WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary planar impact

  1. ANALYSIS ON IMPACT RESPONSES OF UNRESTRAINED PLANAR FRAME STRUCTURE(Ⅱ)-NUMERICAL EXAMPLE ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Rong; ZHENG Hai-tao; XUE Song-tao; TANG He-sheng

    2005-01-01

    By using the formula derived in Part (Ⅰ), the instant response of an unrestrained planar frame structure subjected to the impact of a moving rigid-body are evaluated and analysed.The impact force-time history between the structure and the moving rigid-body, shear force and bending moment distribution along the beams, axial force distribution along the bars were calculated. The wave propagation phenomena of the longitudinal wave in the bars, the flexural and shear waves in the beams were also analysed. The numerical results show that the time duration of impact force is controlled by the flexural wave and the longitudinal wave; the shear effect in beams should not be neglected in the impact response analysis of structures.

  2. Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    hippocampal slice samples to better understand blast-induced brain damage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS RDX spheres , organotypic cultures of hippocampus, small...Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices by Thuvan Piehler, Rohan Banton, Lars Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Ray...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-7197 April 2015 Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices Thuvan

  3. The impact of solar cell technology on planar solar array performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael W.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a study into the potential impact of advanced solar cell technologies on the characteristics (weight, cost, area) of typical planar solar arrays designed for low, medium and geosynchronous altitude earth orbits are discussed. The study considered planar solar array substrate designs of lightweight, rigid-panel graphite epoxy and ultra-lightweight Kapton. The study proposed to answer the following questions: Do improved cell characteristics translate into array-level weight, size and cost improvements; What is the relative importance of cell efficiency, weight and cost with respect to array-level performance; How does mission orbital environment affect array-level performance. Comparisons were made at the array level including all mechanisms, hinges, booms, and harnesses. Array designs were sized to provide 5kW of array power (not spacecraft bus power, which is system dependent but can be scaled from given values). The study used important grass roots issues such as use of the GaAs radiation damage coefficients as determined by Anspaugh. Detailed costing was prepared, including cell and cover costs, and manufacturing attrition rates for the various cell types.

  4. PROGRESSIVE FRAGMENT MODELING OF FAILURE WAVE IN CERAMICS UNDER PLANAR IMPACT LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Guo-wen; LIU Zhan-fang; HUANG Pei-yan

    2006-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramics have heterogeneous meso-structures which result in high singularity in stress distribution. Based on this, a progressive fragment model was proposed which describes the failure wave formation and propagation in shocked ceramics.The governing equation of the failure wave was characterized by inelastic bulk strain with material damage and fracture. And the inelastic bulk strain consists of dilatant strain from nucleation and expansion of microcracks and condensed strain from collapse of original pores. Numerical simulation of the free surface velocity was performed in good agreement with planar impact experiments on 92.93% aluminas at China Academy of Engineering Physics. And the longitudinal, lateral and shear stress histories upon the arrival of the failure wave were predicted, which present the diminished shear strength and lost spall strength in the failed layer.

  5. The Keurusselkä impact structure, Finland-Impact origin confirmed by characterization of planar deformation features in quartz grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Raiskila, Selen; Osinski, Gordon R.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Lehtinen, Martti

    2010-03-01

    Although the meteorite impact origin of the Keurusselkä impact structure (central Finland) has been established on the basis of the occurrence of shatter cones, no detailed microscopic examination of the impactites from this structure has so far been made. Previous microscope investigations of in situ rocks did not yield any firm evidence of shock features (Raiskila et al. 2008; Kinnunen and Hietala 2009). We have carried out microscopic observations on petrographic thin sections from seven in situ shatter cone samples and report here the discovery of planar fractures (PFs) and planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz and feldspar grains. The detection and characterization of microscopic shock metamorphic features in the investigated samples substantiates a meteorite impact origin for the Keurusselkä structure. The crystallographic orientations of 372 PDF sets in 276 quartz grains were measured, using a universal stage (U-stage) microscope, for five of the seven distinct shatter cone samples. Based on our U-stage results, we estimate that investigated shatter cone samples from the Keurusselkä structure have experienced peak shock pressures from approximately 2 GPa to slightly less than 20 GPa for the more heavily shocked samples. The decoration of most of the PDFs with fluid inclusions also indicates that these originally amorphous shock features were altered by postimpact processes. Finally, our field observations indicate that the exposed surface corresponds to the crater floor; it is, however, difficult to estimate the exact diameter of the structure and the precise amount of material that has been eroded since its formation.

  6. Preliminary study to AP mine neutralisation by EFP impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulman, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary study has been conducted into the response of anti-personnel mines at the impact of an Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP). The objective was to obtain a low order reaction (preferably a deflagration) to minimise collateral damage. Further the method should be capable to neutralise min

  7. Fort Drum Preliminary Fiscal Impact Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    of inmigrants 0 Fiscal histories, projections, and impacts for counties, cities, towns, villages, school districts, and the state. The results of...distribution of the inmigrating population within the three counties. Thus, an accurate forecast of the expected distribution of the inmigrating population is a...The distribution of inmigration to the school districts was made using the analysis explained in Chapter 3. Children associated with 800 new on-post

  8. Impact of electrode preparation on the bending of asymmetric planar electro-active polymer microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Florian M.; Töpper, Tino; Osmani, Bekim; Winterhalter, Carla; Müller, Bert

    2014-03-01

    Compliant electrodes of microstructures have been a research topic for many years because of the increasing interest in consumer electronics, robotics, and medical applications. This interest includes electrically activated polymers (EAP), mainly applied in robotics, lens systems, haptics and foreseen in a variety of medical devices. Here, the electrodes consist of metals such as gold, graphite, conductive polymers or certain composites. The common metal electrodes have been magnetron sputtered, thermally evaporated or prepared using ion implantation. In order to compare the functionality of planar metal electrodes in EAP microstructures, we have investigated the mechanical properties of magnetron sputtered and thermally evaporated electrodes taking advantage of cantilever bending of the asymmetric, rectangular microstructures. We demonstrate that the deflection of the sputtered electrodes is up to 39 % larger than that of thermally evaporated nanometer-thin film on a single silicone film. This difference has even more impact on nanometer-thin, multi-stack, low-voltage EAP actuators. The stiffening effect of many metallic electrode layers is expected to be one of the greatest drawbacks in the multi-stack approaches, which will be even more pronounced if the elastomer layer thickness will be in the sub-micrometer range. Additionally, an improvement in voltage and strain resolution is presented, which is as low as 2 V or 5 × 10-5 above 10 V applied.

  9. Occupant injury in rollover crashes - Contribution of planar impacts with objects and other vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Johan; Poplin, Gerald; McMurry, Tim; Crandall, Jeff; Kerrigan, Jason

    2015-12-01

    Planar impacts with objects and other vehicles may increase the risk and severity of injury in rollover crashes. The current study compares the frequency of injury measures (MAIS 2+, 3+, and 4+; fatal; AIS 2+ head and cervical spine; and AIS 3+ head and thorax) as well as vehicle type distribution (passenger car, SUV, van, and light truck), crash kinematics, and occupant demographics between single vehicle single event rollovers (SV Pure) and multiple event rollovers to determine which types of multiple event rollovers can be pooled with SV Pure to study rollover induced occupant injury. Four different types of multiple event rollovers were defined: single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is the most severe event (SV Prim and MV Prim) and single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is not the most severe event (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim). Information from real world crashes was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the period from 1995 through 2011. Belted, contained or partially ejected, adult occupants in vehicles that completed 1-16 lateral quarter turns were assigned to one of the five rollover categories. The results showed that the frequency of injury in non-primary rollovers (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim) involving no more than one roof inversion is substantially greater than in SV Pure, but that this disparity diminishes for crashes involving multiple inversions. It can further be concluded that for a given number of roof inversions, the distribution of injuries and crash characteristics in SV Pure and SV Prim crashes are sufficiently similar for these categories to be considered collectively for purposes of understanding etiologies and developing strategies for prevention.

  10. Impacts of SiO2 planarization on optical thin film properties and laser damage resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, T.; Wang, H.; Jankowska, E.; Reagan, B. A.; Rocca, J. J.; Stolz, C. J.; Mirkarimi, P.; Folta, J.; Roehling, J.; Markosyan, A.; Route, R. R.; Fejer, M. M.; Menoni, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Colorado State University (CSU) have co-developed a planarization process to smooth nodular defects. This process consists of individually depositing then etching tens of nanometers of SiO2 with a ratio of 2:1, respectively. Previous work shows incorporating the angular dependent ion surface etching and unidirectional deposition reduces substrate defect cross-sectional area by 90%. This work investigates the micro-structural and optical modifications of planarized SiO2 films deposited by ion beam sputtering (IBS). It is shown the planarized SiO2 thin films have 3x increase in absorption and 18% reduction in thin film stress as compared to control (as deposited) SiO2. Planarized SiO2 films exhibit 13% increase in RMS surface roughness with respect to the control and super polished fused silica substrates. Laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) results indicate the planarization process has no effect on the onset fluence but alters the shape of the probability vs fluence trace.

  11. Preliminary assessment of beam impact consequences on LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Carra, F; Dallocchio, A; Deboy, D; Mariani, N; Rossi, A; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2011-01-01

    The correct functioning of the LHC collimation system is crucial to attain the desired LHC luminosity performance. However, the requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, the robustness of the collimators plays an important role. An accident, which causes the proton beam to hit a collimator, might result in severe beam-induced damage and, in some cases, replacement of the collimator, with consequent downtime for the machine. In this paper, several case studies representing different realistic beam impact scenarios are shown. A preliminary analysis of the thermal response of tertiary collimators to beam impact is presented, from which the most critical cases can be identified. Such work will also help to give an initial insight on the operational constraints of the LHC by taking into account all relevant collimator damage limits.

  12. Preliminary study of impact fragility to RC wall subjected to aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Hahm, Dae Gi; Choi, In Kil [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    International experience has shown that internal and external hazards such as fires, earthquakes, and aircraft impacts can be significant safety contributors to the risk to infrastructures such as nuclear power plants. Since the aircraft accident at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, an aircraft impact problem has been increasingly of the interest and is one of important categories of an unexpected external hazard field. To date, aircraft impact analyses has most focused on the response analysis to the target structures. However, this preliminary study carried out an impact fragility analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) wall subjected to an aircraft impact. The aircraft velocity is used as the important variable of this study. The impact analysis of the applied Ri era's forcing function is used by Abaqus/Explicit.

  13. Shatter cones and planar deformation features confirm Santa Marta in Piauí State, Brazil, as an impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Grace Juliana Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Marcos Alberto Rodrigues; Crósta, Alvaro Penteado; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Góes, Ana Maria; Kowitz, Astrid

    2014-10-01

    A total of 184 confirmed impact structures are known on Earth to date, as registered by the Earth Impact Database. The discovery of new impact structures has progressed in recent years at a rather low rate of about two structures per year. Here, we introduce the discovery of the approximately 10 km diameter Santa Marta impact structure in Piauí State in northeastern Brazil. Santa Marta is a moderately sized complex crater structure, with a raised rim and an off-center, approximately 3.2 km wide central elevated area interpreted to coincide with the central uplift of the impact structure. The Santa Marta structure was first recognized in remote sensing imagery and, later, by distinct gravity and magnetic anomalies. Here, we provide results obtained during the first detailed ground survey. The Bouguer anomaly map shows a transition from a positive to a negative anomaly within the structure along a NE-SW trend, which may be associated with the basement signature and in parts with the signature developed after the crater was formed. Macroscopic evidence for impact in the form of shatter cones has been found in situ at the base around the central elevated plateau, and also in the interior of fractured conglomerate boulders occurring on the floor of the surrounding annular basin. Planar deformation features (PDFs) are abundant in sandstones of the central elevated plateau and at scattered locations in the inner part of the ring syncline. Together, shatter cones and PDFs provide definitive shock evidence that confirms the impact origin of Santa Marta. Crystallographic orientations of PDFs occurring in multiple sets in quartz grains are indicative of peak shock pressures of 20-25 GPa in the rocks exposed at present in the interior of the crater. In contrast to recent studies that have used additional, and sometimes highly controversial, alleged shock recognition features, Santa Marta was identified based on well-understood, traditional shock evidence.

  14. Galileo Infrared Observations of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 G Impact Fireball: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Weissman, P. R.; Segura, M.; Hui, J.; Smythe, W. D.; Johnson, T.; Baines, K. H.; Drossart, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Leader, F. E.; Team, NIMS Science

    1995-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft was fortuitously situated for a direct view of the impacts of the fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 in Jupiter's atmosphere. The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer instrument observed several of the impact events in several discrete bands and with a temporal resolution of roughly five seconds. This report provides a preliminary description of the fireball phase.

  15. Are simple IMRT beams more robust against MLC error? Exploring the impact of MLC errors on planar quality assurance and plan quality for different complexity beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiazhou; Jin, Xiance; Peng, Jiayuan; Xie, Jiang; Chen, Junchao; Hu, Weigang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of beam complexities on planar quality assur-ance and plan quality robustness by introducing MLC errors in intensity-modulate radiation therapy. Forty patients' planar quality assurance (QA) plans were enrolled in this study, including 20 dynamic MLC (DMLC) IMRT plans and 20 static MLC (SMLC) IMRT plans. The total beam numbers were 150 and 160 for DMLC and SMLC, respectively. Six different magnitudes of MLC errors were introduced to these beams. Gamma pass rates were calculated by comparing error-free fluence and error-induced fluence. The plan quality variation was acquired by comparing PTV coverage. Eight complexity scores were calculated based on the beam flu-ence and the MLC sequence. The complexity scores include fractal dimension, monitor unit, modulation index, fluence map complexity, weighted average of field area, weighted average of field perimeter, and small aperture ratio (plan quality varia-tion. For planar QA, the most significant complexity index was fractal dimension for DMLC (p = -0.40) and weighted segment area for SMLC (p = 0.27) at low magnitude MLC error. For plan quality, the most significant complexity index was weighted segment perimeter for DMLC (p = 0.56) and weighted segment area for SMLC (p= 0.497) at low magnitude MLC error. The sensitivity of planar QA was weakly associated with the field complexity with low magnitude MLC error, but the plan quality robustness was associated with beam complexity. Plans with simple beams were more robust to MLC error.

  16. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  17. Impact ionisation electroluminescence in planar GaAs-based heterostructure Gunn diodes: Spatial distribution and impact of doping non-uniformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Bajo, M.; Dunn, G.; Stephen, A.; Khalid, Ata; Cumming, D. R. S.; Oxley, C. H.; Glover, J.; Kuball, M.

    2013-03-01

    When biased in the negative differential resistance regime, electroluminescence (EL) is emitted from planar GaAs heterostructure Gunn diodes. This EL is due to the recombination of electrons in the device channel with holes that are generated by impact ionisation when the Gunn domains reach the anode edge. The EL forms non-uniform patterns whose intensity shows short-range intensity variations in the direction parallel to the contacts and decreases along the device channel towards the cathode. This paper employs Monte Carlo models, in conjunction with the experimental data, to analyse these non-uniform EL patterns and to study the carrier dynamics responsible for them. It is found that the short-range lateral (i.e., parallel to the device contacts) EL patterns are probably due to non-uniformities in the doping of the anode contact, illustrating the usefulness of EL analysis on the detection of such inhomogeneities. The overall decreasing EL intensity towards the anode is also discussed in terms of the interaction of holes with the time-dependent electric field due to the transit of the Gunn domains. Due to their lower relative mobility and the low electric field outside of the Gunn domain, freshly generated holes remain close to the anode until the arrival of a new domain accelerates them towards the cathode. When the average over the transit of several Gunn domains is considered, this results in a higher hole density, and hence a higher EL intensity, next to the anode.

  18. The Impact of Reality Therapy in a School for Emotionally Disturbed Youth: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Kevin I.

    This preliminary report examined the impact of W. Glasser's Reality Therapy techniques on teacher attitudes and the behavior of emotionally disturbed elementary and middle school students. A summary of Glasser's Control Theory and his recent revisions pertaining to Reality Therapy techniques is included as well as a review of the outcome…

  19. Preliminary Comparison of the Response of LHC Tertiary Collimators to Proton and Ion Beam Impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider is designed to bring into collision protons as well as heavy ions. Accidents involving impacts on collimators can happen for both species. The interaction of lead ions with matter differs to that of protons, thus making this scenario a new interesting case to study as it can result in different damage aspects on the collimator. This paper will present a preliminary comparison of the response of collimators to proton and ion beam impacts.

  20. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  1. Health impacts of garage workers: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttamara, S. (AIT, Bangkok (Thailand). Division of Environmental Engineering); Alwis, K.U.

    1994-05-01

    This research study was carried out in two automobile repair garages situated in the Bangkok metropolitan area, employing 47 and 12 workers respectively. Air sampling, biological monitoring (blood, urine), noise monitoring, and audiometry of workers were done to assess the occupational environment and its impact on the workers. The occupational hygiene survey was carried out to observe the working conditions of both garages. It was found that conditions at both sites have a strong negative impact on the health of workers. The lead in air of Garage 1 was 0.20 mg/m[sup 3] which is the same as the threshold limit value (TLV) for lead in air for a working environment. The level of lead in blood of four workers of each garage was above the exposed level. According to the occupational hygiene survey carried out at both garages, 79% of workers of Garage 1 and 70% of workers of Gage 2 suffered from redness of the eyes (eye pain, gritty feeling), and 5% and 2% of workers of Garage 1 and Garage 2 respectively, complained about breathing difficulties. Control measures should be taken to minimize pollution due to dust, fumes, and noise which would reduce the health impacts and lead to a healthier workforce.

  2. Preliminary assessment of soil erosion impact during forest restoration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Sheng; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan has a fragile geology and steep terrain. The 921 earthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Morakot, and the exploitation and use of the woodland by local residents have severely damaged the landscape and posed more severe challenges to the montane ecosystem. A land conservation project has been implemented by the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University which reclaimed approximately 1,500 hectares of leased woodland from 2008 to 2010, primarily used to grow bamboo, tea trees, betel nut, fruit, and vegetable and about 1,298 hectares have been reforested. The process of forest restoration involves clear cutting, soil preparation and a six-year weeding and tending period which may affect the amount of soil erosion dramatically. This study tried to assess the impact of forest restoration from the perspective of soil erosion through leased-land recovery periods and would like to benefit the practical implementation of reforestation in the future. A new plantation reforested in the early 2013 and a nearby 29-year-old mature forest were chosen as experimental and comparison sites. A self-designed weir was set up in a small watershed of each site for the runoff and sediment yield observation. According to the observed results from May to August 2013, a raining season in Taiwan, the runoff and erosion would not as high as we expected, because the in-situ soil texture of both sites is sandy loam to sandy with high percentage of coarse fragment which increased the infiltration. There were around 200 kg to 250 kg of wet sand/soil yielded in mature forest during the hit of Typhoon Soulik while the rest of the time only suspended material be yielded at both sites. To further investigate the influence of the six-year weeding and tending period, long term observations are needed for a more completed assessment of soil erosion impact.

  3. Experiment to determine electrical conductivity and equation of state data from Ohmically exploded tamped planar foils - preliminary diagnostic results and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruden, E. L.; Amdahl, D. J.; Brown, D. J.; Grabowski, T. C.; Gregg, C. W.; Kostora, M. R.; Martinez, B. M.; Parker, J. V.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Poulsen, P.

    2009-11-01

    Diagnostic results from initial nondestructive (thick foil, low current) tests are presented for an experiment to simultaneously determine the electrical conductivity, pressure, density, specific energy, and temperature time histories of a planar metal foil tamped by a well characterized transparent material and exploded by a 36 μF, 50 kV rated capacitor bank discharge. Voltage differentials measure the foil's surface electric field, a B-dot probe measures surface current density, and a laser velocity interferometer (VISAR) measures dynamic foil thickness. From such and future filtered photodiode measurements, the desired properties will be inferred up to a few eV and within an order of magnitude of solid density. The purpose of the present phase of the experiment is to develop and validate diagnostic designs, data analysis techniques, and 2-D MHD simulations of the process using the MACH2 code.

  4. Preliminary study on magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation for flexible surgical robots in transoral surgery: methods and phantom experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Zhang, Changchun; Liu, Li; Meng, Max Q-H

    2017-10-05

    Flexible surgical robot can work in confined and complex environments, which makes it a good option for minimally invasive surgery. In order to utilize flexible manipulators in complicated and constrained surgical environments, it is of great significance to monitor the position and shape of the curvilinear manipulator in real time during the procedures. In this paper, we propose a magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation system for flexible surgical robots in the transoral surgery. The system can provide the real-time tip position and shape information of the robot during the operation. We use wire-driven flexible robot to serve as the manipulator. It has three degrees of freedom. A permanent magnet is mounted at the distal end of the robot. Its magnetic field can be sensed with a magnetic sensor array. Therefore, position and orientation of the tip can be estimated utilizing a tracking method. A shape sensing algorithm is then carried out to estimate the real-time shape based on the tip pose. With the tip pose and shape display in the 3D reconstructed CT model, navigation can be achieved. Using the proposed system, we carried out planar navigation experiments on a skull phantom to touch three different target positions under the navigation of the skull display interface. During the experiments, the real-time shape has been well monitored and distance errors between the robot tip and the targets in the skull have been recorded. The mean navigation error is [Formula: see text] mm, while the maximum error is 3.2 mm. The proposed method provides the advantages that no sensors are needed to mount on the robot and no line-of-sight problem. Experimental results verified the feasibility of the proposed method.

  5. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Perturbations of planar algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of {\\em weight} of a planar algebra $P$ and construct a new planar algebra referred as the {\\em perturbation of $P$} by the weight. We establish a one-to-one correspondence between pivotal structures on 2-categories and perturbations of planar algebras by weights. To each bifinite bimodule over $II_1$-factors, we associate a {\\em bimodule planar algebra} bimodule corresponds naturally with sphericality of the bimodule planar algebra. As a consequence of this, we reproduce an extension of Jones' theorem (of associating 'subfactor planar algebras' to extremal subfactors). Conversely, given a bimodule planar algebra, we construct a bifinite bimodule whose associated bimodule planar algebra is the one which we start with using perturbations and Jones-Walker-Shlyakhtenko-Kodiyalam-Sunder method of reconstructing an extremal subfactor from a subfactor planar algebra. We show that the perturbation class of a bimodule planar algebra contains a unique spherical unimodular bimodule planar algeb...

  7. Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2012-09-01

    Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

  8. Boxing and mixed martial arts: preliminary traumatic neuromechanical injury risk analyses from laboratory impact dosage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J; Benzel, Edward C; Miele, Vincent J; Morr, Douglas R; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-05-01

    In spite of ample literature pointing to rotational and combined impact dosage being key contributors to head and neck injury, boxing and mixed martial arts (MMA) padding is still designed to primarily reduce cranium linear acceleration. The objects of this study were to quantify preliminary linear and rotational head impact dosage for selected boxing and MMA padding in response to hook punches; compute theoretical skull, brain, and neck injury risk metrics; and statistically compare the protective effect of various glove and head padding conditions. An instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was struck in 54 pendulum impacts replicating hook punches at low (27-29 J) and high (54-58 J) energy. Five padding combinations were examined: unpadded (control), MMA glove-unpadded head, boxing glove-unpadded head, unpadded pendulum-boxing headgear, and boxing glove-boxing headgear. A total of 17 injury risk parameters were measured or calculated. All padding conditions reduced linear impact dosage. Other parameters significantly decreased, significantly increased, or were unaffected depending on padding condition. Of real-world conditions (MMA glove-bare head, boxing glove-bare head, and boxing glove-headgear), the boxing glove-headgear condition showed the most meaningful reduction in most of the parameters. In equivalent impacts, the MMA glove-bare head condition induced higher rotational dosage than the boxing glove-bare head condition. Finite element analysis indicated a risk of brain strain injury in spite of significant reduction of linear impact dosage. In the replicated hook punch impacts, all padding conditions reduced linear but not rotational impact dosage. Head and neck dosage theoretically accumulates fastest in MMA and boxing bouts without use of protective headgear. The boxing glove-headgear condition provided the best overall reduction in impact dosage. More work is needed to develop improved protective padding to minimize

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G. [Department of Industrial and Civil Engineering (DICI), University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the

  10. Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  11. Employment impacts of selected solar and conventional energy systems: a framework for comparisons and preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeltzer, K.K.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary comprehensive analyses of quantitative and qualitative employment effects of selected solar and conventional energy systems are presented. It proposes a framework for analyzing the direct, indirect, induced, displacement, disposable income, and qualitative employment effects of alternative energy systems. The analyses examine current research findings on these effects for a variety of solar and conventional energy sources and compare expected employment impacts. In general, solar energy systems have higher direct and indirect employment requirements than do conventional energy systems. In addition, employment displaced from conventional sources and employment effects due to changes in consumers' disposable income are highly significant variables in net employment comparisons. Analyses of the size and location of projected energy developments suggest that dispersed solar energy systems have a more beneficial impact on host communities than do large conventional facilities, regardless of the relative magnitude of employment per unit of energy output.

  12. The Dysarthria Impact Profile: A Preliminary French Experience with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Letanneux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study aimed to adapt the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP in French and to confirm its relevance for the assessment of the psychosocial impact of dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD. The DIP scale was administered to 10 people with PD and 10 age-matched control subjects. The DIP psychometric properties were calculated (discriminant validity, internal consistency, and concurrent validity, notably by using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI for interscale comparisons. The French version of the DIP discriminated people with PD from control subjects (χ2 test, P<0.05. Good internal consistency was observed in both populations (Cronbach’s α=0.93 for PD people and α=0.76 for control subjects. The DIP was highly correlated with the VHI (Spearman’s ρ=-0.70, P<0.01, confirming the external validity of the scale. There was no direct relationship between PD speech and quality of life as assessed by the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39. Our preliminary data suggest that the French version of the DIP has the potential to make a useful contribution for the assessment and outcome management in acquired dysarthria for both clinicians and researchers.

  13. Two-dimensional computer simulation of hypervelocity impact cratering: some preliminary results for Meteor Crater, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, J.B.; Burton, D.E.; Cunningham, M.E.; Lettis, L.A. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    A computational approach used for subsurface explosion cratering was extended to hypervelocity impact cratering. Meteor (Barringer) Crater, Arizona, was selected for the first computer simulation because it is one of the most thoroughly studied craters. It is also an excellent example of a simple, bowl-shaped crater and is one of the youngest terrestrial impact craters. Initial conditions for this calculation included a meteorite impact velocity of 15 km/s, meteorite mass of 1.67 x 10/sup 8/ kg, with a corresponding kinetic energy of 1.88 x 10/sup 16/ J (4.5 megatons). A two-dimensional Eulerian finite difference code called SOIL was used for this simulation of a cylindrical iron projectile impacting at normal incidence into a limestone target. For this initial calculation, a Tillotson equation-of-state description for iron and limestone was used with no shear strength. Results obtained for this preliminary calculation of the formation of Meteor Crater are in good agreement with field measurements. A color movie based on this calculation was produced using computer-generated graphics. 19 figures, 5 tables, 63 references.

  14. Post-impact climate conditions on early Mars: preliminary results from GCM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steakley, Kathryn; Murphy, Jim; Kahre, Melinda A.; Haberle, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Observations imply that liquid water was stable on Mars' surface during the late Noachian/early Hesperian era, with valley networks forming roughly 3.5-3.75 billion years ago, possibly from precipitation and runoff (Fassett & Head 2008, Icarus 195, 61; Hynek et al., 2010, JGR Planets, 115, E09008). Climate models, however, struggle to reproduce such warm conditions (Forget et al., 2013, Icarus 21, 81). Volcanism and impacts have been suggested as mechanisms of either inducing a warm and wet environment or causing local melting in a cold and wet environment. Comets and asteroids are capable of injecting into the atmosphere both kinetic energy from the impact and water from the object itself and from vaporized surface and subsurface ice. Segura et al. (2008, JGR Planets 113, E11007) find using a 1-D atmospheric model that significant rainfall and periods of above-freezing temperatures lasting months to years can follow impacts of objects between 30 and 100 km in diameter. We revisit this work utilizing a 3-D global climate model (GCM) to consider the effects of dynamics, topography, global surface ice variations, etc. We present preliminary results from the NASA ARC Mars GCM investigating global temperature and precipitation behavior in a post-impact, early Mars environment.

  15. Measurements and modeling of the impact of weak magnetic fields on the plasma properties of a planar slot antenna driven plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Jun, E-mail: jun.yoshikawa@tel.com; Susa, Yoshio; Ventzek, Peter L. G. [Tokyo Electron Ltd., Akasaka Biz Tower, 3-1 Akasaka 5-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-6325 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    The radial line slot antenna plasma source is a type of surface wave plasma source driven by a planar slot antenna. Microwave power is transmitted through a slot antenna structure and dielectric window to a plasma characterized by a generation zone adjacent to the window and a diffusion zone that contacts a substrate. The diffusion zone is characterized by a very low electron temperature. This renders the source useful for soft etch applications and thin film deposition processes requiring low ion energy. Another property of the diffusion zone is that the plasma density tends to decrease from the axis to the walls under the action of ambipolar diffusion at distances far from where the plasma is generated. A previous simulation study [Yoshikawa and. Ventzek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31, 031306 (2013)] predicted that the anisotropy in transport parameters due to weak static magnetic fields less than 50 G could be leveraged to manipulate the plasma profile in the radial direction. These simulations motivated experimental tests in which weak magnetic fields were applied to a radial line slot antenna source. Plasma absorption probe measurements of electron density and etch rate showed that the magnetic fields remote from the wafer were able to manipulate both parameters. A summary of these results is presented in this paper. Argon plasma simulation trends are compared with experimental plasma and etch rate measurements. A test of the impact of magnetic fields on charge up damage showed no perceptible negative effect.

  16. Preliminary survey on the impact of Schmallenberg virus on sheep flocks in South of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegerman, C; Martinelle, L; Dal Pozzo, F; Kirschvink, N

    2014-10-01

    Between late February and May 2012, a preliminary anonym survey was conducted among sheep farmers in south of Belgium in order to contribute to future estimations of the economic losses caused by Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Based on clinical signs consistent with SBV infection, this survey involved 13 meat sheep flocks considered as positive flocks with subsequent SBV detection by RT-qPCR [SBV-positive flocks (PF); total of 961 animals], and 13 meat sheep flocks considered as negative flocks (NF; total of 331 animals). These preliminary results indicated several significant characteristics that were more present in PF than in NF. These include an increased rate of abortions (6.7% in PF versus 3.2% in NF), of lambs born at term but presenting malformations (10.1% in PF versus 2.0% in NF) and of dystocia (10.1% in PF versus 3.4% in NF). Lamb mortality during the first week of life was reported more frequently in PF (8 of 13 PF, 61.5%) than in NF (1 of 13 NF, 7.7%). In PF, the observed prolificacy rate was 2-fold lower (93%) than expected (186%). The implementation of a survey at larger scale, including a high number of breeders, is necessary to allow a more detailed analysis of the SBV impact in the sheep sector.

  17. Climate Change Impact on Hydrological Extremes: Preliminary Results from the Polish-Norwegian Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Renata J.; Bogdanowicz, Ewa; Debele, Sisay E.; Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Hisdal, Hege; Lawrence, Deborah; Meresa, Hadush K.; Napiórkowski, Jarosław J.; Osuch, Marzena; Strupczewski, Witold G.; Wilson, Donna; Wong, Wai Kwok

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the background, objectives, and preliminary outcomes from the first year of activities of the Polish-Norwegian project CHIHE (Climate Change Impact on Hydrological Extremes). The project aims to estimate the influence of climate changes on extreme river flows (low and high) and to evaluate the impact on the frequency of occurrence of hydrological extremes. Eight "twinned" catchments in Poland and Norway serve as case studies. We present the procedures of the catchment selection applied in Norway and Poland and a database consisting of near-natural ten Polish and eight Norwegian catchments constructed for the purpose of climate impact assessment. Climate projections for selected catchments are described and compared with observations of temperature and precipitation available for the reference period. Future changes based on those projections are analysed and assessed for two periods, the near future (2021-2050) and the far-future (2071-2100). The results indicate increases in precipitation and temperature in the periods and regions studied both in Poland and Norway.

  18. A preliminary investigation: the impact of microscopic condenser on depth of field in cytogenetic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liqiang; Qiu, Yuchen; Li, Zheng; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2013-02-01

    As one of the important components of optical microscopes, the condenser has a considerable impact on system performance, especially on the depth of field (DOF). DOF is a critical technical feature in cytogenetic imaging that may affect the efficiency and accuracy of clinical diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of microscopic condenser on DOF using a prototype of transmitted optical microscope, based on objective and subjective evaluations. After the description of the relationship between condenser and objective lens and the theoretical analysis of the condenser impact on system numerical aperture and DOF, a standard resolution pattern and several cytogenetic samples are adopted to assess the condenser impact on DOF, respectively. The experimental results of these objective and subjective evaluations are in agreement with the theoretical analysis and show that, under the specific intermediate range of condenser numerical aperture ( NAcond ), the DOF value decreases with the increase of NAcond . Although the above qualitative results are obtained under the experimental conditions with a specific prototype system, the methods presented in this preliminary investigation could offer useful guidelines for optimizing operational parameters in cytogenetic imaging.

  19. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of mineral and hydrocarbon activities on the Nuussuaq peninsula, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Asmund, G.; Glahder, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2008-01-15

    There is an increasing interest for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration in Greenland and in both regards the Nuussuaq peninsula is in focus. This preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment describes the status of the biological knowledge from the area and designates potential conflicts between activities and the biological environment. Furthermore biological knowledge gaps are identified. These should be filled before specific environmental impacts assessments can be carried out and relevant studies to fill these data gaps are proposed. (au)

  20. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  1. Planar doped barrier devices for subharmonic mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. H.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of planar doped barrier (PDB) devices for subharmonic mixer applications. A simplified description is given of PDB characteristics along with a more complete numerical analysis of the current versus voltage characteristics of typical structures. The analysis points out the tradeoffs between the device structure and the resulting characteristics that are important for mixer performance. Preliminary low-frequency characterization results are given for the device structures, and a computer analysis of subharmonic mixer parameters and performance is presented.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of aircraft impact on a near term nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frano, R. Lo, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of PISA, L.go L. Lazzarino 2, via Diotisalvi, no. 2-56126 Pisa (Italy); Forasassi, G. [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of PISA, L.go L. Lazzarino 2, via Diotisalvi, no. 2-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of military/civilian airplanes crash in a NPP were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We adequately simulated the global response and safety margin of an SMR reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analyses allowed to represent the progressive failure/damaging processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The outer containment seemed to suffer some localized penetration and spalling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results highlighted the plant integrity is ensured despite the impact damages. - Abstract: For the assessment of the safety and durability of a nuclear power plant (NPP), the containment building behaviour shall be evaluated, under various service and extreme conditions, both natural or produced by natural accident or vicious man activities, like September 2001 jet aircraft crashes. The aim of this paper is to preliminary evaluate the effects and consequences of the energy transmitted to the outer containment walls (according to the international safety and design code guidelines, as NRC or IAEA ones) due to a military or civil aircraft impact into a nuclear plant, considered as a 'beyond design basis' event. To perform reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and determine the structural effects of the propagation of this types of impulsive loads (response of containment structure), a realistic but still feasible numerical model with suitable materials characteristics were used by means of which relevant physical phenomena are reflected. Moreover a sensitivity analysis has also been carried out considering the effects of different containment wall thickness and reinforced/prestressed concrete features. The obtained results were analysed to check the NPP containment strength margins.

  3. Planar Difference Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Joanne L; Donovan, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In 1980 Alltop produced a family of cubic phase sequences that nearly meet the Welch bound for maximum non-peak correlation magnitude. This family of sequences were shown by Wooters and Fields to be useful for quantum state tomography. Alltop's construction used a function that is not planar, but whose difference function is planar. In this paper we show that Alltop type functions cannot exist in fields of characteristic 3 and that for a known class of planar functions, $x^3$ is the only Alltop type function.

  4. Planar Resonators for Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation into a combination of electric and magnetic planar resonators in order to design the building element of a volumetric metamaterial showing simultaneously negative electric and magnetic polarizabilities under irradiation by an electromagnetic wave. Two combinations of particular planar resonators are taken into consideration. These planar resonators are an electric dipole, a split ring resonator and a double H-shaped resonator. The response of the single resonant particle composed of a resonator with an electric response and a resonator with a magnetic response is strongly anisotropic. Proper spatial arrangement of these particles can make the response isotropic. This is obtained by proper placement of six planar resonators on the surface of a cube that now represents a metamaterial unit cell. The cells are distributed in space with 3D periodicity.

  5. Learning planar ising models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Netrapalli, Praneeth [STUDENT UT AUSTIN

    2010-11-12

    Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus our attention on the class of planar Ising models, for which inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics [Kac and Ward; Kasteleyn]. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding [Chrobak and Payne], we propose a simple greedy algorithm for learning the best planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. We present the results of numerical experiments evaluating the performance of our algorithm.

  6. Small-scale bioenergy initiatives: brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Afica. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Fifteen case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were undertaken to assess the impacts that different types of local-level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods. The report concludes with preliminary lessons and recommendations for further work.

  7. Summary of preliminary contaminant impacts investigations in the Clinch River Basin, Virginia, using multiple bioassessment techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1992 multiple investigations were performed to collect preliminary information to direct future studies aimed at characterizing contaminant problems in the Clinch...

  8. Planar multijunction high voltage solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Chai, A. T.; Goradia, C.

    1980-01-01

    Technical considerations, preliminary results, and fabrication details are discussed for a family of high-voltage planar multi-junction (PMJ) solar cells which combine the attractive features of planar cells with conventional or interdigitated back contacts and the vertical multijunction (VMJ) solar cell. The PMJ solar cell is internally divided into many voltage-generating regions, called unit cells, which are internally connected in series. The key to obtaining reasonable performance from this device was the separation of top surface field regions over each active unit cell. Using existing solar cell fabricating methods, output voltages in excess of 20 volts per linear centimeter are possible. Analysis of the new device is complex, and numerous geometries are being studied which should provide substantial benefits in both normal sunlight usage as well as with concentrators.

  9. The Impact of 2008 Global Financial Crisis on the Performance of Selected Indonesian Stocks: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Suparman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is a preliminary study that analyzes the impact of the US financial markets on Indonesian financial markets during the 2008 global financial crisis. It specifically investigates the occurrence of contagion effect in the Indonesian IHSG index and selected LQ45 stocks with the US S&P500 index by the measurement of correlation using simple correlation, EWMA, OGARCH, and DCC GARCH. It also attempts to discuss on the decoupling of Indonesian market and provide recommendations on dealing with future similar events.

  10. Planar, monolithically integrated coil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Reefman, D.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Tiemeijer, L.F.; Ruigrok, J.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a means to integrate planar coils on silicon, while providing a high inductance. This high inductance is achieved through a special back- and front sided shielding of a material. In many applications, high-value inductors are a necessity. In particular, this holds for

  11. Complex Planar Splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    try todefine a complex planar spline by holomorphic elements like polynomials, then by the well known identity theorem (e.g. Diederich- Remmert [9, p...R. Remmert : Funktionentheorie I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1972, 246 p. 10 0. Lehto - K.I. Virtanen: Quasikonforme AbbildunQen, Springer

  12. UWB planar antenna technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments of the ultra-wideband(UWB)planar antennas are reviewed,where the progress in UWB plate monopole antennas,UWB printed monopole antennas and the UWB printed slot antennas is introduced and compared.In addition,the UWB printed antennas with the band-notched functions are also presented.

  13. Multi-frequency recirculating planar magnetrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Geoffrey B.; Jordan, Nicholas M.; Exelby, Steven C.; Simon, David H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.

    2016-08-01

    The multi-frequency recirculating planar magnetron (MFRPM) is the first magnetron capable of simultaneous generation of significantly different output frequencies (1 and 2 GHz) in a single operating pulse. Design and simulation of a prototype MFRPM were followed by hardware fabrication and experimental verification using the Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator with a Ceramic insulator at -300 kV, 1-5 kA, and 0.14-0.23 T axial magnetic field. Preliminary results demonstrated simultaneous generation of microwave pulses near 1 GHz and 2 GHz at powers up to 44 MW and 21 MW, respectively, with peak total efficiencies up to 9%.

  14. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llombart Juan, Nuria (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An antenna element suitable for integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies is disclosed. The antenna element comprises an extended spherical (e.g. hemispherical) semiconductor lens, e.g. silicon, antenna fed by a leaky wave waveguide feed. The extended spherical lens comprises a substantially spherical lens adjacent a substantially planar lens extension. A couple of TE/TM leaky wave modes are excited in a resonant cavity formed between a ground plane and the substantially planar lens extension by a waveguide block coupled to the ground plane. Due to these modes, the primary feed radiates inside the lens with a directive pattern that illuminates a small sector of the lens. The antenna structure is compatible with known semiconductor fabrication technology and enables production of large format imaging arrays.

  15. Planar electrochemical device assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-06-19

    A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

  16. Planar Hall Effect MRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Bason, Y.; Klein, L.; Yau, J. -B.; Hong, X.; Hoffman, J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2005-01-01

    We suggest a new type of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) that is based on the phenomenon of the planar Hall effect (PHE) in magnetic films, and we demonstrate this idea with manganite films. The PHE-MRAM is structurally simpler than currently developed MRAM that is based on magnetoresistance tunnel junctions (MTJ), with the tunnel junction structure being replaced by a single layer film.

  17. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  18. Comparison and planar and SPECT ventilation/perfusion lung scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberl, S.; Uren, R.; Bautovich, G.; Dugal, T.; Forster, J. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW (Australia). Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scanning, using multiple planar views, is an accepted technique for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE). Under PIOPED criteria, there are a substantial number of indeterminate results due to confounding factors such as CAL, unusual anatomy or superimposed activity in the planar image. Our aim was to investigate if SPECT could improve the diagnostic accuracy of V/Q scanning in the diagnosis of PE. Both planar and SPECT images were acquired on a dual or a triple head gamma camera following inhalation of {sup 99m}Tc-Technegas and after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. Total acquisition time for SPECT studies was 7.5 min for ventilation and 5 min for perfusion. SPECT studies were reconstructed with an accelerated iterative reconstruction (OSEM) and ventilation slices and perfusion slices were registered with an automated image registration package. Total processing time was 5 min. We have now performed more than 600 planar and SPECT studies. A subset of 50 sequential patients and 10 cases with pulmonary angiography were scored blinded by experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Scores ranged from 0 (no PE) to 5 (definite PE). A score of 3 indicated indeterminate for PE. In the 60 patients analysed, planar and SPECT scores were equal in 27 patients, SPECT was more definite in 16 and less definite in 7 patients. In 8 patients, SPECT indicated PE and planar imaging low probability of PE. In 1 patient planar imaging was scored as PE and SPECT as low probability. Indeterminate rate was reduced from 8 to 1 with SPECT. In the 10 patients with angiography, SPECT studies agreed with angiography findings in 8 patients, while planar studies agreed with angiography findings in 5 patients. Our preliminary data suggest that SPECT V/Q lung scanning can: i) provide a significant improvement over planar imaging for the diagnosis of PE, and ii) our short acquisition time for V/Q SPECT is clinically practicable

  19. The planar silicon-based microelectronic technology for electrochemical transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. V.; Egorchikov, A. E.; Dolgov, A. N.; Gornev, E. S.; Popov, V. G.; Egorov, I. V.; Krishtop, V. G.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed the new technology for production of sensitive modules for electrochemical sensors of pressure and acceleration. The technology is applicable for mass production and scalable for high-volume production. In this work we demonstrate the new sensing module for electrochemical motion sensors, and its possibility of applying in geophones. We fabricated prototypes of electrochemical planar transducer chips, produced a laboratory prototype of a geophone based on our planar transducer chip, and tested them. This paper presents the preliminary results of the tests.

  20. Preliminary thermo-mechanical analysis of angular beam impact on LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Dallocchio, A; Deboy, D; Mariani, N; Rossi, A; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2012-01-01

    The correct functioning of the LHC Collimation System is crucial to attain the desired LHC luminosity performance. However, the requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess their effect on the robustness of the collimators. One of the most probable accident scenarios identified is an asynchronous beam dump coupled with slight angular misalignment errors of the collimator installation at the beam-line. Previous work presented a preliminary thermal evaluation of the extent of beam-induced damage for such scenarios, where it was shown that in some cases, a tilt of the jaw could actually serve to mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. This paper will further analyze the response of tertiary collimators in presence of such angular jaw alignments. Such work will also help to start identifying optimal operational conditions.

  1. Value impact assessment: A preliminary assessment of improvement opportunities at the Quantico Central Heating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary assessment of opportunities for improvement at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This study is part of a program intended to provide the CHP staff with a computerized Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist in a more efficient, reliable, and safe operation of their plant. As part of the effort to provide the AI decision support system, a team of six scientists and engineers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) visited the plant to characterize the conditions and environment of the CHP. This assessment resulted in a list of potential performance improvement opportunities at the CHP. In this report, 12 of these opportunities are discussed and qualitatively analyzed. 70 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Preliminary Study on Evaluation System of Capability of Composites to Withstand Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhen; CHEN Pu-hui; YANG Sheng-chun

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the authors' experimental study on the characterization system of composite behavior to withstand impact. The content includes: (1)The dent depth is the best parameter describing the impact damage state. (2) There exists the knee point phenomenon for damage resistance behavior (i. e. the relationship between impact energy or contact force and dent depth) and damage tolerance behavior (i. e. the relationship between dent depth and compressive failure strain or stress) of composite laminates. (3) The physical meaning of the knee point phenomenon is that the failure mechanisms change of damaged composites to fiber breakage in the first front plies from matrix crack and delamination.Some suggestions on the characterization system of composite behavior to withstand impact were proposed.

