumusak, Güngör Keskinkiliç

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important objectives of the science curricula is to bring in science process skills. The science process skills are skills that lie under scientific thinking and decision-making. Thus it is important for a science curricula to be rationalized in such a way that it brings in science process skills. New science curricula were…

  9. Magnetospheric Multiscale Overview and Science Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Moore, T. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft constellation mission launched on March 12, 2015, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth's magnetosphere, particularly along its dayside boundary with the solar wind and the neutral sheet in the magnetic tail. The most important goal of MMS is to conduct a definitive experiment to determine what causes magnetic field lines to reconnect in a collisionless plasma. The significance of the MMS results will extend far beyond the Earth's magnetosphere because reconnection is known to occur in interplanetary space and in the solar corona where it is responsible for solar flares and the disconnection events known as coronal mass ejections. Active research is also being conducted on reconnection in the laboratory and specifically in magnetic-confinement fusion devices in which it is a limiting factor in achieving and maintaining electron temperatures high enough to initiate fusion. Finally, reconnection is proposed as the cause of numerous phenomena throughout the universe such as comet-tail disconnection events, magnetar flares, supernova ejections, and dynamics of neutron-star accretion disks. The MMS mission design is focused on answering specific questions about reconnection at the Earth's magnetosphere. The prime focus of the mission is on determining the kinetic processes occurring in the electron diffusion region that are responsible for reconnection and that determine how it is initiated; but the mission will also place that physics into the context of the broad spectrum of physical processes associated with reconnection. Connections to other disciplines such as solar physics, astrophysics, and laboratory plasma physics are expected to be made through theory and modeling as informed by the MMS results.

  10. Physical Science Informatics: Providing Open Science Access to Microheater Array Boiling Experiment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; Green, Robert D.; Henrie, Ben; Miller, Teresa; Chiaramonte, Fran

    2014-01-01

    The Physical Science Informatics (PSI) system is the next step in this an effort to make NASA sponsored flight data available to the scientific and engineering community, along with the general public. The experimental data, from six overall disciplines, Combustion Science, Fluid Physics, Complex Fluids, Fundamental Physics, and Materials Science, will present some unique challenges. Besides data in textual or numerical format, large portions of both the raw and analyzed data for many of these experiments are digital images and video, requiring large data storage requirements. In addition, the accessible data will include experiment design and engineering data (including applicable drawings), any analytical or numerical models, publications, reports, and patents, and any commercial products developed as a result of the research. This objective of paper includes the following: Present the preliminary layout (Figure 2) of MABE data within the PSI database. Obtain feedback on the layout. Present the procedure to obtain access to this database.

  11. Object oriented data analysis in ALEPH

    OpenAIRE

    Bagliesi, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the status of the ALPHA^{++} project of the ALEPH collaboration. The ALEPH data have been converted from Fortran data structures (BOS banks) into C^{++} objects and stored in a object oriented database (Objectivity/DB), using tools provided by the RD45 collaboration and the LHC^{++} software project at CERN. A description of the database setup and of a preliminary version of an object oriented analysis program is given.

  12. 基于目标管理的高校教师科研绩效管理体系构建初探%On the Preliminary Establishment of University Scientific Research Performance Management System Based on Management by Objective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张日颖; 穆婕

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly applies Management by Objective to university research performance management process, trying to analyze the content of university research performance management and management system principles; and then it puts forward the proposals of the establishment of university research Performance Management System based on the analysis of university research performance management organization;and finally it analyses the implementation of the management system and its operation mechanism.%本文将目标管理理论应用于高校科研绩效管理过程,分析了高校科研绩效管理的内涵、管理体系构建原则,并在分析了高校科研绩效管理组织机构构成的基础上,提出了高校科研绩效管理体系构建方案,并分析了管理体系的实施与运行机制。

  13. DOI: Current Status and Outlook [and] The Virtual Naval Hospital: Lessons Learned in Creating and Operating a Digital Health Sciences Library for Nomadic Patrons [and] Interoperability for Digital Objects and Repositories: The Cornell/CNRI Experiments [and] Education for Digital Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskin, Norman; D'Alessandro, Michael P.; D'Alessandro, Donna M.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Bakalar, Richard S.; Ashley, Denis E.; Payette, Dandra; Blanchi, Christophe; Lagoze, Carl; Overly, Edward A.; Spink, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Describes the origin of the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) as a persistent identifier for managing copyrighted materials and its development; creation of the U.S. Navy digital health sciences library for isolated primary care providers and their patients; Cornell and CNRI prototype architecture for interoperable digital objects and repositories;…

  14. Summary of the Science performed onboard the International Space Station during Increments 12 and 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol

    2007-01-01

    By September of 2007, continuous human presence on the International Space Station will reach a milestone of eighty months. The many astronauts and cosmonauts, who live onboard the station during the last fourteen Increments over that time span, spend their time building the station as well as performing science on a daily basis. Over those eighty months, the U.S astronauts crew members logged over 2954 hours of research time. Far more research time has been accumulated by experiments controlled by investigators on the ground. The U.S astronauts conducted over one hundred and twenty six (126) science investigations. From these hundred and twenty six science investigations, many were operated across multiple Increments. The crew also installed, activated and operated nine (9) science racks that supported six science disciplines ranging from material sciences to life science. By the end of Increment 14, a total of 5083 kg of research rack mass were ferried to the station as well as 5021 kg of research mass. The objectives of this paper are three-fold. (1) To briefly review the science conducted on the International Space Station during the previous eleven Increments; (2) to discuss in detail the science investigations that were conducted on the station during Increments 12 and 13. The discussion will focus mainly on the primary objectives of each investigation and their associated hypotheses that were investigated during these two Increments. Also, some preliminary science results will be discussed for each of the investigation as science results availability permit. (3) The paper will briefly touch on what the science complement planning was and what was actually accomplished due to real time science implementation and challenges during these two Increments in question to illustrate the challenges of daily science activity while the science platform is under construction. Finally, the paper will briefly discuss the science research complements for the other two

  15. Preliminary Thoughts on Information Sciences Education

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    In this essay The Following points regarding The School of Education's "Information Systems and Services Education Plan" are explained : 1) Management by the Voluntear Instructor's Group 2) Special Characteristics of Team Teaching 3) Fostering Student awareness of the World Wide Web and Internet 4) The Place of Information Systems and Services in The Educational Context 5) The Problem of Neo-Literacy (Computer Literacy) in Education

  16. Mariner 9 science experiments - Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, R. H.; Kliore, A.; Lorell, J.; Hipsher, H.; Barth, C. A.; Masursky, H.; Muench, G.; Pearl, J.; Smith, B.

    1972-01-01

    On the basis of data provided by the IR interferometer spectrometer on the Mariner 9 spacecraft, it is suggested that the composition of the Martian dust corresponds approximately to that of rocks of intermediate silicon dioxide content. The large dynamical pole flattening obtained from satellite observations has been confirmed by the Mariner 9 data.

  17. Quantum Social Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Physics Concepts in Social Science? A Discussion: 1. Classical, statistical and quantum mechanics: all in one; 2. Econophysics: statistical physics and social science; 3. Quantum social science: a non-mathematical motivation; Part II. Mathematics and Physics Preliminaries: 4. Vector calculus and other mathematical preliminaries; 5. Basic elements of quantum mechanics; 6. Basic elements of Bohmian mechanics; Part III. Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Psychology: Basic Questions and Answers: 7. A brief overview; 8. Interference effects in psychology - an introduction; 9. A quantum-like model of decision making; Part IV. Other Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Economics, Finance and Brain Sciences: 10. Financial/economic theory in crisis; 11. Bohmian mechanics in finance and economics; 12. The Bohm-Vigier Model and path simulation; 13. Other applications to economic/financial theory; 14. The neurophysiological sources of quantum-like processing in the brain; Conclusion; Glossary; Index.

  18. Cell Science-02 Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sarah Diane

    2014-01-01

    The presentation provides an general overview of the Cell Science-02 science and payload operations to the NASA Payload Operations Integrated Working Group. The overview includes a description of the science objectives and specific aims, manifest status, and operations concept.

  19. Objetos de aprendizaje en la educación virtual: una aproximación en bibliotecología Learning objects in virtual education: a library science approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Garduño Vera

    2006-12-01

    involved in virtual education, today the learning object is an emergent research phenomenon in all teaching, and awaits further development. Therefore, this research-in-process-paper deals with learning objects and their perspective for the teaching of library science, and reflects upon the notion of "the virtual" in information, as well as on the generation of content for virtual education, the emergence of learning objects for on-line education, learning objects themselves, psycho-pedagogy and educational standards.

  20. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  1. Using primary literature to teach science literacy to introductory biology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krontiris-Litowitz, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students struggle to read the scientific literature and educators have suggested that this may reflect deficiencies in their science literacy skills. In this two-year study we develop and test a strategy for using the scientific literature to teach science literacy skills to novice life science majors. The first year of the project served as a preliminary investigation in which we evaluated student science literacy skills, created a set of science literacy learning objectives aligned with Bloom's taxonomy, and developed a set of homework assignments that used peer-reviewed articles to teach science literacy. In the second year of the project the effectiveness of the assignments and the learning objectives were evaluated. Summative student learning was evaluated in the second year on a final exam. The mean score was 83.5% (±20.3%) and there were significant learning gains (p < 0.05) in seven of nine of science literacy skills. Project data indicated that even though students achieved course-targeted lower-order science literacy objectives, many were deficient in higher-order literacy skills. Results of this project suggest that building scientific literacy is a continuing process which begins in first-year science courses with a set of fundamental skills that can serve the progressive development of literacy skills throughout the undergraduate curriculum.

  2. Phospholipid Vesicles in Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granick, Steve [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-05-11

    The objective of this research was to develop the science basis needed to deploy phospholipid vesicles as functional materials in energy contexts. Specifically, we sought to: (1) Develop an integrated molecular-level understanding of what determines their dynamical shape, spatial organization, and responsiveness to complex, time-varying environments; and (2) Develop understanding of their active transportation in crowded environments, which our preliminary measurements in cells suggest may hold design principles for targeting improved energy efficiency in new materials systems. The methods to do this largely involved fluorescence imaging and other spectroscopy involving single particles, vesicles, particles, DNA, and endosomes. An unexpected importance outcome was a new method to image light-emitting diodes during actual operation using super-resolution spectroscopy.

  3. A preliminary vulnerability assessment for Ísafjörður, Iceland : coastal management options to reduce impacts of sea-level rise and storm surges

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Meidinger

    2011-01-01

    Climate change science argues that by the end of the 21st century, the global mean sea-level rise may easily exceed 1 metre, possibly accompanied by an increase in storm intensity. Although climate change is a global phenomenon, its impacts vary greatly according to scale and geographic region. This study took into account the United Nations’ recommendations and the research objectives stated by the Icelandic Ministry of the Environment, and conducted a preliminary coastal vulnerability asses...

  4. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  5. NERO: General concept of a Near-Earth object Radiometric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellino, A.; Somma, R.; Tommasi, L.; Paolinetti, R.; Muinonen, K.; Virtanen, J.; Tedesco, E. F.; Delbò, M.

    Near-Earth objects Radiometric Observatory (NERO) is one of the six studies for possible missions dedicated to near-Earth objects, that were funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2002 2003. It is a further development of some previous studies already submitted to ESA (Sysiphos, Spaceguard-1). The general concept is that a small satellite equipped with both a detector for visible wavelengths and an array for thermal IR measurements around 10 μm would be an ideal platform to obtain simultaneously two of the major objectives of current NEO science, namely the physical characterization of the objects and the discovery of those NEOs that are difficult to detect from the ground because their orbits are entirely or partly inside the Earth’s orbit. The NERO study includes a comprehensive analysis of the advantages and drawbacks of different orbital options for the satellite (including L2 of Earth and L2 of Venus) and a preliminary simulation of the effectiveness of orbit determination based on NERO observations of newly detected objects. The main results of this study, including also a preliminary sketch of the payload design (optics, detectors, cooling system, etc.) are briefly summarized.

  6. Preliminary study: Moisture-polymer interaction. Stuby objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, L. C.

    1985-06-01

    The problems associated with mathematically modeling water-module interaction phenomena, including sorption and desorption, diffusion, and permeation are discussed. With reliable analytical models, an extensive materials data base, and solar radiation surface meteorological observations (SOLMET) weather data, predicting module lifetimes in realistic environments can become a practical reality. The status of the present techniques of simulating the various transport mechanisms was reported. The Dent model (a modified Brunauer-Emmet-Teller) approach represented polyvinyl butyral (PVB) sorption data. A 100-layer material model and Fick's diffusion model gave diffusivity values exhibiting adequate agreement with those measured for PVB. Diffusivity of PVB is concentration dependent, decreasing as the water content in PVB increases. The temperature dependence of diffusion in PVB is well modeled by the Arrhenius rate equation. Equilibrium conductivity and leakage current data are well represented by Hearle's model for bulk ionic conductivity. A nodal network analysis using the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) Thermal Analyzer gave reasonable correlation with measurable data. It is concluded that realistic lifetime predictions seem to be feasible.

  7. The Cost of being Object-Oriented: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Budimlić

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Java programming language, there has been widespread interest in the use Java for the high performance scientific computing. One major impediment to such use is the performance penalty paid relative to Fortran. To support our research on overcoming this penalty through compiler technology, we have developed a benchmark suite, called OwlPack, which is based on the popular LINPACK library. Although there are existing implementations of LINPACK in Java, most of these are produced by direct translation from Fortran. As such they do not reflect the style of programming that a good object‐oriented programmer would use in Java. Our goal is to investigate how to make object‐oriented scientific programming practical. Therefore we developed two object‐oriented versions of LINPACK in Java, a true polymorphic version and a “Lite” version designed for higher performance. We used these libraries to perform a detailed performance analysis using several leading Java compilers and virtual machines, comparing the performance of the object‐oriented versions of the benchmark with a version produced by direct translation from Fortran. Although Java implementations have been made great strides, they still fall short on programs that use the full power of Java’s object‐oriented features. Our ultimate goal is to drive research on compiler technology that will reward, rather than penalize good object‐oriented programming practice.

  8. How to Motivate Science Teachers to Use Science Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Trna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A science experiment is the core tool in science education. This study describes the science teachers' professional competence to implement science experiments in teaching/learning science. The main objective is the motivation of science teachers to use science experiments. The presented research tries to answer questions aimed at the science teachers' skills to use science experiments in teaching/learning science. The research discovered the following facts: science teachers do not include science experiments in teaching/learning in a suitable way; are not able to choose science experiments corresponding to the teaching phase; prefer teachers' demonstration of science experiments; are not able to improvise with the aids; use only a few experiments. The important research result is that an important motivational tool for science teachers is the creation of simple experiments. Examples of motivational simple experiments used into teachers' training for increasing their own creativity and motivation are presented.

