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Sample records for preliminary pilot-plant evaluation

  1. A preliminary evaluation of post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture performance in a pilot plant test using mono-ethanolamine at a lignite-fuelled power station in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Artanto; M.I. Attalla; A. Cottrell; J. Jansen; J.M. McGregor; E.E.B. Meuleman; S. Morgan; M. Osborn; P. Pearson; L. Wardhaugh; P.H.M. Feron [CSIRO, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2009-07-01

    CSIRO has developed three PCC pilot plants to be connected to the flue gas of coal-fuelled power stations in Australia. Currently, two pilot plants are in operation. This paper presents results achieved with CSIRO's mobile plant which is fed with real flue gas from a lignite-fuelled power station at Loy Yang, Victoria, Australia. The findings of preliminary pilot plant trials are evaluated through comparison with results derived from WinSim Design II process simulation. The pilot plant operates with a 30% mono-ethanolamine (MEA) solution to capture CO{sub 2} under nominal conditions defined as a flue gas rate of 150 m{sup 3}/h and a solvent rate of 0.34 m{sup 3}/h. These conditions are set as the base-line for further experiments with different conditions. Different flue gas and solvent flow rates (three selected cases) were examined in the pilot plant in order to study the effects on CO{sub 2} recovery, heat reboiler duty, lean solvent loading and temperature profiles in the absorber columns. Gas and liquid sample analyses were used to determine the amount of CO{sub 2} recovered. The CO{sub 2} balance was also calculated in this study. The CO{sub 2} recovered (15-20 kg/h), based on liquid analysis, are below values from simulation modeling. The CO{sub 2} recovery is approximately 95% in simulation, while experiments indicate CO{sub 2} recovery of 60-83%. Preliminary results on comparing temperature profiles in the absorber columns show similar trends. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. 500-kW DCHX pilot-plant evaluation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlinak, A.; Lee, T.; Loback, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S.; Roberts, G.; Werner, D.

    1981-10-01

    Field tests with the 500 kW Direct Contact Pilot Plant were conducted utilizing brine from well Mesa 6-2. The tests were intended to develop comprehensive performance data, design criteria, and economic factors for the direct contact power plant. The tests were conducted in two phases. The first test phase was to determine specific component performance of the DCHX, turbine, condensers and pumps, and to evaluate chemical mass balances of non-condensible gases in the IC/sub 4/ loop and IC/sub 4/ in the brine stream. The second test phase was to provide a longer term run at nearly fixed operating conditions in order to evaluate plant performance and identify operating cost data for the pilot plant. During these tests the total accumulated run time on major system components exceeded 1180 hours with 777 hours on the turbine prime mover. Direct contact heat exchanger performance exceeded the design prediction.

  3. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  4. Fluid bed gasification pilot plant fuel feeding system evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, W.A.; Fonstad, T.; Pugsley, T.; Gerspacher, R. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)), Email: wac132@mail.usask.ca; Wang Zhiguo (Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon (Canada)), Email: zhiguo.wang@src.sk.ca

    2009-07-01

    Fluidized bed gasification (FBG) is a method for thermally converting solid biomass to a gaseous product termed syngas, which can be used as fuel for heat or electricity generation. Accurate and consistent feeding of biomass fuel into biomass FBG converters is a continuing, challenge, and was the subject of experimentation at the University of Saskatchewan biomass FBG pilot plant. The 2-conveyor feeding system for this pilot plant was tested using meat and bone meal (MBM) as feedstock, by conveying the feedstock through the system, and measuring the output rate as the fuel was discharged. The relationship between average mass-flowrate (F{sub M}) and conveyor speed (S) for the complete feeding system was characterized to be F{sub M}=0.2188S-0.42 for the tests performed. Testing of the metering conveyor coupled to the injection conveyor showed that operating these conveyors at drive synchronized speeds, air pulsed into the injection hopper, and 50 slpm injection air, produced the most consistent feed output rate. Hot fluidized bed tests followed, which showed that plugging of the injection nozzle occurred as bed temperatures increased past 700C, resulting in loss of fuel flow. The pneumatic injection nozzle was subsequently removed, and the system was found to perform adequately with it absent. (orig.)

  5. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 1, Third comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This volume contains an overview of WIPP performance assessment and a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B).

  6. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  7. An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.W.L.; Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.K.; Weiner, R.; Neill, R.H. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has reviewed the WIPP 1992 Performance Assessment (Sandia WIPP Performance Assessment Department, 1992). Although this performance assessment was released after the October 1992 passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), the work preceded the Act. For individual and ground-water protection, calculations have been done for 1000 years post closure, whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191) issued in 1993 require calculations for 10,000 years. The 1992 Performance Assessment continues to assimilate improved understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site, and evolving conceptual models of natural barriers. Progress has been made towards assessing WIPP`s compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191). The 1992 Performance Assessment has addressed several items of major concern to EEG, outlined in the July 1992 review of the 1991 performance assessment (Neill et al., 1992). In particular, the authors are pleased that some key results in this performance assessment deal with sensitivity of the calculated complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) to alterative conceptual models proposed by EEG -- that flow in the Culebra be treated as single-porosity fracture-flow; with no sorption retardation unless substantiated by experimental data.

  8. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I: preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost, commercial plant cost and performance. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    Cost estimates are presented for the Solar Pilot Plant by cost breakdown structure element, with a commitment schedule and an expenditure schedule. Cost estimates are given for a Commercial Plant, including several point costs for plants with various solar multiples and storage times. Specific questions (ERDA) pertaining to commercial plant design and performance data are addressed. The cost estimates are supplemented by two books of vendor and subcontractor cost data.

  9. Evaluation of decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of four decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC), an inactive chemical weapons research, development, and production facility consisting of nine buildings located in the Edgewood Area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Decommissioning the PPC involves six steps: (1) assessing existing conditions; (2) dismantling the aboveground portions of the buildings (including the floor slabs, paved roads, and sidewalks within the PPC); (3) reducing the size of the demolition debris and sealing the debris in containers for later testing and evaluation; (4) testing and evaluating the debris; (5) conducting site operation and maintenance activities; and (6) recycling or disposing of the debris with or without prior treatment, as appropriate.

  10. Computational implementation of a systems prioritization methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A preliminary example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). WIPP Performance Assessments Departments; Baker, B.L. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A systems prioritization methodology (SPM) is under development to provide guidance to the US DOE on experimental programs and design modifications to be supported in the development of a successful licensing application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. The purpose of the SPM is to determine the probabilities that the implementation of different combinations of experimental programs and design modifications, referred to as activity sets, will lead to compliance. Appropriate tradeoffs between compliance probability, implementation cost and implementation time can then be made in the selection of the activity set to be supported in the development of a licensing application. Descriptions are given for the conceptual structure of the SPM and the manner in which this structure determines the computational implementation of an example SPM application. Due to the sophisticated structure of the SPM and the computational demands of many of its components, the overall computational structure must be organized carefully to provide the compliance probabilities for the large number of activity sets under consideration at an acceptable computational cost. Conceptually, the determination of each compliance probability is equivalent to a large numerical integration problem. 96 refs., 31 figs., 36 tabs.

  11. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1: CDRL Item 2, pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost and commercial plant cost and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1980-05-01

    Detailed cost and performance data for the proposed tower focus pilot plant and commercial plant are given. The baseline central receiver concept defined by the MDAC team consists of the following features: (A) an external receiver mounted on a tower, and located in a 360/sup 0/ array of sun-tracking heliostats which comprise the collector subsystem. (B) feedwater from the electrical power generation subsystem is pumped through a riser to the receiver, where the feedwater is converted to superheated steam in a single pass through the tubes of the receiver panels. (C) The steam from the receiver is routed through a downcomer to the ground and introduced to a turbine directly for expansion and generation of electricity, and/or to a thermal storage subsystem, where the steam is condensed in charging heat exchangers to heat a dual-medium oil and rock thermal storage unit (TSU). (D) Extended operation after daylight hours is facilitated by discharging the TSU to generate steam for feeding the admission port of the turbine. (E) Overall control of the system is provided by a master control unit, which handles the interactions between subsystems that take place during startup, shutdown, and transitions between operating modes. (WHK)

  12. Preliminary comparison with 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Rechard, R.P.; Anderson, D.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Swift, P.N. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Baker, B.L. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Bean, J.E. Jr.; McCurley, R.D.; Rudeen, D.K. (New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Beyeler, W.; Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V.; Sch

    1990-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as the first mined geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Before disposing of waste at the WIPP, the DOE must evaluate compliance with the United states Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Standard, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191, US EPA, 1985). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating long-term performance against criteria in Subpart B of the Standard. Performance assessment'' as used in this report includes analyses for the Containment Requirements ({section} 191.13(a)) and the Individual Protection Requirements ({section} 191.15). Because proving predictions about future human actions or natural events is not possible, the EPA expects compliance to be determined on the basis of specified quantitative analyses and informed, qualitative judgment. The goal of the WIPP performance-assessment team at SNL is to provide as detailed and thorough a basis as practical for the quantitative aspects of that decision. This report summarizes SNL's late-1990 understanding of the WIPP Project's ability to evaluate compliance with Subpart B. 245 refs., 88 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. Monitoring and toxicity evaluation of phytoplankton on lithium manganese oxide adsorbents at lithium recovery pilot plant field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H. O.; Kim, J. A.; Kim, J. C.; Chung, K. S.; Ryu, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    For recovery of rare mineral resources such as lithium or boron from seawater, the lithium adsorbent material have been made by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and pilot plant was conducted in Okgye Harbor, Gangneung, Korea. The application of lithium adsorbent in pilot plant, it is important to consider the impact on the marine environment. Especially phytoplankton communities are important marine microorganism to represent marine primary product. At the same time, phytoplankton is possible to induce the decrease of lithium recovery rate due to cause of biofouling to surfaces of lithium adsorbents. Therefore long-term and periodic monitoring of phytoplankton is necessary to understand the environmental impact and biofouling problems near the lithium pilot plant. The abundance and biomass of phytoplankton have been evaluated through monthly interval sampling from February 2013 to May 2015. Abundance and species diversity of phytoplankton went up to summer from winter. When lithium adsorbents were immersing to seawater, eco-toxicities of released substances were determined using Microtox with bioluminescence bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The adsorbents were soaked in sterilized seawater and aeration for 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days intervals under controlled temperature. Maximum EC50 concentration was 61.4% and this toxicity was showed in more than 10 days exposure.

  14. Portable pilot plant for evaluating marine biofouling growth and control in heat exchangers-condensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, J F; Sánchez, J; García-Morales, J L; Casanueva-Robles, T; López, J A; Portela, J R; Nebot, E; Sales, D

    2003-01-01

    Biofouling frequently involves a serious impediment to achieving optimum operating conditions in heat exchangers-condensers. The economic coat and energy losses associated with this phenomenon are significant and the environmental impact of biocides must satisfy stringent regulations. A portable pilot plant has been designed in order to carry out in-situ experimental study as biofilm is formed under thermal and hydrodynamically controlled conditions. The pilot plant has an automatic monitoring, control and data acquisition system, which automatically processes data from indirect measure of fouling in terms of increased fluid frictional and heat transfer resistances. A particular method is used and proposed for direct measuring and biofilm characterization. Once we know the actual film thickness, we can calculate the effective thermal conductivity of the layer by using the appropriate heat transfer equations.

  15. Biogeochemical Investigations to Evaluate the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillow, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy facility located in southeastern New Mexico, approximately 655 m (2150 ft.) below ground surface in a bedded salt, Permian evaporite formation. This mined geologic repository has been receiving transuranic (TRU) waste from defense-related and environmental-management activities since March 1999. TRU waste contains alpha-emitting transuranic nuclides with half-lives greater than twenty years at concentrations greater than 100 nCi/gram. These actinide-contaminated wastes were generated from nuclear-weapons production and related processing activities. They include various organics, adsorbed liquids, sludges, cellulosics, plastics, rubber, and a variety of metals and cemented materials. An extensive set of investigations were performed to establish the basis for TRU waste disposal at WIPP and to support initial certification from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant element of the conceptual geochemical model for WIPP is the microbiologically-driven reactions leading to biodegradation of organic constituents in TRU wastes, as well as interactions with actinides present in the waste. This presentation will discuss the biogeochemical investigations that were performed to evaluate microbiological activity at WIPP, including studies of gas generation due to biodegradation of cellulose, plastic, and rubber materials and actinide-microbe interactions leading to changes in actinide chemical speciation. Highlights of this work are discussed here. Cellulose biodegradation in salt-brine systems results in the generation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and aqueous fermentation products (low molecular weight organic acids). Hypersaline brine can limit the range of microbial metabolic pathways, due to the energetic stresses of maintaining osmotic balance compatible with metabolic processes. Methanogenesis yields the lowest free energy per mole of carbon and as such is often not detected in

  16. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William A; Fonstad, Terry; Pugsley, Todd; Gerspacher, Regan

    2012-06-01

    A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designed for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection nozzle reduced the output irregularity further to 13%, with an air supply of 50 slpm as the minimum air supply to drive this injector. After commissioning of this final system to the FBG reactor, the injection nozzle was found to plug with char however, and was subsequently removed from the system. Final operation of the reactor continues satisfactorily with the two screw conveyors operating at matching pressure with the fluidized bed, with the output rate of the system estimated based on system characteristic equations, and confirmed by static weight measurements made before

  17. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume IV. Receiver subsystem. [10-MW Pilot Plant and 100-MW Commercial Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-11-01

    The conception, design, and testing of the receiver subsystem proposed by the McDonnell Douglas/Rocketdyne Receiver team for the DOE 10-MW Pilot Plant and the 100-MW Commercial Plant are described. The receiver subsystem consists of the receiver unit, the tower on which the receiver unit is mounted above the collector field, and the supporting control and instrumentation equipment. The plans for implementation of the Pilot Plant are given including the anticipated schedule and production plan (procurement, installation, checkout, and maintenance). Specifications for the performance, design, and test requirements for the Pilot Plant receiver subsystem are included. (WHK)

  18. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 5, Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal.

  19. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, William A., E-mail: bill.campbell@usask.ca [Fluidization Laboratory of Saskatchewan (FLASK) (Canada) and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada); Fonstad, Terry [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada); Pugsley, Todd [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Gerspacher, Regan [Fluidization Laboratory of Saskatchewan (FLASK) (Canada); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 1-5 g/s fuel feeding system for pilot scale FBG was designed, built and tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple conveying stages improve pressure balancing, flow control and stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary conveyor stage reduced output irregularity from 47% to 15%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic air sparging effective in dealing with poor flow ability of MBM powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic injection port plugs with char at gasification temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designed for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50 mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection nozzle

  20. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II. System description and system analysis. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Honeywell conducted a parametric analysis of the 10-MW(e) solar pilot plant requirements and expected performance and established an optimum system design. The main analytical simulation tools were the optical (ray trace) and the dynamic simulation models. These are described in detail in Books 2 and 3 of this volume under separate cover. In making design decisions, available performance and cost data were used to provide a design reflecting the overall requirements and economics of a commercial-scale plant. This volume contains a description of this analysis/design process and resultant system/subsystem design and performance.

  1. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  2. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CRDL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume III, Book 2. Collector subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The methods and plans for the manufacture of the 10-MW collector heliostats and associated controls for the pilot plant are detailed. An in-depth description of the production, installation, and verification testing of heliostats for the pilot plant is presented. Specifications for the performance, design, and test requirements for the pilot plant collector subsystem are included. Also, a heliostat location summary report is given. (WHK)

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Implementation of Chemical Evaluation Requirements for Transuranic Waste Disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Alison [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States); Barkley, Michelle [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States); Poppiti, James [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report summarizes new controls designed to ensure that transuranic waste disposed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) does not contain incompatible chemicals. These new controls include a Chemical Compatibility Evaluation, an evaluation of oxidizing chemicals, and a waste container assessment to ensure that waste is safe for disposal. These controls are included in the Chapter 18 of the Documented Safety Analysis for WIPP (1).

  4. Mild separation system for olive oil: quality evaluation and pilot plant design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Genovese

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The entire process of olive oil extraction involves the breakage of olive fruits to obtain a paste, the kneading of the paste, a centrifugation, and a further cleaning, performed by a disc stack centrifuge, to separate the residual water. In this research, in order to evaluate the effect of final centrifugal separation on olive oil quality and to both define and design the settings of a innovative separation system, olive oil was separated off from water using an accelerated separation process, tested in comparison with a disc centrifuge. The laboratory plant used for the trials was constituted by a twin cylindrical separator equipped with 4 variable frequency inverters, in order to regulate the fluid flow rates in the plant. Oil samples were collected during the trials to evaluate the influence of the proposed innovative process on oil quality; measuring some parameters as free acidity, peroxides (PV, specific extinction coefficients K232 and K270, chlorophylls , carotenoids, total polyphenols (POL and turbidity. Results showed statistically significant differences (p-values<0.05 in some parameters as POL, PV, and ultraviolet absorption K232 and K270.

  5. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 4: Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions, the choice of parameters selected for sampling, and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect compliance with 40 CFR 191B are: drilling intensity, intrusion borehole permeability, halite and anhydrite permeabilities, radionuclide solubilities and distribution coefficients, fracture spacing in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, porosity of the Culebra, and spatial variability of Culebra transmissivity. Performance with respect to 40 CFR 191B is insensitive to uncertainty in other parameters; however, additional data are needed to confirm that reality lies within the assigned distributions.

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Potash Mining in the Region of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.; Beauheim, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been developed for underground disposal of transuranic waste in halite beds of the Permian Salado Formation. Managed by the Department of Energy (DOE), the WIPP has been operational since March 1999. Regulatory requirements call for the DOE to submit a Compliance Recertification Application (CRA) every five years, the first of which is due to the Environmental Protection Agency in 2004. In support of the CRA, performance assessment (PA) analysis is being conducted. PA is a series of linked models that make probabilistic assessments of possible future states of the WIPP and its performance under each of those states. One possible future state involves human intrusion into the repository creating pathways for upward migration of radionuclides into the Culebra dolomite aquifer. The Culebra is about 200 m below ground surface and 400 m above the repository. Current and future potash mining in the upper Salado Formation, within and outside the WIPP boundary, will likely cause subsidence of the Culebra, resulting in higher transmissivities that may change regional groundwater flow patterns. This analysis evaluates the impact of potash mining on the Culebra flow patterns and the resulting influence on repository performance. The impacts are modeled by creating 100 calibrated transmissivity (T) fields through stochastic inverse modeling using the parameter estimation code, PEST. Transmissivities in each field are then scaled in areas deemed to contain extractable potash by a random mining factor between 1 and 1000. Two mining scenarios are modeled: mining in all extractable areas within the WIPP boundary and across the entire region and mining everywhere except within the WIPP boundary. Three random mining factors are applied to each calibrated T-field for both mining scenarios, creating 600 instances of modified T-fields. Steady-state flow models are run for each instance and particle tracking is used to

  7. Preliminary results from the experimental study of CO{sub 2}-brine-rock interactions at elevated T and P: implications for the pilot plant for CO{sub 2} storage in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarza, C.; Buil, B.; Pena, J.; Martin, P.L.; Gomez, P.; Garralon, A. [CIEMAT, Unidad de Geologia Ambiental Aplicada, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    A new experimental program has been carried out in order to study CO{sub 2}-brine-rock interactions susceptible to take place in conditions close to those expected in the pilot plant that is being developed in Spain (a carbonate reservoir located at more than 800 m depth, with 15% porosity, and a salinity of the native brine between 20 - 90 g/L). The combination of preliminary experimental and numerical modeling (PHREEQC) results suggests that the main geochemical processes are calcite dissolution and anhydrite precipitation. (authors)

  8. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3 of 3: Appendices C, D, E, and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by TerraTek, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This volume also documents the brine recipe used by RE/SPEC, Inc., the parameter package submitted to Performance Assessment based on all the data, and a memo on the mixed Brooks and Corey two-phase characteristic curves.

  9. Characterization of a pilot plant airlift tower loop bioreactor: II. Evaluation of global mixing properties of the gas phase during yeast cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, S; Lotz, M; Korte, T; Lübbert, A; Schügerl, K; Seekamp, M

    1991-04-25

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated in a 4-m(3) pilot plant airlift tower loop reactor with a draft tube in batch and continuous operations and for comparison in a laboratory airlift tower loop reactor of 0.08 m(3) volume. The reactors were characterized during and after the cultivation by measuring the distributions of the residence times of the gas phase with pseudostochastic tracer signals and mass spectrometer and by evaluating the mixing in the liquid phase with a pulse-shaped volatile tracer signal and mass spectrometer as a detector. The mean residence times and the intensities of the axial mixing in the riser and downcomer, the circulation times of the gas phase, and the fraction of the recirculated gas phase were evaluated and compared.

  10. Dynamic pilot plant facility for applications in CSP: Evaluation of corrosion resistance of A516 in a nitrate molten salt mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco Javier; Encinas-Sánchez, Víctor; García-Martín, Gustavo; Lasanta, María Isabel; de Miguel, María Teresa

    2017-06-01

    This paper evaluates the corrosion of A516 carbon steel in the binary Solar Salt (60 wt.% NaNO3/40 wt.% KNO3) by immersion tests with continuous salt flow at 500 °C. To this end, a novel patented experimental facility enabling dynamic degradation tests of materials in contact with molten mediums was developed and used. Experimental results showed greater corrosion rates and thicker oxide layers in samples subjected to tests with continuous salt flow than the static ones. The dynamic test facility simulates real conditions (flux, thermocycling, etc.) of a CSP plant. The patented experimental pilot plant is a great step forward in learning about the physicochemical properties and behavior of molten salts and also behavior of substrates in contact with them under realistic working conditions.

  11. Engineer, design construct, test, and evaluate a pressurized fluidized-bed pilot plant using high-sulfur coal for production of electric power: Phase I. Preliminary engineering; Phase II. Final design; Phase III. Construction. Annual report, March 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The extended test program on the SGT/PFB Technology Unit, previously placed in operation, was completed. Total operating time is 3378 which includes 2681 h burning coal and 1205 h total turbine engine operation. Significant performance and operational milestones, completed during the past year, included: over 2000 h on candidate heat exchanger tube materials at design temperature during which durability of iron-base alloy for PFB heat exchanger tubes was demonstrated; generated electric power with gas turbine operating on PFB coal combustion gas for 1000 h with no appreciable erosion or corrosion of turbine rotor blades and stator vanes; evaluated and improved hot gas cleanup system during which mean particle size of 1.3 Microns and a loading of 0.054 grains/Scf was achieved; and durability of hot/ash solids lock hopper valves for over 1000 h without leakage and stellite coated butterfly gas valve operating successfully for over 900 h in a highly erosive environment was demonstrated. Details of materials evolutions and corrosion rates, component performances and gaseous emission levels are presented.

  12. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-27

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound, cost effective, permanent disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste left from production of nuclear weapons.

  14. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume VI. Electrical power generation; master control subsystems; balance of plant CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Honeywell electrical power generation subsystem centers on a General Electric dual admission, triple extraction turbine generator sized to the output requirements of the Pilot Plant. The turbine receives steam from the receiver subsystem and/or the thermal storage subsystem and supplies those subsystems with feedwater. The turbine condensor is wet cooled. The plant control system consists of a coordinated digital master and subsystem digital/analog controls. The remainder of the plant, work spaces, maintenance areas, roads, and reception area are laid out to provide maximum convenience compatible with utility and safety. Most of the activities are housed in a complex around the base of the receiver tower. This volume contains a description of the relationship of the electrical power generation subsystem to the rest of the plant, the design methodology and evolution, the interface integration and control, and the operation and maintenance procedures.

  15. Preliminary geohydrologic conceptual model of the Los Medanos region near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for the purpose of performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinster, K.F. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a geohydrologic conceptual model of the northern Delaware Basin to be used in modeling three-dimensional, regional ground-water flow for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the Los Medanos region near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Geochemical and hydrological evidence indicates that flow is transient in the Rustler Formation and the Capitan aquifer in response to changing geologic, hydrologic, and climatic conditions. Before the Pleistocene, ground-water flow in the Rustler Formation was generally eastward, but uneven tilting of the Delaware Basin lowered the regional base level and formed fractures in the evaporitic sequence of rocks approximately parallel to the basin axis. Dissolution along the fractures, coupled with erosion, formed Nash Draw. Also, the drop in base level resulted in an increase in the carrying power of the Pecos River, which began incising the Capitan/aquifer near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Erosion and downcutting released hydraulic pressure that caused a reversal in Rustler ground-water flow direction near the WIPP. Flow in the Rustler west of the WIPP is toward Nash Draw and eventually toward Malaga Bend; flow south of the WIPP is toward Malaga Bend. 126 refs., 70 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Central receiver solar thermal power system. Phase 1. CDRL item 2; Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume II. System decription and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    An active system analysis and integration effort has been maintained. These activities have included the transformation of initial program requirements into a preliminary system design, the evolution of subsystem requirements which lay the foundation for subsystem design and test activity, and the overseeing of the final preliminary design effort to ensure that the subsystems are operationally compatible and capable of producing electricity at the lowest possible cost per unit of energy. Volume II of the Preliminary Design Report presents the results of the overall system effort that went on during this contract. The effort is assumed to include not only the total system definition and design but also all subsystem interactions.

  17. Pilot plant studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.

    1977-06-30

    Progress is reported in the following studies on analysis and evaluation of potential raw materials: preliminary pretreatment studies using wheat straw; extraction of wheat straw with alcohol and water at elevated temperatures; extraction of ground wood with alcohol and water at elevated temperatures; and, delignification of newsprint with ethylene glycol. Other research in progress includes studies on: utilization of hemicellulose sugars; process design and economics of hydrolysis processes and ethanol fermentation; and, pilot plant process development and design, including cell-recycle systems for cellulase production, continuous hydrolysis, countercurrent hydrolysis, and ethanol fermentation studies. (JGB)

  18. Performance evaluation of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor pilot plant system used in treating real wastewater from recycled paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Rakmi Abdul; Kadhum, Abdul Amir Hasan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot scale granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor with a capacity of 2.2 m3 was operated for over three months to evaluate its performance treating real recycled paper industry wastewater under different operational conditions. In this study, dissolved air floatation (DAF) and clarifier effluents were used as influent sources of the pilot plant. During the course of the study, the reactor was able to biodegrade the contaminants in the incoming recycled paper mill wastewater in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), adsorbable organic halides (AOX; specifically 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP)) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) removal efficiencies at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 1-3 days, aeration rates (ARs) of 2.1-3.4 m3/min and influent feed concentration of 40-950 mg COD/l. Percentages of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals increased with increasing HRT, resulting in more than 90% COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals at HRT values above two days. Degradation of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N were seriously affected by variation of ARs, which resulted in significant decrease of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals by decreasing ARs from 3.4 m3/min to 2.1 m3/min, varying in the ranges of 24-80%, 6-96% and 5-42%, respectively. In comparison to the clarifier effluent, the treatment performance of DAF effluent, containing high COD concentration, resulted in a higher COD removal of 82%. The use of diluted DAF effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal. Higher NH3-N removal efficiency of almost 100% was observed during operation after maintenance shutdown compared to normal operation, even at the same HRT of one day due to the higher dissolved oxygen concentrations (1-7 mg/l), while no significant difference in COD removal efficiency was observed.

  19. Preliminary experimental results using the thermal-hydraulic integral test facility (VISTA) for the pilot plant of the system integrated modular advanced reactor, SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; Pak, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok; Pak, Choon Kyung; Lee, Sung Jae; Song, Chul Hwa; Chung, Moon Ki [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Preliminary experimental tests were carried out using the thermal-hydraulic integral test facility, VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents), which has been constructed to simulate the SMART-P. The VISTA facility is an integral test facility including the primary and secondary systems as well as safety-related Passive Residual heat removal (PRHR) systems. Its scaled ratio with respect to the SMART-P is 1/1 in height and 1/96 in volume and heater power. So far, several steady states and transient tests have been carried out to verify the overall thermal hydraulic primary and secondary characteristics in a range of 10% to 100% power operation. As results of preliminary results, the steady state conditions were found to coincide with the expected design values of the SMART-P. But the major thermal hydraulic parameters are greatly affected by the initial water level and the nitrogen pressure in the reactor upper annular cavity. In the PRHR transient tests, the steam inlet temperature of the PRHR system is found to drop suddenly from a superheated condition to a saturated condition at the end period of PRHR operation.

  20. Pilot plants for polymers: Safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, C.F.; Zvanut, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Air Products and Chemicals is a major manufacturer of polyvinyl alcohol, vinyl acetate-ethylene emulsions and suspension PVC. Polyvinyl alcohol is a water soluble polymer and its primary end-uses are as a textile sizing agent and in adhesives. The emulsion products are used primarily in adhesives, paper, paints, and non-wovens. In order to support these business areas and to expand into new product lines, Air Products operates several polymer pilot plants. The safe operation of these pilot plants mandates careful attention to both design and operating procedures. Often, more care is needed in operating a polymer pilot plant than in other pilot plants or manufacturing facilities.

  1. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VI. Electrical power generation and master control subsystems and balance of plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The requirements, performance, and subsystem configuration for both the Commercial and Pilot Plant electrical power generation subsystems (EPGS) and balance of plants are presented. The EPGS for both the Commercial Plant and Pilot Plant make use of conventional, proven equipment consistent with good power plant design practices in order to minimize risk and maximize reliability. The basic EPGS cycle selected is a regenerative cycle that uses a single automatic admission, condensing, tandem-compound double-flow turbine. Specifications, performance data, drawings, and schematics are included. (WHK)

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  3. TASK 3: PILOT PLANT GASIFIER TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. Design, fabrication and initial testing of the pilot plant compact gasifier was completed in 2011 by a development team led by AR. Findings from this initial test program, as well as subsequent gasifier design and pilot plant testing by AR, identified a number of technical aspects to address prior to advancing into a demonstration-scale gasifier design. Key among these were an evaluation of gasifier ability to handle thermal environments with highly reactive coals; ability to handle high ash content, high ash fusion temperature coals with reliable slag discharge; and to develop an understanding of residual properties pertaining to gasification kinetics as carbon conversion approaches 99%. The gasifier did demonstrate the ability to withstand the thermal environments of highly reactive Powder River Basin coal, while achieving high carbon conversion in < 0.15 seconds residence time. Continuous operation with the high ash fusion temperature Xinyuan coal was demonstrated in long duration testing, validating suitability of outlet design as well as downstream slag discharge systems. Surface area and porosity data were obtained for the Xinyuan and Xinjing coals for carbon conversion ranging from 85% to 97%, and showed a pronounced downward trend in surface area per unit mass carbon as conversion increased. Injector faceplate measurements showed no incremental loss of material over the course of these experiments, validating the commercially traceable design approach and supportive of long injector life goals. Hybrid testing of PRB and natural gas was successfully completed over a wide range of natural gas feed content, providing test data to anchor predictions

  4. MBR pilot plant for textile wastewater treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Caffaz, S; Mangini, L; Santianni, D; Caretti, C

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of upgrading the conventional activated sludge WWTP of Seano (Prato, Italy) which treats municipal and textile wastewaters, by using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. The MBR pilot plant, set up within Seano WWTP, was fed with mixed municipal-industrial wastewaters during the first experimental period and with pure industrial wastewaters during the second. Performances and operation of the MBR were evaluated in terms of permeate characteristics and variability (COD, colour, surfactants, total N and P) and other operational parameters (sludge growth and observed yield). According to the experimental results the MBR permeate quality was always superior to the Seano WWTP one and it was suitable for industrial reuse in the textile district of the Prato area. Respirometric tests provided a modified IWA ASM1 model which fits very well the experimental data and can be used for the design and the monitoring of a full-scale MBR pilot plant.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  6. Technical Proposal Salton Sea Geothermal Power Pilot Plant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-03-28

    The proposed Salton Sea Geothermal Power Pilot Plant Program comprises two phases. The objective of Phase 1 is to develop the technology for power generation from high-temperature, high-salinity geothermal brines existing in the Salton Sea known geothermal resources area. Phase 1 work will result in the following: (a) Completion of a preliminary design and cost estimate for a pilot geothermal brine utilization facility. (b) Design and construction of an Area Resource Test Facility (ARTF) in which developmental geothermal utilization concepts can be tested and evaluated. Program efforts will be divided into four sub-programs; Power Generation, Mineral Extraction, Reservoir Production, and the Area Resources Test Facility. The Power Generation Subprogram will include testing of scale and corrosion control methods, and critical power cycle components; power cycle selection based on an optimization of technical, environmental and economic analyses of candidate cycles; preliminary design of a pilot geothermal-electric generating station to be constructed in Phase 2 of this program. The Mineral Extraction Subprogram will involve the following: selection of an optimum mineral recovery process; recommendation of a brine clean-up process for well injection enhancement; engineering, construction and operation of mineral recovery and brine clean-up facilities; analysis of facility operating results from environmental, economical and technical point-of-view; preliminary design of mineral recovery and brine clean-up facilities of sufficient size to match the planned pilot power plant. The Reservoir Production Subprogram will include monitoring the operation and maintenance of brine production, handling and injection systems which were built with private funding in phase 0, and monitoring of the brine characteristics and potential subsidence effects during well production and injection. Based on the above, recommendations and specifications will be prepared for production and

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Ricky Lynn [Idaho National Laboratory; Reese, Stephen Joseph [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. Several practical, easily deployable methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using a surrogate contaminant and americium (241Am), were developed and tested. The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent practical, quantitatively. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, mechanical grinding, strippable coatings, and fixative barriers), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and water washing is easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (~2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from water washed coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever contamination is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  9. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. [Sensible heat storage using Caloria HT43 and mixture of gravel and sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The proposed 100-MWe Commercial Plant Thermal Storage System (TSS) employs sensible heat storage using dual liquid and solid media for the heat storage in each of four tanks, with the thermocline principle applied to provide high-temperature, extractable energy independent of the total energy stored. The 10-MW Pilot Plant employs a similar system except uses only a single tank. The high-temperature organic fluid Caloria HT43 and a rock mixture of river gravel and No. 6 silica sand were selected for heat storage in both systems. The system design, installation, performance testing, safety characteristics, and specifications are described in detail. (WHK)

  10. A pilot plant study using conventional and advanced water treatment processes: Evaluating removal efficiency of indicator compounds representative of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangyi; Gitungo, Stephen; Axe, Lisa; Dyksen, John E; Raczko, Robert F

    2016-11-15

    With widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the water cycle, their presence in source water has led to the need to better understand their treatability and removal efficiency in treatment processes. Fifteen indicator compounds were identified to represent the large number of PPCPs reported worldwide. Criteria applied to determine the indicator compounds included PPCPs widely used, observed at great frequency in aqueous systems, resistant to treatment, persistent in the environment, and representative of classes of organics. Through a pilot plant investigation to understand the optimal combination of unit process for treating PPCPs, 12 treatment trains with their additive and synergistic contributions were investigated; processes included dissolved air flotation (DAF), pre- and intermediate-ozonation with and without H2O2, intermediate chlorination, dual media filtration, granular activated carbon (GAC), and UV/H2O2. Treatment trains that achieved the greatest removals involved 1. DAF followed by intermediate ozonation, dual media filtration, and virgin GAC; 2. pre-ozonation followed by DAF, dual media filtration, and virgin GAC; and, 3. DAF (with either pre- or intermediate oxidation) followed by dual media filtration and UV/H2O2. Results revealed significant removal efficiencies for virgin GAC (preceded by DAF and intermediate ozonation) and UV/H2O2 with an intensity of 700 mJ/cm(2), where more than 12 of the compounds were removed by greater than 90%. Reduced PPCP removals were observed with virgin GAC preceded by pre-ozonation and DAF. Intermediate ozonation was more effective than using pre-ozonation, demonstrating the importance of this process targeting PPCPs after treatment of natural organic matter. Removal efficiencies of indicator compounds through ozonation were found to be a function of the O3 rate constants (kO3). For compounds with low O3 rate constants (kO3 < 10 M(-1)s(-1)), H2O2 addition in the O3 reactor

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  13. Status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance with 40 CFR 191B, December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marietta, M.G.; Anderson, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper describes the 1992 preliminary comparison with Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), which regulates long-term releases of radioactive waste. Results of the 1992 PA are preliminary, and cannot be used to determine compliance or noncompliance with EPA regulations because portions of the modeling system and data base are incomplete. Results are consistent, however, with those of previous iterations of PA, and the SNL WIPP PA Department has high confidence that compliance with 40 CFR 191B can be demonstrated. Comparison of predicted radiation doses from the disposal system also gives high confidence that the disposal system is safe for long-term isolation.

  14. Macroscopic mass and energy balance of a pilot plant anaerobic bioreactor operated under thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Bombardiere, John; Chatfield, Mark; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael; Stafford, David A; Castillo-Angeles, Saul; Castellanos-Hernandez, Nehemias

    2006-01-01

    Intensive poultry production generates over 100,000 t of litter annually in West Virginia and 9 x 10(6) t nationwide. Current available technological alternatives based on thermophilic anaerobic digestion for residuals treatment are diverse. A modification of the typical continuous stirred tank reactor is a promising process being relatively stable and owing to its capability to manage considerable amounts of residuals at low operational cost. A 40-m3 pilot plant digester was used for performance evaluation considering energy input and methane production. Results suggest some changes to the pilot plant configuration are necessary to reduce power consumption although maximizing biodigester performance.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  16. Pasteurization of strawberry puree using a pilot plant pulsed electric fields (PEF) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of strawberry puree by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in a pilot plant system has never been evaluated. In addition, a method does not exist to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during PEF processing. Both buffered peptone water (BPW) and fresh strawberry puree (...

  17. Use of phosphorus release batch tests for modelling an EBPR pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tykesson, E.; Aspegren, H.; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how routinely performed phosphorus release tests could be used when modelling enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) using activated sludge models such as ASM2d. A pilot plant with an extensive analysis programme was used as basis for the simulations...

  18. Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations.

  19. The disturbed rock zone at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2003-12-01

    The Disturbed Rock Zone constitutes an important geomechanical element of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The science and engineering underpinning the disturbed rock zone provide the basis for evaluating ongoing operational issues and their impact on performance assessment. Contemporary treatment of the disturbed rock zone applied to the evaluation of the panel closure system and to a new mining horizon improves the level of detail and quantitative elements associated with a damaged zone surrounding the repository openings. Technical advancement has been realized by virtue of ongoing experimental investigations and international collaboration. The initial portion of this document discusses the disturbed rock zone relative to operational issues pertaining to re-certification of the repository. The remaining sections summarize and document theoretical and experimental advances that quantify characteristics of the disturbed rock zone as applied to nuclear waste repositories in salt.

  20. A PILOT PLANT FOR THE BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omrani

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Manure and Putreseible garbage are some of the main sources of pathogenic germs in countryside’s. On the other hand, demand for fertilizer and energy increases in rural areas every day. To study Potential of cow manure for these requirements a 16,5m3 pilot plant was designed and constructed as fermentation tank near animal husbandry of karaj Agriculture Faculty. Some 260kg cow manure and water with the ratio of 4 and 7 was fed to fermentation tank every day. Average daily biogas production was 3.4m3, which was burned successfully in a gas range. Gas production was reduced by 86% during coldest winter days. Design for control of gas pressure and reservation of excessive gas was successful. Concentration of nitrate in sludge increased by 1.6 folds compared to row material. Some bacteria and Parasites were reduced drastically.

  1. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  2. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, P.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baker, B.L. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Economy, K. [Ecodynamics Research Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Rudeen, D.K. [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing had values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

  3. Development of 1000kW-class MCFC pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooue, M.; Yasue, H. [MCFC Research Association, Mie (Japan); Takasu, K.; Tsuchitori, T.

    1996-12-31

    This pilot plant is a part of the New Sunshine Program which has proceeded by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MCFC Research Association is entrusted with the development of the pilot plant, and constructing it at Kawagoe site. Following items will be verified by this pilot plant operation. (a) Development of 250kW class stack and confirmation of stack performance and decay rate. (b) System verification such as basic process, control system and operation characteristics, toward commercialization. (c) To get design data for demonstration plant.

  4. Pilot plant study for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    Most of domestic alcohol fermentation factory adopt batch process of which productivity is lower than continuous fermentation process. They have made great effort to increase productivity by means of partial unit process automatization and process improvement with their accumulated experience but there is technical limitation in productivity of batch fermentation process. To produce and supply fuel alcohol, economic aspects must be considered first of all. Therefore, development of continuous fermentation process, of which productivity is high, is prerequisite to produce and use fuel alcohol but only a few foreign company possess continuous fermentation technic and use it in practical industrial scale fermentation. We constructed pilot plant (5 Stage CSTR 1 kl 99.5 v/v% ethanol/Day scale) to study some aspects stated below and our ultimate aims are production of industrial scale fuel alcohol and construction of the plant by ourselves. Some study concerned with energy saving separation and contamination control technic were entrusted to KAIST, A-ju university and KIST respectively. (author) 67 refs., 100 figs., 58 tabs.