  3. A Preliminary Study of Internet Based Ticketing System Impacts on Selected Travel Agencies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Saleh Khuja; Abdul Manaf Bohari

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the Internet based ticketing systems has made information easily accessible to consumers and has therefore established a direct link between consumers and suppliers. This study focuses on the impact of the Internet based ticketing systems on the travel agency in Langkawi, Malaysia. The major method was included in-depth interviews with travel agents to explore and refine the major issues that faced by the industry. Interviews with consumers were also carried out to ascertain the...

  4. Prediction for RNA planar pseudoknots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hengwu; Zhu Daming; Liu Zhendong; Li Hong

    2007-01-01

    Based on m-stems and semi-extensible structure, a model is presented to represent RNA planar pseudoknots, and corresponding dynamic programming algorithm is designed and implemented to predict arbitrary planar pseudoknots and simple non-planar pseudoknots with O(n4) time and O(n3) space. The algorithm folds total 245 sequences in the Pseudobase database, and the test results indicate that the algorithm has good accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

  5. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Liu, Zhengwei

    2017-05-01

    We define a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of ZN para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects that are invariant under para isotopy. For each ZN, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras that play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra (PAPPA). Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras, which one can use in the study of quantum information. An important ingredient in planar para algebra theory is the string Fourier transform (SFT), which we use on the matrix algebra generated by the Pauli matrices. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivity by relating the two reflections through the string Fourier transform.

  6. The Impact of an Online Intervention (Brainology) on the Mindset and Resiliency of Secondary School Pupils: A Preliminary Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Claire; Topping, Keith; Hannah, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated the impact of the online interactive programme Brainology (which aimed to encourage a growth mindset) on the mindset, resiliency and sense of mastery of secondary school pupils. A quasi-experimental pre-, post- and follow-up mixed-methods study was carried out with 33 participants aged 13-14 years. The measures…

  7. The Impact of an Online Intervention (Brainology) on the Mindset and Resiliency of Secondary School Pupils: A Preliminary Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Claire; Topping, Keith; Hannah, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated the impact of the online interactive programme Brainology (which aimed to encourage a growth mindset) on the mindset, resiliency and sense of mastery of secondary school pupils. A quasi-experimental pre-, post- and follow-up mixed-methods study was carried out with 33 participants aged 13-14 years. The measures…

  8. Interrogating Planar Cyclooctatetraenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hensel, Thomas

    The present thesis addresses the synthesis, analysis and possible applications of different diazadioxa- and azatioxa[8]circulenes to investigate antiaromaticity of a planar cyclooctatetraene (COT). To achieve this goal, different synthetic strategies were developed, all employing 3,6-dihydroxycar......The present thesis addresses the synthesis, analysis and possible applications of different diazadioxa- and azatioxa[8]circulenes to investigate antiaromaticity of a planar cyclooctatetraene (COT). To achieve this goal, different synthetic strategies were developed, all employing 3...... bound carbazole, giving the trimer a helical structure. On the basis of the investigations on oxidative dimerizations of 3,6-dihydroxycarbazoles and previous mechanistic studies by Erdman and Högberg on 1,4-benzqoquinone condensations, the mechanisms of the formation of azatrioxa- and diazadioxa-[8...... (antiaromatic) ring-current influence on the chemical shift values was visible. In addition to that, a comparison of bond-lengths derived from single crystal X-ray structure showed slight alternations (1.40-1.43 Å) in the COTs of azatrioxa- and diazadioxa[8]circulenes. All investigated COT cores therefore...

  9. Inkjet-based adaptive planarization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Shrawan; Grigas, Michelle M.; Khusnatdinov, Niyaz; Sreenivasan, Srinivasan V.

    2017-03-01

    pre-existing substrate topography and pattern layout as inputs. It then generates an inkjet drop pattern with a material distribution that is correlated with the desired planarization film profile. This allows a contiguous film to be formed with the desired thickness variation to cater to the topography and any parasitic signatures caused by the pattern layout. This film is formed by the coercing action of a compliant superstrate, which forces the drops to spread and merge and eliminates any bubble trapping. Then, the film is cured using blanket UV exposure and the superstrate separated to reveal the desired planarized film. The use of an inverse optimization algorithm allows substrate topography to be addressed adaptively. In other words, the algorithm can generate a drop pattern that does not disturb the pre-existing substrate topography substantially, but only caters to the pattern density variation. This process has potential advantages over other planarization techniques because of its adaptive nature. Hence, the IAP process can cater to substrates of varying topographies and pattern densities by changing the inkjetted material distribution, without any changes in hardware. The IAP process can also address pre-existing substrate topography selectively by conforming to the nominal shape while planarizing over the pattern layout. A schematic of the IAP process is shown in Figure 2. The goal of this paper is to present some preliminary results from the IAP process. A test pattern layout has been generated with the help of photolithography, and is shown in Figure 3. For the purpose of this trial, the nanoscale features have not been patterned, as it is expected that the planarization process will be blind to their presence. Thus, areas with nanoscale patterns have been patterned as a single feature of SiO2 with height equal to 100 nm. These features are adjacent to pattern-less areas, thus marking a drastic change in pattern density. As can be seen in Figure 4, the

  10. The Impact of CBT and ACT Models Using Psychology Trainee Therapists: A Preliminary Controlled Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Raimo; Lehtonen, Tuula; Skarp, Eerika; Taubert, Eija; Ojanen, Markku; Hayes, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study compares the impact of individualized treatment provided by trainee therapists based on a traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) model. Fourteen therapists were given initial training in CBT and ACT. Outpatients (N = 28) were randomized to either approach, with each therapist…

  11. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Shen, Hongxia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McDevitt, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Sturges, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-02-07

    Policies aimed at energy conservation and efficiency have broad environmental and economic impacts. Even if these impacts are relatively small, they may be significant compared to the cost of implementing the policy. Methodologies that quantify the marginal impacts of reduced demand for energy have an important role to play in developing accurate measures of both the benefits and costs of a given policy choice. This report presents a methodology for estimating the impacts of reduced demand for electricity on the electric power sector as a whole. The approach uses the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), a mid-range energy forecast model developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA)(DOE EIA 2013). The report is organized as follows: In the rest of this section the traditional NEMS-BT approach is reviewed and an outline of the new reduced form NEMS methodology is presented. Section 2 provides an overview of how the NEMS model works, and describes the set of NEMS-BT runs that are used as input to the reduced form approach. Section 3 presents our NEMS-BT simulation results and post-processing methods. In Section 4 we show how the NEMS-BT output can be generalized to apply to a broader set of end-uses. In Section 5 we disuss the application of this approach to policy analysis, and summarize some of the issues that will be further investigated in Part 2 of this study.

  12. Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Althea T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

  13. Energy Impact of Different Penetrations of Connected and Automated Vehicles: A Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios-Torres, Jackeline [ORNL; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported in the literature has shown the benefits of traffic coordination to alleviate congestion, and reduce fuel consumption and emissions. However, there are still many remaining challenges that need to be addressed before a massive deployment of fully automated vehicles. This paper aims to investigate the energy impacts of different penetration rates of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) and their interaction with human-driven vehicles. We develop a simulation framework for mixed traffic (CAVs interacting with human-driven vehicles) in merging roadways and analyze the energy impact of different penetration rates of CAVs on the energy consumption. The Gipps car following model is used along with heuristic controls to represent the driver decisions in a merging roadways traffic scenario. Using different penetration rates of CAVs, the simulation results indicated that for low penetration rates, the fuel consumption benefits are significant but the total travel time increases. The benefits in travel time are noticeable for higher penetration rates of CAVs.

  14. Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Air Force Low Altitude Flying Operations. Preliminary Draft. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    and Marketing ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory PSD Prevention of Significant Deterioration RAs Restricted Areas SAC Strategic Air Command SO 2 sulfur...resources under IR-700. However, significant impacts have not been reported to the New York Department of Agriculture and Markets (Butcher 1987...nesting of bald eagles at particular sites in Salt River and Verde River canyons, which is an important issue with 3 birdwatchers . The preservation of

  15. Information Communication Technology (ICT) for Disabled Persons in Bangladesh: Preliminary Study of Impact/Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Zahid, Md.,; Ashraf, Md.,; Malik, Bushra; Hoque, Md.,

    2013-01-01

    Part 7: Shorter Papers; International audience; To meet the need of digital inclusion and to mitigate the digital divide between disable and general people different ICT interventions are implemented in different developing and developed countries. But question arises to what extent these interventions are successful? Are these interventions are successful for creating new hope and confidence among disabled people? In this working paper we have tried to find the impact of these interventions ...

  16. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  17. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    We define the notion of a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of $\\Z_{N}$ para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects, that are invariant under isotopy. For each $\\Z_{N}$, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras which play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra. Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras which one can use in the study of quantum information. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivi...

  18. Planar elliptic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  19. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko

    We determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the data structure...... is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects the convex hull......, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. The space usage of the data structure is O(n). We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  20. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølfting; Jacob, Rico

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage...... of the data structure is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects...... the convex hull, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  1. Ferromagnetic Planar Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbucicchio, M.; Rateo, M. [University of Parma, and INFM, Department of Physics (Italy)

    2004-12-15

    Modern permanent magnets require a high coercive field on account of a strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy, as well as a high saturation magnetization and high Curie temperature. The achievement of so different characteristics in a unique phase is the present main difficulty. In principle, this problem can be solved combining the high saturation magnetization of a soft phase with the high magnetic anisotropy of a hard phase, via the exchange coupling on a nanometric scale. The first attempts showed the feasibility of planar magnetic nanocomposites, where soft and hard magnetic layers are intercalated, but on the other hand they also stressed the difficulties still existing. The present paper reviews some theoretical aspects and experimental results, pointing out the potentiality of Moessbauer spectroscopy in determining the spin configuration, as well as the nature and thickness of interfaces, which strongly influence the exchange interaction in these systems.

  2. Dynamics of rotationally fissioned asteroids: non-planar case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, L. A. G.; Scheeres, D. J.; Winter, O. C.

    2016-10-01

    The rotational fission of asteroids has been studied previously with simplified models restricted to planar motion. However, the observed physical configuration of contact binaries leads one to conclude that most of them are not in a planar configuration and hence would not be restricted to planar motion once they undergo rotational fission. This motivated a study of the evolution of initially non-planar binaries created by fission. Using a two-ellipsoid model, we performed simulations taking only gravitational interactions between components into account. We simulate 91 different initial inclinations of the equator of the secondary body for 19 different mass ratios. After disruption, the binary system dynamics are chaotic, as predicted from theory. Starting the system in a non-planar configuration leads to a larger energy and enhanced coupling between the rotation state of the smaller fissioned body and the evolving orbital system, and enables re-impact to occur. This leads to differences with previous planar studies, with collisions and secondary spin fission occurring for all mass ratios with inclinations θ0 ≥ 40o, and mimics a Lidov-Kozai mechanism. Out of 1729 studied cases, we found that ˜14 per cent result in secondary fission, ˜25 per cent result in collisions and ˜6 per cent have lifetimes longer than 200 yr. In Jacobson & Scheeres stable binaries only formed in cases with mass ratios q system should start in a non-planar configuration.

  3. A Planarity Criterion for Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, Kosta

    2012-01-01

    It is proven that a connected graph is planar if and only if all its cocycles with at least four edges are "grounded" in the graph. The notion of grounding of this planarity criterion, which is purely combinatorial, stems from the intuitive idea that with planarity there should be a linear ordering of the edges of a cocycle such that in the two subgraphs remaining after the removal of these edges there can be no crossing of disjoint paths that join the vertices of these edges. The proof given in the paper of the right-to-left direction of the equivalence is based on Kuratowski's Theorem for planarity involving $K_{3,3}$ and $K_5$, but the criterion itself does not mention $K_{3,3}$ and $K_5$. Some other variants of the criterion are also shown necessary and sufficient for planarity.

  4. 3-D Tomographic Imaging of the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Preliminary Results From EW#0501

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, A. T.; Barton, P. J.; Vermeesch, P. M.; Morgan, J. V.; Warner, M. R.; Gulick, S. P.; Christeson, G. L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Melosh, H. J.; McDonald, M. A.; Goldin, T.; Mendoza, K.

    2005-05-01

    The Chicxulub impact structure provides a unique opportunity to investigate the sub-surface morphology of large craters on Earth and other planets. The structure of the crater interior is still poorly known and there is much uncertainty over the sequence of events by which these large craters form and the magnitude of the subsequent catastrophic environmental effects. In early 2005, a reflection-refraction survey aboard the R/V Maurice Ewing imaged the deep structure of the Chicxulub impact. We present wide-angle data collected by a 3-D grid of 50 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs), 86 three-component land stations and a 6 km long hydrophone streamer. The OBS grid, designed to image the peak ring and underlying structure of the northwestern quadrant of the crater, recorded shots from several seismic profiles in various orientations. Many of these profiles extended past the crater rim imaging to the base of the crust. Travel-time picks from this dataset, combined with existing 1996 data, will be inverted using the JIVE3-D tomographic inversion program to create a fully 3-D velocity model of the crater interior. The interpretation of the velocity model will focus on the morphology of the peak ring and the central uplift, and the distribution of breccia and suevite (an impact related breccia/melt) in the centre of the crater. We will calculate the Poisson's ratio for different areas of the crater using both the P-wave velocity model and S-wave arrivals, including those from the 1996 land station data. Comparisons of these values with measurements on the Yaxcopoil-1 core taken from within the crater provide ground-truth for our tomographic model. The contrast in Poisson's ratio between areas of suevite and the surrounding rock further constrain the distribution of breccia and suevite.

  5. Advances in applied superconductivity: A preliminary evaluation of goals and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsky, A. M.; Daniels, E. J.; Giese, R. F.; Harkness, J. B. L.; Johnson, L. R.; Rote, D. M.; Zwick, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    This document is meant to aid the U.S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy by discussing the likely impacts of recent results from research on superconducting materials. The discussions in this document concern terrestrial applications that would substantially affect the production and use of electricity. The sections of the report each address a particular topic. The topics are: (1) electric generators, (2) transformers, (3) power transmission, (4) magnetic energy storage, (5) electric motors, (6) separation industry, and (7) maglev (magnetic-levitation) trains.

  6. Impact of psychoeducation intervention module on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suravi Patra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD in India face a host of challenges, while seeking care which ranges from unavailability of information to difficulty in availing services. Aims: To develop a psycho-education intervention module for parents of children with ASD and to study its impact on parent stress and knowledge. Settings and Design: Child Guidance Clinic Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. Interventional study. Methodology: Parents of children diagnosed with ASD as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria, recruited through consecutive sampling. Total number of 18 participants participated in the two phase study. Phase I included preparation of a parent training module through a four stage process and Phase II was evaluation of impact of the final version of the module on parental stress and knowledge. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test using SPSS version 17.0. Results: There was an improvement in all the domains of parenting stress and knowledge. Social stress score and total stress score showed significant improvement. Conclusions: Parent psycho-education intervention module on ASD decreases parenting stress, and improves knowledge about ASD. Psycho-education intervention module is a feasible and acceptable way of parent empowerment.

  7. Preliminary study on impact assessment of climate change on building risks induced by typhoons in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    The present paper investigates possible impacts of the climate change on building risks caused by typhoons. The inputs to this investigation are: (1) outcomes from the numerical simulations with a Global Climate Model (GCM) developed under the framework of the KAKUSHIN program, (2) statistics...... on building damage in the event of Typhoon Songda, and (3) numerical simulation of the wind field induced by the typhoon Songda with the JMA Non- Hydrostatic Model (JMA-NHM). The first input is utilized to develop two sets of probabilistic typhoon models; i.e. corresponding to the current climate...... and the future climate subject to the climate change, whereas the other inputs are utilized to develop a model for structural performance of buildings. Taking basis in these models, changes of building risks under the climate change are investigated. The result shows that the building risks slightly decrease...

  8. Preliminary study on impact assessment of climate change on building risks induced by typhoons in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    The present paper investigates possible impacts of the climate change on building risks caused by typhoons. The inputs to this investigation are: (1) outcomes from the numerical simulations with a Global Climate Model (GCM) developed under the framework of the KAKUSHIN program, (2) statistics...... on building damage in the event of Typhoon Songda, and (3) numerical simulation of the wind field induced by the typhoon Songda with the JMA Non- Hydrostatic Model (JMA-NHM). The first input is utilized to develop two sets of probabilistic typhoon models; i.e. corresponding to the current climate...... and the future climate subject to the climate change, whereas the other inputs are utilized to develop a model for structural performance of buildings. Taking basis in these models, changes of building risks under the climate change are investigated. The result shows that the building risks slightly decrease...

  9. [Preliminary study on main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian

    2013-05-01

    The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  10. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Habitat Composites' Durability when Exposed to a Long-Term Radiation Environment and Micrometeoroid Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Graves, Russell; Golden, John; Atwell, William; O'Rouke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Alred, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA's exploration goals include extending human presence beyond low earth orbit (LEO). As a result, habitation for crew is a critical requirement for meeting this goal. However, habitats are very large structures that contain a multitude of subsystems to sustain human life over long-durations in space, and one of the key challenges has been keeping weight to a minimum in order to reduce costs. Thus, light-weight and multifunctional structural materials are of great interest for habitation. NASA has started studying polymeric composite materials as potential lightweight and multifunctional structural materials for use in long-duration spaceflight. However, little is known about the survivability of these materials when exposed to the space environment outside of LEO for long durations. Thus, a study has been undertaken to investigate the durability of composite materials when exposed to long-duration radiation. Furthermore, as an addition to the primary study, a secondary preliminary investigation has been started on the micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) susceptibility of these materials after radiation exposure. The combined effects of radiation and MMOD impacts are the focus of this paper.

  11. A Preliminary Geochemical Study of Crystalline Melt from the Manson Impact Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Rockow, K. M.; Haskin, L. A.; Crossey, L. J.

    1993-07-01

    Although the Manson impact structure (35 km in diameter) in Iowa is of general interest because its age coincides with the end of the Cretaceous Period [1,2], it also provides an opportunity to study systematically the effects of a single, moderate-sized impact in a setting where the preimpact geology is reasonably well understood. We are interested in the extent of compositional uniformity in melt produced in large impacts and the causes of any compositional variation among different small samples of crystalline melt breccia. This understanding is useful for interpretation of data from lunar impact-melt breccias, for which we have less geologic control. We have obtained concentrations of ~30 elements in samples from the M-1 core taken on the flank of the central peak of the Manson impact structure in Iowa [3-6]. The sample set consists of 49 representative samples of breccia matrix determined (by visual inspection) to contain minimal mineralized vugs, fractures, or large or altered clasts [5]. The core consists of three principal units [3]: sedimentary clast breccia (SCB), 54-106-m depth; crystalline clast breccia, melt matrix (CCB-M), 106- 147-m depth; and crystalline clast breccia, sandy matrix (CCB-S), 163-214-m depth; there is an ~16-m "transition zone" between CCB-M and CCB-S. The sandy- matrix breccias, which are believed to be "in-situ brecciated basement with injected melt and shale fragments" [4], may be the equivalent of lunar "fragmental breccias" [e.g., 7]. They contain large clasts, some bigger than the core diameter, and, consequently, are variable in composition at the sample mass studied here (1-4 g). Samples of the overlying melt-matrix breccias (CCB-M) are more uniform in composition. However, the concentrations of some elements (Na, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, and Co) generally increase with depth through CCB-M (unit 1 of [4]), while other elements decrease (K, Sb, Cs, La, Hf, and Ta). These trends continue through the transition zone to the CCB-S. Thus

  12. Closed planar curves without inflections

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Shuntaro; Umehara, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    We define a computable topological invariant $\\mu(\\gamma)$ for generic closed planar regular curves $\\gamma$, which gives an effective lower bound for the number of inflection points on a given generic closed planar curve. Using it, we classify the topological types of locally convex curves (i.e. closed planar regular curves without inflections) whose numbers of crossings are less than or equal to five. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the number of double tangents and the invariant $\\mu(\\gamma)$ on a given $\\gamma$.

  13. Land grabbing: a preliminary quantification of economic impacts on rural livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle F; D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Global demands on agricultural land are increasing due to population growth, dietary changes and the use of biofuels. Their effect on food security is to reduce humans' ability to cope with the uncertainties of global climate change. In light of the 2008 food crisis, to secure reliable future access to sufficient agricultural land, many nations and corporations have begun purchasing large tracts of land in the global South, a phenomenon deemed "land grabbing" by popular media. Because land investors frequently export crops without providing adequate employment, this represents an effective income loss for local communities. We study 28 countries targeted by large-scale land acquisitions [comprising 87 % of reported cases and 27 million hectares (ha)] and estimate the effects of such investments on local communities' incomes. We find that this phenomenon can potentially affect the incomes of ~12 million people globally with implications for food security, poverty levels and urbanization. While it is important to note that our study incorporates a number of assumptions and limitations, it provides a much needed initial quantification of the economic impacts of large-scale land acquisitions on rural livelihoods.

  14. The impact of Body Worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results.

  15. Orthogonal and secondary concentration in planar micro-optic solar collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jason H; Tremblay, Eric J; Hallas, Justin M; Ford, Joseph E

    2011-07-01

    Planar micro-optic concentrators are passive optical structures which combine a lens array with faceted microstructures to couple sunlight into a planar slab waveguide. Guided rays propagate within the slab to edge-mounted photovoltaic cells. This paper provides analysis and preliminary experiments describing modifications and additions to the geometry which increase concentration ratios along both the vertical and orthogonal waveguide axes. We present simulated results for a 900x concentrator with 85% optical efficiency, measured results for small-scale experimental systems and briefly discuss implementations using low-cost fabrication on continuous planar waveguides.

  16. Quadratic Tangles in Planar Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Vaughan F R

    2010-01-01

    In planar algebras, we show how to project certain simple "quadratic" tangles onto the linear space spanned by "linear" and "constant" tangles. We obtain some corollaries about the principal graphs and annular structure of subfactors.

  17. Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, John S; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S Y

    2015-01-01

    The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, they rely on semispherical topographies and are non-planar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.

  18. Planar graphs theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizeki, T

    1988-01-01

    Collected in this volume are most of the important theorems and algorithms currently known for planar graphs, together with constructive proofs for the theorems. Many of the algorithms are written in Pidgin PASCAL, and are the best-known ones; the complexities are linear or 0(nlogn). The first two chapters provide the foundations of graph theoretic notions and algorithmic techniques. The remaining chapters discuss the topics of planarity testing, embedding, drawing, vertex- or edge-coloring, maximum independence set, subgraph listing, planar separator theorem, Hamiltonian cycles, and single- or multicommodity flows. Suitable for a course on algorithms, graph theory, or planar graphs, the volume will also be useful for computer scientists and graph theorists at the research level. An extensive reference section is included.

  19. "Preliminary Evaluation of Climate Change impact in the Codegua's River Irrigation Improvement Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchetti, Franco; Vargas, Ximena

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of Climate Change in one of the projected dams for farming activities in Codegua's catchment, near to Santiago, Chile. This reservoir is one of the twenty that will be built by the Hydraulics Infrastructure Management Department of Chile in the next years. The design is based on the concept of "Irrigation Security", defined as the quotient between the number of years where is possible to deliver the crop demand and the total of years. It must be greater than 85% to approve the project. The evaluation of Climate Change is based in two scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. The forecast hydroclimatology is based in General Circulation Model MPI-ESM, from Max Planck Institute, Germany. The evaluation considers two future periods: a near future (2020-2055) and a further future (2065-2100). First, statistical downscaling of precipitation and temperature time series are made and then the yearly inflow to the dam is estimated by a simple rainfall-runoff relation, the future evapotranspiration is estimated by Penman-Monteith method and with an empirical mathematical relation, based in Blaney and Criddle method. For this reason, the analysis included additional scenarios to incorporate the uncertainty in the evapotranspiration estimation as well as on tributary volumes from the basin to the dam, for each Climate Change scenarios. Climate Change in the zone of study indicates that precipitations will be lower than the present and the temperature will increase. For example, the results predict that precipitation in the best scenario, for near future, will go down 15% and temperature will increase in 0.6 (°C). For the further future in the worst scenarios, model predicts that precipitation will go down around 30% and temperature will increase 2.5 (°C). This coupled effects modify in a great way the water supply and demand in the zone of study. With the new hydrology forecast for the future, the "Irrigation Security" is recalculated in

  20. A preliminary vulnerability assessment for Ísafjörður, Iceland : coastal management options to reduce impacts of sea-level rise and storm surges

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Meidinger

    2011-01-01

    Climate change science argues that by the end of the 21st century, the global mean sea-level rise may easily exceed 1 metre, possibly accompanied by an increase in storm intensity. Although climate change is a global phenomenon, its impacts vary greatly according to scale and geographic region. This study took into account the United Nations’ recommendations and the research objectives stated by the Icelandic Ministry of the Environment, and conducted a preliminary coastal vulnerability asses...

  1. Drinfeld center of planar algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2012-01-01

    We introduce fusion and contragadient of affine representations of a planar algebra $P$ (not necessarily having finite depth). We prove that if $N \\subset M$ is a subfactor realization of $P$, then the Drinfeld center of the $N$-$N$-bimodule category generated by $_N L^2 (M)_M$, is equivalent to the category Hilbert affine representations of $P$ satisfying certain finiteness criterion. As a consequence, we prove Kevin Walker's conjecture for planar algebras.

  2. Numerical and experimental investigations of pseudo-shock systems in a planar nozzle: impact of bypass mass flow due to narrow gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglmaier, M.; Quaatz, J. F.; Gawehn, T.; Gülhan, A.; Adams, N. A.

    2014-03-01

    During previous investigations on pseudo-shock systems, we have observed reproducible differences between measurement and simulations for the pressure distribution as well as for size and shape of the pseudo-shock system. A systematic analysis of the deviations leads to the conclusion that small gaps of m between quartz glass side walls and metal contour of the test section are responsible for this mismatch. This paper describes a targeted experimental and numerical study of the bypass mass flow within these gaps and its interaction with the main flow. In detail, we analyze how the pressure distribution within the channel as well as the size, shape and oscillation of the pseudo-shock system are affected by the gap size. Numerical simulations are performed to display the flow inside the gaps and to reproduce and explain the experimental results. Numerical and experimental schlieren images of the pseudo-shock system are in good agreement and show that especially the structure of the primary shock is significantly altered by the presence of small gaps. Extensive unsteady flow simulations of the geometry with gaps reveal that the shear layer between subsonic gap flow and supersonic core flow is subject to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability resulting in small pressure fluctuations. This leads to a shock oscillation with a frequency of . The corresponding time scale (s) is 16 times higher than the characteristic time scale of the boundary layer given by the ratio of the boundary layer thickness directly ahead of the shock and the undisturbed free stream velocity . To assess the reliability of our numerical investigations, the paper includes a grid study as well as an extensive comparison of several RANS turbulence models and their impact on the predicted shape of pseudo-shock systems.

  3. DLVO interactions of carbon nanotubes with isotropic planar surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Bin; Tian, Yuan; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Zigler, Kirk J

    2013-03-26

    Knowledge of the interaction between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and planar surfaces is essential to optimizing CNT applications as well as reducing their environmental impact. In this work, the surface element integration (SEI) technique was coupled with the DLVO theory to determine the orientation-dependent interaction energy between a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and an infinite isotropic planar surface. For the first time, an analytical formula was developed to describe accurately the interaction between not only pristine but also surface-charged CNTs and planar surfaces with arbitrary rotational angles. Compared to other methods, the new analytical formulas were either more convenient or more accurate in describing the interaction between CNTs and planar surfaces, especially with respect to arbitrary angles. The results revealed the complex dependences of both force and torque between SWNTs and planar surfaces on the separation distances and rotational angles. With minor modifications, the analytical formulas derived for SWNTs can also be applied to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The new analytical expressions presented in this work can be used as a robust tool to describe the DLVO interaction between CNTs and planar surfaces under various conditions and thus to assist in the design and application of CNT-based products.

  4. The impact of acquisition time of planar cardiac {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging on the late heart to mediastinum ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriu-Leen, Aukelien C.; Veltman, Caroline E.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Scholte, Arthur J.H.A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Gimelli, Alessia [Fondazione Toscana/CNR Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Al Younis, Imad [VieCuri, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Venlo (Netherlands); Verberne, Hein J. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wolterbeek, Ron [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Medical Statistics and Bio-informatics, Leiden (Netherlands); Zandbergen-Harlaar, Silvia [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether performing the late cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan earlier than 4 h post-injection (p.i.) has relevant impact on the late heart to mediastinum ratio (H/M ratio) in patients with heart failure (HF). Forty-nine patients with HF (median left ventricular ejection fraction of 31 %, 51 % ischaemic HF) referred for cardiac {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy were scanned at 15 min (early) p.i. and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (late) p.i. of {sup 123}I-MIBG. Late H/M ratios were calculated and evaluated using a linear mixed model with the mean late H/M ratio at 4 h p.i. as a reference. A difference in late H/M ratios of more than 0.10 between the different acquisition times in comparison with the late H/M ratio at 4 h p.i. was considered as clinically relevant. Statistically significant mean differences were observed between the late H/M ratios at 1, 2 and 3 h p.i. compared with the late H/M ratio at 4 h p.i. (0.09, 0.05 and 0.02, respectively). However, the mean differences did not exceed the cut-off value of 0.10. On an individual patient level, compared to the late H/M ratio at 4 h p.i., the late H/M ratios at 1, 2 and 3 h p.i. differed more than 0.10 in 24 (50 %), 9 (19 %) and 2 (4 %) patients, respectively. Variation in acquisition time of {sup 123}I-MIBG between 2 and 4 h p.i. does not lead to a clinically significant change in the late H/M ratio. An earlier acquisition time seems to be justified and may warrant a more time-efficient cardiac {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging protocol. (orig.)

  5. Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia A. Neamtiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancer research is a national and international priority, with the efficiency and effectiveness of current anti-tumor therapies being one of the major challenges with which physicians are faced. Objective To assess the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on cervical cancer treatment. Methods We investigated 37 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We determined cotinine and five phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected prior to cancer treatment, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and urinary total arsenic by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. We used linear regression to evaluate the effects of cotinine, arsenic, and phthalates on the change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for confounding variables. Results We detected no significant associations between urinary cotinine, arsenic, or phthalate monoesters on change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for urine creatinine, age, baseline tumor size, and cotinine (for arsenic and phthalates. However, higher %mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (%MEHP, a putative indicator of phthalate diester metabolism, was associated with a larger change in tumor size (β = 0.015, 95% CI [0.003–0.03], P = 0.019. Conclusion We found no statistically significant association between the urinary levels of arsenic, cotinine, and phthalates metabolites and the response to cervical cancer treatment as measured by the change in tumor size. Still, our results suggested that phthalates metabolism may be associated with response to treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, these observations are preliminary and will require confirmation in a larger, more definitive investigation.

  6. Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S.; Dumitrascu, Irina; Roba, Carmen A.; Pop, Cristian; Ordeanu, Claudia; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Gurzau, Eugen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer research is a national and international priority, with the efficiency and effectiveness of current anti-tumor therapies being one of the major challenges with which physicians are faced. Objective To assess the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on cervical cancer treatment. Methods We investigated 37 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We determined cotinine and five phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected prior to cancer treatment, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and urinary total arsenic by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. We used linear regression to evaluate the effects of cotinine, arsenic, and phthalates on the change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for confounding variables. Results We detected no significant associations between urinary cotinine, arsenic, or phthalate monoesters on change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for urine creatinine, age, baseline tumor size, and cotinine (for arsenic and phthalates). However, higher %mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (%MEHP), a putative indicator of phthalate diester metabolism, was associated with a larger change in tumor size (β = 0.015, 95% CI [0.003–0.03], P = 0.019). Conclusion We found no statistically significant association between the urinary levels of arsenic, cotinine, and phthalates metabolites and the response to cervical cancer treatment as measured by the change in tumor size. Still, our results suggested that phthalates metabolism may be associated with response to treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, these observations are preliminary and will require confirmation in a larger, more definitive investigation. PMID:27652000

  7. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, P. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Intravia, F [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  8. The planar two point algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Booij; Z. Zivkovic

    2009-01-01

    Vision-based localization, mapping and navigation is often performed by searching for corresponding image points and estimating the epipolar geometry. It is known that the possible relative poses of a camera mounted on a mobile robot that moves over a planar ground floor, has two degrees of freedom.

  9. The planar dynamics of airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    The forces and moments acting upon a LTA vehicle are considered in order to develop parameters describing planar motion. Similar expressions for HTA vehicles will be given to emphasize the greater complexity of aerodynamic effects when buoyancy effects cannot be neglected. A brief summary is also given of the use of virtual mass coefficients to calculate loads on airships.

  10. Tuneable planar integrated optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, M; Oeder, A; Sinzinger, S; Hands, P J W; Love, G D

    2007-08-20

    Planar integrated free-space optical systems are well suited for a variety of applications, such as optical interconnects and security devices. Here, we demonstrate for the first time dynamic functionality of such microoptical systems by the integration of adaptive liquid-crystal-devices.

  11. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  12. Observing planar cell polarity in multiciliated mouse airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladar, Eszter K; Lee, Yin Loon; Stearns, Tim; Axelrod, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    The concerted movement of cilia propels inhaled contaminants out of the lungs, safeguarding the respiratory system from toxins, pathogens, pollutants, and allergens. Motile cilia on the multiciliated cells (MCCs) of the airway epithelium are physically oriented along the tissue axis for directional motility, which depends on the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway. The MCCs of the mouse respiratory epithelium have emerged as an important model for the study of motile ciliogenesis and the PCP signaling mechanism. Unlike other motile ciliated or planar polarized tissues, airway epithelial cells are relatively easily accessible and primary cultures faithfully model many of the essential features of the in vivo tissue. There is growing interest in understanding how cells acquire and polarize motile cilia due to the impact of mucociliary clearance on respiratory health. Here, we present methods for observing and quantifying the planar polarized orientation of motile cilia both in vivo and in primary culture airway epithelial cells. We describe how to acquire and evaluate electron and light microscopy images of ciliary ultrastructural features that reveal planar polarized orientation. Furthermore, we describe the immunofluorescence localization of PCP pathway components as a simple readout for airway epithelial planar polarization and ciliary orientation. These methods can be adapted to observe ciliary orientation in other multi- and monociliated cells and to detect PCP pathway activity in any tissue or cell type.

  13. Planar Cell Polarity: A Bridge Too Far?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms of planar cell polarity are being revealed by genetic analysis. Recent studies have provided new insights into interactions between three proteins involved in planar cell polarity: Flamingo, Frizzled and Van Gogh.

  14. Imaging Properties of Planar Microlens Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The planar microlens arrays is a two-dimensional array of optical component which is fabricated monolithically available. Imaging properties of planar microlens arrays are described, which provide both image multiplexer and erect, unit magnification images.

  15. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf coast region. Volume I. Comparison of prospect areas on the basis of potential environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    The results of a preliminary environmental assessment of the following geopressured-geothermal prospect areas in the Louisiana Gulf coast region are presented: South Johnson's Bayou, Sweet Lake, Rockefeller Refuge, Southeast Pecan Island, Atchafalaya Bay, and Lafourche Crossing. These prospect areas have been compared to determine their relative environmental acceptability for the test program. Trade-offs among the prospects in terms of potential impacts are highlighted. This assessment was made on the basis of the nature and extent of the proposed testing activities in view of the environmental characteristics of each prospect area: land use, geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and quality, ecological systems, and natural hazards. The comparison of prospect areas includes consideration of worst case situations. However, we believe that the test program activities, because they are so small in scale, will not result in major adverse impacts.

  16. Planarization using chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) on a 16-megabit SRAM with quadruple polysilicon stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kathleen A.; Radhakrishna, Sandya; Lage, Craig; Nkansah, Franklin; Pol, Victor; Kobayashi, Thom; West, Jeff P.; Crabtree, Phil

    1994-09-01

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has been used to fabricate a 0.35 micrometers 16 Meg SRAM with quadruple polysilicon stacks. The use of CMP results in complete planarization of over one micron of topography. CMP planarization results in improved photolithography depth of field when compared to standard resist etchback planarization (REB). Data from a lot processed using CMP at contact dielectric and interlayer dielectric is compared to a lot that was processed using standard REB for planarization.

  17. Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.

  18. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY Dummy fill effect on CMP planarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junxiong, Zhou; Lan, Chen; Wenbiao, Ruan; Zhigang, Li; Weixiang, Shen; Tianchun, Ye

    2010-10-01

    With the use of a chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) simulator verified by testing data from a foundry, the effect of dummy fill characteristics, such as fill size, fill density and fill shape, on CMP planarity is analyzed. The results indicate that dummy density has a significant impact on oxide erosion, and copper dishing is in proportion to dummy size. We also demonstrate that cross shape dummy fill can have the best dishing performance at the same density.

  19. Dynamic modeling of flexible-links planar parallel robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element-based method for dynamic modeling of parallel robots with flexible links and rigid moving platform.The elastic displacements of flexible links are investigated while considering the coupling effects between links due to the structural flexibility.The kinematic constraint conditions and dynamic constraint conditions for elastic displacements are presented.Considering the effects of distributed mass,lumped mass,shearing deformation,bending deformation,tensile deformation and lateral displacements,the Kineto-Elasto dynamics (KED) theory and Lagrange formula are used to derive the dynamic equations of planar flexible-links parallel robots.The dynamic behavior of the flexible-links planar parallel robot is well illustrated through numerical simulation of a planar 3-RRR parallel robot.Compared with the results of finite element software SAMCEF,the numerical simulation results show good coherence of the proposed method.The flexibility of links is demonstrated to have a significant impact on the position error and orientation error of the flexiblelinks planar parallel robot.

  20. Planar Algebra of the Subgroup-Subfactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ved Prakash Gupta

    2008-11-01

    We give an identification between the planar algebra of the subgroup-subfactor $R \\rtimes H \\subset R \\rtimes G$ and the -invariant planar subalgebra of the planar algebra of the bipartite graph $\\star_n$, where $n=[G:H]$. The crucial step in this identification is an exhibition of a model for the basic construction tower, and thereafter of the standard invariant of $R \\rtimes H \\subset R \\rtimes G$ in terms of operator matrices. We also obtain an identification between the planar algebra of the fixed algebra subfactor $R^G \\subset R^H$ and the -invariant planar subalgebra of the planar algebra of the `flip’ of $\\star_n$.

  1. Planar Algebra of the Subgroup-Subfactor

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2008-01-01

    We give an identification between the planar algebra of the subgroup-subfactor $R \\rtimes H \\subset R \\rtimes G$ and the $G$-invariant planar subalgebra of the planar algebra of the bipartite graph $\\star_n$, where $n = [G : H]$. The crucial step in this identification is an exhibition of a model for the basic construction tower, and thereafter of the standard invariant, of $R \\rtimes H \\subset R \\rtimes G$ in terms of operator matrices. We also obtain an identification between the planar algebra of the fixed algebra subfactor $R^G \\subset R^H$ and the $G$-invariant planar subalgebra of the planar algebra of the `flip' of $\\star_n $.

  2. Preliminary Analysis of the Social and Scientific Impact of the UAEM-ININ M.Sc. and D.Sc. Graduate Programme in Medical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsoura, Eleni; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Torres-Garcia, Eugenio; Camacho-Lopez, Miguel Angel; Hardy-Perez, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1994, the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) started in Mexico a teaching and training programme (Diplomado) in Radiotherapy Medical Physics. Based on this experience, the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM) and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) launched two years later, the first Graduate Programme in Science (M.Sc. and D.Sc.), specialised in Medical Physics in Mexico. A preliminary analysis of the social and scientific impact of the UAEM-ININ Programme is presented in this work based on the achievements attained, regarding the number of graduated Medical Physicists, their geographic and academic origin, their current professional activities and the number of scientific publications produced as a result of the thesis, as well as their citations.

  3. Treatment of mechanically sorted organic waste by bioreactor landfill: Experimental results and preliminary comparative impact assessment with biostabilization and conventional landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sisani, Luciano; Rotondi, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Treatment and disposal of the mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste using a full-scale hybrid bioreactor landfill was experimentally analyzed. A preliminary life cycle assessment was used to compare the hybrid bioreactor landfill with the conventional scheme based on aerobic biostabilization plus landfill. The main findings showed that hybrid bioreactor landfill was able to achieve a dynamic respiration index (DRI)55% v/v started within 140days from MSOF disposal, allowing prompt energy recovery and higher collection efficiency. With the exception of fresh water eutrophication with the bioreactor scenario there was a reduction of the impact categories by about 30% compared to the conventional scheme. Such environmental improvement was mainly a consequence of the reduction of direct and indirect emissions from conventional aerobic biostabilization and of the lower amount of gaseous loses from the bioreactor landfill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dioxin symposium Berlin:Ccurrent views on the impact of dioxins and furans on human health and the environment. Preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-11-01

    This volume gives a preliminary evaluation of the statement of the Symposium on dioxins of the Federal Health Office in November 1992. With this, the following aspects of effects of dioxins and furans on the human health and the environment are dealt with in detail: Cancer ogenity, immune toxicity, teratogenity, neurotoxicity, TDI-values, dioxins and furans in mother`s milk, emission to the environment and emission sources, environmental impact, transfer, state measures and limiting values, necessary measures for emission restriction. (UHE) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Band gibt eine vorlaeufige Bewertung der Stellungnahmen des Dioxinsymposiums des Umweltbundesamtes im November 1992. Dabei werden die folgenden Aspekte der Auswirkungen von Dioxinen und Furanen auf die menschliche Gesundheit und die Umwelt ausfuehrlich behandelt: Kanzerogenitaet, Immunotoxizitaet, Teratogenitaet, Neurotoxizitaet, TDI-Werte, Dioxine und Furane in der Muttermilch, Emission in die Umwelt und Emissionsquellen, Umweltbelastung, Oekotoxizitaet, Transfer, staatliche Massnahmen und Grenzwerte, notwendige Massnahmen zur Emissionsbegrenzung. (UHE)

  5. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda;

    2011-01-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening...... in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls), was established. This is the first multicentre screening study targeted at men with a known genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. A preliminary analysis of the data is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men aged 40-69 years from families with BRCA1 or BRCA2...... mutations were offered annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and those with PSA >3 ng/mL, were offered a prostate biopsy. Controls were men age-matched (± 5 years) who were negative for the familial mutation. RESULTS: In total, 300 men were recruited (205 mutation carriers; 89 BRCA1, 116 BRCA2...

  6. Planar Schottky technology for submillimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Thomas W.; Bishop, William L.; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Marazita, Steven M.; Koh, Philip J.; Porterfield, David W.

    1996-01-01

    Work carried out in relation to the development of planar integrated Schottky diodes with the aim of increasing the sensitivity, reliability and efficiency of spaceborne heterodyne receivers, is reported. The results of this work include a planar diode mixer at 585 GHz with a total receiver noise temperature of 2,380 K double side band, and planar diode multipliers. The prospects for further integration of circuit elements with the GaAs diodes are discussed.

  7. Improved optical planar waveguides for lasers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate efficacy of a novel growth technique for planar waveguides (PWG) Enable PWG laser technology with improved performance, efficiency and manufacturability....

  8. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, A. D.; Dalslet, B. T.; Skieller, D. H.; Lee, K. H.; Okkels, F.; Hansen, M. F.

    2010-07-01

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar Hall effect bridge sensors.

  9. The simulation model of planar electrochemical transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevnenko, D. A.; Vergeles, S. S.; Krishtop, T. V.; Tereshonok, D. V.; Gornev, E. S.; Krishtop, V. G.

    2016-12-01

    Planar electrochemical systems are very perspective to build modern motion and pressure sensors. Planar microelectronic technology is successfully used for electrochemical transducer of motion parameters. These systems are characterized by an exceptionally high sensitivity towards mechanic exposure due to high rate of conversion of the mechanic signal to electric current. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model of this planar electrochemical system, which detects the mechanical signals. We simulate the processes of mass and charge transfer in planar electrochemical transducer and calculated its transfer function with different geometrical parameters of the system.

  10. Graded-index planar waveguide solar concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Planar waveguides are useful to transport, concentrate and distribute light uniformly over large dimensions. Their capacity to collect and gather light efficiently over a large distance is interesting for many applications, like backlighting and solar concentration. For these reasons, the possibility of making them even more efficient could be of considerable interest for the community. The observation of the ray path inside a graded-index (GRIN) fiber inspired the development of a similar technology inside planar waveguides. In this Letter, we show that it has the potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of planar waveguide-based solar concentrators or backlighting using GRIN planar waveguides.

  11. A Construction of the "2221" Planar Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Richard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the "2221" subfactor planar algebra by finding it as a subalgebra of the graph planar algebra of its principal graph. In particular, we give a presentation of the "2221" subfactor planar algebra consisting of generators and relations. As a corollary, we have a planar algebra proof of the existence of a subfactor with principal graph "2221". To show the subfactor property, we use the jellyfish algorithm for evaluating closed diagrams. Lastly, we show uniqueness up to conjugation of "2221".