  9. How to Motivate Science Teachers to Use Science Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Trna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A science experiment is the core tool in science education. This study describes the science teachers' professional competence to implement science experiments in teaching/learning science. The main objective is the motivation of science teachers to use science experiments. The presented research tries to answer questions aimed at the science teachers' skills to use science experiments in teaching/learning science. The research discovered the following facts: science teachers do not include science experiments in teaching/learning in a suitable way; are not able to choose science experiments corresponding to the teaching phase; prefer teachers' demonstration of science experiments; are not able to improvise with the aids; use only a few experiments. The important research result is that an important motivational tool for science teachers is the creation of simple experiments. Examples of motivational simple experiments used into teachers' training for increasing their own creativity and motivation are presented.

  10. Developing an object-oriented curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Loehr, Curtis Howard

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Traditional introductory computer science curricula do not address the emerging paradigm of object-oriented programming. The purpose of this research is to determine when object-orientation should be introduced into the computer science curriculum and what is the proper instructional approach to present this material. This thesis looks at the concepts incorporated by the object-oriented paradigm, explores the developmental psychology appl...

  11. Teaching Science with the Social Studies of Science for Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Muriel

    Integrating the social studies of science into science education would make explicit the cultures of science, which have been revealed by historians, philosophers, sociologists, and feminist science scholars. These cultures include the institutions of science, the interaction of science and the society in which it is practiced, and the internal culture of science. This pedagogy may be a route to increasing equity in science, by giving women and members of other under-represented groups an appreciation of the factors causing their alienation from the enterprise and the tools to change science for social justice. In this article, I present the theoretical basis of this position, along with the implementation strategies and preliminary assessment for a sophomore level biology course based on this perspective.

  12. Fundamentals of soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study guide provides comments and references for professional soil scientists who are studying for the soil science fundamentals exam needed as the first step for certification. The performance objectives were determined by the Soil Science Society of America's Council of Soil Science Examiners...

  13. Excellence in School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    1985-01-01

    Lists objectives for excellence/exemplary programs in middle/junior high school science as perceived by a group of middle/junior high school science teachers. These objectives focus on: (1) goals; (2) curricula; (3) instruction; (4) teachers; and (5) evaluation. (JN)

  14. An outline of object-oriented philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This article summarises the principles of object-oriented philosophy and explains its similarities with, and differences from, the outlook of the natural sciences. Like science, the object-oriented position avoids the notion (quite common in philosophy) that the human-world relation is the ground of all others, such that scientific statements about the world would only be statements about the world as it is for humans. But unlike science, object-oriented metaphysics treats artificial, social, and fictional entities in the same way as natural ones, and also holds that the world can only be known allusively rather than directly.

  15. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  16. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  17. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  18. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  19. 77 FR 21977 - Army Science Board Summer Study Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    .... Purpose: Hear the preliminary findings of the Strategic Directions for Army Science and Technology and vote on adoption. Proposed Agenda: Open Session, the ASB will hear preliminary findings of the Strategic Directions for Army Science & Technology study and vote on adoption. FOR FURTHER...

  20. Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  1. Issues in Science Education: Changing Purposes of Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Stan

    This paper addresses the role of science education in today's society and the objectives of instruction in science. Observing that science cannot solve all of the problems of the world, and that science education has had little effect on the willingness of the general public to accept superstitions, the author argues that instructional approaches…

  2. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object....

  3. 科学教育“五结合”模式初探%A preliminary study about the educational model of“five combination”in Science Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志东; 束永祥

    2014-01-01

    比较中美两国的科学教育情况,提出科学教育中的“五结合全科学教育”新模式以及实施该模式的具体措施。%The thesis comparing the Science Education in China with that of the United States.The new model of“five combination comprehensive science education”and its concrete measure in science education are put forward.

  4. Upper Secondary School Pupils' Attitudes towards Natural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram; Kariper, Afsin

    2013-01-01

    Students' attitudes towards natural science constitute an important area in science education as fewer students are interested in natural science and they do not choose corresponding science disciplines in postsecondary education. The current study reports preliminary results of a survey on high school students' interests and attitudes towards…

  5. Race, time and folded objects: the HeLa error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. M'charek

    2014-01-01

    Given their commitment to practices science studies have bestowed considerable attention upon objects. We have the boundary object, the standardized package, the network object, the immutable mobile, the fluid object, even a fire object has entered the scene. However, these objects do not provide us

  6. Mastering object-oriented Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven F

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a standard tutorial approach with approximately 750 code samples spread through the 19 chapters. This amounts to over 5,900 lines of code that illustrate each concept.This book is aimed at programmers who have already learned the basics of object-oriented Python and need to write more sophisticated, flexible code that integrates seamlessly with the rest of Python. This book assumes a computer science background, with experience of common Python design patterns.

  7. Maude Object-Oriented Action Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Maidl, André Murbach; Carvilhe, Cláudio,; Musicante, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    MAIDL, André Murbach; CARVILHE, Claudio; MUSICANTE, Martin A. Maude Object-Oriented Action Tool. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science. [S.l:s.n], 2008. Object-Oriented Action Semantics (OOAS) incorporates object-oriented concepts to the Action Semantics formalism. Its main goal is to obtain more readable and reusable semantics specifications. Moreover, it supports syntax-independent specifications, due to the way classes are written. Maude Object-Oriented Action Tool (MOOAT)...

  8. Science in Computational Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson Cerrosen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing theory in relation to science presents the physics as an ideal, although many sciences not approach the same, so that the current philosophy of science-Theory of Science- is not much help when it comes to analyze the computer science, an emerging field of knowledge that aims investigation of computers, which are included in the materialization of the ideas that try to structure the knowledge and information about the world. Computer Science is based on logic and mathematics, but both theoretical research methods and experimental follow patterns of classical scientific fields. Modeling and computer simulation, as a method, are specific to the discipline and will be further developed in the near future, not only applied to computers but also to other scientific fields. In this article it is analyze the aspects of science in computer science, is presenting an approach to the definition of science and the scientific method in general and describes the relationships between science, research, development and technology.

  9. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  10. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  11. Boundless Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilhaus, F.

    2009-04-01

    Our science is critical to understanding the future prospects for life. The laboratory for natural sciences encompasses our planet and reaches into the solar system. The forces of nature respect no boundaries. But, we who try to understand these forces are handicapped by national, political, language, religious, and other concocted barriers. These barriers limit both our effectiveness as scientists and our ability to reach those outside our community who need to know what we have uncovered about our environment. An unencumbered worldwide scientific community has been an objective with limited successes for too long. Action began in earnest after the first world war with the formation of the various scientific Unions and ICSU. Fifty years later Keith Runcorn initiated another approach, when he proposed what quickly became EGS and which has grown and evolved with the merger with EUG. To be truly effective we need to communicate and share comfortably with colleagues worldwide. Personal relationships and trust are required. We count on a high level of ethical behavior within our community. We individually must also be constantly vigilant for the encroachment of the manmade barriers that have held back science through time immemorial. Our scientific organizations cannot achieve this alone. They will facilitate, however, the onus is on each of us to reach out and form interlocking informal communities, which will bring our whole planet-wide community together at many overlapping levels. When we achieve this community, our science will more bountiful and better address the needs of human society.

  12. Scientists' Prioritization of Communication Objectives for Public Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudo, Anthony; Besley, John C

    2016-01-01

    Amid calls from scientific leaders for their colleagues to become more effective public communicators, this study examines the objectives that scientists' report drive their public engagement behaviors. We explore how scientists evaluate five specific communication objectives, which include informing the public about science, exciting the public about science, strengthening the public's trust in science, tailoring messages about science, and defending science from misinformation. We use insights from extant research, the theory of planned behavior, and procedural justice theory to identify likely predictors of scientists' views about these communication objectives. Results show that scientists most prioritize communication designed to defend science from misinformation and educate the public about science, and least prioritize communication that seeks to build trust and establish resonance with the public. Regression analyses reveal factors associated with scientists who prioritize each of the five specific communication objectives. Our findings highlight the need for communication trainers to help scientists select specific communication objectives for particular contexts and audiences.

  13. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  14. Earth Sciences Requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, David E. (Editor); Katzberg, Steve J. (Editor); Wilson, R. Gale (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to further explore and define the earth sciences requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES), a proposed onboard data processor with real-time communications capability intended to support the Earth Observing System (Eos). A review of representative Eos instrument types is given and a preliminary set of real-time data needs has been established. An executive summary is included.

  15. 47 CFR 202.0 - Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objectives. 202.0 Section 202.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL NATIONAL SECURITY AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING AND EXECUTION § 202.0 Objectives. (a) During, or in anticipation of, a...

  16. Constructivisms and Objectivity: Disentangling Metaphysics from Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, Richard E.

    We can distinguish the claims of cognitive constructivism from those of metaphysical constructivism, which is almost entirely irrelevant to science education. Cognitive constructivism has strong empirical support and indicates important directions for changing science instruction. It implies that teachers need to be cognizant of representational, motivational and epistemic dimensions which can restrict or promote student learning. The resulting set of tasks for a science teacher are considerably larger and more complex than on the older more traditional conception, but the resources of cognitive sciences and the history of science can provide important parts of the teachers intellectual tool kit. A critical part of this conception of science education is that students must develop the skills to participate in epistemic interchanges. They must be provided opportunities and materials to develop those skills and the classroom community must have the appropriate features of an objective epistemic community.

  17. Selecting a Reference Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  18. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Reese; George Miller; Stephen Frantz; Denis Beller; Denis Beller; Ed Morse; Melinda Krahenbuhl; Bob Flocchini; Jim Elliston

    2010-12-07

    The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program.

  19. Center for Environmental Health Sciences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary research objective of the Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS) at the University of Montana is to advance knowledge of environmental impacts...

  20. Breaking Down the Stereotypes of Science by Recruiting Young Scientists: e279

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamie Schaefer; Steven A Farber

    2004-01-01

      According to a preliminary study conducted at Leicester University in England, students are often repeatedly confronted with stereotypes of science and scientists via television, cartoon, and comic...

  1. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract......Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition...

  2. Science or Science Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefsrud, Lianne M.; Meyer, Renate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the framings and identity work associated with professionals’ discursive construction of climate change science, their legitimation of themselves as experts on ‘the truth’, and their attitudes towards regulatory measures. Drawing from survey responses of 1077 professional......, legitimation strategies, and use of emotionality and metaphor. By linking notions of the science or science fiction of climate change to the assessment of the adequacy of global and local policies and of potential organizational responses, we contribute to the understanding of ‘defensive institutional work...

  3. Automatic object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  4. The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…

  5. The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…

  6. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  7. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  8. Multi-objective convex programming problem arising in multivariate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. ... However, although the consideration of multiple objectives may seem a novel concept, virtually any nontrivial, real world problem invariably involves multiple objectives.

  9. Outline and Preliminary Evaluation of the Classical Digital Library Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCall, Steven L.; Cleveland, Ana D.; Gibson, Ian E.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the classical digital library model, which is derived from traditional practices of library and information science professionals, as an alternative to the database retrieval model. Reports preliminary results from an evaluation study of library and information professionals and endusers involved with primary care medicine. (AEF)

  10. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  11. Object reading: text recognition for object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use text recognition to aid in visual object class recognition. To this end we first propose a new algorithm for text detection in natural images. The proposed text detection is based on saliency cues and a context fusion step. The algorithm does not need any parameter tuning and can d

  12. Real-Life Science Research: NYC Inner City Middle School-UNY Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, M. A.; Fennelly, G.

    2008-12-01

    We present the preliminary results of a collaboration between a middle school Environmental Science class, taught by an ARMADA Master Teacher, and a college Marine Environmental Science program using Oceanography topics and laboratories to reinforce New York City science standards. Specific topics within the regular middle school curriculum are chosen. After students have received regular instruction from the middle school teacher, including hands-on experiments, the college instructor visits the classroom and reinforces the object lesson. This is followed up by a visit to the college oceanography laboratory where students participate in a different hands-on experiment that reinforces the original topic. Students can use these experiences to develop and design simple research projects. Example using density and buoyancy will be presented.

  13. A New Silver Complex with Ofloxacin – Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Aura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Silver complexes of antibacterial quinolones have the potential advantage of combining the antibacterial activity of silver and fluoroquinolones. The objective of our study was the preparation and the preliminary physico-chemical characterization of a silver complex with ofloxacin.

  14. 浅谈科技创新在粮油加工中的作用和地位%Preliminary Discussion on Role and Status of Science and Technology Innovation in Grain and Oil Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶海腾; 王文亮; 徐同成; 刘丽娜; 祝清俊; 杜方岭

    2012-01-01

    Grain and oil processing plays an important part in agricultural products processing, and is facing new opportunities and challenges along with the economic development. Science and technology innovation is the important support and fundamental guarantee for grain and oil processing keeping pace with the times. In terms of product quality, deep processing, resource utilization and strategic process ing layout, the important role and status of science and technology innovation were described to provide theoretical basis for subsequent in dustry development.%粮油加工是农产品加工的重要组成部分,随着经济的发展面临着新的机遇与挑战。科技创新是促进粮油加工与时俱进的重要支撑和根本保障。本文从产品品质、精深加工、资源综合利用、加工战略布局等方面,阐述了科技创新在粮油加工发展中的重要作用和地位。

  15. Defining Learning Objectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍鑫红

    2014-01-01

    <正>This article attempts to introduce the teacher to developments in the area of specifying learning objectives.When you have studied this article carefully,you should be able to(a)distinguish between statements of aims and statements of objectives,(b)discuss the merits of writing objectives from the point of view of the learner,and(c)write both complete and abbreviated statements of learning objectives for different language skills,functions,and notions.

  16. [Historiography of medical objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Felip

    2008-01-01

    It has become acceptable among historians of medicine to profess a predilection for the historiography of medical ideas. But it is justified all the same to ask whether the logical connection really caused the origin, the change, or the disappearance of the medical objects. The interaction of ideas and medical objects assure as much objectivity as possible. In consequence, the contents of the museums, medical objects, is an aspect rather that a branch of the history of medicine.

  17. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  18. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  19. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a…

  20. On the Crime Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  1. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced...