  5. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

  6. Mapping of cavitational activity in a pilot plant dyeing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Pezzin, A; Rovero, G; Sicardi, S

    2015-11-01

    C). Different liquid flow rates were tested to investigate the effect of the hydrodynamics characterising the equipment. The mapping of the cavitation intensity in the pilot-plant machinery was performed to achieve with the following goals: (a) to evaluate the influence of turbulence on the cavitation intensity, and (b) to determine the optimal distance from the ultrasound device at which a fabric should be positioned, this parameter being a compromise between the cavitation intensity (higher next to the transducer) and the US field uniformity (achieved at some distance from this device). By carrying out dyeing tests of wool fabrics in the prototype unit, consistent results were confirmed by comparison with the mapping of cavitation intensity.

  7. TF Inner Leg Space Allocation for Pilot Plant Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter H. Titus and Ali Zolfaghari

    2012-09-06

    A critical design feature of any tokamak is the space taken up by the inner leg of the toroidal field (TF) coil. The radial build needed for the TF inner leg, along with shield thickness , size of the central solenoid and plasma minor radius set the major radius of the machine. The cost of the tokamak core roughly scales with the cube of the major radius. Small reductions in the TF build can have a big impact on the overall cost of the reactor. The cross section of the TF inner leg must structurally support the centering force and that portion of the vertical separating force that is not supported by the outer structures. In this paper, the TF inner leg equatorial plane cross sections are considered. Out-of- Plane (OOP) forces must also be supported, but these are largest away from the equatorial plane, in the inner upper and lower corners and outboard sections of the TF coil. OOP forces are taken by structures that are not closely coupled with the radial build of the central column at the equatorial plane. The "Vertical Access AT Pilot Plant" currently under consideration at PPPL is used as a starting point for the structural, field and current requirements. Other TF structural concepts are considered. Most are drawn from existing designs such as ITER's circular conduits in radial plates bearing on a heavy nose section, and TPX's square conduits in a case, Each of these concepts can rely on full wedging, or partial wedging. Vaulted TF coils are considered as are those with some component of bucking against a central solenoid or bucking post. With the expectation that the pilot plant will be a steady state machine, a static stress criteria is used for all the concepts. The coils are assumed to be superconducting, with the superconductor not contributing to the structural strength. Limit analysis is employed to assess the degree of conservatism in the static criteria as it is applied to a linear elastic stress analysis. TF concepts, and in particular the PPPL AT

  8. First results from the start up at pilot plant Niederaussem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, P.; Schmidt, S. [RWE Power, Essen (Germany); Garcia, H.; Sieder, G. [BASF SE (Germany); Forster, C.; Stoffregen, T. [Linde-KCA Dresden GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In 2007, RWE Power, BASF and Linde entered into a cooperation to adapt carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) scrubbing technology for use in power plants and to optimize the techno-economical performance of CO{sub 2} post combustion capture. The project involved the construction of a new pilot plant at RWE Power's lignite-fired power plant in Niederaussem, Germany to investigate all aspects of the capture process with regards to a new energy-efficient solvent developed by BASF and the improved plant technology by Linde. Approximately 250 measurements and online-analysis systems were used to validate the operational performance, energy demand for CO{sub 2} capture and solvent stability. The construction of the pilot plant began in October 2008. Commissioning started in May 2009 and the pilot plant was finalized in July 2009. The testing program involves extensive parameter studies as well as a comprehensive material testing program for steels and new construction materials for columns and pipes. This paper presented the first results from the pilot plant operation in which MEA was used as a reference solvent. Technical details of the pilot plant were provided along with the test program for the new advanced solvent.

  9. Summary of scientific investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weart, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    The scientific issues concerning disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations have received 40 years of attention since the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) first addressed this issue in the mid-50s. For the last 21 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have directed site specific studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper will focus primarily on the WIPP scientific studies now in their concluding stages, the major scientific controversies regarding the site, and some of the surprises encountered during the course of these scientific investigations. The WIPP project`s present understanding of the scientific processes involved continues to support the site as a satisfactory, safe location for the disposal of defense-related transuranic waste and one which will be shown to be in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Compliance will be evaluated by incorporating data from these experiments into Performance Assessment (PA) models developed to describe the physical and chemical processes that could occur at the WIPP during the next 10,000 years under a variety of scenarios. The resulting compliance document is scheduled to be presented to the EPA in October 1996 and all relevant information from scientific studies will be included in this application and the supporting analyses. Studies supporting this compliance application conclude the major period of scientific investigation for the WIPP. Further studies will be of a ``confirmatory`` and monitoring nature.

  10. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

  11. [Yield of starch extraction from plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Pilot plant study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gorosquera, Emigdia; García-Suárez, Francisco J; Flores-Huicochea, Emmanuel; Núñez-Santiago, María C; González-Soto, Rosalia A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    In México, the banana (Musa paradisiaca) is cooked (boiling or deep frying) before being eaten, but the consumption is not very popular and a big quantity of the product is lost after harvesting. The unripe plantain has a high level of starch and due to this the use of banana can be diversified as raw material for starch isolation. The objective of this work was to study the starch yield at pilot plant scale. Experiments at laboratory scale were carried out using the pulp with citric acid to 0,3 % (antioxidant), in order to evaluate the different unitary operations of the process. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the pulp that can be isolated, were between 76 and 86 %, and the values at pilot plant scale were between 63 and 71 %, in different lots of banana fruit. Starch yield values were similar among the diverse lots, showing that the process is reproducible. The lower values of starch recovery at pilot plant scale are due to the loss during sieving operations; however, the amount of starch recovery is good.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the Geomechanical Monitoring Program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists the references and bibliography.

  13. Waste Isolation PIlot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists references.

  14. Emission studies from a CO2 capture pilot plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.F. da; Kolderup, H.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Hjarbo, K.W.; Huizinga, A.; Khakharia, P.M.; Tuinman, I.L.; Mejdell, T.; Zahlsen, K.; Vernstad, K.; Hyldbakk, A.; Holten, T.; Kvamsdal, H.M.; Os, P.J. van; Einbu, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of emissions from a pilot-plant for CO2 capture at Maasvlakte (in the Netherlands). Three contributions to emissions were identified and analyzed: Gas phase emission, aerosols (also referred to as mist or fog) and droplets of entrained solvents. For the emission campaig

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-17

    This report provides the results of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment led by the Savannah River National Laboratory and conducted by a team of experts in pertinent disciplines from SRNL and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL).

  16. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  17. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  18. Analysis of solutes in groundwaters from the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    Between 1976 and 1986, groundwater samples from more than 60 locations in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site were collected and analyzed for a variety of major, minor, and trace solutes. Most of the samples were from the Rustler Formation (the Culebra Dolomite, the Magenta Dolomite, or the zone at the contact between the Rustler and underlying Salado Formations) or the Dewey Lake Red Beds. The analytical data from the laboratories are presented here with accompanying discussions of sample collection methods, supporting field measurements, and laboratory analytical methods. A comparison of four data sets and a preliminary evaluation of the data for the major solutes (Cl{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Na, K, Ca, and Mg) shows that the data for samples analyzed by UNC/Bendix for SNL seem to be the most reliable, but that at some locations, samples representative of the native, unperturbed groundwater have not been collected. At other locations, the water chemistry has apparently changed between sampling episodes.

  19. The MELiSSA Pilot Plant Facility: Objectives and Integration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gødia, F.; Pérez, J.; Albiol, J.; Lasseur, C.; Lamaze, B.; Ordónez, L.

    MELiSSA Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative is a closed artificial ecosystem intended as a tool for the development of a bio-regenerative life support system for long-term manned missions i e planetary base For its study and implementation the MELiSSA loop has been divided in five interconnected compartments organized in three different loops solid liquid and gas This compartments are microbial bioreactors and higher plant chambers The MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility an ESA External Laboratory located at Universitat Aut o noma of Barcelona has been conceived to achieve a preliminary terrestrial demonstration of the MELiSSA concept at pilot scale using animals as a model to substitute the crew The experience gained in the operation of such a facility will be highly relevant for planning future life support systems in Space In order to fulfill this challenging objective a number of steps have to be covered from the individual design of each compartment to the continuous operation of the complete loop with all compartments interconnected operating in sterile conditions in controlled conditions and in a biosafe manner A new site for the MELISSA Pilot Plant facility has been recently completed to host the final integration of the complete loop The contribution will cover the general design aspects of the loop including the current state of the different compartments and their interconnection with solid liquid and gas loops and the future plans of how these different elements will be integrated to achieve the final

  20. Technical Integration of SMART Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Park, P. H.; Noh, P. C. (and others)

    2006-12-15

    Preliminary experimental tests were carried out using the thermal-hydraulic integral test facility, VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents), which has been constructed to simulate the SMART-P. The VISTA facility is an integral test facility including the primary and secondary systems as well as safety-related Passive Residual heat removal (PRHR) systems. The integrated SMART desalination plant consists of Multi Effect Distillation Process combined with Thermal-Vapor Compressor(MED-TVC) and coupled with the extracted steam from turbine through the steam transformer. Steam transformer produces the main pressure steam and supplies to the MED-TVC unit. MED-TVC was selected as a desalination process coupled with SMART, since the thermal vapor compression is very effective where the steam is available at high temperature and pressure conditions than required in the evaporator. The standard design of the SMART desalination plant is under development as a part of the SMART project. This report describes design concept of these systems and their requirements.

  1. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cristiane R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units. The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The glass transition temperature of sulfonated polystyrene increases in relation to pure polystyrene and DCp was evaluated in order to confirm the strong interactions among the ~SO3H groups.

  2. Comparison of Options for a Pilot Plant Fusion Nuclear Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T; Goldston, R J; El-Guebaly, L; Kessel, C; Neilson, G H; Malang, S; Menard, J E; Prager, S; Waganer, L; Titus, P

    2012-08-27

    A fusion pilot plant study was initiated to clarify the development needs in moving from ITER to a first of a kind fusion power plant, following a path similar to the approach adopted for the commercialization of fission. The pilot plant mission encompassed component test and fusion nuclear science missions plus the requirement to produce net electricity with high availability in a device designed to be prototypical of the commercial device. Three magnetic configuration options were developed around this mission: the advanced tokamak (AT), spherical tokamak (ST) and compact stellarator (CS). With the completion of the study and separate documentation of each design option a question can now be posed; how do the different designs compare with each other as candidates for meeting the pilot plant mission? In a pro/con format this paper will examine the key arguments for and against the AT, ST and CS magnetic configurations. Key topics addressed include: plasma parameters, device configurations, size and weight comparisons, diagnostic issues, maintenance schemes, availability influences and possible test cell arrangement schemes.

  3. Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD, ROBERT P

    1999-10-21

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project.

  4. AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-08-01

    One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease

  5. Solar Pilot Plant Phase I, detailed design report: thermal storage subsystem research experiment. CDRL Item No. 8 (Approved)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-17

    The Thermal Storage Subsystem Research Experiment is designed to give maximum information for evaluating the design, performance, and operating parameters of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant. The experiment is summarized, and the experiment components detail design and integration are described. The experiment test and operation is described which is designed to collect engineering data to allow the design, performance, and operational characteristics to be specified for the Pilot Plant. Appended are: design documentation; pressure drop calculations; materials studies for thermal energy storage; flow charts for data acquisition and control; condenser detail design; instrumentation error analysis; logic diagrams for the control system; literature survey to evaluate the two-phase forced convection heat transfer; and the vaporizer performance model. (LEW)

  6. Final design, installation and baseline testing of 500 kW direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlinak, A.; Lobach, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Werner, D.

    1980-05-30

    The pilot plant was configured to accomplish two objectives - first to evaluate the overall performance potential of direct contact powerplants and second to develop design criteria and parameters for full-scale direct contact plants. The pilot plant includes all of the process functions that would be incorporated in a full-scale plant. Incoming brine is treated to remove undissolved gases, pumped through the direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX), and then sent to a recovery system for removal of the dissolved working fluid. The chosen working fluid is isobutane (IC/sub 4/). The working fluid loop includes a radial inflow turbine with generator, condensers, hot-well reservoir, and a feed pump. A downwell pump was installed in the geothermal well to supply the plant with unflashed brine. (MHR)

  7. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  8. Effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Bombardiere, John; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester treating chicken litter, under thermophilic conditions, has been studied. Heating strategy was evaluated using three different spans (0.2 degrees C, 0.6 degrees C, and 1.0 degree C) for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature (56.7 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time in the pilot plant digester was in the range of 32 to 37 days, varying the total solids concentration fed from 5% to 6%. The results showed that under the experimental conditions, heating was the most energy-demanding process with 95.5% of the energy used. Increments up to 7.5% and 3.8%, respectively, on mechanical and heating power consumption, were observed as the span, for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature, was increased. Under the experimental conditions studied here, an increment of 30.6% on the global biodigester performance index was observed when a span of 1.0 degree C was compared to the one of 0.2 degrees C.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Roy B.; Adams, Amy; Martin, Don; Morris, Randall C.; Reynolds, Timothy D.; Warren, Ronald W.

    2000-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 1999 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during calendar year 1999. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 1999, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment. Radionuclide concentrations in the environment surrounding WIPP were not statistically higher in 1999 than in 1998.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-09-20

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (WRES)

    2004-10-25

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  13. High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O& #39; Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

    2004-02-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  15. The waste isolation pilot plant regulatory compliance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewhinney, J.A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Kehrman, R.F. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA) marked a turning point for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program. It established a Congressional mandate to open the WIPP in as short a time as possible, thereby initiating the process of addressing this nation`s transuranic (TRU) waste problem. The DOE responded to the LWA by shifting the priority at the WIPP from scientific investigations to regulatory compliance and the completion of prerequisites for the initiation of operations. Regulatory compliance activities have taken four main focuses: (1) preparing regulatory submittals; (2) aggressive schedules; (3) regulator interface; and (4) public interactions

  16. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdal, W.; Walis, L.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    1993-07-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established.

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2003-09-17

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  18. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  19. Modeling temperature variations in a pilot plant thermophilic anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; López-Cruz, Irineo L; Domaschko, Max

    2011-05-01

    A model that predicts temperature changes in a pilot plant thermophilic anaerobic digester was developed based on fundamental thermodynamic laws. The methodology utilized two simulation strategies. In the first, model equations were solved through a searching routine based on a minimal square optimization criterion, from which the overall heat transfer coefficient values, for both biodigester and heat exchanger, were determined. In the second, the simulation was performed with variable values of these overall coefficients. The prediction with both strategies allowed reproducing experimental data within 5% of the temperature span permitted in the equipment by the system control, which validated the model. The temperature variation was affected by the heterogeneity of the feeding and extraction processes, by the heterogeneity of the digestate recirculation through the heating system and by the lack of a perfect mixing inside the biodigester tank. The use of variable overall heat transfer coefficients improved the temperature change prediction and reduced the effect of a non-ideal performance of the pilot plant modeled.

  20. Local area networks, laboratory information management systems, languages, and operating systems in the lab and pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessy, R.E.

    1983-08-01

    Microprocessors and microcomputers are being incorporated into the instruments and controllers in our laboratory and pilot plant. They enhance both the quality and amount of information that is produced. Yet they simultaneously produce vast amounts of information that must be controlled, or scientists and engineers will become high priced secretaries. The devices need programs that control them in a time frame relevant to the experiment. Simple, expeditious pathways to the generation of software that will run rapidly is essential or first class scientists and engineers become second class system programmersexclamation This paper attempts to develop the vocabulary by which the people involved in this technological revolution can understand and control it. We will examine the elements that synergistically make up the electronic laboratory and pilot plant. More detailed analyses of each area may be found in a series of articles entitled A/C INTERFACE (1-4). Many factors interact in the final system that we bring into our laboratory. Yet many purchasers only perform a cursory evaluation on the superficial aspects of the hardware. The integrated lab and pilot plant require that microprocessors, which control and collect, be connected in a LAN to larger processors that can provide LIMS support. Statistics and scientific word processing capabilities then complete the armamentorium. The end result is a system that does things for the user, rather than doing things to him.

  1. Nonthermal processing of orange juice using a pilot-plant scale supercritical carbon dioxide system with a gas-liquid metal contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effect of pilot-plant scale, non-thermal supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) processing on the safety and the quality of orange juice (OJ), SCCO2 processed juice was compared with untreated fresh juice and equivalently thermal processed juice in terms of lethality. SCCO2 processing ...

  2. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  3. Development of a continuous rotating cone reactor pilot plant for the pyrolysis of polyethene and polypropene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Waanders, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot plant for the high-temperature pyrolysis of polymers to recycle plastic waste to valuable products was constructed based on the rotating cone reactor (RCR) technology. The RCR used in this pilot plant, termed the continuous RCR ([C]RCR) was an improved version of the bench-scale RCR ([B]RCR)

  4. Performance and Modelling of the Pre-combustion Capture Pilot Plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, K.; Faber, R.; Gnutek, R.; Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Trapp, C.; Valenz, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the final results of the pilot plant operation and R&D programme of the CO2 Catch-up project (2008- 2013). The objective of the CO2 Catch-up project is to demonstrate pre-combustion CO2 capture at the pilot plant in Buggenum, the Netherlands, in order to verify the technology p

  5. [Pilot plant and experimental laboratory production. The role in biotechnology industry development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, H L

    2000-01-01

    A stage-phase approach can contribute to unnecessarily long product development time. A simultaneous approach that integrates all development resources through an effectively managed pilot plant can significantly shorten the product development cycle. An intensive development of the domestic biotechnology manufacturing is impossible without creation of the real pilot plant market in Ukraine.

  6. Electrodialytic soil remediation in a small pilot plant (Part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    difference in the degree of pollution and the way copper is bound within the soil.The speciation of copper in the soil from a small pilot plant did not show any measurable change during the first seven months of operation. It seems that the number of particles with very a high concentration of copper......Observations were made of copper-polluted soil to see, if any changes in the bonding type of copper in the soil were made during electrodialytic soil remediation. Three different fractions of the copper-polluted soil were used for investigation with infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction...... (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and observations with scanning electron microscope (SEM), the last two combined with an EDX analysis unit. The three soil fractions were extracted with am-monia for observa-tion of the copper removal when copper forms copper-tetra-ammine complexes with am...

  7. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson [Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), NM (United States); Basabilvazo, George T. [Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2016 (ASER) is to provide the information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP facility. DOE Order 231.1B; DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability; and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1B, which requires DOE facilities to submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated.

  10. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  11. Use of phosphorus release batch tests for modelling an EBPR pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tykesson, E.; Aspegren, H.; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how routinely performed phosphorus release tests could be used when modelling enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) using activated sludge models such as ASM2d. A pilot plant with an extensive analysis programme was used as basis for the simulations....... Without any calibration the prediction of phosphorus removal was poor and the initial release rates from the simulations were not similar to those found from the laboratory tests. A period with low organic loading was chosen as a calibration period. In this period averages of daily influent measurements...... were used as influent parameters. First, calibration was performed in order to fit effluent COD and MLVSS in the sludge. Next, the phosphorus content in the sludge was decreased to the measured level by decreasing the fermentation rate. Finally, the initial phosphorus release rate was calculated from...

  12. Operational and field test results from the 500 kw direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlinak, A.J.; Lobach, J.L.; Nichols, K.E.

    1981-10-01

    A 500 kw geothermal powerplant utilizing direct contact heat exchange (DCHX) between geothermal brine and an isobutane (IC/sub 4/) working fluid is currently operating at the East Mesa test facility. The pilot plant program was initiated to determine the feasibility of large-scale direct contact heat exchange and associated plant operations. In addition to verifying the design performance of the DCHX itself, test efforts to date have (1) quantified the effect of dissolved gases (primarily CO/sub 2/) transferred from the brine to the IC/sub 4/ loop on the pressure elevation in the unvented power condenser and demonstrated a viable scheme to control this pressure elevation, (2) evaluated the potential of flash extraction and recovery of dissolved IC/sub 4/ from the spent brine, and (3) demonstrated control of fouling in critical components by pretreating the brine with small amounts of a chemical additive (FLOCON 247, Pfizer, Inc.).

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2000-12-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

  15. Two treatment methods for stormwater sediments--pilot plant and landfarming--and reuse of the treated sediments in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petavy, F; Ruban, V; Conil, P; Viau, J Y; Auriol, J C

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to present a pilot plant for the treatment of stormwater sediments and to compare the decontamination rate to that obtained by landfarming. The possibilities for reuse of the treated sediments in civil engineering are also studied. Four sediments from retention/infiltration ponds or from street sweeping were studied. In each case organic matter (OM), total hydrocarbons (TH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured. Geotechnical tests were carried out to evaluate the reuse possibilities of the treated sediments. Treatment by means of the pilot plant was efficient at reducing TH and PAH concentrations: THs were reduced by 53-97% and PAHs were decreased by 60-95%. By comparison, a reduction of 45-75% in TH concentration is obtained with landfarming, whereas there is no significant decrease in PAHs. Furthermore, geotechnical tests showed that the treated fractions from the pilot plant can be reused as road embankments and as a capping layer. These results are most encouraging and show that stormwater sediments can valuably be reused after treatment in a pilot plant. Landfarming is less efficient but this technique could be used as a pretreatment in the case of high TH pollution.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of a New Cosmology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2015-01-01

    Informed by our research on student understanding of cosmology, The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks and real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a more engaging format that builds important STEM skills.During the spring 2014 semester, we field-tested a subset of chapters with the general education astronomy and cosmology classes at Sonoma State University in a flipped-classroom format. We administered pre and post content and attitude assessments in the two flipped classes as well as two lecture classes. The majority of cosmology students had taken astronomy before whereas the astronomy students had not.When switching to an active mode of learning (e.g., flipped classroom instead of lecture), many instructors report pushback from students. We saw this effect from students in course evaluations, who reported dissatisfaction with "having to do more work." However, the students in the flipped section in astronomy made greater gains on the multiple choice content assessment than the students in either of the two lecture sections. On the attitude assessment (the CLASS), the cosmology students made a small shift toward more expert-like opinions. Preliminary results from open-ended content surveys indicate that, prior to instruction, students had difficulty answering 'why' or 'how do we know' questions; that post-instruction, students are less likely to respond "I don't know" or to leave an answer blank; and that students using the modules made gains in their content knowledge.Module development was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University's Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and Great River Technology

  17. General Atomic Reprocessing Pilot Plant: engineering-scale dissolution system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, H.H.

    1979-04-01

    In February 1978, a dissolver-centrifuge system was added to the cold reprocessing pilot plant at General Atomic Company, which completed the installation of an HTGR fuel head-end reprocessing pilot plant. This report describes the engineering-scale equipment in the pilot plant and summarizes the design features derived from development work performed in the last few years. The dissolver operating cycles for both thorium containing BISO and uranium containinng WAR fissile fuels are included. A continuous vertical centrifuge is used to clarify the resultant dissolver product solution. Process instrumentation and controls for the system reflect design philosophy suitable for remote operation.

  18. Test results from the 500 kW direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, K.E.; Olander, R.G.; Lobach, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    A 500 kW power plant utilizing direct contact heat exchange (DCHX) between the geothermal brine and the isobutane (IC/sub 4/) working fluid is being operated at the East Mesa test facility. The power plant incorporates a 40-inch-diameter direct-contactor approximately 35 feet tall. The purpose of the pilot plant is to determine the feasibility of large-scale direct-contact heat exchange and power plant operation with the DCHX. The binary cycle offers higher conversion factors (heat energy transformed to electrical energy) than the flashed steam approach for geothermal brines in the 300 to 400/sup 0/F range and preliminary results indicate the DCHX system may have higher performance than the conventional tube-and-shell binary approach. This performance advantage results from the absence of any fouling and the very close pinch temperatures achieved in the DCHX itself. The baseline performance tests for the plant were completed in January 1980. The results of these tests and follow-on testing are covered.

  19. Historical Background on Assessment the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the US Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a research and development facility for the safe management, storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and 25 years after site selection, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance assessment conducted in 1996. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This report provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project. For example, the federal requirement to provide environmental impact statements and negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico influenced the type of scientific areas that were investigated and the engineering analysis prior to 1989 for the WIPP.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

    2009-09-21

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  1. The determination of residence times in a pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, F. Pablo E-mail: fcopabloramirez@tonatiu.netmeci44@prodigy.net.com; Cortes, M. Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that residence time distributions (RTD) are very important in many chemical processes such as separation, reforming, hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrodesulfuration, hydrogenation among others [3 Procedes de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. In addition, tracers can be used to measure the velocity, distribution and residence time of any stream through any part of an industrial [Guidebook on Radioisotope Tracers in Industry, IAEA, Vienna, 1990] or experimental system. Perhaps the best quality of radiotracers is that they do not interfere with normal unit operations or production scheduling. In this paper are presented the RTDs obtained in a pilot plant for a hydrogenation process [IMP, Technical Report, Determinacion del tiempo de residencia promedio en el reactor de la planta piloto de hidroagotamiento de crudo, 2002]. The RTDs show a random phenomenon, which is not typical of this type of chemical processes. Several RTDs were determined in order to confirm this random behavior. The data were obtained using as a tracer a radioactive form of sodium iodide containing iodine-131 [The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 10th Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, USA, 1981]. The process works with two phases in a countercurrent flow, inside a packed column. The liquid phase goes down by gravity. The gas phase goes up due to pressure difference [3 Procedes de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. The tracer was selected such that it would follow the liquid phase.

  2. The determination of residence times in a pilot plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, F. Pablo; Cortés, M. Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that residence time distributions (RTD) are very important in many chemical processes such as separation, reforming, hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrodesulfuration, hydrogenation among others [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. In addition, tracers can be used to measure the velocity, distribution and residence time of any stream through any part of an industrial [Guidebook on Radioisotope Tracers in Industry, IAEA, Vienna, 1990] or experimental system. Perhaps the best quality of radiotracers is that they do not interfere with normal unit operations or production scheduling. In this paper are presented the RTDs obtained in a pilot plant for a hydrogenation process [IMP, Technical Report, Determinación del tiempo de residencia promedio en el reactor de la planta piloto de hidroagotamiento de crudo, 2002]. The RTDs show a random phenomenon, which is not typical of this type of chemical processes. Several RTDs were determined in order to confirm this random behavior. The data were obtained using as a tracer a radioactive form of sodium iodide containing iodine-131 [The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 10th Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, USA, 1981]. The process works with two phases in a countercurrent flow, inside a packed column. The liquid phase goes down by gravity. The gas phase goes up due to pressure difference [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. The tracer was selected such that it would follow the liquid phase.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-12

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, "Environmental Standards for Management and Storage"; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. §§300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. §§2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. §§9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  4. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

  5. Compliance status report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposition of transuranic (TRU) waste generated through national defense-related activities. Approximately 53,700 m{sup 2} of these wastes have been generated and are currently stored at government defense installations across the country. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been sited and constructed to meet the criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes. This Compliance Status Report (CSR) provides an assessment of the progress of the WIPP Program toward compliance with long-term disposal regulations, set forth in Title 40 CFR 191 (EPA, 1993a), Subparts B and C, and Title 40 CFR {section}268.6 (EPA, 1993b), in order to focus on-going and future experimental and engineering activities. The CSR attempts to identify issues associated with the performance of the WIPP as a long-term repository and to focus on the resolution of these issues. This report will serve as a tool to focus project resources on the areas necessary to ensure complete, accurate, and timely submittal of the compliance application. This document is not intended to constitute a statement of compliance or a demonstration of compliance.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  7. Regulatory basis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOWARD,BRYAN A.; CRAWFORD,M.B.; GALSON,D.A.; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-22

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first operational repository designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the defense programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for certifications and regulation of the WIPP facility for the radioactive components of the waste. The EPA has promulgated general radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 191. and WIPP-specific criteria to implement and interpret the generic disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 194. In October 1996. the DOE submitted its Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the EPA to demonstrate compliance with the disposal standards at Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191. This paper summarizes the development of the overall legal framework for radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP, the parallel development of the WIPP performance assessment (PA), and how the EPA disposal standards and implementing criteria formed the basis for the CCA WIPP PA. The CCA resulted in a certification in May 1998 by the EPA of the WIPP'S compliance with the EPA's disposal standard, thus enabling the WIPP to begin radioactive waste disposal.

  8. Waset Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-09-26

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data that: (a) Characterize site environmental management performance; (b) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; and (d) Highlight significant facility programs and efforts. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP site. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. This order requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) (No. NM4890139088-TSDF [treatment, storage, and disposal facility]) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  9. Sealing concepts for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.L.; Gulick, C.W.; Lambert, S.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility is proposed for development in the southeast portion of the State of New Mexico. The proposed horizon is in bedded salt located approximately 2150 ft below the surface. The purpose of the WIPP is to provide an R&D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities of the United States. As such, it will include a disposal demonstration for transuranic (TRU) wastes and an experimental area to address issues associated with disposal of defense high level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. All DHLW used in the experiments are planned for retrieval at the termination of testing; the TRU waste can be permanently disposed of at the site after the pilot phase is complete. This report addresses only the Plugging and Sealing program, which will result in an adequate and acceptable technology for final sealing and decommissioning of the facility at the WIPP site. The actual plugging operations are intended to be conducted on a commercial industrial basis through contracts issued by the DOE. This report is one in a series that is based on a technical program of modeling, laboratory materials testing and field demonstration which will provide a defensible basis for the actual plugging operations to be conducted by the DOE for final closure of the facility.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-migration variance petition. Addendum: Volume 7, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    This report describes various aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) including design data, waste characterization, dissolution features, ground water hydrology, natural resources, monitoring, general geology, and the gas generation/test program.

  11. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum C. Cost worksheets for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The cost worksheets for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. A summary cost estimate, cost estimate for surface facilities, and cost estimate for shafts and underground facilities are included. (DC)

  12. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-03-01

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on March 26, 1999, was the culmination of a regulatory assessment process that had taken 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements during the first 15 years of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected up to this point. Assessment activities before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico, or (3) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal. In the last 10 years, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, and continued to evolve until 1996. During this period, stochastic simulations were introduced as a tool for the assessment of the WIPP's performance, and four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  13. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  14. Arsenic pilot plant operation and results:Weatherford, Oklahoma.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Malynda Jo; Arora, H. (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona); Karori, Saqib (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona); Pathan, Sakib (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona)

    2007-05-01

    Narasimhan Consulting Services, Inc. (NCS), under a contract with the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), designed and operated pilot scale evaluations of the adsorption and coagulation/filtration treatment technologies aimed at meeting the recently revised arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. The standard of 10 {micro}g/L (10 ppb) is effective as of January 2006. The pilot demonstration is a project of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, a partnership between the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF), SNL and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development). The pilot evaluation was conducted at Well 30 of the City of Weatherford, OK, which supplies drinking water to a population of more than 10,400. Well water contained arsenic in the range of 16 to 29 ppb during the study. Four commercially available adsorption media were evaluated side by side for a period of three months. Both adsorption and coagulation/filtration effectively reduced arsenic from Well No.30. A preliminary economic analysis indicated that adsorption using an iron oxide media was more cost effective than the coagulation/ filtration technology.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  17. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 4. Commercial and pilot plant cost data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    This volume of the advanced central receiver final report presents the cost data using the cost breakdown structure identified in the preliminary specification. Cost summaries are presented in the following sections for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plant and a 10-MWe pilot plant. Cost substantiation data for this volume are presented in the appendices. Other cost summary data include Nth plant data for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plants, and a summary for the alternative concept air-rock storage system. The main description of the plant costing technique occurs as part of Section II for the 100-MWe baseline concept.

  18. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 4. Commercial and pilot plant cost data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    This volume of the advanced central receiver final report presents the cost data using the cost breakdown structure identified in the preliminary specification. Cost summaries are presented in the following sections for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plant and a 10-MWe pilot plant. Cost substantiation data for this volume are presented in the appendices. Other cost summary data include Nth plant data for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plants, and a summary for the alternative concept air-rock storage system. The main description of the plant costing technique occurs as part of Section II for the 100-MWe baseline concept.

  19. Amadurecimento de filtros lentos de areia e remoção de microrganismos indicadores de qualidade da água ao longo da profundidade do leito: uma avaliação em instalação piloto Maturation of slow sand filters and removal of microorganisms' indicators of water quality along the media depth: an evaluation in pilot plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Ladeira Alves de Brito

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O potencial da filtração lenta como opção tecnológica para o tratamento de água nos países em desenvolvimento e sua capacidade de remoção de contaminantes, sobretudo patogênicos, são reconhecidos. Contudo, ainda permanece incompleto o conhecimento acerca dos mecanismos que predominantemente atuam na remoção dos microrganismos. Objetivando avançar nessa compreensão, desenvolveu-se uma investigação experimental, em unidades piloto, em filtros lentos de areia com escoamento descendente e ascendente, operados com água sintética e duas taxas de filtração (3 e 6m³/m2.d. A retenção dos microrganismos indicadores foi avaliada em cinco camadas, com 0,15 m de espessura cada, em dois momentos da carreira. A maturidade biológica do leito filtrante foi menos favorecida pela taxa mais alta de filtração e pelo fluxo ascendente. Os 0,45 m iniciais do leito filtrante foram importantes na remoção de microrganismos sob as condições estudadas, mas a remoção não se restringiu a estas camadas, tendo sido observada para todos os indicadores retenção nas camadas de 0,45-0,60 m e de 0,60-0,75 m. A schmutzdecke parece desempenhar papel efetivo na remoção de indicadores microbiológicos apenas quando bem desenvolvida. Há uma indicação de que a camada suporte exerce algum papel na retenção de sólidos e microrganismos no fluxo ascendente.The potential of the slow sand filtration as technological option for drinking-water treatment in developing countries and its capacity of contaminants removal, mainly pathogens, are recognized.However, the knowledge concerning the predominant mechanisms that act in microorganism's removal still remains incomplete. Aiming to advance in the understanding of these themes, an experimental investigation was carried out, working with pilot plants of downflow and upflow slow sand filters, operated with synthetic water and two filtration rates (3 and 6 m³/m².d. The microorganisms indicators removal was

  20. PILOT PLANT STUDY ON NATURAL WATER COAGULANTS AS COAGULAN AIDS FOR WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BINA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural plant coagulants have an important role to play in provision of portable water to rural communities in the developing world. The plant material that their coagulation properties have been confirmed in previous lab scale studies and can be found widely in Iran was selected as coagulant aids. Pilot plant study was done to evaluate the efficiency of natural material such as Starch/Gum Tragacanth, Fenugreek and Yeast as coagulant aids in conjunction with comercial alum. Methods: The pilot was placed in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant (IWTP and efficiency of these materials in removal of turbidity from raw water enters the IWTP was evaluated. The results indicated while these materials were used as coagulant aids in concentration of 1-5 mg/l conjunction with alum are able to reduced the turbidity and final residuals turbidity meets the standards limits. Results: The coagulation efficiency of these material were found to be effected by certain physico-chemical factors, namely, concentration of suspended solids, divalent cation metal and time of agitation. The relative importance of these variable was evaluated. The results of COD test proved that the natural coagulant aids in the optimum doses produce no any significant organic residual. Discussion: Economical considerations showed that using of these material as coagulant aids can cause reduction in alum consumption and in some cases are more econmical than synthetic polyelectrolyte.

  1. Implementation of the Resource Disincentive in 40 CFR part 191.14 (e) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project Office (WPO) (DOE-WPO) prepared a strategy for complying with the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Standards for the management of transuranic (TRU) waste. Section 3.2.2.2 of the DOE`s report addressed compliance with the Assurance Requirements found in 40 CFR {section} 191.14. One of the Assurance Requirements addresses the selection of repository sites that contain recoverable natural resources. This report documents that the site selection process for the WIPP facility did indeed comply with the natural resource disincentive requirement in 40 CFR {section} 191,14(e) at the time selected and therefore complies with the standard at this time. Thus, it shall be shown that it is reasonably certain that the WIPP site provides better overall protection than practical alternatives that were available when the site was selected. It is important to point out here, and it will be discussed later in the report, that the resource disincentive requirement is a preliminary siting criterion that requires further evaluation of sites that have resources (i.e, hydrocarbons, minerals and groundwater) in the vicinity or on the site. This further evaluation requires that for sites that do have resources, a qualitative determination must be made that the site will provide better overall protection than practical alternatives. The purpose of this report is not to provide a quantitative evaluation for selection of the WIPP site. A further discussion on the difference between the qualitative analysis required under 40 CFR {section} 191.14(e) and the quantitative analysis under other sections of 40 CFR 191 is provided in {section}2.1 of this report.

  2. Hydrocarbonization process evaluation report. Volume II. Evaluation of process feasibility. [49 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.M.; Dyslin, D.A.; Edwards, M.S.; Joy, D.S.; Peterson, G.R.

    1977-07-01

    Volume II of a two-volume study concerning the preliminary design and economic evaluation of a Hydrocarbonization Facility includes: (1) a review of the current status of the major processing units, (2) an assessment of operating problems, (3) considerations of possible process alternatives, (4) an evaluation of the overall process feasibility, and (5) recommendations for future process development. Results of the study emphasize the need for testing the evaluated process, which is based on the Clean Coke Process, in a continuous pilot plant using a wide variety of highly caking bituminous coals as feed material. A program suggested for the pilot plant would encompass: (1) development of improved methods for the prevention of agglomeration of highly caking coals during hydrocarbonization, (2) optimization of the yields of coal liquids, (3) investigation of a single-stage high-temperature hydrocarbonizer optimized for char production, and (4) optimization of beneficiation ratios employed during coal preparation.

  3. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  4. Biological removal of organic constituents in quench waters from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

    1980-02-01

    Studies were initiated to assess the efficiency of bench-scale, activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from coal-gasification process effluents. Samples of pilot-plant, raw-gas quench waters were obtained from the HYGAS process of the Institute of Gas Technology and from the slagging, fixed-bed (SFB) process of the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. The types of coal employed were Bituminous Illinois No. 6 for the HYGAS and Indian Head lignite for the SFB process. These pilot-plant quench waters, while not strictly representative of commercial condensates, were considered useful to evaluate the efficiency of biological oxidation for the removal of organics. Biological-reactor influent and effluent samples were extracted using a methylene chloride pH-fractionation method into acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Influent acid fractions of both HYGAS and SFB condensates showed that nearly 99% of extractable and chromatographable organic material comprised phenol and alkylated phenols. Activated-sludge treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Removal efficiency of base-fraction organics was generally good, except for certain alkylated pyridines. Removal of neutral-fraction organics was also good, except for certain alkylated benzenes, certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and certain cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes, especially at low influent concentrations.

  5. Preliminary Aspects of Language Course Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Program and/or course evaluation is a process in which different types of data are collected systematically in order to study the virtues and weaknesses of a language instruction program. Program evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional…

  6. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesheim, M. B.; Beauheim, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    The development of a groundwater monitoring program is an integral part of any radioactive waste disposal facility. Monitoring improves our understanding of the geologic and hydrologic framework, which improves conceptual models and the quality of groundwater models that provide data input for performance assessment. The purpose of a groundwater monitoring program is to provide objective evidence that the hydrologic system is behaving as expected (i.e., performance confirmation). Monitoring should not be limited to near-field observations but should include the larger natural system in which the repository is situated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic wastes resulting from U.S. defense programs, can serve as a model for other radioactive waste disposal facilities. WIPP has a long-established groundwater monitoring program that is geared towards meeting compliance certification requirements set forth by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary task of the program is to measure various water parameters (e.g.., water level, pressure head, chemical and physical properties) using a groundwater monitoring network that currently consists of 85 wells in the vicinity of the WIPP site. Wells are completed to a number of water-bearing horizons and are monitored on a monthly basis. In many instances, they are also instrumented with programmable pressure transducers that take high-frequency measurements that supplement the monthly measurements. Results from higher frequency measurements indicate that the hydrologic system in the WIPP vicinity is in a transient state, responding to both natural and anthropogenic stresses. The insights gathered from the monitoring, as well as from hydrologic testing activities, provide valuable information that contributes to groundwater modeling efforts and performance assessment. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by

  7. SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is shown below: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH; 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O; H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a

  8. SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-05-15

    The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a scaleup project

  9. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  10. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  11. Pilot plant operation of the Uranium Chip Oxidation Facility at the Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Y.C.

    1987-01-16

    Due to changing environmental regulations, the current practice of depleted uranium chip (machine turning) disposal via shallow land burial has become environmentally objectionable. The chips are pyrophoric and oxidize rapidly when exposed to air; therefore, long-term storage of the uranium chips presents a major fire hazard. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Development Division was contacted to devise a disposal method that would eliminate chip burial and minimize storage space requirements. The proposed method of accomplishing this task was oxidizing the uranium chips to uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) under controlled conditions. Pilot plant operation of the Uranium Chip Oxidation Facility (UCOF) was initiated on May 20, 1985, by the Y-12 Development Division. The purpose of this initial development testing was to evaluate the equipment, determine operating parameters, and provide on-the-job training for Waste Treatment Operations (WTO) personnel. Startup of the UCOF began with the check-out of the equipment using only the No. 1 oxidizer. Following the verification stage, the oxidizer was loaded with an initial charge of cold uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) in preparation for test burning. Results of the test are given.