  12. Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program.

  13. Preliminary manual of the wind farms impacts study; Manuel preliminaire de l'etude d'impact des parcs eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This document aims to present and propose tools and methods allowing the improve the environmental quality of the future wind farms projects. After a presentation of general notions on the wind farms and the economy of the wind energy, it presents the regulation and the procedures concerning the environmental impact. It proposes then the main possible effects and the impacts study themes. (A.L.B.)

  14. Automated planar patch-clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Carol J; Möller, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles of both excitable and non-excitable cells. Ion channels are vital to a wide variety of biological processes and are prominent components of the nervous system and cardiovascular system, as well as controlling many metabolic functions. Furthermore, ion channels are known to be involved in many disease states and as such have become popular therapeutic targets. For many years now manual patch-clamping has been regarded as one of the best approaches for assaying ion channel function, through direct measurement of ion flow across these membrane proteins. Over the last decade there have been many remarkable breakthroughs in the development of technologies enabling the study of ion channels. One of these breakthroughs is the development of automated planar patch-clamp technology. Automated platforms have demonstrated the ability to generate high-quality data with high throughput capabilities, at great efficiency and reliability. Additional features such as simultaneous intracellular and extracellular perfusion of the cell membrane, current clamp operation, fast compound application, an increasing rate of parallelization, and more recently temperature control have been introduced. Furthermore, in addition to the well-established studies of over-expressed ion channel proteins in cell lines, new generations of planar patch-clamp systems have enabled successful studies of native and primary mammalian cells. This technology is becoming increasingly popular and extensively used both within areas of drug discovery as well as academic research. Many platforms have been developed including NPC-16 Patchliner(®) and SyncroPatch(®) 96 (Nanion Technologies GmbH, Munich), CytoPatch™ (Cytocentrics AG, Rostock), PatchXpress(®) 7000A, IonWorks(®) Quattro and IonWorks Barracuda™, (Molecular Devices, LLC); Dynaflow(®) HT (Cellectricon

  15. Preliminary methodology to assess the national and regional impact of U.S. wind energy development on birds and bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.; Beston, Julie A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Corum, Margo D.; Loss, Scott R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Erickson, Richard A.; Heist, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a methodology to assess the impacts of wind energy development on wildlife; it is a probabilistic, quantitative assessment methodology that can communicate to decision makers and the public the magnitude of these effects on species populations. The methodology is currently applicable to birds and bats, focuses primarily on the effects of collisions, and can be applied to any species that breeds in, migrates through, or otherwise uses any part of the United States. The methodology is intended to assess species at the national scale and is fundamentally different from existing methods focusing on impacts at individual facilities.

  16. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603 Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG & Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2012-04-09

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  17. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  18. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the ..Section..1603 Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Porro, G.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the Section 1603 grant program.

  19. Improving the Language Skills of Pre-Kindergarten Students: Preliminary Impacts of the "Let's Know!" Experimental Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Megan; Arthur, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Improving children's oral language skills is an important focus of educational research and practice; however, relatively few interventions have demonstrated impacts on these skills. This work makes a unique contribution to our understanding of the effects of language-focused interventions in pre-kindergarten settings by examining…

  20. Improving the Language Skills of Pre-Kindergarten Students: Preliminary Impacts of the "Let's Know!" Experimental Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Megan; Arthur, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Improving children's oral language skills is an important focus of educational research and practice; however, relatively few interventions have demonstrated impacts on these skills. This work makes a unique contribution to our understanding of the effects of language-focused interventions in pre-kindergarten settings by examining…

  1. The western Greenland Sea. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the KANUMAS East area; Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Johansen, K.; Maltha Rasmussen, L.; Schiedek, D.; Ugarte, F.; Mosbech, A.; Frederiksen, M.; Bjerrum, M.

    2009-05-15

    The environmental impacts of exploration activities will mainly be disturbance from activities creating noise such as seismic surveys and drilling. The impacts are expected to be relatively small, local and temporary, because of the intermittent nature of the exploration activities. Furthermore, the season for exploration activities is very short and limited to the few months with light ice conditions (June-October). The activities during development, production and transport are on the other hand long-lasting, and there are several activities which have the potential to cause severe environmental impacts. Careful Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) procedures, application of Best Available Technique (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP), zero-discharge policy and planning in combination with thorough background studies and application of the Precautionary Principle can mitigate most of these. The environmentally most severe accident would be a large oil spill. This has the potential to impact the marine ecosystem on all levels from primary production to the top predators. Oil spill trajectory modelling was carried out by DMI as a part of this SEIA. In most of the modelled oil spill drift scenarios oil does not reach the coasts, but stays offshore. However, three of the 24 scenarios indicate 11 that under certain conditions, oil may reach shores up to several hundred kilometres from the spill site. (ln)

  2. The eastern Baffin Bay. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the KANUMAS West area; Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Johansen, K.; Maltha Rasmussen, L.; Schiedek, D.; Ugarte, F.; Mosbech, A.; Frederiksen, M.; Bjerrum, M.

    2009-05-15

    The environmental impacts of exploration activities will mainly be disturbance from activities creating noise such as seismic surveys and drilling. The impacts are expected to be relatively small, local and temporary, because of the intermittent nature of the exploration activities. Furthermore, the season for exploration activities is very short and limited to the few months with light ice conditions (June-October). The activities during development, production and transport are on the other hand long-lasting, and there are several activities which have the potential to cause severe environmental impacts. Careful Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) procedures, application of Best Available Technique (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP), zero-discharge policy and planning in combination with thorough background studies and application of the Precautionary Principle can mitigate most of these. The environmentally most severe accident would be a large oil spill. This has the potential to impact the marine ecosystem on all levels from primary production to the top predators. Oil spill trajectory modelling was carried out by DMI as a part of this SEIA. In most of the modelled oil spill drift scenarios oil does not reach the coasts, but stays offshore. However, three of the 24 scenarios indicate that under certain conditions, oil may reach shores up to several hundred kilometres from the spill site. (ln)

  3. Community Policing: A Preliminary Assessment of Environmental Impact with Panel Data on Program Implementation in U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ni; Zhao, Jihong; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the environmental impact on the programmatic implementation of community-oriented policing (COP) in large municipal police agencies during the 1990s. Three waves of nationwide surveys (1993, 1996, and 2000) based on a random sample of 281 municipalities and the corresponding police agencies were used for our analysis. Based…

  4. Positron Emission Mammotomography with Dual Planar Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Smith; Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski

    2003-06-29

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) is usually performed with two stationary planar detectors above and below a compressed breast. There is image blurring normal to the detectors due to the limited angular range of the lines of response. Positron emission mammotomography (PEM-T) with dual planar detectors rotating about the breast can obtain complete angular sampling and has the potential to improve activity estimation.

  5. Reversed planar elongation of soft polymeric networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2011-01-01

    The newly developed planar elongation fixture, designed as an add-on to the filament stretch rheometer, is used to measure reversible large amplitude planar elongation on soft elastomers. The concept of this new fixture is to elongate an annulus, by keeping the perimeter constant. The deformation...

  6. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  7. Piecewise planar Möbius bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    t is shown that a closed polygon with an odd number of vertices is the median of exactly one piecewise planar cylinder and one piecewise planar Möbius band, intersecting each other orthogonally. A closed polygon with an even number of vertices is in the generic case neither the median of a piecew...

  8. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....

  9. The simplicity of planar networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Matheus P.; Strano, Emanuele; Bordin, Patricia; Barthelemy, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Shortest paths are not always simple. In planar networks, they can be very different from those with the smallest number of turns - the simplest paths. The statistical comparison of the lengths of the shortest and simplest paths provides a non trivial and non local information about the spatial organization of these graphs. We define the simplicity index as the average ratio of these lengths and the simplicity profile characterizes the simplicity at different scales. We measure these metrics on artificial (roads, highways, railways) and natural networks (leaves, slime mould, insect wings) and show that there are fundamental differences in the organization of urban and biological systems, related to their function, navigation or distribution: straight lines are organized hierarchically in biological cases, and have random lengths and locations in urban systems. In the case of time evolving networks, the simplicity is able to reveal important structural changes during their evolution.

  10. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  11. Insight into planar cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbagh, Michael; Borg, Jean-Paul

    2014-11-01

    Planar cell polarity or PCP refers to a uniform cellular organization within the plan, typically orthogonal to the apico-basal polarity axis. As such, PCP provides directional cues that control and coordinate the integration of cells in tissues to build a living organism. Although dysfunctions of this fundamental cellular process have been convincingly linked to the etiology of various pathologies such as cancer and developmental defects, the molecular mechanisms governing its establishment and maintenance remain poorly understood. Here, we review some aspects of invertebrate and vertebrate PCPs, highlighting similarities and differences, and discuss the prevalence of the non-canonical Wnt signaling as a central PCP pathway, as well as recent findings on the importance of cell contractility and cilia as promising avenues of investigation.

  12. Planar Lenses at Visible Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Devlin, Robert C; Oh, Jaewon; Zhu, Alexander Y; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Sub-wavelength resolution imaging requires high numerical aperture (NA) lenses, which are bulky and expensive. Metasurfaces allow the miniaturization of conventional refractive optics into planar structures. We show that high-aspect-ratio titanium dioxide metasurfaces can be fabricated and designed as meta-lenses with NA = 0.8. Diffraction-limited focusing is demonstrated at wavelengths of 405 nm, 532 nm, and 660 nm with corresponding efficiencies of 86%, 73%, and 66%. The meta-lenses can resolve nanoscale features separated by sub-wavelength distances and provide magnification as high as 170x with image qualities comparable to a state-of-the-art commercial objective. Our results firmly establish that meta-lenses can have widespread applications in laser-based microscopy, imaging, and spectroscopy.

  13. Adjustable phase planar helical undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Roger G.; Lidia, Steve

    1993-11-01

    We present here the design description of a new type of planar helical undulator, which we are constructing for the SPEAR storage ring at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. It comprises four rows of pure permanent magnet blocks, one row in each quadrant about the axis defined by the electron beam. Rows may be translated longitudinally with respect to each other to change the helicity of the magnetic field they create at the position of the beam. They may also be translated longitudinally to vary the energy of the x-rays emitted, unlike designs where this function is performed by varying the gap between the rows. This work includes numerical calculations of the fields, electron trajectories, and x-ray spectra, including off-axis effects.

  14. The planar parabolic optical antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, David T; Coenen, Toon; García de Abajo, F Javier; Brongersma, Mark L; Polman, Albert

    2013-01-09

    One of the simplest and most common structures used for directing light in macroscale applications is the parabolic reflector. Parabolic reflectors are ubiquitous in many technologies, from satellite dishes to hand-held flashlights. Today, there is a growing interest in the use of ultracompact metallic structures for manipulating light on the wavelength scale. Significant progress has been made in scaling radiowave antennas to the nanoscale for operation in the visible range, but similar scaling of parabolic reflectors employing ray-optics concepts has not yet been accomplished because of the difficulty in fabricating nanoscale three-dimensional surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that plasmon physics can be employed to realize a resonant elliptical cavity functioning as an essentially planar nanometallic structure that serves as a broadband unidirectional parabolic antenna at optical frequencies.

  15. The simplicity of planar networks

    CERN Document Server

    Viana, Matheus P; Bordin, Patricia; Barthelemy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Shortest paths are not always simple. In planar networks, they can be very different from those with the smallest number of turns - the simplest paths. The statistical comparison of the lengths of the shortest and simplest paths provides a non trivial and non local information about the spatial organization of these graphs. We define the simplicity index as the average ratio of these lengths and the simplicity profile characterizes the simplicity at different scales. We measure these metrics on artificial (roads, highways, railways) and natural networks (leaves, slime mould, insect wings) and show that there are fundamental differences in the organization of urban and biological systems, related to their function, navigation or distribution: straight lines are organized hierarchically in biological cases, and have random lengths and locations in urban systems. In the case of time evolving networks, the simplicity is able to reveal important structural changes during their evolution.

  16. Terrace Zone Structure in the Chicxulub Impact Crater Based on 2-D Seismic Reflection Profiles: Preliminary Results From EW#0501

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Gorney, D. L.; Christeson, G. L.; Barton, P. J.; Morgan, J. V.; Warner, M. R.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Melosh, H. J.; Vermeesch, P. M.; Surendra, A. T.; Goldin, T.; Mendoza, K.

    2005-05-01

    Terrace zones, central peaks, and flat floors characterize complex craters like the Chicxulub impact crater located near the northeast coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The subsurface crater structure was studied using seismic reflection surveying in Jan/Feb 2005 by the R/V Maurice Ewing. We present 2-D seismic profiles including constant radius, regional, and grid profiles encompassing the 195 km width of the crater. These diversely oriented lines clearly show the terrace zones and aid in the search for crater ejecta as we investigate the formation of the crater including the incidence angle and direction of the extraterrestrial object that struck the Yucatan Peninsula 65 million years ago (K-T boundary). Terrace zones form in complex craters after the modification stage as a result of the gravitational collapse of overextended sediment back into the crater cavity. The terrace zone is clearly imaged on seismic profiles confirming the complex structure of the Chixculub crater. Recent work on reprocessed 1996 profiles found different sizes and spacing of the terraces and concluded that the variations in radial structure are a result of an oblique impact. A SW-NE profile from this study was the only line to show a concentration of deformation near the crater rim hinting that the northeast was the downrange direction of impact. We confirm this narrowing in terrace spacing using a profile with a similar orientation in the 2005 images. Through integration of the new dense grid of profiles and radial lines from the 1996 and 2005 surveys we map the 3-D variability of the terrace zones to further constrain impact direction and examine the formative processes of the Chixculub and other large impact craters.

  17. The Planar Sandwich and Other 1D Planar Heat Flow Test Problems in ExactPack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    This report documents the implementation of several related 1D heat flow problems in the verification package ExactPack [1]. In particular, the planar sandwich class defined in Ref. [2], as well as the classes PlanarSandwichHot, PlanarSandwichHalf, and other generalizations of the planar sandwich problem, are defined and documented here. A rather general treatment of 1D heat flow is presented, whose main results have been implemented in the class Rod1D. All planar sandwich classes are derived from the parent class Rod1D.

  18. Adding one edge to planar graphs makes crossing number and 1-planarity hard

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    A graph is near-planar if it can be obtained from a planar graph by adding an edge. We show the surprising fact that it is NP-hard to compute the crossing number of near-planar graphs. A graph is 1-planar if it has a drawing where every edge is crossed by at most one other edge. We show that it is NP-hard to decide whether a given near-planar graph is 1-planar. The main idea in both reductions is to consider the problem of simultaneously drawing two planar graphs inside a disk, with some of its vertices fixed at the boundary of the disk. This leads to the concept of anchored embedding, which is of independent interest. As an interesting consequence we obtain a new, geometric proof of NP-completeness of the crossing number problem, even when restricted to cubic graphs. This resolves a question of Hlin\\v{e}n\\'y.

  19. Short-term impacts of air pollutants in Switzerland: Preliminary scenario calculations for selected Swiss energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    In the frame of the comprehensive assessment of Swiss energy systems, air quality simulations were performed by using a 3-dimensional photo-chemical dispersion model. The objective is to investigate the impacts of pollutants in Switzerland for future options of Swiss energy systems. Four scenarios were investigated: Base Case: simulations with the projected emissions for the year 2030, Scenario 1) all nuclear power plants were replaced by oil-driven combined cycle plants (CCP), Scenarios 2 to 4) traffic emissions were reduced in whole Switzerland as well as in the cities and on the highways separately. Changes in the pollutant concentrations and depositions, and the possible short-term impacts are discussed on the basis of exceedences of critical levels for plants and limits given to protect the public health. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  20. Impact of an implantable steroid contraceptive (etonogestrel-releasing implant) on quality of life and sexual function: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Costantino; Sansone, Anna; De Rosa, Nicoletta; Gargano, Virginia; Tommaselli, Giovanni Antonio; Nappi, Carmine; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of etonogestrel (ENG)-implant used for contraceptive purpose on Quality of life (QoL) and on sexual function (FSF) of healthy Italian women. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) validated questionnaire were administered at baseline, 3 and 6 months after insertion of Nexplanon. The implant seems to have a positive impact on QoL after the first three months of therapy. Users showed an improved general health status and physical role status. The implant did not show negative effects on libido and on sexual function. In the first three months of treatment, users experienced a temporary reduction of vitality, mental health, social functioning and emotional role functioning, which seem to disappear after six months of therapy.

  1. A preliminary impact assessment of typhoon wind risk of residential buildings in Japan under future climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This paper performs a quantitative impact assessment of the climate change on typhoon wind risk, focusing on residential buildings in Japan. The risk is assessed based on (1) the typhoon event set extracted from the simulation by the super-high resolution atmospheric general circulation model dev...... of the building portfolio remains unchanged. Based on these results, the assumptions and inputs to the assessment are critically reviewed. Thereby, the needs of further research efforts toward more credible and comprehensive assessment are addressed.......This paper performs a quantitative impact assessment of the climate change on typhoon wind risk, focusing on residential buildings in Japan. The risk is assessed based on (1) the typhoon event set extracted from the simulation by the super-high resolution atmospheric general circulation model...

  2. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Preliminary Environmental Constraints Survey U.S. Air Force, Space Division Advanced Launch System (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    America . All of the proposed onshore facilities lie within tsunami hazard zone Number Four: earthquake-generated waves between 30 and 50 feet could...coastal sites on VAFB is one of the highest I in North America . As a result, ground-disturbing projects like ALS would require extensive archaeological... agricultura crops and livestock, deterioration of materials and property, an* adverse impacts on the environment. g. (UV fluorescence) In presence of

  3. Preliminary results of the Social Impact Research Group of MEDEX: the request database (2000–2002 of two Meteorological Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Amaro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of the MEDEX project is to improve the knowledge of high-impact weather events in the Mediterranean. According to the guidelines of this project, a pilot study was carried out in two regions of Spain (the Balearic Islands and Catalonia by the Social Impact Research group of MEDEX. The main goal is to suggest some general and suitable criteria about how to analyse requests received in Meteorological Services arising out of the damage caused by weather events. Thus, all the requests received between 2000 and 2002 at the Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya as well as at the Division of AEMET in the Balearic Islands were analysed.

    Firstly, the proposed criteria in order to build the database are defined and discussed. Secondly, the temporal distribution of the requests for damage claims is analysed. On average, almost half of them were received during the first month after the event happened. During the first six months, the percentage increases by 90%. Thirdly, various factors are taken into account to determine the impact of specific events on society. It is remarkable that the greatest number of requests is for those episodes with simultaneous heavy rain and strong wind, and finally, those that are linked to high population density.

  4. The Impact of Restricting Over-the-Counter Sales of Antimicrobial Drugs: Preliminary Analysis of National Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Maria Luísa; Boszczowski, Icaro; Mortari, Naíma; Barrozo, Lígia Vizeu; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Lobo, Renata Desordi; Pedroso de Lima, Antonio Carlos; Levin, Anna S

    2015-09-01

    To describe the nationwide impact of a restrictive law on over-the-counter sales of antimicrobial drugs, implemented in Brazil in November 2010. Approximately 75% of the population receives healthcare from the public health system and receives free-of-charge medication if prescribed. Total sales in private pharmacies as compared with other channels of sales of oral antibiotics were evaluated in this observational study before and after the law (2008-2012). Defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) was used as standard unit. In private pharmacies the effect of the restrictive law was statistically significant (P sales was observed (P = 0.643). The impact in the South and Southeast (more developed) regions was higher than in the North, Northeast, and Mid-West. The state capitals had a 19% decrease, compared with 0.8% increase in the rest of the states. Before the law, the sales of antimicrobial drugs were steadily increasing. From November 2010, with the restrictive law, there was an abrupt drop in sales followed by an increase albeit at a significantly lower rate. The impact was higher in regions with better socio-economic status.

  5. A preliminary approach to quantifying the overall environmental risks posed by development projects during environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Sam; Chadès, Iadine

    2017-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is used globally to manage the impacts of development projects on the environment, so there is an imperative to demonstrate that it can effectively identify risky projects. However, despite the widespread use of quantitative predictive risk models in areas such as toxicology, ecosystem modelling and water quality, the use of predictive risk tools to assess the overall expected environmental impacts of major construction and development proposals is comparatively rare. A risk-based approach has many potential advantages, including improved prediction and attribution of cause and effect; sensitivity analysis; continual learning; and optimal resource allocation. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to quantify the likelihood and consequence of non-compliance of new projects based on the occurrence probabilities of a set of expert-defined features. The BBN incorporates expert knowledge and continually improves its predictions based on new data as it is collected. We use simulation to explore the trade-off between the number of data points and the prediction accuracy of the BBN, and find that the BBN could predict risk with 90% accuracy using approximately 1000 data points. Although a further pilot test with real project data is required, our results suggest that a BBN is a promising method to monitor overall risks posed by development within an existing EIA process given a modest investment in data collection.

  6. A preliminary assessment of asteroid shapes produced by impact disruption and re-creation: Application to the AIDA target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, Olivier; Michel, Patrick; Richardson, Derek

    2016-04-01

    In order to understand the origin of the 65803 Didymos, the target of the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission, and gain insights on the origin and evolution of the asteroid's162173 Ryugu and 101955 Bennu, we investigate systematically the shapes of all re-accumulated fragments produced by the catastrophic disruption of a parent body that is 1 km in diameter or larger. These new fragments eventually become new asteroids of the size that current sample-return missions plan to explore. We choose a range of impact conditions by varying the parent bodies' strength, size and porosity, and the velocity and size of the projectile. Impact conditions range from near the catastrophic threshold, usually designated by Q*, where half of the target's mass escapes, to far greater values above this threshold. Our numerical investigations of the catastrophic disruption, which are undertaken using an SPH hydrocode, include a model of fragmentation for porous materials. The gravitationally dominated phase of reaccumulation of our asteroids is computed using the N-body code pkdgrav. At sufficiently slow impact speeds in the N-body model, particles are permitted to stick, forming irregular, competent pieces that can gather into non-idealized rubble piles as a result of re-accumulation. Shape and spin information of re-accumulated bodies are thus preserved. Due to numerical expense, this first study uses what we call a hard-sphere model, rather than a soft-sphere spring and dashpot model. This latter model is more commonly used in granular flow simulations for which detailed treatment of the multicontact physics is needed, which is not the case here, and comes at the expense of much smaller timesteps. With the hard-sphere model, there are three supported collision outcomes for bonded aggregates: sticking on contact (to grow the aggregate); bouncing (computed for these generally non-central impacts); and fragmentation (wherein the particles involved become detached from

  7. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH IMPACTS OF SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION FACILITIES FOR NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROWE,M.D.; KLEIN,R.C.; JONES,K.W.

    1999-07-31

    elsewhere. This report provides a preliminary evaluation, or ``screening assessment,'' of potential occupational, public, and environmental health risks from dredging, transporting, and treating contaminated harbor sediments with thermal treatment methods to render them suitable for disposal or beneficial use. The assessment was done in stages as the project advanced and data became available from other tasks on characteristics of sediments and treatment processes.

  8. Impact of an educational program on the quality of life of patients with lymphedema: A preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Sophie; Satger, Bernadette; Pernod, Gilles; Richaud, Cécile; Villemur, Béatrice; Carpentier, Patrick H

    2017-09-01

    We report on the preliminary evaluation of a well-designed program, Living with Lymphedema. This longitudinal cohort study assessed patients' quality of life using questionnaires. Our main objective was to evaluate the satisfaction of the patients and their adherence to the program. This was done using a specific questionnaire of satisfaction as well as by noting patients' adherence to the program (number of patients attending all three consultations). The secondary objective was to assess the effect of the program on the patient's quality of life. The assessment criteria were the evolution of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and EuroQol questionnaire scores between the first (C1) and third (C3) consultations. The Living with Lymphedema program targeted all patients with lymphedema in the Grenoble (France) conurbation and within the GRANTED health care network that includes vascular medicine specialists, primary care physicians, physical therapists, and dietitians in the Alpine region of France. All studied patients were ambulatory patients. The GRANTED network took care only of the educational aspect of the disease. All patients with primary or secondary lymphedema were offered the Living with Lymphedema program, whatever their age and the location of the lymphedema (upper or lower limbs). The collection of patient data conformed to the ethical and administrative regulations of the regional health authority. Grenoble Institutional Review Board (CPP Sud-Est V; No. 5891) approval for the study was specifically obtained for this evaluation on December 24, 2012. The program was built around one-to-one consultations, group workshops, and more specialized appointments. It was complementary to the routine medical care received by the patient (not evaluated in this study). It proposed three individual "educational" consultations, seven group workshops, and two specialized consultations with a dietitian. All the consultations or workshops were

  9. Impact of age, verified occupation and lifestyle on semen parameters of infertile males in Jaipur: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Asha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle factors are the amendable habits and ways of life that can greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Infertility is a medico-socio problem, and a large proportion of childless people are confronted with social stigmatization and personal frustration. It has become more socially acceptable to delay fatherhood, but the heritable consequences of this trend remain poorly understood. Advancing paternal age, occupation and lifestyle has been implicated in a broad range of abnormal reproductive and genetic outcomes. Objective: The study presents a preliminary datum about the relationship of age, occupation and verified lifestyle on semen parameters in infertile males of Jaipur (Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Clinical examination, history of infertility, age, occupation, lifestyle, etc., of 102 infertile subjects were recorded predesigned performa. Results: Based on age subjects were divided into two groups. The respective age of infertile subjects in groups I and II ranged 19-30 years and 31-45 years. A significant (P < 0.05 decline was observed in sperm motility and vitality above the age of 30 years (group II as compared to below than 30 years (group I of age. A significant inverse (r = −0.25, −0.20, P < 0.05 correlation were found between sperm motility and vitality to age of group II. In group I, conversely, these parameters was found to be positively correlated with age. Highest prevalence of azoospermia occurs in farmers (66.66%, 50% in groups I and II. The least azoospermia was found among casual laborers in both high and low age groups. In group, I highest percentage of azoospermia (55.55% subject were alcoholic, and smoker (50% and 50% severe oligozoospermia subjects were smokers in both the groups. Conclusion: The age is intimately related to decreasing in sperm motility and vitality, whereas, least effect is observed on sperm count. Occupationally, the highest prevalence of abnormal

  10. Long-Run Impact of Corn-Based Ethanol on the Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Sectors: A Preliminary Assessment, The

    OpenAIRE

    Amani Elobeid; Simla Tokgoz; Dermot J. Hayes; Bruce A. Babcock; Hart, Chad E.

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing growth of corn-based ethanol production raises some fundamental questions about what impact continued growth will have on U.S. and world agriculture. Estimates of the long-run potential for ethanol production can be made by calculating the corn price at which the incentive to expand ethanol production disappears. Under current ethanol tax policy, if the prices of crude oil, natural gas, and distillers grains stay at current levels, then the break-even corn price is $4.05 per bushe...

  11. Seismically Imaged Architecture of the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Preliminary Results From the Last Cruise of the R/V Maurice Ewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, S. S.; Barton, P. J.; Christeson, G.; Morgan, J. V.; Warner, M. R.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Melosh, H. J.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; McDonald, M.; Vermeesch, P. M.; Surendra, A. T.; Goldin, T.; Mendoza, K.; Sears, T. J.

    2005-05-01

    A new suite of multi-channel seismic reflection lines image key structural elements of the 195 km wide Chicxulub Impact Crater, the best preserved, large impact crater on Earth. The seismic transects, acquired using the R/V Maurice Ewing in January and February 2005, include regional radial lines (dip-oriented), a regional constant-radius profile (strike-oriented), and a dense grid of lines spaced 2 km by 5 km apart near the center of the crater. The radial lines image, from the exterior to interior, the crater rings, crater rim, slump blocks, and peak ring providing an enhanced look at the 3-D architecture of Chicxulub. The constant-radius profile, together with the radial lines, was designed to study any radial variations in deformation, or possibly ejecta, which may lend insight into impact angle and direction. The grid of lines near the crater center examine the structural relationships between the slump blocks, peak ring, and central uplift which according to impact modeling all formed within minutes of the Cretaceous-Tertiary impact. The regional lines, both radial and the constant radius profile, largely confirm the observations of the regional seismic lines collected in 1996. Both datasets show the existence of at least one ring outside of the crater rim and an elevated crater rim with as much as 500 m of offset between the top of the crater rim and the KT boundary within the crater that was subsequently buried by ~1 km of Tertiary sediments. Our preliminary interpretations from the seismic grid near the crater center yield a general architecture of the central crater that includes a 10-15 km wide, doughnut-shaped peak ring that lies ~25 km from the crater center. Underlying the peak ring are sediments with inconsistent reflectivity (possibly breccia), underlain by inward slumped blocks of varying widths, and underlain by ~10 km thick package of reflective lower crust ending with the Moho. The slump blocks, where imaged, underlie the peak ring suggesting

  12. A preliminary investigation into the impact of a pesticide combination on human neuronal and glial cell lines in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Coleman

    Full Text Available Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health.

  13. An Economic Impact Analysis of the Proposed Yakima/Klickitat Fishery Enhancement Project; Preliminary Design Report, Appendix D.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Richard S.; Cocheba, Donald J.; Green, Daniel; Hedrick, David W.

    1989-12-27

    The objective of this study is to estimate the economic impact of the proposed Yakima/Klickitat Production Project on the local economies of the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins. The project, when operating at planned maximum production, will augment the total number of salmon and steelhead returning to the subbasins by 77,600 and will increase the sustainable terminal harvest by 55,160. These estimates do not include fish harvested in the ocean or in the mainstem Columbia. In addition to evaluating the impacts of the construction, operations and maintenance, experimentation and monitoring, and harvest activities described in the Draft Environmental Assessment (Bonneville Power Administration, 1989), our analysis also evaluates some passageway improvements and Phase II screening of irrigation structures. Both of these augmentations are required In order for the project to reach maximum planned harvest levels. The study area includes the Yakima Subbasin economy (Yakima and Kittitas counties), the mid-Columbia Basin/Klickitat Subbasin economies (Klickitat, Hood River, and Wasco counties), and the Tri-Cities economy (Benton and Franklin counties). The study period extends from 1990 through 2015: from preconstruction planning activities through reaching maximum production.

  14. Preliminary assessment of the impacts and effects of the South Pacific tsunami of September 2009 in Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, D.

    2009-12-01

    The September 2009 tsunami was a regional South Pacific event of enormous significance. Our UNESCO-IOC ITST Samoa survey used a simplified version of a ‘coupled human-environment systems framework’ (Turner et al., 2003) to investigate the impacts and effects of the tsunami in Samoa. Further, the framework allowed us to identify those factors that affected the vulnerability and resilience of the human-environment system before, during and after the tsunami - a global first. Key findings (unprocessed) include: Maximum run-up exceeded 14 metres above sea level Maximum inundation (at right angles to the shore) was approximately 400 metres Maximum inundation with the wave running parallel with the shore (but inland), exceeded 700 metres Buildings sustained varying degrees of damage Damage was correlated with depth of tsunami flow, velocity, condition of foundations, quality of building materials used, quality of workmanship, adherence to the building code and so on Buildings raised even one metre above the surrounding land surface suffered much less damage Plants, trees and mangroves reduced flow velocity and flow depth - leading to greater chances of human survival and lower levels of building damage The tsunami has left a clear and distinguishable geological record in terms of sediments deposited in the coastal landscape The clear sediment layer associated with this tsunami suggests that older (and prehistoric) tsunamis can be identified, helping to answer questions about frequency and magnitude of tsunamis The tsunami caused widespread erosion of the coastal and beach zones but this damage will repair itself naturally and quickly The tsunami has had clear impacts on ecosystems and these are highly variable Ecosystems will repair themselves naturally and are unlikely to preserve long-term impacts It is clear that some plant (tree) species are highly resilient and provided immediate places for safety during the tsunami and resources post-tsunami People of Samoa are

  15. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  16. DYNAMIC DESIGN OF VARIABLE SPEED PLANAR LINKAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yanan; Yan Hongsen; Zou Huijun

    2005-01-01

    A method for improving dynamic characteristics of planar linkages by actively varying the speed function of the input link is presented. Design criteria and constraints for the dynamic design of variable speed planar linkages are developed. Both analytical and optimization approaches for determining suitable input speed functions to minimize the driving torque, the shaking moment, or both simultaneously of planar linkages, subject to various design requirements and constraints, are derived.Finally, some examples are given to illustrate the design procedure and to verify its feasibility.

  17. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  18. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Materials from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Miller, Martin C.; Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-02-01

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). The overall objectives of this effort are to synthesize what is known about disposal effects on Dungeness crabs (Phase 1) and to offer approaches to quantify the effects, including approaches to gain a population-level perspective on any effects found in subsequent studies (Phase 2). This report documents Phase 1, which included (1) development of a conceptual model to integrate knowledge about crab biology and the physical processes occurring during disposal, (2) application of physics-based numerical modeling of the disposal event to understand the physical forces and processes to which a crab might be exposed during disposal, (3) conduct of a vulnerability analysis to identify the potential mechanisms by which crabs may be injured, and (4) recommendations of topics and approaches for future studies to assess the potential population-level effects of disposal on Dungeness crabs. The conceptual model first recognizes that disposal of dredged materials is a physically dynamic process with three aspects: (1) convective descent and bottom encounter, (2) dynamic collapse and spreading, and (3) mounding. Numerical modeling was used to assess the magnitude of the potentially relevant forces and extent of mounding in single disposal events. The modeling outcomes show that predicted impact pressure, shear stress, and mound depth are greatly reduced by discharge in deep water, and somewhat reduced at longer discharge duration. The analysis of numerical modeling results and vulnerabilities indicate that the vulnerability of crabs to compression forces under any of the disposal scenarios is low. For the deep-water disposal scenarios, the maximum forces and mounding do not appear to be sufficiently high enough to warrant concern for surge currents or burial at the depths involved (over 230 ft). For the shallow-water (45 to 65 ft), short

  19. Preliminary Measurement of the K-Shell Ionization Cross Sections of Ti by Positron Impact in the Low Energy Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽霞; 刘慢天; 朱敬军; 安竹; 王宝义; 秦秀波

    2012-01-01

    Measurements were performed of K-shell ionization cross sections of Ti element by 10~30 keV positron impact using the thick-target method. The effects of multiple scattering of incident positron and from bremsstrahlung photons and annihilation photons with the thick-target method are discussed with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Meanwhile, the Monte Carlo method is also applied to determine the detection efficiencies of X- and γ-ray detectors. Our experimental K-shell ionization cross sections for Ti element are compared with the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) theoretical predictions, and it is found that the agreement of the experimental data and theoretical values is good and this indicates that the experimental method adopted in this study is applicable.

  20. Planar doped barrier subharmonic mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. H.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.

    1992-01-01

    The Planar Doped Barrier (PDB) diode is a device consisting of a p(+) doping spike between two intrinsic layers and n(+) ohmic contacts. This device has the advantages of controllable barrier height, diode capacitance and forward to reverse current ratio. A symmetrically designed PDB has an anti-symmetric current vs. voltage characteristic and is ideal for use as millimeter wave subharmonic mixers. We have fabricated such devices with barrier heights of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 volts from GaAs and InGaAs using a multijunction honeycomb structure with junction diameters between one and ten microns. Initial RF measurements are encouraging. The 0.7 volt barrier height 4 micron GaAs devices were tested as subharmonic mixers at 202 GHz with an IF frequency of 1 GHz and had 18 dB of conversion loss. The estimated mismatch loss was 7 dB and was due to higher diode capacitance. The LO frequency was 100.5 GHz and the pump power was 8 mW.

  1. Aquatic monitoring programs conducted during environmental impact assessments in Canada: preliminary assessment before and after weakened environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Brynn; Walker, Tony R

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic monitoring programs are imperative for the functioning of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process and a cornerstone for industrial compliance in Canada. However, in 2012, several leading pieces of federal environmental legislation (e.g., Canadian Environmental Assessment Act c.19, s. 52, 2012) were drastically altered, effectively weakening levels of environmental protection for aquatic ecosystems during project developments. This paper assesses the impact of CEAA 2012 on aquatic monitoring programs (and subsequent monitoring data reporting) across Canada for ten projects (five completed pre-CEAA 2012 and five completed post-CEAA 2012). Projects included four energy and six mining projects and were selected based on the following criteria: (i) representative of Canada's resource economy; (ii) project information was publicly available; and (iii) strong public interest. Projects pre- and post-CEAA 2012 exhibited few apparent differences before and after environmental regulatory changes. However, wide discrepancies exist in numbers and types of parameters reported, along with a lack of consistency in reporting. Projects pre-CEAA 2012 provided more follow-up monitoring commitments. Although qualitative differences remain inconclusive, this paper highlights requirements for further assessment of aquatic monitoring and follow-up programs in Canada. Recommendations for the government to consider during reviews of the federal environmental assessment processes include (i) improved transparency on the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency website ( https://www.ceaa-acee.gc.ca/ ); (ii) creation of a legally binding standardized aquatic monitoring program framework to ensure that all Canadian aquatic ecosystems are monitored with equal rigour; and (iii) commitments and justification related to frequency of aquatic monitoring of water quality.

  2. Toroidal and magnetic Fano resonances in planar THz metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song; Gupta, Manoj; Cong, Longqing; Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Singh, Ranjan

    2017-09-01

    The toroidal dipole moment, a localized electromagnetic excitation of torus magnetic fields, has been observed experimentally in metamaterials. However, the metamaterial based toroidal moment was restricted at higher frequencies by the complex three-dimensional structure. Recently, it has been shown that toroidal moment could also be excited in a planar metamaterial structure. Here, we use asymmetric Fano resonators to illustrate theoretically and experimentally the underlying physics of the toroidal coupling in an array of planar metamaterials. It is observed that the anti-parallel magnetic moment configuration shows toroidal excitation with higher quality (Q) factor Fano resonance, while the parallel magnetic moment shows relatively lower Q factor resonance. Moreover, the electric and toroidal dipole interferes destructively to give rise to an anapole excitation. The magnetic dipole-dipole interaction is employed to understand the differences between the toroidal and magnetic Fano resonances. We further study the impact of intra unit-cell coupling between the Fano resonator pairs in the mirrored and non-mirrored arrangements. The numerical and theoretical approach for modelling the near-field effects and experimental demonstration of toroidal and magnetic Fano resonances in planar systems are particularly promising for tailoring the loss in metamaterials across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  3. Strong oriented chromatic number of planar graphs without short cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël Montassier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Let M be an additive abelian group. A strong oriented coloringof an oriented graph G is a mapping φ from V(G to M such that (1 φ(u ≠ φ(v whenever uv is an arc in G and (2 φ(v - φ(u ≠ -(φ(t - φ(z whenever uv and zt are two arcs in G. We say that G has a M-strong-oriented coloring. The strong oriented chromatic number of an oriented graph, denoted by χ s (G, is the minimal order of a group M, such that G has M-strong-oriented coloring. This notion was introduced by Nešetřil and Raspaud. In this paper, we pose the following problem: Let i ≥ 4 be an integer. Let G be an oriented planar graph without cycles of lengths 4 to i. Which is the strong oriented chromatic number of G ? Our aim is to determine the impact of triangles on the strong oriented coloring. We give some hints of answers to this problem by proving that: (1 the strong oriented chromatic number of any oriented planar graph without cycles of lengths 4 to 12 is at most 7, and (2 the strong oriented chromatic number of any oriented planar graph without cycles of length 4 or 6 is at most 19.

  4. The Rock Elm meteorite impact structure, Wisconsin: Geology and shock-metamorphic effects in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, B.M.; Cordua, W.S.; Plescia, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The Rock Elm structure in southwest Wisconsin is an anomalous circular area of highly deformed rocks, ???6.5 km in diameter, located in a region of virtually horizontal undeformed sedimentary rocks. Shock-produced planar microstructures (PMs) have been identified in quartz grains in several lithologies associated with the structure: sandstones, quartzite pebbles, and breccia. Two distinct types of PMs are present: P1 features, which appear identical to planar fractures (PFs or cleavage), and P2 features, which are interpreted as possible incipient planar deformation features (PDFs). The latter are uniquely produced by the shock waves associated with meteorite impact events. Both types of PMs are oriented parallel to specific crystallographic planes in the quartz, most commonly to c(0001), ??112??2, and r/z101??1. The association of unusual, structurally deformed strata with distinct shock-produced microdeformation features in their quartz-bearing rocks establishes Rock Elm as a meteorite impact structure and supports the view that the presence of multiple parallel cleavages in quartz may be used independently as a criterion for meteorite impact. Preliminary paleontological studies indicate a minimum age of Middle Ordovician for the Rock Elm structure. A similar age estimate (450-400 Ma) is obtained independently by combining the results of studies of the general morphology of complex impact structures with estimated rates of sedimentation for the region. Such methods may be applicable to dating other old and deeply eroded impact structures formed in sedimentary target rocks.

  5. Ultrasonographic Fetal Growth Charts: An Informatic Approach by Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Ethnicity on Diagnoses Based on a Preliminary Report on Salentinian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear guidance on fetal growth assessment is important because of the strong links between growth restriction or macrosomia and adverse perinatal outcome in order to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Fetal growth curves are extensively adopted to track fetal sizes from the early phases of pregnancy up to delivery. In the literature, a large variety of reference charts are reported but they are mostly up to five decades old. Furthermore, they do not address several variables and factors (e.g., ethnicity, foods, lifestyle, smoke, and physiological and pathological variables, which are very important for a correct evaluation of the fetal well-being. Therefore, currently adopted fetal growth charts are inadequate to support the melting pot of ethnic groups and lifestyles of our society. Customized fetal growth charts are needed to provide an accurate fetal assessment and to avoid unnecessary obstetric interventions at the time of delivery. Starting from the development of a growth chart purposely built for a specific population, in the paper, authors quantify and analyse the impact of the adoption of wrong growth charts on fetal diagnoses. These results come from a preliminary evaluation of a new open service developed to produce personalized growth charts for specific ethnicity, lifestyle, and other parameters.

  6. The IAHR project CCHE-Climate Change impact on the Hydrological cycle, water management and Engineering: an overview and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzi, Roberto; Kojiri, T.; Mynett, A.; Barontini, S.; van de Giesen, N.; Kolokytha, E.; Ngo, L. A.; Oreamuno, R.; Renard, B.; Sighomnou, D.; Vizina, A.

    2010-05-01

    IAHR, the International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research launched a research Project called Climate Change impact on the Hydrological cycle, water management and Engineering (IAHR CCHE Project). It was motivated by the fact that, although it is now well accepted that, in the light of the recent IPCC reports the vast majority of members of the scientific community are convinced that the climate is changing or at least will experience a significant fluctuation already during the current century, it is perceived that some hydrologists, water experts and hydraulic engineers are not yet ready to incorporate climate change scenarios in their designs for such projects as: - flood protection and river training, - dam rehabilitation, - water resources management under water scarcity and changes in the hydrological regimes. The objective of the project is to encourage a close co-operation between the scientific and engineering communities in taking appropriate and timely action in response to the impact of climate change on the hydrological regime and on water resource projects. The project aims at reporting on (a) the current state of knowledge as regards the impact of projected climate change on the hydrological regime in different regions of the world, where these regions are defined not just in geographic terms but also on the basis of their level of economic and water resources development; (b) the extent to which these impacts are recognized and taken into account by national water authorities, engineering organizations and other regulating bodies in setting their standard practices and procedures for the planning, design and operation of water works. These adaptation measures will include both "hard" responses, such as the construction or enlargement of engineering structures, and "soft" responses, such as changes in legislation or the operating rules of existing structures. An overview of the project and preliminary results extracted from of

  7. The Preliminary Ruling Decision in the Case of Google vs. Louis Vuitton Concerning the AdWord Service and its Impact on the Community Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Gongol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The internet user after entering the keywords obtains two kinds of search results – natural and sponsored ones. The following paper deals with the issue of using keywords which correspond to trademarks registered by a third party for advertising purposes through internet search portals such as Google, Yahoo, Bing, Seznam, Centrum etc. (in principle web search portals. The objective of this article is to analyze decided cases dealing with the AdWords service issued by the Court of Justice of the European Union and compare them also with the attitude in similar disputes in the U.S. Within this knowledge it is necessary to determine the impact of these decisions on further national courts decisions of European Union member states. Moreover there is also legal impact on copyright law and responsibility of internet search engines deduced. The method of the analysis of courts decisions is used and the method of legal comparison is applied to different attitudes in similar cases. Where a third party uses a sign which is identical with the trademark in relation to goods or services identical with those for which the mark is registered, the trademark proprietor is allowed to prohibit such use if it is liable to affect one of the functions of the mark (particularly the function of indicating origin. Regarding to the liability of the Internet search engine itself, decisions of the courts in matters of Internet search engines in the European Union vary from state to state. Whereas the German courts tend to currently access the responsibility for the outcome of the search engines more freely, the French courts are often more stringent. Differently, we can say much more liberal, is the access of the U.S. courts to this issue. Preliminary ruling decision in case of Louis Vuitton Malletier SA vs. Google, Inc. and community practice in further cases follow similar (liberal decisions of the courts of the U.S.