  2. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  3. Ownership and Object History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  4. Validation of dose-response curve of CRCN-NE - Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences from Northeast Brazil for {sup 60}Co: preliminary results; Validacao da curva dose-resposta do CRCN-NE para {sup 60}Co: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Hwang, Suy F.; Lima, Fabiana F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Neide, E-mail: july_cgm@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    2014-07-01

    The cytogenetic study has the chromosomal alterations as biomarkers in absorbed dose estimation by the body of individuals involved in exposure to ionizing radiation by interpreting a dose response calibration curve. Since the development of the technique to the analysis of data, you can see protocol characteristics, leading the International Atomic Energy Agency indicate that any laboratory with intention to carry out biological dosimetry establish their own calibration curves. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Brazil, recently established the calibration curve related to gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co). Thus, this work aimed to start the validation of this calibration curve from samples of three different blood donors which were irradiated with an absorbed known single dose of 1 Gy. Samples were exposed to {sup 60}Co source (Glaucoma 220) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN/UFPE). After fixation with methanol and acetic acid and 5% Giemsa staining, the frequency of chromosomal alterations (dicentric chromosomes, acentric rings and fragments) were established from reading of 500 metaphases per sample and doses were estimated using Dose Estimate program. The results showed that, using the dose-response curve calibration for dicentrics, the dose absorbed estimated for the three individuals ranged from 0.891 - 1,089Gy, taking into account the range of confidence of 95%. By using the dose-response curve for dicentrics added to rings and for the same interval of confidence the doses ranged from 0,849 - 1,081Gy. Thus, the estimative encompassed known absorbed dose the three individuals in confidence interval of 95%. These preliminary results seems to demonstrate that dicentric dose-response curves and dicentrics plus rings established by CRCN-NE / CNEN are valid for dose estimation in exposed individuals. This validation will continue with samples from different individuals at different doses.

  5. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  6. Cassini science planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Brian G.; Ray, Trina L.

    2004-01-01

    The mission design for Cassini-Huygens calls for a four-year orbital survey of the Saturnian system and the descent into the Titan atmosphere and eventual soft-landing of the Huygens probe. The Cassini orbiter tour consists of 76 orbits around Saturn with 44 close Titan flybys and 8 targeted icy satellite flybys. The Cassini orbiter spacecraft carries twelve scientific instruments that will perform a wide range of observations on a multitude of designated targets. The science opportunities, frequency of encounters, the length of the Tour, and the use of distributed operations pose significant challenges for developing the science plan for the orbiter mission. The Cassini Science Planning Process is the process used to develop and integrate the science and engineering plan that incorporates an acceptable level of science required to meet the primary mission objectives far the orbiter. The bulk of the integrated science and engineering plan will be developed prior to Saturn Orbit Insertion (Sol). The Science Planning Process consists of three elements: 1) the creation of the Tour Atlas, which identifies the science opportunities in the tour, 2) the development of the Science Operations Plan (SOP), which is the conflict-free timeline of all science observations and engineering activities, a constraint-checked spacecraft pointing profile, and data volume allocations to the science instruments, and 3) an Aftermarket and SOP Update process, which is used to update the SOP while in tour with the latest information on spacecraft performance, science opportunities, and ephemerides. This paper will discuss the various elements of the Science Planning Process used on the Cassini Mission to integrate, implement, and adapt the science and engineering activity plans for Tour.

  7. Per Object statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Variable. This procedure was developed in order to be able to export objects as ESRI shape data with the 90-percentile of the Hue of each object's pixels as an item in the shape attribute table. This procedure uses a sub-level single pixel chessboard segmentation, loops for each of the objects......This RS code is to do Object-by-Object analysis of each Object's sub-objects, e.g. statistical analysis of an object's individual image data pixels. Statistics, such as percentiles (so-called "quartiles") are derived by the process, but the return of that can only be a Scene Variable, not an Object...... of a specific class in turn, and uses as pair of PPO stages to derive the statistics and then assign them to the objects' Object Variables. It may be that this could all be done in some other, simply way, but several other ways that were tried did not succeed. The procedure ouptut has been tested against...

  8. Words without Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Laycock

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolution of the problem of mass nouns depends on an expansion of our semantic/ontological taxonomy. Semantically, mass nouns are neither singular nor plural; they apply to neither just one object, nor to many objects, at a time. But their deepest kinship links them to the plural. A plural phrase — 'the cats in Kingston' — does not denote a single plural thing, but merely many distinct things. Just so, 'the water in the lake' does not denote a single aggregate — it is not ONE, but rather MUCH. The world is not the totality of singular objects, plural objects, and mass objects; for there are no plural or mass objects. It is the totality of single objects and (just stuff.

  9. Computer Science and Technology Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenthal, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Computer Science and Technology Board (CSTB) meets three times a year to consider scientific and policy issues in computer science as well as relevant problems in associated technologies. The objectives of the Board include: initiating studies involving computer science and technology as a critical national resource; responding to requests from the government, nonprofit foundations, and industry for advice on computer science and technology; promoting the health of the technology and other fields of pure and applied science and technology; and providing a base of expertise within the NRC in the area of computer science and technology.

  10. How Do Turkish Middle School Science Coursebooks Present the Science Process Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    An important objective in science education is the acquisition of science process skills (SPS) by the students. Therefore, science coursebooks, among the main resources of elementary science curricula, are to convey accurate SPS. This study is a qualitative study based on the content analysis of the science coursebooks used at middle schools. In…

  11. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  12. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function ...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those.......The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...

  13. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  14. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  15. On Preliminary Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  16. The germination and preliminary formation of science of TCM formula in the Pre Qin dynasty%先秦时期方剂学的萌芽与初步形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建平

    2001-01-01

    传说时代神农尝百草发现药物,如将单味药视为单方,那么方剂的出现就很早了。而有明确的文献记载,至迟应在春秋末战国初,齐国“献方”之俗就可说明。以《五十二病方》为主的马王堆医方书,记载了当时方剂按疾病分类、方剂组成、制剂、煎服法、禁忌以及方剂所反映的治法、复方配伍、辨证论治等内容,可以代表战国时期我国方剂学的最初水平。中医理论经典《内经》从具体方剂命名、组成,到方剂配伍原则、临床运用规律,尤其是治法和组方理论,均对中医方剂学的发展起到很大作用。%Shennong tasted hundreds of grasses and found herbs during the legend period. The appearance of prescription should be so early if single drug was regarded as single-item recipe. However, the explicit records in literature appeared at the end of the Spring and Autumn period and the beginning of the Warring States at the latest, evidenced by the custom of “presenting a recipe" of the Qi states. The medical books of Mawangdui, mainly Wu shi er bing fang (Prescriptions for 52 Kinds of Diseases), recorded the classification of prescriptions based on the sort of diseases, composing, preparation, method of decocting medicinal herbs, contraindication of prescriptions, and the therapeutic methods, compatibility of complex prescriptions and determination of treatment based on the differentiation of syndromes (Zheng), etc. reflected in the recipes, which could represent the primary level of science of TCM formula of the Warring States in China. The classic medical book Nei jing (Internal Canon of Medicine), including denominations, composition, principles of compatibility and rules of clinical application of concrete prescriptions, especially therapies and theories of composed prescription, have great actions on the development of science of TCM formula.

  17. Scaled-Free Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Grilliette, Will

    2010-01-01

    Several functional analysts and C*-algebraists have been moving toward a categorical means of understanding normed objects. In this work, I address a primary issue with adapting these abstract concepts to functional analytic settings, the lack of free objects. Using a new object, called a "crutched set", and associated categories, I devise generalized construction of normed objects as a left adjoint functor to a natural forgetful functor. Further, the universal property in each case yields a "scaled-free" mapping property, which extends previous notions of `"free" normed objects. In particular, I construct the following types of scaled-free objects: Banach spaces, Banach algebras, C*-algebras, operator spaces, and operator algebras. In subsequent papers, this scaled-free property, coupled with the associated functorial results, will give rise to a new view of presentation theory for C*-algebras, which inherits many properties and constructions from its algebraic counterpart.

  18. Conceivability Theses and Objections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the thesis is more fashionable in the current debate than defending conceivability as anything but one psychological heuristic device among others with which we form beliefs about modality. In this paper, I shall offer a way of demarcating conceivability theses in a way that offers a concise overview, and I...... will try to provide an overview also of the different objections that have been and are leveled at the conceivability theses. A number of these are problems for an epistemology of modality generally. I will focus on the objections that are peculiar to conceivability theses: the Standard Objection...... and the Uselessness Objection. The Standard Objection targets the second premise in an argument for possibility from conceivability, that what is conceived is possible, typically by offering counterexamples in the form of conceivable impossibilities. The Uselessness Objection targets the first premise in an argument...

  19. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  20. On Coordinating Collaborative Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Imine, Abdessamad

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document) designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT) is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designing algorithms for achieving convergence with the OT approach is a critical and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a formal compositional method for specifying complex collaborative objects. The most important feature of our method is that designing an OT algorithm for the composed collaborative object can be done by reusing the OT algorithms of component collaborative objects. By using our method, we can start from correct small collaborative objects which are relatively easy to handle and incrementally combine them to build more ...

  1. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nazzario, R. C.; Orr, K.; Covington, C.; Kagan, D.; Hyde, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction betw...

  2. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  3. Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    DeVoe, Jiva

    2011-01-01

    A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

  4. O objeto das ciências sociais e a virada comunicativa: Adorno após Habermas The object of social sciences and the communicative turn: Adorno after Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Catanzaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo procura reconsiderar as críticas de Jürgen Habermas à teoria social de Theodor Adorno. Inicialmente, analisamos as razões apresentadas por Habermas para abandonar a crítica dialética do processo de racionalização social. Em seguida, para expor nossas objeções a essa interpretação, reconstruímos duas teses que, embora essenciais à crítica de Adorno ao processo de modernização vigente, foram deslocadas pelo paradigma da ação comunicativa. Por fim, através da relação entre linguagem e racionalidade que Adorno estabelece, sugerimos um tratamento diferente ao lugar da comunicação na constituição das sociedades contemporâneas.The article intends to reconsider the critique of Theodor Adorno's Social Theory formulated by Jürgen Habermas. In the first part of the text we analyze in detail the reasons Habermas enounces to leave behind the dialectical criticism of the process of social rationalization. In order to put forward our objections to Habermas' interpretation we reconstruct, in the second part, two essential thesis, which became displaced by the paradigm of communicative action, and which had served Adorno to elaborate his criticism of the prevailing modernization process. As a conclusion, we propose a different understanding of the roll played by communication in the constitution of contemporary societies, through an analysis - based upon Adorno - of the relationship between language and rationality.

  5. 试论海洋科学专业的培养目标与专业能力体系建构——以钦州学院为例%Construction of Training Objective and Professional Competence System on Marine Science Profession——A Case Study of Qinzhou University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘雄; 钟运生; 杨斌; 张晨晓; 银建军

    2012-01-01

    教学型地方高校的海洋科学专业,要克服在人才培养目标和培养方案上简单向研究型大学看齐的弊端,就要从科学客观的专业定位及由定位确定的人才培养目标出发,精细设计突出应用型的专业能力体系,要充分考虑专业目标与职业目标、"学科知识体系"与"职业素质体系"、学生对学科知识的驾驭能力与运用知识解决实际问题的能力等因素。依据应用型的定位和培养目标,建构科学的"教育性知识体系",创新人才培养模式。%It is necessary for the marine science profession in a teaching-intensive local university to overcome the malprac-tice in training objective and training programmes that simply copy the example of research-intensive university. Teachers should start from scientific and objective professional position and its personnel training objectives to carefully design a y system which highlights applied professional ability. Fully think over the professional objective and career objective, "the subject knowledge hi-erarchy" and "the career quality system", students' abilities to master subject knowledge and to apply knowledge to solve practi-cal problems, etc. Construct scientific "educational knowledge system" and innovate talent training model based on the applica-tion-oriented position and training objectives.

  6. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  7. Conscience and Conscientious Objections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2007-01-01

    In Western countries conscientious objection is usually accommodated in various ways, at least in certain areas (military conscription, medicine) and to some extent. It appears to be regarded as fundamentally different from other kinds of objection. But why? This study argues that conscientious obje

  8. The objective image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galison, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In his work, Galison approaches the historical development of objectivity as an important factor that affects the way we experience and imagine ourselves in communities of knowledge and in democratic societies. Prof. Peter Galison has demonstrated that scientific objectivity has a history and he

  9. Choosing for learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Res

  10. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  11. Choosing for learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Res

  12. Composing Concurrent Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk

    1994-01-01

    Adopting the object-oriented paradigm for the development of large and complex software systems offers several advantages, of which increased extensibility and reusability are the most prominent ones. The object-oriented model is also quite suitable for modelling concurrent systems. However, it

  13. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...

  14. Superlensing Microscope Objective Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Bing; Parker, Alan; Lai, Yukun; Thomas, John; Yue, Liyang; Monks, James

    2016-01-01

    Conventional microscope objective lenses are diffraction limited, which means that they cannot resolve features smaller than half the illumination wavelength. Under white light illumination, such resolution limit is about 250-300 nm for an ordinary microscope. In this paper, we demonstrate a new superlensing objective lens which has a resolution of about 100 nm, offering at least two times resolution improvement over conventional objectives in resolution. This is achieved by integrating a conventional microscope objective lens with a superlensing microsphere lens using a 3D printed lens adaptor. The new objective lens was used for label-free super-resolution imaging of 100 nm-sized engineering and biological samples, including a Blu-ray disc sample, semiconductor chip and adenoviruses. Our work creates a solid base for developing a commercially-viable superlens prototype, which has potential to transform the field of optical microscopy and imaging.

  15. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.

  16. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  17. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  18. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...... at hand while pursuing a particular line of explanation, and then return to these objects at later intervals. e analysis suggests that the objects are afforded representational properties through their being anchored to some referent in the talk, and that participants subsequently draw...... on these associations for describing, disambiguating or clarifying aspects of the relatively complex procedural frameworks discussed in the settings. is suggests that the temporal stability of material objects available to participants makes them an ideal resource to be developed as visual motifs....

  19. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  20. Quantum social science

    CERN Document Server

    Haven, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Written by world experts in the foundations of quantum mechanics and its applications to social science, this book shows how elementary quantum mechanical principles can be applied to decision-making paradoxes in psychology and used in modelling information in finance and economics. The book starts with a thorough overview of some of the salient differences between classical, statistical and quantum mechanics. It presents arguments on why quantum mechanics can be applied outside of physics and defines quantum social science. The issue of the existence of quantum probabilistic effects in psychology, economics and finance is addressed and basic questions and answers are provided. Aimed at researchers in economics and psychology, as well as physics, basic mathematical preliminaries and elementary concepts from quantum mechanics are defined in a self-contained way.

  1. Tracking of deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Parimal; Wong, K. K.; Chong, Man N.

    2000-12-01

    Tracking of moving-objects in image sequences is needed for several video processing applications such as content-based coding, object oriented compression, object recognition and more recently for video object plane extraction in MPEG-4 coding. Tracking is a natural follow-up of motion-based segmentation. It is a fast and efficient method to achieve coherent motion segments along the temporal axis. Segmenting out moving objects for each and every frame in a video sequence is a computationally expensive approach. Thus, for better performance, semi-automatic segmentation is an acceptable compromise as automatic segmentation approaches rely heavily on prior assumptions. In semi-automatic segmentation approaches, motion-segmentation is performed only on the initial frame and the moving object is tracked in subsequent frames using tracking algorithms. In this paper, a new model for object tracking is proposed, where the image features -- edges, intensity pattern, object motion and initial keyed-in contour (by the user) form the prior and likelihood model of a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) is used for the minimization of the global energy for the MRF model. The motion segment for each frame is initialized using the segment information from the previous frame. For the initial frame, the motion segment is obtained by manually keying in the object contour. The motion-segments obtained using the proposed model are coherent and accurate. Experimental results on tracking using the proposed algorithm for different sequences -- Bream, Alexis and Claire are presented in this paper. The results obtained are accurate and can be used for a variety of applications including MPEG-4 Video Object Plane (VOP) extraction.