  12. Potential for long-term isolation by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Swift, P.N. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must comply with EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, which sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal. The regulation, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (hereafter referred to as the Standard), was vacated in 1987 by a Federal Court of Appeals and is underground revision. By agreement with the Sate of New Mexico, the WIPP project is evaluating compliance with the Standard as promulgated, in 1985 until a new regulation is available. This report summarizes the early-1990 status of Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) understanding of the Project's ability to achieve compliance. The report reviews the qualitative and quantitative requirements for compliance, and identifies unknowns complicating performance assessment. It discusses in relatively nontechnical terms the approaches to resolving those unknowns, and concludes that SNL has reasonable confidence that compliance is achievable with the Standard as first promulgated. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) defined a comprehensive set of parameters which are monitored to detect potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future environmental evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radioactivity levels. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include air, water quality, soil properties, meteorological measurements and determination of the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the WIPP site with emphasis on the salt storage pile. The baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in its preoperational phase (i.e., no waste has been received) certain operational requirements of DOE Orders 5400.1, 5400.5, and the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T) are not relevant. Therefore, this report does not discuss items such as radionuclide emissions and effluents and subsequent doses to the public.

  14. Year-round phytofiltration lagoon assessment using Pistia stratiotes within a pilot-plant scale biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Eugenia J; García-López, Daniel A; González-Portela, Ricardo E; Sánchez-Galván, Gloria

    2017-08-15

    Phytofiltration lagoons are phytoremediation technologies suitable for tropical and sub-tropical regions requiring cost-effective and echo-friendly technologies. A biorefinery of fourth generation has been implemented at pilot plant level in Xalapa, Mexico, and the phytofiltration lagoon, being the first module for provision of treated water and plant biomass for biofuel production plays a key role. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of such phytofiltration lagoon with a working volume of 13,000 L for the removal of nutrients from an urban river polluted with domestic wastewater and the biomass productivity of the macrophyte Pistia stratiotes, during five different experimental periods, comprising 42 days each one. The maximum absolute growth rates (AGR, gdwday(-1)) registered for P. stratiotes during the Aug-Oct '15 and the March-Apr '16 and Apr-May '16 period were in the range of 13.51±2.66 to 16.54±2.02gdwday(-1). The average biomass productivity was 5.808gdwm(-2)day(-1). Productivities were similar during the periods of Aug-Oct '15, Mar-Apr '16 and Apr-May '16 and significantly higher (pbiorefinery for providing biomass year-round and for treating the polluted water very effectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report, for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires DOE facilities, that conduct environmental protection programs, to annually prepare a Site Environmental Report (SER). The purpose of the SER is to provide an abstract of environmental assessments conducted in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit. The content of this SER is not restricted to a synopsis of the required data, in addition, information pertaining to new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1995 calendar year are also included. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). The EMP provides inclusive guidelines implemented to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater. air, soil, and biotic matrices are monitored for an array of radiological and nonradiological factors. The baseline radiological surveillance program encompasses a broader geographic area that includes nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Most elements of nonradiological assessments are conducted within the geographic vicinity of the WIPP site.

  16. Simulation of a semi-industrial pilot plant thickener using CFD approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Ebrahimzadeh Gheshlaghi; Ataallah Soltani Goharrizi; Alireza Aghajani Shahrivar

    2013-01-01

    Thickeners are important units for water recovery in various industries.In this study,a semi-industrial pilot plant thickener similar to the tailing thickener of the Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine was simulated by CFD modeling.The population balance was used to describe the particle aggregation and breakup.In this population balance,15 particle sizes categories were considered.The Eulerian-Eulerian approach with standard k-ε turbulence model was applied to describe two phases of slurry flow in the thickener under steady-state condition.The simulation results have been compared with the experimental measurements to validate the accuracy of the CFD modeling.After checking the numerical results,the effect of important parameters such as,feed flow rate,solid percentage in the feed,and solid particle size on the thickener performance.was studied.The thickener residence time distribution were obtained by the modeling and also compared with the experimental data.Finally,the effects of feedwell feeding on the average diameter of aggregate and turbulent intensity were evaluated.

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE facility that conducts significant environmental protection programs to prepare an Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER). The purpose of the ASER is to summarize environmental data in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts. This ASER not only documents the required data, it also documents new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1994 calendar year. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) (DOE/WIPP 94-024). The EMP defines a comprehensive set of parameters that must be monitored to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radiological and nonradiological activity levels. The baseline radiological surveillance program covers the broader geographic area that encompasses nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Nonradiological studies focus on the area immediately surrounding the WIPP site.

  18. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  19. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  20. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  1. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    Two innovative vortex extraction devices - the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) and the Vortex Augmentor Concept (VAC) - are critically evaluated to provide a preliminary assessment of their technical and economic viability as compared to conventional horizontal axis wind energy systems. This assessment was carried out over a wide range of power output levels and augmentation ratios appropriate to each of the concepts.

  2. Outline and Preliminary Evaluation of the Classical Digital Library Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCall, Steven L.; Cleveland, Ana D.; Gibson, Ian E.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the classical digital library model, which is derived from traditional practices of library and information science professionals, as an alternative to the database retrieval model. Reports preliminary results from an evaluation study of library and information professionals and endusers involved with primary care medicine. (AEF)

  3. Research and Development on PFBC—CC in China and Jiawnag Pilot plant Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NingshengCai; MingyaoZhang

    1994-01-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion(PFBC)is recognized as an advanced coal-fired technology which can improve efficiency in combined cycle sceme and reduce environmental pollution.Progressive status on PFBC-CC in China is preseted in this paper.Test results on a 1 MWt bench scale experimental PFBC facility is reviuewed briefly.Based on retrofitting of an old steam power plant located at Jiawang,a project to construct a PFBC-CC pilot plant is under way ,Designed capacity of the pilot plant is about 15 MWe ,3MWe from gas cycle and 12 MWe from steam cycle.The system configuration,main design parameters,estimated technical performance as well as construction schedule of the pilot plant are described.The bright future for PFBC-CC in China is also indicated.

  4. 10-MWe pilot-plant-receiver panel test requirements document solar thermal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-25

    Testing plans for a full-scale test receiver panel and supporting hardware which essentially duplicate both physically and functionally, the design planned for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. Testing is to include operation during normal start and shutdown, intermittent cloud conditions, and emergencies to determine the panel's transient and steady state operating characteristics and performance under conditions equal to or exceeding those expected in the pilot plant. The effects of variations of input and output conditions on receiver operation are also to be investigated. Test hardware are described, including the pilot plant receiver, the test receiver assembly, receiver panel, flow control, electrical control and instrumentation, and structural assembly. Requirements for the Solar Thermal Test Facility for the tests are given. The safety of the system is briefly discussed, and procedures are described for assembly, installation, checkout, normal and abnormal operations, maintenance, removal and disposition. Also briefly discussed are quality assurance, contract responsibilities, and test documentation. (LEW)

  5. Photocatalytic treatment of an industrial effluent using artificial and solar UV radiation: an operational cost study on a pilot plant scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the operation costs of treating a real effluent from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power station located in Spain. The study compares different homogeneous photocatalytic processes on a pilot plant scale using different types of radiation (artificial UV or solar UV with a compound parabolic collector). The efficiency of the processes was evaluated by an analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) removed. The following processes were considered in the study: (i) a photo-Fenton process at an artificial UV pilot plant (with the initial addition of H(2)O(2)), (ii) a modified photo-Fenton process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and O(2) to the system and (iii) a ferrioxalate-assisted solar photo-Fenton process at a compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of these processes in degrading pollutants has been studied previously, and the results obtained in each of those studies have been published elsewhere. The operational costs due to the consumption of electrical energy, reagents and catalysts were calculated from the optimal conditions of each process. The results showed that the solar photo-Fenton system was economically feasible, being able to achieve up to 75% mineralization with a total cost of 6 €/m(3), which can be reduced to 3.6 €/m(3) by subtracting the electrical costs because the IGCC plant is self-sufficient in terms of energy.

  6. Preliminary Clinical Evaluation: The What, Where, How Approach to Scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, C.; Akimoto, T.

    2016-01-01

    The SCoR is driving for preliminary clinical evaluation (PCE) however; currently there is no method of quantification to assess quality. FRCR has an approach to quantify comments in the rapid reporting examination (CR2B).The aim of this project was to develop a robust scoring system that enables comprehensive image evaluation regardless of profession. An image test bank was administered using RadBench with equal prevalence of normal /abnormal. A random sample of attempts was selected to pilot...

  7. Preliminary evaluation of a Neutron Calibration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Talysson S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Sanches, Matias P.; Mitake, Malvina B.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: talvarenga@ipen.br, E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br, E-mail: aperini@ipen.br, E-mail: msanches@ipen.br, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial

    2013-07-01

    In the past few years, Brazil and several other countries in Latin America have experimented a great demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, mainly due to the increase in oil prospection and extraction. The only laboratory for calibration of neutron detectors in Brazil is localized at the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, which is part of the IAEA SSDL network. This laboratory is the national standard laboratory in Brazil. With the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for another calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new calibration laboratory for neutron detectors. In this work, the ambient equivalent dose rate (H⁎(10)) was evaluated in several positions inside and around this laboratory, using Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP5 code), in order to verify the adequateness of the shielding. The obtained results showed that the shielding is effective, and that this is a low-cost methodology to improve the safety of the workers and evaluate the total staff workload. (author)

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transuranic wastes experimental characterization program: executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1978-11-01

    A general overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transuranic wastes experimental characterization program is presented. Objectives and outstanding concerns of this program are discussed. Characteristics of transuranic wastes are also described. Concerns for the terminal isolation of such wastes in a deep bedded salt facility are divided into two phases, those during the short-term operational phase of the facility, and those potentially occurring in the long-term, after decommissioning of the repository. An inclusive summary covering individual studies, their importance to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, investigators, general milestones, and comments are presented.

  9. Performance and Model Calibration of R-D-N Processes in Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Sota, A.; Larrea, L.; Novak, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the first part of an experimental programme in a pilot plant configured for advanced biological nutrient removal processes treating domestic wastewater of Bilbao. The IAWPRC Model No.1 was calibrated in order to optimize the design of the full-scale plant. In this first phas...

  10. Systematic simulation of a tubular recycle reactor on the basis of pilot plant experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, H.; Narodoslawsky, M.; Moser, A. (Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Biotechnologie, Mikrobiologie und Abfalltechnologie)

    1990-10-10

    Systematic simulatiom may decisively help in development and optimization of bioprocesses. By applying simulation techniques, optimal use can be made of experimental data, decreasing development costs and increasing the accuracy in predicting the behavior of an industrial scale plant. The procedure of the dialogue between simulation and experimental efforts will be exemplified in a case study. Alcoholic fermentation of glucose by zymomonas mobilis bacteria in a gasified turbular recycle reactor was studied first by systematic simulation, using a computer model based solely on literature data. On the base of the results of this simulation, a 0.013 m{sup 3} pilot plant reactor was constructed. The pilot plant experiments, too, were based on the results of the systematic simulation. Simulated and experimental data were well in agreement. The pilot plant experiments reiterated the trends and limits of the process as shown by the simulation results. Data from the pilot plant runs were then used to improve the simulation model. This improved model was subsequently used to simulate the performances of an industrial scale plant. The results of this simulation are presented. They show that the alcohol fermentation in a tubular recycle reactor is potentially advantageous to other reactor configurations, especially to continuous stirred tanks. (orig.).

  11. General Atomic reprocessing pilot plant: description and results of initial testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    In June 1976 General Atomic completed the construction of a reprocessing head-end cold pilot plant. In the year since then, each system within the head end has been used for experiments which have qualified the designs. This report describes the equipment in the plant and summarizes the results of the initial phase of reprocessing testing.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  13. Chemistry research and development. Progress report, December 1978-May 1979. [Component, pilot plant, instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, F. J.

    1980-06-30

    Progress and activities are reported on component development, pilot plant development, and instrumentation and statistical systems. Specific items studied include processing of pond sludge, transport of radioactive materials and wastes, corrosion, decontamination and cleaning, fluidized-bed incineration, Pu contamination of soils, chemical analysis, radiometric analysis, security. (DLC)

  14. Experimental results from a pilot plant for converting acid whey to potentially useful food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, R.W.; Marvin, C.; Julkowski, K.

    1978-01-01

    The pilot plant used a fluidized bed with lactase immobilized on aluminia as well as ultrafiltration and demineralization equipment. Conversion of lactose to its consitiuent monosaccharides was up to 84%, vs. 65% on a bench scale. Advantages of the fluidized bed reactor are its freedom from plugging, its lower pressure loss, and its adaptability to frequent cleaning, compared to a fixed bed.

  15. Emission counter-measures in post-combustion CO2 capture: demonstration at pilot plant scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, F. de; Khakharia, P.M.; Ham, L.V. van der; Huizinga, A.; Kester, L.G.C.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer. E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the OCTAVIUS project is the demonstration of emission countermeasures for post-combustion CO2 capture. To accomplish it, an acid wash was designed and commissioned at TNO’s CO2 capture pilot plant, which is connected to a coal-fired power plant.

  16. Seismic reflection data report: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, Southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hern, J.L.; Powers, D.W.; Barrows, L.J.

    1978-12-01

    Volume II contains uninterpreted processed lines and shotpoint maps from three seismic reflection surveys conducted from 1976 through 1978 by Sandia Laboratories to support investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Data interpretations will be the subject of subsequent reports. (LK)

  17. Osmo-power - Theory and performance of an osmo-power pilot plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, H. H. G.; Masuda, H.

    A theoretical and experimental study of the production of useful energy by the natural process of osmosis is presented. Using the results of the study a conceptual design of an osmotic pilot plant is performed. The power produced by a 1.6 MW/sq km plant has a competitive cost with that produced by both fossil power plants and nuclear power plants.

  18. Influence of Production Process Parameters on Fish Oil Quality in a Pilot Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.M.; Kreb, N.; Boonman, M.; Luten, J.B.; Boom, R.M.; Padt, van der A.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot plant used for upgrading herring byproducts into fish oil was analyzed on its operational efficiency and product quality. The temperature of the heat exchanger and the speeds of the pump and the 3-phase decanter were varied according to a 23 fractional factorial design. The initial amount of

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

  20. Developments in the pre-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, K.; Gnutek, R.; Kaptein, J.; Nannan, N.R.; Oyarzun, B.; Trapp, C.; Colonna, P.; Van Dijk, E.; Gross, J.; Bardow, A.

    2011-01-01

    N.V. Nuon (part of the Vattenfall Group) operates an IGCC in Buggenum and is developing a multi-fuel IGCC with CO2 capture and storage (Nuon Magnum) in Eemshaven, the Netherlands. In order to prepare for large-scale application of CO2 capture and storage, a CO2 capture pilot plant is constructed at

  1. Emission counter-measures in post-combustion CO2 capture: demonstration at pilot plant scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, F. de; Khakharia, P.M.; Ham, L.V. van der; Huizinga, A.; Kester, L.G.C.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer. E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the OCTAVIUS project is the demonstration of emission countermeasures for post-combustion CO2 capture. To accomplish it, an acid wash was designed and commissioned at TNO’s CO2 capture pilot plant, which is connected to a coal-fired power plant.

  2. Developments in the pre-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, K.; Gnutek, R.; Kaptein, J.; Nannan, N.R.; Oyarzun, B.; Trapp, C.; Colonna, P.; Van Dijk, E.; Gross, J.; Bardow, A.

    2011-01-01

    N.V. Nuon (part of the Vattenfall Group) operates an IGCC in Buggenum and is developing a multi-fuel IGCC with CO2 capture and storage (Nuon Magnum) in Eemshaven, the Netherlands. In order to prepare for large-scale application of CO2 capture and storage, a CO2 capture pilot plant is constructed at

  3. Improvement of water treatment pilot plant with Moringa oleifera extract as flocculant agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

    2009-05-01

    Moringa oleifera extract is a high-capacity flocculant agent for turbidity removal in surface water treatment. A complete study of a pilot-plant installation has been carried out. Because of flocculent sedimentability of treated water, a residual turbidity occured in the pilot plant (around 30 NTU), which could not be reduced just by a coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation process. Because of this limitation, the pilot plant (excluded filtration) achieved a turbidity removal up to 70%. A slow sand filter was put in as a complement to installation. A clogging process was characterized, according to Carman-Kozeny's hydraulic hypothesis. Kozeny's k parameter was found to be 4.18. Through fouling stages, this k parameter was found to be up to 6.36. The obtained data are relevant for the design of a real filter in a continuous-feeding pilot plant. Slow sand filtration is highly recommended owing to its low cost, easy-handling and low maintenance, so it is a very good complement to Moringa water treatment in developing countries.

  4. Vitrification of plutonium at Rocky Flats the argument for a pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L. [Rocky Mountain Peace Center, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Current plans for stabilizing and storing the plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant fail to put the material in a form suitable for disposition and resistant to proliferation. Vitrification should be considered as an alternate technology. The vitrification should begin with a small-scale pilot plant.

  5. Probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Hoover Institution

    1998-01-01

    In its most recent report on the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the annual failure rate is calculated to be 1.3E({minus}7)(1/yr), rounded off from 1.32E({minus}7). A calculation by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) produces a result that is about 4% higher, namely 1.37E({minus}7)(1/yr). The difference is due to a minor error in the US Department of Energy (DOE) calculations in the Westinghouse 1996 report. WIPP`s hoist safety relies on a braking system consisting of a number of components including two crucial valves. The failure rate of the system needs to be recalculated periodically to accommodate new information on component failure, changes in maintenance and inspection schedules, occasional incidents such as a hoist traveling out-of-control, either up or down, and changes in the design of the brake system. This report examines DOE`s last two reports on the redesigned waste hoist system. In its calculations, the DOE has accepted one EEG recommendation and is using more current information about the component failures rates, the Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD). However, the DOE calculations fail to include the data uncertainties which are described in detail in the NPRD reports. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommended that a system evaluation include mean estimates of component failure rates and take into account the potential uncertainties that exist so that an estimate can be made on the confidence level to be ascribed to the quantitative results. EEG has made this suggestion previously and the DOE has indicated why it does not accept the NRC recommendation. Hence, this EEG report illustrates the importance of including data uncertainty using a simple statistical example.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

    1993-04-01

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

  7. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 7: Appendix GCR Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    This report contains the second part of the geological characterization report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Both hydrology and geochemistry are evaluated. The following aspects of hydrology are discussed: surface hydrology; ground water hydrology; and hydrology drilling and testing. Hydrologic studies at the site and adjacent site areas have concentrated on defining the hydrogeology and associated salt dissolution phenomena. The geochemical aspects include a description of chemical properties of geologic media presently found in the surface and subsurface environments of southeastern New Mexico in general, and of the proposed WIPP withdrawal area in particular. The characterization does not consider any aspect of artificially-introduced material, temperature, pressure, or any other physico-chemical condition not native to the rocks of southeastern New Mexico.

  8. Solar Pilot Plant Phase I, detailed design report: collector subsystem research experiment. CDRL Item No. 6 (Approved)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-31

    The configurations of the experimental heliostat, power and control system, and support elements for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are described, and the analytical and experimental determination of performance parameters is discussed. A system analysis is presented, including demonstration of pointing accuracy by error analysis, and demonstration of loop performance by simulation. Engineering model test plans are given that are to evaluate subassemblies, processes, and procedures as well as provide insight into best tests for heliostat subsystem testing. Mirror module test data are analyzed. A comprehensive test plan for the experimental model is presented. Appended are: a heliostat power consumption analysis; collector subsystem research experiment detail specification; structural analysis; solar image analysis; computer and software information; breadboard test data; simulation of the heliostat control loop; mirror module reflectance measurements; plywood frame fixed focus mirror module test data; techniques for redirected image characterization; performance of a meteorological measuring system; and heliostat design data. (LEW)

  9. SOLAR WATER DISINFECTION IN NORTHEAST BRAZIL: KINETICS OF THE PROCESS AND THE STUDY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PILOT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORNA FALCÃO FÉLIX

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical study of decontamination efficiency was carried through to evaluate the application of solar energy in water treatment in Northeast Brazil. The methodology used was the one proposed by Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS. Contaminated water samples were collected at the community of Robalo, Sergipe State, Brazil, which is characterized by poverty, social exclusion and a high incidence of waterborne diseases. The method used for pre- and post-disinfection microbiological analyses was the Colilert® QuantiTray (IDEXX one. The results show that the efficiency of the disinfection process reached 80 to 100%, however a post-treatment increase in colony counts was observed in some samples. The experimental results were treated numerically, to give disinfection kinetics, thus allowing theoretical and experimental data to be compared. This study further presents considerations for the development of an experimental pilot plant for water disinfection using SODIS.

  10. Dynamic modeling of Badaling molten salt tower CSP pilot plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang; Lu, Jiahui; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Li, Zhi; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhifeng

    2017-06-01

    Under the collaboration framework between EDF China R&D Centre and CAS-IEE, a preliminary numerical model of 1MWth molten salt tower solar power demonstration plant in Badaling, Beijing is presented in this paper. All key components in the plant are presented throughout detailed modules in the model according to its design specifications. Control strategies are also implemented to maintain the design system performance at transient scenario. By this model some key design figures of plant has been validated and it will be used to guide experiment set-up and plant commissioning.

  11. Disinfection of model indicator organisms in a drinking water pilot plant by using PEROXONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, R.L.; Stewart, M.H.; Liang, S.; McGuire, M.J. (Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, La Verne (USA))

    1989-09-01

    PEROXONE is an advanced oxidation process generated by combining ozone and hydrogen peroxide. This process stimulates the production of hydroxyl radicals, which have been shown to be superior to ozone for the destruction of some organic contaminants. In this study, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the microbicidal effectiveness of PEROXONE and ozone against three model indicator groups. Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage were seeded into the influent to the preozonation contactors of a pilot plant simulating conventional water treatment and were exposed to four ozone dosages, four hydrogen peroxide/ozone weight ratios, and four contact times in two source waters--Colorado River water and state project water--of different quality. The removal of heterotrophic plate count bacteria was also monitored. Results of the study indicated that the microbicidal activity of PEROXONE was greatly affected by the applied ozone dose, H2O2/O3 ratio, contact time, source water quality, and type of microorganism tested. At contact times of 5 min or less, ozone alone was a more potent bactericide than PEROXONE at all H2O2/O3 ratios tested. However, this decrease in the bactericidal potency of PEROXONE was dramatic only as the H2O2/O3 ratio was increased from 0.5 to 0.8. The fact that the bactericidal activity of PEROXONE generally decreased with increasing H2O2/O3 ratios was thought to be related to the lower ozone residuals produced. The viricidal activity of PEROXONE and ozone was comparable at all of the H2O2/O3 ratios. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria were the most resistant group of organisms. Greater inactivation of E. coli and MS2 was observed in Colorado River water than in state project water and appeared to result from differences in the turbidity and alkalinity of the two waters. Regardless of source water, greater than 4.5 log10 of E.

  12. 1997 annual ground control operating plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This plan presents background information and a working guide to assist Mine Operations and Engineering in developing strategies for addressing ground control issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). With the anticipated receipt of waste in late 1997, this document provides additional detail to Panel 1 activities and options. The plan also serves as a foundation document for development and revision of the annual long-term ground control plan. Section 2.0 documents the current status of all underground excavations with respect to location, geology, geometry, age, ground support, operational use, projected life, and physical conditions. Section 3.0 presents the methods used to evaluate ground conditions, including visual observations of the roof, ribs, and floor, inspection of observation holes, and review of instrumentation data. Section 4.0 lists several ground support options and specific applications of each. Section 5.0 discusses remedial ground control measures that have been implemented to date. Section 6.0 presents projections and recommendations for ground control actions based on the information in Sections 2.0 through 5.0 of this plan and on a rating of the critical nature of each specific area. Section 7.0 presents a summary statement, and Section 8.0 includes references. Appendix A provides an overview and critique of ground control systems that have been, or may be, used at the site. Because of the dynamic nature of the underground openings and associated geotechnical activities, this plan will be revised as additional data are incorporated.

  13. Oil refinery hazardous effluents minimization by membrane filtration: An on-site pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruno; Crespo, João G; Santos, Maria António; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2016-10-01

    Experiments for treating two different types of hazardous oil refinery effluents were performed in order to avoid/minimize their adverse impacts on the environment. First, refinery wastewater was subjected to ultrafiltration using a ceramic membrane, treatment, which did not provide an adequate reduction of the polar oil and grease content below the maximal contaminant level allowed. Therefore the option of reducing the polar oil and grease contamination at its main emission source point in the refinery - the spent caustic originating from the refinery kerosene caustic washing unit - using an alkaline-resistant nanofiltration polymeric membrane treatment was tested. It was found that at a constant operating pressure and temperature, 99.9% of the oil and grease and 97.7% of the COD content were rejected at this emission point. Moreover, no noticeable membrane fouling or permeate flux decrease were registered until a spent caustic volume concentration factor of 3. These results allow for a reuse of the purified permeate in the refinery operations, instead of a fresh caustic solution, which besides the improved safety and environmentally related benefits, can result in significant savings of 1.5 M€ per year at the current prices for the biggest Portuguese oil refinery. The capital investment needed for nanofiltration treatment of the spent caustic is estimated to be less than 10% of that associated with the conventional wet air oxidation treatment of the spent caustic that is greater than 9 M€. The payback period was estimated to be 1.1 years. The operating costs for the two treatment options are similar, but the reuse of the nanofiltration spent caustic concentrate for refinery pH control applications can further reduce the operating expenditures. Overall, the pilot plant results obtained and the process economics evaluation data indicate a safer, environmentally friendly and highly competitive solution offered by the proposed nanofiltration treatment, thus

  14. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F. [DOE, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  15. Geohydrology of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, Los Medanos area, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jerry W.

    1983-01-01

    Geohydrologic data have been collected in the Los Medanos area at the U.S. Department of Energy 's proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico since 1975 as part of an intensive study evaluating the feasibility of storing defense-associated nuclear wastes within the bedded salt of the Salado Formation of Permian age. Drilling and hydrologic testing have identified three principal water-producing zones above the salt, including the Rustler-Salado Formational contact and the Culebra and Magenta Dolomite Members of the Permian Rustler Formation. Below the bedded salt there is another water-bearing zone, the channel sandstones of the Bell Canyon formation of the Permian Delaware Mountain Group. Most data collected from 33 hydrologic test holes indicate that the water-bearing zones are characterized by low transmissivities and contain slightly saline to briny water. Data collected from drill-stem tests in the Bell Canyon Formation indicate the channel sandstones have hydraulic conductivities ranging from 0.02 to 0.36 feet per day grade vertically and laterally into siltstones and shales of very low permeability. The Rustler Formation contains the principal water-producing zones identified at the WIPP site. The Rustler-Salado formational contact has the least transmissivity, ranging from 0.00003 to 0.003 feet squared per day. The Culebra Dolomite is the most productive unit at the WIPP site with transmissivities ranging from 0.001 to 73 feet squared per day; the greater values result from fracturing in the dolomite created by dissolution of underlying halite. Minute vertical permeabilities prevent movement of water between hydrologic units. (USGS)

  16. Hydrogen production by autothermal reforming of ethanol: pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Neto, Antonio Jose; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Ferreira, Paulo F.P. [Hydrogen Technology (HyTron), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Email: antonio@hytron.com.br; Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta; Pinto, Edgar A. de Godoi Rodrigues; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DFA/ IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Furlan, Andre Luis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This work provides information about the development of an integrated unit for hydrogen production by auto thermal reforming of ethanol with nominal capacity of 1 kg/h H{sub 2} 4.5 (99.995%). The unit is composed by a Fuel Processing Module (FPM), resulting from auto thermal and shift reactor integration, responsible for the thermochemical step, plus an over heater of the liquid input (EtOH and H{sub 2}O), operated recovering thermal energy from PSA blown-down (H{sub 2} Purification Module - MPH2), besides other thermal equipment which completes the integration. Using a computational routine for scaling the process and preliminary performance analysis, it was possible to optimize operating conditions, essential along unit operations design. Likewise, performance estimation of the integrated unit proceeds, which shows efficiency about 72.5% from FPM. Coupled with the PSA recovery rate, 72.7%, the unit could achieve overall energy performance of 52.7%, or 74.4% working in co-generation of hydrogen and heat. (author)

  17. Meteorological data quarterly report WIPP site: Eddy County, New Mexico, Summer Quarter, May--June 1976. [Radioactive waste isolation pilot plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejka, D. Q.

    1977-08-01

    The U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is evaluating a site in southeastern New Mexico for its suitability as a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The purpose of the WIPP is to demonstrate the technical and operational principles of a permanent repository in bedded salt for low-level and intermediate-level transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by ERDA in national defense programs. High-level waste and waste from commercial sources are excluded from the mission; however, there will be experiments in the WIPP with limited quantities of high-level waste. Meteorological data obtained during May through July 1976 are presented in tabular form.

  18. Results of the DIOS pilot plant test and summary of the joint research; DIOS pilot plant no shiken sogyo kekka to kenkyu seika no matome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kawaoka, K. [The Japan Iron and Steel Federation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    A joint research had been carried out with a subsidy from the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy since fiscal 1988 to fiscal 1995 on the direct iron ore smelting reduction process (DIOS process). The process utilizes coal directly as a process to use the strong points and supplement the weak points of the blast furnace process. During the period, a pilot plant had been operated since 1993. Upon having completed the feasibility study, this paper reports the result thereof. The main facilities consist of a smelting and reducing furnace of iron bath type, a spare reducing furnace of fluidized bed type, and a preheating furnace. The former two furnaces constitute a unit structure with the two furnaces connected vertically. The pilot plant achieved a three-day continuous operation producing 500 tons of iron every day. The production rate reached 21 tons an hour at an upward oxygen blowing velocity of about 13,000 Nm {sup 3} per hour. The coal unit requirement showed a result of <1000 kg/t for high VM coal and <900 kg/t for low VM coal. These results verified a possibility that this process can supplement or replace the blast furnace process even for a production scale of 9000 tons a day. 7 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Role of ODL on sharing pilot plant resources among European Food Engineering Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, M. M. C.

    2006-01-01

    The new means of communication in the last decade opened new learning opportunities that include the so called distance learning or opened distance learning. These are being more and more used by educational institutions at all levels. The EU Thematic Network ISEKI_Food (Integrating Safety and Environmental Knowledge Into Food Studies towards European Sustainable Development), through working group 5, in charge of Practical/Laboratorial teaching at Pilot Plant scale, developed some work in or...

  1. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Dis...

  2. Study of the thermal decomposition of petrochemical sludge in a pilot plant reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Conesa Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Moltó Berenguer, Julia; Ariza, José; Ariza, María; García Barneto, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The pyrolysis of a sludge produced in the waste water treatment plant of an oil refinery was studied in a pilot plant reactor provided with a system for condensation of semivolatile matter. The study comprises experiments at 350, 400, 470 and 530 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. Analysis of all the products obtained (gases, liquids and chars) are presented, with a thermogravimetric study of the char produced and analysis of main components of the liquid. In the temperature range studied, the compos...

  3. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cristiane R.; Ruggeri,Giacommo; Paoli,Marco-A. De

    2003-01-01

    The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units). The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Th...

  4. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.

  5. Core analyses for selected samples from the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, V.A.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Two groups of core samples from the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant were analyzed to provide estimates of hydrologic parameters for use in flow-and-transport modeling. Whole-core and core-plug samples were analyzed by helium porosimetry, resaturation and porosimetry, mercury-intrusion porosimetry, electrical-resistivity techniques, and gas-permeability methods. 33 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Core analyses for selected samples from the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, V.A.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Two groups of core samples from the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant were analyzed to provide estimates of hydrologic parameters for use in flow-and-transport modeling. Whole-core and core-plug samples were analyzed by helium porosimetry, resaturation and porosimetry, mercury-intrusion porosimetry, electrical-resistivity techniques, and gas-permeability methods. 33 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Operation result of 40kW class MCFC pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, H.; Hatori, S.; Hosaka, M.; Uematsu, H. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. developed unique Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) system based on our original concept. To demonstrate the possibility of this system, based on MCFC technology of consigned research from New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan, we designed 40kW class MCFC pilot plant which had all equipments required as a power plant and constructed in our TO-2 Technical Center. This paper presents the test results of the plant.

  8. Fiscal 1997 report of the development of high efficiency waste power generation technology. No.2 volume. Pilot plant verification test; Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu (pilot plant jissho shiken). 1997 nendo hokokusho (daini bunsatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As to a high efficiency waste power generation system using general waste as fuel, the details of the following were described: design/construction management and operational study of pilot plant, design/manufacture/construction of pilot plant, and study of an optimal total system. Concerning the construction management and operational study, the paper described the application for governmental/official inspection procedures and taking inspection, process management of pilot plant, site patrol, safety management, management of trial run of pilot plant, drawing-up of a verification test plan and test run, etc. Relating to the design/manufacture/construction of pilot plant, an outline of the pilot plant was described. The paper also stated points to be considered in design of furnace structure and boiler structure, points to be considered of the verification test, etc. As to the study of an optimal total system, the following were described: survey of waste gasification/slagging power generation technology, basic study on RDF production process, survey of trends of waste power generation technology in the U.S., etc. 52 refs., 149 figs., 121 tabs.

  9. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Design, specifications, and diagrams for the thermal storage subsystem for the 10-MW pilot tower focus power plant are presented in detail. The Honeywell thermal storage subsystem design features a sensible heat storage arrangement using proven equipment and materials. The subsystem consists of a main storage containing oil and rock, two buried superheater tanks containing inorganic salts (Hitec), and the necessary piping, instrumentation, controls, and safety devices. The subsystem can provide 7 MW(e) for three hours after twenty hours of hold. It can be charged in approximately four hours. Storage for the commercial-scale plant consists of the same elements appropriately scaled up. Performance analysis and tradeoff studies are included.

  10. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume III. Collector subsystem. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Honeywell collector subsystem features a low-profile, multifaceted heliostat designed to provide high reflectivity and accurate angular and spatial positioning of the redirected solar energy under all conditions of wind load and mirror attitude within the design operational envelope. The heliostats are arranged in a circular field around a cavity receiver on a tower halfway south of the field center. A calibration array mounted on the receiver tower provides capability to measure individual heliostat beam location and energy periodically. This information and weather data from the collector field are transmitted to a computerized control subsystem that addresses the individual heliostat to correct pointing errors and determine when the mirrors need cleaning. This volume contains a detailed subsystem design description, a presentation of the design process, and the results of the SRE heliostat test program.

  11. Water Treatment Pilot Plant Design Manual: Low Flow Conventional/Direct Filtration Water Treatment Plant for Drinking Water Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual highlights the project constraints and concerns, and includes detailed design calculations and system schematics. The plant is based on engineering design principles and practices, previous pilot plant design experiences, and professional experiences and may serve as ...

  12. 10-MWe pilot-plant-receiver-panel test-requirements document: Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-10

    Plans are presented for insolation testing of a full-scale test receiver panel and supporting hardware which essentially duplicate both physically and functionally the design planned for the 10 MWe pilot plant. Testing includes operation during normal start and shutdown, intermittent cloud conditions, and emergencies to determine the transient and steady state operating characteristics and performance under conditions equal to or exceeding those expected in the pilot plant. The effects of variations of input and output conditions on receiver operation are also to be investigated. A brief description of the pilot plant receiver subsystem is presented, followed by a detailed description of the receiver assembly to be tested at the Solar Thermal Test Facility. Major subassemblies are described, including the receiver panel, flow control, electrical control and instrumentation, and the structural assembly. Requirements of the Solar Thermal Test Facility for the tests are given. System safety measures are described. The tests, operating conditions, and expected results are presented. Quality assurance, task responsibilities, and test documentation are also discussed. (LEW)

  13. Prospects for pilot plants based on the tokamak, spherical tokamak and stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, J. E.; Bromberg, L.; Brown, T.; Burgess, T.; Dix, D.; El-Guebaly, L.; Gerrity, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Kastner, R.; Kessel, C.; Malang, S.; Minervini, J.; Neilson, G. H.; Neumeyer, C. L.; Prager, S.; Sawan, M.; Sheffield, J.; Sternlieb, A.; Waganer, L.; Whyte, D.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2011-10-01

    A potentially attractive next-step towards fusion commercialization is a pilot plant, i.e. a device ultimately capable of small net electricity production in as compact a facility as possible and in a configuration scalable to a full-size power plant. A key capability for a pilot-plant programme is the production of high neutron fluence enabling fusion nuclear science and technology (FNST) research. It is found that for physics and technology assumptions between those assumed for ITER and nth-of-a-kind fusion power plant, it is possible to provide FNST-relevant neutron wall loading in pilot devices. Thus, it may be possible to utilize a single facility to perform FNST research utilizing reactor-relevant plasma, blanket, coil and auxiliary systems and maintenance schemes while also targeting net electricity production. In this paper three configurations for a pilot plant are considered: the advanced tokamak, spherical tokamak and compact stellarator. A range of configuration issues is considered including: radial build and blanket design, magnet systems, maintenance schemes, tritium consumption and self-sufficiency, physics scenarios and a brief assessment of research needs for the configurations.

  14. Tung FDG Test Facility. Phase 2, Pilot plant demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Tung FGD Process is a regenerative process which extracts SO{sub 2} from a scrubbing liquor into an organic medium using mixer-settlers followed by steam-stripping the SO{sub 2} off from the organic medium. For the process to operate satisfactorily, (1) the organic must be stable, (2) phase separation must be relatively fast, (3) crud (i.e. solids in-between two phases) must not form and (4) SO{sub 2} must be able to be stripped off from the organic medium readily. The demonstration confirmed that the first three conditions can be met satisfactorily. Much lower stripping efficiency was attained in the pilot plant demonstration than what was previously attained in a bench-scale demonstration. Engineering analysis showed that the pilot plant stripping column was scaled up from the bench-scale column incorrectly. A new scale-up criterion for stripping a relatively viscous liquid medium is proposed based upon pilot plant data.

  15. Development of a 1000 kW-class MCFC pilot plant in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasue, Hiroo; Kato, Hisashi; Takasu, Kazuhiko

    The development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), in Japan, began in 1981, as part of the former Moonlight Program, promoted by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (AIST/MITI). In 1987, after the basic research, plans to develop a 1000 kW-class MCFC pilot plant began, first, with the development of 100 kW-class stacks and components. Results from the first developments were applied to the next stage of the project, the operating test of a 1000 kW-class pilot plant. The main objective of this pilot plant is to verify the system connected stacks and components. It includes four 250 kW-class stacks, a reformer, two cathode gas recycle blowers, a turbine compressor, a heat recovery steam generator and so on. At present, the building work, component fabrication and installation are complete. Component adjustments have also been carried out. The process and control test, also known as PAC Test, will start next year, 1998. The operation will come to an end in fiscal year 1999. Following the operation test, will be a test on longer lifetime stacks, and the development of a demonstration plant. The possibility of several MW-several 10s MW output, for this future demonstration plant, will be looked into and very seriously investigated.

  16. Performance management in the Slovak higher education system: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Nemec

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is a preliminary evaluation of the introduction of performance management and performance financing arrangements in the Slovak higher education system – accreditation and formula based performance financing. This evaluation will be mainly based on the assessment of short-term impacts of the above mentioned instruments and is expected to invite further professional discussion. We feel that the data and brief analysis included are sufficient enough to show that the Slovak system represents a typical example of the potential of performance management and performance financing being significantly limited, if not destroyed. Not only because of improperly defined indicators, which are too much input and quantity orientated, but very much also due to a lack of resources (the ratio of public expenditures for higher education to the GDP in Slovakia is significantly below EU average, as well as the politicization of the system.

  17. An introduction to the mechanics of performance assessment using examples of calculations done for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1990 and 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1995-10-01

    This document provides an overview of the process used to assess the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed repository for transuranic wastes that is located in southeastern New Mexico. The quantitative metrics used in the performance-assessment (PA) process are those put forward in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive flasks (40 CFR 191). Much has been written about the individual building blocks that comprise the foundation of PA theory and practice, and that WIPP literature is well cited herein. However, the present approach is to provide an accurate, well documented overview of the process, from the perspective of the mechanical steps used to perform the actual PA calculations. Specifically, the preliminary stochastic simulations that comprise the WIPP PAs of 1990, 1991. and 1992 are summarized.

  18. Performance analysis of the HRCTM HPGR in pilot plant

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Renato; Delboni Júnior,Homero; Bergerman, Maurício Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A pilot scale test program was conducted to evaluate the size reduction performance of HPGR (High Pressure Grinding Rolls) operating in different circuit configurations. For this purpose a series of pilot-HPGR locked cycle tests were performed with medium and high pressures to simulate the HPGR operation in closed circuit with a screen, with partial product recycle, and with edge recycle. Logged instrumentation data such as roller speed, working gap, operating pressure, and power dra...