  8. Impact of comorbidity on three month follow-up outcome of children with ADHD in a child guidance clinic: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangan Srinivasaraghavan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the common neurodevelopmental disorders. Aims: Study objective is to report impact of comorbidities on short-term outcome in children with ADHD followed in a child guidance clinic. Settings and Design: This was done in a child guidance clinic run jointly by the pediatric and psychiatry department at a tertiary teaching hospital. This is a 3 month prospective follow-up study to assess the outcome in ADHD children. Materials and Methods: Children attending pediatric department with behavioral problems or poor scholastic performance were screened for ADHD and further confirmation of diagnosis was done by semistructured interview of the child and parent. Children functional assessment and ADHD symptom profile was compared at baseline and at follow-up. We screened for and excluded those showing autistic spectrum disorder and having worse than mild mental retardation. Baseline variables were compared between improved and not improved subgroups and impact of these variables on outcome at 3-month follow-up was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 25 children completing the study, at the end of 3 months, 15 improved (not fulfilling criteria for ADHD and 10 did not improve. Applying Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS for diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidities, six had associated psychiatric comorbidities. This was significantly higher in those who did not improve. Conclusions: Presence of comorbidities at baseline was found to affect outcome at 3 month assessment in this preliminary study. Future studies with larger sample and longer follow-up are needed for finding the predictors of outcome in ADHD children in developing nations.

  9. Planar cell polarity of the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Ulrike; Carroll, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) or tissue polarity refers to the polarization of tissues perpendicular to the apical-basal axis. Most epithelia, including the vertebrate kidney, show signs of planar polarity. In the kidney, defects in planar polarity are attributed to several disease states including multiple forms of cystic kidney disease. Indeed, planar cell polarity has been shown to be essential for several cellular processes that appear to be necessary for establishing and maintaining tubule diameter. However, uncovering the genetic mechanisms underlying PCP in the kidney has been complicated as the roles of many of the main players are not conserved in flies and vice versa. Here, we review a number of cellular and molecular processes that can affect PCP of the kidney with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms that do not appear to be conserved in flies or that are not part of canonical determinants.

  10. Non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Patrick R.; Wheeler, David R.

    2007-09-25

    A non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column comprises a planar substrate having a plurality of through holes, a top lid and a bottom lid bonded to opposite surfaces of the planar substrate, and inlet and outlet ports for injection of a sample gas and elution of separated analytes. A plurality of such planar substrates can be aligned and stacked to provide a longer column length having a small footprint. Furthermore, two or more separate channels can enable multi-channel or multi-dimensional gas chromatography. The through holes preferably have a circular cross section and can be coated with a stationary phase material or packed with a porous packing material. Importantly, uniform stationary phase coatings can be obtained and band broadening can be minimized with the circular channels. A heating or cooling element can be disposed on at least one of the lids to enable temperature programming of the column.

  11. Point Location in Disconnected Planar Subdivisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Douieb, Karim; Dujmovic, Vida; King, James; Morin, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Let $G$ be a (possibly disconnected) planar subdivision and let $D$ be a probability measure over $\\R^2$. The current paper shows how to preprocess $(G,D)$ into an O(n) size data structure that can answer planar point location queries over $G$. The expected query time of this data structure, for a query point drawn according to $D$, is $O(H+1)$, where $H$ is a lower bound on the expected query time of any linear decision tree for point location in $G$. This extends the results of Collette et al (2008, 2009) from connected planar subdivisions to disconnected planar subdivisions. A version of this structure, when combined with existing results on succinct point location, provides a succinct distribution-sensitive point location structure.

  12. Planar micro-optic solar concentrator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karp, Jason H; Tremblay, Eric J; Ford, Joseph E

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach to solar concentration where sunlight collected by each lens in a two-dimensional lens array is coupled into a shared, planar waveguide using localized features placed at each lens focus...

  13. Modified planar functions and their components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Meidl, Wilfried Meidl

    2017-01-01

    functions in odd characteristic as a vectorial bent function. We finally point out that though these components behave somewhat different than the multivariate bent4 functions, they are bent or semibent functions shifted by a certain quadratic term, a property which they share with their multivariate......Zhou ([20]) introduced modified planar functions in order to describe (2n; 2n; 2n; 1) relative difference sets R as a graph of a function on the finite field F2n, and pointed out that projections of R are difference sets that can be described by negabent or bent4 functions, which are Boolean...... functions given in multivariate form. One of the objectives of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of these component functions of modified planar functions. Moreover, we obtain a description of modified planar functions by their components which is similar to that of the classical planar...

  14. Structure of The Planar Galilean Conformal Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shoulan; Liu, Dong; Pei, Yufeng

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we compute the low-dimensional cohomology groups of the planar Galilean conformal algebra introduced by Bagchi and Goparkumar. Consequently we determine its derivations, central extensions, and automorphisms.

  15. Preliminary study of the impact of pig or goat manure fertilization of a meadow on oribatid mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniczak Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of pig or goat manure fertilization of a meadow with doses of 80 kg N ha−1, 140 kg N ha−1, and 200 kg N ha−1 (plots 1-6 on oribatid mites. A control plot (0 was left unfertilized. The manure was applied to the meadow in the early spring of 2012, and soil samples were collected in the spring of 2012 and 2013. In total, 6053 oribatid mites were examined, including 1163 juveniles. The effect of fertilizing on the Oribatida depended on the dose of manure, but not on its type. A low dose of pig or goat manure did not affect the density of Oribatida, whereas the other doses decreased it, but only the highest doses decreased it significantly, compared to the control. Species diversity decreased with the dose of manure. In total, 24 species of Oribatida were found and some species reacted differently to both types of manure. For example, a low dose of pig manure significantly increased the density of Eupelops occultus, whereas the density of other species significantly decreased under the influence of the highest dose of pig manure (Achipteria coleoptrata, highest doses of pig and goat manure (Galumna obvia, Liebstadia similis, and medium and highest doses of goat manure (Scheloribates laevigatus.

  16. A Preliminary Study on the Measures to Assess the Organizational Safety: The Cultural Impact on Human Error Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The Fukushima I nuclear accident following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 occurred after twelve years had passed since the JCO accident which was caused as a result of an error made by JCO employees. These accidents, along with the Chernobyl accident, associated with characteristic problems of various organizations caused severe social and economic disruptions and have had significant environmental and health impact. The cultural problems with human errors occur for various reasons, and different actions are needed to prevent different errors. Unfortunately, much of the research on organization and human error has shown widely various or different results which call for different approaches. In other words, we have to find more practical solutions from various researches for nuclear safety and lead a systematic approach to organizational deficiency causing human error. This paper reviews Hofstede's criteria, IAEA safety culture, safety areas of periodic safety review (PSR), teamwork and performance, and an evaluation of HANARO safety culture to verify the measures used to assess the organizational safety

  17. [Impact of International Association of Urological Pathology Gleason scoring system on prostatic carcinoma grading: a preliminary analysis of 185 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongwei; Shen, Danhua

    2014-10-01

    To explore the impact of the 2005 International Association of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Gleason score (GS) system on prostatic carcinoma grading. Using the 1977 revision and ISUP version of GS system, 112 needle biopsies, 18 transurethral resections of the prostate and 55 radical prostatectomies were scored. The proportion of grading discrepancy was observed and compared between the two versions of GS. Gleason scores of 3+3, 3+4 and 4+3 accounted for 47.0% (87/185), 11.4% (21/185) and 17.3% (32/185) in the modified system, and accounted for 25.9% (48/185), 21.6% (40/185) and 27.6 % (51/185) in ISUP system, respectively. The percentages of primary grade by modified vs. ISUP system were 62.7% (116/185) vs.50.8% (94/185) for grade 3, and 31.4% (58/185) vs. 41.6% (77/185) for grade 4. The percentages of secondary grade by modified vs. ISUP system were 65.9% (122/185) vs. 54.6% (101/185) for grade 3, and 21.1% (39/185) vs. 31.4% (58/185) for grade 4. ISUP system is different from the modified system. Compared with the modified system, the proportion scored by ISUP system tends to decline for GS 3+3 but increase for GS 3+4 and 4+3.

  18. Planar Gravitational Corrections For Supersymmetric Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Ooguri, H; Vafa, C; Zanon, D

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the contribution of planar diagrams to gravitational F-terms for N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories admitting a large N description. We show how the planar diagrams lead to a universal contribution at the extremum of the glueball superpotential, leaving only the genus one contributions, as was previously conjectured. We also discuss the physical meaning of gravitational F-terms.

  19. Terahertz planar waveguide devices based on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yizhe; Guo, Xiaoyong; An, Liqun; Xu, Wen

    2017-02-01

    We present a theoretical study on graphene-semiconductor planar structures. The frequency of the photonic modes in the structure, which can be efficiently tuned via varying the sample parameters, is within the terahertz (THz) bandwidth. Furthermore, it is found that a roughly linear dispersion relation can be obtained for photonic modes in the THz region. Hence, the proposed graphene-semiconductor planar structures can be served as THz waveguide with desirable transmission characteristics.

  20. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bao Zhang; Kang-Kang Meng; Mei-Yin Yang; Edmonds, K. W.; Hao Zhang; Kai-Ming Cai; Yu Sheng; Nan Zhang; Yang Ji; Jian-Hua Zhao; Hou-Zhi Zheng; Kai-You Wang

    2015-01-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the pie...

  1. Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation.......A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....

  2. Planarity certification of ATLAS Micromegas detector panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Ralph; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Loesel, Philipp; Herrmann, Maximilian [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [JMU Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    During the second long LHC shutdown, 2019/20, the precision tracking detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in the inner end caps will be replaced using Micromegas, a planar gas-detector technology. Modules of 2 m{sup 2} area are built in quadruplets from five precisely planar sandwich panels that define the anodes and the cathodes of the four active detector planes. A panel is composed of three consecutive layers FR4 - aluminum honeycomb - FR4. Single plane spatial particle resolution below 100 μm is achievable when the deviations from planarity of the strip-anodes do not exceed 80 μm RMS over the whole active area and the parallelism of the readout strips is within 30 μm. In order to measure the dimensional accuracy of each panel, laser distance sensors combined with a coordinate measurement system have been investigated. The sensor requirements to measure the planarity of the panels are a resolution of 0.3 μm and a beam spot diameter of ∼20 μm, well below 100 μ m the size of the smallest structures. We report on achieved planarities of the panels and the performance of the laser sensor system. A panel with an RMS better than 30 μm was build and the evolution of its planarity due to humidity and temperature effects is shown.

  3. Impact of infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV on the risk of cancer among children in Malawi - preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batumba Mkume

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of infection with HIV on the risk of cancer in children is uncertain, particularly for those living in sub-Saharan Africa. In an ongoing study in a paediatric oncology centre in Malawi, children (aged ≤ 15 years with known or suspected cancers are being recruited and tested for HIV and their mothers or carers interviewed. This study reports findings for children recruited between 2005 and 2008. Methods Only children with a cancer diagnosis were included. Odds ratios (OR for being HIV positive were estimated for each cancer type (with adjustment for age ( Results Of the 586 children recruited, 541 (92% met the inclusion criteria and 525 (97% were tested for HIV. Overall HIV seroprevalence was 10%. Infection with HIV was associated with Kaposi sarcoma (29 cases; OR = 93.5, 95% CI 26.9 to 324.4 and with non-Burkitt, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (33 cases; OR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 17.9 but not with Burkitt lymphoma (269 cases; OR = 2.2, 95% CI 0.8 to 6.4. Conclusions In this study, only Kaposi sarcoma and non-Burkitt, non-Hodgkin lymphoma were associated with HIV infection. The endemic form of Burkitt lymphoma, which is relatively frequent in Malawi, was not significantly associated with HIV. While the relatively small numbers of children with other cancers, together with possible limitations of diagnostic testing may limit our conclusions, the findings may suggest differences in the pathogenesis of HIV-related malignancies in different parts of the world.

  4. Romanian version of the oral health impact profile-49 questionnaire: validation and preliminary assessment of the psychometrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRECU, ALEXANDRU-GRATIAN; DUDEA, DIANA; BALAZSI, ROBERT; DUMITRASCU, DAN LUCIAN

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) represents a multidimensional structure, being measured by complex instruments, such as the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). The aim of this present study is to develop and test the psychometric properties of an initial Romanian (OHIP-49Ro) version. Methods The original OHIP-49 version was translated using a forward-backward technique into the Romanian OHIP-49Ro, which was applied in an interview form to 150 patients of the Second Medical Clinique of Internal Medicine, Cluj-Napoca. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was applied, in order to evaluate the factor structure and construct validity of the OHIP-49Ro. Results The correlations between the OHIP-49Ro subscales were all positive and statistically significant. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients values are above 0.7 for all subscales, providing support for the internal consistency of OHIP-49Ro scale scores. Regarding the CFA, for the seven factor model, the Bentler scaled chi-square (S–Bχ2) indicated a value of 2193.74 (df=1091; p=0.001), the CFI a value of 0.740, the TLI a value of 0.72 and RMSEA the value of 0.82. Conclusions The results of this study suggest a high internal consistency of the OHIP-49Ro instrument. Due to the correlations between several sets of factors, and the multiple-factorial load for several items, the OHIP-49Ro’s factorial structure requires further research on different samples and in different cultural and educational contexts. PMID:26733752

  5. Preliminary observations on the impact of complex stress histories on sandstone response to salt weathering: laboratory simulations of process combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, S.; Smith, B. J.; Warke, P. A.

    2007-03-01

    Historic sandstone structures carry an inheritance, or a ‘memory’, of past stresses that the stone has undergone since its placement in a façade. This inheritance, which conditions present day performance, may be made up of long-term exposure to a combination of low magnitude background environmental factors (for example, salt weathering, temperature and moisture cycling) and, superimposed upon these, less frequent but potentially high magnitude events or ‘exceptional’ factors (for example, lime rendering, severe frost events, fire). The impact of complex histories on the decay pathways of historic sandstone is not clearly understood, but this paper seeks to improve that understanding through the use of a laboratory ‘process combination’ study. Blocks of quartz sandstone (Peakmoor, from NW England) were divided into subsets that experienced different histories (lime rendering and removal, fire and freeze-thaw cycles in isolation and combination) that reflected the event timeline of a real medieval sandstone monument in NE Ireland, Bonamargy Friary (McCabe et al. 2006b). These subsets were then subject to salt weathering cycles using a 10% salt solution of NaCl and MgSO4 that represents the ‘every-day’ stress environment of, for example, sandstone structures in coastal, or polluted urban, location. Block response to salt weathering was monitored by collecting, drying and weighing the debris that was released as blocks were immersed in the salt solution at the beginning of each cycle. The results illustrate the complexity of the stone decay system, showing that seemingly small variations in stress history can produce divergent response to salt weathering cycles. Applied to real-world historic sandstone structures, this concept may help to explain the spatial and temporal variability of sandstone response to background environmental factors on a single façade, and encourage conservators to include the role of stress inheritance when selecting and

  6. Cross - cultural adaptation and preliminary validation of the Turkish version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale among 5-6-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peker Kadriye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Turkey, formal pre-primary education for children 5- 6 years old provides the ideal setting for school-based oral health promotion programs and oral health care services. To develop effective oral health promotion programs, there is a need to assess this target group's subjective oral health needs as well as clinical needs. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS is a well-known instrument for assessing oral health quality of life in children aged 0-5 years old and their families. This study aimed to adapt the ECOHIS for children 5-6 years old in a Turkish-speaking community and to undertake a preliminary investigation of its psychometric properties. Methods The Turkish version of the ECOHIS was obtained with forward/backward translations, expert panels and pre-testing and it was tested in a convenience sample of 121 parents of 5- 6 year-old children attending nursery classes of three public schools. Data were collected through clinical examinations and self-completed questionnaires. The main analyses were carried out on the imputed data set. The validity of content, face, construct, discriminant and convergent and as well as the reliability of internal and test-retest of the ECOHIS were evaluated. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the effect of the complete case analysis for managing "Don't know" responses on the validity and reliability of the ECOHIS. Results The analysis of the imputed data set showed that Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.92 and 0.84 respectively, and for the whole scale was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest was 0.86. The scale scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with poor parental ratings of their child's oral health, high caries experience, higher gingival index scores and problem-orientated dental attendance, supporting its construct, convergent and

  7. Mindfulness meditation, well-being, and heart rate variability: a preliminary investigation into the impact of intensive Vipassana meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygier, Jonathan R; Heathers, James A J; Shahrestani, Sara; Abbott, Maree; Gross, James J; Kemp, Andrew H

    2013-09-01

    Mindfulness meditation has beneficial effects on brain and body, yet the impact of Vipassana, a type of mindfulness meditation, on heart rate variability (HRV) - a psychophysiological marker of mental and physical health - is unknown. We hypothesised increases in measures of well-being and HRV, and decreases in ill-being after training in Vipassana compared to before (time effects), during the meditation task compared to resting baseline (task effects), and a time by task interaction with more pronounced differences between tasks after Vipassana training. HRV (5-minute resting baseline vs. 5-minute meditation) was collected from 36 participants before and after they completed a 10-day intensive Vipassana retreat. Changes in three frequency-domain measures of HRV were analysed using 2 (Time; pre- vs. post-Vipassana)× 2 (Task; resting baseline vs. meditation) within subjects ANOVA. These measures were: normalised high-frequency power (HF n.u.), a widely used biomarker of parasympathetic activity; log-transformed high frequency power (ln HF), a measure of RSA and required to interpret normalised HF; and Traube-Hering-Mayer waves (THM), a component of the low frequency spectrum linked to baroreflex outflow. As expected, participants showed significantly increased well-being, and decreased ill-being. ln HF increased overall during meditation compared to resting baseline, while there was a time∗task interaction for THM. Further testing revealed that pre-Vipassana only ln HF increased during meditation (vs. resting baseline), consistent with a change in respiration. Post-Vipassana, the meditation task increased HF n.u. and decreased THM compared to resting baseline, suggesting post-Vipassana task-related changes are characterised by a decrease in absolute LF power, not parasympathetic-mediated increases in HF power. Such baroreflex changes are classically associated with attentional load, and our results are interpreted in light of the concept of 'flow' - a state of

  8. SOME APPLICATIONS OF PLANAR GRAPH IN KNOT THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhiyun; Gao Hongzhu

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between a link diagram and its corresponding planar graph is briefly reviewed.A necessary and sufficient condition is given to detect when a planar graph corresponds to a knot.The relationship between planar graph and almost planar Seifert surface is discussed.Using planar graph,we construct an alternating amphicheiral prime knot with crossing number n for any even number n ≥ 4.This gives an affirmative answer to problem 1.66(B) on Kirby's problem list.

  9. Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kanghua; Ahmed, Sayeed; Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-10-30

    A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

  10. Rotation planar extraction and rotation planar chromatography of oak (Quercus robur L.) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovk, Irena; Simonovska, Breda; Andrensek, Samo; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia

    2003-04-04

    The versatile novel instrument for rotation planar extraction and rotation planar chromatography was exploited for the investigation of oak bark (Quercus robur L.). The same instrument enabled extraction of the bark, analytical proof of (+)-catechin directly in the crude extract and also its fractionation. Additionally, epimeric flavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were separated by analytical ultra-micro rotation planar chromatography on cellulose plates with pure water as developing solvent. A comparison of the extraction of oak bark with 80% aqueous methanol by rotation planar extraction and medium pressure solid-liquid extraction was carried out and both techniques were shown to be suitable for the efficient extraction of oak bark. The raw extracts and fractions on thin-layer chromatography showed many compounds that possessed antioxidant activity after spraying with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Rotation planar fractionation of 840 mg of crude oak bark extract on silica gel gave 6.7 mg of pure (+)-catechin in one run.

  11. The impact of depression and somatic symptoms on treatment outcomes in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a preliminary study in a naturalistic treatment setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J S; Ko, H J; Wang, S-M; Cho, K J; Kim, J C; Lee, S-J; Pae, C-U

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of depression and somatic symptoms on treatment outcomes in Korean male patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) attending a routine clinical practice. This was a 12-week prospective observational study (n = 80). The Korean version of the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) to measure the severity of CP/CPPS, the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depression, the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) to evaluate somatisation and the Korean version of the EuroQol Questionnaire-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), specifically the EQ-5D utility index and the EQ-5D visual analogue scale (EQ-5D VAS), to assess quality of life, were utilised and given at baseline and week 12. The primary and secondary end-points in this study were changes in the NIH-CPSI total score from baseline to week 12 according to depression and somatisation. The change in NIH-CPSI total score was significantly higher in those without depression than in those with depression (p = 0.003), with a magnitude of difference of 2.8. The responder rate (a ≥ 4 point decrease in NIH-CPSI total score from baseline) was significantly higher in those without depression (42.9%) than in those with depression (17.2%, p = 0.023). However, significant differences were not observed between the two groups in the other outcome measures or in all study outcomes between subjects with or without somatisation. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence or absence of depression may be a principal predictor of response to treatment. These preliminary results indicate that depression may have a negative impact on treatment outcome and is a likely predictor of response to treatment in patients with CP/CPPS. However, additional studies with adequate power and improved design are necessary to further support the present findings. © 2014

  12. Static aeroelastic analysis of very flexible wings based on non-planar vortex lattice method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Changchuan; Wang Libo; Yang Chao; Liu Yi

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and efficient method for static aeroelastic analysis of a flexible slender wing when considering the structural geometric nonlinearity has been developed in this paper.A non-planar vortex lattice method herein is used to compute the non-planar aerodynamics of flexible wings with large deformation.The finite element method is introduced for structural nonlinear statics analysis.The surface spline method is used for structure/aerodynamics coupling.The static aeroelastic characteristics of the wind tunnel model of a flexible wing are studied by the nonlinear method presented,and the nonlinear method is also evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained from two other methods and the wind tunnel test.The results indicate that the traditional linear method of static aeroelastic analysis is not applicable for cases with large deformation because it produces results that are not realistic.However,the nonlinear methodology,which involves combining the structure finite element method with the non-planar vortex lattice method,could be used to solve the aeroelastic deformation with considerable accuracy,which is in fair agreement with the test results.Moreover,the nonlinear finite element method could consider complex structures.The non-planar vortex lattice method has advantages in both the computational accuracy and efficiency.Consequently,the nonlinear method presented is suitable for the rapid and efficient analysis requirements of engineering practice.It could be used in the preliminary stage and also in the detailed stage of aircraft design.

  13. The Feynman Identity for Planar Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, G. A. T. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Feynman identity (FI) of a planar graph relates the Euler polynomial of the graph to an infinite product over the equivalence classes of closed nonperiodic signed cycles in the graph. The main objectives of this paper are to compute the number of equivalence classes of nonperiodic cycles of given length and sign in a planar graph and to interpret the data encoded by the FI in the context of free Lie superalgebras. This solves in the case of planar graphs a problem first raised by Sherman and sets the FI as the denominator identity of a free Lie superalgebra generated from a graph. Other results are obtained. For instance, in connection with zeta functions of graphs.

  14. Planar bilayer membranes from photoactivable phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borle, F; Sänger, M; Sigrist, H

    1991-07-22

    Planar bilayer membranes formed from photoactivable phospholipids have been characterized by low frequency voltametry. Cyclic voltametric measurements were applied for simultaneous registration of planar membrane conductivity and capacitance. The procedure has been utilized to characterize the formation and stability of planar bilayer membranes. Bilayer membranes were formed from N'-(1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethyl)-N-((m-3- trifluoromethyldiazirine)phenyl)thiourea (C14-PED), a head-group photosensitive phospholipid. In situ photoactivation of C14-PED at wavelengths greater than or equal to 320 nm altered neither the mean conductivity nor the capacitance of the bilayer. Ionophore (valinomycin) and ion channel (gramicidin) activities were not impaired upon photoactivation. In contrast, bilayer membranes formed from 1,2-bis(hexadeca-2,4-dienoyl)-sn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (C16-DENPC) revealed short life times. In situ photopolymerization of the diene fatty acids significantly increased the membrane conductivity or led to membrane rupture.

  15. Planar Zeros in Gauge Theories and Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Diego Medrano; Vazquez-Mozo, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Planar zeros are studied in the context of the five-point scattering amplitude for gauge bosons and gravitons. In the case of gauge theories, it is found that planar zeros are determined by an algebraic curve in the projective plane spanned by the three stereographic coordinates labelling the direction of the outgoing momenta. This curve depends on the values of six independent color structures. Considering the gauge group SU(N) with N=2,3,5 and fixed color indices, the class of curves obtained gets broader by increasing the rank of the group. For the five-graviton scattering, on the other hand, we show that the amplitude vanishes whenever the process is planar, without imposing further kinematic conditions. A rationale for this result is provided using color-kinematics duality.

  16. Preliminary Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Antonio San Antonio International Airport To Aus tin To Corpus Christi Brooks AFB 281 Camp Bullis Military Reservation LEGEND B ro o ks /0 0 2...Emergency Response Act (AHERA) P.L. 99-519 and P.L. 101-637, provide the regulatory basis for managing ACM in kindergarten through twelfth grade school

  17. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M.; Glass, Sarah Jill; Roesler, Alexander William; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Slama, George (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Abel, Dave (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD)

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and use of low-temperature (850 C to 950 C) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) planar magnetic flyback transformers for applications that require conversion of a low voltage to high voltage (> 100V) with significant volumetric constraints. Measured performance and modeling results for multiple designs showed that the LTCC flyback transformer design and construction imposes serious limitations on the achievable coupling and significantly impacts the transformer performance and output voltage. This paper discusses the impact of various design factors that can provide improved performance by increasing transformer coupling and output voltage. The experiments performed on prototype units demonstrated LTCC transformer designs capable of greater than 2 kV output. Finally, the work investigated the effect of the LTCC microstructure on transformer insulation. Although this paper focuses on generating voltages in the kV range, the experimental characterization and discussion presented in this work applies to designs requiring lower voltage.

  18. Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, John W.; Gruber, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    The Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP) is a collection of software tools that allow the efficient aerodynamic design and analysis of planar (two-dimensional and axisymmetric) inlets. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. A major element in PINDAP is a Fortran 90 code named PINDAP that can establish the parametric design of the inlet and efficiently model the geometry and generate the grid for CFD analysis with design changes to those parameters. The use of PINDAP is demonstrated for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inlets.

  19. Planar dynamical systems selected classical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yirong; Huang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents in an elementary way the recent significant developments in the qualitative theory of planar dynamical systems. The subjects are covered as follows: the studies of center and isochronous center problems, multiple Hopf bifurcations and local and global bifurcations of the equivariant planar vector fields which concern with Hilbert's 16th problem. This book is intended for graduate students, post-doctors and researchers in the area of theories and applications of dynamical systems. For all engineers who are interested the theory of dynamical systems, it is also a reasona

  20. Optical Planar Discrete Fourier and Wavelet Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella; Moreolo, Michela Svaluto; Neri, Alessandro

    2007-10-01

    We present all-optical architectures to perform discrete wavelet transform (DWT), wavelet packet (WP) decomposition and discrete Fourier transform (DFT) using planar lightwave circuits (PLC) technology. Any compact-support wavelet filter can be implemented as an optical planar two-port lattice-form device, and different subband filtering schemes are possible to denoise, or multiplex optical signals. We consider both parallel and serial input cases. We design a multiport decoder/decoder that is able to generate/process optical codes simultaneously and a flexible logarithmic wavelength multiplexer, with flat top profile and reduced crosstalk.

  1. Planar Tri-Band Antenna Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pokorny

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly uncovers techniques used for a design of compact planar antennas in order to achieve the wideband and the multi-band capability. The main topic is aimed to the multi-objective optimization using genetic algorithms. A quarter-wavelength planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA using a slot and shorted parasitic patches is chosen to cover GSM900, GSM1800 and ISM2400 bands. A global multi-objective optimization uses a binary genetic algorithm with a composite objective function to tune this antenna. The impedance match and the direction of maximum gain are desired parameters to improve.

  2. On the Classification of Planar Contact Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Arikan, M Firat

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on contact structures supported by planar open book decompositions. We study right-veering diffeomorphisms to keep track of overtwistedness property of contact structures under some monodromy changes. We also develop some techniques to understand how certain monodromy changes affect the $EH-$invariant of planar contact structures. As an application we give infinitely many examples of overtwisted and tight contact structures supported by open books whose pages are the four-punctured sphere, and also we prove that a certain family is holomorphically fillable using lantern relation.

  3. Optimal Polygonal Representation of Planar Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Christian A; Hu, Yifan; Kaufmann, Michael; Kobourov, Stephen G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of representing graphs by polygons whose sides touch. We show that at least six sides per polygon are necessary by constructing a class of planar graphs that cannot be represented by pentagons. We also show that the lower bound of six sides is matched by an upper bound of six sides with a linear-time algorithm for representing any planar graph by touching hexagons. Moreover, our algorithm produces convex polygons with edges having at most three slopes and with all vertices lying on an O(n)xO(n) grid.

  4. ACCURACY ANALYSIS FOR PLANAR LINKAGE WITH MULTIPLE CLEAR-ANCES AT TURNING PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guojun; CHENG Qiang; SHAO Xinyu; LI Peigen

    2008-01-01

    Clearance at turning pair has a strong impact on the kinetic accuracy of linkage, but there is short of a generic model to analyze it so far. Clearance error, input error, and manufacturing tolerance of links are taken into consideration as the random variables synthetically. The kinematics and dynamics accuracy analysis models for planar linkages with multiple clearances at joints are built up as well. At last a typical planar linkage is selected for numerical illustration. These models stated in matrix resolve the relativity of output parameter errors of mechanism and therefore are of vital significance for the reliability analysis and synthesis of mechanism with clearances.

  5. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2010-08-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  6. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM - PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2009-03-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  7. Foot Placement Indicator for Balance of Planar Bipeds with Point Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van Zutven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract If humanoid robots are to be used in society, they should be able to maintain their balance. Knowing where to step is crucially important. In this paper we contribute an algorithm that can compute the foot step location such that bipedal balance is maintained for planar bipeds with point feet and an arbitrary number of non-massless links on a horizontal and flat ground. The algorithm is called the foot placement indicator (FPI and it extends the foot placement estimator (FPE. The FPE uses an inverted pendulum model to capture the dynamics of a humanoid robot, whereas the FPI deals with multi-body models with distributed masses. This paper analyses equilibrium sets and the stability of planar bipeds with point feet. The algorithm uses conservation of energy throughout the step, taking into account the instantaneous impact dynamics at foot strike. A simulation case study on a five-link planar biped shows the effectiveness of the FPI.

  8. Foot Placement Indicator for Balance of Planar Bipeds with Point Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van Zutven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available If humanoid robots are to be used in society, they should be able to maintain their balance. Knowing where to step is crucially important. In this paper we contribute an algorithm that can compute the foot step location such that bipedal balance is maintained for planar bipeds with point feet and an arbitrary number of non‐massless links on a horizontal and flat ground. The algorithm is called the foot placement indicator (FPI and it extends the foot placement estimator (FPE. The FPE uses an inverted pendulum model to capture the dynamics of a humanoid robot, whereas the FPI deals with multi‐body models with distributed masses. This paper analyses equilibrium sets and the stability of planar bipeds with point feet. The algorithm uses conservation of energy throughout the step, taking into account the instantaneous impact dynamics at foot strike. A simulation case study on a five‐link planar biped shows the effectiveness of the FPI.

  9. Static Theory for Planar Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Bo HANG; Fang Hua LIN

    2001-01-01

    Here we generalize the "BBH"-asymptotic analysis to a simplified mathematical model for the planar ferromagnets and antiferromagncts. To develop such a static theory is a necessary step for a rigorous mathematical justification of dynamical laws for the magnetic vortices formally derived in [1] and [2].

  10. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  11. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC 0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  12. Image Alignment by Piecewise Planar Region Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.

    2014-01-01

    Robust image registration is a challenging problem, especially when dealing with severe changes in illumination and viewpoint. Previous methods assume a global geometric model (e.g., homography) and, hence, are only able to align images under predefined constraints (e.g., planar scenes and parallax-

  13. Analyzing planar cell polarity during zebrafish gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Jason R

    2012-01-01

    Planar cell polarity was first described in invertebrates over 20 years ago and is defined as the polarity of cells (and cell structures) within the plane of a tissue, such as an epithelium. Studies in the last 10 years have identified critical roles for vertebrate homologs of these planar cell polarity proteins during gastrulation cell movements. In zebrafish, the terms convergence and extension are used to describe the collection of morphogenetic movements and cell behaviors that contribute to narrowing and elongation of the embryonic body plan. Disruption of planar cell polarity gene function causes profound defects in convergence and extension creating an embryo that has a shortened anterior-posterior axis and is broadened mediolaterally. The zebrafish gastrula-stage embryo is transparent and amenable to live imaging using both Nomarski/differential interference contrast and fluorescence microscopy. This chapter describes methods to analyze convergence and extension movements at the cellular level and thereby connect embryonic phenotypes with underlying planar cell polarity defects in migrating cells.

  14. Planar elongation of soft polymeric networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Hassager, Ole; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    A new test fixture for the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks with application towards pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The concept of this new geometry is to elongate a tube-like sample by keeping the perimeter constant...

  15. DWDM Devices Based on Planar Waveguide Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A review is presented on some of our recent results for designs, simulations and fabrication of several photonic integrated devices, such as arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) and etched diffraction gratings (EDGs), based on planar waveguide technologies. Some novel designs for flat-top AWGs and EDGs with flat-top spectral responses are presented.

  16. Dynamics of the classical planar spin chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Bart De; Raedt, Hans De

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we pay attention to the classical one-dimensional planar spin system and, in particular, to the dynamics of such a model. We use the Monte Carlo method to calculate the static correlation functions, needed to determine the relaxation functions completely. We are then able to give the r

  17. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  18. Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...

  19. Planar microcoil-based microfluidic NMR probes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massin, C.; Vincent, F.; Homsy, A.; Ehrmann, K.; Boero, G.; Besse, P-A; Daridon, A.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, N.F.; Popovic, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Microfabricated small-volume NMR probes consisting of electroplated planar microcoils integrated on a glass substrate with etched microfluidic channels are fabricated and tested. 1H NMR spectra are acquired at 300 MHz with three different probes having observed sample volumes of respectively 30, 120

  20. PLANAR OPTICAL WAVEGUIDES WITH PHOTONIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Planar optical waveguide comprising a core region and a cladding region comprising a photonic crystal material, said photonic crystal material having a lattice of column elements, wherein at least a number of said column elements are elongated substantially in an axial direction for said core reg...

  1. Planar antenna system for direction finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardale, Iulia-Cezara; Cocias, Gabriela; Dumitrascu, Ana; Tamas, Razvan; Berescu, Serban

    2015-02-01

    Applications of direction finding techniques include detection and localization of pulsed electromagnetic sources. This paper presents the design and analysis of a planar antenna system for direction finding. Our proposed system includes 4 hybrid couplers that generate 900 shifted signals, 2 crossover couplers also known as 0dB couplers, two 450 phase shifters, two 00 phase shifters and 4 patch antennas.

  2. Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Cu: Nanoscale Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Michael; Fishbeck, Kelly; Muessig, Kara; McDonald, James; Williams, Christine; White, Daniel; Koeck, Deborah; Perry, Scott; Galloway, Heather

    2002-10-01

    Interconnect lines in state of the art integrated circuits are made of copper in a process that requires the repeated planarization of the copper layer. During this process the material is subjected to an aqueous slurry containing active chemicals, corrosion inhibitors and abrasive particles. A model slurry buffered to pH2, pH4 and pH6, contained nitric acid, silica particles and benzotriazole (BTA) as a corrosion inhibitor. The degree of copper planarization was investigated as a function of slurry composition and pH using atomic force microscopy. Chemical surface changes can be explained by the effect of slurry composition on the charge at the material surface. This surface charge controls the amount of friction between the abrasive and the surface which, in turn, effects the global planarization of the material. Experiments using a macroscopic polishing system with AFM characterization along with the microscopic interaction of the AFM tip and sample provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms of a planarization process.

  3. Open string theory and planar algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceyhan, Ö.; Marcolli, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that abstract planar algebras are algebras over the topological operad of moduli spaces of stable maps with Lagrangian boundary conditions, which in the case of the projective line are described in terms of real rational functions. These moduli spaces appear naturally in the

  4. A Planar Calculus for Infinite Index Subfactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penneys, David

    2013-05-01

    We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II 1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.

  5. Planar microcoil-based microfluidic NMR probes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massin, C.; Vincent, F.; Homsy, A.; Ehrmann, K.; Boero, G.; Besse, P-A; Daridon, A.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, N.F.; Popovic, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Microfabricated small-volume NMR probes consisting of electroplated planar microcoils integrated on a glass substrate with etched microfluidic channels are fabricated and tested. 1H NMR spectra are acquired at 300 MHz with three different probes having observed sample volumes of respectively 30, 120

  6. OPE in planar QCD from integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Changrim; Nepomechie, Rafael I

    2012-01-01

    We consider the operator product expansion of local single-trace operators composed of the self-dual components of the field strength tensor in planar QCD. Using the integrability of the one-loop matrix of anomalous dimensions of such operators, we obtain a determinant expression for certain tree-level structure constants in the OPE.

  7. Wideband Flat Radomes Using Inhomogeneous Planar Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalaj-Amirhosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhomogeneous planar layers (IPLs are optimally designed as flat radomes in a desired frequency range. First, the electric permittivity function of the IPL is expanded in a truncated Fourier series. Then, the optimum values of the coefficients of the series are obtained through an optimization approach. The performance of the proposed structure is verified using some examples.

  8. Renormalization of QED with planar binary trees

    OpenAIRE

    Brouder, Christian; Frabetti, Alessandra

    2000-01-01

    The renormalized photon and electron propagators are expanded over planar binary trees. Explicit recurrence solutions are given for the terms of these expansions. In the case of massless Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), the relation between renormalized and bare expansions is given in terms of a Hopf algebra structure. For massive quenched QED, the relation between renormalized and bare expansions is given explicitly.

  9. Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...

  10. Piecewise-Planar Parabolic Reflectarray Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Richard; Zawadzki, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The figure shows a dual-beam, dualpolarization Ku-band antenna, the reflector of which comprises an assembly of small reflectarrays arranged in a piecewise- planar approximation of a parabolic reflector surface. The specific antenna design is intended to satisfy requirements for a wide-swath spaceborne radar altimeter, but the general principle of piecewise-planar reflectarray approximation of a parabolic reflector also offers advantages for other applications in which there are requirements for wideswath antennas that can be stowed compactly and that perform equally in both horizontal and vertical polarizations. The main advantages of using flat (e.g., reflectarray) antenna surfaces instead of paraboloidal or parabolic surfaces is that the flat ones can be fabricated at lower cost and can be stowed and deployed more easily. Heretofore, reflectarray antennas have typically been designed to reside on single planar surfaces and to emulate the focusing properties of, variously, paraboloidal (dish) or parabolic antennas. In the present case, one approximates the nominal parabolic shape by concatenating several flat pieces, while still exploiting the principles of the planar reflectarray for each piece. Prior to the conception of the present design, the use of a single large reflectarray was considered, but then abandoned when it was found that the directional and gain properties of the antenna would be noticeably different for the horizontal and vertical polarizations.

  11. Counting Coloured Planar Maps: Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Olivier; Bousquet-Mélou, Mireille

    2017-08-01

    We address the enumeration of q-coloured planar maps counted by the number of edges and the number of monochromatic edges. We prove that the associated generating function is differentially algebraic, that is, satisfies a non-trivial polynomial differential equation with respect to the edge variable. We give explicitly a differential system that characterizes this series. We then prove a similar result for planar triangulations, thus generalizing a result of Tutte dealing with their proper q-colourings. In statistical physics terms, we solve the q-state Potts model on random planar lattices. This work follows a first paper by the same authors, where the generating function was proved to be algebraic for certain values of q, including {q=1, 2} and 3. It is known to be transcendental in general. In contrast, our differential system holds for an indeterminate q. For certain special cases of combinatorial interest (four colours; proper q-colourings; maps equipped with a spanning forest), we derive from this system, in the case of triangulations, an explicit differential equation of order 2 defining the generating function. For general planar maps, we also obtain a differential equation of order 3 for the four-colour case and for the self-dual Potts model.

  12. Concave diffraction gratings fabricated with planar lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabarnik, S.; Emadi, A.; Wu, H.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and validation of a new technology for the fabrication of variable line-spacing non-planar diffraction gratings to be used in compact spectrometers. The technique is based on the standard lithographic process commonly used for pattern transfer onto a flat substr

  13. The Role Seemingly of Amorphous Silica Gel Layers in Chiral Separations by Planar Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Kowalska

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In planar chromatography, silica gel appears as the most frequently used adsorbent. Its preference as planar chromatographic stationary phase is due to its high specific surface area (ca. 700 m2 g-1 and relatively simple active sites (silanol groups, Si-OH. The high specific surface area of silica gel and a high density of coverage of its surface with the silanol active sites contribute jointly to an excellent separation performance of this adsorbent. In our experiments on chiral separation of the enantiomer pairs by planar chromatography, contradictory behavior of the silica gel layers versus the chiral compounds was observed. The migration tracks of chiral compounds in the ascending planar chromatographic mode were not vertical but bent on either side being a function of analyte chirality. This deviation of the analyte’s migration track was noticed, when using the densitometric scanner to quantify the respective chromatograms. In order to confirm the hypothesis as to the microcrystalline nature of silica gel used in liquid chromatography, it was further investigated through circular dichroism (CD and the data thereof confirmed that the ‘chromatographic’ silica gels are not amorphous but microcrystalline, contributing to the (partial horizontal enantioseparation of the antimer pairs. This paper summarizes the results of our investigation on the microcrystalline nature of silica gels used in planar chromatography and their impact on enantioseparation of the selected pairs of antimers.

  14. A preliminary study of the impact of the ERS 1 C band scatterometer wind data on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts global data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ross N.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the impact of the ERS 1 scatterometer wind data on the current European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis and forecast system has been carried out. Although the scatterometer data results in changes to the analyses and forecasts, there is no consistent improvement or degradation. Our results are based on comparing analyses and forecasts from assimilation cycles. The two sets of analyses are very similar except for the low level wind fields over the ocean. Impacts on the analyzed wind fields are greater over the southern ocean, where other data are scarce. For the most part the mass field increments are too small to balance the wind increments. The effect of the nonlinear normal mode initialization on the analysis differences is quite small, but we observe that the differences tend to wash out in the subsequent 6-hour forecast. In the Northern Hemisphere, analysis differences are very small, except directly at the scatterometer locations. Forecast comparisons reveal large differences in the Southern Hemisphere after 72 hours. Notable differences in the Northern Hemisphere do not appear until late in the forecast. Overall, however, the Southern Hemisphere impacts are neutral. The experiments described are preliminary in several respects. We expect these data to ultimately prove useful for global data assimilation.

  15. Infinitesimal nonrigidity of convex surfaces with planar boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunhe; HONG Jiaxing

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper infinitesimal nonrigidity of a class of convex surfaces with planar boundary is given. This result shows that if the image of the Gauss map of an evolution convex surface with planar boundary covers some hemisphere, this surface may be of infinitesimal nonrigidity for the isometric deformation of planar boundary.

  16. Cleanskin Structure, Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia: Evidence for an Impact Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, P. W.; Sweet, I. P.; Mitchell, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Cleanskin structure, Australia, is a 15 km diameter circular feature with central uplift. Evidence for impact-produced shock includes shatter cones, planar fractures with feather features and possible planar deformation features in quartz.

  17. A novel planar ion funnel design for miniature ion optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, A.; van Amerom, Friso H. W.; Short, R. T.

    2014-10-01

    The novel planar ion funnel (PIF) design presented in this article emphasizes simple fabrication, assembly, and operation, making it amenable to extreme miniaturization. Simulations performed in SIMION 8.0 indicate that ion focusing can be achieved by using a gradient of electrostatic potentials on concentric metal rings in a plane. A prototype was fabricated on a 35 × 35 mm custom-designed printed circuit board (PCB) with a center hole for ions to pass through and a series of concentric circular metal rings of increasing diameter on the front side of the PCB. Metal vias on the PCB electrically connected each metal ring to a resistive potential divider that was soldered on the back of the PCB. The PIF was tested at 5.5 × 10-6 Torr in a vacuum test setup that was equipped with a broad-beam ion source on the front and a micro channel plate (MCP) ion detector on the back of the PIF. The ion current recorded on the MCP anode during testing indicated a 23× increase in the ion transmission through the PIF when electric potentials were applied to the rings. These preliminary results demonstrate the functionality of a 2D ion funnel design with a much smaller footprint and simpler driving electronics than conventional 3D ion funnels. Future directions to improve the design and a possible micromachining approach to fabrication are discussed in the conclusions.

  18. Overview of Planar Magnetic Technology — Fundamental Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The momentum towards high efficiency, high frequency, and high power density in power supplies limits wide use of conventional wire-wound magnetic components. This article gives an overview of planar magnetic technologies with respect to the development of modern power electronics. The major...... advantages and disadvantages in the use of planar magnetics for high frequency power converters are covered, and publications on planar magnetics are reviewed. A detailed survey of winding conduction loss, leakage inductance and winding capacitance for planar magnetics is presented so power electronics...... engineers and researchers can have a clear understanding of the intrinsic properties of planar magnetics....