  2. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.

  3. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  4. Philosophy of Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aatami Järvinen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and interdisciplinary of Computer Sciences, and the multiplicity of its uses in other sciences make it difficult to define them and prescribe how to perform them. Furthermore, also cause friction between computer scientists from different branches. Because of how they are structured, these sciences programs are criticized for not offer an adequate methodological training, or a deep understanding of different research traditions. To collaborate on a solution, some have decided to include in their curricula courses that enable students to gain awareness about epistemology and methodological issues in Computer Science, as well as give meaning to the practice of computer scientists. In this article the needs and objectives of the courses on the philosophy of Computer Science are analyzed, and its structure and management are explained.

  5. Coping with Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot

    2003-01-01

    Life of Science, edited by Lykke Margot Ricard and Robin Engelhardt. Learning Lab Denmark, Copenhagen, pages 39-45. 2003 Short description: What makes children think about scientific inventions? In this case it was watching the news and listing to parents conversation that made a 12-year old...... schoolboy write an essay on the theme: ?The world would be a better place to live in if?!? Abstract: Science has a long tradition for emphasizing objectivity, but it is the emotional impact of science that makes children interested. Metaphors and personal experiences of the scientist can be a useful...

  6. Coping with Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot

    2003-01-01

    Life of Science, edited by Lykke Margot Ricard and Robin Engelhardt. Learning Lab Denmark, Copenhagen, pages 39-45. 2003 Short description: What makes children think about scientific inventions? In this case it was watching the news and listing to parents conversation that made a 12-year old...... schoolboy write an essay on the theme: ?The world would be a better place to live in if?!? Abstract: Science has a long tradition for emphasizing objectivity, but it is the emotional impact of science that makes children interested. Metaphors and personal experiences of the scientist can be a useful...

  7. An experience of science theatre: Earth Science for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Lanza, Tiziana; D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    The present paper describes an experience of science theatre addressed to children of primary and secondary school, with the main purpose of explaining the Earth interior while raising awareness about natural hazard. We conducted the experience with the help of a theatrical company specialized in shows for children. Several performances have been reiterated in different context, giving us the opportunity of conducting a preliminary survey with public of different ages, even if the show was conceived for children. Results suggest that science theatre while relying on creativity and emotional learning in transmitting knowledge about the Earth and its hazard has the potential to induce in children a positive attitude towards the risks

  8. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  9. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  10. Two Interesting Southern Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  11. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...... on these associations for describing, disambiguating or clarifying aspects of the relatively complex procedural frameworks discussed in the settings. is suggests that the temporal stability of material objects available to participants makes them an ideal resource to be developed as visual motifs....

  12. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Objectivity and Ideology

    CERN Multimedia

    Prieto,L

    1976-01-01

    Conférence donné par le Prof.Luis J.Prieto, Argentin, qui était Prof.à Cordoba, Buenos Aires, Alger et Paris et appelé à l'Université de Genève (analyse du langage, structure social....) Il parle des problèmes epistomologiques (science de l'homme)et reflexion sur l'expérience scientifique.

  14. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  15. Sortal concepts, object individuation, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei

    2007-09-01

    Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary enterprise. This review highlights how the philosophical notion of a 'sortal'--a concept that provides principles of individuation and principles of identity - has been introduced into cognitive developmental psychology. Although the notion 'sortal' originated in metaphysics, importing it into the cognitive sciences has bridged a gap between philosophical and psychological discussions of concepts and has generated a fruitful and productive research enterprise. As I review here, the sortal concept has inspired several lines of empirical work in the past decade, including the study of object individuation; object identification; the relationship between language and acquisition of kind concepts; the representational capacities of non-human primates; object-based attention and cognitive architecture; and the relationship between kind concepts and individual concepts.

  16. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  17. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  18. This elusive objective existence

    CERN Document Server

    Mohrhoff, U

    2004-01-01

    Zurek's existential interpretation of quantum mechanics suffers from three classical prejudices, including the belief that space and time are intrinsically and infinitely differentiated. They compel him to relativize the concept of objective existence in two ways. The elimination of these prejudices makes it possible to recognize the quantum formalism's ontological implications - the relative and contingent reality of spatiotemporal distinctions and the extrinsic and finite spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world - which in turn makes it possible to arrive at an unqualified objective existence. Contrary to a widespread misconception, viewing the quantum formalism as being fundamentally a probability algorithm does not imply that quantum mechanics is concerned with states of knowledge rather than states of Nature. On the contrary, it makes possible a complete and strongly objective description of the physical world that requires no reference to observers. What objectively exists, in a sense that r...

  19. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  20. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  1. Choosing for learning objects

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Responding to differences between students; (4) The joint development of learning materials together with other institutions or external parties; (5) Attuning to professional practice; (6) Attuning to...

  2. Research status and development of medical science in cold regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-hai SUN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To propose the concept, objects of study,tasks and roles of military medical sciences in cold regions(CM, and provide a theoretical basis and academic reference for its establishment anddevelopment. Methods  Literature concerning medical sciences in cold regions were retrieved with infomatics method to analyze the research status and development of medical sciences in cold regions in the military,domestic and abroad, and venture to propose the strategy and direction of development of medical sciences in cold regions. Results CM is a comprehensive medical science composing of multiple speciaties.A large area of Chinese territory is situated in frigid area, where the garrison servicemen have to take up onerous duties, so that the establishment anddevelopment of CM should be considered as a special subject and an important specialty in military medical support. Conclusion Research work on CM in PLA is in preliminary stage.For developing CM in the future,it is suggested to integrate medical resources of CM, with the aim of gathering and rectifying interrelated medical resources,improving related medical equipment,in order to establish abasic and clinical research platform for improving the health level of garrison forces both at peacetime and during military conflicts, and also in prevention of organic and psychological diseases.Therefore,it is important to emphasize the establishment of such specialty, with an effort to accelerate team construction of science and technology of medicine of cold regions, with an increase in funding for research andimprovement in improve the scientific innovation, with a purpose of safeguarding andimproving the combat effectiveness of troops in cold regions.

  3. Toward a Science of Metatheory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E. Wallis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I explore the field of metatheory with two goals. My first goal is to present a clear understanding of what metatheory “is” based on a collection of over twenty definitions of the term. My second goal is to present a preliminary investigation into how metatheory might be understood as a science. From that perspective, I present some strengths and weaknesses of our field and suggest steps to make metatheory more rigorous, more scientific, and so make more of a contribution to the larger community of the social sciences.

  4. Archive Design Based on Planets Inspired Logical Object Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Johansen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We describe a proposal for a logical data model based on preliminary work the Planets project In OAIS terms the main areas discussed are related to the introduction of a logical data model for representing the past, present and future versions of the digital object associated with the Archival...

  5. Archive Design Based on Planets Inspired Logical Object Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Johansen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We describe a proposal for a logical data model based on preliminary work the Planets project In OAIS terms the main areas discussed are related to the introduction of a logical data model for representing the past, present and future versions of the digital object associated with the Archival St...

  6. Writing in Science: Beyond the Lab Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallsworth, Dana

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of writing in learning science. Describes a science lesson designed as a part of an ocean unit using many genres of literature. Includes activity length, objectives, goals, and material for the lesson. (KHR)

  7. Objects of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a "conscious agent." We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  8. ERIS: preliminary design phase overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Jochum, Lieselotte; Amico, Paola; Dekker, Johannes K.; Kerber, Florian; Marchetti, Enrico; Accardo, Matteo; Brast, Roland; Brinkmann, Martin; Conzelmann, Ralf D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Duchateau, Michel; Fedrigo, Enrico; Finger, Gert; Frank, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fernando G.; Klein, Barbara; Knudstrup, Jens; Le Louarn, Miska; Lundin, Lars; Modigliani, Andrea; Müller, Michael; Neeser, Mark; Tordo, Sebastien; Valenti, Elena; Eisenhauer, Frank; Sturm, Eckhard; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elisabeth M.; Hartl, Michael; Hofmann, Reiner; Huber, Heinrich; Plattner, Markus P.; Schubert, Josef; Tarantik, Karl; Wiezorrek, Erich; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Glauser, Adrian M.; Weisz, Harald; Esposito, Simone; Xompero, Marco; Agapito, Guido; Antichi, Jacopo; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Carbonaro, Luca; Cresci, Giovanni; Fini, Luca; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Di Rico, Gianluca; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Dolci, Mauro

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation adaptive optics near-IR imager and spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Unit Telescope 4, which will soon make full use of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It is a high-Strehl AO-assisted instrument that will use the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). The project has been approved for construction and has entered its preliminary design phase. ERIS will be constructed in a collaboration including the Max- Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich and the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and will offer 1 - 5 μm imaging and 1 - 2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with a high Strehl performance. Wavefront sensing can be carried out with an optical high-order NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor, or with a single laser in either an optical low-order NGS mode, or with a near-IR low-order mode sensor. Due to its highly sensitive visible wavefront sensor, and separate near-IR low-order mode, ERIS provides a large sky coverage with its 1' patrol field radius that can even include AO stars embedded in dust-enshrouded environments. As such it will replace, with a much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important imaging modes offered by NACO (diffraction limited imaging in the J to M bands, Sparse Aperture Masking and Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraphy) and the integral field spectroscopy modes of SINFONI, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be upgraded and re-used in ERIS. As part of the SPIFFI upgrade a new higher resolution grating and a science detector replacement are envisaged, as well as PLC driven motors. To accommodate ERIS at the Cassegrain focus, an extension of the telescope back focal length is required, with modifications of the guider arm assembly. In this paper we report on the status of the

  9. Nanomaterials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Rohrer

    2010-01-01

    technology revolution. Interfaces gave them their functions, and shaping them into ever-smaller functional components made them indispensably omnipresent as transistors—produced in billions per person and per year—and they are no doubt the rulers of today's technical world.The semiconductor and transistor serve as an inspiring example of functionalizing materials. The developments of microelectronics profited very much from scalability, that is, the properties and functions do not change significantly with size. Therefore, every step toward smaller dimensions was a technical and commercial challenge with risks well under control. The transition to the nanoscale, however, is discontinuous. Examples of this transition are the local probe methods that exploit the mechanically controlled proximity to the object under consideration and that have become indispensable as microscopes and as measuring and modifying tools, the size of molecular components that are much smaller than the smallest possibly achievable transistor, the properties and functions of materials below a critical size as mentioned above, the continuum properties versus discrete ones, and novel concepts inspired by living nature. Those novel concepts include growing circuits first and building the active components at the nodes afterwards and measuring weak by weak, small by small, and many by many. It is these discontinuous steps that make the nanoscale different, not just smaller. They pose exciting challenges, open great opportunities and nearly unlimited possibilities, but they also carry serious technical, commercial, environmental, and health risks.The nanoscale is also a great opportunity for materials science in general. Materials science is interdisciplinary per se. A materials scientist should have a reasonable understanding of physics, chemistry, engineering, and more recently, also biology. Certainly one can always team up with representatives from other disciplines and forge collaborations. However

  10. A Framework for Active Objects in .NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mircea Suciu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the concern of computer science is to find new methodologies that help decomposing large programs and run them efficiently onto new parallel machines. Thus, the popularity of concurrent object-oriented programming has increased proportionally with the market requirements of concurrent and distributed systems that meet simplicity, modularity and code reusability. The purpose of this paper is to define a class library based on Active Object pattern introduced in [LAV96], which has a high level of extensibility. Class library's main objective is to help in building concurrent object-oriented applications with a minimum effort and using a significant amount of already existing code. This approach addresses the problem of integrating concurrency with object-oriented programming and respects the principles imposed by them. In order to present the main features of our model a sample application is presented.

  11. Bayesian distributed articulated object tracking using multiple collaborative trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Schonfeld, Dan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two novel articulated object tracking approaches. The Decentralized Articulated Object Tracking approach avoids the common practice of using a high-dimensional joint state representation for articulated object tracking. Instead, it introduces a decentralized scheme and models the inter-part interaction within an innovative Bayesian framework. To handle severe self-occlusions, we further extend the first approach by modeling high-level inter-unit interactions and develop the Hierarchical Articulated Object Tracking algorithm within a consistent hierarchical framework. Preliminary experimental results have demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed approaches for real-world videos sequences.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. ..... Gössling S (2003) The political ecology of tourism in Zan-.

  13. [Medicine and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K

    2007-01-01

    Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.

  14. Invariance and Objectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    Scientific knowledge should not only be true, it should be as objective as possible. It should refer to a reality independent of any subject. What can we use as a criterion of objectivity? Intersubjectivity (i.e., intersubjective understandability and intersubjective testability) is necessary, but not sufficient. Other criteria are: independence of reference system, independence of method, non-conventionality. Is there some common trait? Yes, there is: invariance under some specified transformations. Thus, we say: A proposition is objective only if its truth is invariant against a change in the conditions under which it was formulated. We give illustrations from geometry, perception, neurobiology, relativity theory, and quantum theory. Such an objectivist position has many advantages.

  15. Investigation on the Influencing Factors of the Scientific and Innovative Elites:With a National Key Laboratory's Scientific Researcher of Chinese Academic of Sciences as the Research Object%科技拔尖创新人才影响因素研究--以中科院某院级重点实验室的科研人员为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文霞; 李冰

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a national key laboratory's scientific re-searcher of Chinese academic of sciences is set as a research ob-ject. The sample scientists are analyzed, counted in macro and micro aspects. By exploring the progress along the meritocratic path, valid suggestions are put forward for cultivating the scien-tific and innovative talent.%  本文选取了中国科学院某院级重点实验室的科研人员作为考察对象,从宏观和微观方面对选取的科学家样本进行各种分析、统计,分析他们的创新成才之路,从而对培养我国的科技创新拔尖人才提出合理化建议。

  16. Million object spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    A new class of astronomical telescope with a primary objective grating (POG) has been studied as an alternative to mirrors. Nineteenth century POG telescopes suffered from low resolution and ambiguity of overlapping spectra as well as background noise. The present design uses a conventional secondary spectrograph to disambiguate all objects while enjoying a very wide instantaneous field-of-view, up to 40°. The POG competes with mirrors, in part, because diffraction gratings provide the very chromatic dispersion that mirrors defeat. The resulting telescope deals effectively with long-standing restrictions on multiple object spectrographs (MOS). The combination of a POG operating in the first-order, coupled to a spectrographic astronomical telescope, isolates spectra from all objects in the free spectral range of the primary. First disclosed as a concept in year 2002, a physical proof-of-principle is now reported. The miniature laboratory model used a 50 mm plane grating primary and was able to disambiguate between objects appearing at angular resolutions of 55 arcseconds and spectral spacings of 0.15 nm. Astronomical performance is a matter of increasing instrument size. A POG configured according to our specifications has no moving parts during observations and is extensible to any length that can be held flat to tolerances approaching float glass. The resulting telescope could record over one million spectra per night of objects in a line of right ascension. The novel MOS does not require pre-imaging to start acquisition of uncharted star fields. Problems are anticipated in calibration and integration time. We propose means to ameliorate them.