  19. Impact of physics and technology innovations on compact tokamak fusion pilot plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    For magnetic fusion to be economically attractive and have near-term impact on the world energy scene it is important to focus on key physics and technology innovations that could enable net electricity production at reduced size and cost. The tokamak is presently closest to achieving the fusion conditions necessary for net electricity at acceptable device size, although sustaining high-performance scenarios free of disruptions remains a significant challenge for the tokamak approach. Previous pilot plant studies have shown that electricity gain is proportional to the product of the fusion gain, blanket thermal conversion efficiency, and auxiliary heating wall-plug efficiency. In this work, the impact of several innovations is assessed with respect to maximizing fusion gain. At fixed bootstrap current fraction, fusion gain varies approximately as the square of the confinement multiplier, normalized beta, and major radius, and varies as the toroidal field and elongation both to the third power. For example, REBCO high-temperature superconductors (HTS) offer the potential to operate at much higher toroidal field than present fusion magnets, but HTS cables are also beginning to access winding pack current densities up to an order of magnitude higher than present technology, and smaller HTS TF magnet sizes make low-aspect-ratio HTS tokamaks potentially attractive by leveraging naturally higher normalized beta and elongation. Further, advances in kinetic stabilization and feedback control of resistive wall modes could also enable significant increases in normalized beta and fusion gain. Significant reductions in pilot plant size will also likely require increased plasma energy confinement, and control of turbulence and/or low edge recycling (for example using lithium walls) would have major impact on fusion gain. Reduced device size could also exacerbate divertor heat loads, and the impact of novel divertor solutions on pilot plant configurations is addressed. For

  20. Disinfection of model indicator organisms in a drinking water pilot plant by using PEROXONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R L; Stewart, M H; Liang, S; McGuire, M J

    1989-09-01

    PEROXONE is an advanced oxidation process generated by combining ozone and hydrogen peroxide. This process stimulates the production of hydroxyl radicals, which have been shown to be superior to ozone for the destruction of some organic contaminants. In this study, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the microbicidal effectiveness of PEROXONE and ozone against three model indicator groups. Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage were seeded into the influent to the preozonation contactors of a pilot plant simulating conventional water treatment and were exposed to four ozone dosages (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/liter), four hydrogen peroxide/ozone (H2O2/O3) weight ratios (0, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8), and four contact times (4, 5, 12, and 16 min) in two source waters--Colorado River water and state project water--of different quality. The removal of heterotrophic plate count bacteria was also monitored. Results of the study indicated that the microbicidal activity of PEROXONE was greatly affected by the applied ozone dose, H2O2/O3 ratio, contact time, source water quality, and type of microorganism tested. At contact times of 5 min or less, ozone alone was a more potent bactericide than PEROXONE at all H2O2/O3 ratios tested. However, this decrease in the bactericidal potency of PEROXONE was dramatic only as the H2O2/O3 ratio was increased from 0.5 to 0.8. The fact that the bactericidal activity of PEROXONE generally decreased with increasing H2O2/O3 ratios was thought to be related to the lower ozone residuals produced. The viricidal activity of PEROXONE and ozone was comparable at all of the H2O2/O3 ratios. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria were the most resistant group of organisms. Greater inactivation of E. coli and MS2 was observed in Colorado River water than in state project water and appeared to result from differences in the turbidity and alkalinity of the two waters. Regardless of source water, greater than 4.5 log10 of E. coli and MS2 was inactivated

  1. Recovery and grade prediction of pilot plant flotation column concentrate by a hybrid neural genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Nakhaei; M.R.Mosavi; A.Sam

    2013-01-01

    Today flotation column has become an acceptable means of froth flotation for a fairly broad range of applications,in particular the cleaning of sulfides.Even after having been used for several years in mineral processing plants,the full potential of the flotation column process is still not fully exploited.There is no prediction of process performance for the complete use of available control capabilities.The on-line estimation of grade usually requires a significant amount of work in maintenance and calibration of on-stream analyzers,in order to maintain good accuracy and high availability.These difficulties and the high cost of investment and maintenance of these devices have encouraged the approach of prediction of metal grade and recovery.In this paper,a new approach has been proposed for metallurgical performance prediction in flotation columns using Artificial Neural Network (ANN).Despite of the wide range of applications and flexibility of NNs,there is still no general framework or procedure through which the appropriate network for a specific task can be designed.Design and structural optimization of NNs is still strongly dependent upon the designer's experience.To mitigate this problem,a new method for the auto-design of NNs was used,based on Genetic Algorithm (GA).The new proposed method was evaluated by a case study in pilot plant flotation column at Sarcheshmeh copper plant.The chemical reagents dosage,froth height,air,wash water flow rates,gas holdup,Cu grade in the rougher feed,flotation column feed,column tail and final concentrate streams were used to the simulation by GANN.In this work,multi-layer NNs with Back Propagation (BP) algorithm with 8-17-10-2 and 8-13-6-2 arrangements have been applied to predict the Cu and Mo grades and recoveries,respectively.The correlation coefficient (R) values for the testing sets for Cu and Mo grades were 0.93,0.94 and for their recoveries were 0.93,0.92,respectively.The results discussed in this paper indicate

  2. Waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) borehole plugging program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.L.; Hunter, T.O.

    1979-08-01

    The tests and experiments described attempt to provide a mix of borehole (with limited access) and in-mine (with relatively unlimited access) environments in which assessment of the various issues involved can be undertaken. The Bell Canyon Test provides the opportunity to instrument and analyze a plug in a high pressure region. The Shallow Hole Test permits application of best techniques for plugging and then access to both the top and bottom of the plug for further analysis. The Diagnostic Test Hole permits recovery of bench scale size samples for analysis and establishes an in-borehole laboratory in which to conduct testing and analysis in all strata from the surface into the salt horizon. The additional in mine experiments provide the opportunity to investigate in more detail specific effects on plugs in the salt region and allows evaluation of instrumentation systems.

  3. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  4. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  5. A Serious Games Platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation with Preliminary Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Paula Alexandra; Rocha, Rui; Faria, Brígida Mónica; Reis, Luís Paulo; Moreira, Pedro Miguel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years Serious Games have evolved substantially, solving problems in diverse areas. In particular, in Cognitive Rehabilitation, Serious Games assume a relevant role. Traditional cognitive therapies are often considered repetitive and discouraging for patients and Serious Games can be used to create more dynamic rehabilitation processes, holding patients' attention throughout the process and motivating them during their road to recovery. This paper reviews Serious Games and user interfaces in rehabilitation area and details a Serious Games platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation that includes a set of features such as: natural and multimodal user interfaces and social features (competition, collaboration, and handicapping) which can contribute to augment the motivation of patients during the rehabilitation process. The web platform was tested with healthy subjects. Results of this preliminary evaluation show the motivation and the interest of the participants by playing the games.

  6. OPTIMASI PROSES DEASIDIFIKASI DALAM PEMURNIAN MINYAK SAWIT MERAH SKALA PILOT PLANT [Optimization of Deacidification Process in Red Palm Oil Purification on Pilot Plant Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Rai Widarta1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deacidification is one of the steps in palm oil refining process which aims to separate free fatty acids formed during post-harvest handling. It is carried out using alkali solution such as NaOH (sodium hydroxide. Carotenoids in palm oil are affected by this step. Therefore, deacidification has to be controlled to minimize the destruction of carotenoids during processing. The objective of this research was to improve deacidification process in pilot plant scale so that the process can produce lower level of free fatty acids (FFA and higher recovery of carotene in high yield neutralized red palm oil (NRPO. Characterization of physical and chemical properties of crude palm oil (CPO such as moisture content, FFA and carotene contents, saponification number, iodine value, peroxide value, and color were determined before processing. Degumming was performed before deacidification process. The 17.5% excess of NaOH was obtained from the pilot plant scale deacidification trial. The optimization of deacidification time and temperature was carried out by using central composite design (CCD. Response surface method (RSM was used to observe the influence of treatments on the FFA level reduction, carotene recovery, and NRPO yield. The result showed that the optimum deacidification condition was at 61 ± 2°C in 26 minutes, and at the 16°Be NaOH strength with 17.5% excess of NaOH. In this optimum condition, the process achieved 96.35% of FFA reduction, 87.30% of carotene recovery, and 90.16% of NRPO yield.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 5, Chapter D, Appendix D1 (conclusion), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Neville G.W.; Heuze, Francois E.; Miller, Hamish D.S.; Thoms, Robert L.

    1993-03-01

    The reference design for the underground facilities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was developed using the best criteria available at initiation of the detailed design effort. These design criteria are contained in the US Department of Energy document titled Design Criteria, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revised Mission Concept-IIA (RMC-IIA), Rev. 4, dated February 1984. The validation process described in the Design Validation Final Report has resulted in validation of the reference design of the underground openings based on these criteria. Future changes may necessitate modification of the Design Criteria document and/or the reference design. Validation of the reference design as presented in this report permits the consideration of future design or design criteria modifications necessitated by these changes or by experience gained at the WIPP. Any future modifications to the design criteria and/or the reference design will be governed by a DOE Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) covering underground design changes. This procedure will explain the process to be followed in describing, evaluating and approving the change.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica Organica y Quimica Ambiental, Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2010-02-15

    Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

  10. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Richardson, T.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  11. A pilot plant for removing chromium from residual water of tanneries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrave, J

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technical process for removing trivalent chromium from tannery wastewater via precipitation. This process can be considered an alternative that avoids a remediation procedure against the metal presence in industrial wastes. This process was verified in a treatment pilot plant located in León, México handling 10 m3/day of three types of effluents. The effluent streams were separated to facilitate the elimination of pollutants from each one. The process was based on in situ treatment and recycle to reduce problems associated with transportation and confinement of contaminated sludges. Two types of treatment were carried out in the pilot plant: The physical/chemical and biological treatments. Thirty-five experiments were conducted and the studied variables were the pH, type of flocculant, and its dose. The statistical significance of chromium samples was 94.7% for its precipitation and 99.7% for recovery. The objectives established for this phase of the development were accomplished and the overall efficiencies were measured for each stage in the pilot plant. The results were: a) chromium precipitation 99.5% from wastewater stream, b) chromium recovery 99% for recycling, and c) physical/chemical treatment to eliminate grease and fat at least 85% and 65 to 70% for the biological treatment. The tanning of a hide lot (350 pieces) was accomplished using 60% treated and recycled water without affecting the product quality. The recovered chromium liquor was also used in this hide tanning. This technical procedure is also applicable for removing heavy metals in other industrial sectors as well as in reducing water consumption rates, if pertinent adjustments are implemented.

  12. Virtual pilot plants: What is the goal and what technology development is needed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryden, K.M.; O' Brien, T.J.

    2000-07-01

    Within the coal utilization industry, moving virtual reality from a visualization tool to a design tool has the potential to reduce design time and cost, improve plant design and operation, and reduce the risk associated with new technologies. The goal of developing this technology is to enable an engineering design team based in disparate geographical locations to interact simultaneously with the virtual pilot plant and to see immediately the effect on performance of their design changes. In order to promote this capability, the US Department of Energy has identified virtual demonstrations as one of the key supporting technologies needed for the development of Vision 21 plants. This will require that many computational intensive technologies be enhanced and closely integrated: computer aided design/engineering (CAD/CAE), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), finite element analysis, intelligent process control, systems analysis, information management, and advanced visualization. Virtual pilot plants will create a design environment that will be a low-cost alternative to a physical pilot plant, allowing changes in plant operation and design to be rapidly and inexpensively tested. Following construction, the virtual environment will be used as the front-end of a total information system containing all of the design, construction, operation, research scale, pilot scale, and economic information available on the system. The information will be intuitively accessible by going to the place of interest in the virtual plant and entering the dimension of interest. The goal of the virtual demonstration will be to provide easily accessible information at any level of detail to anyone who needs it from policy maker to operating engineer.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  14. Improvement of the ethanol productivity in a high gravity brewing at pilot plant scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, Giuliano; Silva, Daniel P; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista; de Almeida Lima, Urgel

    2003-07-01

    A 23 full factorial design was used to study the influence of different experimental variables, namely wort gravity, fermentation temperature and nutrient supplementation, on ethanol productivity from high gravity wort fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lager strain), under pilot plant conditions. The highest ethanol productivity (0.69 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at 20 degrees P [degrees P is the weight of extract (sugar) equivalent to the weight of sucrose in a 100 g solution at 20 degrees C], 15 degrees C, with the addition of 0.8% (w/v) yeast extract, 24 mg l(-1) ergosterol and 0.24% (v/v) Tween 80.

  15. Position paper on gas generation in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, L.H.

    1994-11-15

    Gas generation by transuranic (TRU) waste is a significant issue because gas will, if produced in significant quantities, affect the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with respect to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for the long-term isolation of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. If significant gas production occurs, it will also affect, and will be affected by, other processes and parameters in WIPP disposal rooms. The processes that will produce gas in WIPP disposal rooms are corrosion, microbial activity and radiolysis. This position paper describes these processes and the models, assumptions and data used to predict gas generation in WIPP disposal rooms.

  16. Anthocyanin Characterization of Pilot Plant Water Extracts of Delonix regia Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile M. Gaydou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of new applications of pilot plant scale extraction and formulation processes for natural active bioproducts obtained from various underutilized tropical plants and herbs, we have manufactured water-extracts from Delonix regia flowers, grown in Ivory Coast. These extracts, which contain polyphenols, are traditionally home made and used as healthy bioproducts. They are reddish-coloured due to the presence of anthocyanins. The three major anthocyanins in these extracts have been characterized. The molecular structures were confirmed by LC-SM analysis. Amongst them, two are described for the first time in Delonix regia.

  17. Formation of Extracellular Sphingolipids by Microorganisms: IV. Pilot-Plant Production of Tetraacetylphytosphingosine by Hansenula ciferrii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maister, H G; Rogovin, S P; Stodola, F H; Wickerham, L J

    1962-09-01

    Tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS) formation by the F-60-10 mating type strain of the yeast Hansenula ciferrii, previously observed on agar plates, has been shown to take place in submerged cultures. The optimal conditions for TAPS formation, and the correlation of TAPS production and sugar utilization under aerobic conditions, were studied in 10-liter fermentors. For each gram of glucose consumed, 5 mg of TAPS were formed; for each gram of yeast solids produced, 15 mg of TAPS were synthesized. A 750-liter pilot-plant run yielded 175 g of crude TAPS, which were obtained by hexane extraction of centrifuged yeast cells.

  18. Experimental Investigation and Modelling of a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO2, oxidation of HSO3-, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Population balance...... limestone in the gypsum. Simulations were found to match experimental data for the two limestone types investigated. A parameter study of the model was conducted with the purpose of validating assumptions and extracting information on wet FGD systems. The modelling tools developed may be applicable to other...... wet FGD plants....

  19. Optimisation of a wet FGD pilot plant using fine limestone and organic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jan; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2001-01-01

    The effects of adding an organic acid or using a limestone with a fine particle size distribution (PSD) have been examined in a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant. Optimisation of the plant with respect to the degree of desulphurisation and the residual limestone content of the gypsum......, but the residual limestone content in the gypsum increased to somewhere between 19 and 30 wt%, making this pH range unsuitable for use in a full-scale plant. The investigations have shown that both the addition of organic acids and the use of a limestone with a fine PSD can be used to optimise wet FGD plants. (C...

  20. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  1. Perspective of the Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEART,WENDELL D.

    1999-09-03

    In 1975 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was asked by the predecessor to the Department of Energy to assume responsibility for the scientific programs necessary to assure the safe and satisfactory development of a geologic repository in the salt beds of southeast New Mexico. Sandia has continued in the role of Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to the present time. This paper will share the perspectives developed over the past 25 years as the project was brought to fruition with successful certification by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on May 13, 1998 and commencement of operations on April 26, 1999.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014. Emended

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year (CY); Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE environmental sustainability goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  3. Power system development: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Preliminary design report: appendices, Part 2 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-04

    The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the electrical system, instrumentation and control, ammonia pump evaluation study, ammonia and nitrogen support subsystems, piping and support design calculations, and plant availability. (WHK)

  4. Population dynamics of iron-oxidizing communities in pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Elke; Janneck, Eberhard; Glombitza, Franz; Schlömann, Michael; Seifert, Jana

    2009-08-15

    The iron-oxidizing microbial community in two pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine water was monitored to investigate the influence of different process parameters such as pH, iron concentration, and retention time on the stability of the system to evaluate the applicability of this treatment technology on an industrial scale. The dynamics of the microbial populations were followed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) over a period of several months. For a more precise quantification, two TaqMan assays specific for the two prominent groups were developed and the relative abundance of these taxa in the iron-oxidizing community was verified by real-time PCR. The investigations revealed that the iron-oxidizing community was clearly dominated by two groups of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with the poorly known and not yet recognized species "Ferrovum myxofaciens" and with strains related to Gallionella ferruginea, respectively. These taxa dominated the microbial community during the whole investigation period and accelerated the oxidation of ferrous iron despite the changing characteristics of mine waters flowing into the plants. Thus, it is assumed that the treatment technology can also be applied to other mine sites and that these organisms play a crucial role in such treatment systems.

  5. Population dynamics of iron-oxidizing communities in pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elke Heinzel; Eberhard Janneck; Franz Glombitza; Michael Schlmann; Jana Seifert [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany). Interdisciplinary Ecological Center

    2009-08-15

    The iron-oxidizing microbial community in two pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine water was monitored to investigate the influence of different process parameters such as pH, iron concentration, and retention time on the stability of the system to evaluate the applicability of this treatment technology on an industrial scale. The dynamics of the microbial populations were followed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) over a period of several months. For a more precise quantification, two TaqMan assays specific for the two prominent groups were developed and the relative abundance of these taxa in the iron-oxidizing community was verified by real-time PCR. The investigations revealed that the iron-oxidizing community was clearly dominated by two groups of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with the poorly known and not yet recognized species 'Ferrovum myxofaciens' and with strains related to Gallionella ferruginea, respectively. These taxa dominated the microbial community during the whole investigation period and accelerated the oxidation of ferrous iron despite the changing characteristics of mine waters flowing into the plants. Thus, it is assumed that the treatment technology can also be applied to other mine sites and that these organisms play a crucial role in such treatment systems. 32 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab.

  6. EM Methods Applied for the Characterization and Monitoring of the Hontomin (Spain) CO2 Storage Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Ogaya, Xenia; Vilamajo, Eloi; Bosch, David; Escalas, Lena; Piña, Perla

    2013-04-01

    The work presented here correspond to an on-going project in the frame of the development of a pilot plant for CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer funded by Fundación Ciudad de la Energía-CIUDEN (http://www.ciuden.es/) on behalf of the Spanish Government. The main objective of the research Project is to monitor the CO2 migration within the reservoir during and after the injection as well as testing and evaluating different EM monitoring methods. In this way, a good characterization of the zone is imperative to perceive and quantify, as soon as possible, any change owing to the CO2 injection. Among all geophysical techniques, electrical and electromagnetic methods are especially useful and meaningful to monitor the CO2 plume since these methods are sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the pore fluid. The presence of CO2 inside the pore will replace a fraction of saline fluid within the storage aquifer, reducing the effective volume available for ionic transport. As a consequence, the bulk electrical resistivity of the rock is expected to increase significantly. The proposed EM techniques are the following: 1- Magnetotelluric method, 2-Cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography, 3- Control source electromagnetics. Moreover laboratory experiments are being carried out to monitor the CO2 flux inside sample cores using ERT.

  7. Wellbore enlargement investigation: Potential analogs to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant during inadvertent intrusion of the repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, D.M.; Dotson, L.; Aguilar, R. [and others

    1997-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation and documentation of cases in which petroleum wellbores were enlarged beyond the nominal hole diameter as a consequence of erosion during exploratory drilling, particularly as a function of gas flow into the wellbore during blowout conditions. A primary objective was to identify analogs to potential wellbore enlargement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during inadvertent human intrusion. Secondary objectives were to identify drilling scenarios associated with enlargement, determine the physical extent of enlargement, and establish the physical properties of the formation in which the enlargement occurred. No analogs of sufficient quality to establish quantitative limits on wellbore enlargement at the WIPP disposal system were identified. However, some information was obtained regarding the frequency of petroleum well blowouts and the likelihood that such blowouts would bridge downhole, self-limiting the surface release of disposal-system material. Further work would be necessary, however, to determine the conditions under which bridging could occur and the extent to which the bridging might be applicable to WIPP. In addition, data on casing sizes of petroleum boreholes in the WIPP vicinity support the use of a 12-{1/4} inch borehole size in WIPP performance assessment calculations. Finally, although data are limited, there was no evidence of significant wellbore enlargement in any of three blowouts that occur-red in wellbores in the Delaware Basin (South Culebra Bluff Unit No. 1, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) 6, and WIPP 12).

  8. Computational environment and software configuration management of the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FROEHLICH,GARY K.; WILLIAMSON,CHARLES MICHAEL; OGDEN,HARVEY C.

    2000-05-23

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeast New Mexico, is a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic waste generated by DOE defense-related activities. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), in its role as scientific advisor to the DOE, is responsible for evaluating the long-term performance of the WIPP. This risk-based Performance Assessment (PA) is accomplished in part through the use of numerous scientific modeling codes, which rely for some of their inputs on data gathered during characterization of the site. The PA is subject to formal requirements set forth in federal regulations. In particular, the components of the calculation fall under the configuration management and software quality assurance aegis of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) requirements. This paper describes SNL's implementation of the NQA requirements regarding configuration management. The complexity of the PA calculation is described, and the rationale for developing a flexible, robust run-control process is discussed. The run-control implementation is described, and its integration with the configuration-management system is then explained, to show how a calculation requiring 37,000 CPU-hours, and involving 225,000 output files totaling 95 Gigabytes, was accomplished in 5 months by 2 individuals, with full traceability and reproducibility.

  9. Effect of explicit representation of detailed stratigraphy on brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

    1996-04-01

    Stratigraphic units of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room horizon includes various layers of halite, polyhalitic halite, argillaceous halite, clay, and anhydrite. Current models, including those used in the WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, employ a ``composite stratigraphy`` approach in modeling. This study was initiated to evaluate the impact that an explicit representation of detailed stratigraphy around the repository may have on fluid flow compared to the simplified ``composite stratigraphy`` models currently employed. Sensitivity of model results to intrinsic permeability anisotropy, interbed fracturing, two-phase characteristic curves, and gas-generation rates were studied. The results of this study indicate that explicit representation of the stratigraphy maintains higher pressures and does not allow as much fluid to leave the disposal room as compared to the ``composite stratigraphy`` approach. However, the differences are relatively small. Gas migration distances are also different between the two approaches. However, for the two cases in which explicit layering results were considerably different than the composite model (anisotropic and vapor-limited), the gas-migration distances for both models were negligible. For the cases in which gas migration distances were considerable, van Genuchten/Parker and interbed fracture, the differences between the two models were fairly insignificant. Overall, this study suggests that explicit representation of the stratigraphy in the WIPP PA models is not required for the parameter variations modeled if ``global quantities`` (e.g., disposal room pressures, net brine and gas flux into and out of disposal rooms) are the only concern.

  10. Degradation of organic matter from wastewater using advanced primary treatment by O3 and O3/UV in a pilot plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús Gabriel; Sanhouse, Antonio; Bandala, Erick R.; Torres, Luis G.

    2016-02-01

    The oxidation of organic matter from wastewater using ozone, ultraviolet radiation and ozone/UV oxidation was evaluated in a pilot plant, applying a continuous effluent arising from the Autonomous Metropolitan University wastewater treatment plant. The oxidation was measured as the efficiency to remove organic load, measured as chemical oxygen demand. The use of ozone and UV was evaluated separately and in combination through a continuous process. Three different ozone doses (0.6-1.2 mg O3/L) and three different UV radiation fluencies (6.7-20.12 mJ/cm2) were assessed. A synergistic effect of the combined process ozone/UV was demonstrated, and a maximal chemical oxygen demand reduction was achieved both processes. Due to residence times used (less than 1 min), 36% of chemical oxygen demand reduction was obtained when ozone treatment was evaluate separately and only 9% using ultraviolet radiation.

  11. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  12. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  13. Preventative Vaccines for Zika Virus Outbreak: Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl. The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA. The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%. No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease.

  14. Preliminary Safety Evaluation of a New Bacteroides xylanisolvens Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounian, Kawe; Schmidt, Jens; Karsten, Uwe; Goletz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Besides conferring some health benefit to the host, a bacterial strain must present an unambiguous safety status to be considered a probiotic. We here present the preliminary safety evaluation of a new Bacteroides xylanisolvens strain (DSM 23964) isolated from human feces. First results suggest that it may be able to provide probiotic health benefits. Its identity was confirmed by biochemical analysis, by sequencing of its 16S rRNA genes, and by DNA-DNA hybridization. Virulence determinants known to occur in the genus Bacteroides, such the bft enterotoxin and other enzymatic activities involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and the capsular polysaccharide PS A, were absent in this strain. The investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility indicated that strain DSM 23964 was sensitive to metronidazole, meropenem agents, and clindamycin. Resistance to penicillin and ampicillin was identified to be conferred by the β-lactamase cepA gene and could therefore be restored by adding β-lactamase inhibitors. The localization of the cepA gene in the genome of strain DSM 23964 and the absence of detectable plasmids further suggest that a transfer of β-lactamase activity or the acquisition of other antibiotic resistances are highly improbable. Taken together, the presented data indicate that the strain B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964 has no virulence potential. Since it also resists the action of gastric enzymes and low-pH conditions, this strain is an interesting candidate for further investigation of its safety and potential health-promoting properties. PMID:22101046

  15. Preventative Vaccines for Zika Virus Outbreak: Preliminary Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun; Erdos, Geza; Huang, Shaohua; Kenniston, Thomas; Falo, Louis D; Gambotto, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E) fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl). The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA). The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%). No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Photocatalysis with solar energy at a pilot-plant scale. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julian; Vidal, Alfonso [CIEMAT-Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Crta. Senes Km. 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Richter, Christoph [DLR-Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Crta. Senes Km. 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2002-04-08

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting the high reactivity of OH radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving the complete abatement and through mineralization of even less reactive pollutants. This paper reviews the use of sunlight to produce (.)OH radicals. The experimental systems necessary for performing pilot-plant scale solar photocatalytic experiments are described. It outlines the basic components of these pilot plants and the fundamental parameters related to solar photocatalysis reactions. This paper summarizes also most of the research carried out at Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) related with solar photocatalytic degradation of water contaminants. A description is given of how solar photocatalysis could become a significant segment of the wastewater treatment technologies related with the degradation of very persistent toxic compounds. It outlines also the decomposition of organic and inorganic contaminants and different examples are also shown for better comprehension of the ability of solar energy for carrying out oxidation and reduction processes. These examples include chlorophenols, chlorinated solvents, pesticides and cyanide. Besides, the possibility of using the photo-Fenton reaction illuminated with solar light opens the boundary where solar photocatalysis could be applied.

  17. Surface water and wastewater treatment using a new tannin-based coagulant. Pilot plant trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J; Beltrán-Heredia, J; Solera-Hernández, C

    2010-10-01

    A new tannin-based coagulant-flocculant (Tanfloc) was tested for water treatment at a pilot plant level. Four types of water sample were treated: surface water (collected from a river), and municipal, textile industry (simulated by a 100 mg L(-1) aqueous solution of an acid dye), and laundry (simulated by a 50 mg L(-1) aqueous solution of an anionic surfactant) wastewaters. The pilot plant process consisted of coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration. The experiments were carried out with an average coagulant dosage of 92.2 mg L(-1) (except in the case of the surface water for which the dosage was 2 mg L(-1)). The efficacy of the water purification was notable in every case: total turbidity removal in the surface water and municipal wastewater, about 95% dye removal in the case of the textile industry wastewater, and about 80% surfactant removal in the laundry wastewater. Filtration improved the removal of suspended solids, both flocs and turbidity, and slightly improved the process as a whole. The efficiency of Tanfloc in these pilot studies was similar to or even better than that obtained in batch trials.

  18. 1974 conceptual design description of a bedded salt pilot plant in southeast New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The policy of the United States Atomic Energy Commission is to take custody of all commercial high-level radioactive wastes and maintain control of them in perpetuity. This policy (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix F) requires that the high-level wastes from nuclear fuels reprocessing plants be solidified within five years after reprocessing and then shipped to a federal repository within ten years after reprocessing. Ultimate disposal sites and/or methods have not yet been selected and are not expected to be ready when waste deliveries begin about 1983. Therefore, the AEC plans to build an interim storage facility, called Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), to store and isolate the waste from man and his environment until the suitability of the permanent repository is demonstrated and public acceptance has been established. Meantime, the AEC is proceeding with the study and development of an ultimate disposal method. Bedded salt is being considered for ultimate waste disposal, and work is in progress to develop a Bedded Salt Pilot Plant to demonstrate its acceptability. The pilot plant will permit in situ verification of laboratory work on the interaction of heat and radioactivity of the waste with the salt and surroundings. One concept of such a pilot facility is described.

  19. The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1990-12-31

    This paper concludes that a 70/30 wt % salt/bentonite mixture is preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, near Carlsbad, NM, is designed to be the first mined geologic repository for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by DOE defense programs since 1970. The repository is located about 655 m below the land surface in an extensive bedded salt formation. This report examines the performance of two backfill materials with regard to various selection criteria, such as the need for low permeability after closure, chemical stability, strength, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a state of permeability {le} 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} that is adequate for satisfying regulations for nuclear repositories. The results of finite-element calculations that were used to arrive at this conclusion will be described. The real advantage of the salt/bentonite. backfill depends, therefore, on bentonite`s potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates of the impact of these properties on backfill performance are presented.

  20. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards.

  1. Reinvestigation into Closure Predictions of Room D at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    Room D was an in-situ ,isothermal,undergroundexperimentconductedattheWasteIsola- tion Pilot Plant between 1984 and 1991. The room was carefully instrumented to measure the horizontal and vertical closure immediately upon excavation and for several years thereafter. Early finite element simulations of salt creep around Room D under predicted the vertical closure by 4 . 5 - , causing investigators to explore a series of changes to the way Room D was modeled. Discrepancies between simulations and measurements were resolved through aseriesofadjustmentstomodelparameters,whichwereopenlyacknowledgedinpublished reports. Interest in Room D has been rekindled recently by the U.S./German Joint Project III and Project WEIMOS, which seek to improve the predictions of rock salt constitutive models. Joint Project participants calibrate their models solely against laboratory tests, and bench- mark the models against underground experiments, such as room D. This report describes updating legacy Room D simulations to today's computational standards by rectifying sev- eral numerical issues. Subsequently, the constitutive model used in previous modeling is recalibrated two di %7C erent ways against a suite of new laboratory creep experiments on salt extracted from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Simulations with the new, laboratory-based, calibrations under predict Room D vertical closure by 3 . 1 - .A list of potential improvements is discussed.

  2. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment [Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis; Herrick, Courtney G; Zeitler, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  3. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis [Stoller Newport News Nuclear, Inc., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  4. Reinvestigation into Closure Predictions of Room D at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Room D was an in-situ, isothermal, underground experiment conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1984 and 1991. The room was carefully instrumented to measure the horizontal and vertical closure immediately upon excavation and for several years thereafter. Early finite element simulations of salt creep around Room D under-predicted the vertical closure by 4.5×, causing investigators to explore a series of changes to the way Room D was modeled. Discrepancies between simulations and measurements were resolved through a series of adjustments to model parameters, which were openly acknowledged in published reports. Interest in Room D has been rekindled recently by the U.S./German Joint Project III and Project WEIMOS, which seek to improve the predictions of rock salt constitutive models. Joint Project participants calibrate their models solely against laboratory tests, and benchmark the models against underground experiments, such as room D. This report describes updating legacy Room D simulations to today’s computational standards by rectifying several numerical issues. Subsequently, the constitutive model used in previous modeling is recalibrated two different ways against a suite of new laboratory creep experiments on salt extracted from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Simulations with the new, laboratory-based, calibrations under-predict Room D vertical closure by 3.1×. A list of potential improvements is discussed.

  5. Reinvestigation into Closure Predictions of Room D at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Room D was an in-situ, isothermal, underground experiment conducted at theWaste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1984 and 1991. The room was carefully instrumented to measure the horizontal and vertical closure immediately upon excavation and for several years thereafter. Early finite element simulations of salt creep around Room D under predicted the vertical closure by 4.5×, causing investigators to explore a series of changes to the way Room D was modeled. Discrepancies between simulations and measurements were resolved through a series of adjustments to model parameters, which were openly acknowledged in published reports. Interest in Room D has been rekindled recently by the U.S./German Joint Project III and Project WEIMOS, which seek to improve the predictions of rock salt constitutive models. Joint Project participants calibrate their models solely against laboratory tests, and benchmark the models against underground experiments, such as room D. This report describes updating legacy Room D simulations to today’s computational standards by rectifying several numerical issues. Subsequently, the constitutive model used in previous modeling is recalibrated two different ways against a suite of new laboratory creep experiments on salt extracted from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Simulations with the new, laboratory-based, calibrations under predict Room D vertical closure by 3.1×. A list of potential improvements is discussed.

  6. Development of pilot plant for the production of vapor grown carbon fiber from Ohio coal. Final report, July 1997 to July 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alig, Robert [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States); Burton, David [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States); Kennel, Elliot [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States); Lake, Max [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States)

    2000-11-30

    minimum of approximately 25,000 pounds of fiber per year, with production of up to 50,000 pound per year feasible. All of the essential components of the pilot plant were received and installed by January 2000. In Phase III of the program, the performance checks were completed in January and fiber production was initiated in the same month. The fiber was evaluated by customers and deemed to be a suitable replacement for fiber made at the laboratory scale. Optimization trials were performed to increase production and reduce surface residuals without changing the intrinsic properties of the fiber. Once the process was "frozen", statistical quality control techniques were applied to the process and the fiber. Analysis of the emissions from the pilot plant shows that the process continues to be free of sulfur dioxide and, otherwise, environmentally friendly. Economic analysis of the pilot plant shows that profitability can be achieved at a price level of $85 per pound.

  7. Scale-up analysis and critical issues of an experimental pilot plant for edible film production using agricultural waste processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Sarghini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to test a multifunctional experimental pilot plant with a reduced environmental impact that is able to process agricultural (fennel and food production (liquid whey waste. The pilot plant, using different thermal and filtration process parameters, is able to recover pectin and whey proteins in a single processing unit in order to produce edible films. An innovative feature of the proposed configuration is related to the possibility of coupling different types of waste treatment, obtaining a final product with a higher economical value, combining the two processing lines. Although an edible film production procedure based on pectin extracted from fennel matrix and whey proteins has already been published in literature, the scale-up process highlighted several critical issues, in particular related to the fennel matrix. Nonetheless, the pilot plant configuration allowed an edible film to be produced that is suitable for use as a direct coating to improve the shelf-life of food products.

  8. Preliminary physicochemical evaluation of Kushta tutia: A Unani Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kushta is an important solid dosage form of Unani system of medicine used to treat various ailments. Very small particle size of kushta is responsible for its rapid absorption in body leading to instant therapeutic actions. Kushta tutia (KT is one such renowned formulation used by hakims for successful management of various disorders. However, there is lack of scientific work on KT. Objectives: The present study was performed to evaluate KT physicochemically by testifying it on classical tests along with modern scientific techniques. Materials and Methods: Tutia was first detoxified as per classical literature. It was triturated with water and dried, afterwards subjected to calcination in furnace rather than cow dung cakes due to isolation of material being heated and better temperature control. Finished product was evaluated for physicochemical characteristics including preliminary tests mentioned in classical literature. Results: Floating and finger test were positive. Curd test showed no discoloration after 48 h. These findings indicate correct preparation of KT according to classical literature. Bulk density (0.96 ± 0.00 g/ml; tapped density (1.53 ± 0.00 g/ml; Hausner ratio (0.62 ± 0.00, compressibility index (37.52 ± 0.19%; loss of weight on drying (0.08 ± 0.00%; pH of 1 and 10% (5.20 ± 0.00 and 5.62 ± 0.00, respectively; total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash values 95.75 ± 0.09, 6.57 ± 0.02, and 45.02 ± 0.20%, respectively; and extractive values 0.85 ± 0.02% were reported in KT. Conclusion: Since this work has not been reported earlier, the results obtained could be considered as the standard for KT for future studies.

  9. Radioactive waste disposal: Waste Isolation Pilot Plants (WIPP). (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located in New Mexico for transuranic wastes generated by the U.S. Government. Articles follow the development of the program from initial site selection and characterization through construction and testing, and examine research programs on environmental impacts, structural design, and radionuclide landfill gases. Existing plants and facilities, pilot plants, migration, rock mechanics, economics, regulations, and transport of wastes to the site are also included. The Salt Repository Project and the Crystalline Repository Project are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Radioactive waste disposal: Waste Isolation Pilot Plants (WIPP). (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located in New Mexico for transuranic wastes generated by the U.S. Government. Articles follow the development of the program from initial site selection and characterization through construction and testing, and examine research programs on environmental impacts, structural design, and radionuclide landfill gases. Existing plants and facilities, pilot plants, migration, rock mechanics, economics, regulations, and transport of wastes to the site are also included. The Salt Repository Project and the Crystalline Repository Project are referenced in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. In-Situ Measurements of Surface Elevations in Tail Water Channel for SSG Pilot Plant at Kvitsøy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Margheritini, Lucia

    This report presents the measurements from the installation of a pressure transducer in the tail water channel at the second proposed position of the SSG pilot plant at the island of Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The measured data are compared to tide data from other source, and among the concl......This report presents the measurements from the installation of a pressure transducer in the tail water channel at the second proposed position of the SSG pilot plant at the island of Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The measured data are compared to tide data from other source, and among...

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Fermi Research Alliance (FRA), Batavia, IL (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the hydrogeologic system in Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary, two-layer, steady-state, groundwater flow model was used to evaluate present data and hydrologic concepts of Owens Valley, California. Simulations of the groundwater system indicate that areas where water levels are most affected by changes in recharge and discharge are near toes of alluvial fans and along the edge of permeable volcanic deposits. Sensitivity analysis for each model parameter shows that steady state simulations are most sensitive to uncertainties in evapotranspiration rates. Tungsten Hills, Poverty Hills, and Alabama Hills were found to act as virtually impermeable barriers to groundwater flow. Accurate simulation of the groundwater system between Bishop and Lone Pine appears to be possible without simulating the groundwater system in Round Valley, near Owens Lake, or in aquifer materials more than 1,000 ft below land surface. Although vast amounts of geologic and hydrologic data have been collected for Owens Valley, many parts of the hydrogeologic system have not been defined with sufficient detail to answer present water management questions. Location and extent of geologic materials that impede the vertical movement of water are poorly documented. The likely range of aquifer characteristics, except vertical hydraulic conductivity, is well known, but spatial distribution of these characteristics is not well documented. A set of consistent water budgets is needed, including one for surface water, groundwater, and the entire valley. The largest component of previous water budgets (evapotranspiration) is largely unverified. More definitive estimates of local gains and losses for Owens River are needed. Although groundwater pumpage from each well is measured, the quantity of withdrawal from different zones of permeable material has not been defined. (USGS)

  15. Combining scenarios in a calculation of the overall probability distribution of cumulative releases of radioactivity from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, M.S.

    1991-11-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), in southeastern New Mexico, is a research and development facility to demonstrate safe disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste. The US Department of Energy will designate WIPP as a disposal facility if it meets the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for disposal of such waste; the standard includes a requirement that estimates of cumulative releases of radioactivity to the accessible environment be incorporated in an overall probability distribution. The WIPP Project has chosen an approach to calculation of an overall probability distribution that employs the concept of scenarios for release and transport of radioactivity to the accessible environment. This report reviews the use of Monte Carlo methods in the calculation of an overall probability distribution and presents a logical and mathematical foundation for use of the scenario concept in such calculations. The report also draws preliminary conclusions regarding the shape of the probability distribution for the WIPP system; preliminary conclusions are based on the possible occurrence of three events and the presence of one feature: namely, the events attempted boreholes over rooms and drifts,'' mining alters ground-water regime,'' water-withdrawal wells provide alternate pathways,'' and the feature brine pocket below room or drift.'' Calculation of the WIPP systems's overall probability distributions for only five of sixteen possible scenario classes that can be obtained by combining the four postulated events or features.

  16. A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States). Business Administration & Economics Div.

    1994-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature.

  17. The measurement of radon working levels at a mineral separation pilot plant in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Khan, M A; Chowdhury, M S

    2003-10-01

    Beach Sand Exploitation Centre at Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, produces commercial grade concentrations of magnetite, ilmenite, zircon, etc., from the high-grade accumulations available along the beach and foredune of Cox's Bazar. Solid state nuclear track detectors (CR-39 foils) were used to determine indoor radon concentration of radioactive mineral sands and the technologically enhanced radiation level inside the pilot plant of the Centre. It is found that the concentrations at processed mineral stock areas are high, and the maximum concentration was found to be 2,103 +/- 331 Bq m(-3) (0.23 +/- 0.03 WL). The indoor concentration of radon and its decay products in the raw sand stock area and at other locations was in the range of 116 +/- 27 Bq m(-3) (0.03 +/- 0.003 WL) to 2,042 +/- 233 Bq m(-3) (0.22 +/- 0.03 WL).