  19. Variable stiffness design of redundantly actuated planar rotational parallel mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kangkang; Jiang Hongzhou; Cui Zuo; Huang Qun

    2017-01-01

    Redundantly actuated planar rotational parallel mechanisms (RAPRPMs) adapt to the requirements of robots under different working conditions by changing the antagonistic internal force to tune their stiffness. The geometrical parameters of the mechanism impact the performances of modulating stiffness. Analytical expressions relating stiffness and geometrical parameters of the mechanism were formulated to obtain the necessary conditions of variable stiffness. A novel method of variable stiffness design was presented to optimize the geometrical parameters of the mechanism. The stiffness variation with the internal force was maximized. The dynamic change of stiffness with the dynamic location of the mechanism was minimized, and the robustness of stiff-ness during the motion of the mechanism was ensured. This new approach to variable stiffness design can enable off-line planning of the internal force to avoid the difficulties of on-line control of the internal force.

  20. Dual-Polarized Planar Phased Array Analysis for Meteorological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis for the accuracy requirements of the planar polarimetric phased array radar (PPPAR in meteorological applications. Among many factors that contribute to the polarimetric biases, four factors are considered and analyzed in this study, namely, the polarization distortion due to the intrinsic limitation of a dual-polarized antenna element, the antenna pattern measurement error, the entire array patterns, and the imperfect horizontal and vertical channels. Two operation modes, the alternately transmitting and simultaneously receiving (ATSR mode and the simultaneously transmitting and simultaneously receiving (STSR mode, are discussed. For each mode, the polarimetric biases are formulated. As the STSR mode with orthogonal waveforms is similar to the ATSR mode, the analysis is mainly focused on the ATSR mode and the impacts of the bias sources on the measurement of polarimetric variables are investigated through Monte Carlo simulations. Some insights of the accuracy requirements are obtained and summarized.

  1. Large Chiroptical Effects in Planar Chiral Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Yuan, Xiaodong; Guo, Chucai; Zhang, Jianfa; Yang, Biao; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-05-01

    Chiroptical effects characterized by different optical responses for left- (LCP) and right-handed circularly polarized light (RCP) are powerful and valuable tools in optics with wide applications in polarization-resolved imaging and sensing. Previously observed strong chiroptical effects are limited to metamaterials with complex three-dimensional chiral structures at the subwavelength scale. Although asymmetrical transmission of LCP and RCP have been investigated in planar chiral metasurfaces, the observed weak chiroptical effects result from anisotropic Ohmic dissipation of the metal constituents. Here, we demonstrate by theory and proof-of-concept experiments that a large difference in transmittances of LCP and RCP can be attained in a single-layer planar chiral metamaterial with a subwavelength thickness. Without violating the reciprocity and mirror symmetry, the strong chiroptical effect, independent of dielectric loss, arises from a mechanism of multimode interference. The described effect may lead to a gateway towards chiral manipulations of light and chiral optical devices.

  2. Copper Planar Microcoils Applied to Magnetic Actuation

    CERN Document Server

    Moulin, J; Martincic, E; Dufour-Gergam, E

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in microtechnology allow realization of planar microcoils. These components are integrated in MEMS as magnetic sensor or actuator. In the latter case, it is necessary to maximize the effective magnetic field which is proportional to the current passing through the copper track and depends on the distance to the generation microcoil. The aim of this work was to determine the optimal microcoil design configuration for magnetic field generation. The results were applied to magnetic actuation, taking into account technological constraints. In particular, we have considered different realistic configurations that involve a magnetically actuated device coupled to a microcoil. Calculations by a semi-analytical method using Matlab software were validated by experimental measurements. The copper planar microcoils are fabricated by U.V. micromoulding on different substrates: flexible polymer (Kapton) and silicate on silicon. They are constituted by a spiral-like continuous track. Their total surface is ...

  3. Stable planar mesoscopic photonic crystal cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Magno, Giovanni; Grande, Marco; Lozes-Dupuy, Françoise; Gauthier-Lafaye, Olivier; Calò, Giovanna; Petruzzelli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscopic self-collimation in mesoscopic photonic crystals with high reflectivity is exploited to realize a novel high-Q factor cavity by means of mesoscopic PhC planar mirrors. These mirrors efficiently confine a mode inside a planar Fabry-Perot-like cavity, due to a beam focusing effect that stabilises the cavity even for small beam sizes, resembling the focusing behaviour of curved mirrors. Moreover, they show an improved reflectivity with respect to their standard distributed Bragg reflector counterparts that allows higher compactness. A Q factor higher than 10^4 has been achieved for an optimized 5-period-long mirror cavity. The optimization of the Q factor and the performances in terms of energy storage, field enhancement and confinement are detailed.

  4. Planar cell polarity: one or two pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Peter A; Struhl, Gary; Casal, José

    2007-07-01

    In multicellular organisms, cells are polarized in the plane of the epithelial sheet, revealed in some cell types by oriented hairs or cilia. Many of the underlying genes have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster and are conserved in vertebrates. Here we dissect the logic of planar cell polarity (PCP). We review studies of genetic mosaics in adult flies - marked cells of different genotypes help us to understand how polarizing information is generated and how it passes from one cell to another. We argue that the prevailing opinion that planar polarity depends on a single genetic pathway is wrong and conclude that there are (at least) two independently acting processes. This conclusion has major consequences for the PCP field.

  5. Advances in Planar and Integrated Magnetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei

    ‐fashioned wire wound types, and thus planar magnetics, has in recent years, become increasingly popular in high frequency power converters. First, an overview of basic planar magnetics technology used in general dc‐dc converters is presented. PCB or flexible PCB windings as a main construction together...... and experimentally verified. • E‐I‐E core structure with integrated transformers and inductors is applied into the two recent developed dc‐dc topologies. • A new method to integrate the current balancing transformer with common input inductor for the primary‐parallel dc‐dc converter is proposed. • A low profile...... and low cost integrated inductors with stacked I‐cores for multiplephase interleaved dc‐dc converters is proposed. • Ultra‐thin coupled inductors design for flexible PV module is introduced. A 1.5‐ mm thickness integrated coupled inductor with sandwich core structure is under investigation. • A “four...

  6. Planar nanophotonic devices and integration technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rue, Richard M.; Sorel, Marc; Samarelli, Antonio; Velha, Philippe; Strain, Michael; Johnson, Nigel P.; Sharp, Graham; Rahman, Faiz; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Macintyre, Douglas S.; McMeekin, Scott G.; Lahiri, Basudev

    2011-07-01

    Planar devices that can be categorised as having a nanophotonic dimension constitute an increasingly important area of photonics research. Device structures that come under the headings of photonic crystals, photonic wires and metamaterials are all of interest - and devices based on combinations of these conceptual approaches may also play an important role. Planar micro-/nano-photonic devices seem likely to be exploited across a wide spectrum of applications in optoelectronics and photonics. This spectrum includes the domains of display devices, biomedical sensing and sensing more generally, advanced fibre-optical communications systems - and even communications down to the local area network (LAN) level. This article will review both device concepts and the applications possibilities of the various different devices.

  7. Planar and spherical stick indices of knots

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Colin; Hawkins, Katherine; Sia, Charmaine; Silversmith, Rob; Tshishiku, Bena; 10.1142/S0218216511008954

    2011-01-01

    The stick index of a knot is the least number of line segments required to build the knot in space. We define two analogous 2-dimensional invariants, the planar stick index, which is the least number of line segments in the plane to build a projection, and the spherical stick index, which is the least number of great circle arcs to build a projection on the sphere. We find bounds on these quantities in terms of other knot invariants, and give planar stick and spherical stick constructions for torus knots and for compositions of trefoils. In particular, unlike most knot invariants,we show that the spherical stick index distinguishes between the granny and square knots, and that composing a nontrivial knot with a second nontrivial knot need not increase its spherical stick index.

  8. Planar growth generates scale free networks

    CERN Document Server

    Haslett, Garvin; Brede, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a model of spatial network growth in which nodes are placed at randomly selected locations on a unit square in $\\mathbb{R}^2$, forming new connections to old nodes subject to the constraint that edges do not cross. The resulting network has a power law degree distribution, high clustering and the small world property. We argue that these characteristics are a consequence of the two defining features of the network formation procedure; growth and planarity conservation. We demonstrate that the model can be understood as a variant of random Apollonian growth and further propose a one parameter family of models with the Random Apollonian Network and the Deterministic Apollonian Network as extreme cases and our model as a midpoint between them. We then relax the planarity constraint by allowing edge crossings with some probability and find a smooth crossover from power law to exponential degree distributions when this probability is increased.

  9. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Quenched Meson Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A numerical study of Orientifold Planar Equivalence is performed in SU(N) Yang-Mills theories for N=2,3,4,6. Quenched meson masses are extracted in the antisymmetric, symmetric and adjoint representations for the pseudoscalar and vector channels. An extrapolation of the vector mass as a function of the pseudoscalar mass to the large-N limit shows that the numerical results agree within errors for the three theories, as predicted by Orientifold Planar Equivalence. As a byproduct of the extrapolation, the size of the corrections up to O(1/N^3) are evaluated. A crucial prerequisite for the extrapolation is the determination of an analytical relationship between the corrections in the symmetric and in the antisymmetric representations, order by order in a 1/N expansion.

  10. Isotropic-planar illumination for PIV experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Michael D.; Kim, Tongbeum

    2015-03-01

    A new method for laser illumination in particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been introduced: internal "isotropic-planar" illumination that provides laser light to regions of the flow field that were previously cast into shadow using the conventional external (laser light sheet) illumination method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the isotropic-planar illumination method, a comparison of the measured velocity field around five side-by-side circular cylinders that are immersed in uniform flow is made against the conventional external illumination method. The new method is effective at eliminating the shadow region, allowing the velocity field of the upstream, gap and downstream regions around the five side-by-side circular cylinders to be measured simultaneously. These PIV measurements provide new insight into the behavior of the gap flow that passes between the cylinders.

  11. Phases of planar QCD on the torus

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    At infinite N, continuum Euclidean SU(N) gauge theory defined on a symmetrical four torus has a rich phase structure with phases where the finite volume system behaves as if it had infinite extent in some or all of the directions. In addition, fermions are automatically quenched, so planar QCD should be cheaper to solve numerically that full QCD. Large N is a relatively unexplored and worthwhile direction of research in lattice field theory.

  12. Modelling planar cell polarity in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    During development, polarity is a common feature of many cell types. One example is the polarisation of whole fields of epithelial cells within the plane of the epithelium, a phenomenon called planar cell polarity (PCP). It is widespread in nature and plays important roles in development and physiology. Prominent examples include the epithelial cells of external structures of insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, polarised tissue morphogenesis in vertebrates and sensory hair cel...

  13. Macdonald formula for curves with planar singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Maulik, Davesh

    2011-01-01

    We generalize Macdonald's formula for the cohomology of Hilbert schemes of points on a curve from smooth curves to curves with planar singularities: we relate the cohomology of the Hilbert schemes to the cohomology of the compactified Jacobian of the curve. The new formula is a consequence of a stronger identity between certain perverse sheaves defined by a family of curves satisfying mild conditions, whose proof makes an essential use of Ng\\^o's support theorem for compactified Jacobians.

  14. Planar graphical models which are easy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chernyak, Vladimir [WAYNE STATE UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rich family of binary variables statistical mechanics models on planar graphs which are equivalent to Gaussian Grassmann Graphical models (free fermions). Calculation of partition function (weighted counting) in the models is easy (of polynomial complexity) as reduced to evaluation of determinants of matrixes linear in the number of variables. In particular, this family of models covers Holographic Algorithms of Valiant and extends on the Gauge Transformations discussed in our previous works.

  15. Generalized Lantern Relations and Planar Line Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Hironaka, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that to each planar line arrangement defined over the real numbers, for which no two lines are parallel, one can write down a corresponding relation on Dehn twists that can be read off from the combinatorics and relative locations of intersections. This leads to an alternate proof of Wajnryb's generalized lantern relations, and of Endo, Mark and Horn-Morris' daisy relations.

  16. Planarity of 3,4-jump Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏二玲; 刘颜佩

    2004-01-01

    For a graph G of size ε≥1 and its edge-induced subgraphs H1 and H2 of size γ(1 < γ < ε), H1 is said to be obtained from H2 by an edge jump if there exist four distinct vertices u, v, ω and x in G such that (u,v)∈E(H2), (ω,x)∈E(G) - E(H2) and H1=H2 - (u, v) + (ω, x). In this article, the γ-jump graphs(r≥3) are discussed. A graph H is said to be an γ-jump graph of G if its vertices correspond to the edge induced graph of size γ in G and two vertices are adjacent if and only if one of the two corresponding subgraphs can be obtained from the other by an edge jump. For k≥2, the k-th iterated γ-jump graph Jrk(G) is defined as Jγ(Jγk-1 (G)), where Jγ1 (G) = Jγ(G). An infinite sequence {Gi} of graphs is planar if every graph Gi is planar. It is shown that there does not exist a graph G for which the sequence {J3k(G)} is planar, where k is any positive integer. Meanwhile, lim gen(J3k(G)) =∞, where gen(G) denotes the genus of a graph G, if the sequence k→∞J3k(G) is defined for every positive integer k. As for the 4-jump graph of a graph G,{J4k(G)} is planar if and only if G = C5. For γ≥5, whether the fix graph of the sequence {Jγk(G))exists is determined.

  17. Orientation of Planar Deformation Features (PDFs) in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhorst, F.; Deutsch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Differently oriented single crystal quartz was shocked experimentally at pressures of 20 to 32 GPa and pre-shock temperatures up to 630 C. Based on this systematic investigation, we can demonstrate that the orientation of planar deformation features in quartz is not only dependent on shock pressure but also on pre-shock temperature and shock direction. Moreover, the orientation of Planar Deformation Features (PDF's) is strongly influenced by the set-up in recovery experiments. PDF's in quartz are defined as optically recognizable, planar microstructures diagnostically produced by shock compression. PDF's differ from all kinds of microstructures found in volcanic environment and therefore, their presence is a primary criterion for recognizing impact craters and ejecta layers such as the K/T boundary. Because experiments have shown a pressure dependence of the orientation of PDF's, this property is used extensively for shock wave barometry in natural impact sites. However, the unreflected application of experimental results neglects that parameters such as pre-shock temperature, shock direction, or the experimental arrangement may influence the spatial distribution of PDF's. In order to test this assumption, shock experiments on single crystal quartz at pre-shock temperatures of 20, 275, 540, and 630 C, and with shock directions (1010) and (0001) were performed. Most of the recovery experiments were carried out by using a reverberation technique, whereas in only one experiment a single shock was produced (impedance method). In the former case 0.5 mm thin discs of single crystal quartz were used, in the latter a 15 mm thick cylinder. The orientation of PDF's was measured by means of a conventional universal stage and the results are given. Effects of the experimentation technique can be derived showing the orientation of PDF's in quartz shocked at 27.5 GPa. In comparison to the well defined peaks at (1012) found in samples from reverberation experiments, the impedance

  18. Spontaneous Planar Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Lubensky, David

    Recent progress in animal development has highlighted the central role played by planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Through PCP, cells have the ability to collectively polarize in the plane of the epithelium by localizing morphogenetic proteins along a certain axis. This allows direction-dependent modulation of tissue mechanical properties that can translate into the formation of complex, non-rotationally invariant shapes. Recent experimental observations[1] show that cells, in addition to being planar-polarized, can also spontaneously develop planar chirality, perhaps in the effort of making yet more complex shapes that are reflection non-invariant. In this talk we will present our work in characterizing general mechanisms that can lead to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in cells. We decompose interfacial concentration of polarity proteins in a hexagonal cell packing into irreducible representations. We find that in the case of polar concentration distributions, a chiral state can only be reached from a secondary instability after the cells are polarized. However in the case of nematic distributions, we show that a finite-amplitude (subcritical, or ``first-order'') nematic transition can send the system from disorder directly to a chiral state. In addition, we find that perturbing the system by stretching the hexagonal packing enables direct (supercritical, or ``second-order'') chiral transition in the nematic case. Finally, we do a Landau expansion to study competition between stretch-induced chirality and the tendency towards a non-chiral state in packings that have retained the full 6-fold symmetry.

  19. Adaptive Techniques to find Optimal Planar Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Barbay, J; Pérez-Lantero, P

    2012-01-01

    Given a set $P$ of $n$ planar points, two axes and a real-valued score function $f()$ on subsets of $P$, the Optimal Planar Box problem consists in finding a box (i.e. axis-aligned rectangle) $H$ maximizing $f(H\\cap P)$. We consider the case where $f()$ is monotone decomposable, i.e. there exists a composition function $g()$ monotone in its two arguments such that $f(A)=g(f(A_1),f(A_2))$ for every subset $A\\subseteq P$ and every partition $\\{A_1,A_2\\}$ of $A$. In this context we propose a solution for the Optimal Planar Box problem which performs in the worst case $O(n^2\\lg n)$ score compositions and coordinate comparisons, and much less on other classes of instances defined by various measures of difficulty. A side result of its own interest is a fully dynamic \\textit{MCS Splay tree} data structure supporting insertions and deletions with the \\emph{dynamic finger} property, improving upon previous results [Cort\\'es et al., J.Alg. 2009].

  20. Miniaturized Air-Driven Planar Magnetic Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of two miniaturized air-driven planar magnetic generators. In order to reduce the magnetic resistance torque, Generator 1 establishes a static magnetic field by consisting a multilayer planar coil as the stator and two multi-pole permanent-magnet (PM rotors on both sides of the coil. To further decrease the starting torque and save more space, Generator 2 adopts the multilayer planar coil as the rotor and the multi-pole PMs as the stator, eliminating the casing without compromising the magnetic structure or output performance. The prototypes were tested gathering energy from wind which can work at a low wind speed of 1~2 m/s. Prototype of Generator 1 is with a volume of 2.61 cm3 and its normalized voltage reaches 485 mV/krpm. Prototype of Generator 2 has a volume of 0.92 cm3 and a normalized voltage as high as 538 mV/krpm. Additionally, output voltage can be estimated at better than 96% accuracy by the theoretical model developed in this paper. The two micro generators are capable of producing substantial electricity with little volume to serve as compact power conversion devices.

  1. Planar Tunneling Spectroscopy of Graphene Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joel I.-Jan; Bretheau, Landry; Pisoni, Riccardo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2-D Van-der-Waals mesoscopic physics have seen a rapid development in the last 10 years, with new materials each year added to the toolbox. Stacking them like Lego enables the combination of their individual electronic properties. In particular, hexagonal boron nitride, which is an insulator, gives the possibility to perform planar (2-D to 2-D) tunneling spectroscopy within this type of heterostructures. Unlike standard transport measurements, tunneling spectroscopy enables to probe the electronic properties in the energy domain. Moreover, since planar tunneling probes a large area of the system, global quantum features such as quantum Hall effect, superconducting proximity effect or quantum confinement can be investigated. In this talk, we will present implementation of heterostructures consisting of graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and graphite, fabricated for planar tunneling spectroscopy. In order to reveal the intrinsic properties of materials, the fabrication scheme aims at preserving the pristine nature of the 2-DEGS as well as minimizing the doping introduced by external probes. As a demonstration, measurements of these devices in normal states, high magnetic field environment, and induced superconducting state will be presented.

  2. Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) for Microelectronic Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuzhuo

    2004-01-01

    Surface planarity is of paramount importance in microelectronics. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) is the most viable approach to address the planarity issues during the fabrication of advanced semiconductor devices. With the integration of copper as interconnect and low k materials as dielectric, the CMP community is facing an ever increasing demand on reducing defectivity without scarifying production throughput. Key issues in CMP today include reduction of surface defectivity and enhancement of planarization efficiency. More specifically, the polished surface should be free of defects such as scratches, pits, corrosion spots, and residue particles. To accomplish these goals, we have investigated a wide range of pathways including reduction of oversized particles,use of unique abrasives such as functionalized nanoparticles, and development of polishing solution without abrasive particles.In this presentation, some fundamental aspects of the CMP process will be given first.Several academic and industrial examples will be used to illustrate the issues and challenges during the implementation of various slurry designs into the CMP processes.

  3. Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Detlef; Bergmann, Raymond; Mikkelsen, Rene; Zeilstra, Christiaan; Meer, van der Devaraj; Versluis, Michel

    2004-01-01

    A lot of information on impacts of solid bodies on planets has been extracted from remote observations of impact craters on planetary surfaces; experiments however with large enough impact energies as compared to the energy stored in the ground are difficult. We approach this problem by downscaled e

  4. Colloid aspects of chemical-mechanical planarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijević, E; Babu, S V

    2008-04-01

    The essential parts of interconnects for silicon based logic and memory devices consist of metal wiring (e.g. copper), a barrier metal (Ta, TaN), and of insulation (SiO2, low-k polymer). The deposition of the conducting metal cannot be confined to trenches, resulting in additional coverage of Cu and Ta/TaN on the surface of the dielectrics, yielding an electrically conducting continuous but an uneven surface. The surplus metal must be removed until a perfectly flat surface consisting of electrically isolated metal lines is achieved with no imperfections. This task is accomplished by the chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) process, in which the wafer is polished with a slurry containing abrasives of finely dispersed particles in submicrometer to nanometer size. The slurries also contain dissolved chemicals to modify the surfaces to be planarized. Eventually the final product must be cleared of any adhered particles and debris left after polishing is completed. Obviously the entire process deals with materials and interactions which are the focal subjects of colloid and surface science, such as the natures of abrasive particles and their stability in the slurry, the properties of various surfaces and their modifications, adhesion and detachment of the particles and different methods for the characterization of constituents, as well as elucidation of the relevant interfacial phenomena. This review endeavors to describe the colloid approach to optimize the materials and processes in order to achieve desirable polish rates and final surfaces with no imperfections. Specifically, the effects of the composition, size, shape, and charge of abrasive particles on the polish process and the quality of planarized wafers is described in detail. Furthermore, the interactions of metal surfaces with oxidizing, chelating, and other species which affect the dissolution and surface modification of metal (copper) surfaces are illustrated and related to the planarization process

  5. Colloid Aspects of Chemical-Mechanical Planarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijević, E.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential parts of interconnects for silicon based logic and memory devices consist of metal wiring (e.g. copper, a barrier metal (Ta, TaN, and of insulation (SiO2 , low-k polymer. The deposition of the conducting metal cannot be confined to trenches, resulting in additional coverage of Cu and Ta/TaN on the surface of the dielectrics, yielding an electrically conducting continuous but an uneven surface. The surplus metal must be removed until a perfectly flat surface consisting of electrically isolated metal lines is achieved with no imperfections. This task is accomplished by the chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP process, in which the wafer is polished with a slurry containing abrasives of finely dispersed particles in submicrometer to nanometer size. The slurries also contain dissolved chemicals to modify the surfaces to be planarized. Eventually the final product must be cleared of any adhered particles and debris left after polishing is completed. Obviously the entire process deals with materials and interactions which are the focal subjects of colloid and surface science, such as the natures of abrasive particles and their stability in the slurry, the properties of various surfaces and their modifications, adhesion and detachment of the particles and different methods for the characterization of constituents, as well as elucidation of the relevant interfacial phenomena. This review endeavors to describe the colloid approach to optimize the materials and processes in order to achieve desirable polish rates and final surfaces with no imperfections. Specifically, the effects of the composition, size, shape, and charge of abrasive particles on the polish process and the quality of planarized wafers is described in detail. Furthermore, the interactions of metal surfaces with oxidizing, chelating, and other species which affect the dissolution and surface modification of metal (copper surfaces are illustrated and related to the

  6. Nanopatterning planar and non-planar mold surfaces for a polymer replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Pranov, Henrik; Kofod, Guggi;

    2013-01-01

    , freestanding nickel foil with a reversed pattern. This foil is then used either as a direct master for polymer replication or as a master for an extremely high pressure embossing of such master onto a metallic injection mold cavity surface coated with special coating, which, when cured, forms robust and hard......, glass-like material. We have demonstrated nanopattern transfer on both planar and non-planar geometries and our nanopatterned mold coating can sustain more than 10.000 injection molding cycles. We can coat our nanopatterned mold surfaces with a monolayer of perfluorosilane to further reduce surface...

  7. Gibbs–Thomson Effect in Planar Nanowires: Orientation and Doping Modulated Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde

    2016-06-02

    Epitaxy-enabled bottom-up synthesis of self-assembled planar nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism is an emerging and promising approach toward large-scale direct integration of nanowire-based devices without postgrowth alignment. Here, by examining large assemblies of indium tin oxide nanowires on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate, we demonstrate for the first time that the growth dynamics of planar nanowires follows a modified version of the Gibbs-Thomson mechanism, which has been known for the past decades to govern the correlations between thermodynamic supersaturation, growth speed, and nanowire morphology. Furthermore, the substrate orientation strongly influences the growth characteristics of epitaxial planar nanowires as opposed to impact at only the initial nucleation stage in the growth of vertical nanowires. The rich nanowire morphology can be described by a surface-energy-dependent growth model within the Gibbs-Thomson framework, which is further modulated by the tin doping concentration. Our experiments also reveal that the cutoff nanowire diameter depends on the substrate orientation and decreases with increasing tin doping concentration. These results enable a deeper understanding and control over the growth of planar nanowires, and the insights will help advance the fabrication of self-assembled nanowire devices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  8. Planar cell polarity and vertebrate organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Courtney; Wharton, Keith A; Carroll, Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    In addition to being polarized along their apical/basal axis, cells composing most (if not all) organs are also polarized in a plane vertical to the A/B axis. Recent studies indicate that this so-called planar cell polarity (PCP) plays an essential role in the formation of multiple organ systems regulating directed cell migrations, polarized cell division and proper differentiation. In this review we will discuss the molecular mechanisms regulating PCP, including the hypothesized roles for Wnt ligands in this process, and its roles in vertebrate organogenesis.

  9. Coupling planar cell polarity signaling to morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Jeffrey D; McNeill, Helen

    2002-02-15

    Epithelial cells and other groups of cells acquire a polarity orthogonal to their apical-basal axes, referred to as Planar Cell Polarity (PCP). The process by which these cells become polarized requires a signaling pathway using Frizzled as a receptor. Responding cells sense cues from their environment that provide directional information, and they translate this information into cellular asymmetry. Most of what is known about PCP derives from studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila. We review what is known about how cells translate an unknown signal into asymmetric cytoskeletal reorganization. We then discuss how the vertebrate processes of convergent extension and cochlear hair-cell development may relate to Drosophila PCP signaling.

  10. Planar jumping-drop thermal diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Zhao, Yuejun; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2011-12-01

    Phase-change thermal diodes rectify heat transport much more effectively than solid-state ones, but are limited by either the gravitational orientation or one-dimensional configuration. Here, we report a planar phase-change diode scalable to large areas with an orientation-independent diodicity of over 100, in which water/vapor is enclosed by parallel superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic plates. The thermal rectification is enabled by spontaneously jumping dropwise condensate which only occurs when the superhydrophobic surface is colder than the superhydrophilic surface.

  11. Broadband Planar 5:1 Impedence Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Negar; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Samuel H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a broadband Guanella-type planar impedance transformer that transforms so 50 omega to 10 omega with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1-14GHz. The transformer is designed on a flexible 50 micrometer thick polyimide substrate in microstrip and parallel-plate transmission line topologies, and is Inspired by the traditional 4:1 Guanella transformer. Back-to-back transformers were designed and fabricated for characterization in a 50 omega system. Simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement.

  12. Optimal External-Memory Planar Point Enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Samoladas, Vasilis; Yi, Ke

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the external memory planar point enclosure problem: Given N axis-parallel rectangles in the plane, construct a data structure on disk (an index) such that all K rectangles containing a query point can be reported I/O-efficiently. This problem has important applications in e...... term O(K/B) is desired. To show this we prove a general lower bound on the tradeoff between the size of the data structure and its query cost. We also develop a family of structures with matching space and query bounds....

  13. Plasma ion stratification by weak planar shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, Andrei N.; Keenan, Brett D.; Taitano, William T.; Chacón, Luis

    2017-09-01

    We derive fluid equations for describing steady-state planar shocks of a moderate strength ( 0 shock Mach number) propagating through an unmagnetized quasineutral collisional plasma comprising two separate ion species. In addition to the standard fluid shock quantities, such as the total mass density, mass-flow velocity, and electron and average ion temperatures, the equations describe shock stratification in terms of variations in the relative concentrations and temperatures of the two ion species along the shock propagation direction. We have solved these equations analytically for weak shocks ( 0 shocks, and they have been used to verify kinetic simulations of shocks in multi-ion plasmas.

  14. Structural Stability of Planar Bimodal Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Ferrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural stability ensures that the qualitative behavior of a system is preserved under small perturbations. We study it for planar bimodal linear dynamical systems, that is, systems consisting of two linear dynamics acting on each side of a given hyperplane and assuming continuity along the separating hyperplane. We describe which one of these systems is structurally stable when (real spiral does not appear and when it does we give necessary and sufficient conditions concerning finite periodic orbits and saddle connections. In particular, we study the finite periodic orbits and the homoclinic orbits in the saddle/spiral case.

  15. Exceptional points in anisotropic planar microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Steffen; Michalsky, Tom; Sturm, Chris; Rosenow, Bernd; Grundmann, Marius; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger

    2017-02-01

    Planar microcavities allow the control and manipulation of spin polarization, manifested in phenomena like the optical spin Hall effect due to the intrinsic polarization mode splitting. Here, we study a transparent microcavity with broken rotational symmetry, realized by aligning the optic axis of a uniaxial cavity material in the cavity plane, giving rise to exceptional points in the dispersion relation. These occur pairwise, are circularly polarized, and are cores of polarization vortices. The exceptional points are result of the non-Hermitian character of the system and are in close relationship to singular optic axes in absorptive biaxial systems.

  16. Exceptional points in anisotropic planar microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Steffen; Sturm, Chris; Rosenow, Bernd; Grundmann, Marius; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Planar microcavities allow the control and manipulation of spin-polarization, manifested in phenomena like the optical spin Hall effect due to the intrinsic polarization mode splitting. Here, we study a transparent microcavity with broken rotational symmetry, realized by aligning the optical axis of a uniaxial cavity material in the cavity plane. We demonstrate that the in-plane optical anisotropy gives rise to exceptional points in the dispersion relation, which occur pair-wise, are circularly polarized, and are cores of polarization vortices. These exceptional points are a result of the non-Hermitian character of the system, and are in close relationship to singular optical axes in absorptive biaxial systems.

  17. Packaging considerations for planar optical interconnection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acklin, B; Jahns, J

    1994-03-10

    We discuss various aspects of building an integrated optoelectronic system that is based on the concept of planar optics. A particular optical interconnection system has been fabricated and demonstrated. It provides parallel interconnections with 1024 optical channels that could be useful as an optical backplane in an optoelectronic multichip module. We consider the design and the fabrication of the optical system, schemes for the hybrid integration with optoelectronic device arrays, and the thermal management of an integrated system. The proposed hybrid integration scheme is based on mature technologies such as thermal anodic bonding and flip-chip bonding. Possibilities for efficient heat sinking are described.

  18. Underpotential deposition: From planar surfaces to nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, O. A.; Vélez, P.; Macagno, V. A.; Leiva, E. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is given of selected theoretical, experimental and computer simulation research on thermodynamic modeling applied to the metal underpotential deposition. Focus is made mainly on the last 20 years. The upd-theory on planar surfaces is revisited and the thermodynamic framework is extended to consider underpotential deposition on nanoparticles and to include anion coadsorption, solvation and double layer charging. Results from molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations are shown for systems of experimental interest. At the end some perspectives for further advanced modeling of the present problem are given.

  19. Vortex gyroscope imaging of planar superfluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, A T; Sammut, S J; Simula, T P

    2014-10-17

    We propose a robust imaging technique that makes it possible to distinguish vortices from antivortices in quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates from a single image of the density of the atoms. Tilting the planar condensate prior to standard absorption imaging excites a generalized gyroscopic mode of the condensate, revealing the sign and location of each vortex. This technique is anticipated to enable experimental measurement of the incompressible kinetic energy spectrum of the condensate and the observation of a negative-temperature phase transition of the vortex gas, driven by two-dimensional superfluid turbulence.

  20. Planar-waveguide integrated spectral comparator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, T W; Iazikov, D; Greiner, C

    2004-06-01

    A cost-effective yet robust and versatile dual-channel spectral comparator is presented. The silica-on-silicon planar-waveguide integrated device includes two holographic Bragg-grating reflectors (HBRs) with complementary spectral transfer functions. Output comprises projections of input signal spectra onto the complementary spectral channels. Spectral comparators may be useful in optical code-division multiplexing, optical packet decoding, spectral target recognition, and the identification of molecular spectra. HBRs may be considered to be mode-specific photonic crystals.

  1. Theoretical analysis of planar pulse microwiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qing-Xiang Liu [Institute of Applied Electronics, Sichuan (China)]|[Southwest Jiaotong Univ., Sichuan (China); Yong Xu [Southwest Jiatong Univ., Sichuan (China)

    1995-12-31

    The Magnetic field distributions of a planar pulse microwiggler are studied analytically and numerically. Exact solutions of two-dimensional magnetic fields are derived, which show that along the electron axis the fields have a variation close enough to a sine wave. We also investigate wiggler field errors due to machining tolerance and effects of the field errors on trajectories of electron with the help numerical simulations. The results are critical for successful operation of CAEP compact free-electron laser experiment under preparation.

  2. Some remarks on non-planar Feynman diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielas, Krzysztof; Dubovyk, Ievgen; Gluza, Janusz [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, Tord [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Two criteria for planarity of a Feynman diagram upon its propagators (momentum ows) are presented. Instructive Mathematica programs that solve the problem and examples are provided. A simple geometric argument is used to show that while one can planarize non-planar graphs by embedding them on higher-genus surfaces (in the example it is a torus), there is still a problem with defining appropriate dual variables since the corresponding faces of the graph are absorbed by torus generators.

  3. An algorithm of graph planarity testing and cross minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalie Cotelea

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on one compartment from the graph theory, called graph planarity testing. It covers the fundamental concepts and important work in this area. Also a new approach is presented, which tests if a graph is planar in linear time O(n and it can be used to determine the minimum crosses in a graph if it isn't planar.

  4. STRONG EMBEDDINGS OF PLANAR GRAPHS ON HIGHER SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘同印; 刘彦佩

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the upper bound for the genus of strong embeddings for 3-connected planar graphs on higher surfaces. It is shown that the problem of determining the upper bound for the strong embedding of 3-connected planar neartriangulations on higher non-orientable surfaces is NP-hard. As a corollary, a theorem of Richter, Seymour and Siran about the strong embedding of 3-connected planar graphs is generalized to orientable surface.

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of Dual Mode Fracture Sustained by Graphite/Epoxy Laminates Impacted by High-Velocity Spherical Metallic Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Ended Penetrators", Foreign Object Damage to Composites, ASTM STP 568, 1975, pp 159-172. 8. Caprino , G., "Residual Strength Prediction of Impacted...CFRP Laminates", Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 18, November 1984, pp 508-518. 9. Crivelli, V.I., G. Caprino , A. Di Ilio, and L. Carrino, "Impact

  6. Fidelity in planar cell polarity signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dali; Yang, Chung-hui; McNeill, Helen; Simon, Michael A; Axelrod, Jeffrey D

    2003-01-30

    The polarity of Drosophila wing hairs displays remarkable fidelity. Each of the approximately 30,000 wing epithelial cells constructs an actin-rich prehair that protrudes from its distal vertex and points distally. The distal location and orientation of the hairs is virtually error free, thus forming a nearly perfect parallel array. This process is controlled by the planar cell polarity signalling pathway. Here we show that interaction between two tiers of the planar cell polarity signalling mechanism results in the observed high fidelity. The first tier, mediated by the cadherin Fat, dictates global orientation by transducing a directional signal to individual cells. The second tier, orchestrated by the 7-pass transmembrane receptor Frizzled, aligns each cell's polarity with that of its neighbours through the action of an intercellular feedback loop, enabling polarity to propagate from cell to cell. We show that all cells need not respond correctly to the presumably subtle signal transmitted by Fat. Subsequent action of the Frizzled feedback loop is sufficient to align all the cells cooperatively. This economical system is therefore highly robust, and produces virtually error-free arrays.

  7. Multistability in planar liquid crystal wells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Chong

    2012-06-08

    A planar bistable liquid crystal device, reported in Tsakonas, is modeled within the Landau-de Gennes theory for nematic liquid crystals. This planar device consists of an array of square micrometer-sized wells. We obtain six different classes of equilibrium profiles and these profiles are classified as diagonal or rotated solutions. In the strong anchoring case, we propose a Dirichlet boundary condition that mimics the experimentally imposed tangent boundary conditions. In the weak anchoring case, we present a suitable surface energy and study the multiplicity of solutions as a function of the anchoring strength. We find that diagonal solutions exist for all values of the anchoring strength W≥0, while rotated solutions only exist for W≥W c>0, where W c is a critical anchoring strength that has been computed numerically. We propose a dynamic model for the switching mechanisms based on only dielectric effects. For sufficiently strong external electric fields, we numerically demonstrate diagonal-to-rotated and rotated-to-diagonal switching by allowing for variable anchoring strength across the domain boundary. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  8. Fungal melanins differ in planar stacking distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Nakouzi, Antonio; Crippa, Pier R; Eisner, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    Melanins are notoriously difficult to study because they are amorphous, insoluble and often associated with other biological materials. Consequently, there is a dearth of structural techniques to study this enigmatic pigment. Current models of melanin structure envision the stacking of planar structures. X ray diffraction has historically been used to deduce stacking parameters. In this study we used X ray diffraction to analyze melanins derived from Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger, Wangiella dermatitides and Coprinus comatus. Analysis of melanin in melanized C. neoformans encapsulated cells was precluded by the fortuitous finding that the capsular polysaccharide had a diffraction spectrum that was similar to that of isolated melanin. The capsular polysaccharide spectrum was dominated by a broad non-Bragg feature consistent with origin from a repeating structural motif that may arise from inter-molecular interactions and/or possibly gel organization. Hence, we isolated melanin from each fungal species and compared diffraction parameters. The results show that the inferred stacking distances of fungal melanins differ from that reported for synthetic melanin and neuromelanin, occupying intermediate position between these other melanins. These results suggest that all melanins have a fundamental diffracting unit composed of planar graphitic assemblies that can differ in stacking distance. The stacking peak appears to be a distinguishing universal feature of melanins that may be of use in characterizing these enigmatic pigments.

  9. Betweenness centrality patterns in random planar graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lion, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Random planar graphs appear in a variety of context and it is important for many different applications to be able to characterize their structure. Local quantities fail to give interesting information and it seems that path-related measures are able to convey relevant information about the organization of these structures. In particular, nodes with a large betweenness centrality (BC) display non-trivial patterns, such as loops of very central nodes. We discuss briefly empirical results for different random planar graphs and we propose a toy model which allows us to discuss the condition for the emergence of non-trivial patterns such as central loops. This toy model is made of a star network with $N_b$ branches of size $n$ and links of weight $1$, superimposed to a loop at distance $\\ell$ from the center and with links of weight $w$. We estimate for this model the BC at the center and on the loop and we show that the loop can be more central than the origin if $w

  10. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, A; Patella, A; Pica, C

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the theory under charge conjugation, we prove this statement on the lattice for staggered quenched condensates in SU($N$) Yang-Mills in the large $N$ limit. Then, we compute numerically those quenched condensates for $N$ up to 8. After separating the even from the odd corrections in $1/N$, we are able to show that our data support the equivalence; however, unlike other quenched observables, subleading terms in $1/N$ are needed for describing the data for the symmetric and antisymmetric representation at $N$=3. Possible lesson...

  11. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in the United States. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  12. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is a summary of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United states and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A brief summary of public utility regulatory programs, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority is presented in this report to identify how such programs and authority may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  13. The impact of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) for CIN 2,3 on spontaneous preterm delivery in twin pregnancies by assisted reproductive technique: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavattini, Andrea; Stortoni, Piergiorgio; Mancioli, Francesca; Puglia, Danila; Tranquilli, Andrea Luigi; Liverani, Carlo Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of spontaneous preterm delivery before 35 weeks in 7 dichorionic twin pregnancies obtained after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2,3 with respect to 21 twin pregnancies without previous cervical treatment. All the pregnancies were obtained after assisted reproduction techniques (ART). Same age at delivery was observed between two groups (p = 0.81) and none of our twin pregnancies after LEEP had a threatened preterm labor while four controls (19%) underwent a spontaneous preterm delivery (p = 0.35). These preliminary data seem to indicate that LEEP may not be responsible of spontaneous preterm delivery in twin pregnancies subsequent to ART.

  14. The impact of a large-scale quality improvement programme on work engagement: preliminary results from a national cross-sectional-survey of the 'Productive Ward'

    OpenAIRE

    White, Mark; Wells, John S G; Butterworth, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Quality improvement (QI) Programmes, like the Productive Ward: Releasing-time-to-care initiative, aim to 'engage' and 'empower' ward teams to actively participate, innovate and lead quality improvement at the front line. However, little is known about the relationship and impact that QI work has on the 'engagement' of the clinical teams who participate and vice-versa. Objective: This paper explores and examines the impact of a large-scale QI programme, the Productive Ward, on the ...

  15. The impact of political violence on health and health services in Cape Town, South Africa, 1986: methodological problems and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D

    1988-07-01

    Cape Town, South Africa experienced an upsurge in the level of political violence from May to July of 1986. To determine the impact of the political violence on health and health services, selected routinely available information was analyzed, a community survey was conducted of 1,540 randomly selected households in high, medium, and low impact areas (defined using police and community reports), and a survey of 162 nurses (75 per cent response rate) working in clinic and maternity services in Cape Town's townships was undertaken. Methodological problems were encountered in relation to sampling, interviewer allocation to areas, and access to routinely available information. Nevertheless, a consistent picture emerged from the studies that: demonstrated the impact of political violence on attendance at routine health service facilities (for hypertension, tuberculosis, immunizations, antenatal and postnatal services); highlighted the disruptions caused to basic services in high impact areas (water, street lighting, sanitation and transport); documented the problems experienced by nurses in performing their usual services and by patients obtaining access to their services; showed that high impact areas had three times higher rates of gunshot wounds than low impact areas during the period.

  16. A Preliminary Study on the Reliability of the Malay Version of PedsQL™ Family Impact Module among Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Azriani Ab; Mohamad, Norsarwany; Imran, Musa Kamarul; Ibrahim, Wan Pauzi Wan; Othman, Azizah; Aziz, Aniza Abd; Harith, Sakinah; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ariffin, Nor Hashimah; Van Rostenberghe, Hans

    2011-10-01

    No previous study has assessed the impact of childhood disability on parents and family in the context of Malaysia, and no instrument to measure this impact has previously been available. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the reliability of a Malay version of the PedsQL™ Family Impact Module that measures the impact of children with disabilities (CWD) on their parents and family in a Malaysian context. The study was conducted in 2009. The questionnaire was translated forward and backward before it was administered to 44 caregivers of CWD to determine the internal consistency reliability. The test for Cronbach's alpha was performed. The internal consistency reliability was good. The Cronbach's alpha for all domains was above 0.7, ranging from 0.73 to 0.895. The Malay version of the PedsQL™ Family Impact Module showed evidence of good internal consistency reliability. However, future studies with a larger sample size are necessary before the module can be recommended as a tool to measure the impact of disability on Malay-speaking Malaysian families.

  17. Morphing Planar Graph Drawings with a Polynomial Number of Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamdari, Soroush; Angelini, Patrizio; Chan, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1944, Cairns proved the following theorem: given any two straight-line planar drawings of a triangulation with the same outer face, there exists a morph (i.e., a continuous transformation) between the two drawings so that the drawing remains straight-line planar at all times. Cairns’s original...

  18. The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budd, Timothy George

    2016-01-01

    criterion has a very simple interpretation. The finite random planar maps under consideration were recently proved to possess a well-defined local limit known as the infinite Boltzmann planar map (IBPM). Inspired by recent work of Curien and Le Gall, we show that the peeling process on the IBPM can...

  19. The Planar Algebra of a Semisimple and Cosemisimple Hopf Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kodiyalam; V S Sunder

    2006-11-01

    To a semisimple and cosemisimple Hopf algebra over an algebraically closed field, we associate a planar algebra defined by generators and relations and show that it is a connected, irreducible, spherical, non-degenerate planar algebra with non-zero modulus and of depth two. This association is shown to yield a bijection between (the isomorphism classes, on both sides, of) such objects.

  20. Semi-Euclidean quasi-elliptic planar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekar, Murat; Yayli, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the algebra of split semi-quaternions with their basic properties. Also, the results of the Euclidean planar motion given by Blaschke and Grünwald is generalized to semi-Euclidean planar motion by using the algebra of split semi-quaternions.

  1. Morphing Planar Graph Drawings with a Polynomial Number of Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamdari, Soroush; Angelini, Patrizio; Chan, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1944, Cairns proved the following theorem: given any two straight-line planar drawings of a triangulation with the same outer face, there exists a morph (i.e., a continuous transformation) between the two drawings so that the drawing remains straight-line planar at all times. Cairns’s original...

  2. On global asymptotic controllability of planar affine nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yimin; GUO Lei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a necessary and sufficient condition for globally asymptotic controllability of the general planar affine nonlinear systems with single-input.This result is obtained by introducing a new method in the analysis, which is based on the use of some basic results in planar topology and in the geometric theory of ordinary differential equations.