  17. Learning Objects Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blåbjerg, Niels Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsæt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnået med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netværk af interessenter som giver os...... sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept både omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstød og input har vi forfulgt ønsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni...

  18. Objective Eulerian Coherent Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, M

    2015-01-01

    We define objective Eulerian Coherent Structures (OECSs) in two-dimensional, non-autonomous dynamical systems as instantaneously most influential material curves. Specifically, OECSs are stationary curves of the averaged instantaneous material stretching-rate or material shearing-rate functionals. From these objective (frame-invariant) variational principles, we obtain explicit differential equations for hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic OECSs. As illustration, we compute OECSs in an unsteady ocean velocity data set. In comparison to structures suggested by other common Eulerian diagnostic tools, we find OECSs to be the correct short-term cores of observed trajectory deformation patterns.

  19. Sound Objects for SVG

    OpenAIRE

    Colbrant, Audrey; Lasorsa, Yohan; Lemordant, Jacques; Liodenot, David; Razafimahazo, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A sound object can be defined as a time structure of audio chunks whose duration is on the time scale of 100 ms to several seconds. Sound objects have heterogeneous and time-varying properties. They are the basic elements of any format for Interactive Audio (IA). We have designed an XML language, A2ML, for Interactive Audio which offers, concerning the sequencing of sounds, a level of capabilities similar to that of iXMF, the interactive audio file format defined by th...

  20. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  1. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  2. Capturing Near Earth Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyin, Hexi; CHEN Yang; Li, Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been attracting great attention, and thousands of NEOs have been found to date. This paper examines the NEOs' orbital dynamics using the framework of an accurate solar system model and a Sun-Earth-NEO three-body system when the NEOs are close to Earth to search for NEOs with low-energy orbits. It is possible for such an NEO to be temporarily captured by Earth; its orbit would thereby be changed and it would become an Earth-orbiting object after a small...

  3. Sound Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  4. Sound Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  5. Births: preliminary data for 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2013-09-01

    Objectives-This report presents preliminary data for 2012 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Methods-Data in this report are based on 99.96% of 2012 births.Records for the few states with less than 100% of records received are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2012. Comparisons are made with final 2011 data. Results-The preliminary number of births for the United States in 2012 was 3,952,937, essentially unchanged (not statistically significant) from 2011; the general fertility rate was 63.0 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44, down only slightly from 2011, after declining nearly 3% a year from 2007 through 2010. The number of births and fertility rate either declined or were unchanged for most race and Hispanic origin groups from 2011 to 2012; however, both the number of births and the fertility rate for Asian or Pacific Islander women rose in 2012 (7% and 4%, respectively). The birth rate for teenagers aged 15-19 was down 6% in 2012 (29.4 births per 1,000 teenagers aged 15-19), yet another historic low for the United States, with rates declining for younger and older teenagers and for nearly all race and Hispanic origin groups. The birth rate for women in their early 20s also declined in 2012, to a new record low of 83.1 births per 1,000 women. Birth rates for women in their 30s rose in 2012, as did the birth rate for women in their early 40s. The birth rate for women in their late 40s was unchanged. The nonmarital birth rate declined in 2012 (to 45.3 birth per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44), whereas the number of births to unmarried women rose 1% and the percentage of births to unmarried women was unchanged (at 40.7%). The cesarean delivery rate for the United States was unchanged in 2012 at 32.8%. The preterm

  6. GNOMOS: The Gemini NIR-Optical Multi Object Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavon, Ricardo P; Chiboucas, Kristin; Diaz, Ruben; Geballe, Tom; Gimeno, German; Gomez, Percy; Hibon, Pascale; Hirst, Paul; Jorgensen, Inger; Labrie, Kathleen; Leggett, Sandy; Lemoine-Busserolle, Marie; Levenson, Nancy; Mason, Rachel; McDermid, Richard; Miller, Bryan; Nitta, Atsuko; Pessev, Peter; Rodgers, Bernadette; Schirmer, Mischa; Trujillo, Chad; Turner, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to a call for white papers solicited by Gemini Observatory and its Science and Technology Advisory Committee, to help define the science case and requirements for a new Gemini instrument, envisaged to consist of a single-object spectrograph at medium resolution simultaneously covering optical and near-infrared wavelengths. In this white paper we discuss the science case for an alternative new instrument, consisting instead of a multi-object, medium-resolution, high-throughput spectrograph, covering simultaneously the optical and near-infrared slices of the electromagnetic spectrum. We argue that combination of wide wavelength coverage at medium resolution with moderate multiplexing power is an innovative path that will enable the pursuit of fundamental science questions in a variety of astrophysical topics, without compromise of the science goals achievable by single-object spectroscopy on a wide baseline. We present a brief qualitative discussion of the main features of a notional ha...

  7. VSOP Science Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Hirabayashi, H.; Inoue, M.; 平林, 久; 井上, 允

    1991-01-01

    The VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) started in 1989,and the observations will start in 1995. VSOP Science targets are reviewed in relation to Japanese VLBI activities. Regions surrounding accreting disks and jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) will be the most important targets. The physics and distances to water vapor masing regions in and outside the Galaxy can be studied in more detail. VSOP can cover various objects like young supernova and gravitational lensing objects.

  8. FOREWORD Nanomaterials science Nanomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    . Interfaces gave them their functions, and shaping them into ever-smaller functional components made them indispensably omnipresent as transistors—produced in billions per person and per year—and they are no doubt the rulers of today's technical world. The semiconductor and transistor serve as an inspiring example of functionalizing materials. The developments of microelectronics profited very much from scalability, that is, the properties and functions do not change significantly with size. Therefore, every step toward smaller dimensions was a technical and commercial challenge with risks well under control. The transition to the nanoscale, however, is discontinuous. Examples of this transition are the local probe methods that exploit the mechanically controlled proximity to the object under consideration and that have become indispensable as microscopes and as measuring and modifying tools, the size of molecular components that are much smaller than the smallest possibly achievable transistor, the properties and functions of materials below a critical size as mentioned above, the continuum properties versus discrete ones, and novel concepts inspired by living nature. Those novel concepts include growing circuits first and building the active components at the nodes afterwards and measuring weak by weak, small by small, and many by many. It is these discontinuous steps that make the nanoscale different, not just smaller. They pose exciting challenges, open great opportunities and nearly unlimited possibilities, but they also carry serious technical, commercial, environmental, and health risks. The nanoscale is also a great opportunity for materials science in general. Materials science is interdisciplinary per se. A materials scientist should have a reasonable understanding of physics, chemistry, engineering, and more recently, also biology. Certainly one can always team up with representatives from other disciplines and forge collaborations. However, an effective team

  9. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, W B

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses, and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with...

  10. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  11. The Road to Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Harman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Harman presents an outline of how object-oriented ontology (OOO differentiates itself from other branches of speculative realism. Can OOO steer philosophy from an epistemological project that tends to reduce the discipline to "a series of small-time drug busts"?

  12. The Road to Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Harman

    2011-01-01

    Harman presents an outline of how object-oriented ontology (OOO) differentiates itself from other branches of speculative realism. Can OOO steer philosophy from an epistemological project that tends to reduce the discipline to "a series of small-time drug busts"?

  13. Common Object Library Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be consistently applied across many projects, by many teams. The National Building Information ...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT For Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be... BIM standards and for future research projects. 15. SUBJECT TERMS building information modeling ( BIM ), object

  14. Forecasters' Objectives and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinovic, Iván; Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2013-01-01

    This chapter develops a unified modeling framework for analyzing the strategic behavior of forecasters. The theoretical model encompasses reputational objectives, competition for the best accuracy, and bias. Also drawing from the extensive lit- erature on analysts, we review the empirical evidenc...

  15. Gender Object Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This test was designed primarily for the purpose of assisting social psychologists in researching sex roles and/or sex differences when a nonverbal instrument is desired. The hypothesis was that some objects would be easier for members of one gender to name. The subjects were 30 female and 20 male undergraduate students. Pictures of 65 commercial…

  16. Turning subjective into objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria João; Cardoso, Jaime; Amaral, Natália

    2007-01-01

    Twelve expert observers from nine different countries convened in a workshop to evaluate the validity of the Breast Cancer Conservative Treatment. Cosmetic results (BCCT.core) software, an objective method for the aesthetic evaluation of breast cancer conservative treatment. Experts were initiall...

  17. The History and Philosophy of Science in Science Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a course, "History and Philosophy of Science for Science Teachers," at the University of New South Wales which focuses on the seventeenth-century scientific revolution and the nineteenth-century Darwinian revolution. The object is to provide background knowledge and promote an interest in the subject. (SM)

  18. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research,…

  19. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research,…

  20. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  1. Preliminary study to AP mine neutralisation by EFP impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulman, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary study has been conducted into the response of anti-personnel mines at the impact of an Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP). The objective was to obtain a low order reaction (preferably a deflagration) to minimise collateral damage. Further the method should be capable to neutralise min

  2. Thermal energy storage in aquifiers: preliminary information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.

    1979-12-01

    Topics discussed include: conceptual designs; numerical modelling; field experiments; relevant technical information; feasibility studies; preliminary aquifer selection considerations; and preliminary design and operating considerations. (TFD)

  3. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This

  4. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This

  5. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain

  6. Impact of Prior Knowledge of Behavioural Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Prior Knowledge of Behavioural Objectives on Students' Academic ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... significant difference in achievement between male and female students with the females ...

  7. Teaching Science through Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Zidani, Saleem; Kurtam, Naji

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the science curriculum and the teacher's responsibility of passing through not only the required material, but also skills. Suggests that in order to improve teaching and learning skills, new strategies, such as teaching and learning through research must be utilized. Presents four examples of teaching and learning…

  8. Teaching Science through Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Zidani, Saleem; Kurtam, Naji

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the science curriculum and the teacher's responsibility of passing through not only the required material, but also skills. Suggests that in order to improve teaching and learning skills, new strategies, such as teaching and learning through research must be utilized. Presents four examples of teaching and learning…

  9. Science Teaching in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Reading the interesting article "Discerning selective traditions in science education" by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of "CSSE," allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must…

  10. Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

    Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes

  11. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the…

  12. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the…

  13. Designing Epistemologically Correct Science Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachin, Datt; Poovaiah, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    In recent years use of narratives for teaching science at secondary school level has gained impetus. This paper deals with the problem of designing narratives for teaching scientific concept. The central issue of the problem of designing narratives for carrying scientific information is that science belongs to the domain of objective observation…

  14. Preliminary results of femtosecond laser-assisted descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Y.Y.; Hendrikse, F.; Pels, E.; Wijdh, R.J.; Cleynenbreugel, H. van; Eggink, C.A.; Rij, G. van; Rijneveld, W.J.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the preliminary visual results of femtosecond laser-assisted Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (FS-DSEK). METHODS: We prospectively analyzed results of 20 consecutive patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy who underwent

  15. Observation and Quantum Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The paradox of Wigner's friend challenges the objectivity of description in quantum theory. A pragmatist interpretation can meet this challenge by judicious appeal to decoherence. On this interpretation, quantum theory provides situated agents with resources for predicting and explaining what happens in the physical world---not conscious observations of it. Even in Wigner's friend scenarios, differently situated agents agree on the objective content of statements about the values of physical magnitudes. In more realistic circumstances quantum Darwinism also permits differently situated agents equal observational access to evaluate their truth. In this view, quantum theory has nothing to say about consciousness or conscious experiences of observers. But it does prompt us to reexamine the significance even of everyday claims about the physical world.

  16. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  17. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  18. Metacognitive Strategies in the Introduction to Political Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article examines metacognitive-based teaching strategies and provides preliminary evidence about their effectiveness in the political science classroom. In a 2013 Fall semester Introduction to Political Science course, three metacognitive-based teaching strategies were designed and implemented for improving student learning through greater…

  19. Integrating Statistical Visualization Research into the Political Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Geoffrey M.; Liu, Baodong; Riesenfeld, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of computer software to facilitate learning in political science courses is well established. However, the statistical software packages used in many political science courses can be difficult to use and counter-intuitive. We describe the results of a preliminary user study suggesting that visually-oriented analysis software can help…

  20. 76 FR 24922 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Approval of Minutes OPP Director's Remarks Report on CTAM Camp Update on Outreach Activities Committee on... Preliminary Task Force Recommendations Committee on Science and Engineering Indicators (SEI) Open Session: 2:30 p.m.-4 p.m. Chairman's Remarks Approval of Minutes Review of Science and Engineering...

  1. Metacognitive Strategies in the Introduction to Political Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article examines metacognitive-based teaching strategies and provides preliminary evidence about their effectiveness in the political science classroom. In a 2013 Fall semester Introduction to Political Science course, three metacognitive-based teaching strategies were designed and implemented for improving student learning through greater…

  2. Summary of the Science Performed Onboard the International Space Station within the United States Orbital Segment during Increments 16 and 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Istasse, Eric; Stenuit, Hilde; Murakami, Jeiji; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Johnson-Green, Perry

    2008-01-01

    With the launch of the STS-122 on February 7, 2008, which delivered the European Columbus science module and the upcoming STS-124 flight, which will deliver the Japanese Kibo science module in May 2008, the International Space Station will become truly International with Europe and Japan joining the United States of America and Russia to perform science on a continuous basis in a wide spectrum of science disciplines. The last science module, Kibo, of the United States Orbital Segment (USOS) will be mated to the station on time to celebrate its first decade in low Earth orbit in October 2008 (end of Increment 17), thus ushering in the second decade of the station with all the USOS science modules mated and performing science. The arrival of the Kibo science module will also mark continuous human presence on the station for eighty eight (88) months, and, with the addition of the ESA science module during the STS-122 flight, the USOS will be made up of four space agencies: CSA, ESA, JAXA and NASA, spanning three continents. With the additional partners coming onboard with different research needs, every effort is being made to coordinate science across the USOS segment in an integrated manner for the benefit of all parties. One of the objectives of this paper is to discuss the integrated manner in which science planning/replanning and prioritization during the execution phase of an increment is being done. The main focus, though, of this paper is to summarize and to discuss the science performed during Increments 16 and 17 (October 2007 to October 2008). The discussion will focus mainly on the primary objectives of each investigation and their associated hypotheses that were investigated during these two Increments. Also, preliminary science results will be discussed for each of the investigation as science results availability permit. Additionally, the paper will briefly touch on what the science complement for these two increments was and what was actually

  3. The Commitment Objective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milton; Kotler; President

    2007-01-01

    "So,tell me about Action Selling,"Matt said."It starts with Commitment Objectives?""All right,"Joe began,"first you tell me if this sounds familiar:You've made an initial appointment with a great prospect-call him Mr.Wright.You're heard his company has had some problems with its current vendor,and you figure they're ready to make a change.You're pumped.