  18. Laboratory and pilot plant scale study on the electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anglada, Angela; Urtiaga, Ana M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, E.T.S.I.I. y T., Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Ortiz, Inmaculada, E-mail: ortizi@unican.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, E.T.S.I.I. y T., Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Kinetic data regarding COD oxidation were measured in a laboratory scale cell and used to scale-up an electro-oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment by means of boron-doped diamond anodes. A pilot-scale reactor with a total BDD anode area of 1.05 m{sup 2} was designed. Different electrode gaps in the laboratory and pilot plant cells resulted in dissimilar reactor hydrodynamics. Consequently, generalised dimensionless correlations concerning mass transfer were developed in order to define the mass transfer conditions in both electrochemical systems. These correlations were then used in the design equations to validate the scale-up procedure. A series of experiments with biologically pre-treated landfill leachate were done to accomplish this goal. The evolution of ammonia and COD concentration could be well predicted.

  19. Characterization of subjective uncertainty in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; MARTELL,MARY-ALENA; TIERNEY,MARTIN S.

    2000-05-18

    The 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the possible disruptions that could occur at the WIPP over the 10,000 yr regulatory period specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 191,40 CFR 194) and subjective uncertainty arising from an inability to uniquely characterize many of the inputs required in the 1996 WIPP PA. The characterization of subjective uncertainty is discussed, including assignment of distributions, uncertain variables selected for inclusion in analysis, correlation control, sample size, statistical confidence on mean complementary cumulative distribution functions, generation of Latin hypercube samples, sensitivity analysis techniques, and scenarios involving stochastic and subjective uncertainty.

  20. A pilot plant for solar-cell manufacture; Ligne pilote de fabrication de cellules solaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.; Ziegler, Y.; Closset, A. [VHF - Technologies SA, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    A pilot plant for the manufacture of amorphous silicon solar cells on plastic film substrate was built allowing the annual production of 40 kW peak power. The production steps comprise: a) the continuous coating of n-i-p solar cells by VHF-PECVD with a capacity of 28.5 meters in 8.5 hours; b) transparent-conducting-oxide (TCO) top contact structuring using a continuous process; c) series connection step (scribing and Ag-paste) with a capacity of 28 meters in 6 hours; d) back and top contact sputtering with 3 parallel magnetrons; e) integration of a large-area vacuum laminator enabling the simultaneous lamination of 4 products of 4 Wp. In parallel with this project, a complete cost model was established enabling a more quantitative approach of the future technological and industrial strategy of the company. An increase of the capacity to 100 kWp has been planned for summer 2005.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

  2. Hydrotreating of used oil; Prediction of industrial trickle-bed operation from pilot-plant data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skala, D.U.; Saban, M.D.; Orlovie, M. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Tehnolosko-Metalurski Fakultet); Meyn, V.W.; Severin, D.K.; Rahimian, I.G.H. (German Inst. for Petroleum Research, 3392 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (DE)); Marjanovic, M.V. (Refinery Beograd, Pancevacki put 83, 11001 Beograd (YU))

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on oil hydrotreating that was investigated in a pilot trickle-bed reactor (TBR) at 270-350{degrees} C, 5-7 MPa, and 1.1-4.6 liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and with different hydrogen/oil ratios using a commercial Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), and metals removal were investigated by using a modified power- law kinetic model with a power term for LHSV. It was found that the HDS and HDO reactions can be described by pseudo- first-order kinetics. The removal of metals was found to be primarily due to the physical process of deposition on the catalyst bed. With the use of the kinetic data from a pilot plant, the simulation of an industrial TBR was performed. Simulated HDS and HDO, removal of metals, and prediction of catalyst deactivation agreed well with the industrial data for three charges of catalyst.

  3. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, Richard L.; Domski, Paul S.; Roberts, Randall M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents interpretations of hydraulic tests conducted in bedded evaporates of the Salado Formation from May 1992 through May 1995 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy research and development facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic wastes from the nation's defense programs. The WIPP disposal horizon is located in the lower portion of the Permian Salado Formation. The hydraulic tests discussed in this report were performed in the WIPP underground facility by INTERA inc. (now Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.), Austin, Texas, following the Field Operations Plan and Addendum prepared by Saulnier (1988, 1991 ) under the technical direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  4. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Özek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Distillation speed was high in the beginning of the process, then gradually reduced as the distillation proceeded. The main component of the oil of Laurel leaf oil was 1,8-cineole accumulating significantly in the early fractions.

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood in a 2 m3 pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2006-01-01

    Waste wood that has been treated with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. A pilot plant for electrodialytic remediation of up to 2 m3 wood has been designed and tested and the results are presented here. Several...... fractions. The best remediation efficiency was obtained in an experiment with an electrode distance of 60 cm, and 100 kg wood chips. In this experiment 87% copper, 81% chromium and > 95% arsenic were removed. One other experiment was also analysed for arsenic. In this experiment the distance between...... the working electrodes was 1.5 m and here 95% As was removed. The results showed that arsenic may be the easiest removable of the copper, chromium and arsenic investigated here. This is very encouraging since arsenic is the CCA components of most environmental concern....

  6. Software/firmware design specification for 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladewig, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    The software and firmware employed for the operation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are completely described. The systems allow operator control of up to 2048 heliostats, and include the capability of operator-commanded control, graphic displays, status displays, alarm generation, system redundancy, and interfaces to the Operational Control System, the Data Acquisition System, and the Beam Characterization System. The requirements are decomposed into eleven software modules for execution in the Heliostat Array Controller computer, one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Field Controller microprocessor, and one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Controller microprocessor. The design of the modules to satisfy requirements, the interfaces between the computers, the software system structure, and the computers in which the software and firmware will execute are detailed. The testing sequence for validation of the software/firmware is described. (LEW)

  7. Progress in long-lived radioactive waste management and disposal at the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triay, I.R.; Matthews, M.L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico (United States); Eriksson, L.G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Salado Formation is buried more than 350 m beneath the sands and cacti of the Chihuahuan Desert and hosts the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological repository at a depth of approximately 650 m. Since the WIPP repository is at least 10 years ahead of any other repository development for long-lived radioactive waste, other radioactive waste management organizations and institutions could benefit both scientifically and politically from sharing the lessons learned at WIPP. Benefits would include using existing expertise and facilities to cost-effectively address and solve program-specific issues and to train staff. The characteristics of the WIPP repository and infrastructure are described in this paper. (author)

  8. Environmental management assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Assessment was conducted by EH-24 from July 19 through July 30, 1993 to advise the Secretary of Energy of the adequacy of management systems established at WIPP to ensure the protection of the environment and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. The mission of WIPP is to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the management and operating contractors. This assessment revealed that WIPP`s environmental safety and health programs are satisfactory, and that all levels of the Waste Isolation Division (WID) management and staff consistently exhibit a high level of commitment to achieve environmental excellence.

  9. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-12-31

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report.

  10. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R. (ed.)

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites. (DLC)

  11. Water-gas shift (WGS) Operation of Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Pilot Plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Damen, K.; Makkee, M.; Trapp, C.

    2014-01-01

    In the Nuon/Vattenfall CO2 Catch-up project, a pre-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant was built and operated at the Buggenum IGCC power plant, the Netherlands. The pilot consist of sweet water-gas shift, physical CO2 absorption and CO2 compression. The technology performance was verified and validat

  12. Energy Efficient Solvents for CO2 Absorption from Flue Gas: Vapor Liquid Equilibrium and Pilot Plant Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, Prachi; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    From solvent screening for new, amine based solvents for CO2 recovery from flue gas, two most promising solvent formulations, a 51 wt% New Solvent (NS) and a 26.7% AMP-11.9% HMDA mixture were selected and tested in an industrial pilot plant, mainly to identify the regeneration energy requirement. In

  13. Production of mineral concentrates from animal manure using reverse osmosis : monitoring of pilot plants in 2012-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, P.; Buisonjé, de F.E.

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011 the agricultural, economic and environmental effects of the production and use of mineral concentrates, produced from animal slurry, were studied. Part of the study was the monitoring of the 8 participating full-scale (pilot) plants to assess the chemical composition of the half pr

  14. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: collector subsystem foundation construction. Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-18

    Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act. Instructions to bidders, general provisions and general conditions are included. Technical specifications are provided for the construction. (LEW)

  15. Pilot plant for the radioactive decontamination of spent oils; Planta piloto para la descontaminacion radiactiva de aceites gastados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.V.; Cisneros L, L.; Lopez G, R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In this work the operation parameters obtained in the laboratory of oil storage are presented, as well as the operations which shape the pilot plant, the design criteria and the basic design of the core equipment of the developed process. Finally, the comparative results obtained the decontamination process of oil are given as well as laboratory scale. (Author)

  16. Pilot plant for production of photovoltaic modules using Brazilian technology; Planta piloto de producao de modulos fotovoltaicos com tecnologia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehlecke, Adriano; Zanesco, Izete [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica. Centro Brasileiro para Desenvolvimento da Energia Solar Fotovoltaica - CB-Solar]. E-mail: moehleck@pucrs.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the implantation of a pilot plant for photovoltaic modules production at the Brazilian Center for Development of Photovoltaic Solar Energy placed in the Technological Park of the Catholic University of South Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. The paper presents and discusses a history of the project, the existent infrastructure, the expected results and the continuity proposal.

  17. Production of mineral concentrates from animal manure using reverse osmosis : monitoring of pilot plants in 2012-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, P.; Buisonjé, de F.E.

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011 the agricultural, economic and environmental effects of the production and use of mineral concentrates, produced from animal slurry, were studied. Part of the study was the monitoring of the 8 participating full-scale (pilot) plants to assess the chemical composition of the half pr

  18. Approach to first principles model prediction of measured WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) in-situ room closure in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F.; Senseny, P.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The discrepancies between predicted and measured Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in-situ Room D closures are markedly reduced through the use of a Tresca flow potential, an improved small strain constitutive model, an improved set of material parameters, and a modified stratigraphy. (author).

  19. Water-gas shift (WGS) Operation of Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Pilot Plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Damen, K.; Makkee, M.; Trapp, C.

    2014-01-01

    In the Nuon/Vattenfall CO2 Catch-up project, a pre-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant was built and operated at the Buggenum IGCC power plant, the Netherlands. The pilot consist of sweet water-gas shift, physical CO2 absorption and CO2 compression. The technology performance was verified and

  20. Water-gas shift (WGS) Operation of Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Pilot Plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Damen, K.; Makkee, M.; Trapp, C.

    2014-01-01

    In the Nuon/Vattenfall CO2 Catch-up project, a pre-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant was built and operated at the Buggenum IGCC power plant, the Netherlands. The pilot consist of sweet water-gas shift, physical CO2 absorption and CO2 compression. The technology performance was verified and validat

  1. Environmental geophysics of the Pilot Plant on the west branch of Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Borden, H.; Benson, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Wrobel, J. [Directorate of Safety, Health, and Environment, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Plans to demolish and remediate the Pilot Plant complex in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground have served to initiate a series of nonintrusive, environmental-geophysical studies. The studies are assisting in the location and identification of pipes, tanks, trenches, and liquid waste in the subsurface. Multiple databases have been integrated to provide support for detection of underground utilities and to determine the stratigraphy and lithology of the subsurface. The studies were conducted within the double security fence and exterior to the double fence, down gradient toward the west branch of Canal Creek. To determine if contaminants found in the creek were associated with the Pilot Plant, both the east and west banks were included in the study area. Magnetic, conductivity, inductive emf, and ground-penetrating-radar anomalies outline buried pipes, trenches, and various pieces of hardware associated with building activities. Ground-penetrating-radar imagery also defines a paleovalley cut 30 ft into Potomac Group sediments of Cretaceous age. The paleovalley crosses the site between Building E5654 and the Pilot Plant fence. The valley is environmentally significant because it may control the pathways of contaminants. The Pilot Plant complex was used to manufacture CC2 Impregnite and incapacitating agents; it also served as a production facility for nerve agents.

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of diabatic heating distribution from FGGE level 3b analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, A.; Mizzi, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the global distribution of diabatic heating rate. Preliminary results of global heating rate evaluated from the European center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Level IIIb analysis data is also presented.

  4. Performance of and methanogenic communities involved in an innovative anaerobic process for the treatment of food wastewater in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungyong; Lee, Bowon; Han, Gyuseong; Yoon, Heechul; Kim, Woong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, dual-cylindrical anaerobic digesters were designed and built on the pilot plant scale for the improvement of anaerobic digestion efficiency. The removal efficiency of organics, biogas productivity, yield, and microbial communities was evaluated as performance parameters of the digester. During the stable operational period in the continuous mode, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand and total solids were 74.1 and 65.1%, respectively. Biogas productivities of 63.9 m(3)/m(3)-FWW and 1.3 m(3)/kg-VSremoved were measured. The hydrogenotrophic methanogen orders, Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales, were predominant over the aceticlastic methanogen order, Methanosarcinaceae, probably due to the tolerance of the hydrogenotrophs to environmental perturbation in the field and their faster growth rate compared with that of the aceticlastics.

  5. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. (IT Corporation (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Synthane Pilot Plant, Bruceton, Pa. Run report No. 1. Operating period: July--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Test Directive No. 1 provided the operating conditions and process requirements for the first coal to be gasified in the Synthane Pilot Plant. Rosebud coal, which is a western sub-bituminous coal, was chosen by DOE because of its non-caking properties and reactivity. This report summarizes and presents the data obtained. The pilot plant produced gas for a total of 228 hours and gasified 709 tons of Rosebud coal from July 7 to December 20, 1976. Most of this period was spent in achieving process reliability and learning how to operate and control the gasifier. A significant number of equipment and process changes were required to achieve successful operation of the coal grinding and handling facilities, the Petrocarb feed system, and the char handling facilities. A complete revision of all gasifier instrumentation was necessary to achieve good control. Twenty-one test runs were accomplished, the longest of which was 37 hours. During this run, carbon conversions of 57 to 60% were achieved at bed temperatures of 1450 to 1475/sup 0/F. Earlier attempts to operate the gasifier with bed temperatures of 1550 and 1650/sup 0/F resulted in clinker formation in the gasifier and the inability to remove char. Test Directive No. 1 was discontinued in January 1977, without meeting the directive's goals because the process conditions of free fall of coal feed into the Synthane gasifier resulted in excessive quantities of tar and fines carryover into the gas scrubbing area. Each time the gasifier was opened after a run, the internal cyclone dip leg was found to be plugged solidly with hard tar and fines. The gas scrubbing equipment was always badly fouled with char and tar requiring an extensive and difficult cleanout. Packing in the gas scrubber had to be completely changed twice due to extensive fouling.

  7. Supervisory control of remote manipulation: A preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    A system for supervisory control is described, and preliminary results are presented. Supervisory control, where control is traded between man and computer, offers benefits in the control of a remote manipulator. The system has the potential to accomplish sophisticated tasks. It is indicated that supervisory control yields lower task completion times and is preferred over manual control.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars

    guide surgical treatment. The TTTG measures tibial tuberosity position relative to the axis of the femoral trochlea. A preliminary investigation of TTTG measurement was performed using the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers as a morphologically similar and homogenous substitute for dog cadavers. CT...

  9. First test results of the pilot plant for the pressure loaded vapour loaded fluidized bed drying process (DDWT) of brown coals. A pilot plant for 5 t/h dry coal and till 6 bar dryer pressure; Erste Testergebnisse von der Versuchsanlage zur Druckaufgeladenen Dampfwirbelschicht-Trocknung (DDWT) von Braunkohlen. Versuchsanlage fuer 5 t/h Trockenkohle und bis 6 bar Trocknerdruck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porsche, T.; Thannhaeuser, L.; Hoehne, O.; Martin, J.S. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Apart from other promising possibilities for the improvement of the efficiency of fossil fuelled power stations such as the improvement of the steam parameters and optimization of the equipment technology the preliminary drying of coal possesses a very high potential. This results from a more effective combustion of the dried coal in the power station boiler and from the energetic use of the condensation enthalpy of the coal water vapour during processing the power station. Especially, if the vapour steam is on a high level of pressure, the applied evaporation enthalpy completely can be led back into the power station process. Thereby, improvements of the net efficiency of power stations of about 4 to 5 % are attainable. Starting from October 2008, Vattenfall Europe AG (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) established a pilot plant for a vapour loaded fluidized bed drying process (DDWT) of brown coals at the site Schwarze Pumpe. The plant is laid out for a dryer performance of 5 t/h dry brown coal. This plant enables tests with a dryer system pressure between 1 and 6 bar. After start-up in the third quarter 2008, the operation of the pilot plant begun. Extensive tests of the plant and components were accomplished, and the procedure proof for DDWT of Lausitz brown coals was furnished. So far, up to 4 t/h dry coal were produced with the accomplished test campaigns. A dryer system pressure of up to 4.5 bar started. The target is to transfer the results and experiences from the test operation into planning and construction of a 250 MW{sub e}l Oxyfuel demonstration power station with upstream coal pressure drying process which is established by Vattenfall Europe AG at the location Jaenschwalde until 2015.

  10. KAJIAN HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) PENGOLAHAN JAMBU BIJI DI PILOT PLANT SARI BUAH UPT. B2PTTG – LIPI SUBANG

    OpenAIRE

    Diki Nanang Surahman; Riyanti Ekafitri

    2014-01-01

    Guava has vitamin C and beta carotene that potent as antioxidant and can increase endurance. Guava can be processed into juice as a fi nal product. UPT . B2PTTG-LIPI Subang has a Pilot Plant. The pilot plant itself is a model of processing fruit into juice. The processing of guava juice from the pilot plant needs an application of HACCP to improve the quality and safety of fruit juice products. The studies of HACCP uses the 7 principles of HACCP system recommended by the Indonesian National St...

  11. PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATURITY FOR DEVELOPING PILOT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Mittermaier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Despite the current economic climate, the South African mining and engineering industry is experiencing a very promising future, with a large number of capital projects in the offing. It is inevitable that pilot plant development will form part of this future as a risk mitigation technique. This study found that, even though the terms ‘pilot plant’ and ‘project management maturity’ are familiar within the industry, no link between these two could be found in the literature. A number of maturity models exist; and one developed by PMSolutions was selected to perform an assessment of the current level of project management maturity within the South African mining and engineering industry pertaining to the development of pilot plants. The Delphi technique was used to determine the views of experts in the South African mining, mineral processing, petrochemical, nuclear, and mechanical sectors regarding this maturity. A significant difference was observed between the current level of maturity and the required level of maturity in all but one of the nine knowledge areas defined by the Project Management Institute. The two knowledge areas of project time and risk management showed significant differences between current and required maturity levels, and were identified as key areas for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ten spyte van die huidige ekonomiese klimaat ondervind die Suid-Afrikaanse mynbou- en ingenieursbedryf ’n baie bemoedigende toekoms, met ’n groot aantal kapitaalprojekte in die vooruitsig. Ten einde risiko’s te verlaag, sal die ontwikkeling van loodsaanlegte noodwendig deel van hierdie toekoms uitmaak. Daar is gevind dat, alhoewel die terme ‘loodsaanleg’ en ‘projekbestuur volwassenheid’ in die nywerheid bekend is, geen skakeling van hierdie twee terme in die literatuur opgespoor kon word nie. ’n Aantal volwassenheid modelle bestaan; en een wat deur PMSolutions ontwikkel is, is gekies om

  12. MELiSSA Pilot Plant: A facility for ground demonstration of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godia, Francesc; Fossen, Arnaud; Peiro, Enrique; Gerbi, Olivier; Dussap, Gilles; Leys, Natalie; Arnau, Carolina; Milian, Ernest

    MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an international collaborative effort focused on the development of a Life Support System for long-term Space missions. The goals of the MELiSSA loop are the recovery of food, water and oxygen from wastes, i.e. CO2 and organic wastes, using light as a source of energy. It is conceived as a series of compartments, each one performing a specific function within this cycle, inspired in the terrestrial ecological systems. Each one of the compartments is colonized with specific bacteria or higher plants depending on its dedicated function. Therefore, its design and operational conditions should guarantee that only a given specific biological activity takes place in each compartment. Moreover, this has to be done in a controlled manner, both at the subsystems level (i.e., compartments) and at the overall system level (i.e., complete loop). In order to achieve the complete operation of such a Closed Ecological System, in a first step each compartment has to be developed at individual level, and its operation demonstrated under its associated control law. In a second step, the complete loop needs to be integrated by the connection of the different compartments in the gas, loop and solid phases. An extensive demonstration of MELiSSA loop under terrestrial conditions is a mandatory step in the process of its adaptation to space. This is the main goal of the MPP. The demonstration scenario for the MPP is the respiration equivalent of a human being, and production of 20 percent of the diet of one person. To serve this goal, the different compartments of the MELiSSA loop have been designed and sized at the pilot scale level, and further characterized. Nowadays, the focus of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant is on the integration of its compartments. To this end, the integration challenge is concentrated in three compartments devoted to the following functions: nitrification (Compartment 3, an axenic co-culture of Nitrosomonas

  13. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  14. Preliminary evaluation of vector flow and spectral velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    Spectral estimation is considered as the golden standard in ultrasound velocity estimation. For spectral velocity estimation the blood flow angle is set by the ultrasound operator. Vector flow provides temporal and spatial estimates of the blood flow angle and velocity. A comparison of vector flow...... agrees with the spectral flow angle. The vector velocity estimates agrees with the spectral estimates at PS and ED. From preliminary data it is concluded that vector flow angle estimation can replace the operator-dependent angle correction used for spectral velocity estimation....... estimation and spectral estimates is presented. The variation of the blood flow angle and the effect on the velocity estimate is investigated. The right common carotid arteries of three healthy volunteers were scanned. Real-time spectral and vector flow data were obtained simultaneously from one range gate...

  15. Preliminary evaluation of two new cable surface innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burlina, Celeste; Georgakis, Christos T.; Larsen, S.V.;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the aerodynamic performance of two innovative bridge cable surfaces with concave fillets are examined and compared with traditional helical fillets. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was undertaken to measure the aerodynamic static force coefficients up to a Reyno......In this paper, the aerodynamic performance of two innovative bridge cable surfaces with concave fillets are examined and compared with traditional helical fillets. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was undertaken to measure the aerodynamic static force coefficients up...... to a Reynolds number of 3.2 x 105. The tests confirmed the results obtained from the preliminary tests performed by Kleissl and Georgakis (2013) on the prototype cable surfaces with the concave fillets. Despite a more than 100% increase of the fillet height compared to a traditional helical fillet profile...

  16. Test Results and Comparison of Triaxial Strength Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Clean Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Stuart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This memorandum documents laboratory thermomechanical triaxial strength testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) clean salt. The limited study completed independent, adjunct laboratory tests in the United States to assist in validating similar testing results being provided by the German facilities. The testing protocol consisted of completing confined triaxial, constant strain rate strength tests of intact WIPP clean salt at temperatures of 25°C and 100°C and at multiple confining pressures. The stratigraphy at WIPP also includes salt that has been labeled “argillaceous.” The much larger test matrix conducted in Germany included both the so-called clean and argillaceous salts. When combined, the total database of laboratory results will be used to develop input parameters for models, assess adequacy of existing models, and predict material behavior. These laboratory studies are also consistent with the goals of the international salt repository research program. The goal of this study was to complete a subset of a test matrix on clean salt from the WIPP undertaken by German research groups. The work was performed at RESPEC in Rapid City, South Dakota. A rigorous Quality Assurance protocol was applied, such that corroboration provides the potential of qualifying all of the test data gathered by German research groups.

  17. Aerobic thermophilic treatment of sewage sludge at pilot plant scale. 2. Technical solutions and process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, C; Sonnleitner, B; Fiechter, A

    1995-01-15

    The performance of the ATS process depends essentially on the oxygen transfer efficiency. Improvement of the mass transfer capacity of a bioreactor allowed to reduce the incubation time necessary to attain sludge stabilization. It is important to use equipment with a high aeration efficiency such as an injector aeration system. The ratio between the total oxygen consumption and the organic matter degradation (delta COD) ranged between 0.4 and 0.8 in the pilot plant, whereas 1.23 was found in completely mixed bioreactors (Bomio, 1990). No significant improvement of the bacterial degradation efficiency was attained with a specific power input exceeding 6-8 kW m-3. A mean residence time of less than 1 d allowed organic matter removals up to 40% with specific power consumption of 10 kWh kg-1 COD oxidized. The sludge hygienization is one of the objectives and benefits of the thermophilic treatment: not only temperature but also the total solids content were important factors affecting inactivation of pathogens. The inactivation rate was promoted by the increase of temperature, while the residual colony forming units decreased with reducing the total solids content of sewage sludge. It is concluded that continuous operation mode would not affect the quality of the hygienization but could display the high degradation potential of the aerobic system.

  18. Synthesis gas/H{sub 2} via SCT-CPO. A pilot-plant experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, L.; Cimino, R.; Guarinoni, A. [Eni S.p.A., Divisione Refining and Marketing, Direzione Ricerca e Sviluppo Tecnologico, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Campanelli, G.; Ficili, C.; Ponzo, R. [Eni S.p.A., Divisione Refining and Marketing, Direzione Ricerca e Sviluppo Tecnologico, San Filippo del Mela (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas have been extensively utilised for more than 70 years in chemical and refinery industries. Their uses are becoming today more complex being influenced by strategic, political, economic and sustainability considerations. Clean fuel production and heavy residues utilisation, Gas To Liquid initiatives and the desired but not yet accomplished Electric Energy production with Fuel Cells, are issues whose development and costs would benefit from innovations in Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas production and utilisation. The existing technological needs will be briefly discussed considering a new H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production method, the Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO). This has been studied since the early '90es by performing an extensive work at lab-scale and in bench scale levels and finally scaling-up the technology. In 2001 Snamprogetti (the engineering company of the ENI group) and Haldor Topsoe A/S successfully operated a first pilot plant in Houston, TX and in 2005 EniTecnologie realised and operated a second multi-purpose plant in Milazzo, Sicily. The multi-purpose plant includes all the main operation units of an industrial realisation and allows a full simulation of real conditions. Moreover it is designed to process a wide class of hydrocarbons (ranging from NG to liquid and heavy fuels). This work reviews its features and capabilities of providing useful information for the development of technological applications. (orig.)

  19. Monitoring roof beam lateral displacement at the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrill, L.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lateral displacement in the immediate roof beam at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a significant factor in assessment of excavation performance for the design of ground control systems. Information on roof beam lateral displacement, expansion, fracture formation, as well as excavation convergence, is gathered using a variety of manually and remotely read instruments. Visual observations are also used when possible. This paper describes the methods used to measure lateral displacement, or offset, at the WIPP. Offset magnitudes are determined by the degree of occlusion in drillholes that intersect the offset plane. The Borehole Lateral Displacement Sensor (BLDS) was developed for installation at WIPP to monitor offset at a high degree of accuracy at a short reading frequency. Offset measurements have historically been obtained by visual estimation of borehole occlusion. Use of the BLDS will enable relationships between time dependent roof beam lateral displacement and expansion to be established in much shorter periods than is possible using visual observations. The instrument will also allow remote monitoring of roof beam displacement in areas where visual estimations are not possible. Continued monitoring of roof beam displacement, convergence, and expansion, is integral to timely and pertinent assessments of WIPP excavation performance.

  20. Correlation of drillhole and shaft logs. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project, southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarolimek, L.; Timmer, M.J.; Powers, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report on stratigraphic correlations from drillhole and shaft data along a generally north-south section across the potential extent of underground excavations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility was prepared as part of the Site Validation Field Program Plan. The results provide (1) input for the report entitled ''Results of Site Validation Experiments,'' (2) input for other WIPP-related investigations, including the Design Validation Program, and (3) a framework for further underground activities at WIPP. In general, this correlation study confirmed previous findings, including: relatively high consistency of thickness and lateral continuity of all beds within the Salado Formation, especially in the host rock interval; gentle, generally south and southeastward dips/slopes of the host rock interval strata; close correspondence between stratigraphic data obtained from the present underground excavations and data derived from the previous investigative drillholes and shafts; and depositional origin of the undulations on the top of Marker Bed (MB) 139 and relatively small variation in its thickness (1.2 to 4.1 feet).

  1. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Performances and fouling control of a flat sheet membrane in a MBR pilot-plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grélot, A; Grelier, P; Tazi-Pain, A; Lesjean, B; Brüss, U; Grasmick, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and the optimisation of the hydraulic operating conditions of the A3 Water Solutions flat sheet membrane technology in a MBR pilot-plant to achieve a satisfying fouling control and also a reduction in the required aeration. Two vertically stacked modules were tested at pilot-scale at Anjou Recherche under typical biological operating conditions (mixed liquor suspended solids concentration (MLSS) =10 g/l; sludge retention time (SRT) =28 days; food to microorganism ratio (F/M)=0.12 kg COD/kg MLSS/d). The use of a double-deck and of specific backwashes for this membrane technology enabled to achieve satisfying membrane performances for a net flux of 25 L h(-1) m(-2), 20 degrees C at a low specific aeration demand per membrane surface (SADm = 0.2 Nm(3) h(-1) m(-2)) which corresponds to a specific aeration demand per permeate volume unit (SADp) of 8 Nm(3) air/m(3) permeate, which is lower than reported for many commercial membrane systems. The mixed liquor characteristics (foaming, MLSS concentration) appeared to influence the fouling behaviour of the membranes but no correlation was found with the fouling rate. However, with the new operating conditions, the system is robust and can cope with fouling resulting from biological stress and daily peak flows for MLSS concentrations in the membrane tank up to 18 g/l.

  3. Citizens guide to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Compliance Certification Application to the EPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted an application to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for a certificate showing that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) complies with strict environmental regulations designed to safeguard humans and the environment for at least 10,000 years. Congress gave the EPA authority to regulate the WIPP site for disposal of transuranic waste under the 1992 WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The EPA has one year to review the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) before determining whether the DOE has successfully documented the WIPP`s compliance with federal environmental standards. The application presents the conclusions of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering work specifically dedicated to disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP. The application thoroughly documents how the natural characteristics of the WIPP site, along with engineered features, comply with the regulations. In the application, the DOE responds fully to the federal standards and to the EPA`s certification criteria. This Citizens` Guide provides an overview of the CCA and its role in moving toward final disposal of transuranic waste.

  4. Electrochemical treatment of Procion Black 5B using cylindrical flow reactor--a pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, S; Basha, C Ahmed

    2007-01-10

    The paper presents the results of an efficient electrochemical treatment of Procion Black 5B--a pilot plant study. Experiments were conducted at different current densities and selected electrolyte medium using Ti/RuO2 as anode, stainless-steel as cathode in a cylindrical flow reactor. By cyclic voltammetric analysis, the best condition for maximum redox reaction rate was found to be in NaCl medium. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD, colour, FTIR, UV-vis spectra studies, energy consumption and mass transfer coefficient were computed and presented. The experimental results showed that the electrochemical oxidation process could effectively remove colour and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the synthetic dye effluent. The maximum COD reduction and colour removal efficiencies were 74.05% and 100%, respectively. Probable theory, reaction mechanism and modeling were proposed for the oxidation of dye effluent. The results obtained reveal the feasibilities of application of electrochemical treatment for the degradation of Procion Black 5B.

  5. Investigation of Parameters Affecting Gypsum Dewatering Properties in a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plants with forced oxidation, installed at coal and oil fired power plants for removal of SO2(g), must produce gypsum of high quality. However, quality issues such as an excessive moisture content, due to poor gypsum dewatering properties, may occur from time...... to time. In this work, the particle size distribution, morphology, and filtration rate of wet FGD gypsum formed in a pilot-scale experimental setup, operated in forced oxidation mode, have been studied. The influence of holding tank residence time (10–408 h), solids content (30–169 g/L), and the presence...... of impurities (0.002 M Al2F6; 50 g quartz/L; 0.02 M Al3+, and 0.040 M Mg2+) were investigated. In addition, slurry from a full-scale wet FGD plant, experiencing formation of flat shaped crystals and poor gypsum dewatering properties, was transferred to the pilot plant to test if the plant would now start...

  6. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, C.F. [ed.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media.

  7. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of the February 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Piggott, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lobaugh, Megan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tai, Lydia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yu, Kristen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-22

    This report presents the results of a simulation of the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radioactivity released from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in New Mexico in February 2014. These simulations were made by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and supersede NARAC simulation results published in a previous WIPP report (WIPP, 2014). The results presented in this report use additional, more detailed data from WIPP on the specific radionuclides released, radioactivity release amounts and release times. Compared to the previous NARAC simulations, the new simulation results in this report are based on more detailed modeling of the winds, turbulence, and particle dry deposition. In addition, the initial plume rise from the exhaust vent was considered in the new simulations, but not in the previous NARAC simulations. The new model results show some small differences compared to previous results, but do not change the conclusions in the WIPP (2014) report. Presented are the data and assumptions used in these model simulations, as well as the model-predicted dose and deposition on and near the WIPP site. A comparison of predicted and measured radionuclide-specific air concentrations is also presented.

  8. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Snyder, R.P. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Annotated bibliography of paleoclimate studies relevant to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, G.O. (Bachman (George O.), Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-09-01

    A selective, partially annotated bibliography on paleoclimate literature (through 1984) presents the various interpretations of the nature of past climate in New Mexico and adjacent areas in the Southwest. Groundwater flow and concomitant dissolution of evaporites in the Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico, the geologic setting of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, has occurred since Permian deposition and may be continuing at some places in the basin. An understanding of patterns of past rainfall may contribute to an understanding of the history of groundwater flow and evaporite dissolution at and near the WIPP site and may help to predict the relative magnitudes of groundwater flow and evaporite dissolution to be expected during the required period of repository performance. Although most references in this list are annotated and pertain to paleoclimate in the vicinity of New Mexico, other references have been included that (1) place the Southwest in the context of world climatic change, (2) pertain to principles and methods of collecting climatic data for past geologic time, and (3) complement such a collection of references because of their historic interest. 35 refs.

  10. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

    2000-04-01

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

  11. Synthane Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Pennsylvania. Run report No. 2-DB: operating period September 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the operation of the Synthane Coal Gasification Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania from September 1977 through September 1978. The facility is owned by the United States Government and operated by C-E Lummus. Test Directive No. 2-DB directed the plant be operated with Illinois No. 6 coal from the River King Mine of the Peabody Coal Company at a pressure of 600 psig. Concurrent pretreater/gasifier operation was to take place at coal feed rates from 1.5 to 2.5 tons/hour. Gas was produced for 182 hours and 1,100 tons of coal were fed to the pretreater and gasifier. Continuous operation of up to 56 hours and carbon conversions based on char of up to 72% were achieved. This successful operation demonstrates that coal gasification via the Synthane Process is viable. Additional data are required for the design of a commercial facility; however, the data obtained to date are adequate to recommend improvements and modifications to the Synthane Process Pilot Plant to increase on stream time efficiency. The successful operation of the pilot plant with Illinois No. 6 coal demonstrates the feasibility of the Synthane Pilot Plant to process a caking type of coal. The ability to successfully pretreat a caking coal at high pressure in a plant of this size is a first and a direct result of the successful operation of the Synthane Process. Other similar type processes operated to date require pretreatment of a caking coal at atmospheric pressure with little or no recovery of the gases or heat produced during pretreatment.

  12. Initial Assessment of Sulfur-Iodine Process Safety Issues and How They May Affect Pilot Plant Design and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Cherry

    2006-09-01

    The sulfur-iodine process to make hydrogen by the thermochemical splitting of water is under active development as part of a U.S. Department of Energy program. An integrated lab scale system is currently being designed and built. The next planned stage of development is a pilot plant with a thermal input of about 500 kW, equivalent to about 30,000 standard liters per hour of hydrogen production. The sulfur-iodine process contains a variety of hazards, including temperatures up to 850 ºC and hazardous chemical species including SO2, H2SO4, HI, I2, and of course H2. The siting and design of a pilot plant must consider these and other hazards. This report presents an initial analysis of the hazards that might affect pilot plant design and should be considered in the initial planning. The general hazards that have been identified include reactivity, flammability, toxicity, pressure, electrical hazards, and industrial hazards such as lifting and rotating equipment. Personnel exposure to these hazards could occur during normal operations, which includes not only running the process at the design conditions but also initial inventory loading, heatup, startup, shutdown, and system flushing before equipment maintenance. Because of the complexity and severity of the process, these ancillary operations are expected to be performed frequently. In addition, personnel could be exposed to the hazards during various abnormal situations which could include unplanned phase changes of liquids or solids, leaks of process fluids or cooling water into other process streams, unintentional introducion of foreign species into the process, and unexpected side reactions. Design of a pilot plant will also be affected by various codes and regulations such as the International Building Code, the International Fire Code, various National Fire Protection Association Codes, and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.

  13. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Electrical fabrication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the electrical equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  14. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Frances, E.; Campos, I.J.; Martin, J.A.; Gil, J. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  15. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Purchased equipment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the purchased equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  16. Preliminary evaluation capability for some two-dimensional groundwater contamination problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    There are a variety of two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems where a preliminary evaluation of containment tansport is needed. A common difficulty in making this first assessment is the meager field data usually available. A preliminary evaluation capability has been developed for two-dimensional contamination problems that is consistent with the limited data initially available. Idealizations and simplifications have been introduced with special care so that worst-case final estimates will be provided. The preliminary evaluation results are produced using interactive computer programs that utilize self-help or coaching features for the user's convenience. The self-help programs aid the user by asking for the necessary input parameters and by guiding the user, in selecting the options needed to obtain the required results.

  17. Assessing the Impact of a Vinasse Pilot Plant Scale-Up on the Key Processes of the Ethanol Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Ramos-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the byproducts generated in the cane sugar production is molasses, which is used for ethanol distillation. However, one of the problems of distilleries is vinasse. Vinasse is highly water pollutant and is dumped untreated in lakes or rivers and damages the environment. The company FALA developed a pilot plant that uses vinasse to produce a type of livestock feed called MD60. In this paper, the impact of the pilot plant’s scale-up in the key processes of the company’s supply chain is analyzed. With the help of a sensitivity analysis, this study finds the values that would allow the company to improve its order fulfillment indicator and to increase profits, assuming an expected demand by the introduction of this new product into the market. The results show that (1 the pilot plant fulfills 32% of the orders, (2 according to the current vinasse storage capacity, it is possible to fulfill up to 77% of the orders by scaling up the pilot plant, (3 to satisfy 100% of the orders, it is necessary to use all the vinasse generated, and (4 the highest profit is reached by processing all the vinasse and by considering the upper sale price.

  18. Draft forecast of the final report for the comparison to 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Anderson, D.R.; Gomez, L.S.; Rechard, R.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy is planning to dispose of transuranic wastes, which have been generated by defense programs, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The WIPP Project will assess compliance with the requirements of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This report forecasts the planned 1992 document, Comparison to 40 CFR, Part 191, Subpart B, for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). 130 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnaveni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally used by the tribal of Rajasthan to prevent conception. Roots are used as appetizer, aphrodisiac, brain tonic, cardiotonic and to treat insanity and synovitis. Leaves, seeds preparations are used to treat epilepsy, diarrhea and nootropic. Leaf materials were collected, dried and coarsely powdered and were subjected to physiochemical constants, behavioral characters of the leaf powder with chemical reagents. Pharmacognostical studies include macroscopical, microscopical observations. Physical chemical constants such as ash values, extractive values, loss on drying, foreign organic matter were determined. Ash values include total ash; acid insoluble and water soluble ash were observed. Extractive values of powder with solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl actetae, ethanol and water were determined. Macroscopical characters help in identifying the leaf. Anatomical observations showed the presence of trichomes, upper and lower epidermal cells with rubiaceous stomata. Sclerenchyma fibers and acicular crystal were observed. The percentage of total ash values (4.3, 1.6 and3.94 % yield of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water showed 3.16,6.4,5.8,10.2 and 7.6% respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening reported the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, glycosides and flavanoids.The reported phytoconstitutents of the plant Argyreia nervosa may be responsible for the pharmacological activities. The results obtained add credit to the existing traditional information which will further increase the usage of this plant and provokes towards the investigation of the plant.

  20. Using SDI, SDI+ and MFI to evaluate fouling in a UR/RO desalination pilot plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hadidi, A.M.M.; Kemperman, A.J.B.; Schurer, H.; Schippers, J.C.; Wessling, M.; Meer, van der W.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the performance of a UF/RO demonstration plant located in the Oosterschelde estuary in the south-western part of the Netherlands. Spring blooms in the seawater pose a challenge to the plant because of the resulting increased fouling potential of the water. Determinations of the f

  1. Pilot plant evaluation of hydrotreating catalysts for heavy gas oil conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y.; Chen, S.; Chen, J. [CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    As world reserves of oil are depleted, most of the oil remaining is heavy and sour and improvements in the technology are thus required to process it and produce transportation fuels. In terms of catalysts, alumina supported hydrotreating catalysts are commonly used; but activated carbon (AC) could also be a catalyst support option with its high microporosity and surface area combined with its thermal stability and resistance to coke deposition. This paper aims at determining the effect of the catalyst support on heavy crude oil processing. Experiments were conducted using two AC based catalysts, an alumina supported catalyst and two hydrotreating catalysts; results were then analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope. Results demonstrated that the AC based catalysts provide a better hydrotreating performance than the other catalysts. This study finds that the use of activated carbon based catalysts can provide better heavy oil conversion than others.