  3. An efficient planar inverse acoustic method based on Toeplitz matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, J.W.; Boer, de A.; Ellenbroek, M.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a new, fast method to solve inverse acoustic problems for planar sources. This problem is often encountered in practice and methods such as planar nearfield acoustic holography (PNAH) and statistically optimised nearfield acoustic holography (SONAH) are widely used to solve it.

  4. Planar Near-Field Measurements of Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    Planar near-field measurements are formulated for a general ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna. A total plane-wave scattering matrix is defined for the system consisting of the GPR antenna and the planar air-soil interface. The transmitting spectrum of the GPR antenna is expressed in terms...

  5. Exponentially many 5-list-colorings of planar graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    We prove that every planar graph with n vertices has at least 2n/9 distinct list-colorings provided every vertex has at least five available colors.......We prove that every planar graph with n vertices has at least 2n/9 distinct list-colorings provided every vertex has at least five available colors....

  6. Adaptive silicone-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schneider, F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available -section. The lens systems incorporate a piezo actuator which is operated in a regime of ±40 V. The shaped membrane lenses show lower wave front errors than the planar ones, down to 24 nm. However, the system with a planar membrane achieves a larger refractive power...

  7. Planar optics with patterned chiral liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Masanori

    2016-06-01

    Reflective metasurfaces based on metallic and dielectric nanoscatterers have attracted interest owing to their ability to control the phase of light. However, because such nanoscatterers require subwavelength features, the fabrication of elements that operate in the visible range is challenging. Here, we show that chiral liquid crystals with a self-organized helical structure enable metasurface-like, non-specular reflection in the visible region. The phase of light that is Bragg-reflected off the helical structure can be controlled over 0-2π depending on the spatial phase of the helical structure; thus planar elements with arbitrary reflected wavefronts can be created via orientation control. The circular polarization selectivity and external field tunability of Bragg reflection open a wide variety of potential applications for this family of functional devices, from optical isolators to wearable displays.

  8. Coupling Planar Cell Polarity Signaling to Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Axelrod

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells and other groups of cells acquire a polarity orthogonal to their apical–basal axes, referred to as Planar Cell Polarity (PCP. The process by which these cells become polarized requires a signaling pathway using Frizzled as a receptor. Responding cells sense cues from their environment that provide directional information, and they translate this information into cellular asymmetry. Most of what is known about PCP derives from studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila. We review what is known about how cells translate an unknown signal into asymmetric cytoskeletal reorganization. We then discuss how the vertebrate processes of convergent extension and cochlear hair-cell development may relate to Drosophila PCP signaling.

  9. Planar cell polarity signaling in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chonnettia; Chen, Ping

    2007-02-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the polarization of a field of cells within the plane of a cell sheet. This form of polarization is required for diverse cellular processes in vertebrates, including convergent extension (CE), the establishment of PCP in epithelial tissues and ciliogenesis. Perhaps the most distinct example of vertebrate PCP is the uniform orientation of stereociliary bundles at the apices of sensory hair cells in the mammalian auditory sensory organ. The establishment of PCP in the mammalian cochlea occurs concurrently with CE in this ciliated epithelium, therefore linking three cellular processes regulated by the vertebrate PCP pathway in the same tissue and emerging as a model system for dissecting PCP signaling. This review summarizes the morphogenesis of this model system to assist the interpretation of the emerging data and proposes molecular mechanisms underlying PCP signaling in vertebrates.

  10. Hydrogen in ferromagnetic semiconductors for planar spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Rouin

    This dissertation documents the use of hydrogen for controlling electrical and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic semiconductors, particularly GaMnAs. With minimal structural perturbation, hydrogen forms complexes with Mn acceptors and renders them neutral, thereby substantially increasing electrical resistivity and removing ferromagnetism. A major finding presented herein is that laser annealing can be used to controllably dissociate the Mn-H complexes and restore ferromagnetism. Structural, electrical, and magnetic effects of the laser activation process are thoroughly explored through experiments and numerical modeling. Local laser activation with tightly-focused ultra-short laser pulses allows for high-resolution direct-writing of ferromagnetic patterns in semiconductors, introducing a new paradigm for device design. Prospects for laser formation of high-temperature phases in ferromagnetic semiconductors are investigated. Finally, several device concepts incorporating the laser activation process are discussed as building blocks towards planar all-semiconductor spintronics.

  11. Terahertz planar antennas for next generation communication

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, Kumud Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    This book describes various methods to enhance the directivity of  planar antennas, enabling the next generation of high frequency, wireless communication.  The authors discuss various applications to the terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, with an emphasis on gain enhancement mechanisms.  The numerical models of these antennas are presented and the analytical results are supported, using commercial simulators. The multilayer substrate microstrip transmission line at terahertz frequency is also explored and a method to obtain the various parameters of this interconnect at high frequency is described.  This book will be a valuable resource for anyone needing to explore the terahertz band gap for future wireless communication, in an effort to solve the bandwidth (spectrum scarcity) problem. • Enables development of terahertz communication systems in a license-free band of the electromagnetic spectrum; • Describes methods to design a multi-layered substrate transmission line to reduce var...

  12. k-fold coloring of planar graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A k-fold n-coloring of G is a mapping φ: V (G) → Zk(n) where Zk(n) is the collection of all ksubsets of {1,2,...,n} such that φ(u) ∩φ(v) = φ if uv ∈ E(G).If G has a k-fold n-coloring,i.e.,G is k-fold n-colorable.Let the smallest integer n such that G is k-fold n-colorable be the k-th chromatic number,denoted by χk(G).In this paper,we show that any outerplanar graph is k-fold 2k-colorable or k-fold χk(C*)-colorable,where C* is a shortest odd cycle of G.Moreover,we investigate that every planar graph with odd girth at least 10k-9(k 3) can be k-fold (2k + 1)-colorable.

  13. DC SQUIDS with planar input coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegrum, C.M.; Donaldson, G.B.; Hutson, D.; Tugwell, A.

    1985-03-01

    We describe the key parts of our recent work to develop a planar thin-film DC SQUID with a closely-coupled spiral input coil. Our aim has been to make a device that is superior to present RF SQUID sensors in terms of sensitivity and long-term reliability. To be compatible with an RF SQUID the inductance of the input coils must be relatively large, typically 2..mu..H, and the input noise current in the white noise region should be below 10pA Hz /SUP -1/2/ . A low level of 1/f noise is also necessary for many applications and should be achieved without the use of complex noisecancelling circuitry. Our devices meet these criteria. We include a description of work on window and edge junction fabrication using ion beam cleaning, thermal oxidation and RF plasma processing.

  14. Energy landscapes of planar colloidal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John W R; Wales, David J

    2014-09-21

    A short-ranged pairwise Morse potential is used to model colloidal clusters with planar morphologies. Potential and free energy global minima as well as rearrangement paths, obtained by basin-hopping global optimisation and discrete path sampling, are characterised. The potential and free energy landscapes are visualised using disconnectivity graphs. The short-ranged potential is found to favour close-packed structures, with the potential energy primarily controlled by the number of nearest neighbour contacts. In the case of quasi-degeneracy the free energy global minimum may differ from the potential energy global minimum. This difference is due to symmetry effects, which result in a higher entropy for structures with lower symmetry.

  15. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions...... a essentially determined by the SRR, while by varying the dipole arm length the input resistance is changed in a wide range, thus matching the antenna to a feed line and compensating for simulation and manufacturing inaccuracies. No additional matching network is required. Theoretically, there is no limit...... on how small this antenna can be. In practice, the lower bound is set by losses in utilized materials and manufacturing inaccuracies. As an example, an antenna of ka=0.09 was designed, fabricated and tested. Although the initially fabricated antenna prototype had the input impedance of 43 ohms...

  16. Arrangement Computation for Planar Algebraic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Berberich, Eric; Kobel, Alexander; Sagraloff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We present a new certified and complete algorithm to compute arrangements of real planar algebraic curves. Our algorithm provides a geometric-topological analysis of the decomposition of the plane induced by a finite number of algebraic curves in terms of a cylindrical algebraic decomposition of the plane. Compared to previous approaches, we improve in two main aspects: Firstly, we significantly reduce the amount of exact operations, that is, our algorithms only uses resultant and gcd as purely symbolic operations. Secondly, we introduce a new hybrid method in the lifting step of our algorithm which combines the usage of a certified numerical complex root solver and information derived from the resultant computation. Additionally, we never consider any coordinate transformation and the output is also given with respect to the initial coordinate system. We implemented our algorithm as a prototypical package of the C++-library CGAL. Our implementation exploits graphics hardware to expedite the resultant and gcd...

  17. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  18. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O. [Murata Mfg. Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  19. Unsteady planar diffusion flames: Ignition, travel, burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendell, F.; Wu, F.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, a thin planar diffusion flame is created and thenceforth travels so that the flame is situated at all times at an interface at which the hydrogen and oxygen meet in stoichiometric proportion. If the initial amount of hydrogen is deficient relative to the initial amount of oxygen, then the planar flame will travel further and further into the half volume initially containing hydrogen, until the hydrogen is (virtually) fully depleted. Of course, when the amount of residual hydrogen becomes small, the diffusion flame is neither vigorous nor thin; in practice, the flame is extinguished before the hydrogen is fully depleted, owing to the finite rate of the actual chemical-kinetic mechanism. The rate of travel of the hydrogen-air diffusion flame is much slower than the rate of laminar flame propagation through a hydrogen-air mixture. This slow travel facilitates diagnostic detection of the flame position as a function of time, but the slow travel also means that the time to burnout (extinction) probably far exceeds the testing time (typically, a few seconds) available in earth-sited facilities for microgravity-environment experiments. We undertake an analysis to predict (1) the position and temperature of the diffusion flame as a function of time, (2) the time at which extinction of the diffusion flame occurs, and (3) the thickness of quench layers formed on side walls (i.e., on lateral boundaries, with normal vectors parallel to the diffusion-flame plane), and whether, prior to extinction, water vapor formed by burning will condense on these cold walls.

  20. Planar electrostatic gradiometer for airborne geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, B.; Christophe, B.; Lebat, V.; Boulanger, D.

    2011-12-01

    The knowledge of the gravity field of the Earth has been considerably improved for the last decades, thanks to satellites, in particular, both for gravity measurements and positioning. Gravity, and especially gravity gradiometry data are then of great interest to the study of the structure of the continental margins. Space gravity measurements, in particular with the GOCE satellite in orbit since 2009, provide an absolute gravity reference and should contribute to estimate the systematic effects that would affect the surface datasets. But the spatial resolution of those data essentially addresses the large and medium wavelengths of the field (down to a resolution of 90km) and it is therefore essential to complete them at the shorter wavelengths in particular in the littoral area. To this aim, gravity gradiometry systems may be particularly suitable by covering the land/sea transition zone with a uniform precision, and a spatial resolution higher than from gravimetry. The GREMLIT instrument is taking advantage of technologies, formerly developed by ONERA for the GRACE and GOCE space missions, by adapting them to an airborne environment, using a planar configuration for the gradiometer and designing and building a dedicated stabilized platform controlled by the common mode outputs of the instrument itself similarly to the drag free control of the GOCE satellite. The mains interests of the planar configuration are: - its definition, optimized for levitation in the Earth's gravity field ; - its intrinsic linearity, which minimizes the aliasing due to high frequency vibrations or motions generated outside the measurement bandwidth ; - its compactness, ensuring an excellent dimensional stability, a better thermal homogeneity and making the realization of the decoupling platform easier. The performance objective is 0.1 Eötvös. This lowered performance level with respect to a one hundred times better GOCE-type instrument, takes into account the difficulty of measurements

  1. The Planar Shape of Rock Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianyang; Einstein, Herbert H.

    2010-02-01

    Knowing the planar shape of discontinuities is important when characterizing discontinuities in a rock mass. However, the real discontinuity shape is rarely known, since the rock mass is usually inaccessible in three dimensions. Information on discontinuity shape is limited and often open to more than one interpretation. This paper discusses the planar shape of rock joints, the most common discontinuities in rock. First, a brief literature review about the shape of joints is presented, including some information on joint-surface morphology, inferences from observed trace lengths on different sampling planes, information based on experimental studies, and joint shapes assumed by different researchers. This review shows that joints not affected by adjacent geological structures such as bedding boundaries or pre-existing fractures tend to be elliptical (or approximately circular but rarely). Joints affected by or intersecting such geological structures tend to be rectangular. Then, using the general stereological relationship between trace length distributions and joint size distributions developed by Zhang et al. (Geotechnique 52(6):419-433, 2002) for elliptical joints, the effect of sampling plane orientation on trace lengths is investigated. This study explains why the average trace lengths of non-equidimensional (elliptical or similar polygonal) joints on two sampling planes can be about equal and thus the conclusion that rock joints are equidimensional (circular) drawn from the fact that the average trace lengths on two sampling planes are approximately equal can be wrong. Finally, methods for characterizing the shape and size of joints (elliptical or rectangular) from trace length data are recommended, and the appropriateness of using elliptical joint shapes to represent polygonal, especially rectangular, joints is discussed.

  2. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  3. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  4. A better approximation algorithm for finding planar subgraphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calinescu, G.; Karloff, H.; Fernandes, C.G. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Finkler, U. [Max-Planch-Inst. fuer Informatik, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The MAXIMUM PLANAR SUBGRAPH problem-given a graph G, find a largest planar subgraph of G-has applications in circuit layout, facility layout, and graph drawing. No previous polynomial-time approximation algorithm for this NP-Complete problem was known to achieve a performance ratio larger than 1/3, which is achieved simply by producing a spanning tree of G. We present the first approximation algorithm for MAXIMUM PLANAR SUBGRAPH with higher performance ratio (2/5 instead of 1/3). We also apply our algorithm to find large outerplanar subgraphs. Last, we show that both MAXIMUM PLANAR SUBGRAPH and its complement, the problem of removing as few edges as possible to leave a planar subgraph, are Max SNP-Hard.

  5. On Longest Cycles in Essentially 4-Connected Planar Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrici Igor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A planar 3-connected graph G is essentially 4-connected if, for any 3-separator S of G, one component of the graph obtained from G by removing S is a single vertex. Jackson and Wormald proved that an essentially 4-connected planar graph on n vertices contains a cycle C such that . For a cubic essentially 4-connected planar graph G, Grünbaum with Malkevitch, and Zhang showed that G has a cycle on at least ¾ n vertices. In the present paper the result of Jackson and Wormald is improved. Moreover, new lower bounds on the length of a longest cycle of G are presented if G is an essentially 4-connected planar graph of maximum degree 4 or G is an essentially 4-connected maximal planar graph.

  6. Planar straightness error evaluation based on particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Zheng, Huawen; Cao, Yanlong; Yang, Jiangxin

    2006-11-01

    The straightness error generally refers to the deviation between an actual line and an ideal line. According to the characteristics of planar straightness error evaluation, a novel method to evaluate planar straightness errors based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. The planar straightness error evaluation problem is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. According to minimum zone condition the mathematical model of planar straightness together with the optimal objective function and fitness function is developed. Compared with the genetic algorithm (GA), the PSO algorithm has some advantages. It is not only implemented without crossover and mutation but also has fast congruence speed. Moreover fewer parameters are needed to set up. The results show that the PSO method is very suitable for nonlinear optimization problems and provides a promising new method for straightness error evaluation. It can be applied to deal with the measured data of planar straightness obtained by the three-coordinates measuring machines.

  7. Fabrication of the planar coils for WENDELSTEIN 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebke, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald Branch, Euratom Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)]. E-mail: holger.viebke@ipp.mpg.de; Rummel, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald Branch, Euratom Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Risse, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald Branch, Euratom Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Schroeder, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald Branch, Euratom Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Winter, R. [Tesla Engineering Ltd., Water Lane, Storrington, Sussex RH20 3EA (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-15

    WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) is a superconducting stellarator, which uses 50 non-planar coils for the main field and 20 planar coils to modify the magnetic configuration. The planar coils are cut into two differently shaped types and designed for 3 T on the plasma axis. A planar coil has an outer diameter of around 4 m. The main elements of planar coils are the winding package, the coil case, the interlayer joints to connect the double layers, and the case cooling with instrumentation. The connection to the coil support structure is performed through forged blocks welded to the casing and bolts. The manufacturing is being performed with a high accuracy to maintain the required symmetry of the magnetic configuration of W7-X. Prior to dispatch the coils pass a works acceptance test at Tesla. After production, all coils are subjected to a functional test at cryogenic temperatures at the Low Temperature Laboratory of CEA at Saclay.

  8. Planar multibody dynamics formulation, programming and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nikravesh, Parviz E

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Multibody Mechanical Systems Types of Analyses Methods of Formulation Computer Programming Application Examples Unit System Remarks Preliminaries Reference Axes Scalars and Vectors Matrices Vector, Array, and Matrix Differentiation Equations and Expressions Remarks Problems Fundamentals of Kinematics A Particle Kinematics of a Rigid Body Definitions Remarks Problems Fundamentals of Dynamics Newton's Laws of Motion Dynamics of a Body Force Elements Applied Forces Reaction Force Remarks Problems Point-Coordinates: Kinematics Multipoint

  9. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  10. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  11. The impact of a large-scale quality improvement programme on work engagement: Preliminary results from a national cross-sectional-survey of the 'Productive Ward'

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Mark

    2014-05-14

    Quality improvement (QI) Programmes, like the Productive Ward: Releasing-time-to-care initiative, aim to \\'engage\\' and \\'empower\\' ward teams to actively participate, innovate and lead quality improvement at the front line. However, little is known about the relationship and impact that QI work has on the \\'engagement\\' of the clinical teams who participate and vice-versa.

  12. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination IV: Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy analyses of impact features in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Anna L.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gainsforth, Zack; Stodolna, Julien; Frank, David R.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, SašA.; Bastien, Ron K.; Bassim, Nabil; Bechtel, Hans A.; Borg, Janet; Brenker, Frank E.; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Burghammer, Manfred; Changela, Hitesh; Cloetens, Peter; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Flynn, George; Grün, Eberhard; Heck, Philipp R.; Hillier, Jon K.; Hoppe, Peter; Hudson, Bruce; Huth, Joachim; Hvide, Brit; Kearsley, Anton; King, Ashley J.; Lai, Barry; Leitner, Jan; Lemelle, Laurence; Leroux, Hugues; Leonard, Ariel; Lettieri, Robert; Marchant, William; Nittler, Larry R.; Ogliore, Ryan; Ong, Wei Ja; Postberg, Frank; Price, Mark C.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tresseras, Juan-Angel Sans; Schmitz, Sylvia; Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Solé, Vicente A.; Srama, Ralf; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stephan, Thomas; Sterken, Veerle J.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sutton, Steven; Trieloff, Mario; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; von Korff, Joshua; Wordsworth, Naomi; Zevin, Daniel; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-09-01

    We report the quantitative characterization by synchrotron soft X-ray spectroscopy of 31 potential impact features in the aerogel capture medium of the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector. Samples were analyzed in aerogel by acquiring high spatial resolution maps and high energy-resolution spectra of major rock-forming elements Mg, Al, Si, Fe, and others. We developed diagnostic screening tests to reject spacecraft secondary ejecta and terrestrial contaminants from further consideration as interstellar dust candidates. The results support an extraterrestrial origin for three interstellar candidates: I1043,1,30 (Orion) is a 3 pg particle with Mg-spinel, forsterite, and an iron-bearing phase. I1047,1,34 (Hylabrook) is a 4 pg particle comprising an olivine core surrounded by low-density, amorphous Mg-silicate and amorphous Fe, Cr, and Mn phases. I1003,1,40 (Sorok) has the track morphology of a high-speed impact, but contains no detectable residue that is convincingly distinguishable from the background aerogel. Twenty-two samples with an anthropogenic origin were rejected, including four secondary ejecta from impacts on the Stardust spacecraft aft solar panels, nine ejecta from secondary impacts on the Stardust Sample Return Capsule, and nine contaminants lacking evidence of an impact. Other samples in the collection included I1029,1,6, which contained surviving solar system impactor material. Four samples remained ambiguous: I1006,2,18, I1044,2,32, and I1092,2,38 were too dense for analysis, and we did not detect an intact projectile in I1044,3,33. We detected no radiation effects from the synchrotron soft X-ray analyses; however, we recorded the effects of synchrotron hard X-ray radiation on I1043,1,30 and I1047,1,34.

  13. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  14. [The multiple links between cilia and planar cell polarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezan, Jérôme; Montcouquiol, Mireille

    2014-11-01

    Since our seminal study in 2003, much has been written about core planar cell polarity (core PCP) signaling and the inner ear. In just a few years, and using the inner ear as a model system, our understanding of the molecular basis of this signaling pathway and how it can influence the development of tissues in mammals has increased considerably. Recently, a number of studies using various animal models of development have uncovered original relationships between the cilia and PCP, and the study of the hair cells of the inner ear has helped elucidating one of these links. In this review, we highlight the differences of PCP signaling between mammals and invertebrates. In the light of recent results, we sum up our current knowledge about PCP signaling in the mammalian cochlear epithelium and we discuss the impact of recent data in the field. We focus our attention on the interrelationship between asymmetric polarity complexes and the position of the cilium, which is essential for the establishment of the overall tissue polarity.

  15. Buckling analysis of planar compression micro-springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Sui, Li; Shi, Gengchen [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Science and Technology on Electromechanical Dynamic Control Laboratory, 5 South Street Zhongguancun, Haidian 100081, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-15

    Large compression deformation causes micro-springs buckling and loss of load capacity. We analyzed the impact of structural parameters and boundary conditions for planar micro-springs, and obtained the change rules for the two factors that affect buckling. A formula for critical buckling deformation of micro-springs under compressive load was derived based on elastic thin plate theory. Results from this formula were compared with finite element analysis results but these did not always correlate. Therefore, finite element analysis is necessary for micro-spring buckling analysis. We studied the variation of micro-spring critical buckling deformation caused by four structural parameters using ANSYS software under two constraint conditions. The simulation results show that when an x-direction constraint is added, the critical buckling deformation increases by 32.3-297.9%. The critical buckling deformation decreases with increase in micro-spring arc radius or section width and increases with increase in micro-spring thickness or straight beam width. We conducted experiments to confirm the simulation results, and the experimental and simulation trends were found to agree. Buckling analysis of the micro-spring establishes a theoretical foundation for optimizing micro-spring structural parameters and constraint conditions to maximize the critical buckling load.

  16. The impact of winter 2012 cold outbreak over the Northern Adriatic Sea dynamics: preliminary comparison among data and high resolution operational atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolio, Silvio; Miglietta, Mario M.; Carniel, Sandro; Benetazzo, Alvise; Buzzi, Andrea; Drofa, Oxana; Falco, Pierpaolo; Fantini, Maurizio; Malguzzi, Piero; Ricchi, Antonio; Russo, Aniello; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Sclavo, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    exceptionally dense water formation, registered during the 2012 winter in the northern Adriatic region. During late January and early February, indeed, the basin was characterized by a persistent and exceptional cold anomaly responsible for large energy losses due to cold and extremely strong winds. Sea waters temperatures dropped to about 6°C and the Venice lagoon got partially covered by ice. In the period of interest, available measurements in the northern Adriatic Sea (temperature, salinity, density, wind speed, direction and inferred heat fluxes) were used, together with satellite measurements, to carry out a first semi-quantitative comparison among existing meteorological models implemented over the region. Namely, the work presents an intercomparison among three state-of-the-art, non-hydrostatic NWP models: COSMO-I7, WRF and MOLOCH. All models are run in operational mode, and their results are used by several Regional authorities and institutions for weather forecasting and support to civil protection decision. Therefore, this evaluation is a useful assessment preliminary to a full coupling of the above mentioned atmospheric models with existing ocean models already implemented in the region (e.g. ROMS in the COAWST system). Preliminary results show also some uncommon mesoscale structures reproduced by the models in the proximity of the central-south Italian coast, and highlight their possible influence on the local surface sea circulation. These effects will be soon explored by means of fully-coupled ocean-atmosphere models within on-going projects.

  17. A preliminary randomized clinical trial comparing diode laser and scalpel periosteal incision during implant surgery: impact on postoperative morbidity and implant survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnaz, Aysan; Jamali, Raika; Mohammadi, Farnush; Khorsand, Afshin; Moslemi, Neda; Fekrazad, Reza

    2017-08-31

    The aim of this preliminary randomized clinical trial was to compare: (1) post-operative morbidity after application of laser or scalpel incision for flap advancement during implant surgery and bone grafting and (2) implant survival rate following flap advancement with laser or scalpel incision after 6 months of loading. Eighteen patients who were scheduled for dental implant placement and simultaneous bone grafting were randomly assigned to test or control groups. Diode laser (810 nm, 2 W, pulse interval 200 μs; pulse length 100 μs, 400-μm initiated fiber tip), or scalpel (control) was used to sever the periosteum to create a tension-free flap. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, rate of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) consumption, intensity of swelling, and ecchymosis were measured for the six postsurgical days. Six months after loading, implant survival was assessed. VAS pain score (during the first four postoperative days), rate of NSAID consumption (during the first three postoperative days), and intensity of swelling (during the first five postoperative days) were significantly lower in the test group compared to the control group (All P values < 0.05). One patient in the control group experienced ecchymosis. All implants were successful in function. Application of laser for performing periosteal releasing incision reduced the incidence and severity of postoperative morbidity of the patients undergone implant surgery in conjunction with bone augmentation procedure. We did not find any detrimental effect of laser incision on the implant survival within 6 months of loading.

  18. The complex impact of five years of stress related to life-threatening events on pregnancy outcomes: a preliminary retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, M; Keren, N; Eden, A; Tsangen, S; Weizman, A; Zalsman, G

    2015-02-01

    To study the impact of chronic, life-threatening stressors in the form of daily missile attacks, for five consecutive years, on pregnancy outcomes. Charts of deliveries from two neighboring towns in the south of Israel, covering the years 2000 and 2003-2008, were reviewed retrospectively. One city had been exposed to missile attacks, while the other was not. For each year, 100 charts were chosen at random. Significant association was found between exposure to stress and frequency of pregnancy complications (P=0.047) and premature membrane rupture (P=0.029). A more detailed analysis, based on dividing the stressful years into three distinct periods: early (2003-2004), intermediate (2005-2006) and late (2007-2008), revealed that preterm deliveries were significantly more frequent (P=0.044) during the intermediate period, as was premature membrane rupture during the late period (P=0.014). Exposure to chronic life-threatening stress resulted in more pregnancy complications and in particular more premature membrane ruptures. The impact was most significant during the middle period of the 5-year-exposure to the stressor. Hence it seems that factors of duration and habituation may play a role in the impact of chronic, life-threatening stressors on pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Computational Study on a PTAS for Planar Dominating Set Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Ping Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominating set problem is a core NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization and graph theory, and has many important applications. Baker [JACM 41,1994] introduces a k-outer planar graph decomposition-based framework for designing polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS for a class of NP-hard problems in planar graphs. It is mentioned that the framework can be applied to obtain an O(2ckn time, c is a constant, (1+1/k-approximation algorithm for the planar dominating set problem. We show that the approximation ratio achieved by the mentioned application of the framework is not bounded by any constant for the planar dominating set problem. We modify the application of the framework to give a PTAS for the planar dominating set problem. With k-outer planar graph decompositions, the modified PTAS has an approximation ratio (1 + 2/k. Using 2k-outer planar graph decompositions, the modified PTAS achieves the approximation ratio (1+1/k in O(22ckn time. We report a computational study on the modified PTAS. Our results show that the modified PTAS is practical.

  20. A new neural network algorithm for planarization problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JunYing; QIN Qiang

    2008-01-01

    To deal with the planarization problem widely used in many applications including routing very-large-scale integration (VLSI) circuits, this paper points out that only when its vertices are arranged in some specific order in a line can a planar graph be embedded on a line without any cross connections or cross edges. Energy function is proposed to meet the need of embedding a graph on a single line and route it correctly. A Hopfield network is designed according to the proposed energy function for such embedding and routing. The advantage of the proposed method is that it not only can detect if a graph is a planar one or not, but also can embed a planar graph or the maximal planar subgraph of a non-planar graph on a single line. In addition, simulated annealing is employed for helping the network to escape from local minima during the running of the Hopfield network. Experiments of the proposed method and its comparison with some existent conventional methods were performed and the results indicate that the proposed method is of great feasibility and effectiveness especially for the planarization problem of large graphs.

  1. Coupling Ideality of Integrated Planar High-Q Microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Liu, Junqiu; Geiselmann, Michael; Kippenberg, Tobias J.

    2017-02-01

    Chip-scale optical microresonators with integrated planar optical waveguides are useful building blocks for linear, nonlinear, and quantum-optical photonic devices alike. Loss reduction through improving fabrication processes results in several integrated microresonator platforms attaining quality (Q ) factors of several millions. Beyond the improvement of the quality factor, the ability to operate the microresonator with high coupling ideality in the overcoupled regime is of central importance. In this regime, the dominant source of loss constitutes the coupling to a single desired output channel, which is particularly important not only for quantum-optical applications such as the generation of squeezed light and correlated photon pairs but also for linear and nonlinear photonics. However, to date, the coupling ideality in integrated photonic microresonators is not well understood, in particular, design-dependent losses and their impact on the regime of high ideality. Here we investigate design-dependent parasitic losses described by the coupling ideality of the commonly employed microresonator design consisting of a microring-resonator waveguide side coupled to a straight bus waveguide, a system which is not properly described by the conventional input-output theory of open systems due to the presence of higher-order modes. By systematic characterization of multimode high-Q silicon nitride microresonator devices, we show that this design can suffer from low coupling ideality. By performing 3D simulations, we identify the coupling to higher-order bus waveguide modes as the dominant origin of parasitic losses which lead to the low coupling ideality. Using suitably designed bus waveguides, parasitic losses are mitigated with a nearly unity ideality and strong overcoupling (i.e., a ratio of external coupling to internal resonator loss rate >9 ) are demonstrated. Moreover, we find that different resonator modes can exchange power through the coupler, which, therefore

  2. Coupling molecular spin centers to microwave planar resonators: towards integration of molecular qubits in quantum circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoni, C; Ghirri, A; Bader, K; van Slageren, J; Perfetti, M; Sorace, L; Lan, Y; Fuhr, O; Ruben, M; Affronte, M

    2016-11-14

    We present spectroscopic measurements looking for the coherent coupling between molecular magnetic centers and microwave photons. The aim is to find the optimal conditions and the best molecular features to achieve the quantum strong coupling regime, for which coherent dynamics of hybrid photon-spin states take place. To this end, we used a high critical temperature YBCO superconducting planar resonator working at 7.7 GHz and at low temperatures to investigate three molecular mononuclear coordination compounds, namely (PPh4)2[Cu(mnt)2] (where mnt(2-) = maleonitriledithiolate), [ErPc2](-)TBA(+) (where pc(2-) is the phtalocyaninato and TBA(+) is the tetra-n-butylammonium cation) and Dy(trensal) (where H3trensal = 2,2',2''-tris(salicylideneimino)triethylamine). Although the strong coupling regime was not achieved in these preliminary experiments, the results provided several hints on how to design molecular magnetic centers to be integrated into hybrid quantum circuits.

  3. A 1.2 THz Planar Tripler Using GaAs Membrane Based Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruston, J.; Maestrini, A.; Pukala, D.; Martin, S.; Nakamura, B.; Mehdi, I.

    2001-01-01

    Fabrication technology for submillimeter-wave monolithic circuits has made tremendous progress in recent years and it is now possible to fabricate sub-micron GaAs Schottky devices on a number of substrate types, such as membranes, frame-less membranes or substrateless circuits. These new technologies allow designers to implement very high frequency circuits, either Schottky mixers or multipliers, in a radically new manner. This paper will address the design, fabrication, and preliminary results of a 1.2 THz planar tripler fabricated on a GaAs frame-less membrane, the concept of which was described previously. The tripler uses a diode pair in an antiparallel configuration similar to designs used at lower frequency. To date, this tripler has produced a peak output power of 80 microW with 0.9% efficiency at room temperature (at 1126 GHz). The measured fix-tuned 3 dB bandwidth is about 3.5%. When cooled, the output power reached a peak of 195 microW at 120 K and 250 microW at 50 K. The ease with which this circuit was implemented along with the superb achieved performance indicates that properly designed planar devices such as this tripler can now usher in a new era of practical very high frequency multipliers.

  4. System reliability analysis for kinematic performance of planar mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YiMin; HUANG XianZhen; ZHANG XuFang; HE XiangDong; WEN BangChun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the reliability and mechanism kinematic accuracy theories, we propose a general methodology for system reliability analysis of kinematic performance of planar mechanisms. The loop closure equations are used to estimate the kinematic performance errors of planar mechanisms. Reliability and system reliability theories are introduced to develop the limit state functions (LSF) for failure of kinematic performance qualities. The statistical fourth moment method and the Edgeworth series technique are used on system reliability analysis for kinematic performance of planar mechanisms, which relax the restrictions of probability distribution of design variables. Finally, the practicality, efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical examples.

  5. Planar cell polarity in coordinated and directed movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Masazumi; Kai, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Planar cell polarity is a fundamental concept to understanding the coordination of cell movements in the plane of a tissue. Since the planar cell polarity pathway was discovered in mesenchymal tissues involving cell interaction during vertebrate gastrulation, there is an emerging evidence that a variety of mesenchymal and epithelial cells utilize this genetic pathway to mediate the coordination of cells in directed movements. In this review, we focus on how the planar cell polarity pathway is mediated by migrating cells to communicate with one another in different developmental processes.

  6. Recent Studies on the Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity of Planar Cyclooctatetraene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Iyoda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooctatetraene (COT, the first 4nπ-electron system to be studied, adopts an inherently nonplanar tub-shaped geometry of D2d symmetry with alternating single and double bonds, and hence behaves as a nonaromatic polyene rather than an antiaromatic compound. Recently, however, considerable 8π-antiaromatic paratropicity has been shown to be generated in planar COT rings even with the bond alternated D4h structure. In this review, we highlight recent theoretical and experimental studies on the antiaromaticity of hypothetical and actual planar COT. In addition, theoretically predicted triplet aromaticity and stacked aromaticity of planar COT are also briefly described.

  7. Adaptive B-snake for planar curve approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Si-yuan; ZHANG Xiang-wei; HUANG Man-hui

    2005-01-01

    An adaptive B-spline active contour model for planar curve approximation is proposed. Starting with an initial B-spline curve, the finite element method is adopted to make the active B-spline curve converge towards the target curve without the need of data points parameterization. A strategy of automatic control point insertion during the B-spline active contour deformation, adaptive to the shape of the planar curve, is also given. Experimental results show that this method is efficient and accurate in planar curve approximation.

  8. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Mor; Debangsu Roy; Moty Schultz; Lior Klein

    2016-01-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make ...

  9. Plasmonic rod dimers as elementary planar chiral meta-atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Chigrin, Dmitry N

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic response of metallic rod dimers is theoretically calculated for arbitrary planar arrangement of rods in the dimer. It is shown that dimers without an in-plane symmetry axis exhibit elliptical dichroism and act as "atoms" in planar chiral metamaterials. Due to a very simple geometry of the rod dimer, such planar metamaterials are much easier in fabrication than conventional split-ring or gammadion-type structures, and lend themselves to a simple analytical treatment based on coupled dipole model. Dependencies of metamaterial's directional asymmetry on the dimer's geometry are established analytically and confirmed in numerical simulations.

  10. Reversible large amplitude planar extension of soft elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    The newly developed planar elongation fixture, designed as an add-on to the filament stretch rheometer, is used to measure reversible large amplitude planar elongation on soft elastomers. The concept of the new fixture is to elongate an annulus by keeping the perimeter constant. The deformation....... In particular it is observed that this new approximation reproduces the order of magnitude of the deformation on the cylindrical probe. In fact it is demonstrated that the deviation from an ideal planar extension of the cylindrical probe is highly sensitive towards the choice of strain tensor. When analyzing...

  11. Preliminary assessment of the impact of long-term fire treatments on in situ soil hydrology in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Riddell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been significant attention focused on the impacts of fire frequency and season of burn on ecological processes in the Kruger National Park (KNP. Whilst there has been some examination of these fire effects on soil properties, the explicit linkages of these effects to the hydrology of soils in burnt areas has remained a gap in our understanding. During August 2010, a field scoping campaign was undertaken to assess the impacts, if any, of long-term fire treatments on the hydrology of soils on the experimental burn plots (EBPs in the KNP. Using various hydrometric and soil physical characterisation instruments soil, hydraulic conductivity and soil strength variations were determined across the extreme fire treatment on the EBPs, the annual August (high fire frequency plots and the control (no burn plots, on both the granite and basalt geologies of Pretoriuskop and Satara, respectively. It was found that there were soil hydrological and structural differences to fire treatments on the basalt burn plots, but that these were not as clear on the granite burn plots. In particular, hot, frequent fires appeared to reduce the variation in soil hydraulic conductivity on the annual burn plots on the basalts and led to reduced cohesive soil strength at the surface.Conservation implications: The KNP burn plots are one of the longest running and well studied fire experiments on African savannahs. However, the impacts of fire management on hydrological processes in these water-limited ecosystems remains a gap in our understanding and needs to be considered within the context of climate and land-use changes in the savannah biome.

  12. Possible Impact of 190G > A CCR2 and Δ32 CCR5 Mutations on Decrease of the HBV Vaccine Immunogenicity—A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Drozd-Dąbrowska, Marzena; Adler, Grażyna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chemokine genetic variations are involved in infectious diseases such as hepatitis B virus (HBV). Several allelic variants might, in theory, affect the outcome of vaccination. Objectives: This study was carried out to examine the associations of Δ32 CCR5 and 190G > A CCR2 polymorphisms with a response to a primary course of three HBV vaccinations. Methods: Between December 2014 and December 2016, patients from three randomly selected primary care clinics in the West Pomeranian region (Poland), 1 month after receiving the third dose of HBV vaccine, were enrolled. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system version 3.0 was used to detect anti-HBs and anti-HBc totals. The identification of polymorphisms were performed by a polymerase chain reaction technique using a single primer extension assay. Genotype distributions of responders versus non-responders to HBV vaccination were compared on the basis of anti-HBs level. Results: In 149 patients (mean age 60 years) the mean anti-HBs level was 652.2 ± 425.9 mIU/mL (range: 0–1111.0 mIU/mL). There were 14.1% (n = 21) non-responders to the HBV vaccine (anti-HBs anti-HBs levels in Δ32/Δ32 homozygotes were observed (Me = 61 mIU/mL vs. Me = 660.2 mIU/mL; p = 0.048). As age was found to be a correlate to the anti-HBs titer (r = −0.218, p = 0.0075; 95% CI: −0.366–−0.059)—an analysis of a co-variance was performed which found a statistically significant (p = 0.04) difference in anti-HBs titres between Δ32/Δ32 homozygotes and other CCR5 genotypes. The association between anti-HBs titres and CCR2 genotypes was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study—which is a preliminary report that suggest this topic deserves further observation with larger sample sizes, different ethnicities, and other single nucleotide poly-morphisms (SNPs)—suggests the possible involvement of CCR5 polymorphism in impairing the immunologic response to HBV vaccination, predominantly in relation to the passage

  13. The effectiveness of a group-based acceptance and commitment additive therapy on rehabilitation of female outpatients with chronic headache: preliminary findings reducing 3 dimensions of headache impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo'tamedi, Hadi; Rezaiemaram, Payman; Tavallaie, Abaas

    2012-01-01

    Examine whether acceptance and commitment additive therapy is effective in reducing the experience of sensory pain, disability, and affective distress because of chronic headache in a sample of outpatient Iranian females. Chronic headaches have a striking impact on sufferers in terms of pain, disability, and affective distress. Although several Acceptance and Commitment Therapy outcome studies for chronic pain have been conducted, their findings cannot be completely generalized to chronic headaches because headache-related treatment outcome studies have a different emphasis in both provision and outcomes. Moreover, the possible role of Iranian social and cultural contexts and of gender-consistent issues involved in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy outcomes deserve consideration. This study used a randomized pretest-post-test control group design. The sample was selected from consecutive female outpatients with chronic headache, attending and/or referred to a headache clinic in a governmental hospital from April 2011 to June 2011. In total, 80 female outpatients were interviewed, and after implementing inclusion/exclusion criteria, thirty females were considered eligible to participate in the study. Half (n = 15) were randomly selected to participate in the treatment group. Four participants of this group failed to complete the treatment sessions (n = 11). The Acceptance and Commitment Therapy group received the medical treatment as usual and 8 sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. The other half (n = 15) served as the control group that received only medical treatment as usual. The short form of McGill pain questionnaire, the migraine disability assessment scale, and the trait subscale of the state-trait anxiety inventory were administered, which operationalized 3 dimensions of impact of chronic headache, sensory pain, disability, and emotional distress, respectively, to explore the impact of recurrent headache episodes. Pretest and post

  14. Feasibility and preliminary results of SPECT/CT arthrography of the wrist in comparison with MR arthrography in patients with suspected ulnocarpal impaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, Klaus [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Kantonsspital Luzern, Roentgeninstitut/Nuklearmedizin, Luzern (Switzerland); Steurer-Dober, Isabelle; Huellner, Martin W.; Sol Perez Lago, Maria del; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Tornquist, Katharina [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Silva, Angela J. da [Advanced Molecular Imaging, Philips Healthcare, San Jose, CA (United States); Bodmer, Elvira; Wartburg, Urs von; Hug, Urs [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Division of Hand and Plastic Surgery, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and performance of SPECT/CT arthrography of the wrist in comparison with MR arthrography in patients with suspected ulnocarpal impaction. This prospective study included 28 wrists of 27 patients evaluated with SPECT/CT arthrography and MR arthrography. Iodine contrast medium and gadolinium were injected into the distal radioulnar and midcarpal joints. Late-phase SPECT/CT was performed 3.5 h after intravenous injection of approximately 650 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-DPD. MR and SPECT/CT images were separately reviewed in relation to bone marrow oedema, radionuclide uptake, and tears in the scapholunate (SL) and lunotriquetral (LT) ligaments and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), and an overall diagnosis of ulnar impaction. MR, CT and SPECT/CT imaging findings were compared with each other, with the surgical findings in 12 patients and with clinical follow-up. The quality of MR arthrography and SPECT/CT arthrography images was fully diagnostic in 23 of 28 wrists (82 %) and 25 of 28 wrists (89 %), respectively. SPECT/CT arthrography was not diagnostic for ligament lesions due to insufficient intraarticular contrast in one wrist. MR and SPECT/CT images showed concordant findings regarding TFCC lesions in 22 of 27 wrists (81 %), SL ligament in 22 of 27 wrists (81 %) and LT ligament in 23 of 27 wrists (85 %). Bone marrow oedema on MR images and scintigraphic uptake were concordant in 21 of 28 wrists (75 %). MR images showed partial TFCC defects in four patients with normal SPECT/CT images. MR images showed bone marrow oedema in 4 of 28 wrists (14 %) without scintigraphic uptake, and scintigraphic uptake was present without MR bone marrow oedema in three wrists (11 %). Regarding diagnosis of ulnar impaction the concordance rate between CT and SPECT/CT was 100 % and reached 96 % (27 of 28) between MR and SPECT/CT arthrography. The sensitivity and specificity of MR, CT and SPECT/CT arthrography were 93 %, 100 % and 100 %, and 93 %, 93 % and 93

  15. Transfer matrix representation for periodic planar media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, A.; Ghiringhelli, G. L.

    2016-06-01

    Sound transmission through infinite planar media characterized by in-plane periodicity is faced by exploiting the free wave propagation on the related unit cells. An appropriate through-thickness transfer matrix, relating a proper set of variables describing the acoustic field at the two external surfaces of the medium, is derived by manipulating the dynamic stiffness matrix related to a finite element model of the unit cell. The adoption of finite element models avoids analytical modeling or the simplification on geometry or materials. The obtained matrix is then used in a transfer matrix method context, making it possible to combine the periodic medium with layers of different nature and to treat both hard-wall and semi-infinite fluid termination conditions. A finite sequence of identical sub-layers through the thickness of the medium can be handled within the transfer matrix method, significantly decreasing the computational burden. Transfer matrices obtained by means of the proposed method are compared with analytical or equivalent models, in terms of sound transmission through barriers of different nature.

  16. Analytical response function for planar Ge detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Juan A.; Maidana, Nora L.; Vanin, Vito R.; Fernández-Varea, José M.

    2016-04-01

    We model the response function (RF) of planar HPGe x-ray spectrometers for photon energies between around 10 keV and 100 keV. The RF is based on the proposal of Seltzer [1981. Nucl. Instrum. Methods 188, 133-151] and takes into account the full-energy absorption in the Ge active volume, the escape of Ge Kα and Kβ x-rays and the escape of photons after one Compton interaction. The relativistic impulse approximation is employed instead of the Klein-Nishina formula to describe incoherent photon scattering in the Ge crystal. We also incorporate a simple model for the continuous component of the spectrum produced by the escape of photo-electrons from the active volume. In our calculations we include external interaction contributions to the RF: (i) the incoherent scattering effects caused by the detector's Be window and (ii) the spectrum produced by photo-electrons emitted in the Ge dead layer that reach the active volume. The analytical RF model is compared with pulse-height spectra simulated using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code.