  4. Projective ambidextrous objects

    CERN Document Server

    Geer, Nathan; Patureau-Mirand, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for a simple object in a pivotal k-category to be ambidextrous. As a consequence we prove that they exist for factorizable ribbon Hopf algebras, modular representations of finite groups and their quantum doubles, complex and modular Lie (super)algebras, the (1,p) minimal model in conformal field theory, and quantum groups at a root of unity.

  5. Space shuttle and life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  6. Preliminary impression techniques for microstomia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Aswini; Bhat, Vinaya; Nair, K Chandrasekheran; Suresh, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    The Prosthetic rehabilitation of microstomia patients presents difficulties at all the stages. The difficulty starts with the preliminary impression making. This is due to the tongue rigidity and the decreased oral opening. A maximum oral opening which is smaller than the size of the tray can make prosthetic treatment challenging. Due to the restricted mouth opening, insertion and removal of the impression trays is extremely cumbersome and various modifications of the trays have been used in the past. Among these are the flexible trays and the sectional trays used with different modes of reassembling the segments extra orally after the impression is made. This article reviews the literature published from 1971 to 2015 concerning preliminary impression techniques used in making impressions for patients with microstomia based on various tray designs. An electronic search was performed across three databases (PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scolar) for relevant citations. The keywords/combinations used for the search were microstomia, limited/constricted/restricted mouth opening/oral access, trismus, sectional trays, impressions and prosthetic/prosthodontic rehabilitation. The search was limited to papers written in English which resulted in a total of 45 related articles of which 17 articles were included for discussion of this review.

  7. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  8. Preliminary impression techniques for microstomia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aswini Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Prosthetic rehabilitation of microstomia patients presents difficulties at all the stages. The difficulty starts with the preliminary impression making. This is due to the tongue rigidity and the decreased oral opening. A maximum oral opening which is smaller than the size of the tray can make prosthetic treatment challenging. Due to the restricted mouth opening, insertion and removal of the impression trays is extremely cumbersome and various modifications of the trays have been used in the past. Among these are the flexible trays and the sectional trays used with different modes of reassembling the segments extra orally after the impression is made. This article reviews the literature published from 1971 to 2015 concerning preliminary impression techniques used in making impressions for patients with microstomia based on various tray designs. An electronic search was performed across three databases (PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scolar for relevant citations. The keywords/combinations used for the search were microstomia, limited/constricted/restricted mouth opening/oral access, trismus, sectional trays, impressions and prosthetic/prosthodontic rehabilitation. The search was limited to papers written in English which resulted in a total of 45 related articles of which 17 articles were included for discussion of this review.

  9. The Preliminaries of a Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Sadl, Urska

    2017-01-01

    by the reasons why the Court after an oral hearing held in the presence of the parties and eight intervening Member States, and after hearing the Advocate General did not deliver one. The comment examines the legal framework, as well as the detailed procedural rules and guidelines that govern the cooperation...... of national courts in the preliminary reference procedure. It highlights the fact that preliminary references can only work when the preliminaries of a reference – the culture of sincere cooperation and litigation, efficient communication and flexible procedural rules – are in place....

  10. Observations of Near Earth Objects with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven R.; Emery, Joshua P.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard Alan

    2016-10-01

    We are carrying out an Exploration Science Warm Spitzer program entitled NEOSurvey in which we are observing 550 Near Earth Objects in 710 hours of Spitzer time. For each object we use a thermal model to derive diameter and albedo. For each object we also derive a (partial) lightcurve; total elapsed observing times range from 15 minutes to 3.2 hours. This catalog of 500+ NEO lightcurves is a substantial increase over the number of NEO lightcurves presently known. In addition to creating a large catalog of NEO properties, we are also able to study the properties of individual NEOs, including those with low delta V values (i.e., accessible asteroids) and those that might be dead comets. The final observations in this program will be obtained by 30 Sept 2016, so at the DPS meeting we will present a first look at our entire catalog of results. All results are posted at nearearthobjects.nau.edu usually within days of the data being released by the Spitzer Science Center. This work was supported in part by funding from the Spitzer Science Center.

  11. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  12. Fermions as Topological Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yershov V. N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A preon-based composite model of the fundamental fermions is discussed, in which the fermions are bound states of smaller entities — primitive charges (preons. The preon is regarded as a dislocation in a dual 3-dimensional manifold — a topological object with no properties, save its unit mass and unit charge. It is shown that the dualism of this manifold gives rise to a hierarchy of complex structures resembling by their properties three families of the fundamental fermions. Although just a scheme for building a model of elementary particles, this description yields a quantitative explanation of many observable particle properties, including their masses.

  13. Fermions as topological objects

    CERN Document Server

    Yershov, V N

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual preon-based model of fermions is discussed. The preon is regarded as a topological object with three degrees of freedom in a dual three-dimensional manifold. It is shown that properties of this manifold give rise to a set of preon structures, which resemble three families of fermions. The number of preons in each structure is easily associated with the mass of a fermion. Being just a kind of zero-approximation to a theory of particles and interactions below the quark scale, our model however predicts masses of fermions with an accuracy of about 0.0002% without using any experimental input parameters.

  14. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    -effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high......-dimensional Euclidean spaces under the effect of additive spatially correlated effects, and then move on to consider how to include data alignment in the statistical model as a nonlinear effect under additive correlated noise. In both cases, we will give directions on how to generalize the methodology to more complex...

  15. Preliminary Results of Professional Development Program for School Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttiprom, Sura; Wuttisela, Karntarat; Phonchaiya, Sonthi; Athiwaspong, Wanwalai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Sharma, Manjula Devi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers need to design their courses to be as similar to real-life situations as possible as genuine learning emerges in real life as opposed to studying in class. Research-based learning is an innovative approach exploring many critical strategies for success in the twenty-first century. In it, students drive their own learning through inquiry,…

  16. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  17. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  18. Preliminary reference Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  19. Intermediate Scale Structures in BL Lac objects

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C; Gabuzda, D C

    2004-01-01

    The parsec-scale total intensity structures of BL Lac objects share many characteristics with quasars: e.g. well-collimated jets and superluminal motion. However, the jets of BL Lac objects appear to fade much more quickly than those in quasars and on VLA scales many BL Lacs have structures comparable to those of low luminosity (FR I) radio galaxies, in which kpc-scale flow speeds are non-relativistic. The region between parsec and kiloparsec scales is therefore one of transition in BL Lac objects. We have carried out VLBI observations of a small sample of BL Lac objects at frequencies between 2.3 GHz and 327 MHz in order to investigate this transition region. Preliminary results for two of these sources are presented here. Coherent structures are detected in these sources out to a distance of several tens of parsecs. We find evidence for significant changes in jet structure on scales of a few tens of milliarcseconds, both in terms of the orientation and collimation of the jets.

  20. Science Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....

  1. Arapahoe NWR diversion reconstruction : Preliminary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary plan for a diversion reconstruction for Hubbard #2. Oklahoma #1, Dryer, Hill and Crowder sites on the Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge.

  2. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-03-01

    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible.

  3. Evolving Objects for Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concerned with evolving objects method for softwaredesign that can adapt to the changing environments and requirements automatically. We presen t system architecture with objects library, where there are objects based on dom ain ontologies. We define some genetic operators for objects, and discuss how to apply these genetic operators on objects to get new objects, which can satisfy new requirements.

  4. Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented.......The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented....

  5. Computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Edward K

    2011-01-01

    Computer Science: The Hardware, Software and Heart of It focuses on the deeper aspects of the two recognized subdivisions of Computer Science, Software and Hardware. These subdivisions are shown to be closely interrelated as a result of the stored-program concept. Computer Science: The Hardware, Software and Heart of It includes certain classical theoretical computer science topics such as Unsolvability (e.g. the halting problem) and Undecidability (e.g. Godel's incompleteness theorem) that treat problems that exist under the Church-Turing thesis of computation. These problem topics explain in

  6. Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented.......The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented....

  7. Diabetes mellitus: preliminary health-promotion activity based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of a service-learning-based health ... the 2009 National Festival of Science and Technology held in Grahamstown, South Africa. ... After an educational intervention, there was significant improvement in the ...

  8. 客观结构化临床考试在临床医学专业学生毕业考试中的应用%Preliminary application of objective structured clinical examination in the graduation examination for clinical medical students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琰; 王秀薇; 李民; 樊宏孝; 冉杉杉

    2012-01-01

    Objective struclured clinical examination (OSCE) is a kind of examination which could objectively evaluate the students′clinical skills.Nowadays,OSCE are wildly applied in medical educational field throughout the world.Timely discussion and analysis on the problems existed in the implementation process of OSCE is necessary.Measures should be taken to improve the OSCE examination and to meet the requirements of higher clinical practice training level such as increasing clinical skill simulation training hardware investment,optimizing settings and conlents of the examination and the test stations as well as introducing standardized patients (SP) and other measures.%客观结构化临床考试(Objective structured clinical examination,OSCE)是一种以客观的方式评估临床能力的考核方法,现已在国内外医学考试中广泛应用.针对OSCE实施过程中出现的问题,应进行及时分析和探讨.加大临床技能模拟训练的硬件投入,优化考站设置和考试内容,以及引入标准化病人( Standardized patients,SP)等措施,有助于进一步完善OSCE考试,促进临床实践教学水平的提升.

  9. Objective perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klistorner, A; Graham, S L

    2000-12-01

    Objective perimetry in glaucoma is described using the multifocal pattern visually evoked potential (VEP). A multichannel recording technique was used to improve signal detection in healthy volunteers and assess its ability to detect glaucoma and early changes in patients with suspected glaucoma. Prospective, case-control study. Thirty healthy volunteers, 30 patients with suspected glaucoma, and 30 patients with glaucomatous visual field defects were tested. The VEP was recorded using cortically scaled, multifocal, pseudorandomly alternated pattern stimuli with the VERIS system (Electro-Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., San Francisco, CA). An array of four bipolar occipital electrodes provided four differently oriented channels for simultaneous recording. Signals were compared for different locations within the field up to 26 degrees of eccentricity. Healthy volunteers, patients with suspected glaucoma, and glaucoma patients with established visual field defects were tested, and results were compared with Humphrey visual fields (Humphrey Systems, Dublin, CA) performed on the same day. For reproducibility, five healthy volunteers were each tested on four separate days. The patients with suspected glaucoma and the established glaucoma patients were analyzed for intereye asymmetry of signals, and these data were compared with the asymmetry values of the healthy volunteers. Multiple recording channels significantly enhanced the recording of signals from parts of the visual field not reliably sampled with a single channel technique in all healthy volunteers, particularly along the horizontal meridian (P: < 0.001). Signal amplitude did not decline with age in healthy volunteers. Recordings showed good reproducibility within individuals. In all 30 glaucoma patients, the Humphrey visual field defects were well demonstrated by the VEP, and topographic location was strongly correlated (r(s) = 0.79). Despite large interindividual variations in amplitude, scotomas were well

  10. Knowledge sharing in public-private partnerships in life science: An open science perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Jiménez, Óscar David; Aibar Puentes, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Resultados preliminares sobre la adopción de prácticas de ciencia abierta en partenariados público-privados en Ciencias de la Vida. Resultats preliminars sobre l'adopció de pràctiques de ciència oberta a partenariats publico-privats en Ciències de la Vida. Preliminary results on the adoption of open science practices in public-private partnerships in Life Sciences.

  11. Carnap on unified science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klev, Ansten

    2016-10-01

    Unified science is a recurring theme in Carnap's work from the time of the Aufbau until the end of the 1930's. The theme is not constant, but knows several variations. I shall extract three quite precise formulations of the thesis of unified science from Carnap's work during this period: from the Aufbau, from Carnap's so-called syntactic period, and from Testability and Meaning and related papers. My main objective is to explain these formulations and to discuss their relation, both to each other and to other aspects of Carnap's work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is science an ideology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildo Magalhães dos Santos Filho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Independently of giving an affirmative or negative answer to the question, it is intended to show that at least the scientific activity can be ideological. For that purpose it is necessary to exploit the concept of ideology and try to define it more precisely, which will be undertaken from an essay of Geroges Canguilhem about scientific ideologies. It is interesting and adequate to think of this problem in full, not restricted just to social sciences, especially considering the purported objectivity of natural sciences.

  13. Fundamentals of Object Databases Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Design

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented databases were originally developed as an alternative to relational database technology for the representation, storage, and access of non-traditional data forms that were increasingly found in advanced applications of database technology. After much debate regarding object-oriented versus relational database technology, object-oriented extensions were eventually incorporated into relational technology to create object-relational databases. Both object-oriented databases and object-relational databases, collectively known as object databases, provide inherent support for object

  14. Rhetoric of Science: Oxymoron or Tautology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornatowski, Cezar M.

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, the notion of a "rhetoric of science" may have sounded oxymoronic. Traditional conceptions of science as the embodiment of disinterested, objective knowledge of nature, coupled with perceptions of rhetoric as empty verbiage, subterfuge, or stylistic embellishment, made science and rhetoric appear quite incompatible. However, recent…

  15. The Effects of Integrating Service Learning into Computer Science: An Inter-Institutional Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Jamie; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey; Zuo, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    This study is a follow-up to one published in computer science education in 2010 that reported preliminary results showing a positive impact of service learning on student attitudes associated with success and retention in computer science. That paper described how service learning was incorporated into a computer science course in the context of…

  16. The Effects of Integrating Service Learning into Computer Science: An Inter-Institutional Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Jamie; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey; Zuo, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    This study is a follow-up to one published in computer science education in 2010 that reported preliminary results showing a positive impact of service learning on student attitudes associated with success and retention in computer science. That paper described how service learning was incorporated into a computer science course in the context of…

  17. Soundsational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Scott, Catherine Marie; Hall, Debra T.

    2012-01-01

    The science of sound helps students learn that sound is energy traveling in waves as vibrations transfer the energy through various media: solids, liquids, and gases. In addition to learning about the physical science of sound, students can learn about the sounds of different animal species: how sounds contribute to animals' survival, and how…

  18. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  19. Deconstructing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity," exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and…

  20. Dramatic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about…

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, ... Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- .... in the region are some of the poorest in the world,.

  2. The elementary level science methods course: Breeding ground of an apprehension toward science? a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschl, Richard A.