  2. EVALUATION OF A COAL BIODESULFURIZATION PROCESS (SEMI-CONTINUOUS MODE ON THE PILOT PLANT LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERARDO CAICEDO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En un reactor de tanque agitado con capacidad de 4000 L, se llevó a cabo un proceso de biodesulfurización de un carbón con alto contenido de azufre (Spirítico = 1.03%, Sorgánico = 0.9%, Ssulfatos = 0.1%, proveniente del Municipio de Puerto Libertador (Córdoba, Colombia. Se utilizó un cultivo bacteriano compatible con A. ferrooxidans y A. thiooxidans. Se configuró un sistema de descarga-carga bajo condiciones ambientales, pH controlado diariamente (1.8±0.1, oxígeno disuelto 4 mg/l y tamaño de partícula pasante 3/8" (dp<19.05 mm. Se evaluaron dos tiempos de residencia (C2 = 8 días y C1 = 4 días. La máxima oxidación de pirita fue de 59.22% (C1. Lo anterior muestra buenas expectativas del proceso sin llevarse el carbón a molienda fina. Por otra parte, los efluentes líquidos producidos durante la biodesulfurización fueron neutralizados con cal antes de ser descartados a un pH entre 7.5-8.5, observándose remociones del 100% de hierro, 69.81% de sulfatos y 66.09% de los sólidos totales en solución.

  3. Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent with peracetic acid and ultraviolet combined treatment: a continuous-flow pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Abelardo; Gehr, Ronald; Vaca, Mabel; López, Raymundo

    2012-03-01

    Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent using a continuous-flow combined peracetic acid/ultraviolet (PAA/UV) radiation system was evaluated. The purpose was to determine whether the maximum microbial content, established under Mexican standards for treated wastewaters meant for reuse--less than 240 most probable number fecal coliforms (FC)/100 mL--could be feasibly accomplished using either disinfectant individually, or the combined PAA/UV system. This meant achieving reduction of up to 5 logs, considering initial concentrations of 6.4 x 10(+6) to 5.8 x 10(+7) colony forming units/100 mL. During the tests performed under these experiments, total coliforms (TC) were counted because FC, at the most, will be equal to TC. Peracetic acid disinfection achieved less than 1.5 logs TC reduction when the C(t) x t product was less than 2.26 mg x minimum (min)/L; 3.8 logs for C(t) x t 4.40 mg x min/L; and 5.9 logs for C(t) x t 24.2 mg x min/L. In continuous-flow UV irradiation tests, at a low-operating flow (21 L/min; conditions which produced an average UV fluence of 13.0 mJ/cm2), the highest TC reduction was close to 2.5 logs. The only condition that produced a disinfection efficiency of approximately 5 logs, when both disinfection agents were used together, was the combined process dosing 30 mg PAA/L at a pilot plant flow of 21 L/min and contact time of 10 minutes to attain an average C(t) x t product of 24.2 mg x min/L and an average UV fluence of 13 mJ/cm2. There was no conclusive evidence of a synergistic effect when both disinfectants were employed in combination as compared to the individual effects achieved when used separately, but this does not take into account the nonlinearity (tailing-off) of the dose-response curve.

  4. Coupled Biological-Geomechanical-Geochemical Effects of the Disturbed Rock Zone on the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S. C.; Herrick, C. G.; Lee, M. Y.

    2008-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located at a depth of 655 m in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a deep underground disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) waste. The WIPP must comply with the EPA's environmental regulations that require a probabilistic risk analysis of releases of radionuclides due to inadvertent human intrusion into the repository at some time during the 10,000-year regulatory period. Sandia National Laboratories conducts performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP using a system of computer codes representing the evolution of underground repository and emplaced TRU waste in order to demonstrate compliance. One of the important features modeled in a PA is the disturbed rock zone (DRZ) surrounding the emplacement rooms in the repository. The extent and permeability of DRZ play a significant role in the potential radionuclide release scenarios. We evaluated the phenomena occurring in the repository that affect the DRZ and their potential effects on the extent and permeability of the DRZ. Furthermore, we examined the DRZ's role in determining the performance of the repository. Pressure in the completely sealed repository will be increased by creep closure of the salt and degradation of TRU waste contents by microbial activity in the repository. An increased pressure in the repository will reduce the extent and permeability of the DRZ. The reduced DRZ extent and permeability will decrease the amount of brine that is available to interact with the waste. Furthermore, the potential for radionuclide release from the repository is dependent on the amount of brine that enters the repository. As a result of these coupled biological-geomechanical-geochemical phenomena, the extent and permeability of the DRZ has a significant impact on the potential radionuclide releases from the repository and, in turn, the repository performance. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia

  5. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, Hubertus [Vattenfall Europe Mining and Generation, Cottbus (Germany); Porsche, Thomas [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Directly linked to Vattenfall's ambition to be one of the leading European energy companies the strategic target is set, to reduce the specific CO{sub 2} emission caused by the production of electricity and heat by 50 per cent until 2030 and to produce heat and electricity climate neutral by 2050. These reduction targets stand in line with the plans of the European Union and the German government and go even beyond them. First results from the operation of the Oxyfuel pilot plant are available now. These real and comprehensible results are now the foundation for further planning and building activities and they guarantee a successful future development of CCS power plant technology. From today's point of view, technical obstacles which are still in the way of CCS can be overcome. It can be stated by now that Oxyfuel works in pilot scale, all emission limits are kept and necessary CO{sub 2} purities are achieved. The integration of plant parts from chemical engineering (ASU, CO{sub 2}-plant) were done successfully. The transfer of knowledge from pilot to demonstration plant is organised. There is a need of research and development to further increase efficiency and availability. Financial funding is necessary for the demo project and acceptance for CCS und CO{sub 2}-storage needs to be improved in public and politics. Nevertheless, the question whether CCS technology will be successful or not does not only depend on its profitability but is also a question of acceptance. We do not only have to illustrate the importance of coal and lignite for a reliable and affordable power supply to the people in our country and in entire Europe. We also have to provide answers to their simple questions regarding the safety of transport systems and the leak-proof of CO{sub 2} storage areas. These are the aspects we have to focus on and where we have to supply the right arguments. (orig.)

  7. Environmental assessment: Raft River geothermal project pilot plant, Cassia County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The action assessed here is the construction and operation of a 5- to 6-MW(e) (gross) geothermal pilot plant in the Raft River Valley of southern Idaho. This project was originally planned as a thermal test loop using a turbine simulator valve. The test loop facility (without the simulator valve) is now under construction. The current environmental assessment addresses the complete system including the addition of a turbine-generator and its associated switching gear in place of the simulator valve. The addition of the turbine-generator will result in a net production of 2.5 to 3.5 MW(e) with a commensurate reduction in waste heat to the cooling tower and will require the upgrading of existing transmission lines for offsite delivery of generated power. Construction of the facility will require disturbance of approximately 20 ha (50 acres) for the facility itself and approximately 22.5 ha (57 acres) for construction of drilling pads and ponds, pipelines, and roads. Existing transmission lines will be upgraded for the utility system interface. Interference with alternate land uses will be minimal. Loss of wildlife habitat will be acceptable, and US Fish and Wildlife Service recommendations for protection of raptor nesting sites, riparian vegetation, and other important habitats will be observed. During construction, noise levels may reach 100 dBA at 15 m (50 ft) from well sites, but wildlife and local residents should not be significantly affected if extended construction is not carried out within 0.5 km (0.3 miles) of residences or sensitive wildlife habitat. Water use during construction will not be large and impacts on competing uses are unlikely.

  8. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) WASTES FROM CONCEPT TO PILOT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GENIESSE, D.J.; NELSON, E.A.; HAMILTON, D.W.; MAJORS, J.H.; NORDAHL, T.K.

    2006-12-08

    The Hanford site has 149 underground single-shell tanks (SST) storing mostly soluble, multi-salt mixed wastes resulting from Cold War era weapons material production. These wastes must be retrieved and the salts immobilized before the tanks can be closed to comply with an overall site-closure consent order entered into by the US Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the State of Washington. Water will be used to retrieve the wastes and the resulting solution will be pumped to a proposed pretreatment process where a high-curie (primarily {sup 137}Cs) waste fraction will be separated from the other waste constituents. The separated waste streams will then be vitrified to allow for safe storage as an immobilized high-level waste, or low-level waste, borosilicate glass. Fractional crystallization, a common unit operation for production of industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals, was proposed as the method to separate the salt wastes; it works by evaporating excess water until the solubilities of various species in the solution are exceeded (the solubility of a particular species depends on its concentration, temperature of the solution, and the presence of other ionic species in the solution). By establishing the proper conditions, selected pure salts can be crystallized and separated from the radioactive liquid phase. The aforementioned parameters, along with evaporation rate, proper agitation, and residence time, determine nucleation and growth kinetics and the resulting habit and size distribution of the product crystals. These crystals properties are important considerations for designing the crystallizer and solid/liquid separation equipment. A structured program was developed to (a) demonstrate that fractional crystallization could be used to pre-treat Hanford tank wastes and (b) provide data to develop a pilot plant design.

  9. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada); Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study.

  10. Interpretations of Tracer Tests Performed in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEIGS,LUCY C.; BEAUHEIM,RICHARD L.; JONES,TOYA L.

    2000-08-01

    This report provides (1) an overview of all tracer testing conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) site, (2) a detailed description of the important information about the 1995-96 tracer tests and the current interpretations of the data, and (3) a summary of the knowledge gained to date through tracer testing in the Culebra. Tracer tests have been used to identify transport processes occurring within the Culebra and quantify relevant parameters for use in performance assessment of the WIPP. The data, especially those from the tests performed in 1995-96, provide valuable insight into transport processes within the Culebra. Interpretations of the tracer tests in combination with geologic information, hydraulic-test information, and laboratory studies have resulted in a greatly improved conceptual model of transport processes within the Culebra. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is low (< 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a single-porosity medium in which advection occurs largely through the primary porosity of the dolomite matrix. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is high (> 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a heterogeneous, layered, fractured medium in which advection occurs largely through fractures and solutes diffuse between fractures and matrix at multiple rates. The variations in diffusion rate can be attributed to both variations in fracture spacing (or the spacing of advective pathways) and matrix heterogeneity. Flow and transport appear to be concentrated in the lower Culebra. At all locations, diffusion is the dominant transport process in the portions of the matrix that tracer does not access by flow.

  11. Krypton-81 in groundwater of the Culebra Dolomite near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Neil C; Kuhlman, Kristopher L; Yokochi, Reika; Probst, Peter C; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; Yang, Guo-Min

    2014-05-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico is the first geologic repository for disposal of transuranic nuclear waste from defense-related programs of the US Department of Energy. It is constructed within halite beds of the Permian-age Salado Formation. The Culebra Dolomite, confined within Rustler Formation evaporites overlying the Salado Formation, is a potential pathway for radionuclide transport from the repository to the accessible environment in the human-disturbed repository scenario. Although extensive subsurface characterization and numerical flow modeling of groundwater has been done in the vicinity of the WIPP, few studies have used natural isotopic tracers to validate the flow models and to better understand solute transport at this site. The advent of Atom-Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) has enabled routine measurement of cosmogenic (81)Kr (half-life 229,000 yr), a near-ideal tracer for long-term groundwater transport. We measured (81)Kr in saline groundwater sampled from two Culebra Dolomite monitoring wells near the WIPP site, and compared (81)Kr model ages with reverse particle-tracking results of well-calibrated flow models. The (81)Kr model ages are ~130,000 and ~330,000 yr for high-transmissivity and low-transmissivity portions of the formation, respectively. Compared with flow model results which indicate a relatively young mean hydraulic age (~32,000 yr), the (81)Kr model ages imply substantial physical attenuation of conservative solutes in the Culebra Dolomite and provide limits on the effective diffusivity of contaminants into the confining aquitards.

  12. Research and development in pilot plant production of granular NPK fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failaka, Muhamad Fariz; Firdausi, Nadia Zahrotul; Chairunnisa, Altway, Ali

    2017-05-01

    PT Pupuk Kaltim (Pupuk Kaltim) as one of the biggest fertilizer manufacturer in Indonesia, always striving to improve the product quality and achieve the optimal performance while facing the challenges of global competition NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) market. In order to continuously improve operations and processes of two units NPK compound plant, Pupuk Kaltim has successfully initiated a new facility which is referred to as a NPK pilot-scale research facility with design capacity of 30 kg/hr. This mini-plant is used to assist in the scale up of new innovations from laboratory research to better understand the effect of using new raw materials and experiment with process changes to improve quality and efficiency. The pilot installation is composed of the following main parts: mixer, screw feeder, granulator, dryer and cooler. The granulator is the equipment where NPK granules is formed by spraying appropriate steam and water onto raw materials in a rotating drum. The rotary dryer and cooler are intended for the drying process where temperature reduction and the final moisture are obtained. As a part of innovations project since 2014, the pilot plant has conducted many of experiments such as trials using Ammonium Sulfate (ZA) as a new raw material, alternative raw materials of Diammonium Phosphate (DAP), Potassium Chloride (KCl) and clay, and using a novel material of fly ash. In addition, the process engineering staff also conduct the trials of raw materials ratio so that an ideal formulation with lower cost can be obtained especially when it is applied in the existing full-scale plant.

  13. The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.; Novak, C.F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jercinovic, M. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-04-01

    A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human intrusion, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a final state of impermeability (i.e., {le} 10{sup {minus}18}m{sup 2}) adequate for satisfying federal nuclear regulations. Any advantage of the salt/bentonite mixture is dependent upon bentonite's potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates suggest that bentonite's sorption potential for water in brine is much less than for pure water. While no credit is presently taken for brine sorption in salt/bentonite backfill, the possibility that some amount of inflowing brine would be chemically bound is considered likely. Bentonite may also sorb much of the plutonium, americium, and neptunium within the disposal room inventory. Sorption would be effective only if a major portion of the backfill is in contact with radioactive brine. Brine flow from the waste out through highly localized channels in the backfill would negate sorption effectiveness. Although the sorption potentials of bentonite for both brine and radionuclides are not ideal, they are distinctly beneficial. Furthermore, no detrimental aspects of adding bentonite to the salt as a backfill have been identified. These two observations are the major reasons for selecting salt/bentonite as a backfill within the WIPP. 39 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. 300-FF-1 Operable Unit physical separation of soils pilot plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-15

    Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) was selected in a competitive selection process to conduct a pilot study for the physical separation of soils in the North Process Pond of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. In January 1994, ART mobilized its 15 tons-per-hour pilot plant to the site. The plant was initially staged in a commercial area to allow for pretest inspections and minor modifications. The plant was specifically designed for use as a physical separations unit and consisted of a feed hopper, wet screens, hydrocyclones, as well as settling and dewatering equipment. The plant was supported in the field with prescreening equipment, mobile generators, air compressors, and water storage tanks. The plant was moved into the surface contamination area on March 24, 1994. The testing was conducted during the period March 23, 1994 through April 13, 1994. Two soil types were treated during the testing: a natural soil contaminated with low levels of uranium, cesium, cobalt, and heavy metals, and a natural soil contaminated with a uranium carbonate material that was visually recognizable by the presence of a green sludge material in the soil matrix. The ``green`` material contained significantly higher levels of the same contaminants. Both source materials were treated by the plant in a manner that fed the material, produced clean gravel and sand fractions, and concentrated the contaminants in a sludge cake. Process water was recycled during the operations. The testing was extremely successful in that for both source waste streams, it was demonstrated that volume reductions of greater than 90% could be achieved while also meeting the test performance criteria. The volume reduction for the natural soils averaged a 93.8%, while the ``green`` soils showed a 91.4% volume reduction.

  15. Solar treatment of cork boiling and bleaching wastewaters in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Maldonado, Manuel I; Oller, I; Malato, Sixto; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports on cork boiling and bleaching wastewaters treatment by solar photocatalytic processes, TiO(2)/UV and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV (TiO(2)-only for bleaching wastewater), in a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors. The photo-Fenton reaction (k=0.12L/kJ(UV), r(0)=59.4 mg/kJ(UV)) is much more efficient that TiO(2) photocatalysis and TiO(2)+S(2)O(8)(2-) (k=0.0024 L/kJ(UV), r(0)=1.36 mg/kJ(UV)), leading to 94% mineralization of the bleaching wastewater after 31.5 kJ(UV)/L, consuming 77.1mM of H(2)O(2) (3.0 mmol/kJ(UV)) and using 20 mg/L of iron. For the cork boiling wastewater, after a slow initial reaction rate, the DOC degradation curve shows a first-order kinetics behaviour (k=0.015 L/kJ(UV), r(0)=20.8 mg/kJ(UV)) until 173 kJ(UV)/L ( approximately 300 mgC/L). According to the average oxidation state (AOS), toxicity profiles, respirometry and kinetic results obtained in two solar CPCs plants, the optimal energy dose estimated for phototreatment to reach a biodegradable effluent is 15 kJ(UV)/L and 114 kJ(UV)/L, consuming 33 mM and 151 mM of H(2)OT:/PGN/ELSEVIER/WR/web/00007490/(2), achieving almost 49% and 48% mineralization of the wastewaters, respectively for the cork bleaching and boiling wastewaters.

  16. Application of Several Techniques for Prohibiting Fouling in Li-Recovery Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Kim, D.; Gong, M.; Kim, B.; Chung, K.

    2010-12-01

    The problem of marine organisms adhering to any surfaces exposed in seawater is as old as time. Marine fouling is a major problem in the materials used in seawater worldwide. Marine coatings contain elements such as copper and triorganotin compounds were often used as an effective compound for control the fouling problem, but application of such coatings containing triorganotin compounds was prohibited and the former are considered undesirable because of its toxicity and accumulative in non-target organisms. Monitoring and field studies regarding fouling problems during operation of Li-recovery pilot plant which is designed by the Korea Institute of Geoscience & Mineral Resources (KIGAM) were major concern of this study. Fouling could be the most troublesome tasks during the development of a large scale pilot production test for achieving a high performance adsorbent for seawater dissolved Li recovery. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the fouling biofilms developed on various surfaces in contact with the seawater were made. The microbial compositions of the biofilm consortia formed on the reservoir polymer surfaces were also tested for. The quantities of the diverse microorganisms in the biofilm samples developed on the prohibiting polymer reservoir surface were larger when there was no concern about materials for special selection for fouling. The experimental results offered new specific information, concerning the problems in the application of new material as well as surface coating such as anti-fouling coatings. They showed the important role microbial activity in fouling and corrosion of the surfaces in contact with the any seawater. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a grant from the Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Sea Water Program funded by Ministry of Land Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korean Government (2010).

  17. Photocatalytic treatment of IGCC power station effluents in a UV-pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; Sánchez-Romero, R

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this work is to improve the quality of water effluents coming from an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power station to meet with future environmental legislation. This study has been made using an homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process (UV/Fe(II)/H(2)O(2)) in a pilot plant. The efficiency of the process was determined from the analysis of the following parameters: cyanides, formates and TOC content. In the first stage, a factorial experimental design allowed to determine the influence of operation variables (initial concentration of H(2)O(2) and Fe(II), pH and temperature) on the degradation kinetics. pH was always kept in a value >9.5 during cyanides destruction to avoid gaseous HCN formation and lowered later to enhance formates degradation. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). Under the optimum conditions ([H(2)O(2)]=1700 ppm, [Fe(II)]=2 ppm, pH 2 after cyanides destruction, and T=30 degrees C), it is possible to degrade 100% of cyanides in 15 min and 76% of formates in 120 min. The use of an homogeneous process with UV light can offer an economical and practical alternative to heterogeneous photocatalysis for the destruction of environmental pollutants present in thermoelectric power stations effluents, since it can treat very high flowrates using a lower H(2)O(2) concentration. Furthermore, it does not require additional operations to recover the solid catalyst and regenerate it due to deactivation as occurs in heterogeneous catalysis.

  18. Extraction of microalgae derived lipids with supercritical carbon dioxide in an industrial relevant pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Jan; Igl, Nadine; Tippelt, Marlene; Stege, Andrea; Qoura, Farah; Sohling, Ulrich; Brück, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae are capable of producing up to 70% w/w triglycerides with respect to their dry cell weight. Since microalgae utilize the greenhouse gas CO2, they can be cultivated on marginal lands and grow up to ten times faster than terrestrial plants, the generation of algae oils is a promising option for the development of sustainable bioprocesses, that are of interest for the chemical lubricant, cosmetic and food industry. For the first time we have carried out the optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) mediated lipid extraction from biomass of the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Scenedesmus obtusiusculus under industrrially relevant conditions. All experiments were carried out in an industrial pilot plant setting, according to current ATEX directives, with batch sizes up to 1.3 kg. Different combinations of pressure (7-80 MPa), temperature (20-200 °C) and CO2 to biomass ratio (20-200) have been tested on the dried biomass. The most efficient conditions were found to be 12 MPa pressure, a temperature of 20 °C and a CO2 to biomass ratio of 100, resulting in a high extraction efficiency of up to 92%. Since the optimized CO2 extraction still yields a crude triglyceride product that contains various algae derived contaminants, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids, a very effective and scalable purification procedure, based on cost efficient bentonite based adsorbers, was devised. In addition to the sequential extraction and purification procedure, we present a consolidated online-bleaching procedure for algae derived oils that is realized within the supercritical CO2 extraction plant.

  19. Annual water quality data report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, M.L. (International Technology Corp., Torrance, CA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    This is the fourth Annual Water Quality Data Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP project is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes generated by the defense activities of the United States Government. This report presents water quality data collected from January 1988 through December 1988 from 16 designated pre-operational (WIPP facility) monitoring wells, two additional wells, and 10 privately-owned wells in the vicinity of the WIPP. Additionally, water samples were collected from the Air Intake Shaft during shaft construction activities at the WIPP. This report lists pertinent information regarding the monitoring wells sampled, sampling zone, dates pumped, and types of samples collected during 1988. Comparative data from previous samplings of all wells can be found in Uhland and Randall (1986), Uhland et al. (1987), Randall et al. (1988), as well as in this report. The data reported by the Water Quality Sampling Program in this and previous reports indicate that serial sampling is a very useful tool in determining sample representativeness from wells in the WIPP vicinity. Serial sample field chemistry data are demonstrated to be highly accurate and precise as indicated by the excellent overall average percent spike recovery values and low RPD values reported for the sampling events. Serial sample field chemistry data and laboratory water quality parameter analyses gathered by the WQSP since January 1985 are the foundation for a pre-operational water quality baseline at the WIPP. 32 refs., 66 figs., 96 tabs.

  20. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  1. Preliminary data for the 20 May 1974, simultaneous evaluation of remote sensors experiment. [water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Batten, C. E.; Bowker, D. E.; Bressette, W. E.; Grew, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Several remote sensors were simultaneously used to collect data over the tidal James River from Hopewell to Norfolk, Virginia. Sensors evaluated included the Multichannel-Ocean Color Sensor, multispectral scanners, and multispectral photography. Ground truth measurements and remotely sensed data are given. Preliminary analysis indicates that suspended sediment and concentrated industrial effluent are observable from all sensors.

  2. Description and Preliminary Training Evaluation of an Arc Welding Simulator. Research Report SRR 73-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Macy L.; And Others

    A prototype arc welding training simulator was designed to provide immediate, discriminative feedback and the capacity for concentrated practice. Two randomly selected groups of welding trainees were compared to evaluate the simulator, one group being trained using the simulator and the other using conventional practice. Preliminary data indicated…

  3. In vitro tests to evaluate immunotoxicity: A preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carfi', M; Gennari, A; Malerba, I; Corsini, E; Pallardy, M; Pieters, R; Loveren, Henk van; Vohr, H W; Hartung, T; Gribaldo, L

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of new and existing Chemicals (REACH) will increase the number of laboratory animals used, if alternative methods will not be available. In the meantime, REACH promotes the use of in vitro tests and, therefore, a set of appropriated al

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Shaft Sealing System Compliance Submittal Design Report. Volume 1 and 2: Main report, appendices A, B, C, and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a shaft sealing system design for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. The system is designed to limit entry of water and release of contaminants through the four existing shafts after the WIPP is decommissioned. The design approach applies redundancy to functional elements and specifies multiple, common, low-permeability materials to reduce uncertainty in performance. The system comprises 13 elements that completely fill the shafts with engineered materials possessing high density and low permeability. Laboratory and field measurements of component properties and performance provide the basis for the design and related evaluations. Hydrologic, mechanical, thermal, and physical features of the system are evaluated in a series of calculations. These evaluations indicate that the design guidance is addressed by effectively limiting transport of fluids within the shafts, thereby limiting transport of hazardous material to regulatory boundaries. Additionally, the use or adaptation of existing technologies for placement of the seal components combined with the use of available, common materials assure that the design can be constructed.

  5. [Clinical diagnosis and standardized evaluation of borderline personality: preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, F; Guelfi, J D; Monier, C; Brun, A; Seunevel, F

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 36 patients considered by French clinicians as suffering from a borderline personality disorder was evaluated using the International Personality Disorder Examination, the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline-Revised, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. First, global descriptive analysis of the sample elicited the socio-demographic and standard clinical characteristics of the borderline individuals. After diagnostic evaluation, the sample appeared to be quite homogeneous with 25 of the 36 patients evaluated (69.5%) being defined as borderline by two of the three diagnostic systems: ICD 10, DSM III-R and Gunderson (15/36 = 41.5% of patients were defined as borderline by all three systems). It is the types of BL personality co-diagnoses which differentiated the BL subjects in the sample from those classically described in the international literature, since the most frequent personalities were the Dependent and Avoiding ones, not the Antisocial, Histrionic, Narcissistic or Schizotypic personalities of the DSM III-R. ICD 10 elicited the same significant prevalence of Anxious and Dependent personalities. Lastly, the patients diagnosed as borderline both by clinicians and by all diagnostic systems (forming the sample "core") were compared with the rest of the sample with regard to socio-demographic, clinical and diagnostic characteristics. A few hypotheses are proposed on the type of variables that may permit to discriminate between these two types of patients.

  6. Efficacy of oleuropein against UVB irradiation: preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, P; Vettor, M; Rona, C; Troisi, L; Villanova, L; Genta, I; Conti, B; Pavanetto, F

    2008-04-01

    Oleuropein, a phenolic compound derived from olive leaves and oil, is known to possess several biological properties, many of which may be attributed to its antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. Nevertheless, up to now, the cosmetic activity of this molecule has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cosmetic properties of oleuropein against UVB-induced erythema. To this end, an emulsion and an emulgel containing oleuropein were prepared, applied and evaluated on healthy volunteers who had undergone UVB irradiation to investigate its protective and/or lenitive activity. Protective effect was assayed by application of topical preparations before irradiation and lenitive effect was evaluated after erythema induction. Vitamin E was used as the reference compound. Our study was carried out by using noninvasive techniques to assess specific skin parameters: barrier function, skin colour and microcirculation. Results clearly showed that oleuropein formulations highlighted lenitive efficacy by reducing erythema, transepidermal water loss and blood flow of about 22%, 35% and 30% respectively. The study allowed us to point out the lenitive property of oleuropein, opening the way to further trials to deepen our specific knowledge about this natural molecule, which could be used in association with other active ingredients in cosmetics to repair UV damages.

  7. National Evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program: Preliminary Evaluation Plan for Program Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    federal, state, and local initiatives. For example, the use of computerized audits has increased, cooling and baseload measures have been added, weatherization approaches tailored to the unique construction characteristics of mobile homes have been developed, the weatherization of large multifamily buildings has expanded and become more sophisticated, the flexibility to improve 'energy-related' health and safety has been provided, and leveraging with utilities, other state programs, and owners of large multifamily buildings has increased considerably. The Department of Energy tasked ORNL with planning the new evaluation in light of its experience in conducting the previous national evaluation and the metaevaluations. This preliminary evaluation plan, developed by ORNL, documents how the new national evaluation will be performed. In the remaining portion of this section, the purpose and fundamental questions the evaluation will address are identified and how these questions were derived is discussed.

  8. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  9. Synthesis, Computational Studies and Preliminary Pharmacological Evaluation of New Arylpiperazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel arylpiperazines were synthesized and the target compounds evaluated for atypical antipsychotic activity in apomorphine induced climbing behavior (D2 antagonism, 5-HTP induced head twitches (5-HT2A antagonism and catalepsy studies in albino mice. The physicochemical similarity of the target compounds with respect to standard drugs clozapine, ketanserine and risperidone was assessed by calculating from a set of physiochemical properties using software programs. The test compounds (3a-j demonstrated good similarity values with respect to the standard drugs. Among them, compound 3d has emerged as an important lead compound showing potential atypical antipsychotic like profile.

  10. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO/sub 4/ values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines.

  11. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  12. Product Meaning, Affective Use Evaluation, and Transfer: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Helfenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this investigation explored the multidimensional nature of product meaning, referring to the variety of connotations and functions a consumer associates with a particular product category. The subsequent experiment examined the moderation effects of product meaning and other attributes of the user on (a the affective evaluation of an obstructed use interaction, and (b the transfer of emotion between devices presented as being either of the same or a different brand. Although the failure experience essentially caused frustration, this reaction varied substantially among consumers depending on product meaning, age, and gender. The results also showed that the emotion dimensions of pleasure, arousal, and dominance were affected in distinct ways, and that, in addition to the consumer variables, transfer was mainly dependent on the brand relation. Nevertheless, user frustration did not cause general brand aversion, indicating that poor designs do not unconditionally threaten the customer relationship.

  13. A preliminary study of cryosphere service function and value evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Cun-De; WANG Shi-Jin; QIN Da-He

    2015-01-01

    Cryosphere science research and development (R&D) has been strongly committed to public service, integrating natural sciences with socioeconomic impacts. Owing to the current shift from purely natural cryosphere scientific research to linking cryosphere science with so-cioeconomic and cultural science, cross-disciplinary research in this field is emerging, which advocates future cryosphere science research in this field. Utilizing the cryosphere service function (CSF), this study establishes CSF and its value evaluation system. Cryosphere service valuation can benefit the decisionmakers' and public's awareness of environmental protection. Implementing sustainable CSF utilization strategies and macroeconomic policymaking for global environmental protection will have profound and practical significance as well as avoid environmental degradation while pursuing short-term economic profits and achieving rapid economic development.

  14. NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-08-30

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

  15. DRSPALL :spallings model for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 recertification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilkey, Amy P. (GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Hansen, Clifford W.; Schatz, John F. (John F. Schatz Research & Consulting, Inc., Del Mar, CA); Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2006-02-01

    This report presents a model to estimate the spallings releases for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment (WIPP PA). A spallings release in the context of WIPP PA refers to a portion of the solid waste transported from the subsurface repository to the ground surface due to inadvertent oil or gas drilling into the WIPP repository at some time after site closure. Some solid waste will be removed by the action of the drillbit and drilling fluid; this waste is referred to as cuttings and cavings. If the repository is pressurized above hydrostatic at the time of intrusion, solid waste material local to the borehole may be subject to mechanical failure and entrainment in high-velocity gases as the repository pressure is released to the borehole. Solid material that fails and is transported into the wellbore and thus to the surface comprise the spallings releases. The spallings mechanism is analogous to a well blowout in the modern oil and gas drilling industry. The current spallings conceptual model and associated computer code, DRSPALL, were developed for the 2004 recertification because the prior spallings model used in the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) was judged by an independent peer review panel as inadequate (DOE 1996, 9.3.1). The current conceptual model for spallings addresses processes that take place several minutes before and after a borehole intrusion of a WIPP waste room. The model couples a pipe-flow wellbore model with a porous flow repository model, allowing high-pressure gas to flow from the repository to the wellbore through a growing cavity region at the well bottom. An elastic stress model is applied to the porous solid domain that allows for mechanical failure of repository solids if local tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of the waste. Tensile-failed solids may be entrained into the wellbore flow stream by a fluidized bed model, in which case they are ultimately transported to the land surface

  16. Microbial gas generation under expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.; Giles, M.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1997-03-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository was investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosics (various types of paper) and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, neoprene, hypalon, and leaded hypalon) was examined. The rate of gas production from cellulose biodegradation in inundated samples incubated for 1,228 days at 30 C was biphasic, with an initial rapid rate up to approximately 600 days incubation, followed by a slower rate. The rate of total gas production in anaerobic samples containing mixed inoculum was as follows: 0.002 mL/g cellulose/day without nutrients; 0.004 mL/g cellulose/day with nutrients; and 0.01 mL/g cellulose/day in the presence of excess nitrate. Carbon dioxide production proceeded at a rate of 0.009 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples without nutrients, 0.05 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the presence of nutrients, and 0.2 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day with excess nitrate. Adding nutrients and excess nitrate stimulated denitrification, as evidenced by the accumulation of N{sub 2}O in the headspace (200 {micro}mol/g cellulose). The addition of the potential backfill bentonite increased the rate of CO{sub 2} production to 0.3 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples with excess nitrate. Analysis of the solution showed that lactic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids were produced due to cellulose degradation. Samples incubated under anaerobic humid conditions for 415 days produced CO{sub 2} at a rate of 0.2 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the absence of nutrients, and 1 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the presence of bentonite and nutrients. There was no evidence of biodegradation of electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber.

  17. Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant--WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W.; Cole, D.L.; Holt, R.M.

    1998-10-09

    Seven holes were drilled and wells (H-19b0, H-19b2, H-19b3, H-19b4, H-19b5, H-19b6, and H-19b7) were constructed on the H-19 hydropad to conduct field activities in support of the Culebra Transport Program. These wells were drilled and completed on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during February to September 1995. An eighth hole, H-19b1, was drilled but had to be abandoned before the target depth was reached because of adverse hole conditions. The geologic units penetrated at the H-19 location include surficial deposits of Holocene age, rocks from the Dockum Group of Upper Triassic age, the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and Rustler Formation of the Permian age. The Rustler Formation has been further divided into five informal members which include the Forty-niner Member, Magenta Member, Tamarisk Member, Culebra Dolomite Member, and an unnamed lower member. The Rustler Formation, particularly the Culebra Dolomite Member, is considered critical for hydrologic site characterization. The Culebra is the most transmissive saturated unit above the WIPP repository and, as such, is considered to be the most likely pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the unlikely event the repository is breached. Seven cores from the Culebra were recovered during drilling activities at the H-19 hydropad and detailed descriptions of these cores were made. On the basis of geologic descriptions, four hydrostratigraphic units were identified in the Culebra cores and were correlated with the mapping units from the WFP air intake shaft. The entire length of H-19b1 was cored and was described in detail. During coring of H-19b1, moisture was encountered in the upper part of the Dewey Lake Redbeds. A 41-ft-thick section of this core was selected for detailed description to qualify the geologic conditions related to perched water in the upper Dewey Lake. In addition to cuttings and core, a suite of geophysical logs run on the drillholes was used to identify and

  18. Recovery of glass from the inert fraction refused by MBT plants in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nilmara; Garrinhas, Inés; Maximo, Angela; Belo, Nuno; Roque, Paulo; Carvalho, M Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Selective collection is a common practice in many countries. However, even in some of those countries there are recyclable materials, like packaging glass, erroneously deposited in the Mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MMSW). In the present paper, a solution is proposed to recover glass from the inert reject of Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) plants treating MMSW aiming at its recycling. The inert reject of MBT (MBTr) plants is characterized by its small particle size and high heterogeneity. The study was made with three real samples of diverse characteristics superimposed mainly by the different upstream MBT. One of the samples (VN) had a high content in organics (approximately 50%) and a particle size smaller than 16 mm. The other two were coarser and exhibited similar particle size distribution but one (RE) was rich in glass (almost 70%) while the other (SD) contained about 40% in glass. A flowsheet was developed integrating drying, to eliminate moisture related with organic matter contamination; magnetic separation, to separate remaining small ferrous particles; vacuum suction, to eliminate light materials; screening, to eliminate the finer fraction that has a insignificant content in glass, and to classify the >6mm fraction in 6-16 mm and >16 mm fractions to be processed separately; separation by particle shape, in the RecGlass equipment specifically designed to eliminate stones; and optical sorting, to eliminate opaque materials. A pilot plant was built and the tests were conducted with the three samples separately. With all samples, it was possible to attain approximately 99% content in glass in the glass products, but the recovery of glass was related with the feed particle size. The finer the feed was, the lower the percentage of glass recovered in the glass product. The results show that each one of the separation processes was needed for product enrichment. The organic matter recovered in the glass product was high, ranging from 0.76% to 1

  19. Hydrogen generation by metal corrosion in simulated Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telander, M.R.; Westerman, R.E. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The corrosion and gas-generation characteristics of four material types: low-carbon steel (the current waste packaging material for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), Cu-base and Ti-base (alternative packaging) materials, and Al-base (simulated waste) materials were determined in both the liquid and vapor phase of Brine A, a brine representative of an intergranular Salado Formation brine. Test environments consisted primarily of anoxic brine with overpressures of N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2}. Limited tests of low-carbon steel were also performed in simulated-backfill environments and in brine environments with pH values ranging from 3 to 11. Low-carbon steel reacted at a slow, measurable rate with anoxic brine, liberating H{sub 2} on an equimolar basis with Fe reacted. Presence of CO{sub 2} caused the initial reaction to proceed more rapidly, but CO{sub 2}-induced passivation stopped the reaction if the CO{sub 2} were present in sufficient quantities. Addition of H{sub 2}S to a CO{sub 2}-passivated system caused reversal of the passivation. Low-carbon steel immersed in brine with H{sub 2}S showed no reaction, apparently because of passivation of the steel by formation of FeS. Addition of CO{sub 2} to an H{sub 2}S-passivated system did not reverse the passivation. Cu- and Ti-base materials showed essentially no corrosion when exposed to brine and overpressures of N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S except for the rapid and complete reaction between Cu-base materials and H{sub 2}S. The Al-base materials reacted at approximately the same rate as low-carbon steel when immersed in anoxic Brine A; considerably more rapidly in the presence of CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S; and much more rapidly when iron was present in the system as a brine contaminant. High-purity Al was much more susceptible to corrosion than the 6061 alloy. No significant reaction took place on any material in any environment in the vapor-phase exposures.

  20. A summary of the sources of input parameter values for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant final porosity surface calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values.

  1. Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, M.I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Malato, S. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Perez-Estrada, L.A. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Gernjak, W. [PSA -Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Oller, I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Peral, Jose [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.peral@uab.es

    2006-11-16

    Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry ({alpha}-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems. (DLC)

  3. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January--March 1978. [Brief summary of 15 pilot plant projects supported by US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, DOE is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes currently in the pilot plant stage. Fifteen coal liquefaction projects supported by US DOE are described briefly, with flowsheets, funding, history and progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  4. The waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository: A case study in radioactive waste disposal safety and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological defense-generated transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) repository in the United States was certified on the 13 of May 1998 and opened on the 26 of March 1999. Two sets of safety/performance assessment calculations supporting the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository show that the maximum annual individual committed effective dose will be 32 times lower than the regulatory limit and that the cumulative amount of radionuclide releases will be at least 10 times, more likely at least 20 times, lower than the regulatory limits. Yet, perceptions remain among the public that the WIPP TRUW repository imposes an unacceptable risk.

  5. Study of economic viability of biodiesel pilot plant; Estudo de viabilidade economica de planta piloto de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliardi, Odail; Maciel, Antonio Jose da Silva; Lopes, Osvaldo Candido; Albiero, Daniel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2006-07-01

    The present paper shows the economics viability of a half-industrial plant, operating with the transesterification in vegetal oil transformation or animal fats to bio diesel. The pilot plant needed an investment of R$ 400,000.00, and it showed viable with 99.99 percents of efficiency, with feeding of 100 kg per hour of raw material working in only 12 hours daily at 25 days per months. It was considered the more usual economic analysis tools, as payback, internal rate of return and net present value. (author)

  6. Decommissioning samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA, solvent refined coal pilot plant: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, W.C.; Wright, C.W.

    1985-10-01

    This report presents the results from chemical analyses and limited biological assays of three sets of samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant. The samples were collected during the process of decommissioning this facility. Chemical composition was determined for chemical class fractions of the samples by using high-resolution gas chromatography (GC), high-resolution GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and high-resolution MS. Biological activity was measuring using both the histidine reversion microbial mutagenicity assay with Salmonella typhimurium, TA98 and an initiation/promotion mouse-skin tumorigenicity assay. 19 refs., 7 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Report of biological investigations at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area of New Mexico during FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, T.L.; Neuhauser, S. (eds.)

    1980-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the construction of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Eddy County, NM. This location is approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, NM. Biological studies during FY 1978 were concentrated within a 5-mi radius of drill hole ERDA 9. Additional study areas have been established at other sites in the vicinity, e.g., the Gnome site, the salt lakes and several stations along the Pecos River southward from Carlsbad, NM, to the dam at Red Bluff Reservoir in Texas. The precise locations of all study areas are presented and their biology discussed.