  17. Planar photonic crystal waveguides in silicon oxynitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haoling; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo;

    Most work on planar photonic crystals has been performed on structures based on semiconducting crystals such as Si and III-V compounds. Due to the high index contrast between the host material and the air holes (e.g., Si has n = 3.5), these structures exhibit a large photonic band gap. However......ON glasses with different indices between 1.46 and 1.77 and we are currently fabricating photonic crystals in SiON on a silica buffer layer on Si. Simulations show that a complete band gap can indeed be created for TE-polarised light in the SiON structures, making them promising candidates for new photonic......, at visible wavelengths they absorb light very strongly. In contrary, silicon oxynitride (SiON) glasses offer high transparency down to blue and ultraviolet wavelengths. Thus, SiON photonic crystal waveguides can open for new possibilities, e.g., within sensing and life sciences. We have fabricated Si...

  18. Designing Planar Deployable Objects via Scissor Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Wang, Shiwei; Chen, Xuejin; Ding, Chao; Jiang, Luo; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Ligang

    2016-02-01

    Scissor structure is used to generate deployable objects for space-saving in a variety of applications, from architecture to aerospace science. While deployment from a small, regular shape to a larger one is easy to design, we focus on a more challenging task: designing a planar scissor structure that deploys from a given source shape into a specific target shape. We propose a two-step constructive method to generate a scissor structure from a high-dimensional parameter space. Topology construction of the scissor structure is first performed to approximate the two given shapes, as well as to guarantee the deployment. Then the geometry of the scissor structure is optimized in order to minimize the connection deflections and maximize the shape approximation. With the optimized parameters, the deployment can be simulated by controlling an anchor scissor unit. Physical deployable objects are fabricated according to the designed scissor structures by using 3D printing or manual assembly. We show a number of results for different shapes to demonstrate that even with fabrication errors, our designed structures can deform fluently between the source and target shapes.

  19. MPACVD processing technologies for planar integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Chung; Boudreau, Robert A.; Bowen, Terry P.

    1998-06-01

    Optical circuits based on low-loss glass waveguide are the practical and promising approaches to integrate different functional components for optical communication system. Microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition produces superior quality, low birefringence, low-loss, planar waveguides for integrated optical devices. A microwave plasma initiates the chemical vapor of SiCl4, GeCl4 and oxygen. A Ge-doped silica layer thus deposited on the substrates with reasonable high growth rate. Film properties are based on various parameters, such as chemical flow rates, chamber pressure and temperature, power level and injector design. The main emphasis has been on optimizing the deposition parameters and reproducibility. An uniform, low-loss film can be made by properly balancing the precursor flows. The refractive index of deposited film can also be controlled by adjusting the flow ratio of SiCl4 and GeCl4 bubblers. Deposited films was characterized by prism coupler, loss measurement, residual stress, and composition analysis. The resulted refractive index step can be varied between 1.46 to 1.60. Waveguide can be fabricated with any desired refractive index profile. Standard photolithography defines the waveguide pattern on mask layer. Core layer was remove by the plasma dry etch which has been investigated by both reactive ion etch (RIE) and inductively coupled plasma etch. Etch rate of 3000-4000 angstrom/min has been achieved by using ICP compared to typical etch rate of 200-300 angstrom/min by using conventional RIE.

  20. Planar rotary motor using ultrasonic horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Chang, Zensheu; Geiyer, Daniel; Allen, Phillip; Ostlund, Patrick; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-04-01

    One of the first piezoelectric motor designs with significant rotational speeds was outlined by Barth. This device used extensional piezoelectric elements to produce a time varying force at a distance r from the center of a centrally supported disk. These extensional actuators produced micro-steps at a high frequency with the end result being macroscopic rotation of the disk and high torque. The rotation direction is controlled by the choice of the actuators and the direction of the extension about the rotor center. A recent advancement in producing pre-stressed power ultrasonic horns using flexures allows for the development of high torque ultrasonic motors based on the Barth's idea that can be fabricated in a 2D plate or in more complicated 3D structures. In addition to the pre-stress flexures the design also allows for the use of flexures to produce the rotor/horn normal force. The torque can be controlled by the number of actuators in the plane and the amplitude of the normal force. This paper will present analytical and experimental results obtained from testing prototype planar motors.

  1. Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiqi; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-11-01

    In adult mammalian testes, spermatogenesis is comprised of several discrete cellular events that work in tandem to support the transformation and differentiation of diploid spermatogonia to haploid spermatids in the seminiferous epithelium during the seminiferous epithelial cycle. These include: self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells via mitosis and their transformation into differentiated spermatogonia, meiosis I/II, spermiogenesis and the release of sperms at spermiation. Studies have shown that these cellular events are under precise and coordinated controls of multiple proteins and signaling pathways. These events are also regulated by polarity proteins that are known to confer classical apico-basal (A/B) polarity in other epithelia. Furthermore, spermatid development is likely supported by planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins since polarized spermatids are aligned across the plane of seminiferous epithelium in an orderly fashion, analogous to hair cells in the cochlea of the inner ear. Thus, the maximal number of spermatids can be packed and supported by a fixed population of differentiated Sertoli cells in the limited space of the seminiferous epithelium in adult testes. In this review, we briefly summarize recent findings regarding the role of PCP proteins in the testis. This information should be helpful in future studies to better understand the role of PCP proteins in spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical refocusing of planar samples unlimited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Týč, Matěj; Chmelík, Radim

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the issue of numerical refocusing and its limits using the linear systems theory.Numerical refocusing is a well-known technique allowing looking above and below the focal plane of a sample in a manner similar to mechanically refocusing, but it can be used off-line. The most common implementation of this method is multiplication of angular spectrum of the recorded complex amplitude by the Fresnel propagating function. However, this approach is correct only in the case when monochromatic and spatially coherent illumination is used. Therefore it is not generally usable. If we concern ourselves with planar samples, we can afford to go into more details and we can perform the refocusing correctly, providing that we know imaging properties of the system in form of its transfer function. For instance, if we record the wave at a certain position, we can refocus as far as we want without introducing any error of this kind. Moreover, if we work with a binary approximation of the transfer function, we can derive a more general propagator that can be used to refocus under incoherent illumination with much more accurate results.

  3. Planar Hall magnetoresistive aptasensor for thrombin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, B; Ramulu, T S; Kim, K W; Venu, R; Lee, J J; Kim, C G

    2014-09-15

    The use of aptamer-based assays is an emerging and attractive approach in disease research and clinical diagnostics. A sensitive aptamer-based sandwich-type sensor is presented to detect human thrombin using a planar Hall magnetoresistive (PHR) sensor in cooperation with superparamagnetic labels. A PHR sensor has the great advantages of a high signal-to-noise ratio, a small offset voltage and linear response in the low-field region, allowing it to act as a high-resolution biosensor. In the system presented here, the sensor has an active area of 50 µm × 50 µm with a 10-nm gold layer deposited onto the sensor surface prior to the binding of thiolated DNA primary aptamer. A polydimethylsiloxane well of 600-µm radius and 1-mm height was prepared around the sensor surface to maintain the same specific area and volume for each sensor. The sensor response was traced in real time upon the addition of streptavidin-functionalized magnetic labels on the sensor. A linear response to the thrombin concentration in the range of 86 pM-8.6 µM and a lower detection limit down to 86 pM was achieved by the proposed present method with a sample volume consumption of 2 µl. The proposed aptasensor has a strong potential for application in clinical diagnosis.

  4. Polymer hybrid materials for planar optronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Martin; Prucker, Oswald; Rühe, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Planar optronic systems made entirely from polymeric functional materials on polymeric foils are interesting architectures for monitoring and sensing applications. Key components in this regard are polymer hybrid materials with adjustable optical properties. These materials can then be processed into optical components such as waveguides for example by using embossing techniques. However, the resulting microstructures have often low mechanical or thermal stability which quickly leads to a degradation of the microstructures accompanied often by a complete loss of function. A simple and versatile way to increase the thermal and mechanical stability of polymers is to connect the individual chains to a polymer network by using thermally or photochemically reactive groups. Upon excitation, these groups form reactive intermediates such as radicals or nitrenes which then crosslink with adjacent C-H-groups through a C,H insertion reaction (CHic = C,H insertion based crosslinking). To generate waveguide structures a PDMS stamp is filled with the waveguide core material e.g. poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), which is modified with a few mol% of the thermal crosslinker and hot embossed onto a foil substrate e.g. PMMA. In this one-step hot embossing process polymer ridge waveguides are formed and simultaneously the polymer becomes crosslinked. Due to the reaction across the boundary between waveguide and substrate it is also possible to combine initially incompatible polymers for the waveguide and the substrate foil. The thermomechanical properties of the obtained materials are studied.

  5. Spanning Forests on Random Planar Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Caracciolo, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The generating function for spanning forests on a lattice is related to the q-state Potts model in a certain q -> 0 limit, and extends the analogous notion for spanning trees, or dense self-avoiding branched polymers. Recent works have found a combinatorial perturbative equivalence also with the (quadratic action) O(n) model in the limit n -> -1, the expansion parameter t counting the number of components in the forest. We give a random-matrix formulation of this model on the ensemble of degree-k random planar lattices. For k = 3, a correspondence is found with the Kostov solution of the loop-gas problem, which arise as a reformulation of the (logarithmic action) O(n) model, at n = -2. Then, we show how to perform an expansion around the t = 0 theory. In the thermodynamic limit, at any order in t we have a finite sum of finite-dimensional Cauchy integrals. The leading contribution comes from a peculiar class of terms, for which a resummation can be performed exactly.

  6. Development of cofired type planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Zhou, Hua-Bing [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We have developed fabrication process for planar SOFC fabricated with cofired anode/electrolyte/cathode multilayers and interconnects. By cofiring technique for the multilayers, we expect to reduce the thickness of the electrolyte layers, resulting in decrease of innerimpedance, and achieve low production cost. On the other hand, the cofiring technique requires that the sintering temperature, the shrinkage profiles and the thermal expansion characteristics of all component materials should be compatible with the other. It is, therefore, difficult to cofire the multilayers with large area. Using the multilayers with surface area of 150cm{sup 2}, we fabricated the multiple cell stacks. The maximum power of 5x4 multiple cell stack (5 planes of cells in series, 4 cells in parallel in each planes 484cm{sup 2} effective electrode area of each cell planes) was 601W (0.25Wcm{sup -2}, Uf=40%). However, the terminal voltage of the multiple cell stack decreased by the cause of cell cracking, gas leakage and degradation of cofired multilayers. This paper presents the improvements of cofired multilayers, and the performance of multiple cell stacks with the improved multilayers.

  7. Carbon dioxide capture by planar (AlN)n clusters (n=3-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chen; Wang, Chong

    2017-09-26

    Searching for materials and technologies of efficient CO2 capture is of the utmost importance to reduce the CO2 impact on the environment. Therefore, the (AlN)n clusters (n = 3-5) are researched using density functional theoretical calculations. The results of the optimization show that the most stable structures of (AlN)n clusters all display planar configurations at B3LYP and G3B3 methods, which are consistent with the reported results. For these planar clusters, we further systematically studied their interactions with carbon dioxide molecules to understand their adsorption behavior at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level, including geometric optimization, binding energy, bond index, and electrostatic. We found that the planar structures of (AlN)n (n = 3-5) can capture 3-5 CO2 molecules. The result indicates that (AlN)n (n = 3-5) clusters binding with CO2 is an exothermic process (the capture of every CO2 molecule on (AlN)n clusters releases at least 30 kcal mol(-1) in relative free energy values). These analysis results are expected to further motivate the applications of clusters to be efficient CO2 capture materials.

  8. Amplitude Tapers for Planar Arrays Using the McClellan Transformation: Concepts and Preliminary Design Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    transformation: a phase-only prototype transforms to a two-dimensional taper that lacks the phase-only property. A straightforward IEEE Xplore subject search...A 2-D FIR filter structure derived from the Chebyshev recursion,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 372–378, July 1977. [Online...transformations for two-dimensional digital filtering—Part I: Design,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems, 3It is odd to associate the term “recursion” with FIR

  9. Droplet impact patterns on inclined surfaces with variable properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Michael; Neitzel, G. Paul; Smith, Marc K.

    2014-11-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis is used in the investigation of a crime scene to infer the impact velocity and size of an impacting droplet and, from these, the droplet's point and cause of origin. The final pattern is the result of complex fluid mechanical processes involved in the impact and spreading of a blood drop on a surface coupled with the wetting properties of the surface itself. Experiments have been designed to study these processes and the resulting patterns for the case of a single Newtonian water droplet impacting a planar, inclined surface with variable roughness and wetting properties. Results for Reynolds numbers in the range of (9,000 - 27,000) and Weber numbers in the range of (300 - 2,600) will be presented. Transient video images and final impact patterns will be analyzed and compared with results from traditional bloodstain pattern-analysis techniques used by the forensics community. In addition, preliminary work with a new Newtonian blood simulant designed to match the viscosity and surface tension of blood will be presented. Supported by the National Institute of Justice.

  10. The impact of e-Procurement practice in Indonesia government: A Preliminary Study (The case of Electronic Procurement Service at Bekasi District)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candra, S.; E Gunawan, F.

    2017-01-01

    In digital economy, government of Indonesia uses the internet to deliver services and to communicate with citizens and organizations. One of applications are e-Procurement and LPSE is a unit to hold the service system of e-Procurement. Procurement of goods and services electronically in addition will increase transparency and accountability, improve market access and healthy competition, as well as improving the efficiency of the procurement process. Based on the background and specific objectives to be achieved, then the research will be viewed from e-Marketplace participation, Trust and its impact on the performance of existing procurement within the institution. Methods of data analysis used in this research is by using analysis of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) by using the program Partial Least Square (PLS) to examine the relationship between variables. The population used in this study is an enterprise as well as other clients using the system LPSE Bekasi District. There are three part in this study population, namely the provision of a company, customer, and supplier of LPSE users amounted to 60 users. From data analysis, there are one hypothesis that rejected. The implication of this study are implementation of e-procurement and e-marketplace participation giving impact to procurement performance.

  11. Preliminary Assessment of the Impact on Reactor Vessel dpa Rates Due to Installation of a Proposed Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Core in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, Charles R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    An assessment of the impact on the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) reactor vessel (RV) displacements-per-atom (dpa) rates due to operations with the proposed low enriched uranium (LEU) core described by Ilas and Primm has been performed and is presented herein. The analyses documented herein support the conclusion that conversion of HFIR to low-enriched uranium (LEU) core operations using the LEU core design of Ilas and Primm will have no negative impact on HFIR RV dpa rates. Since its inception, HFIR has been operated with highly enriched uranium (HEU) cores. As part of an effort sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conversion to LEU cores is being considered for future HFIR operations. The HFIR LEU configurations analyzed are consistent with the LEU core models used by Ilas and Primm and the HEU balance-of-plant models used by Risner and Blakeman in the latest analyses performed to support the HFIR materials surveillance program. The Risner and Blakeman analyses, as well as the studies documented herein, are the first to apply the hybrid transport methods available in the Automated Variance reduction Generator (ADVANTG) code to HFIR RV dpa rate calculations. These calculations have been performed on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Institutional Cluster (OIC) with version 1.60 of the Monte Carlo N-Particle 5 (MCNP5) computer code.

  12. The dynamic model on the impact of biodiesel blend mandate (B5) on Malaysian palm oil domestic demand: A preliminary finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi; Sapiri, Hasimah

    2014-12-01

    Over the last ten years, world biofuels production has increased dramatically. The biodiesel demand is driven by the increases in fossil fuel prices, government policy mandates, income from gross domestic product and population growth. In the European Union, biofuel consumption is mostly driven by blending mandates in both France and Germany. In the case of Malaysia, biodiesel has started to be exported since 2006. The B5 of 5% blend of palm oil based biodiesel into diesel in all government vehicles was implemented in February 2009 and it is expected to be implemented nationwide in the nearest time. How will the blend mandate will project growth in the domestic demand of palm oil in Malaysia? To analyze this issue, a system dynamics model was constructed to evaluate the impact of blend mandate implementation on the palm oil domestic demand influence. The base run of simulation analysis indicates that the trend of domestic demand will increase until 2030 in parallel with the implementation of 5 percent of biodiesel mandate. Finally, this study depicts that system dynamics is a useful tool to gain insight and to experiment with the impact of changes in blend mandate implementation on the future growth of Malaysian palm oil domestic demand sector.

  13. Power-Law Scaling of the Impact Crater Size-Frequency Distribution on Pluto: A Preliminary Analysis Based on First Images from New Horizons' Flyby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholkmann F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent (14 th July 2015 flyby of NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft of the dwarf planet Pluto resulted in the first high-resolution images of the geological surface- features of Pluto. Since previous studies showed that the impact crater size-frequency distribution (SFD of different celestial objects of our solar system follows power-laws, the aim of the present analysis was to determine, for the first time, the power-law scaling behavior for Pluto’s crater SFD based on the first images available in mid-September 2015. The analysis was based on a high-resolution image covering parts of Pluto’s re- gions Sputnik Planum , Al-Idrisi Montes and Voyager Terra . 83 impact craters could be identified in these regions and their diameter ( D was determined. The analysis re- vealed that the crater diameter SFD shows a statistically significant power-law scaling ( α = 2.4926±0.3309 in the interval of D values ranging from 3.75±1.14 km to the largest determined D value in this data set of 37.77 km. The value obtained for the scaling coefficient α is similar to the coefficient determined for the power-law scaling of the crater SFDs from the other celestial objects in our solar system. Further analysis of Pluto’s crater SFD is warranted as soon as new images are received from the spacecraft.

  14. Applying a soft-robotic glove as assistive device and training tool with games to support hand function after stroke: Preliminary results on feasibility and potential clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange-Lasonder, Gerdienke B; Radder, Bob; Kottink, Anke I R; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S

    2017-07-01

    Recent technological developments regarding wearable soft-robotic devices extend beyond the current application of rehabilitation robotics and enable unobtrusive support of the arms and hands during daily activities. In this light, the HandinMind (HiM) system was developed, comprising a soft-robotic, grip supporting glove with an added computer gaming environment. The present study aims to gain first insight into the feasibility of clinical application of the HiM system and its potential impact. In order to do so, both the direct influence of the HiM system on hand function as assistive device and its therapeutic potential, of either assistive or therapeutic use, were explored. A pilot randomized clinical trial was combined with a cross-sectional measurement (comparing performance with and without glove) at baseline in 5 chronic stroke patients, to investigate both the direct assistive and potential therapeutic effects of the HiM system. Extended use of the soft-robotic glove as assistive device at home or with dedicated gaming exercises in a clinical setting was applicable and feasible. A positive assistive effect of the soft-robotic glove was proposed for pinch strength and functional task performance 'lifting full cans' in most of the five participants. A potential therapeutic impact was suggested with predominantly improved hand strength in both participants with assistive use, and faster functional task performance in both participants with therapeutic application.

  15. 40 CFR 8.6 - Preliminary environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary environmental review. 8.6 Section 8.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.6 Preliminary environmental review. (a) Unless an...

  16. Fundamental and practical limits of planar tracking solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grede, Alex J; Price, Jared S; Giebink, Noel C

    2016-12-26

    Planar microtracking provides an alternate paradigm for solar concentration that offers the possibility of realizing high-efficiency embedded concentrating photovoltaic systems in the form factor of standard photovoltaic panels. Here, we investigate the thermodynamic limit of planar tracking optical concentrators and establish that they can, in principal, achieve the sine limit of their orientationally-tracked counterparts provided that the receiver translates a minimum distance set by the field of view half-angle. We develop a phase space methodology to optimize practical planar tracking concentrators and apply it to the design of a two surface, catadioptric system that operates with > 90% optical efficiency over a 140° field of view at geometric gains exceeding 1000×. These results provide a reference point for subsequent developments in the field and indicate that planar microtracking can achieve the high optical concentration ratio required in commercial concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  17. Principles of planar near-field antenna measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gregson, Stuart; Parini, Clive

    2007-01-01

    This single volume provides a comprehensive introduction and explanation of both the theory and practice of 'Planar Near-Field Antenna Measurement' from its basic postulates and assumptions, to the intricacies of its deployment in complex and demanding measurement scenarios.

  18. Long-Period Gratings in Planar Optical Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kin; Seng; Chiang

    2003-01-01

    Our progress in the study of long-period gratings (LPGs) in planar optical waveguides is reviewed. In particular, experimental LPGs in glass and polymer waveguides are presented to demonstrate the potential of LPG-based waveguide devices.

  19. Long-Period Gratings in Planar Optical Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kin Seng Chiang

    2003-01-01

    Our progress in the study of long-period gratings (LPGs) in planar optical waveguides is reviewed. In particular,experimental LPGs in glass and polymer waveguides are presented to demonstrate the potential of LPG-based waveguide devices.

  20. Rose solutions with three petals for planar 4-body problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For planar Newtonian 4-body problems with equal masses, we use variational methods to prove the existence of a non-collision periodic choreography solution such that all bodies move on a rose-type curve with three petals.

  1. Optically amplifying planar glass waveguides: Laser on a chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    with UV-light and that permanent Bragg-gratings can be induced. Planar waveguide lasers with integrated Bragg-gratings are manufactured and characterised. It is shown that linewidths below 125 kHz and output powers around 0.5 mW can be obtained, and that the manufactured lasers are resistant to mechanical......The objective of this work was to devlop optically amplifying planar wavguides, using erbium-doped germano-silicate glass films deposited by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition). The waveguides should exhibit enough gain to be useful as optical amplifiers in integrated planar...... lightwave circuits, as well as provide the gain medium for integrated planar waveguide lasers. The work and the obtained results are presented in this thesis: The manufacturing of silica thin films is described and it is shown that the refractive index of the films can be controlled by germanium co...

  2. Estimates on Bloch constants for planar harmonic mappings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Bloch constants for quasiregular harmonic mappings and open planar harmonic mappings are considered. Better estimates are obtained. The results, presented in this paper, improve the one made by Chen et al. and Grigoryan.

  3. Photoacoustic imaging using acoustic reflectors to enhance planar arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Robert; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul; Cox, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Planar sensor arrays have advantages when used for photoacoustic imaging: they do not require the imaging target to be enclosed, and they are easier to manufacture than curved arrays. However, planar arrays have a limited view of the acoustic field due to their finite size; therefore, not all of the acoustic waves emitted from a photoacoustic source can be recorded. This loss of data results in artifacts in the reconstructed photoacoustic image. A detection array configuration which combines a planar Fabry–Pérot sensor with perpendicular acoustic reflectors is described and experimentally implemented. This retains the detection advantages of the planar sensor while increasing the effective detection aperture in order to improve the reconstructed photoacoustic image.

  4. A novel approach to antireflection coating using planar metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhou, Jiangfeng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel antireflection coating using planar metamaterials. It dramatically reduces the reflectance and enhances the transmittance over a wide range of incidence angles for both polarizations near the designed wavelength.

  5. NP-Completeness Results for Minimum Planar Spanners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik Brandes

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available For any fixed parameter t greater or equal to 1, a t-spanner of a graph G is a spanning subgraph in which the distance between every pair of vertices is at most t times their distance in G. A minimum t-spanner is a t-spanner with minimum total edge weight or, in unweighted graphs, minimum number of edges. In this paper, we prove the NP-hardness of finding minimum t-spanners for planar weighted graphs and digraphs if t greater or equal to 3, and for planar unweighted graphs and digraphs if t greater or equal to 5. We thus extend results on that problem to the interesting case where the instances are known to be planar. We also introduce the related problem of finding minimum planar t-spanners and establish its NP-hardness for similar fixed values of t.

  6. Application of Random Ferns for non-planar object detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastov, Alexey; Konovalenko, Ivan; Grigoryev, Anton

    2015-12-01

    The real time object detection task is considered as a part of a project devoted to development of autonomous ground robot. This problem has been successfully solved with Random Ferns algorithm, which belongs to keypoint-based method and uses fast machine learning algorithms for keypoint matching step. As objects in the real world are not always planar, in this article we describe experiments of applying this algorithm for non-planar objects. Also we introduce a method for fast detection of a special class of non-planar objects | those which can be decomposed into planar parts (e.g. faces of a box). This decomposition needs one detector for each side, which may significantly affect speed of detection. Proposed approach copes with it by omitting repeated steps for each detector and organizing special queue of detectors. It makes the algorithm three times faster than naive one.

  7. Coaching to vision versus coaching to improvement needs: a preliminary investigation on the differential impacts of fostering positive and negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anita R

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on intentional change theory (ICT; Boyatzis, 2006), this study examined the differential impact of inducing coaching recipients' vision/positive emotion versus improvement needs/negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions. A core aim of the study was to empirically test two central ICT propositions on the effects of using the coached person's Positive Emotional Attractor (vision/PEA) versus Negative Emotional Attractor (improvement needs/NEA) as the anchoring framework of a onetime, one-on-one coaching session on appraisal of 360° feedback and discussion of possible change goals. Eighteen coaching recipients were randomly assigned to two coaching conditions, the coaching to vision/PEA condition and the coaching to improvement needs/NEA condition. Two main hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis1 predicted that participants in the vision/PEA condition would show higher levels of expressed positive emotion during appraisal of 360° feedback results and discussion of change goals than recipients in the improvement needs/NEA condition. Hypothesis2 predicted that vision/PEA participants would show lower levels of stress immediately after the coaching session than improvement needs/NEA participants. Findings showed that coaching to vision/the PEA fostered significantly lower levels of expressed negative emotion and anger during appraisal of 360° feedback results as compared to coaching to improvements needs/the NEA. Vision-focused coaching also fostered significantly greater exploration of personal passions and future desires, and more positive engagement during 360° feedback appraisal. No significant differences between the two conditions were found in emotional processing during discussion of change goals or levels of stress immediately after the coaching session. Current findings suggest that vision/PEA arousal versus improvement needs/NEA arousal impact the coaching process in quite different ways; that the coach's initial framing of the

  8. NO TRAIN NO GRAIN: THE IMPACT OF INCREASED DEMAND FOR RAIL SERVICES BY THE ENERGY SECTOR ON WHEAT PRICES—A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Villegas Ortiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rail service is often the most cost-effective available alternative for shipping agricultural commodities in the Upper Midwest Region of the United States. The recent energy boom has created new competition for the use of shipping services. As oil has taken up freight space on railways, it has become more costly for farmers in states like Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota to reach grain markets, resulting in millionaire losses. Using oil nearby prices as the proxy, I study three particular effects of increased competition for rail services. First, I use national measures to study the impact of track congestion on wheat basis. Then, I examine how the expansion of the energy sector may have had different effects on prices received by wheat producers in the Midwest and in the Gulf Coast. Finally, I investigate whether the construction of new regional liquid pipeline networks is linked to regional wheat prices

  9. Planar ion-channeling measurements on buried nano-films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selen, LJM; Janssen, FJJ; van IJzendoorn, LJ; de Voigt, MJA; Smulders, PJM; Theunissen, MJJ

    2001-01-01

    Planar MeV ion-channeling measurements on 2.2 nm thick Si1-xGex nano-films buried in Si are presented. The presence of the nano-film leads to a step in the yield of the host crystal in a {0 1 1} planar channeled RBS spectrum. In previous work we showed that with the help of Monte Carlo (MC) simulati

  10. On the maximum number of cycles in a planar graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldred, R.E.L.; Thomassen, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Let G be a graph on p vertices with q edges and let r = q - p + 1. We show that G has at most 15/162(r) cycles. We also show that if G is planar, then G has at most 2(r-1) + o(2(r-1)) cycles. The planar result is best possible in the sense that any prism, that is, the Cartesian product of a cycle...

  11. Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral metamaterials: microscopic explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Zhukovsky, S. V.

    2011-01-01

    Lorentz electron theory is a powerful approach for description of macroscopic parameters of a medium based on microscopic characteristics of the individual electron. For a planar array of chiral metallic split rings, we determine the averaged electron’s characteristics in a sprit ring and apply...... them to derive the permittivity tensor of the homogenized medium. The effective material parameters obtained describe anisotropic dichroic material, where electromagnetic waves are governed by enantiomeric and directional asymmetry – the signature property of planar chiral metamaterials....

  12. Consistency analysis of a nonbirefringent Lorentz-violating planar model

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, Rodolfo; Moreira, Roemir P M

    2011-01-01

    In this work analyze the physical consistency of a nonbirefringent Lorentz-violating planar model via the analysis of the pole structure of its Feynman's propagators. The nonbirefringent planar model, obtained from the dimensional reduction of the CPT-even gauge sector of the standard model extension, is composed of a gauge and a scalar fields, being affected by Lorentz-violating (LIV) coefficients encoded in the symmetric tensor $\\kappa_{\\mu\

  13. Mode structure of planar optical antennas on dielectric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Word, Robert C; Könenkamp, Rolf

    2016-08-08

    We report a numerical study, supported by photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), of sub-micron planar optical antennas on transparent substrate. We find these antennas generate intricate near-field spatial field distributions with odd and even numbers of nodes. We show that the field distributions are primarily superpositions of planar surface plasmon polariton modes confined to the metal/substrate interface. The mode structure provides opportunities for coherent switching and optical control in sub-micron volumes.

  14. Numerical Analysis Of Buckling Of Von Mises Planar Truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A computational algorithm of a discrete model of von Mises planar steel truss is presented. The structure deformation is evaluated by seeking the minimal potential energy. The critical force invented by mathematical solution was compared with solution by computer algorithm. Symmetric and asymmetric effects of initial shape of geometric imperfection of axis of struts are used in model. The shapes of buckling of von Mises planar truss of selected vertical displacement of top joint are shown.

  15. Multiband Terahertz Photonic Band Gaps of Subwavelength Planar Fractals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-Zhong; TIAN Yan; SUN Hong-Qi; ZHANG Cun-Lin; YANG Guo-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Optical transmission properties of subwavelength planar fractals in terahertz (THz) frequency regime are studied by means of time-domain spectroscopy. The transmission spectra with multiple pass bands and stop bands are observed. The tunable photonic band gaps are realized by changing the angle between the principle axis of planar fractal and the polarization of THz wave. The possible application of the subwavelength optical component is discussed. We attribute the detected transmittance from subwavelength fractals to localized resonances.

  16. Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngendakumana, Ancille, E-mail: nancille@yahoo.fr; Todjihoundé, Leonard, E-mail: leonardt@imsp.uac.org [Institut de Mathématiques et des Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Porto-Novo (Benin); Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim, E-mail: kimpaye@kie.ac.rw [Kigali Institute of Education (KIE), Kigali (Rwanda)

    2014-01-15

    Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given.

  17. Planar Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Geiyer, Daniel; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Allen, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    A motor involves a simple design that can be embedded into a plate structure by incorporating ultrasonic horn actuators into the plate. The piezoelectric material that is integrated into the horns is pre-stressed with flexures. Piezoelectric actuators are attractive for their ability to generate precision high strokes, torques, and forces while operating under relatively harsh conditions (temperatures at single-digit K to as high as 1,273 K). Electromagnetic motors (EM) typically have high rotational speed and low torque. In order to produce a useful torque, these motors are geared down to reduce the speed and increase the torque. This gearing adds mass and reduces the efficiency of the EM. Piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds directly without the need for gears. Designs were developed for producing rotary motion based on the Barth concept of an ultrasonic horn driving a rotor. This idea was extended to a linear motor design by having the horns drive a slider. The unique feature of these motors is that they can be designed in a monolithic planar structure. The design is a unidirectional motor, which is driven by eight horn actuators, that rotates in the clockwise direction. There are two sets of flexures. The flexures around the piezoelectric material are pre-stress flexures and they pre-load the piezoelectric disks to maintain their being operated under compression when electric field is applied. The other set of flexures is a mounting flexure that attaches to the horn at the nodal point and can be designed to generate a normal force between the horn tip and the rotor so that to first order it operates independently and compensates for the wear between the horn and the rotor.

  18. Methods for studying planar cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Jessica; Axelrod, Jeffrey D

    2014-06-15

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the polarity of epithelial cells in the plane orthogonal to the apical-basal axis, and is controlled by a partially defined signaling system. PCP related signaling also plays roles in cell migration, tissue re-organization and stem cell differentiation during embryonic development, and later, in regeneration and repair. Aberrant signaling has been linked to a broad range of pathophysiologies including cancer, developmental defects, and neurological disorders. The deepest mechanistic insights have come from studies of PCP in Drosophila. In this chapter we review tools and methods to study PCP signaling in Drosophila epithelia, where it was found to involve asymmetric protein localization that is coordinated between adjacent cells. Such signaling has been most extensively studied in wing, eye, and abdomen, but also in other tissues such as leg and notum. In the adult fly, PCP is manifested in the coordinated direction of hairs and bristles, as well as the organization of ommatidia in the eye. The polarity of these structures is preceded by asymmetric localization of PCP signaling proteins at the apical junctions of epithelial cells. Based on genetic and molecular criteria, the proteins that govern PCP can be divided into distinct modules, including the core module, the Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed (Fat/Ds/Fj) module (often referred to as the 'global' module) as well as tissue specific effector modules. Different tissues and tissue regions differ in their sensitivity to disturbances in the various modules of the PCP signaling system, leading to controversies about the interactions among the modules, and emphasizing the value of studying PCP in multiple contexts. Here, we review methods including those generally applicable, as well as some that are selectively useful for analyses of PCP in eye (including eye discs), wing (including wing discs), pupal and adult abdomen, and the cuticle of larvae and embryos.

  19. Weakly nonlinear simulation of planar stratified flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Michael R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); McCready, Mark J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial behavior of two-fluid, planar flows is studied by numerical integration of weakly-nonlinear amplitude equations derived via eigenfunction expansion of the governing equations. This study extends the range of classic Stuart-Landau theories by the inclusion of a spectrum of modes allowing all possible quadratic and cubic interactions. Results are obtained for four cases where linear and Stuart-Landau theories do not give a complete description; gas-liquid and oil-water pressure driven flow, matched-density liquid-liquid Couette flow, and the region of gas-liquid flow near resonance that switches from supercritical to subcritical. It is found that integration of amplitude equations gives better qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments than Stuart-Landau theory. Further, the distinctively different behaviors of these systems can be understood in terms of the spectrum of nonlinear coefficients. In gas-liquid channel flow a low wave number wave is destabilized through quadratic interaction with the mean flow mode. For liquid-liquid Poiseuille flow, a low wave number wave is destabilized through cubic interactions with higher modes. For depth and viscosity ratios where liquid-liquid Couette flow is unstable to long waves and for which the growth rates are not too large, simulation results predict that the waves grow to a statistically steady state where there is no preferred wave number. Stabilization is provided by an apparently self-similar cascade of energy to higher modes that are linearly stable, explaining why no visible waves occur in experiments done in this region. While Stuart-Landau theory provides no prediction of wave amplitude above criticality for subcritical cases, simulations show that wave saturation at small amplitude is possible and suggests that subcritical predictions may not mean that steady waves do not exist. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Physisorbed Films on Planar and Nonplanar Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, E.

    1990-01-01

    In the case of multilayer liquid films on planar surfaces, we found that the widely used Frenkel-Halsey -Hill theory is the leading term of a many-body expansion of the more general Dzyaloshinskii-Lifshitz-Pitaevskii theory in the nonretardation limit. While the FHH theory is a good approximation in the thin film region, retardation has been shown to be important at thickness d >=q 100 A. A universal behavior of the retardation has also been found. Submonolayer He film on weak-binding substrate surfaces have been found to have unexpected and exciting new features. The weak binding of the substrate potential supports only low density monolayer He films so that the monolayer He solid can be eliminated. Meanwhile, the z -wise delocalization of He atoms reduces the He-He interaction and the lateral binding. It is possible that the 2D liquid film will be eliminated as well and a quasi-2D bose gas is expected. A further possibility is that no He monolayer film at all will be present on a weak-binding substrate. The possibility of using the fractal geometry to describe (global) surface roughness has been investigated. A power-law relation between the coverage and thickness is found on a fractally rough surface, with its exponent determined by the surface fractal dimension. A new and interesting phenomenon has been found: the adsorbed film "defractalizes" the substrate surface; this is observable by small angle x-ray and neutron scattering measurements. Adsorption inside a cylindrical pore and near an oblique corner have also been discussed.

  1. Preliminary simulations of planned experiments to study the impact of trace gases on the capacity of the Weyburn-Midale field to store carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Hao, Y

    2009-11-13

    The CO{sub 2} stream injecting into the Weyburn-Midale field can be generally classified as a reducing stream with residual H{sub 2}S and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons. The composition of the CO{sub 2} gas stream from the Dakota Gasification Company is reported to be 95% CO{sub 2}, 4% hydrocarbons, and 1% H{sub 2}S by volume (Huxley 2006). In addition to the H{sub 2}S introduced at the injection wells, significant concentrations of H{sub 2}S are thought to have been produced in-situ by sulfate reducing bacteria from previous water floods for enhanced oil production. Produced gas compositions range in H{sub 2}S concentrations from 1 to 6 volume percent. The produced gas, including the trace impurities, is re-injected into the field. Although there is no evidence for inorganic reduction of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} to H{sub 2}S at the Weyburn-Midale field, Sitchler and Kazuba (2009) suggest that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} can be inorganically reduced to elemental sulfur in highly reducing environments based on a natural analog study of the Madison Formation in Wyoming. They propose that elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} dissolve anhydrite to produce the sulfate that is then reduced. Oxidizing CO{sub 2} streams with residual O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} typical of streams captured from oxyfuel and post combustion processes are not presently an issue at the Weyburn-Midale field. However it is possible that the oxidizing CO{sub 2} streams may be injected in the future in carbonate reservoirs similar to the Weyburn-Midale field. To date there are few modeling and experimental studies that have explored the impact of impurity gases in CO{sub 2} streams targeted for geologic storage (Gale 2009). Jacquemet et al (2009) reviewed select geochemical modeling studies that explored the impact of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S impurities in the waste streams (Gunter et al., 2000, Knauss et al., 2005, Xu et al., 2007). These studies collectively show that SO{sub 2} significantly reduces the pH when

  2. Automatic scan registration using 3D linear and planar features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian; Ruggeri, Mauro R.; Taddei, Pierluigi; Sequeira, Vítor

    2010-09-01

    We present a common framework for accurate and automatic registration of two geometrically complex 3D range scans by using linear or planar features. The linear features of a range scan are extracted with an efficient split-and-merge line-fitting algorithm, which refines 2D edges extracted from the associated reflectance image considering the corresponding 3D depth information. The planar features are extracted employing a robust planar segmentation method, which partitions a range image into a set of planar patches. We propose an efficient probability-based RANSAC algorithm to automatically register two overlapping range scans. Our algorithm searches for matching pairs of linear (planar) features in the two range scans leading to good alignments. Line orientation (plane normal) angles and line (plane) distances formed by pairs of linear (planar) features are invariant with respect to the rigid transformation and are utilized to find candidate matches. To efficiently seek for candidate pairs and groups of matched features we build a fast search codebook. Given two sets of matched features, the rigid transformation between two scans is computed by using iterative linear optimization algorithms. The efficiency and accuracy of our registration algorithm were evaluated on several challenging range data sets.

  3. Planar waveguide amplifiers and laser in erbium doped silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Kristensen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop optically amplifying planar waveguides, using erbium-doped germano-silicate glass films deposited by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition). The waveguides should exhibit enough gain to be useful as optical amplifiers in integrated planar ligh...... as well as thermal influence. A simple method for producing an array of planar waveguide lasers is presented and it is shown that the difference in output wavelength of the individual lasers can be controlled with great accuracy.......The objective of this work was to develop optically amplifying planar waveguides, using erbium-doped germano-silicate glass films deposited by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition). The waveguides should exhibit enough gain to be useful as optical amplifiers in integrated planar...... fluorescence level. In addition the first measurement of the diffusion coefficient of erbim in silica is presented and it is shown that erbium rich precipitates are formed in areas of high erbium concentration. The manufacturing of planar waveguide structures using RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) is described...

  4. The impact of a large-scale quality improvement programme on work engagement: preliminary results from a national cross-sectional-survey of the 'Productive Ward'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark; Wells, John S G; Butterworth, Tony

    2014-12-01

    Quality improvement (QI) Programmes, like the Productive Ward: Releasing-time-to-care initiative, aim to 'engage' and 'empower' ward teams to actively participate, innovate and lead quality improvement at the front line. However, little is known about the relationship and impact that QI work has on the 'engagement' of the clinical teams who participate and vice-versa. This paper explores and examines the impact of a large-scale QI programme, the Productive Ward, on the 'work engagement' of the nurses and ward teams involved. Using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), we surveyed, measured and analysed work engagement in a representative test group of hospital-based ward teams who had recently commenced the latest phase of the national 'Productive Ward' initiative in Ireland and compared them to a control group of similar size and matched (as far as is possible) on variables such as ward size, employment grade and clinical specialty area. 338 individual datasets were recorded, n=180 (53.6%) from the Productive Ward group, and n=158 (46.4%) from the control group; the overall response rate was 67%, and did not differ significantly between the Productive Ward and control groups. The work engagement mean score (±standard deviation) in the Productive group was 4.33(±0.88), and 4.07(±1.06) in the control group, representing a modest but statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.013, independent samples t-test). Similarly modest differences were observed in all three dimensions of the work engagement construct. Employment grade and the clinical specialty area were also significantly related to the work engagement score (pengagement (the vigour, absorption and dedication) of ward-based teams. The use and suitability of the UWES as an appropriate measure of 'engagement' in QI interventions was confirmed. The engagement of nurses and front-line clinical teams is a major component of creating, developing and sustaining a culture of improvement. Copyright

  5. Delivering both sum and difference beam distributions to a planar monopulse antenna array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2015-12-22

    A planar monopulse radar apparatus includes a planar distribution matrix coupled to a planar antenna array having a linear configuration of antenna elements. The planar distribution matrix is responsive to first and second pluralities of weights applied thereto for providing both sum and difference beam distributions across the antenna array.

  6. China's far below replacement fertility and its long-term impact: Comments on the preliminary results of the 2010 census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government conducted its sixth national census in 2010 and released its major results in April 2011. According to the National Bureau of Statistics the quality of the census was very high. Although the currently released census results consist of limited statistics only, they shed new light on China's recent fertility levels, which have been debated among scholars and policy makers for more than a decade. The 2010 census results, however, also show considerable inconsistencies with those published by the United Nations Population Division recently. This paper will, on the basis of newly published census results and other available evidence, further examine China's recent fertility decline and its impact on the country's long-term development. It will also comment on the major discrepancies between the results of Chinese government recent population projection, the United Nations' World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision and China's 2010 census, and investigate the underlying causes that have led to these differences.

  7. Analysis of Multiple Precipitation Products and Preliminary Assessment of Their Impact on Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Land Surface States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalck, Jon; Meng, Jesse; Rodel, Matt; Houser, paul

    2005-01-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are computer programs, similar to weather and climate prediction models, which simulate the stocks and fluxes of water (including soil moisture, snow, evaporation, and runoff) and energy (including the temperature of and sensible heat released from the soil) after they arrive on the land surface as precipitation and sunlight. It is not currently possible to measure all of the variables of interest everywhere on Earth with sufficient accuracy and space-time resolution. Hence LSMs have been developed to integrate the available observations with our understanding of the physical processes involved, using powerful computers, in order to map these stocks and fluxes as they change in time. The maps are used to improve weather forecasts, support water resources and agricultural applications, and study the Earth's water cycle and climate variability. NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) project facilitates testing of several different LSMs with a variety of input datasets (e.g., precipitation, plant type). Precipitation is arguably the most important input to LSMs. Many precipitation datasets have been produced using satellite and rain gauge observations and weather forecast models. In this study, seven different global precipitation datasets were evaluated over the United States, where dense rain gauge networks contribute to reliable precipitation maps. We then used the seven datasets as inputs to GLDAS simulations, so that we could diagnose their impacts on output stocks and fluxes of water. In terms of totals, the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) had the closest agreement with the US rain gauge dataset for all seasons except winter. The CMAP precipitation was also the most closely correlated in time with the rain gauge data during spring, fall, and winter, while the satellitebased estimates performed best in summer. The GLDAS simulations revealed that modeled soil moisture is highly

  8. Phosphategypsum wastes in Venice lagoon. Radiological impact; Le discariche di fosfogessi nella laguna di Venezia. Valutazioni preliminari dell'impatto radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, M; Blasi, M; Guogang, J.; Rosamilia, S.; Sansone, U. [Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy); Biancotto, R.; Bidoli, P.; Sepulcri, D. [Agenzia Regionale di Prevenzione e Protezione del Veneto, Venice (Italy). Dipt. provinciale di Venezia; Cavolo, F. [Smilax, Mira, VE (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The phosphoric minerals utilized in phosphoric acid production, presents high concentrations of radioactive materials: U238, Th 232, K 40. The phosphogypsum is the waste material obtained in the phosphoric acid production in wet process. This type of production method is employed for many years in Venice lagoon (Porto Marghera chemical plants). In this paper are reported evaluations of radiological impact on aquatic environment of lagoon. [Italian] Con il termine di fosfogessi si intende comunemente il materiale di risulta che si ottiene nella produzione di acido fosforico attraverso la via umida (attacco acido). Questa tipologia di produzione che ha operato per diversi decenni a Porto Marghera, e' finalizzata allo scopo di ottenere acido fosforico principalmente per l'industria dei fertilizzanti e quindi come prodotto intermedio per la chimica e per le preparazioni alimentari. Il fosforo, elemento principale della reazione, era ricavato da rocce fosfatiche di origine sedimentaria marina provenienti per lo piu' dall'Africa settentrionale. Il sistema produttivo utilizzato negli impianti di Porto Marghera era basato su una reazione principale, che partendo dal minerale attraverso un attacco acido, produceva acido fosforico: Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} (Minerale Fosforico) + 3H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (Acido Solforico) + 3H{sub 2}O (Acqua) {yields} 2H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (Acido fosforico) + 3CaSO{sub 4}H{sub 2}O (Solfato di calcio (gesso)). In particolare il minerale era preventivamente macinato e vagliato, quindi si procedeva alla sua miscelazione con l'acido fosforico ed alla successiva reazione del composto ottenuto.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of peptides after high-energy impact on the icy matrix: Preliminary step for further UV-induced formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontareva, Natalia B.; Kuzicheva, Evgenia A.; Shelegedin, Vladimir N.