    Ethnographic research methodologies were used to examine the training of elementary education majors in science in an attempt to gain insight on whether or not their training in science contributes to the apprehension elementary teachers have toward science. The field study consisted of 14 weeks of weekly observations in the elementary education majors science methods class. Interviews with the students and the instructors as well as survey instruments to assess students' preparation in science were used. Two different approaches to the study of science, one content oriented, the other process oriented, may contribute to the students' confusion, insecurity, and avoidance of science. The students' perception that science is learning content, an objective of introductory level science courses, and the science methods class's objectives of teaching science as a process sets up an antagonistic dilemma between the two. Such antagonistic dilemma may be manifest in the lack of instructional time accorded to science by elementary educators. The type of science experiences an individual encounters influences their perceptions. To offset student perceptions developed in science courses which stress principally content, the students need science experiences which truly represent science as inquiry. New strategies for the training of elementary education majors in science need to be examined.

  3. Acoustic imaging of objects buried in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, C H; Cadalli, N; Munson, D C; O'Brien, W D

    2000-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate an acoustic system for high-resolution imaging of objects buried in soil. Our goal is to image cultural artifacts in order to assess in a rapid manner the historical significance of a potential construction site. We describe the imaging system and present preliminary images produced from data collected from a soil phantom. A mathematical model and associated computer software are developed in order to simulate the signals acquired by the system. We have built the imaging system, which incorporates a single element source transducer and a receiver array. The source and receiver array are moved together along a linear path to collect data. Using this system, we have obtained B-mode images of several targets by using delay-and-sum beamforming, and we have also applied synthetic aperture theory to this problem.

  4. Multimedia Learning Systems Based on IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Kleinberger, Thomas; Muller, Paul

    One of the "hottest" topics in recent information systems and computer science is metadata. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) appears to be a very powerful mechanism for representing metadata, because of the great variety of LOM Objects. This is on of the reasons why the LOM standard is repeatedly cited in projects in the field of eLearning…

  5. Automatic object recognition: critical issues and current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1991-08-01

    Automatic object recognition, with its diverse applications in numerous fields of science and technology, is permeating many aspects of military and civilian industries. This paper gives an overview of the issues confronting the automatic object recognition field and the approaches being used to address these issues.

  6. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  7. Easily Retrievable Objects among the NEO Population

    CERN Document Server

    Yárnoz, D García; McInnes, C R

    2013-01-01

    Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judi...

  8. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  9. Data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used.

  10. [Hemodialysis with biological object].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eventov, V L; Maksimenko, V A; Zhidkov, I L; Andrianova, M Iu

    2005-01-01

    The essence of the method of biodialysis (hemodialysis with biological object) developed and suggested by the authors for clinical use consists in that the healthy organism exerts, through a system of mass transfer, a therapeutic action on the sick organism. Blood from the affected and healthy organisms is perfused through individual mass exchangers (dialyzers, hemodiafilters and hemofilters), which are hydraulically connected by a circulating transport medium. Metabolites that accumulate in blood of the affected organism diffuse into the transport medium and, from there, into blood of the healthy organism, which metabolizes them. The reverse process occurs simultaneously: substances, whose concentration in blood of the sick organism is less versus the healthy organism, diffuse from blood of the healthy organism to blood of patient. The method suggested by us can be used in clinical practice for normalizing a variety of parameters in patients with hepatic and renal insufficiency. Besides, a number of substances can be transferred from the healthy donor to patient in the process of biodialysis, which opens promising potentialities for the treatment of many diseases.

  11. Beyond the Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

  12. [Basic science and applied science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2001-01-01

    A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  13. Science teaching in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  14. Object Markers in Ikalanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Letsholo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an on-going debate amongst linguists regarding the status of the object marker (OM. Some scholars argue that OMs are agreement morphology (Baker 2010, Riedel 2009 while others argue that OMs are pronominal and not agreement morphology (Nevins 2010, Kramer, under review, Labelle 2007, Demuth and Johnson 1990, Mchombo 2002. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this debate using data from Ikalanga to support the view that OMs are pronominal clitics. I discuss evidence in favor of the agreement analysis as well as that in favor of the pronominal analysis. OMs in Ikalanga behave like agreement morphology in that they attach only to the verbal stem, only one OM occurs in a clause, and they share grammatical features (person, gender and number with the lexical NP with which they co-refer. However, there are many ways in which OMs behave like pronominals. For example, OMs do not vary in form according to the mood of a sentence or negation while subject markers, which I analyze as agreement morphemes do. They are not obligatory in Ikalanga sentences while subject markers are. OMs are not subject to locality constraints while agreement is. They can be bound by the subject (backward pronominalization, something unexpected of agreement and there is ample evidence to show that the lexical NP with which the OM co-refers is an adjunct, a fact which has been used in the literature to argue that the OM is pronominal in such a set up. The evidence in favor of the pronominal analysis however, is more compelling and therefore I conclude that OMs are pronominal clitics and not agreement morphology.

  15. Revolutionary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Casadevall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported.

  16. Revolutionary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-03-01

    On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported.

  17. Revolutionary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. PMID:26933052

  18. Science Instructors' Views of Science and Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how college science faculty who teach introductory level undergraduate science courses including the fields of chemistry, biology, physics, and earth science, understand and define science and nature of science (NOS). Participants were seventeen science instructors from five different institutions in the…

  19. Some issues for discipline of intelligence science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zi-xing

    2006-01-01

    The general frame for the system of intelligence science was proposed, the common features of the researching objects of the intelligence science were summarized. The intelligence science consists of three portions:scientific foundation, technical methodology and application fields. The common features of intelligence science include complexity, intersection, nonlinearity, anthropomorphic property, uncertainty, incompleteness and distribution etc. The new proposed scientific branch would reflect the new height, new thought and new way for developing the control science and intelligent systems from one angle, and present a strong wish for establishing a new branch of intelligence science.

  20. Selling science to the public

    CERN Document Server

    Catapano, Paola

    1997-01-01

    Science popularization is ÒtheÓ tool to bridge the gap between society at large and the world of science. Compared to formal science communication Ð science taught in schools Ð informal science communication, made by the TV, the press, Òscience centresÓ and visits to scientific laboratories, has an important advantage: it makes the public meet science in a direct, informal way and on its own terms. The public is given an opportunity to develop a personal relationship with science, according to the needs, interests and abilities of the individual. But selling science is a tough job. The object of the sale is not a consumer good, but rather ideas and concepts that are sometimes so complex and distant from common sense that translating them into a comprehensible language and creating interest in the public without betraying the scientific truth is almost impossible. In the research work conducted for the thesis the importance of adopting a marketing approach in science communication is presented. Any scien...

  1. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  2. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  3. Lições de coisas e ensino das ciências na França no fim do século 19: contribuição a uma história da cultura - Object lessons and science education in France in the late nineteenth century: contribution to a history of the school culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Kahn, France

    2014-05-01

    aluno, escola primária, educação intelectual, educação prática, ensino concreto, ensino das ciências, lição de coisas, método indutivo, método intuitivo, observação, pedagogia. OBJECT LESSONS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION IN FRANCE IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: CONTRIBUTION TO A HISTORY OF THE SCHOOL CULTUREAbstractApart from the major reforms carried out in the institutional organization of primary school (gratuity, obligation, secularism, the French Republicans in the late nineteenth century were willing to make a profound transformation of educational content and teaching standards. Experimental sciences have benefited greatly in 1882 and become a regular discipline of primary school, its programs and its time distribution. The lesson, teaching method which reformers were raving since the 1860s, will be closely and naturally associated with this teaching. It is indeed a first observation lesson or where students find they best opportunities to observe that in natural history lessons or basic physics? And related to each other, and science education and object lesson has two sides, one prosaic, another enchanted. Versant prosaic science education, for students who, for the most part, do not know of another school that the primary must be practical and conventional . If the lesson is particularly suitable for this teaching is that it focuses on concrete and familiar realities. Versant enchanted science education is a powerful instrument intellectual education (even moral and political education. It embodies the hope of a primary liberal education as complete, valid and worthy of its kind that classical humanities school. The lesson, matching the pedagogical approach to the same method of science (inductive method becomes by allowing this intellectual education. This tension is not unique to science education. Analysis allows rather highlighting the double discourse that Republicans held on a school they simultaneously turned into reality and dream

  4. Use of Self-to-Object and Object-to-Object Spatial Relations in Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chengli; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    In 8 experiments, the authors examined the use of representations of self-to-object or object-to-object spatial relations during locomotion. Participants learned geometrically regular or irregular layouts of objects while standing at the edge or in the middle and then pointed to objects while blindfolded in 3 conditions: before turning (baseline),…

  5. Science Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Shirley; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes 36 science activities. Topics include: osmosis, fermentation, anhydrobiotic organisms, breathing monitors, trypsin, weeds, amyloplasts, electrolysis, polarimeters, ethene ripening of fruit, colorimetry, diffusion, redox reactions, equilibria, acid-base relationships, electricity, power, resonance, measurement, parallax, amplifiers,…

  6. Science Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Included are 30 science activities that include computer monitoring, fieldwork, enzyme activity, pH, drugs, calorimeters, Raoult's Law, food content, solubility, electrochemistry, titration, physical properties of materials, gel filtration, energy, concepts in physics, and electricity. (KR)

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate”. This issue is ... ing compounds from Mauritian coral reef and lagoonal seawater. ..... bleaching event at Koh Tao, Gulf of Thailand. Coral.

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science features state-of-the-art review articles and short communications. ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine ...... planning under future sea level predictions, coastal sci-.

  9. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  10. Capitalist Science

    CERN Document Server

    Knuteson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The economic structure of basic science is currently socialist, funded by the public at large through taxes for the benefit of the public at large. This socialist system should be augmented by a capitalist system, in which basic science is also funded by private investors who reap financial benefit from the sale of subsequent technologies based on the knowledge obtained from the research funded by their investments. A capitalist system will provide benefits extending from the broad target audience of this paper -- which includes politicians, financiers, economists, and scientists in all fields -- to the average taxpayer and consumer. Capitalist science will better align the incentives of scientists with taxpayer interests, channel more money into basic science, lower your taxes, and generally improve the quality of your life.

  11. Environmental sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sciences are engaged in a remarkable effort of interdisciplinary cooperation and integration. Some long-running international scientific programs, notably the World Climate Research Programme and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, play an important role therein. The

  12. Big science

    CERN Multimedia

    Nadis, S

    2003-01-01

    " "Big science" is moving into astronomy, bringing large experimental teams, multi-year research projects, and big budgets. If this is the wave of the future, why are some astronomers bucking the trend?" (2 pages).

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high .... great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), and the giant ...... Smale MJ, Watson G, Hecht T (1995) Otolith atlas of.

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. The journal .... 48% maize flour, 3% cassava flour, 3% vitamins (Premix for broilers) ..... resulting in inappropriate dietary energy utiliza-.

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... dissemination of knowledge generated through research activities at the ... Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a .... tion and damage.

  16. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  17. Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizen Science is a fast-growing field in which scientific investigations are conducted by volunteers, which have been successful in expanding scientific knowledge, raising environmental awareness, and leveraging change.

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an ... are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues.

  19. Science Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents 23 experiments, activities, field projects and computer programs in the biological and physical sciences. Instructional procedures, experimental designs, materials, and background information are suggested. Topics include fluid mechanics, electricity, crystals, arthropods, limpets, acid neutralization, and software evaluation. (ML)

  20. Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is one of the world’s leading environmental and human health research organizations. Science provides the foundation for Agency policies, actions, and decisions made on behalf of the American people.

  1. Does objective measurement of tracheal tube cuff pressures minimise adverse effects and maintain accurate cuff pressures? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, C A; van Zundert, A A J; Paratz, J D

    2016-09-01

    Correct inflation pressures of the tracheal cuff are recommended to ensure adequate ventilation and prevent aspiration and adverse events. However there are conflicting views on which measurement to employ. The aim of this review was to examine whether adjustment of cuff pressure guided by objective measurement, compared with subjective measurement or observation of the pressure value alone, was able to prevent patient-related adverse effects and maintain accurate cuff pressures. A search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL and ScienceDirect was conducted using keywords 'cuff pressure' and 'measure*' and related synonyms. Included studies were randomised or pseudo-randomised controlled trials investigating mechanically ventilated patients both in the intensive care unit and during surgery. Outcomes included adverse effects and the comparison of pressure measurements. Pooled analyses were performed to calculate risk ratios, effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals. Meta-analysis found preliminary evidence that adjustment of cuff pressure guided by objective measurement as compared with subjective measurement or observation of the pressure value alone, has benefit in preventing adverse effects. These included cough at two hours (odds ratio [OR] 0.42, confidence interval [CI] 0.23 to 0.79, P=0.007), hoarseness at 24 hours (OR 0.49, CI 0.31 to 0.76, P measurement to guide adjustment or observation of the pressure value alone may lead to patient-related adverse effects and inaccuracies. It is recommended that an objective form of measurement be used.

  2. Creativity, Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Díaz Caballero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The coming decades will require a high dose human creativity and genius. To cultivate on time the creative thinking seems to be a necessary command if it is wanted that the challenges ahead will not surprise with a style of thinking enclosed in a few flexible and stagnant paradigm. The objective of these pages is to analyses the creativity as a complex human process and its importance in the field of science and engineering.

  3. Managing Science.

    OpenAIRE

    Bert Klandermans

    2011-01-01

    Quality Assessment. Rector manificus , ladies and gentlemen, the answer that is given increasingly within the science system reads, “Let us count.” Let us count how many Euros have been acquired, how many publications are realized, and how many citations are generated. The higher the score, the better the researcher. However, it is not that simple. I showed how different the opportunities are for the three science domains to acquire research funds. A report of the Rathenau Institute about ......

  4. Science Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Coalition of Science and Technology (NCST) has elected S. Thomas Moser, of the international accounting firm Peat Marwick, to their board of advisors. Moser is the national director of Marwick's high-technology practice.NCST, based in Washington, D.C., is a broad-based science and technology advocacy organization that seeks to bridge the political interests of the scientific and academic research community with the business community.

  5. Using materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W O

    1981-01-23

    The science of the solid state has joined nuclear science and molecular biology as a field of major importance in the latter half of the 20th century. It took particular shape during the genesis of solid-state electronics and the post-transistor era of integrated circuits for telecommunications, computers, and digital signal machines. However, these developments were soon joined by techniques from the ancient fields of metallurgy and ceramics and contributions from the more current fields of synthetic polymers, rubbers, plastics, and modified bioorganic substances. This vast realm was characterized by a National Academy of Sciences study of the 1970's as "materials science and engineering." The public, as well as the scientific and engineering community, are currently concerned about the uses of research and development and the applications of knowledge for national progress. Consideration is given here to how well we are using the science of materials for industrial strength and such governmental objectives as national security and energy economy.