  8. Mortar radiocarbon dating: preliminary accuracy evaluation of a novel methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzaioli, Fabio; Lubritto, Carmine; Nonni, Sara; Passariello, Isabella; Capano, Manuela; Terrasi, Filippo

    2011-03-15

    Mortars represent a class of building and art materials that are widespread at archeological sites from the Neolithic period on. After about 50 years of experimentation, the possibility to evaluate their absolute chronology by means of radiocarbon ((14)C) remains still uncertain. With the use of a simplified mortar production process in the laboratory environment, this study shows the overall feasibility of a novel physical pretreatment for the isolation of the atmospheric (14)CO(2) (i.e., binder) signal absorbed by the mortars during their setting. This methodology is based on the assumption that an ultrasonic attack in liquid phase isolates a suspension of binder carbonates from bulk mortars. Isotopic ((13)C and (14)C), % C, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed to characterize the proposed methodology. The applied protocol allows suppression of the fossil carbon (C) contamination originating from the incomplete burning of the limestone during the quick lime production, providing unbiased dating for "laboratory" mortars produced operating at historically adopted burning temperatures.

  9. Paintings pigmented with doped magnetite: preliminary evaluation of anticorrosive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Escobar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La magnetita pura y las magnetitas dopadas con cobre y cromo se sintetizaron a escala de laboratorio. El comportamiento relativo de estos productos como pigmentos anticorrosivos se comparó con la hematita disponible comercialmente (óxido rojo del hierro. Se prepararon mezclas especiales de los pigmentos con resina epoxy libre de solvente manteniendo el contenido del volumen de pigmento cerca del valor práctico crítico. El propósito es distinguir la acción inhibidora de los pigmentos con poca influencia de las características de la barrera de la resina epóxica. El comportamiento de las mezclas aplicadas sobre el acero se caracterizó mediante exposición acelerada al aire libre, en pruebas alternadas de inmersión y en condiciones de inmersión total. Esta última prueba se supervisó con medidas de potencial y de impedancia de circuito abierto, y fueron complementadas con evaluación de películas libres. Los resultados demuestran que la magnetita no es un pigmento inerte, y que la presencia de elementos dopantes puede mejorar el comportamiento de las pinturas anticorrosivas de magnetita. Basados en esos resultados, se sugirió una formulación completa con pigmento de magnetita, solvente y aditivos y se evaluó en laboratorio, teniendo como objetivo el uso posible como pintura anticorrosiva.

  10. A Preliminary Evaluation of Bandwidth Allocation Model Dynamic Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael F. Reale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth Allocation Models (BAMs are used in order to define Bandwidth Constraints (BCs in a per-class basis for MPLS/DS-TE networks and effectively define how network resources like bandwidth are obtained and shared by applications. The BAMs proposed (MAM – Maximum Allocation Model, RDM – Russian Dolls Model, G-RDM – Generic RDM and AllocTC-Sharing attempt to optimize the use of bandwidth resources on a per-link basis with different allocation and resource sharing characteristics. As such, the adoption of distinct BAMs and/or changes in network resource demands (network traffic profile may result in different network traffic allocation and operational behavior for distinct BAMs. This paper evaluates the resulting network characteristics (li nk utilization, preemption and flows blocking of using BAMs dynamically with different traffic scenarios. In brief, it is investigated the dynamics of BAM switching with distinct traffic scenarios. The paper presents initially the investigated BAMs in relation to their behavior and resource allocation characteristics. Then, distinct BAMs are compared using different traffic scenarios in order to investigate the impact of a dynamic change of the BAM configured in the network. Finally, the paper shows that the adoption of a dynamic BAM allocation strategy may result in benefits for network operation in terms of link utilization, preemption and flows blocking.

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of the Diverse Protection System in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Taekyeong; Chang, Won-Pyo; Seong, Seung Hwan; Ahn, Sang June; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chiwoong; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Ha, Kwi-Seok [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) is defined as an abnormal transient with failure of scram actuation. It is one of the “worst case” accident based on the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC). Consideration frequently motivates the NRC to take regulatory action. An evaluation of this event is also a general requirement due to a potential safety issue that may lead to core damage under postulated condition. This paper estimated the set-points sensitivity test of the diverse protection system (DPS) related with unprotected events of the prototype generation-IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) including unprotected transient over power (UTOP) and unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) by MARS-LMR code. The variation of the power to flow (P/Q) of UTOP and ULOF is illustrated to conduct the set-points sensitivity test of DPS. Also we estimated the effect of the DPS introduction after selecting UTOP, ULOF event as the unprotected events which are predicted to aggravate the events. This paper estimated the set-points sensitivity test of DPS related with unprotected events of PGSFR including UTOP and ULOF by MARS-LMR code. The results indicated that there is no significant difference in both RPS and DPS about the initiating time of each event. Therefore, this study found that the urgent manage for safety of the reactor when RPS failed is possible by the applying DPS.

  12. A preliminary evaluation of the nonfuel mineral potential of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Additional exploration in Somalia is warranted for a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic deposits. In Precambrian rocks, deposit types favorable for exploration include: a banded iron formation; platinum-bearing mafic-ultramafic complexes; tin-bearing quartz veins; phosphorite; stratabound base-metal deposits; uranium associated with Precambrian(?) syenite; apatite, molybdenum, and alumina in alkalic rocks; Jurassic and Cretaceous black shales; possible bedded-barite and massive base- and precious-metal sulfide deposits; vein barite in Tertiary rocks in fault zones; sepiolite and bentonite for drilling muds and other industrial uses; celestite; possible Tertiary zeolite; and uranium deposits. Several of these deposit types could be Jointly developed and integrated into domestic industries; for example, phosphate and gypsum, or bentonite for pelletized iron from the banded iron deposits. Other deposits such as barite and sepiolite are of value because of their proximity to major drilling operations in the Arabian Gulf. Still other deposits, such as alumina and banded iron, might be marketable because of proximity to aluminum and iron-refining industries now being constructed in Saudi Arabia. Some deposits, such as celestite, can be developed with little capital investment; others, such as the iron deposits, would require large capital commitments. Exploration and evaluation for many of these deposits can be accomplished by Somali geologists with a few advisors. Most of the deposits require feasibility studies conducted by teams of economic geologists, extractive metallurgists, and economists. Some marginal deposits could be exploited if cooperative development schemes could be negotiated with governments in nearby countries.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 4, Chapter D, Appendix D1 (beginning), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappin, A. R.

    1993-03-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is designed for receipt, handling, storage, and permanent isolation of defense-generated transuranic wastes, is being excavated at a depth of approximately 655 m in bedded halites of the Permian Salado Formation of southeastern New Mexico. Site-characterization activities at the present WIPP site began in 1976. Full construction of the facility began in 1983, after completion of ``Site and Preliminary Design Validation`` (SPDV) activities and reporting. Site-characterization activities since 1983 have had the objectives of updating or refining the overall conceptual model of the geologic, hydrologic, and structural behavior of the WIPP site and providing data adequate for use in WIPP performance assessment. This report has four main objectives: 1. Summarize the results of WIPP site-characterization studies carried out since the spring of 1983 as a result of specific agreements between the US Department of Energy and the State of New Mexico. 2. Summarize the results and status of site-characterization and facility-characterization studies carried out since 1983, but not specifically included in mandated agreements. 3. Compile the results of WIPP site-characterization studies into an internally consistent conceptual model for the geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and structural behavior of the WIPP site. This model includes some consideration of the effects of the WIPP facility and shafts on the local characteristics of the Salado and Rustler Formations. 4. Discuss the present limitations and/or uncertainties in the conceptual geologic model of the WIPP site and facility. The objectives of this report are limited in scope, and do not include determination of whether or not the WIPP Project will comply with repository-performance criteria developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40CFR191).

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment: Radionuclide Release Sensitivity to Diminished Brine and Gas Flows to/from Transuranic Waste Disposal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad A. Day

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository releases are evaluated through the application of modified parameters to simulate accelerated creep closure, include capillary pressure effects on relative permeability, and increase brine and gas saturation in the operations and experimental (OPS/EXP areas. The modifications to the repository model result in increased pressures and decreased brine saturations in waste areas and increased pressures and brine saturations in the OPS/EXP areas. Brine flows up the borehole during a hypothetical drilling intrusion are nearly identical and brine flows up the shaft are decreased. The modified parameters essentially halt the flow of gas from the southern waste areas to the northern nonwaste areas, except as transported through the marker beds and anhydrite layers. The combination of slightly increased waste region pressures and very slightly decreased brine saturations result in a modest increase in spallings and no significant effect on direct brine releases, with total releases from the Culebra and cutting and caving releases unaffected. Overall, the effects on total high-probability mean releases from the repository are insignificant, with total low-probability mean releases minimally increased. It is concluded that the modified OPS/EXP area parameters have an insignificant effect on the prediction of total releases.

  15. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 8: Appendices HYDRO, IRD, LTM, NUTS, PAR, PMR, QAPD, RBP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    Geohydrologic data have been collected in the Los Medanos area at the US Department of Energy`s proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico since 1975 as part of a study evaluating the feasibility of storing defense-associated nuclear wastes within the bedded salt of the Salado Formation of Permian age. Drilling and hydrologic testing have identified three principal water-bearing zones above the Salado Formation and one below that could potentially transport wastes to the biosphere if the proposed facility were breached. The zones above the Salado are the contact between the Rustler and Salado Formations and the Culebra and Magenta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation of Permian age. The zone below the Salado Formation consists of channel sandstones in the Bell Canyon Formation of the Permian Delaware Mountain Group. Determinations of hydraulic gradients, directions of flow, and hydraulic properties were hindered because of the negligible permeability of the water-bearing zones. Special techniques in drilling, well completion, and hydraulic testing have been developed to determine the hydrologic characteristics of these water-producing zones.

  16. Waste isolation pilot plant performance assessment: Radionuclide release sensitivity to diminished brine and gas flows to/from transuranic waste disposal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Brad A.; Camphouse, R. C.; Zeitler, Todd R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository releases are evaluated through the application of modified parameters to simulate accelerated creep closure, include capillary pressure effects on relative permeability, and increase brine and gas saturation in the operations and experimental (OPS/EXP) areas. The modifications to the repository model result in increased pressures and decreased brine saturations in waste areas and increased pressures and brine saturations in the OPS/EXP areas. Brine flows up the borehole during a hypothetical drilling intrusion are nearly identical and brine flows up the shaft are decreased. The modified parameters essentially halt the flow of gas from the southern waste areas to the northern nonwaste areas, except as transported through the marker beds and anhydrite layers. The combination of slightly increased waste region pressures and very slightly decreased brine saturations result in a modest increase in spallings and no significant effect on direct brine releases, with total releases from the Culebra and cutting and caving releases unaffected. Overall, the effects on total high-probability mean releases from the repository are insignificant, with total low-probability mean releases minimally increased. It is concluded that the modified OPS/EXP area parameters have an insignificant effect on the prediction of total releases.

  17. Solar CPC Pilot Plant Photocatalytic Degradation of Indigo Carmine Dye in Waters and Wastewaters Using Supported-TiO2: Influence of Photodegradation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Mendes Saggioro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine (IC dye in the presence of titanium dioxide under different conditions was reported. Several factors which interfere with the photodegradation efficiency as catalyst concentration, pH, initial concentration of dye, presence of inorganic anions, temperature, and the addition of hydrogen peroxide were studied under artificial irradiation with a 125 W mercury vapor lamp. Additionally, the catalyst supported on glass spheres was used for the photocatalytic degradation of the dye present in several types of waters in a CPC solar pilot plant. The photocatalytic products, carboxylic acids, and SO42- and NH4+ were followed during IC mineralization. Formate, acetate, and oxalate were detected in real MWWTP secondary effluent. The mineralization efficiency was of 42 and 21% using in suspension and supported TiO2, respectively. In order to evaluate biological effects, Eisenia andrei earthworms were used as a model organism. No significant difference (P>0.05 of weight was observed in the earthworm submitted to different concentrations of IC and its photoproducts. The photocatalytic degradation of IC on TiO2 supported on glass spheres suffered strong influence of the water matrix; nevertheless the method has the enormous advantage that it eliminates the need for the final catalyst removal step, reducing therefore the cost of treatment.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Das, D. Goswami & B. Rabha

    2007-06-01

    insect vectors of publichealth importance.Northeastern region of India is considered as a majorbiodiversity hot spot. The eastern Himalayas range,which extends all through the northern border ofAssam, is a rich treasure house of many promisingmedicinal and aromatic plants. In the present communication,an attempt has been made to evaluate themosquito larvicidal efficacy of methanol and ethanolextracts of different parts of five indigenous plantsagainst Ae. albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae and Culexquinquefasciatus larvae in laboratory conditions.Plant materials were collected from the foothill forestsof Sonitpur district, Assam bordering ArunachalPradesh during April and May 2005. They were segregatedas leaf, stem, bark, root and fruit/pericarp andair-dried in a shady place. Dried materials wereground in a table model grinder. The ground plant materialswere dipped in solvents (methanol and ethanolShort Research Communications146 J VECT BORNE DIS 44, JUNE 2007in tightly capped jars separately for 48 h. The solventsalong with extracts were drained out, filtered andsemisolid extracts were obtained in vacuum usingrotary evaporator. The semisolid extracts were lyophilisedto obtain solid extracts. Stock solutions of desiredconcentration were prepared in distilled waterusing 1 ppm teepol as emulsifying agent and subsequentdilutions were made as per requirement. Larvicidalbioassay was carried out as per standard WHOtechniques in 500 ml glass beakers containing 250 mlof water and 25 numbers of late III or early IV instarmosquito larvae for various concentrations. Threedifferent concentrations of each extract were tried outat a time with six replicates. One control was kept witheach set of experiment and mortality was recordedafter 24 h. Five sets of experiments were conductedfor each extract. Tests were carried out under controlledlaboratory conditions (temperature 27 ± 2oCagainst laboratory reared Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae larvae. Values

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of Altitude Scaling for Turbofan Engine Ice Crystal Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of altitude scaling for turbofan engine ice crystal icing simulation was conducted during the 2015 LF11 engine icing test campaign in PSL.The results showed that a simplified approach for altitude scaling to simulate the key reference engine ice growth feature and associated icing effects to the engine is possible. But special considerations are needed to address the facility operation limitation for lower altitude engine icing simulation.

  20. A review of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) repository clays and their relationship to clays of adjacent strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, J.L.; Kimball, K.M.; Stein, C.L.

    1990-12-01

    The Salado Formation is a thick evaporite sequence located in the Permian Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. This study focuses on the intense diagenetic alteration that has affected the small amounts of clay, feldspar, and quartz washed into the basin during salt deposition. These changes are of more than academic interest since this formation also houses the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). Site characterization concerns warrant compiling a detailed data base describing the clays in and around the facility horizon. An extensive sampling effort was undertaken to address these programmatic issues as well as to provide additional insight regarding diagenetic mechanisms in the Salado. Seventy-five samples were collected from argillaceous partings in halite at the stratigraphic level of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These were compared with twenty-eight samples from cores of the Vaca Triste member of the Salado, a thin clastic unit at the top of the McNutt potash zone, and with a clay-rich sample from the lower contact of the Culebra Dolomite (in the overlying Rustler Formation). These settings were compared to assess the influence of differences in brine chemistry (i.e., halite and potash facies, normal to hypersaline marine conditions) and sediment composition (clays, sandy silt, dolomitized limestone) on diagenetic processes. 44 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from waste activated bleaching earth as raw material in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Enoch Y; Sato, Masayasu; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry using lipase from Candida cylindracea was investigated in a 50-L pilot plant. Diesel oil or kerosene was used as an organic solvent for the transesterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. When 1% (w/w) lipase was added to waste ABE, the FAME content reached 97% (w/w) after reaction for 12 h at 25 degrees C with an agitation rate of 30 rpm. The FAME production rate was strongly dependent upon the amount of enzyme added. Mixtures of FAME and diesel oil at ratios of 45:55 (BDF-45) and 35:65 (BDF-35) were assessed and compared with the European specifications for biodiesel as automotive diesel fuel, as defined by pr EN 14214. The biodiesel quality of BDF-45 met the EN 14214 standard. BDF-45 was used as generator fuel, and the exhaust emissions were compared with those of diesel oil. The CO and SO2 contents were reduced, but nitrogen oxide emission increased by 10%. This is the first report of a pilot plant study of lipase-catalyzed FAME production using waste ABE as a raw material. This result demonstrates a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME from industrial waste resources containing vegetable oils for use as a biodiesel fuel.

  2. Pharmaceuticals and pesticides in reclaimed water: Efficiency assessment of a microfiltration-reverse osmosis (MF-RO) pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Ricart, Marta; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Guasch, Helena; Bonnineau, Chloe; Proia, Lorenzo; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Sabater, Sergi; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-23

    Water reuse is becoming a common practice in several areas in the world, particularly in those impacted by water scarcity driven by climate change and/or by rising human demand. Since conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not able to efficiently remove many organic contaminants and pathogens, more advanced water treatment processes should be applied to WWTP effluents for water reclamation purposes. In this work, a pilot plant based on microfiltration (MF) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) filtration was applied to the effluents of an urban WWTP. Both the WWTP and the pilot plant were investigated with regards to the removal of a group of relevant contaminants widely spread in the environment: 28 pharmaceuticals and 20 pesticides. The combined treatment by the MF-RO system was able to quantitatively remove the target micropollutants present in the WWTP effluents to values either in the low ng/L range or below limits of quantification. Monitoring of water quality of reclaimed water and water reclamation sources is equally necessary to design the most adequate treatment procedures aimed to water reuse for different needs.

  3. Biological removal of organic constituents in quench water from a slagging, fixed-bed coal-gasification pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

    1980-02-01

    This study is part of an effort to assess the efficiency of activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot-plant quench waters. A sample of raw-gas quench water was obtained from the Grand Forks Energy and Technology Center's pilot plant, which employs the slagging, fixed-bed gasification process. The quench water generated in the processing of Indian Head lignite was pretreated to reduce ammonia and alkalinity, and then diluted and subjected to long-term biological treatment, followed by detailed characterization and analysis of organic constituents. The pretreated (influent) and treated (effluent) samples were extracted using a methylene chloride, pH-fractionation method to obtain acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Over 99% of the total extractable and chromatographable organic material in the influent acid fraction was composed of phenol and alkylated phenols. Biological treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Major components of the influent base fraction were alkylated pyridines, anilines, aminopyrroles, imidazoles and/or pyrazoles, diazines, and quinolines. Removal efficiency of these compounds ranged between 90 and 100%. The influent neutral fraction was composed mainly of cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, naphthalene, indole, acetophenone, and benzonitrile. Alkylated benzenes were generally absent. Removal efficiencies of these compounds were generally very good, except for certain alkylated cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes. Results are compared with those of a similar study on HYGAS coal-gasification quench water.

  4. Reacting flow simulations of supercritical water oxidation of PCB-contaminated transformer oil in a pilot plant reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marulanda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The scale-up of a supercritical water oxidation process, based on recent advancements in kinetic aspects, reactor configuration and optimal operational conditions, depends on the research and development of simulation tools, which allow the designer not only to understand the complex multiphysics phenomena that describe the system, but also to optimize the operational parameters to attain the best profit for the process and guarantee its safe operation. Accordingly, this paper reports a multiphysics simulation with the CFD software Comsol Multiphysics 3.3 of a pilot plant reactor for the supercritical water oxidation of a heavily PCB-contaminated mineral transformer oil. The proposed model was based on available information for the kinetic aspects of the complex mixture and the optimal operational conditions obtained in a lab-scale continuous supercritical water oxidation unit. The pilot plant simulation results indicate that it is not feasible to scale-up directly the optimal operational conditions obtained in the isothermal lab-scale experiments, due to the excess heat released by the exothermic oxidation reactions that result in outlet temperatures higher than 600°C, even at reactor inlet temperatures as low as 400°C. Consequently, different alternatives such as decreasing organic flowrates or a new reactor set-up with multiple oxidant injections should be considered to guarantee a safe operation.

  5. The use of mathematical modeling and pilot plant testing to develop a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolasco, D.A.; Daigger, G.T.; Stafford, D.R.; Kaupp, D.M.; Stephenson, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model for carbon oxidation, nitrogen removal, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal was used to develop the Step Bio-P process, a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process with a step-feed configuration. A 9,000-L pilot plant with diurnally varying influent process loading rates was operated to verify the model results and to optimize the Step Bio-P process for application at the lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, wastewater treatment plant. The pilot plant was operated for 10 months. An automatic on-line data acquisition system with multiple sampling and metering points for dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, ortho-phosphate, and flow rates was used. A sampling program to obtain off-line data was carried out to verify the information from the on-line system and monitor additional parameters. The on-line and off-line data were used to recalibrate the model, which was used as an experimental design and process optimization tool.

  6. PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-09-01

    This report presents a probabilistic safety assessment of radioactive doses as consequences from accident scenarios to complement the deterministic assessment presented in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The International Council of Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommends both assessments be conducted to ensure that ''an adequate level of safety has been achieved and that no major contributors to risk are overlooked'' (ICRP 1993). To that end, the probabilistic assessment for the WIPP accident scenarios addresses the wide range of assumptions, e.g. the range of values representing the radioactive source of an accident, that could possibly have been overlooked by the SAR. Routine releases of radionuclides from the WIPP repository to the environment during the waste emplacement operations are expected to be essentially zero. In contrast, potential accidental releases from postulated accident scenarios during waste handling and emplacement could be substantial, which necessitates the need for radiological air monitoring and confinement barriers (DOE 1999). The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) calculated doses from accidental releases to the on-site (at 100 m from the source) and off-site (at the Exclusive Use Boundary and Site Boundary) public by a deterministic approach. This approach, as demonstrated in the SAR, uses single-point values of key parameters to assess the 50-year, whole-body committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The basic assumptions used in the SAR to formulate the CEDE are retained for this report's probabilistic assessment. However, for the probabilistic assessment, single-point parameter values were replaced with probability density functions (PDF) and were sampled over an expected range. Monte Carlo simulations were run, in which 10,000 iterations were performed by randomly selecting one value for each parameter and calculating the dose. Statistical information was then derived

  7. Radioactive waste disposal: Waste Isolation Pilot Plants (WIPP). March 1978-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for Mar 78-Nov 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located in New Mexico for transuranic wastes generated by the U.S. Government. Articles follow the development of the program from initial site selection and characterization through construction and testing, along with research programs on environmental impacts, structural design, and radionuclide landfill gases. Existing plants and facilities, pilot plants, migration, rock mechanics, economics, regulations, and transport of wastes to the site are also included. The Salt Repository Project and the Crystalline Repository Project are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 184 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  8. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    , the least square methods outperformed the method based on minimum-phase approximation. However, the evaluation was only done for the best-case scenario, where the transfer functions used to design the filters correspond to the listener's transfer functions and his/her location and orientation relative...... to the loudspeakers. In this paper we present a follow up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when these conditions are violated. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeakers arrangements is described. Preliminary measurement results are presented for loudspeakers placed...

  9. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  10. Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E; Hobson, Douglas A; Karg, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals using wheeled mobility devices (WMDs) often use them as motor vehicle seats during transportation. Wheelchair occupant restraint systems (WORSs), consisting of upper torso and pelvic restraints, are usually mounted to the structure of transit vehicles to secure individuals within their wheelchair seats. This preliminary study attempts to evaluate the use and satisfaction of currently installed vehicle-mounted WORSs for individuals using WMD as seats in motor vehicles. A survey was conducted among 33 adults who use their WMD to travel in motor vehicles. Results from the survey showed that upper torso and pelvic restraints installed in private vehicles are quick, comfortable, and easy to use. However, WORS installed in mass transit and paratransit are often uncomfortable to wear, difficult to reach, and time-consuming to use. This preliminary study documents the growing need for developing alternative WORS that are safe, comfortable, and that allow independent usage for wheelchair occupants while traveling in a motor vehicle.

  11. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF DIPTERACANTHUS PROSTRATUS NEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy.P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteracanthus prostratus is an prostrate perennial herb. It is a small straggling, much branched herb it is purple at the nodes, internodes are long and hairy. It used as anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and Diuretics. The present study was carried out to preliminary phytochemical evaluation of whole plant of Dipeteracanthus prostratus nees. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detail analysis. Fluorescence analysis of different successive extract and powder were noted under UV light and normal ordinary light, which signifies there characteristics. Preliminary qualitative chemical test for different extract shows the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, fixed oil and fats, phenolic compounds, protein and amino acids, tannins, gum and mucilage, flavonoids and carbohydrates.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of timing training accelerator for the SPRINT rowing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffaldi Emanuele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the selection and preliminary evaluation of rowing gesture timing training on the SPRINT platform. After the analysis of experts’ gestures and a literature review of rowing technique features, the selection of proper feedbacks and the development of the training protocol are investigated. The general problem discussed here is the learning of timing of complex motor pattern under the effect of load. Eight novice adults participated the experiment, half of them receiving vibrotactile feedback (VIB, both receiving knowledge of results (KR after training blocks. Preliminary results show the difficulty people had to accomplish the task and to exploit feedback. There is in fact no evidence of feedback effectiveness when comparing VIB-KR and KR group. Some causes were hypothesized and a side effect of load condition arisen from data. Therefore timing training will be further investigated exploiting information gathered.

  13. Solar CPC pilot plant photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A in waters and wastewaters using suspended and supported-TiO2. Influence of photogenerated species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggioro, Enrico Mendes; Oliveira, Anabela Sousa; Pavesi, Thelma; Tototzintle, Margarita Jiménez; Maldonado, Manuel Ignacio; Correia, Fábio Verissimo; Moreira, Josino Costa

    2014-11-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in waters and wastewaters in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) was performed under different conditions. Suspensions of the TiO2 were used to compare the degradation efficiency of BPA (20 mg L(-1)) in batch and compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactors. A TiO2 catalyst supported on glass spheres was prepared (sol-gel method) and used in a CPC solar pilot plant for the photodegradation of BPA (100 μg L(-1)). The influence of OH·, O2 (·-), and h (+) on the BPA degradation were evaluated. The radicals OH· and O2 (·-) were proved to be the main species involved on BPA photodegradation. Total organic carbon (TOC) and carboxylic acids were determined to evaluate the BPA mineralization during the photodegradation process. Some toxicological effects of BPA and its photoproducts on Eisenia andrei earthworms were evaluated. The results show that the optimal concentration of suspended TiO2 to degrade BPA in batch or CPC reactors was 0.1 g L(-1). According to biological tests, the BPA LC50 in 24 h for E. andrei was of 1.7 × 10(-2) mg cm(-2). The photocatalytic degradation of BPA mediated by TiO2 supported on glass spheres suffered strong influence of the water matrix. On real municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) secondary effluent, 30 % of BPA remains in solution; nevertheless, the method has the enormous advantage since it eliminates the need of catalyst removal step, reducing the cost of treatment.

  14. Self-reported vicarious trauma in asylum evaluators: a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishori, Ranit; Mujawar, Imran; Ravi, Nirmal

    2014-12-01

    Hundreds of clinicians in the US conduct asylum evaluations, to document evidence of torture and persecution of people fleeing their home countries. Participating in these encounters puts clinicians at risk for vicarious trauma (VT). Little research addressed VT in physicians. Even less is known about VT among asylum evaluators. A survey was distributed to members of the asylum network of Physicians for Human Rights in Spring 2012. The majority (65%) of survey participants denied having experienced VT. However, being female, being a mental health professional and having performed a greater number of evaluations was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting VT. We present preliminary data about VT in asylum evaluators. Recruiters and trainers should make every effort to address the issue and educate their volunteers about means of identifying and managing symptoms. Formal and informal support services and resources should be developed and shared with volunteers.

  15. Identification and preliminary evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from hot dip galvanizing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources.

  16. Performance of a six-port simulated moving-bed pilot plant for vapor-phase adsorption separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storti, G. (Univ. Degli Studi Di Padova (Italy)); Mazzotti, M.; Furlan, L.T.; Morbidelli, M.; Carra, S. (Politecnico Di Milano, (Italy))

    1992-11-01

    A simulated moving-bed (SMB) pilot plant, characterized by two unique features, the number of ports (6 instead of 24, as in most industrial applications) and the fluid phase (vapor rather than liquid), has been built and operated. Such a plant has proven capable to achieve complete separation for a mixture of m- and p-xylene using isopropylbenzene as desorbent and KY zeolites as adsorbent. The dynamic behavior of the unit has been investigated and compared with model predictions, both in terms of approach to cyclic steady state as well as of responses to typical inputs. The role of the key design parameters on the steady-state separation performance of the unit has been analyzed experimentally, demonstrating the consistency with the predictions of the Equilibrium Theory.

  17. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

  18. A select bibliography with abstracts of reports related to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant geotechnical studies (1972--1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.W. [Powers (Dennis W.), Anthony, TX (United States); Martin, M.L. [International Technology, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This select bibliography contains 941 entries. Each bibliographic entry contains the citation of a report, conference paper, or journal article containing geotechnical information about the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The entries cover the period from 1972, when investigation began for a WIPP Site in southeastern New Mexico, through December 1990. Each entry is followed by an abstract. If an abstract or suitable summary existed, it has been included; 316 abstracts were written for other documents. For some entries, an annotation has been provided to clarify the abstract, comment on the setting and significance of the document, or guide the reader to related reports. An index of key words/phrases is included for all entries.

  19. Effects of foaming and antifoaming agents on the performance of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Foaming is a common phenomenon in industrial processes, including wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants. A systemic investigation of the influence of two foaming agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and egg white albumin (protein), and two commercial antifoams on a wet FGD pilot plant...... operation has been carried out. Foaming caused by 0.03 g SDS/(L slurry) reduced the desulfurization degree from 84 to 74% and the solids and limestone concentrations of the slurry from 58 to 48 g/(L slurry) and from 1.4 to 1.0 g/(L slurry), respectively. These effects were attributed to the foaming...... transferring small particles to the foam layer present on top of the slurry in the holding tank. The addition of 0.03 g antifoams/(L slurry) to SDS foam eliminated the foam, but the desulfurization degree remained low. Potential mechanisms for the observed behavior are analyzed. (c) 2014 American Institute...

  20. Environmental assessment for the reuse of TNX as a multi-purpose pilot plant campus at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental and safety impacts of DOE planning to allow asset reuse of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include providing for a location for the Centers of Excellence at or adjacent to SRS and entering into a cooperative agreement with a non-profit management and operations (management firm) contractor to operate and market the TNX facilities and equipment. The area (formerly TNX) would be called a Multi-Purpose Pilot Plant Campus (MPPC) and would be used: (1) as location for technology research, development, demonstration, and commercial operations; (2) to establish partnerships with industry to develop applied technologies for commercialization; and (3) serve as administrative headquarters for Centers of Excellence in the program areas of soil remediation, radioecology, groundwater contamination, and municipal solid waste minimization.

  1. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

  2. A pilot-plant study for destruction of PCBs in contaminated soils using fluidized bed combustion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dilip L; Anthony, Edward J; Wang, Jinsheng

    2007-08-01

    Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soils and wastes using circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) technology was studied using a pilot plant and simulated waste material. The results show that the technology is effective and particularly promising for treatment of PCB-containing materials like the toxic sludge from a large contaminated site. Destruction of the toxics in the gas phase appears to be very fast, and over 99.9999% destruction and removal efficiency can be achieved in the temperature range 875-880 degrees C. Heat transfer in the fluidized bed also appears adequate. Toxic residues in treated soil can be reduced to very low levels. Rate-controlling factors of the decontamination process are analyzed, and key issues for determination of the process conditions are discussed.

  3. Expert (Peer) Reviews at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Making Complex Information and Decision Making Transparent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    On the 18th of May 1998, based on the information provided by the United Sates Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the 1996 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency certified the proposed deep geological repository for disposal of long-lived, defense-generated, transuranic radioactive waste at the WIPP site in New Mexico, United States of America, was compliant with all applicable radioactive waste disposal regulations. Seven domestic and one joint international peer reviews commissioned by the DOE were instrumental in making complex scientific and engineering information, as well as the related WIPP decision-making process, both credible and transparent to the majority of affected and interested parties and, ultimately, to the regulator.

  4. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  5. An introduction to the mechanics of performance assessment using examples of calculations done for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1990 and 1992. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1996-06-01

    This document provides an overview of the processes used to access the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The quantitative metrics used in the performance-assessment (PA) process are those put forward in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, HIgh-LEvel and transuranic radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191).

  6. Pilot plant investigations on cleaning efficiencies to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination in industrial manufacture of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Ibach, Anja; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Janise, Annabella; Suwelack, Carola; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Shared equipment in industrial food manufacture has repeatedly been described as a potential source of unlabeled food allergens, i.e., hidden allergens. However, the impact of shared equipment on allergen cross-contamination is basically unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate systematically the extent of hazelnut cross-contamination in fine bakery wares as a model. A product change from cookies with 10% hazelnut to cookies without hazelnuts was simulated on pilot plant equipment. The extent of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each production device (kneaders, rotary molder, wire cutting machine, and steel band oven) and various cleaning procedures used between products. The experiments were performed repeatedly with finely ground hazelnuts and with roughly chopped hazelnut kernels. Cross-contamination from chopped kernels was distributed statistically but not homogeneously, and sampling and analysis with the ELISA was therefore not reproducible. Further analysis concentrated on homogenously distributed HNCC from ground hazelnut. Apart from product changes without intermediate cleaning, the highest HNCC was found after mechanical scraping: Up to 100 mg/kg hazelnut protein was found in the follow-up product after processing by one machine. After additional cleaning with hot water, the HNCC decreased regardless of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg/kg hazelnut protein. In our pilot plant study, the application of an appropriate wet cleaning procedure in combination with quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency reduced the hazelnut protein cross-contamination to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  7. Low-dose fetal CT for evaluation of severe congenital skeletal anomalies: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Epelman, Monica; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bebbington, Michael [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wilson, R.D. [University of Calgary, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Congenital skeletal abnormalities compose a heterogeneous and complex group of conditions that affect bone growth and development and result in various anomalies in shape and size of the skeleton. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of these anomalies is challenging because of the relative rarity of each skeletal dysplasia, the multitude of differential diagnoses encountered when the bony abnormalities are identified, lack of precise molecular diagnosis and the fact that many of these disorders have overlapping features and marked phenotypic variability. The following review is a preliminary summary of our experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) using low-dose fetal CT in the evaluation of severe fetal osseous abnormalities. (orig.)

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Co-Cr Alloys Fabricated by Three New Manufacturing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong-Ho; Lee, Dae-Ho; Ha, Jung-Yun; Hanawa, Takao; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary tensile test was performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys fabricated by three new manufacturing processes: metal milling, milling for soft metal, and rapid prototyping (n=6). For comparison, the three alloy materials were also used to fabricate specimens by a casting procedure. In all groups tested, the proof strength and elongation were over 500 MPa and 2%, respectively. The milled soft alloy in particular showed a substantially greater elongation, whereas the alloy fabricated by rapid prototyping exhibited a higher proof strength.

  9. Preliminary In-Vivo Evaluation of Convex Array Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    of STA imaging in comparison to conventional imaging. The purpose is to evaluate whether STA imaging is feasible in-vivo. and whether the image quality obtained is comparable to traditional scanned imaging in terms of penetration depth, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and artifacts. Acquisition...... using randomized blinded presentation. Penetration and image quality were scored and evaluated statistically. Results show that in-vivo imaging using STA imaging is feasible with improved image quality compared to conventional imaging.......Synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging has previously been investigated and compared to traditional imaging techniques in simulations and phantom studies. However, a full in-vivo study evaluating its clinical potential has yet to be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary in-vivo study...

  10. An analysis of the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) previously analyzed the probability of a catastrophic accident in the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and published the results in Greenfield (1990; EEG-44) and Greenfield and Sargent (1993; EEG-53). The most significant safety element in the waste hoist is the hydraulic brake system, whose possible failure was identified in these studies as the most important contributor in accident scenarios. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division has calculated the probability of an accident involving the brake system based on studies utilizing extensive fault tree analyses. This analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used point estimates to describe the probability of failure and includes failure rates for the various components comprising the brake system. An additional controlling factor in the DOE calculations is the mode of operation of the brake system. This factor enters for the following reason. The basic failure rate per annum of any individual element is called the Event Probability (EP), and is expressed as the probability of failure per annum. The EP in turn is the product of two factors. One is the {open_quotes}reported{close_quotes} failure rate, usually expressed as the probability of failure per hour and the other is the expected number of hours that the element is in use, called the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes}. In many instances the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} will be the number of operating hours of the brake system per annum. However since the operation of the waste hoist system includes regular {open_quotes}reoperational check{close_quotes} tests, the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} for standby components is reduced in accordance with the specifics of the operational time table.

  11. The environmental sustainability of a pilot plant for the manufacture of biodiesel from frying oil: a case study: Universidade de Brasilia UNB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brazil; A sustentabilidade ambiental de uma planta piloto para fabricacao de biodiesel a partir de oleo de fritura: estudo de caso: Universidade de Brasilia UnB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Glecia Virgolino da; Falla, Pilar Hidalgo; Ginoris, Yovanka Perez; Oliveira, Alessandro Borges de S.; Alves, Marcos Antonio de S. [Universidade de Brasilia (FGA/UnB), Gama, DF (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Whereas the efforts of the Brazilian government and its researchers to explore new renewable energy alternatives such as biofuels, and considering the existing methodologies for the production of biodiesel, including the processes of washing out, which consumes a large amount of water treated, University of Brasilia/FGA/Gama installs in about July 2010 a pilot plant for biodiesel production. The pilot plant will use feedstock used frying oil collected in homes, restaurants and coffee shop in the region, preventing this oil remains released to sewage in natura. Thus, this project aims to develop academic research and the improvement of the community in the city of Gama / DF. This study aimed to carry out preliminary studies of the methodology and water to be used in biodiesel production in order to confirm the reduction of fuel costs the University to contribute to reducing the release of oils into the sewer and use of distillers for water will wash the biodiesel, reducing the energy consumption of the plant. (author)

  12. Development of the wireless ultra-miniaturized inertial measurement unit WB-4: preliminary performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuohua; Zecca, Massimiliano; Sessa, Salvatore; Bartolomeo, Luca; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance evaluation of our new wireless ultra-miniaturized inertial measurement unit (IMU) WB-4 by compared with the Vicon motion capture system. The WB-4 IMU primarily contains a mother board for motion sensing, a Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission with PC, and a Li-Polymer battery for power supply. The mother board is provided with a microcontroller and 9-axis inertial sensors (miniaturized MEMS accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer) to measure orientation. A quaternion-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) integrated with an R-Adaptive algorithm for automatic estimation of the measurement covariance matrix is implemented for the sensor fusion to retrieve the attitude. The experimental results showed that the wireless ultra-miniaturized WB-4 IMU could provide high accuracy performance at the angles of roll and pitch. The yaw angle which has reasonable performance needs to be further evaluated.

  13. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  14. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-09-30

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design.

  15. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD, with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ages the same anatomical volumes, corresponding to five spherical regions of interest. In particular, tu study the overall vascularization of the fetal brain, we use a sphere with a diameter corresponding to the bi-parietal distance. To evaluate the regional vascularization, we identify four sampling spherical sites, two in each hemisphere. This standard technical approach according to correct morphological criteria allows to exclude from the analysis vascular territories external to the brain.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the expected radiation damage of the bayonet IFMIF back-plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoni, M. [Athena s.a.s, Via del Battiferro 3, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: manuela.frisoni@enea.it; Agostini, P. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone 40032, Camugnano (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (Italy); Fasanella, D. [Athena s.a.s, Via del Battiferro 3, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Micciche, G. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone 40032, Camugnano (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    This paper summarises and discusses the results of a preliminary damage assessment of the non-seizure coating of the bayonet IFMIF back-plate. Neutron-induced kerma factors, dpa and gas production cross sections libraries were produced in a multigroup structure for neutron energies up to 60 MeV, by processing evaluated nuclear data files with NJOY-99.259 system. The material damage evaluations in terms of heat deposition, displacement and gas production rates were calculated using these libraries and compared with the values obtained using the data contained in the pointwise ACE format files of MCNP5 code package. The calculations were performed with MCNP5 code both using the McEnea and the McDelicious neutron source models to reproduce the energy-angle distributions of the neutrons produced in IFMIF d-Li interactions.

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 11, Chapter D, Appendix D4--Chapter D, Appendix D17: Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices D4 through D17 which cover the following: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report; ecological monitoring program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; site characterization; regional and site geology and hydrology; general geology; dissolution features; ground water hydrology; typical carbon sorption bed efficiency; VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests; chemical compatibility analysis of waste forms and container materials; probable maximum precipitation; WHIP supplementary roof support system room 1, panel 1; and corrosion risk assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant ``humid`` test bins.

  18. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field.