    2009-04-01

    In the interstellar medium, the most probable source of organic molecules could be non-equilibrium processes driven by photons, cosmic rays, shock waves and solid bodies' collisions. The dense cold phase of ISM host icy dust grains - important chemical catalyst during its life cycle. Such particles consist of mineral core composed by silicate or olivine admixed with metal sulfides and oxides, with the water-icy envelope containing organic molecules. Organic molecules in the ISM evolve and become later incorporated in solar system material (comets and meteorites). The formation of polypeptides from single amino acids was traced in simulation experiments representing the inner structure of icy dust grains. Experimental chamber was irradiated at subzero temperatures at the dosage of 2.54 kRad/min. Solid frozen solutions of Gly and Phe were taken as the experimental samples inserted into the metal tube kept at subzero temperatures in the presence of liquid nitrogen. Formation of di- and tri-peptides was demonstrated after applying mass-spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Having polypeptides within the icy matrix, dust grains with ice mantles are transported to warm, dense and active protostellar regions, where ultraviolet irradiation may become important and alter the grain composition. Furthermore UVC radiation may contribute to the formation of additional amounts of polypeptides, since short-wave photons are totally adsorbed by a thin outer layer. This presumption coincides with our previous investigations concerning UV impact on prebiotic formation of the main biological molecules. Combination of two irradiation types in different stages of interstellar flight could compensate the effects of low reagents concentration and temperature. Since the primordial Earth had no atmosphere, the natural carriers could get freely onto its surface and thus raise the concentration of organic molecules.

  10. Theory on Structure and Coloring of Maximal Planar Graphs (3)Purely Tree-colorable and Uniquely 4-colorable Maximal Planar Graph Conjectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jin

    2016-01-01

    A maximal planar graph is called the recursive maximal planar graph if it can be obtained from 4 K by embedding a 3-degree vertex in some triangular face continuously. The uniquely 4-colorable maximal planar graph conjecture states that a planar graph is uniquely 4-colorable if and only if it is a recursive maximal planar graph. This conjecture, which has 43 years of history, is a very influential conjecture in graph coloring theory after the Four-Color Conjecture. In this paper, the structures and properties of dumbbell maximal planar graphs and recursive maximal planar graphs are studied, and an idea of proving the uniquely 4-colorable maximal planar graph conjecture is proposed based on the extending-contracting operation proposed in this series of article (2).

  11. Impact of the economic crisis on human mobility in Japan : a preliminary note L’impact de la crise économique sur la mobilité humaine au Japon : note préliminaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Ishikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The central aim of this paper is to explore the impact of the global economic crisis on different categories of human mobility, including migration and tourism, in Japan. The major findings can be summarized as follows. First, since the fall of 2008 the crisis has had a far-reaching influence on Japan, for both the ethnic majority and minorities. Second, the intensity of the negative impact has varied by metropolitan areas and nationalities. Japanese nationals in the Tokyo metropolitan area and migrant workers (particularly Brazilians in the Nagoya metropolitan area and central Japan manufacturing prefectures are the most affected population groups. Finally, support programs by the Japanese government were problematic, and, in particular, the program that provided incentives for migrant workers to voluntarily return to their home countries was introduced too late. However, it is too early to clearly elucidate the full impact of the crisis, since the latest available data confirm that the current situation remains in a state of crisis.L’article vise à explorer l’impact de la crise économique mondiale sur différentes catégories de mobilité humaine au Japon, y compris les migrations et le tourisme. Les résultats principaux de l’étude peuvent se résumer comme suit. En premier lieu, depuis l’automne 2008, la crise a eu une influence non négligeable sur le pays, à la fois pour la majorité et pour les minorités ethniques. Ensuite, l’intensité de l’impact négatif a varié selon les zones métropolitaines et les nationalités. Les nationaux de la zone métropolitaine de Tokyo, ainsi que les travailleurs migrants (surtout des Brésiliens de la zone de Nagoya et des préfectures manufacturières du centre sont les groupes les plus touchés. Enfin, les programmes d’aide mis en place par le gouvernement japonais se sont révélés problématiques, en particulier celui qui offrait des incitations au retour volontaire vers les pays

  12. Whole-organ CT perfusion of the pancreas: impact of iterative reconstruction on image quality, perfusion parameters and radiation dose in 256-slice CT-preliminary findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xie

    significant impact on the perfusion parameters of normal pancreas compared to the conventional FBP reconstruction using a 256-slice CT scanner.

  13. The Bath Adolescent Pain--Parental Impact Questionnaire (BAP-PIQ): development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of an instrument to assess the impact of parenting an adolescent with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Abbie; Eccleston, Christopher; McCracken, Lance M; Connell, Hannah; Clinch, Jacqui

    2008-07-31

    When an adolescent has chronic pain many aspects of a parent's life can be affected, including their emotional and social functioning. The assessment of this multidimensional parental impact is an essential, yet often neglected, clinical task. This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Bath Adolescent Pain--Parental Impact Questionnaire (BAP-PIQ), an assessment tool comprising multiple scales thought to be relevant for better understanding changes in functioning and behavior associated with parenting an adolescent with chronic pain. A sample of 194 parents of adolescents with chronic pain, recruited from three UK clinics, completed the 94 item draft inventory. Frequency and item correlation analyses resulted in a final inventory of 62 items. Internal consistency of all eight scales was established based on Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was undertaken by comparison of individual scales with existing validated measures of parental stress, mood, parenting behavior, marital adjustment, and general functioning. The temporal reliability of each scale was established using a sub-sample of 46 participants over a 14-day period. Psychometric evaluation suggests that the inventory yields a reliable and valid assessment of the multiple impacts of parenting an adolescent with chronic pain. The BAP-PIQ may offer a comprehensive assessment of these impacts in both a research and a clinical setting. Further study of the validity of BAP-PIQ scales and their ability to detect clinically meaningful change would be of use. Additional data from samples comprising fathers of adolescents with chronic pain and parents of adolescents with non-musculoskeletal pain would be of benefit.

  14. A study of mesoscale simulations for planar shock experiments on heterogeneous granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Merit G.

    There is an interest in producing accurate and reliable computer simulations to predict the dynamic behavior of heterogeneous materials and to use these simulations to gain further insight into experimental results. In so doing, a more complete understanding of the multiple-length scales involved in heterogeneous material compaction can be obtained. Mesoscale computer simulations of dynamically shocked materials have proven to be a beneficial resource in unraveling data not observed in planar shock impact experiments, such as stress and temperature interactions between grains. The modeled mono-dispersed geometry of particles, the densities of each material, equations of state, material properties and many other factors affect the simulated outcomes. By studying and analyzing these variables, many of which highlight the difference between experimental and simulated results, there manifests additional insight into the shock dynamics of the different heterogeneous granular materials. The heterogeneous materials in this study were created both by a "shake and pack" method, where individual grains were randomly seeded into the computational domain and grown until the grains matched the experimental volume fraction and average diameter. Three planar shock experiments were utilized to validate simulation models and parameters: 1. Brake pad powder compaction at Marquette University, 2. Dry sand experiments at Georgia Tech, and 3. Release of dry sand at Cambridge University. Planar shock impact experiments were simulated using two different hydrocode packages: CTH and iSALE. Validated models are then used to setup future dry, water, and possible ice saturated sand release experiments. Particle velocity and stress traces obtained from the computer simulations were compared to VISAR, PDV, and Manganin gage measurements obtained from experiments. The results from simulations are compared to experiments and discussed in this document.

  15. Anions, quantum particles in planar systems; Anions, particulas quanticas em sistemas planares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monerat, Germano Amaral [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: monerat@if.uff.br

    2000-03-01

    Our purpose here is to present a general review of the non-relativistic quantum-mechanical description of excitations that do not obey neither the Fermi-Dirac nor the Bose-Einstein statistics; they rather fulfill an intermediate statistics, the we called 'any-statistics'. As we shall see, this is a peculiarity of (1+1) and (1+2) dimensions, due to the fact that, in two space dimensions, the spin is not quantised, once the rotation group is Abelian. The relevance of studying theories in (1+2) dimensions is justified by the evidence that, in condensed matter physics, there are examples of planar systems, for which everything goes as if the third spatial dimension is frozen. (author)

  16. Detection of planar polarity proteins in mammalian cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcouquiol, Mireille; Jones, Jennifer M; Sans, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    The "core genes" were identified as a group of genes believed to function as a conserved signaling cassette for the specification of planar polarity in Drosophila Melanogaster, and includes frizzled (fz), van gogh (vang) or strabismus (stbm), prickle (Pk), dishevelled (dsh), flamingo (fmi), and diego. The mutation of each of these genes not only causes the disruption of planar polarity within the wing or the eye of the animal, but also affects the localization of all the other protein members of the core group. These properties emphasize the importance of the interrelations between the proteins of this group. All of these core genes have homologs in vertebrates. Studies in Danio Rerio (zebrafish) and Xenopus laevis (frog) have uncovered other roles for some of these molecules in gastrulation and neurulation, during which the shape of a given tissue will undergo major transformation through cell movements. A disruption in these processes can lead to severe neural tube defects in diverse organisms, including humans. In fact, a large body of evidence suggests that planar polarity proteins are not involved in one specific cascade but in many different ones and many different mechanisms such as, but not limited to, hair or cilia orientation, asymmetric division, cellular movements, or neuronal migration. In mice cochleae, mutations in planar polarity genes lead to defects in the orientation of the stereociliary bundles at the apex of each hair cell. This phenotype established the cochlea as one of the clearest examples of planar polarity in mammals. Although significant progress has been made toward understanding the molecular basis required for the development of planar polarity in invertebrates, similar advances in vertebrates are more recent and rely mainly on the identification of a group of mammalian mutants that affect hair cell stereociliary bundle orientation. These include mutation of vangl2, scrb1, celsr1, PTK-7, dvl1-2, and more recently fz3 and fz6. In this

  17. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  18. Improved Minimum Cuts and Maximum Flows in Undirected Planar Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Italiano, Giuseppe F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study minimum cut and maximum flow problems on planar graphs, both in static and in dynamic settings. First, we present an algorithm that given an undirected planar graph computes the minimum cut between any two given vertices in O(n log log n) time. Second, we show how to achieve the same O(n log log n) bound for the problem of computing maximum flows in undirected planar graphs. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first algorithms for those two problems that break the O(n log n) barrier, which has been standing for more than 25 years. Third, we present a fully dynamic algorithm that is able to maintain information about minimum cuts and maximum flows in a plane graph (i.e., a planar graph with a fixed embedding): our algorithm is able to insert edges, delete edges and answer min-cut and max-flow queries between any pair of vertices in O(n^(2/3) log^3 n) time per operation. This result is based on a new dynamic shortest path algorithm for planar graphs which may be of independent int...

  19. A generalized Beraha conjecture for non-planar graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke, E-mail: jesper.jacobsen@ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Salas, Jesús, E-mail: jsalas@math.uc3m.es [Grupo de Modelización, Simulación Numérica y Matemática Industrial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Grupo de Teorías de Campos y Física Estadística, Instituto Gregorio Millán, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Unidad Asociada al IEM–CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-21

    We study the partition function Z{sub G(nk,k)}(Q,v) of the Q-state Potts model on the family of (non-planar) generalized Petersen graphs G(nk,k). We study its zeros in the plane (Q,v) for 1⩽k⩽7. We also consider two specializations of Z{sub G(nk,k)}, namely the chromatic polynomial P{sub G(nk,k)}(Q) (corresponding to v=−1), and the flow polynomial Φ{sub G(nk,k)}(Q) (corresponding to v=−Q). In these two cases, we study their zeros in the complex Q-plane for 1⩽k⩽7. We pay special attention to the accumulation loci of the corresponding zeros when n→∞. We observe that the Berker–Kadanoff phase that is present in two-dimensional Potts models, also exists for non-planar recursive graphs. Their qualitative features are the same; but the main difference is that the role played by the Beraha numbers for planar graphs is now played by the non-negative integers for non-planar graphs. At these integer values of Q, there are massive eigenvalue cancellations, in the same way as the eigenvalue cancellations that happen at the Beraha numbers for planar graphs.

  20. Distinction between amorphous and healed planar deformation features in shocked quartz using composite color scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, Maartje F.; Pennock, Gill M.; Herwegh, Marco; Drury, Martyn R.

    2016-01-01

    Planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz are one of the most reliable and most widely used forms of evidence for hypervelocity impact. PDFs can be identified in scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images, but not all PDFs show the same CL behavior: there are nonluminescent

  1. Composite modeling method in dynamics of planar mechanical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a composite modeling method of the forward dynamics in general planar mechanical system. In the modeling process, the system dynamic model is generated by assembling the model units which are kinematical determinate in planar mechanisms rather than the body/joint units in multi-body system. A state space formulation is employed to model both the unit and system models. The validation and feasibility of the method are illustrated by a case study of a four-bar mechanism. The advantage of this method is that the models are easier to reuse and the system is easier to reconfigure. The formulation reveals the relationship between the topology and dynamics of the planar mechanism to some extent.

  2. The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps

    CERN Document Server

    Budd, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    We start by studying a peeling process on finite random planar maps with faces of arbitrary degrees determined by a general weight sequence, which satisfies an admissibility criterion. The corresponding perimeter process is identified as a biased random walk, in terms of which the admissibility criterion has a very simple interpretation. The finite random planar maps under consideration were recently proved to possess a well-defined local limit known as the infinite Boltzmann planar map (IBPM). Inspired by recent work of Curien and Le Gall, we show that the peeling process on the IBPM can be obtained from the peeling process of finite random maps by conditioning the perimeter process to stay positive. The simplicity of the resulting description of the peeling process allows us to obtain the scaling limit of the associated perimeter and volume process for arbitrary regular critical weight sequences.

  3. A Glimpse of the Conformal Structure of Random Planar Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curien, Nicolas

    2015-02-01

    We present a way to study the conformal structure of random planar maps. The main idea is to explore the map along an SLE (Schramm-Loewner evolution) process of parameter and to combine the locality property of the SLE6 together with the spatial Markov property of the underlying lattice in order to get a non-trivial geometric information. We follow this path in the case of the conformal structure of random triangulations with a boundary. Under a reasonable assumption called (*) that we have unfortunately not been able to verify, we prove that the limit of uniformized random planar triangulations has a fractal boundary measure of Hausdorff dimension almost surely. This agrees with the physics KPZ predictions and represents a first step towards a rigorous understanding of the links between random planar maps and the Gaussian free field (GFF).

  4. The combinatorics of Green's functions in planar field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch; Patras, Frédéric

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this exposition is to provide a detailed description of the use of combinatorial algebra in quantum field theory in the planar setting. Particular emphasis is placed on the relations between different types of planar Green's functions. The primary object is a Hopf algebra that is naturally defined on variables representing non-commuting sources, and whose coproduct splits into two half-coproducts. The latter give rise to the notion of an unshuffle bialgebra. This setting allows a description of the relation between full and connected planar Green's functions to be given by solving a simple linear fixed point equation. We also include a brief outline of the consequences of our approach in the framework of ordinary quantum field theory.

  5. Organic light-emitting diodes from homoleptic square planar complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omary, Mohammad A

    2013-11-12

    Homoleptic square planar complexes [M(N.LAMBDA.N).sub.2], wherein two identical N.LAMBDA.N bidentate anionic ligands are coordinated to the M(II) metal center, including bidentate square planar complexes of triazolates, possess optical and electrical properties that make them useful for a wide variety of optical and electrical devices and applications. In particular, the complexes are useful for obtaining white or monochromatic organic light-emitting diodes ("OLEDs"). Improved white organic light emitting diode ("WOLED") designs have improved efficacy and/or color stability at high brightness in single- or two-emitter white or monochrome OLEDs that utilize homoleptic square planar complexes, including bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II) ("Pt(ptp).sub.2").

  6. Planar waveguide amplifiers and laser in erbium doped silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Kristensen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop optically amplifying planar waveguides, using erbium-doped germano-silicate glass films deposited by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition). The waveguides should exhibit enough gain to be useful as optical amplifiers in integrated planar...... fluorescence level. In addition the first measurement of the diffusion coefficient of erbim in silica is presented and it is shown that erbium rich precipitates are formed in areas of high erbium concentration. The manufacturing of planar waveguide structures using RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) is described...... and it is shown that sidewall roughness resulting from micro masking by non-volatile reaction products can be minimised through a careful choice of etching parameters. This results in low propagation loss for the fabricated waveguides. It is shown that the achievable population inversion depends on the eribum...

  7. Optically amplifying planar glass waveguides: Laser on a chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    The objective of this work was to devlop optically amplifying planar wavguides, using erbium-doped germano-silicate glass films deposited by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition). The waveguides should exhibit enough gain to be useful as optical amplifiers in integrated planar...... fluoresence level. In addition the first measurement of the diffusion coefficient of erbium in silica is presented and it is shown that eribum rich precipitaties are formed in areas of high erbium concentration. The manufacturing of planar waveguide structures using RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) is described...... and it is shown that sidewall roughness resulting from micro masking by non-volatile reaction products can be minimised through a carful choice of etching parameters. This results in low propagation loss for the fabricated waveguides. It is shown that the achivable population inversion depends on the erbium...

  8. Frontiers in Planar Lightwave Circuit Technology Design, Simulation, and Fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Janz, Siegfried; Tanev, Stoyan

    2005-01-01

    This book is the result of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Frontiers in Planar Lightwave Circuit Technology, which took place in Ottawa, Canada from September 21-25, 2004. Many of the world’s leading experts in integrated photonic design, theory and experiment were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise, and participate in discussions on current research and applications, as well as the new directions planar lightwave circuit technology is evolving towards. The sum of their contributions to this book constitutes an excellent record of many key issues and scientific problems in planar lightwave circuit research at the time of writing. In this volume the reader will find detailed overviews of experimental and theoretical work in high index contrast waveguide systems, micro-optical resonators, nonlinear optics, and advanced optical simulation methods, as well as articles describing emerging applications of integrated optics for medical and biological applications.

  9. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Vladislav; Roy, Debangsu; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior

    2016-02-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  10. Microstructured apertures in planar glass substrates for ion channel research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Niels; George, Michael; Klau, Michèle; Meyer, Christine; Tilke, Armin; Sobotta, Constanze; Blick, Robert H; Behrends, Jan C

    2003-01-01

    We have developed planar glass chip devices for patch clamp recording. Glass has several key advantages as a substrate for planar patch clamp devices. It is a good dielectric, is well-known to interact strongly with cell membranes and is also a relatively in-expensive material. In addition, it is optically neutral. However, microstructuring processes for glass are less well established than those for silicon-based substrates. We have used ion-track etching techniques to produce micron-sized apertures into borosilicate and quartz-glass coverslips. These apertures, which can be easily produced in arrays, have been used for high resolution recording of single ion channels as well as for whole-cell current recordings from mammalian cell lines. An additional attractive application that is greatly facilitated by the combination of planar geometry with the optical neutrality of the substrate is single-molecule fluorescence recording with simultaneous single-channel measurements.

  11. A new planar feed for slot spiral antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurnberger, M. W.; Volakis, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents a new planar, wideband feed network for a slot spiral antenna, and the subsequent design and performance of a VHF antenna utilizing this feed design. Both input impedance and radiation pattern measurements are presented to demonstrate the performance and usefulness of this feed. Almost all previous designs have utilized wire spirals, requiring bulky, non-planar feeds with separate baluns, and large absorbing cavities. The presented slot spiral antenna feed integrates the balun into the structure of the slot spiral antenna, making the antenna and feed planar. This greatly simplifies the design and construction of the antenna, in addition to providing repeatable accuracy. It also allows the use of a very shallow reflecting cavity for conformal applications. Finally, this feeding approach now makes many of the known miniaturization techniques viable options.

  12. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Mor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  13. Composite modeling method in dynamics of planar mechanical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; LIN ZhongQin; LAI XinMin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a composite modeling method of the forward dynamics in general planar mechanical system.In the modeling process,the system dynamic model is generated by assembling the model units which are kinematical determi-nate in planar mechanisms rather than the body/joint units in multi-body system.A state space formulation is employed to model both the unit and system models.The validation and feasibility of the method are illustrated by a case study of a four-bar mechanism.The advantage of this method is that the models are easier to reuse and the system is easier to reconfigure.The formulation reveals the rela-tionship between the topology and dynamics of the planar mechanism to some extent.

  14. Mass transport phenomena during solidification in microgravity; preliminary results of the first Mephisto flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, J. J.; Garandet, J. P.; Rouzaud, A.; Camel, D.

    1994-06-01

    The MEPHISTO space facility flew on the Columbia space shuttle in October 1992. The preliminary scientific results, mainly based on the analysis of the Seebeck signal, are presented in this paper. Valuable information was obtained for both planar and cellular solidification regimes. It is shown that mass transfer in the melt during the flight was principally diffusive; however, even in microgravity, slow growth rates may result in significant convective transport. A tentative interpretation of the Seebeck signal for destabilized interfaces is also proposed.

  15. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: planar images generated from V/Q SPECT are not a reliable substitute for traditional planar V/Q scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Abgral, Ronan; Jaffrelot, Morgan; Delluc, Aurelien; Gut-Gobert, Christophe; Querellou, Solène; Cornily, Jean-Christophe; Le Gal, Grégoire; Salaün, Pierre-Yves

    2012-07-01

    The use of summed planar images generated from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy has been proposed as a substitute for planar V/Q scans in order to use the revised PIOPED interpretation criteria when only SPECT acquisition is performed in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of angular summed planar scans in comparison with true planar images. Patients included in the 'SPECT study' assessing the diagnostic performance of V/Q SPECT were analysed. Angular summed planar images were generated from SPECT acquisition data and compared with true planar scans. Angular summed planar images were successfully generated for 246 patients. Regarding interobserver variability, the interpretation result was different for 15 (6%) summed planar scans with an excellent degree of agreement (κ=0.92; 95% confidence interval 0.88-0.96). With regard to intermodality interpretation variability between conventional planar and angular summed images, the result was different for 63 (26%) of 246 patients with an intermodality degree of agreement of κ=0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.58-0.73). Planar images generated from SPECT V/Q scintigraphy are not a reliable substitute for true planar V/Q images.

  16. On the limit cycles of a quintic planar vector field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the number and distributions of limit cycles in a Z2-equivariant quintic planar vector field.25 limit cycles are found in this special planar polynomial system and four different configurations of these limit cycles are also given by using the methods of the bifurcation theory and the qualitative analysis of the differential equation.It can be concluded that H(5)≥25=52, where H(5)is the Hilbert number for quintic polynomial systems.The results obtained are useful to study the weakened 16th Hilbert problem.

  17. On the limit cycles of a quintic planar vector field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-hai WU; Li-xin TIAN; Mao-an HAN

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the number and distributions of limit cycles in a Z2-equivariant quintic planar vector field. 25 limit cycles are found in this special planar polynomial system and four different configurations of these limit cycles are also given by using the methods of the bifurcation theory and the qualitative analysis of the differential equation. It can be concluded that H(5) ≥ 25 = 52,where H(5) is the Hilbert number for quintic polynomial systems. The results obtained are useful to study the weakened 16th Hilbert problem.

  18. Construction of Aesthetic Spherical Patterns from Planar IFSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhang, Yuting; Chung, K. W.

    2016-07-01

    To construct symmetrical patterns on the unit sphere from the planar iterative function systems (IFSs), we present a method of constructing IFSs with D3 symmetry which is composed of three-fold rotational symmetries together with reflections. An algorithm is developed to generate strange attractors with D3 symmetry on a triangular face and then project it onto the surface of the unit sphere to form aesthetics patterns with spherical symmetry. As an illustrative example, we consider the regular inscribed icosahedron in the unit sphere which contains 20 triangular faces. This method is valid to randomly generate aesthetic spherical patterns using planar IFSs.

  19. Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Hübner, Jörg; Kristensen, Martin;

    1999-01-01

    A singlemode DBR laser is demonstrated in an Er/Al-doped germanosilicate planar waveguide. 0.4 mW of output power has been obtained at 1.553 mu m using internal Bragg reflectors produced by UV-induced index modulations.......A singlemode DBR laser is demonstrated in an Er/Al-doped germanosilicate planar waveguide. 0.4 mW of output power has been obtained at 1.553 mu m using internal Bragg reflectors produced by UV-induced index modulations....

  20. Planar Near-Field Measurements of Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    Planar near-field measurements are formulated for a general ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna. A total plane-wave scattering matrix is defined for the system consisting of the GPR antenna and the planar air-soil interface. The transmitting spectrum of the GPR antenna is expressed in terms...... of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical example in which the scan plane is finite validates the expressions for the spectrum of the GPR antenna....

  1. Modeling Study of Planar Flexible Manipulator Undergoing Large Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The planar flexible manipulator undergoing large deformation is investigated by using finite element method (FEM). Three kinds of reference frames are employed to describe the deformation of arbitrary point in the flexible manipulator, which are global frame, body-fixed frame and co-rotational frame. The rigid-flexible coupling dynamic equation of the planar flexible manipulator is derived using the Hamilton's principle. Numerical simulations are carried out in the end of this paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model is efficient not only for small deformation but also for large deformation.

  2. Planar Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monacoa, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, since the discovery of the Josephson effect in 1962, the magnetic diffraction pattern of planar Josephson tunnel junctions has been recorded with the field applied in the plane of the junction. Here we discuss the static junction properties in a transverse magnetic field where...... demagnetization effects imposed by the tunnel barrier and electrodes geometry are important. Measurements of the junction critical current versus magnetic field in planar Nb-based high-quality junctions with different geometry, size, and critical current density show that it is advantageous to use a transverse...

  3. The Kinematics of Manipulators Built From Closed Planar Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Slutski, Leonid; Angeles, Jorge

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the kinematics of manipulators builts of planar closed kinematic chains. A special kinematic scheme is extracted from the array of these mechanisms that looks the most promising for the creation of different types of robotic manipulators. The structural features of this manipulator determine a number of its original properties that essentially simplify its control. These features allow the main control problems to be effectively overcome by application of the simple kinematic problems. The workspace and singular configurations of a basic planar manipulator are studied. By using a graphic simulation method, motions of the designed mechanism are examined. A prototype of this mechanism was implemented to verify the proposed approach.

  4. On the Kinetostatic Optimization of Revolute-Coupled Planar Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien

    2002-01-01

    Proposed in this paper is a kinetostatic performance index for the optimum dimensioning of planar manipulators of the serial type. The index is based on the concept of distance of the underlying Jacobian matrix to a given isotropic matrix that is used as a reference model for purposes of performance evaluation. Applications of the index fall in the realm of design, but control applications are outlined. The paper focuses on planar manipulators, the basic concepts being currently extended to their three-dimensional counterparts.

  5. I/O-Efficient Dynamic Planar Range Skyline Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejlberg-Rasmussen, Casper; Tsakalidis, Konstantinos; Tsichlas, Kostas

    We present the first fully dynamic worst case I/O-efficient data structures that support planar orthogonal \\textit{3-sided range skyline reporting queries} in $\\bigO (\\log_{2B^\\epsilon} n + \\frac{t}{B^{1-\\epsilon}})$ I/Os and updates in $\\bigO (\\log_{2B^\\epsilon} n)$ I/Os, using $\\bigO (\\frac......O(\\log^{\\bigO(1)}n +t)$ worst case time must occupy $\\Omega(n \\frac{\\log n}{\\log \\log n})$ space, by adapting a similar lower bounding argument for planar 4-sided range reporting queries....

  6. Optimal Kinematic Design of a 2-DOF Planar Parallel Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun; LI Tiemin; LIU Xinjun; WANG Liping

    2007-01-01

    Closed-form solutions were developed to optimize kinematics design of a 2-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) planar parallel manipulator. The optimum design based on the workspace was presented. Meanwhile,a global, comprehensive conditioning index was introduced to evaluate the kinematic designs. The optimal parallel manipulator is incorporated into a 5-DOF hybrid machine tool which includes a 2-DOF rotational milling head and a long movement worktable. The results show that the planar parallel manipulator-based machine tool can be successfully used to machine blades and guide vanes for a hydraulic turbine.

  7. Prediction of a pure-carbon planar covalent metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, V.H.; Benedict, L.X.; Cohen, M.L.; Louie, S.G. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Carbon is well-known as an insulator, a semimetal, a molecular solid, and a one-dimensional semiconductor or low-density-of-states metal. We propose a pure-carbon planar structure composed of pentagons and heptagons that is metallic with a density of states at the Fermi level of {approximately}0.1 state per eV per atom. This structure, planar carbon pentaheptite, is metastable with a total energy per carbon atom comparable to that of C{sub 60}. The structure can be rolled into tubes in a manner similar to graphite. Possible synthetic pathways are discussed. {copyright}{ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. A planar microfabricated electrolyzer for hydrogen and oxygen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.; Myer, B.; Tellefsen, K.; Pau, S.

    We present the design, fabrication and testing of a microfabricated planar reactor for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) using thin film Pt electrodes and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fluidic chamber. The reactor is designed to separate gases by flow dynamics and reactor flow is analyzed by three-dimensional finite element analysis. The planar geometry is scalable, compact and stackable. Using KOH 28 wt% electrolyte, we have achieved a hydrogen generation density of 0.23 kg h -1 m -3 and an efficiency of 48% with a flow rate of 10 ml min -1 and cell voltage of 3 V.

  9. Energy collection efficiency of holographic planar solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jose M; Zhang, Deming; Myer, Brian; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2010-02-10

    We analyze the energy collection properties of holographic planar concentrator systems. The effects of solar variation on daily and annual energy collection are evaluated. Hologram diffraction efficiency, polarization, crosstalk in cascaded elements, and constraints imposed by the radiance theorem, as well as solar illumination characteristics, are considered. A planar holographic solar concentrator configuration is designed and modeled to maximize energy collection efficiency during the course of a year without the need for tracking. Results indicated that nearly 50% of the available energy illuminating hologram areas can be collected by photovoltaic cells without the need of tracking.

  10. Surface Parametrization of Nonsimply Connected Planar B\\'ezier Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Shardt, Orest

    2010-01-01

    A technique is described for constructing three-dimensional vector graphics representations of planar regions bounded by cubic B\\'ezier curves, such as smooth glyphs. It relies on a novel algorithm for compactly partitioning planar B\\'ezier regions into nondegenerate Coons patches. New optimizations are also described for B\\'ezier inside-outside tests and the computation of global bounds of directionally monotonic functions over a B\\'ezier surface (such as its bounding box or optimal field-of-view angle). These algorithms underlie the three-dimensional illustration and typography features of the TeX-aware vector graphics language Asymptote.

  11. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  12. Ray-leakage-free sawtooth-shaped planar lightguide solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Yu; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2013-08-26

    This paper details the design of a ray-leakage-free sawtooth-shaped planar lightguide solar concentrator. The concentrator combines Unger's dimpled planar lightguide solar concentrators [1] with a prism array dimpled planar lightguide solar concentrator. The use of a sawtooth-shaped boundary on the planar lightguide prevents leakages of the guiding ray after multiple reflections in the lightguide. That is, the proposed solar concentrator can achieve a higher geometrical concentration ratio, while maintaining a high optical efficiency at the same time. Numerical results show that the proposed sawtooth-shaped planar lightguide solar concentrator achieves 2300x geometrical concentration ratio without any guiding ray-leakages from the planar lightguide.

  13. Silica-based planar lightwave circuits; Sekieikei planar koha kairogata shusekiko buhin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S. [NTT Opto-Electronics Laboratories, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the latest trend of silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. For the waveguide composing PLC, silica-based waveguides using various dopants based on SiO2 have been positively developed. Silica-based glass is physically and chemically stable, and has a good matching with optical fiber transmitter. The optical branch circuit which branches and meets light is a basically significant part for constructing networks. There are splitter with multiple connected Y-branches, wavelength independent coupler using a Mach-Zender interferometer, and NtimesN star coupler. The optical switch is a basic circuit for switching the optical path of light signal. Arrayed-waveguide grating type branching and meeting circuits are also described. The programmable PLC attracts attention as an advanced PLC for realizing various optical filtration performances. To extend further functions of PLC, hybrid integration of optical function device, such as semiconductor laser, and electrical wiring on the PLC platform is investigated. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Block Copolymer Directed Self-Assembly Approaches for Doping Planar and Non-Planar Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popere, Bhooshan; Russ, Boris; Heitsch, Andrew; Trefonas, Peter; Segalman, Rachel

    As electronic circuits continue to shrink, reliable nanoscale doping of functional devices presents new challenges. While directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) has enabled excellent pitch control for lithography, controlling the 3D dopant distribution remains a fundamental challenge. To this end, we have developed a BCP self-assembly approach to confine dopants to nanoscopic domains within a semiconductor. This relies on the supramolecular encapsulation of the dopants within the core of the block copolymer (PS- b-P4VP) micelles, self-assembly of these micelles on the substrate, followed by rapid thermal diffusion of the dopants into the underlying substrate. We show that the periodic nature of the BCP domains enables precise control over the dosage and spatial position of dopant atoms on the technologically relevant length scales (10-100 nm). Additionally, as the lateral density of 2D circuit elements approaches the Moore's limit, novel 3D architectures have emerged. We have utilized our BCP self-assembly approach towards understanding the self-assembly our micelles directed by such nanoscale non-planar features. We show that the geometric confinement imposed by the hard feature walls directs the assembly of these micelles.

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of Planar Dipole Antenna Integrated with GaAs Based-Schottky Diode for On-chip Electronic Device Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, Farahiyah; Hashim, Abdul Manaf; Parimon, Norfarariyanti; Rahman, Shaharin Fadzli Abd; Rahman, Abdul Rahim Abdul [Material Innovations and Nanoelectronics Research Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Osman, Mohd Nizam [Telekom Research and Development, TM Innovation Centre, 63000 Cyberjaya (Malaysia); Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Hashim, Md Roslan, E-mail: manaf@fke.utm.my [Nano-Optoelectronics Research, Faculty of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The design and RF characteristics of planar dipole antennas facilitated with coplanar waveguide (CPW) structure on semi-insulated GaAs are performed and confirmed to work in super high frequency (SHF) range. As expected, the fundamental resonant frequency shifts to higher frequency when the length of antenna decreases. Interestingly, the resonant frequencies of antenna are almost unchanged with the variation of antenna width and metal thickness. It is shown experimentally that return loss down to -54 dB with a metal thickness of 50 nm is obtainable. Preliminary investigation on design, fabrication, and DC and RF characteristics of the integrated device (planar dipole antenna + Schottky diode) on AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT structure is presented. From the preliminary direct irradiation experiments using the integrated device, the Schottky diode is not turned on due to weak reception of RF signal by dipole antenna. Further extensive considerations on the polarization of irradiation etc. need to be carried out in order to improve the signal reception. These preliminary results provide a new breakthrough for on-chip electronic device application in nanosystems.

  16. Chair foldable from a single sheet of planar material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, T.M.; Jacobs, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a piece of furniture folded from a single sheet of planar material that is made to measure to a predefined contour cut, and that is provided with predefined first fold lines along which the material is bendable into a ready-to-use shape or form of the furniture and wherein s

  17. Analysis and simulation of fully ankle actuated planar bipedal robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, M.C.J.; van Oort, Gijs; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of planar bipedal robots, based on passive dynamic walkers, which are actuated only by actuation of the ankle joints. An overview of the major design characteristics of such robots and their influence on the feasibility of a stable limit cycle is presented. It is

  18. Analysis and simulation of fully ankle actuated planar bipedal robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Michel; Oort, van Gijs; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of planar bipedal robots, based on passive dynamic walkers, which are actuated only by actuation of the ankle joints. An overview of the major design characteristics of such robots and their influence on the feasibility of a stable limit cycle is presented. It is s

  19. Generalised Planar Black Holes and the Holography of Hydrodynamic Shear

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, Brett

    2013-01-01

    AdS black holes with planar event horizon topology play a central role in AdS/CFT holography, and particularly in its applications. Generalisations of the known planar black holes can be found by considering the Plebanski--Demianski metrics, a very general family of exactly specified solutions of the Einstein equations. These generalised planar black holes may be useful in applications. We give a concrete example of this in the context of the holographic description of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). We argue that our generalised planar black holes allow us to construct a model of the internal shearing motion generated when the QGP is produced in peripheral heavy-ion collisions. When embedded in string theory, the bulk physics is in fact unstable. We find however that this instability may develop too slowly to affect the evolution of the plasma, except possibly for high values of the quark chemical potential, such as will be studied in experimental scans of the quark matter phase diagram.

  20. Controllability of a planar inverted pendulum on a cart

    CERN Document Server

    Caiado, M Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Using tools and techniques from geometric control theory, namely Hermann-Nagano theorem, we prove controllability result for a mechanical system consisting of a planar double inverted pendulum fixed to a wheeled cart that can move linearly along a horizontal track.

  1. External Memory Planar Point Location with Logarithmic Updates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2008-01-01

    Point location is an extremely well-studied problem both in internal memory models and recently also in the external memory model. In this paper, we present an I/O-efficient dynamic data structure for point location in general planar subdivisions. Our structure uses linear space to store...

  2. Spontaneous branching of anode-directed streamers between planar electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrayás, M.; Ebert, U.; Hundsdorfer, W.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionized media subject to strong fields can become locally ionized by penetration of finger-shaped streamers. We study negative streamers between planar electrodes in a simple deterministic continuum approximation. We observe that for sufficiently large fields, the streamer tip can split. Th

  3. Chaotic Motion Of A Two-Link Planar Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshin, Anatoly; Zak, Michail A.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses global instability in orbital motion of two-link planar mechanism. Principal objective, contributes to understanding of chaotic motions in robot manipulators and other deterministic mechanical systems. Discussion begins with brief review of previous studies of chaotic motion and introduces notion of orbital instability in nonlinear systems. Introduces geometric approach useful in representation of orbital instability.

  4. Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2010-01-01

    Using terahertz time domain spectroscopy we demonstrate tunable polarization rotation and circular dichroism in intrinsically nonchiral planar terahertz metamaterials without twofold rotational symmetry. The observed effect is due to extrinsic chirality arising from the mutual orientation of the metamaterial plane and the propagation direction of the incident terahertz wave.

  5. Sacrificial wafer bonding for planarization after very deep etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiering, Vincent L.; Berenschot, J.W.; Elwenspoek, Miko; Fluitman, Jan H.J

    1995-01-01

    A new technique is presented that provides planarization after a very deep etching step in silicon. This offers the possibility for resist spinning and layer patterning as well as realization of bridges or cantilevers across deep holes or grooves. The sacrificial wafer bonding technique contains a w

  6. ytterbium- & erbium-doped silica for planar waveguide lasers & amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyndgaard, Morten Glarborg

    2001-01-01

    fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and reactive ion etching (RIE). These processes and the control of the film composition is discussed. Ytterbium doped planar waveguides are demonstrated, and it is shown that codoping with aluminium has a positive influence...

  7. Trenches for building blocks of advanced planar components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiyan, Ou

    2004-01-01

    Trenches are fundamental structures used to build advanced optical planar waveguide components. In this letter, the fabrication of trenches across silica-on-silicon waveguides using inductively coupled plasma etching is presented. These trenches were etched deep into the silicon substrate...

  8. The geometry of inner spanning trees for planar polygons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A [P.G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-30

    We study the geometry of minimal inner spanning trees for planar polygons (that is, spanning trees whose edge-intervals lie in these polygons). We construct analogues of Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations, prove that every minimal inner spanning tree is a subgraph of an appropriate Delaunay triangulation, and describe the possible structure of the cells of such triangulations.

  9. Regularity of the inverse of a planar Sobolev homeomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hencl, Stanislav; Koskela, Pekka; Onninen, Jani

    2007-12-01

    We show that the inverse of a planar homeomorphism of bounded variation is also of bounded variation. In higher dimensions we show that f -1 is of bounded variation provided that f γ W 1,1(Ω; R n ) is a homeomorphism with | Df| in the Lorentz space L n-1,1(Ω).

  10. A nitrate sensitive planar optode; performance and interferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse; Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed nitrate sensitive planar optode. It exhibits a linear response to nitrate from 1 to 50 mM at pH 8.0, a fast response time below 10 s and a good lifetime, allowing for fast two dimensional nitrate measurements over long periods of time. Interference from nitrite...

  11. Homography-based grasp tracking for planar objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carloni, Raffaella; Recatala, Gabriel; Melchiorri, Claudio; Sanz, Pedro J.; Cervera, Enric

    The visual tracking of grasp points is an essential operation for the execution of an approaching movement of a robot arm to an object: the grasp points are used as features for the definition of the control law. This work describes a strategy for tracking grasps on planar objects based on the use

  12. Finite size scaling in the planar Lebwohl-Lasher model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Enakshi; Roy, Soumen Kumar

    2003-06-01

    The standard finite size scaling method for second order phase transition has been applied to Monte Carlo data obtained for a planar Lebwohl-Lasher lattice model using the Wolff cluster algorithm. We obtain Tc and the exponents γ, ν, and z and the results are different from those obtained by other investigators.

  13. Edge choosability of planar graphs without short cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weifan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we prove that if G is a planar graph with △ = 5 and without 4-cycles or 6-cycles, then G is edge-6-choosable. This consequence together with known (△ + 1)-choosable, where△ denotes the maximum degree of G.

  14. Graphene Q-switched Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jun Wan; Choi, Sun Young; Aravazhi, Shanmugam; Pollnau, Markus; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Bae, Sukang; Ahn, Kwang Jun; Yeom, Dong-Il; Rotermund, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    A diode-pumped Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser, single-mode Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with graphene, is demonstrated for the first time. Few-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is transferred onto the top of a guiding layer, which initiates stable Q-switched operation in

  15. Prize-collecting Network Design on Planar Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bateni, MohammadHossein; Marx, Dániel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we reduce Prize-Collecting Steiner TSP (PCTSP), Prize-Collecting Stroll (PCS), Prize-Collecting Steiner Tree (PCST), Prize-Collecting Steiner Forest (PCSF) and more generally Submodular Prize-Collecting Steiner Forest (SPCSF) on planar graphs (and more generally bounded-genus graphs) to the same problems on graphs of bounded treewidth. More precisely, we show any $\\alpha$-approximation algorithm for these problems on graphs of bounded treewidth gives an $(\\alpha + \\epsilon)$-approximation algorithm for these problems on planar graphs (and more generally bounded-genus graphs), for any constant $\\epsilon > 0$. Since PCS, PCTSP, and PCST can be solved exactly on graphs of bounded treewidth using dynamic programming, we obtain PTASs for these problems on planar graphs and bounded-genus graphs. In contrast, we show PCSF is APX-hard to approximate on series-parallel graphs, which are planar graphs of treewidth at most 2. This result is interesting on its own because it gives the first provable hardne...

  16. Nonlinear Saturation Amplitude in Classical Planar Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Hai; Wang, Xiang; Jiang, Hong-Bin; Ma, Wen-Fang

    2016-04-01

    The classical planar Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) at a fluid interface supported by a constant pressure is investigated by a formal perturbation expansion up to the third order, and then according to definition of nonlinear saturation amplitude (NSA) in Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI), the NSA in planar RMI is obtained explicitly. It is found that the NSA in planar RMI is affected by the initial perturbation wavelength and the initial amplitude of the interface, while the effect of the initial amplitude of the interface on the NSA is less than that of the initial perturbation wavelength. Without marginal influence of the initial amplitude, the NSA increases linearly with wavelength. The NSA normalized by the wavelength in planar RMI is about 0.11, larger than that corresponding to RTI. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11472278 and 11372330, the Scientific Research Foundation of Education Department of Sichuan Province under Grant No. 15ZA0296, the Scientific Research Foundation of Mianyang Normal University under Grant Nos. QD2014A009 and 2014A02, and the National High-Tech ICF Committee

  17. Low-frequency noise in planar Hall effect bridge sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders; Bejhedb, R.S.; Bejhed, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    The low-frequency characteristics of planar Hall effect bridge sensors are investigated as function of the sensor bias current and the applied magnetic field. The noise spectra reveal a Johnson-like spectrum at high frequencies, and a 1/f-like excess noise spectrum at lower frequencies, with a knee...

  18. Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Planar QED in External Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We investigate planar quantum electrodynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. We argue that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak-coupling region. We extrapolate our lattice results to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  19. Slices: A shape-proxy based on planar sections

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James

    2011-12-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies.

  20. ASYMPTOTIC VALUES OF FUNCTIONS, ANALYTIC IN PLANAR DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkov V.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In [1] W. Gross constructed the example of an entire function of infinite order whose set of asymptotic values is equal to the extended complex plain. We obtain an analog of Gross' result for functions, analytic in planar domains of arbitrary connectivity with isolated boundary fragment.