  6. NEOCam: The Near-Earth Object Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, Amy K.; NEOCam Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is a Discovery mission in Phase A study designed to carry out a large-scale survey of the inner solar system's minor planets. Its primary science objectives are to understand the origins of the solar system's small bodies and the processes that evolved them into their present state. The mission will also characterize the impact hazard from near-Earth objects as well as rare populations such as Earth Trojans and interior-to-Earth objects. In the process, NEOCam can identify targets for future robotic or human exploration. Using a 50 cm telescope operating in two infrared wavelengths (4-5.2 and 6-10 um), the mission is expected to detect and characterize close to 100,000 NEOs and thousands of comets. By achieving high survey completeness in the main belt down to kilometer-scale objects, NEOCam-derived size and albedo distributions can be directly compared to those of the NEOs. The hypotheses that small, dark NEOs and comets are preferentially disrupted at low perihelia can be tested by searching for correlations between size, orbital elements, and albedos. NEOCam's Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point halo orbit enables a large instantaneous field of regard with a view of low solar elongations, high data rates, and a cold thermal environment. Like its predecessor, WISE/NEOWISE, candidate minor planet detections will be rapidly disseminated to the community via the Minor Planet Center. NEOCam images, source databases, and tables of derived physical properties will be delivered to the community via NASA's Infrared Science Archive and PDS.

  7. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  8. Introducing Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2008-01-01

    The practice of teaching programming at universities, colleges and high schools went through a major change roughly in the mid 1990s: The teaching of objectorientation in introductory courses slowly became mainstream. Fairly soon, the Object First or Objects Early school of thought was formulated......, stating that teaching object orientation by discussing objects from the very start is a good thing....

  9. Visual object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  10. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume I, Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  11. Preliminary Study of m(b) Bias at Selected Soviet Seismic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-21

    8217-R66 395 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF M(B) BIRS AT SELECTED SOVIET 1/1 SEISMIC STRTIONS(U) SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORP ARLINGTON VR A S RYRLL...earthquakes in each source region was not given in the ,.t 1980 paper, but in the earlier work it ranged from 35 events for Asia and the Mediter - ranean to

  12. Preliminary Investigation of the 1991 Medical College Admission Test Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weichang; Mitchell, Karen J.

    A substantially revised Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) was introduced in spring 1991. The new examination is designed to assess critical thinking skills, basic concepts and problem solving facility in science, and writing skills. This paper reports preliminary findings on the factor structure of the revised MCAT, which consists of four…

  13. An Objective Theory of Probability (Routledge Revivals)

    CERN Document Server

    Gillies, Donald

    2012-01-01

    This reissue of D. A. Gillies highly influential work, first published in 1973, is a philosophical theory of probability which seeks to develop von Mises' views on the subject. In agreement with von Mises, the author regards probability theory as a mathematical science like mechanics or electrodynamics, and probability as an objective, measurable concept like force, mass or charge. On the other hand, Dr Gillies rejects von Mises' definition of probability in terms of limiting frequency and claims that probability should be taken as a primitive or undefined term in accordance with modern axioma

  14. Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Object manipulation facilitates kind-based object individuation of shape-similar objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were......, Experiment 4 revealed that allowing infants to manipulate objects shortly before the individuation task enabled them to individuate shape-similar objects from different categories. In Experiment 5, allowing object manipulation did not induce infants to individuate natural-looking objects from the same...... category. These findings suggest that object manipulation facilitates kind-based individuation of shape-similar objects by 12-month-olds. Keywords: Object individuation; Object shape; Object manipulation; Kind representations; Infancy...

  16. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Katherine; Culbertson, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Scientific discovery, technological revolutions, and complex global challenges are commonplace in the modern era. People are bombarded with news about climate change, pandemics, and genetically modified organisms, and scientific literacy has never been more important than in the present day. Yet only 29% of American adults have sufficient understanding to be able to read science stories reported in the popular press [Miller, 2010], and American students consistently rank below other nations in math and science [National Center for Education Statistics, 2012].

  17. Object-Interviews: Folding, Unfolding, and Refolding Perceptions of Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Naomi Nordstrom PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the object-interview as a Deleuzian space in which subjects and objects, living and nonliving, entangle together. I developed the object-interview to understand the connections that 11 Midwestern family history genealogists made between objects (e.g., documents, photographs, and other artifacts and their ancestors. The object-interview suggests an alternative way to think and do qualitative interviews informed by poststructural theories. The method draws on French philosopher Deleuze's concepts of the fold, events, and a life, as well as conventional qualitative interview literature. Deleuze's concepts offer a way to rethink objects and subjects as fibrous, connective, and folding entities in qualitative interviews. Such a rethinking offers an alternative to subject-centered conventional qualitative interviews in which subjects are teased apart from objects and subjects primarily produce knowledge. The object-interview, then, is a Deleuzian space in which the supposed distinctions between subjects and objects, as well as other binary divisions, become indistinct, or entangled, as both subjects and objects produce knowledge. That space enabled me to create the concept ensemble of life—a constantly shifting group of objects associated with a person's life. In this article, I describe the theoretical entanglement of the object-interview, the object-interview itself, the data it produced in my dissertation study, and the significance of the method to the field of qualitative research methods.

  18. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  19. PRELIMINARY ACCOUNTING WORKS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    HOLT GHEORGHE

    2017-01-01

    The preparation of financial statements is a complex process of aggregation of data and accounting information in the perspective of establishing economic and financial indicators. The adoption of a uniform set of preliminary accounting work for the closure of the current financial exercises is the only way for romanian companies to ensure that their financial situations are reliable, and on this basis, the users can make the best decisions. According to IASB Framework, the objective...

  20. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  1. Exploring science through science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    Luokkala, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    How does Einstein’s description of space and time compare with Dr. Who? Can James Bond really escape from an armor-plated railroad car by cutting through the floor with a laser concealed in a wristwatch? What would it take to create a fully-intelligent android, such as Star Trek’s Commander Data? How might we discover intelligent civilizations on other planets in the galaxy? Is human teleportation possible? Will our technological society ever reach the point at which it becomes lawful to discriminate on the basis of genetic information, as in the movie GATTACA? Exploring Science Through Science Fiction addresses these and other interesting questions, using science fiction as a springboard for discussing fundamental science concepts and cutting-edge science research. The book is designed as a primary text for a college-level course which should appeal to students in the fine arts and humanities as well as to science and engineering students. It includes references to original research papers, landmark scie...

  2. As Science Evolves, How Can Science Policy? NBER Working Paper No. 16002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Getting science policy right is a core objective of government that bears on scientific advance, economic growth, health, and longevity. Yet the process of science is changing. As science advances and knowledge accumulates, ensuing generations of innovators spend longer in training and become more narrowly expert, shifting key innovations (i)…

  3. Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Hauke C.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

  4. Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Hauke C.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

  5. As Science Evolves, How Can Science Policy? NBER Working Paper No. 16002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Getting science policy right is a core objective of government that bears on scientific advance, economic growth, health, and longevity. Yet the process of science is changing. As science advances and knowledge accumulates, ensuing generations of innovators spend longer in training and become more narrowly expert, shifting key innovations (i)…

  6. 圖書資訊學「研究方法」數位學習 教材設計與應用:實例探討 The Development of Digital Learning Objects for a “Research Methods” Course in Library and Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju L. Chang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 由於資訊與通訊技術持續發展,以及民眾對於新科技產品的接受度提高等因素,使得數位學習環境日臻成熟,各國政府紛紛投入資金與人力,建置數位學習課程與開發數位教材,以節省重複開發教材與課程之成本,增加學生多元學習之管道,豐富學生的學習經驗,並落實終身學習社會之理念。本計劃企圖以ADDIE教學設計模式,配合快速數位學習工具,開發學習物件,將其應用於圖書資訊學研究所研究方法課程中,並且以教育部所頒佈的數位教材認證規範作為評估學生使用學習物件的情形。希盼評估結果能作為擬定學習物件設計原則之依據,以及大專院校教師導入數位學習物件於課堂教學中之參考。With the continued development of information and communication technologies, and an increased acceptance for new technological products, the digital learning environment has gradually matured. Governments worldwide have invested financial and human resources to create e-learning courses and develop e-learning materials for four purposes: 1 avoid duplicating the same curriculum, 2 increase learning options, 3 enrich the learning experience, and 4 support a society for lifelong learning. This study attempts to apply the ADDIE instructional design model, along with Rapid E-Learning tools, to develop learning objects for “Research Methods,” a common graduate course in the Library and Information Sciences department. The certification standards for e-learning materials, issued by the Ministry of Education, were adopted as the assessment tool to understand the learner’s attitude and preference regarding those learning objects. It is expected that the research outcome serve as a basis for formulating DLO design principles, and for better applying DLOs in the classroom environment.

  7. Photometric Calibrations for 21st Century Science

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Stephen; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Deustua, Susana E.; Smith, J. Allyn; Adelman, Saul; Allam, Sahar; Baptista, Brian; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Clem, James L.; Conley, Alex; Edelstein, Jerry; Elias, Jay; Glass, Ian; Henden, Arne; Howell, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The answers to fundamental science questions in astrophysics, ranging from the history of the expansion of the universe to the sizes of nearby stars, hinge on our ability to make precise measurements of diverse astronomical objects. As our knowledge of the underlying physics of objects improves along with advances in detectors and instrumentation, the limits on our capability to extract science from measurements is set, not by our lack of understanding of the nature of these objects, but rath...

  8. Student science enrichment training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF PRELIMINARY RULINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Mădălina LARION

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the effects of the preliminary rulings rendered by the Court of Justice for the judicial body that made the reference and for other bodies dealing with similar cases, for the member states, for the European Union’ s institutions and for EU legal order. Starting from the binding effect of the preliminary judgment for national judicial bodies, which requires them to follow the ruling or make a new reference, to the lack of precedent doctrine in EU law, continuing with the possibility to indirectly verify the compatibility of national law of the member states with EU law and ending with the administrative or legislative measures that can or must be taken by the member states, the study intends to highlight the limits, nuances and consequences of the binding effect. It mentions the contribution of the national courts and of the Court of Justice of the European Union to the development of EU law, such as clarifying autonomous notions and it emphasizes the preliminary procedure's attributes of being a form of judicial protection of individual rights, as well as a means to review the legality of acts of EU institutions. The paper is meant to be a useful instrument for practitioners. Therefor, it also deals with the possibility and limits of asking new questions, in order to obtain reconsideration or a refinement of the legal issue and with the problem of judicial control over the interpretation and application of the preliminary ruling by the lower court.

  10. Object Replication and CORBA Fault-Tolerant Object Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Arc hitecture) provides 16Common Object Services for distributed application develo pment, but none of them are fault-tolerance related services. In this paper, we propose a replicated object based Fault-Tolerant Object Service (FTOS) for COR BA environment. Two fault-tolerant mechanisms are provided in FTOS including dy namic voting mechanism and object replication mechanism. The dynamic voting mech anism uses majority-voting strategy to ensure object state consistency in failu re situations. The object replication mechanism can help system administrators t o replicate and start-up objects easily. Our implementation provides a library according to the style of COSS. With this library, programmers can develop distr ibuted applications with fault-tolerance capability very easily.

  11. Probabilistic object and viewpoint models for active object recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For mobile robots to perform certain tasks in human environments, fast and accurate object verification and recognition is essential. Bayesian approaches to active object recognition have proved effective in a number of cases, allowing information...

  12. NUCLEAR SCIENCE CURRICULUM PROJECT, PROJECT I, INSTRUCTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMAREN, JAMES

    ON THE PREMISE THAT A KNOWLEDGE OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE IS ESSENTIAL FOR INTELLIGENT DECISION-MAKING REGARDING ITS USES, THE NUCLEAR SCIENCE CURRICULUM PROJECT WAS DEVELOPED. ITS OBJECTIVE IS TO PROVIDE A PROGRAM THAT CAN BE EFFECTIVELY USED IN SCIENCE CLASSES TO PROVIDE AN UNDERSTANDING OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND ITS IMPACT ON SOCIETY. THOUGH TEACHER…

  13. The Power of Objectives: Moving beyond Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jack J.; Phillips, Patti P.

    2010-01-01

    Although the need for project objectives is obvious, their value and role are much broader than most think. In this article, we explore the need for higher levels of objectives, along with tips and techniques to develop them properly. More important, we examine the benefits of objectives from many perspectives. In today's competitive environment,…

  14. Young Children's Self-Generated Object Views and Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karin H.; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Swain, Shelley N.

    2014-01-01

    Two important and related developments in children between 18 and 24 months of age are the rapid expansion of object name vocabularies and the emergence of an ability to recognize objects from sparse representations of their geometric shapes. In the same period, children also begin to show a preference for planar views (i.e., views of objects held…

  15. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary determination. 150.217 Section 150.217... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... designees). (b) Notifies the State of CMS's preliminary determination that the State has failed to...

  16. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  17. Ethical Values and Biological Diversity: A Preliminary Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel I. Cohen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been five major extinction events over geological time. However, the current rate of extinction or reduction of species and their habitats is directly related to anthropomorphic causes. For seventh grade students, biodiversity and its ethical considerations were introduced in a life sciences curriculum, following lessons on evolution, natural selection, and decent from common ancestry. This paper takes a preliminary look at the approach used in this unit, the ethical survey developed, and improvements to be made in subsequent years.

  18. Islam and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    The following sections are included: * The Holy Quran and Science * Modem Science, A Greco- Islamic Legacy * The Decline of Sciences in Islam * The Limitations of Science * Faith and Science * The Present Picture of Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Renaissance of Sciences in Islam * Steps Needed for Building up Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Science Education * Science Foundations in Islam * Technology in Our Countries * Concluding Remarks * REFERENCES

  19. Literacy, science, and science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVittie, Janet Elizabeth

    In examining the connections between literacy, science and science education, I laid out a number of questions. For example, what sorts of literate tools might facilitate writing to learn, and do children who are just becoming literate use these tools? I then examined the writing of children in science class in an attempt to determine if their writing can indeed facilitate their learning. The results of this research could help teachers make decisions about the use of writing in the learning of science. The kinds of literate tools I identified as being potentially helpful were transitionals---those words or grammatical devices which demonstrate how ideas are connected. Also, I suggested that data tables, sentences and paragraphs were also useful for students to learn. I found that grade 5/6 students used a wide range of literate tools, but that they were much more competent with those tools which were both oral and literate than those which could only be used for writing (punctuation, sentences, paragraphs, and data tables). When I attempted to determine if the children used their writing to learn, I found very little evidence that this was certainly so. However, there was some evidence that paragraphs had the potential to create a "dialogue" between student writing and thinking, so the students could make more explicit connections between science ideas. Lastly, I noticed certain gender difference in the classroom. Because of this, I contrasted the writing of the girls with the writing of the boys. I learned the girls were generally much more capable writers than the boys. More interesting, however, was that the girls generally attempted to explain their science concepts in different ways than did the boys. The girls were more likely to rely on their own reasoning, whereas the boys were more likely to persist in using culturally created science explanations. The research findings have important implications for analyzing students' learning and for finding ways to

  20. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.