  19. Integrative medical education: educational strategies and preliminary evaluation of the Integrated Curriculum for Anthroposophic Medicine (ICURAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christian; Tauschel, Diethard; Neumann, Melanie; Lutz, Gabriele; Cysarz, Dirk; Heusser, Peter; Edelhäuser, Friedrich

    2012-12-01

    the development and preliminary evaluation of a new medical program aimed at educating students in patient-centered integrative care and developing appropriate educational strategies. The Integrated Curriculum for Anthroposophic Medicine (ICURAM) was developed with modules on anthroposophic medicine integrated into the full 6 years of the regular medical curriculum. The educational strategy is the ESPRI(2)T approach, combining Exploratory learning, Supported participation, Patient-based learning, Reflective practice, Integrated learning, an Integrative approach and Team-based learning. The student participation, assessed based on the number of credit points earned per year (ctp/year) through the ICURAM (1 ctp=30 h workload), served as a preliminary indicator of student interest. Of the 412 55%medical students participated in the program: 16% full participation (≥ 4 ctp/year), 18% partial participation (1-3.99 ctp/year) and 22% occasional participation (0.25-0.99 ctp/year). The amount of additional workload taken on by students was between 7.8h/year for occasional participants, 33 h/year for partial participants and 84 h/year for full participants. More than half of medical students were willing to invest a significant amount of additional time in the optional program. An integrative medical curriculum with a student-centered educational strategy seems to be of interest to most medical students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Nitika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. The present study deals with phytochemical investigations of Bombax ceiba root including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavanoid, terpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilage’s in the extracts. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

  2. Analysis of fluid dynamics to the riser of a FCC cold pilot plant aided with response surface methodology; Analise da fluidodinamica em um riser de FCC de uma unidade piloto a frio com auxilio da metodologia de superficie de resposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Kamylla A.L. dos; Luna-Finkler, Christine L.; Lima Filho, Hilario J.B. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Benachour, Mohand; Dantas, Carlos Costa; Santos, Valdemir A. dos [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    It was planned and executed the implementation of a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) to the riser of a FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracking) cold pilot plant, to identify the basic fluid dynamic characteristics of this type of reactor. The Fluid Catalytic Cracking is the major process in oil refineries in the world. It is realized in a vertical cylindrical reactor called riser, with a short contact time between the cracking catalyst and vacuum gas oil vapors. The constant evolution of the FCC process has required the analysis of fluid dynamics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. However, analysis of images produced by the application of CFD to study of risers requires preliminary concepts of the relationship between response variables and independent variables. With the CCRD implementation was performed a total of 12 experiments, being 4 full factorial, 4 axial points and 4 central points. The dependent variables were the velocities of the components (cracking catalyst and compressed air) and the pressure drop in the riser. There was a great contribution of solids flow rate for the solid phase velocity and for the pressure drop. The effects of interaction between the flow rate phases are considerably senses in pressure drop through the riser, however, for the velocities of both phases this interaction becomes negligible. (author)

  3. Participation of C.N. Vandellos II as a pilot plant in the PWROG PA-ASC-1084 project about analysis and distribution of hydrogen in the containment buildings annexes; Participacion de C. N. Vandellos II como planta piloto en el proyecto del PWROG PA-ASC-1084 sobre analisis y distribucion del hidrogeno en edificios anexos a la Contencion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornos Herrando, J.

    2013-07-01

    Fukushima accident has demonstrated that hydrogen outside the Containment building, due to its potential combustion or explosion, may result in loss of mitigation equipment, thus hindering the recovery of the plant. This reality has been treated in the framework of Stress Tests that are being developed at European level, and the Spanish nuclear power plants should evaluate this potential risk according to the specific design of each plant. The aim of this paper is to introduce this hydrogen problem and to present the main developments of the Vandellos II NPP experience as pilot plant in the project that PWROG is developing to analyze the potential risk of hydrogen in the Containment outbuildings.

  4. Preliminary safety evaluation for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1994-10-18

    This document presents the Preliminary Safety Evaluation for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). The US DOE has been mandated to develop plans for response to safety issues associated with the waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, and to report the progress of implementing those plans to Congress. The objectives of Project W-230 are to design, fabricate, develop, test, and operate a new retrieval system capable of removing a minimum of about 75% of the high-heat waste contained in C-106. It is anticipated that sluicing operations can remove enough waste to reduce the remaining radiogenic heat load to levels low enough to resolve the high-heat safety issue as well as allow closure of the tank safety issue.

  5. Improving the Output Power Stability of a High Concentration Photovoltaic System with Supercapacitors: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The output power of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV system is very sensitive to fluctuating tracking errors and weather patterns. To help compensate this shortcoming, supercapacitors have been successfully incorporated into photovoltaic systems to improve their output power stability. This study examined the output power stability improvement of an HCPV module with a supercapacitor integrated into its circuit. Furthermore, the equivalent model of the experimental circuit is presented and analyzed. Experimental results suggest that integrating a supercapacitor into an HCPV module could improve its output power stability and further extend its acceptance angle. This paper provides preliminary data of the improvement and its evaluation method, which could be utilized for further improvements to an HCPV system.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Gas Generation from the Korean LILW Repository using the SMOGG Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Beak; Lee, Sun Joung [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    For the permanent disposal of 100,000 drums of LILW (Low- and Intermediate-Level radioactive Waste) for the first stage of operation (800,000 drums in the long run) in Korea, the rock-cavern repository is being constructed at Gyeongju city. During the lifetime and post-closure period of the repository, it is expected that bulk gases (e.g. hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, etc.) are mainly produced by various mechanisms such as the metal corrosion, microbial degradation of organic materials, and radiolysis. Since gases generated have the potential threat to overpressurize the repository, which can promote the transport of radionuclide contained in groundwater and gas, it is necessary to simulate the features of gas generation from the repository using the appropriate computer code prior to the start of operation. This paper describes the preliminary evaluation of gas generation from the repository using the SMOGG code

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of MapReduce for High-Performance Climate Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Daniel Q.; Schnase, John L.; Thompson, John H.; Freeman, Shawn M.; Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    MapReduce is an approach to high-performance analytics that may be useful to data intensive problems in climate research. It offers an analysis paradigm that uses clusters of computers and combines distributed storage of large data sets with parallel computation. We are particularly interested in the potential of MapReduce to speed up basic operations common to a wide range of analyses. In order to evaluate this potential, we are prototyping a series of canonical MapReduce operations over a test suite of observational and climate simulation datasets. Our initial focus has been on averaging operations over arbitrary spatial and temporal extents within Modern Era Retrospective- Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data. Preliminary results suggest this approach can improve efficiencies within data intensive analytic workflows.

  8. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G. [Department of Industrial and Civil Engineering (DICI), University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the

  10. Stochastic analysis of radionuclides travel times at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP), in New Mexico (U. S. A. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capilla Roma, J. E.; Gomez-Hernandez, J. J.; Sahuquillo Herraiz, A. (Universidad Politecnia de Valencia (Spain))

    1999-12-15

    Multiple equally likely transmissivity fields that honor piezo metric head measurements are generated as input to a Monte-Carlo exercise, for the stochastic analysis of travel times in the Culebra dolomite overlaying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, USA. Results of the analysis show the importance of modeling variable-density flow as accurately as possible, and of including as much information as possible in the simulations of alternative scenarios. Results also unveil a channel of high transmissivity when transmissivity fields are conditioned to piezo metric data. This channel leads to important reductions of travel time from the WIPP area to the south boundary. The uncertainty of the boundary conditions is analyzed searching for alternative boundary conditions can be obtained that improve the reproduction of piezo metric data and yield a reduction of the minimum travel times to the south boundary. Results of the Monte-Carlo exercise are compared with those from a deterministic analysis showing the limitations of the latter method when trying to estimate extreme values or characterizing the uncertainty of their predictions. The report ends with a brief study on the impact of the small transmissivity measurements at location P-18, showing that its value is not consistent with the model of spatial variability inferred from the data and that it has an important effect on model predictions. (Author)

  11. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3: Appendix BIR Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (WTWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties, from across the US Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system, into a series of ``waste profiles`` that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The majority of this document reports TRU waste inventories of DOE defense sites. An appendix is included which provides estimates of commercial TRU waste from the West Valley Demonstration Project. The WIPP baseline inventory is estimated using waste streams identified by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage sites, supplemented by information from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) and the 1994 Integrated Data Base (IDB). The sites provided and/or authorized all information in the Waste Stream Profiles except the EPA (hazardous waste) codes for the mixed inventories. These codes were taken from the MWIR (if a WTWBIR mixed waste stream was not in MWIR, the sites were consulted). The IDB was used to generate the WIPP radionuclide inventory. Each waste stream is defined in a waste stream profile and has been assigned a waste matrix code (WMC) by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage site. Waste stream profiles with WMCs that have similar physical and chemical properties can be combined into a waste matrix code group (WMCG), which is then documented in a site-specific waste profile for each TRU waste generator/storage site that contains waste streams in that particular WMCG.

  12. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Div.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship, D.A.; DeYonge, W.F.; Schiermeister, D.M. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information.

  13. Ultrafiltration (UF Pilot Plant for Municipal Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: Impact of the Operation Mode on Process Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Falsanisi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Following increasing interest in the use of UltraFiltration (UF membrane processes as an alternative advanced disinfection technique, the performance of a UF pilot plant was investigated under two opposite operating conditions (“stressed operating condition” versus “conventional operating condition”. The results indicate that for both conditions, the reclaimed effluent complied with the Italian regulations for unrestricted wastewater reuse (i.e., Total Suspended Solids (TSS < 10 mg/L; Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD < 100 mg/L and Escherichia coli < 10 CFU/100 mL. On the other hand, when compared with the Title 22 of the California Wastewater Reclamation Criteria, only the effluent produced under the “conventional operating condition” met the stipulated water quality standards (i.e., TSS and turbidity undetectable and total coliforms < 2.2 CFU/100 mL. It should be noted that, in spite of the nominal cut-off size, total coliforms breakthrough was indeed occasionally observed. A localized membrane pore micro-enlargement mechanism was hypothesized to explain the total coliforms propagation in the ultrafiltered effluent, as monitoring of the membrane permeability and transmembrane pressure highlighted that gel/cake formation had only a minor contribution to the overall membrane fouling mechanism with respect to pore plugging and pore narrowing mechanisms.

  14. Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, S.A.; Pullen, G.M.; Brewer, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts in environmental decision support technologies. WIPP and YMP are in the public arena, of a controversial nature, and provide significant management challenges. Both projects have large project teams, multiple organization participants, large budgets, long durations, are very complex, have a high degree of programmatic risk, and operate in an extremely regulated environment requiring legal defensibility. For environmental projects like these to succeed, SNL`s Program is utilizing nearly all areas in PMI`s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage along multiple project dimensions such as the physical sciences (e.g., geophysics and geochemistry; performance assessment; decision analysis) management sciences (controlling the triple constraint of performance, cost and schedule), and social sciences (belief systems; public participation; institutional politics). This discussion focuses primarily on communication challenges active on WIPP. How is the WIPP team meeting the challenges of managing communications?`` and ``How are you approaching similar challenges?`` will be questions for a dialog with the audience.

  15. A pilot plant study of the degradation of Brilliant Green dye using ozone microbubbles: mechanism and kinetics of reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuntia, Snigdha; Majumder, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Pallab

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation of Brilliant Green dye was performed using ozone microbubbles in a pilot plant scale. Decolourisation was very effective at both acidic and alkaline pH. The colour of the aqueous solution was below detectable limit after 30 min at 1.7 mg/s ozone generation rate. The reaction between the dye and ozone was first-order in nature with respect to both ozone and the dye. The enhancement factor increased with increasing dye concentration. The samples were analysed by the ultra-violet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. From the GC-MS analysis, 13 intermediates were detected as oxidation products of this dye at various stages of oxidation. The changes in the FTIR spectra showed the destruction of the dye and the formation of new compounds. The oxidation mechanism was divided into two reaction pathways. The mineralisation of Brilliant Green was up to 80% in 60 min, as determined by total organic carbon analysis.

  16. Integrating ventilation monitoring sensor data with ventilation computer simulation software at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruckman, R.; Prosser, B. [Mine Ventilation Services Inc., Clovis, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described an on-going ventilation study at an underground nuclear waste repository located in a bedded salt deposit in New Mexico. Underground airflow, differential pressure, primary fan information, and psychometric monitors were integrated into a ventilation model for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPPVENT ventilation software is based on the commercially available package VnetPC developed by Mine Ventilation Services Inc. The ventilation system at WIPP has been tested and balanced since 1988. The work has involved re-engineering some of the ventilation system components in order to mitigate the effects of natural ventilation pressures. Ventilation monitoring system were also installed and remote control of the main underground regulators was achieved. Modifications were also made to the VnetPC ventilation software package to allow for continuous real-time updated ventilation models from the field measurement stations. This paper described the modifications to incorporate the real-time sensor data into the WIPPVENT program. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  17. [Establishment of optimal conditions at laboratory and pilot plant levels for the preparation of a protein isolated from Lupinus mutabilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Pacheco, T; Aliaga, T; Schoeneberger, H; Gross, R

    1981-12-01

    Laboratory conditions were first investigated to determine are optimum processing parameters for the preparation of a protein isolate from the ground, defatted, commercial flakes of Lupinus mutabilis. The extraction variables were: pH (2-10); solvent to lupine ratio (5:1 to 40:1); temperature (28 degrees C - 60 degrees C) and time (10-50 min). The isoelectric point of the lupine protein was found to be pH 4.5 with a protein solubility higher than 80% above pH 8.0. Using 70-100 mesh, ground defatted flakes, and extracting at pH 8.7 for 60 min, a protein isolate was obtained on acidification to pH 4.5 which was 99.8 protein (dry basis), compared to 55.25% protein for the original material. This protein isolate represented 32% of the initial material and 57.6% of the initial nitrogen. When making pilot plant assays we found that the yield of protein isolate decreased to 20.4% of the original material and 36.4% of the initial nitrogen. The protein efficiency ratio for the protein isolate was 2.15 when supplemented with methionine, and had a digestibility of 89.33

  18. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N

    2015-01-01

    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants.

  19. Mechanisms governing the direct removal of wastes from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository caused by exploratory drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, J.W. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid (mud); a quantitative computational model based upon the flow characteristics of the drilling fluid (laminar or turbulent) and other drilling parameters is developed and example results shown. The second mechanism concerns the motion of the waste and borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Some of the available literature concerning this process is discussed, and a number of elastic and elastic-plastic finite-difference and finite-element calculations are described that confirm the potential importance of this process in directly removing wastes from the repository to the ground surface. Based upon the amount of analysis performed to date, it is concluded that it is not unreasonable to expect that volumes of waste several times greater than that resulting from direct cutting of a gauge borehole could eventually reach the ground surface. No definitive quantitative model for waste removal as a result of the second mechanism is presented; it is concluded that decomposed waste constitutive data must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess further the full significance of this latter mechanism.

  20. DRSPALL: Impact of the Modification of the Numerical Spallings Model on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis [Stoller Newport News Nuclear, Inc., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Carlsbad, NM (United States); Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Carlsbad, NM (United States); Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Carlsbad, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, Amy P. [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered as documented in Software Problem Report (SPR) 13-001. The modifications to DRSPALL to correct the finite difference equations are detailed, and verification and validation testing has been completed for the modified DRSPALL code. The complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of spallings releases obtained using the modified DRSPALL is higher compared to that found in previous WIPP performance assessment (PA) calculations. Compared to previous PAs, there was an increase in the number of vectors that result in a nonzero spallings volume, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases. The overall mean CCDFs for total releases using the modified DRSPALL are virtually unchanged, thus the modification to DRSPALL did not impact WIPP PA calculation results.

  1. Hydrogeochemical studies of the Rustler Formation and related rocks in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Area, Southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.D.; Lambert, S.J.; Robinson, K.L. (eds.)

    1991-08-01

    Chemical, mineralogical, isotopic, and hydrological studies of the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation and related rocks are used to delineate hydrochemical facies and form the basis for a conceptual model for post-Pleistocene groundwater flow and chemical evolution. Modern flow within the Culebra in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area appears to be largely north-to-south; however, these flow directions under confined conditions are not consistent with the salinity distribution in the region surrounding the WIPP Site. Isotopic, mineralogical, and hydrological data suggest that vertical recharge to the Culebra in the WIPP area and to the immediate east and south has not occurred for several thousand years. Eastward increasing {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios suggest recharge from a near-surface Pleistocene infiltration zone flowing from the west-northwest and imply a change in flow direction in the last 30,000 to 12,000 years. 49 refs., 34 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. From laboratory to pilot plant: the solid-state process development of a highly potent cathepsin S/K inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feth, Martin Philipp; Heyse, Winfried; Baumgartner, Bruno; Nagel, Norbert; Tappertzhofen, Christoph; Olpp, Thomas; Jurascheck, Jörg; Ulrich, Joachim; Helmdach, Lydia; Petzoldt, Christine

    2013-04-01

    The solid-state development for the low dose drug molecule SAR114137, a selective and reversible inhibitor of cysteine cathepsin S/K, is reported. Six polymorphic forms as well as various solvate phases were discovered by an extensive polymorphism screening. The solid phase characterizations revealed that phase 1, from which a single crystal structure could be obtained, is the thermodynamically most stable form and therefore it was chosen for pharmaceutical development. The successful scale-up from development laboratory into pilot plant for the crystallization and drying processes is presented. Testing of different drying techniques, like agitated drying in conical or filter dryers as well as spray drying, proved them to be very promising alternatives to the conventional tray drying process and might be used during the industrialization phase of the project. The use of online analytical tools (e.g., Raman spectroscopy) for a better process understanding and as tools for process optimization is shown. Furthermore, wet milling by ultrasound was performed on laboratory scale and discussed as potential option to reach the desired particle size distribution necessary for a good content uniformity of the API in an oral formulation.

  3. Performance characteristics of pilot plant dense media hydrocyclone for beneficiation of coal and 3-D CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, P.D.; Kumar, V.; Sripriya, R.; Chakraborty, S.; Meikap, B.C. [University of Kwazulu Natal, Durban (South Africa). School of Chemical Engineering

    2010-08-15

    Dense-medium separators have proven to be the most efficient processes for removing the undesirable material from run-of-mine coal. The application of high-pressure feed injection into dense-medium cyclones to provide an elevated centrifugal force has recently been found to allow efficient separation performances for the treatment of fine coal (i.e., < 1000 {mu} m). However, high-pressure injection requires specialized pumps and results in relatively high maintenance requirements. The current study involves experimental investigation of separation performance characteristics of the dense media hydrocyclone (DMC). A pilot plant DMC has been designed and fabricated for performance characterization. Experiments have been conducted on 300 mm dense medium cyclone treating coal in the size range of -6 to +2 mm using magnetite as the medium under operating conditions. The operating variable was the specific gravity of the medium, feed inlet pressure and feed inlet flow rate. The ash contents of the feed coal reporting to the overflow and underflow have been analyzed qualitatively. The result indicates that the use of magnetite as dense medium in DMC resulted in the yield of clean coal, which is 5% more when the air core is suppressed as compared to the same conditions when the air core remains. A 3-D geometry is created in Gambit to support the experimental findings by using CFD simulation. It is interesting to observe that experimental findings agree well with the simulation results.

  4. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lattier, C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

  5. A highly thermoactive and salt-tolerant α-amylase isolated from a pilot-plant biogas reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Dina; Sorger, Anneke; Sahm, Kerstin; Antranikian, Garabed

    2013-04-01

    Aiming at the isolation of novel enzymes from previously uncultured thermophilic microorganisms, a metagenome library was constructed from DNA isolated from a pilot-plant biogas reactor operating at 55 °C. The library was screened for starch-degrading enzymes, and one active clone was found. An open reading frame of 1,461 bp encoding an α-amylase from an uncultured organism was identified. The amy13A gene was cloned in Escherichia coli, resulting in high-level expression of the recombinant amylase. The novel enzyme Amy13A showed the highest sequence identity (75%) to α-amylases from Petrotoga mobilis and Halothermothrix orenii. Amy13A is highly thermoactive, exhibiting optimal activity at 80 °C, and it is also highly salt-tolerant, being active in 25% (w/v) NaCl. Amy13A is one of the few enzymes that tolerate high concentrations of salt and elevated temperatures, making it a potential candidate for starch processing under extreme conditions.

  6. Anthocyanin and flavonoid production from Perilla frutescens: pilot plant scale processing including cross-flow microfiltration and reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Linghua; Lozano, Yves; Bombarda, Isabelle; Gaydou, Emile; Li, Bin

    2006-06-14

    Extraction and concentration at a pilot plant scale of anthocyanins and flavonoids from Perilla frutescens var. frutescens harvested in the Guangzhou area of China were investigated. The study of extraction efficiency using mineral acids and organic acids showed that 0.01 mol/L nitric acid was the most suitable to extract flavonoids from this slightly red leaf cultivar. The red extract contained 12 mg/L (as cyanidin equivalent) anthocyanins and other flavones. The multistep process included cross-flow microfiltration (CFM) with a ceramic type membrane, reverse osmosis (RO), and rotating evaporation (RE). The filtration fluxes were high and constant for CFM (150 L/h/m2 at 0.6 b) and for RO (22 L/h/m2 at 40 b). The red extract was concentrated 9.4 times by RO and then 5.4 times by RE. It contained 422 mg/L anthocyanins, representing 77% of the total extracted anthocyanin. The proportion of flavonoids was found unchanged during processing. The concentrated extract showed a pH of 2.7, and its free acidity was found to be 46% of the acidity added for extraction, because of the buffering capacity of the extract. At the concentration level reached, a crystallized deposit occurred and was identified as tartrate.

  7. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V

    2010-01-01

    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials.

  8. Variable-density ground-water flow and paleohydrology in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) region, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Variable-density groundwater flow was studied near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico. An analysis of the relative magnitude of pressure-related and density-related flow-driving forces indicates that density-related gravity effects are not significant at the plant and to the west but are significant in areas to the north, northeast, and south. A regional-scale model of variable-density groundwater flow in the Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation indicates that the flow velocities are relatively rapid (10 to the minus 7th power m/sec) west of the site and extremely slow (10 to the minus 11th power m/sec) east and northeast of the site. In the transition zone between those two extremes, which includes the plant, velocities are highly variable. Sensitivity simulations indicate that the central and western parts of the region, including the plant, are fairly well isolated from the eastern and northeastern boundaries. Vertical-flux simulations indicate that as much as 25% of total inflow to the Culebra could be entering as vertical flow, with most of this flow occurring west of the plant. A simple cross-sectional model was developed to examine the flow system as it drains through time following recharge during a past glacial pluvial. This model indicates that the system as a whole drains very slowly and that it apparently could have sustained flow from purely transient drainage following recharge of the system during the Pleistocene. (USGS)

  9. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for gas and brine migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, May 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Bean, J.E. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W.; Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schreiber, J.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, P.N. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis, stepwise regression analysis and examination of scatterplots are used in conjunction with the BRAGFLO model to examine two phase flow (i.e., gas and brine) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. The analyses consider either a single waste panel or the entire repository in conjunction with the following cases: (1) fully consolidated shaft, (2) system of shaft seals with panel seals, and (3) single shaft seal without panel seals. The purpose of this analysis is to develop insights on factors that are potentially important in showing compliance with applicable regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (i.e., 40 CFR 191, Subpart B; 40 CFR 268). The primary topics investigated are (1) gas production due to corrosion of steel, (2) gas production due to microbial degradation of cellulosics, (3) gas migration into anhydrite marker beds in the Salado Formation, (4) gas migration through a system of shaft seals to overlying strata, and (5) gas migration through a single shaft seal to overlying strata. Important variables identified in the analyses include initial brine saturation of the waste, stoichiometric terms for corrosion of steel and microbial degradation of cellulosics, gas barrier pressure in the anhydrite marker beds, shaft seal permeability, and panel seal permeability.

  10. Characterization of an electrochemical pilot-plant filter-press reactor by hydrodynamic and mass transport studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J.; Frias, A.; Exposito, E.; Montiel, V.; Aldaz, A.; Conesa, J.A.

    2000-05-01

    This work deals with the study of the influence of turbulence promoters in the hydrodynamic and mass transport behavior of a pilot-plant filter-press electrolyzer (a homemade UA200.08 with a 200 cm{sup 2} electrode area) in an undivided configuration. A simple experimental arrangement was used to generate data from electrolytic conductivity measurements in a series of impulse-response experiments. The presence and type of turbulence promoters influence the flow distribution inside the reactor. A new design of a model (presented in a previous work) has been used to analyze the residence time distributions. In this study a new parameter, the turbulence factor, given as N{sub {alpha}}{Phi}{sub {beta}}, was employed to classify the turbulence promoters. The optimization of the parameters indicates that the correct model is dispersed plug-flow behavior with a low axial dispersion that considers exchange between the dead and main zones of the reactor. It is also very interesting to highlight that the information obtained by means of the turbulence factors is similar to that obtained from the values of the mass transport coefficients measured using the limiting current technique.

  11. The use of expert elicitation to quantify uncertainty in incomplete sorption data bases for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Trauth, K.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Hora, S.C. (Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Iterative, annual performance-assessment calculations are being performed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a planned underground repository in southeastern New Mexico, USA for the disposal of transuranic waste. The performance-assessment calculations estimate the long-term radionuclide releases from the disposal system to the accessible environment. Because direct experimental data in some areas are presently of insufficient quantity to form the basis for the required distributions. Expert judgment was used to estimate the concentrations of specific radionuclides in a brine exiting a repository room or drift as it migrates up an intruding borehole, and also the distribution coefficients that describe the retardation of radionuclides in the overlying Culebra Dolomite. The variables representing these concentrations and coefficients have been shown by 1990 sensitivity analyses to be among the set of parameters making the greatest contribution to the uncertainty in WIPP performance-assessment predictions. Utilizing available information, the experts (one expert panel addressed concentrations and a second panel addressed retardation) developed an understanding of the problem and were formally elicited to obtain probability distributions that characterize the uncertainty in fixed, but unknown, quantities. The probability distributions developed by the experts are being incorporated into the 1991 performance-assessment calculations. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Seismic Response of a Deep Underground Geologic Repository for Nuclear Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, P.E.

    1998-11-02

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground nuclear waste repository certified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ,(EPA) to store transuranic defense-related waste contaminated by small amounts of radioactive materials. Located at a depth of about 655 meters below the surface, the facility is sited in southeastern New Mexico, about 40 Department of Energy underground facilities, waste disposal. kilometers east of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The U.S. (DOE) managed the design and construction of the surface and and remains responsible for operation and closure following The managing and operating contractor for the DOE at the WIPP, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, maintains two rechmiant seismic monitoring systems located at the surface and in the underground. This report discusses two earthquakes detected by the seismic monitoring system, one a duratior magnitude 5.0 (Md) event located approximately 60 km east-southeast of the facility, and another a body-wave magnitude 5.6 (rob) event that occurred approximately 260 kilometers to the south-southeast.

  13. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lattier, C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

  14. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of a full scale pilot plant; Erhoehte biologische Phosphatelimination - Betriebsergebnisse einer grosstechnischen Versuchsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, P. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich 14 - Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Bendzuck, C. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich 14 - Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    1996-01-01

    Within a research project one line of Kassel`s wastewater treatment plant has been rebuilt to a large scale pilot plant run with the MUCT process configuration. Different investigations with variation of inflow size, trend of inflow over time and wastewater temperature have been done. The relation between the efficiency of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and the hydraulic loading is shown in some examples. Over all, the EBPR increases with the wastewater temperature, with the available organic carbon in the inflow and with decreasing fluctuation in the trend of inflow over time. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines Forschungsvorhabens wurde ein Teil der biologischen Stufe der Kasseler Klaeranlage zur erhoehten biologischen Phosphatelimination nach dem MUCT-Verfahren umgebaut. Es wurden Versuche bei konstanter und periodisch schwankender hydraulischer Belastung sowie bei unterschiedlichen Abwassertemperaturen durchgefuehrt. Untersucht wurde die Abhaengigkeit der biologischen Phosphatelimination von verschiedenen Belastungssituationen und die Phosphorumsaetze innerhalb der Belebung sowohl in zeitlicher als auch in oertlicher Abhaengigkeit. Die Wiederholung bestimmter Versuchsphasen bei verschiedenen Abwassertemperaturen liess Rueckschluesse auf die Temperaturabhaengigkeit der biologischen Phosphatelimination zu. Der Wirkungsgrad der biologischen Phosphatelimination steigt mit der Temperatur, dem Angebot an organischem Kohlenstoff in der anaeroben Zone und mit zunehmender Vergleichmaessigung der hydraulischen Belastung. (orig.)

  15. Thermal conductivity of rocksalt and other geologic materials from the site of the proposed waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, J.N.; McCreight, J.E.

    1980-03-19

    The measurements first reported by Acton on the thermal conductivity of samples taken from a borehole at the site of the proposed nuclear waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM, have been extended to include additional samples and higher temperature measurements. Samples for measurements were taken from several depths of three wells, including the well AEC 8 from which Acton obtained his samples. These samples ranged from relatively pure rocksalt (NaCl) with small amounts of interstitial anhydrite to essentially nonsalt samples composed of gypsum or clay. The measurements in this latest series were conducted at Sandia, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), and at Dynatech Corp. In general, the data from the three laboratories agreed reasonably well for similar coarse grained translucent rock salt samples, with the LASL and Sandia results typically being about 20% higher than those of Dynatceh. On the basis of these experiments, it is concluded that the thermal conductivity of materials found at the site can be predicted to an accuracy +-30% from knowledge of the composition and grain size of these materials.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  18. Novel modular 2-DOF microsurgical forceps for transoral laser microsurgeries: Ergonomic design and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Manish; Barresi, Giacinto; Deshpande, Nikhil; Caldwell, Darwin G; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2016-08-01

    Transoral Laser Microsurgeries (TLM) demand a great level of control and precision in intraoperative tissue manipulation. The optimal eradication of the diseased tissue is possible only with coordinated control of the laser aiming for incision and the microsurgical tools for orienting and stretching the tissue. However, the traditional microsurgical tools are long, single purpose, one degree-of-freedom (DOF), rigid tools with small range of motion and a normal grasping handle inducing non-ergonomic usage. This paper presents a novel, modular microsurgical tool to overcome the challenges of the traditional tools and improve the surgeon-tool usage experience. The novel design adds a rotational DOF to expand the reach and functionality of the tool. The device is provided with an ergonomic grasping handle that avoids extreme wrist excursions and is capable of adapting to the variety of tools used in TLM within the same design. The performance of the new microsurgical tool was evaluated through a subjective assessment with both medical students and expert surgeons. The evaluation demonstrated a general acceptance of the new forceps tool, with the expert surgeons providing positive appraisals for the improved functionality and user experience with the tool, which indicates towards the potential suitability of the device for TLM. The parameters assessed in the preliminary evaluation not only provide a sense of the advantages of the novel design, but also guide future evolution of the tool design.

  19. A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively.

  20. Results from trialling aqueous NH{sub 3} based post combustion capture in a pilot plant at Munmorah power station. Desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hai; Morgan, Scott; Allport, Andrew; Cottrell, Aaron; Do, Thong; McGregor, James; Wardhaugh, Leigh; Feron, Paul [CSIRO Energy Centre, Mayfield West, NSW (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) and Delta Electricity have tested an aqueous ammonia based post combustion capture (PCC) process in a pilot plant at Munmorah black coal fired power station. This paper presents and discusses the experimental results obtained and primarily focuses on the desorption section. A high purity of CO{sub 2} product was obtained at the stripper gas outlet with the CO{sub 2} volumetric concentration generally between 99-100% and the remainder being water and NH{sub 3}. An increase in stripper pressure/temperature can lead to a decrease in NH{sub 3} concentration in the CO{sub 2} product. The NH{sub 3} concentration can be controlled within 200 ppm without wash at a stripper pressure of 850 kPa (the maximum pressure tested) at a stripper gas outlet temperatures of 20-25 C. The solid precipitation occurred in the stripper condenser and reflux lines. Due to the low ammonia content in the solution, CO{sub 2} content in the solution was low and generally more than 50% of regeneration energy was used to heat up the solvent under the pilot plant conditions. The lowest regeneration energy obtained from the pilot plant trials is 4-4.2 MJ/kg CO{sub 2} captured. The effect of various parameters including solvent flow-rate and stripper temperature/pressure in the solvent on the regeneration energy was investigated.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of tin plating for extracoronal restorations: evaluation of marginal quality and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, M F; Rosenstiel, S F

    1998-01-01

    The influence of tin plating on marginal seating and retention of complete cast crowns was evaluated. Thirty-six standardized gold-alloy complete crowns were made on extracted human molar teeth prepared with a modified milling machine using conventional laboratory techniques. The crowns were randomly assigned to two groups according to the treatment of the fitting surface (air abraded with 50-micron aluminum oxide for 10 seconds, or tin plated with a microtin system for 3 seconds), and luted with adhesive resin cement (Panavia-EX, J. Morita). Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the variables for the cast alloy. Retention was measured with an instron testing machine after thermocycling (1,500 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with 1 minute dwell times). Marginal adaptation was measured with a Nikon microscope before and after cementation. Results were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and Student's t test. Retention was significantly different (P tin-plated crowns. Differences for marginal seating were not statistically significant. Tin plating after air abrasion was found to be a predictable and simple technique to roughen the casting surface, increase the surface area for bonding, and significantly improve the retention of cast crowns in vivo.

  2. Evaluation of engineering foods for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of developing acceptable and reliable engineered foods for use in controlled ecological support systems (CELSS) was evaluated. Food resupply and regeneration are calculated, flow charts of food processes in a multipurpose food pilot plant are presented, and equipment for a multipurpose food pilot plant and potential simplification of processes are discussed. Food-waste treatment and water usage in food processing and preparation are also considered.

  3. Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Kilgus, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although intuitively appealing, teacher self-report of treatment integrity is not currently recommended as a method for collecting treatment integrity data. Education researchers have not, however, evaluated features of a treatment integrity self-reporting system that may facilitate accurate self-report. In this preliminary investigation, four…

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Packing Materials for Flight Medication Dispenser (FMD) Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, B.; Daniels, V.; Crady, C.; Putcha, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews preliminary results of the program to evaluate Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) packaging materials for pharmaceutical stability. The need for improved packaging is due to possible changes in chemical and/or physical properties of the drugs, which cause reported reduced potency and/or altered bioavailability and decreased efficacy.

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  7. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Susan C; Grefsheim, Suzanne F; Rankin, Jocelyn A

    2008-06-01

    The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme, including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. RESULTS / OUTCOMES: NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favourable response to the programme.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the use of a CDMA-based emergency telemedicine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jaemin; Chun, Honggu; Shin, Il Hyung; Shin, Sang Do; Suh, Gil Joon; Kim, Hee Chan

    2006-01-01

    We have conducted a preliminary evaluation of the use of a code division multiple access (CDMA)-based emergency telemedicine system to be used by emergency rescuers providing first-aid treatment for patients. The prototype system included five instrumentation modules for measuring non-invasive arterial blood pressure (NIBP), arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), six-channel electrocardiogram (ECG), blood glucose concentration and body temperature. The patient data were transferred to a doctor's PC through CDMA and TCP/IP networks using an embedded personal digital assistant (PDA) phone. Performance tests in the laboratory showed that the system provided reliable values with error ranges within +/-1% for heart rate, +/-5 mmHg for NIBP, +/-2% for SpO(2) and +/-1% for glucose. The feasibility of the prototype system was then evaluated with 15 real emergency patients on Jeju Island over a two-month period. Measured data were transmitted from a moving ambulance to the emergency medical centre without significant CDMA connection loss or transmission errors. The average transfer time was 8 min. Four emergency doctors and 11 rescuers completed a questionnaire. There were favourable reviews from the users.

  9. Outcome measures to evaluate new technology for tonsillectomy: preliminary experience with Coblation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Udayan K.; Puchalski, Robert; Briggs, Marianne; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Galinkin, Jeffrey

    2001-05-01

    Evaluating the benefits of new surgical technologies does not end with the observation of successful instrument-to- tissue interaction. The impact of new technologies in medicine today is also gauged by improvements in patients' daily activities and performance. We present our outcomes assessment tool for judging the value of applying a novel tonsillectomy technique, plasma- mediated ablation using Coblation technology. Plasma- mediated ablation (PMA) achieves soft tissue resection in the oropharynx by energizing protons to break bonds. Less heat is released, allowing for less thermal injury, and possibly less pain, than with tonsillectomy performed using electrocautery alone. Children undergoing tonsillectomy by PMA, were evaluated using our outcomes-based scale, which asked families to report the degree of interruption of normal activities for the patient and their family during the post-tonsillectomy recovery period. A preliminary review of several outcomes assessments exemplify the benefits and limitations of this tool. The tracking of valuable data is weighed against the limitations of a short time course relative to the duration of disability, and a poor response rate. Future work aims to improve this data collection tool to allow application to other new technologies in otolaryngology.

  10. Pineapple juice as a negative oral contrast agent in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, R D; Khonsari, M; Jeffries, J; Maskell, G F; Cook, P G

    2004-12-01

    The quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images is frequently degraded by high signal from the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study is to evaluate pineapple juice (PJ) as an oral negative contrast agent in MRCP. Preliminary in vitro evaluation demonstrated that PJ shortened T(2) relaxation time and hence decreased T(2) signal intensity on a standard MRCP sequence to a similar degree to a commercially available negative contrast agent (ferumoxsil). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry assay demonstrated a high manganese concentration in PJ of 2.76 mg dl(-1), which is likely to be responsible for its T(2) imaging properties. MRCP was subsequently performed in 10 healthy volunteers, before and at 15 min and 30 min following ingestion of 400 ml of PJ. Images were assessed blindly by two Consultant Radiologists using a standard grading technique based on contrast effect (degree of suppression of bowel signal), and image effect (diagnostic quality). There were statistically significant improvements in contrast and image effect between pre and post PJ images. There was particularly significant improvement in visualization of the pancreatic duct, but no significant difference between 15 min and 30 min post PJ images. Visualization of the ampulla, common bile duct, common hepatic and central intrahepatic ducts were also significantly improved at 15 min following PJ. Our results demonstrate that PJ, may be used as an alternative to commercially available negative oral contrast agent in MRCP.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the profitability indexes of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    The Laguna Verde nuclear power plant of the Federal Commission of Electricity has an installed capacity of 1,350 MW and unit 1 started commercial operation in 1990 and unit 2 in 1995. This paper is a synthesis of the results of a preliminary evaluation of the expected profitability indexes of the power plant during an economic lifetime of 40 years. The following data was used as input to the evaluation model prescribed by the Finance and Public Credit Secretary for public investment projects. Unit investment cost: 3,500 US D/k W; Fixed operation and maintenance cost: 54.{sup 45} US D/year-k W; Variable operation and maintenance cost: 0.{sup 38} US D/M Wh; Nuclear fuel cycle cost: 10.{sup 28} US D/M Wh; Lifetime capacity factor: 85%; Discount rate: 12.0% per year; Sale price of electricity to the interconnected electric system: 80.{sup 75} US D/M Wh. The output of the evaluation model is the following: Cost of electricity generated: 60.{sup 2}1 US D/M Wh; fixed cost 49.{sup 55} US D/M Wh; variable cost 10.{sup 66} US D/M Wh; Internal rate of return (Irr): 18.0%; Benefit to cost quotient (B/C): 1.341. A very systematic sensitivity analysis was done, that shows that the cost is very sensitive to the capacity factor and to the investment cost, but is very insensitive to the fixed operation and maintenance cost and to the nuclear fuel cost. Finally, a comparison was made to the evaluation of the profitability indexes of a natural gas fired combined cycle power plant. (Author)

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company's Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems.

  13. The Second Opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant? Review of Salient Characteristics and Unique Operational Considerations for Remote Handled Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G.; Walker, B.A.

    2003-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to dispose of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) beginning in 2005. (1) Four principle regulatory agencies are involved in the process of approving the RH TRU waste activities. The DOE is responsible for operational activities. The U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approves the design and use of shipping containers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for assuring safe and environmentally effective long-term disposal of the radioactive component of the waste and operational environmental monitoring. The New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) is responsible for the handling and the disposal of the non-radioactive hazardous component of the waste. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is responsible for performing independent technical oversight of all WIPP activities, and will comment on documents and practices for the various regulated RH TRU waste activities. The DOE has already obtained the necessary approvals from the NRC, and has submitted a Class 3 Modification request to the NMED. On December 16, 2002 the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) provided the EPA with a notice of proposed change, in accordance with 40 CFR 194.4 (b) (3), to receive and dispose of remote handled transuranic waste. (2) WIPP procedures for the management of RH TRU waste at the site are being developed. While there are no issues with current NRC Certificates of Compliance for the RH TRU waste shipping containers, it is likely that there will be some controversy over other aspects of the currently planned RH TRU waste program. These issues may include: (1) the published RH TRU waste inventory, (2) the characterization of the radionuclide portion of the waste, for which one planned method is to use dose-to-Curie conversions, and (3) the plans to use bounding estimates for the hazardous portion of the WIPP waste, rather than measuring VOCs on a container

  14. The waste isolation pilot plant. Permanent isolation of defense transuranic waste in deep geologic salt. A national solution and international model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Jose; Van Luik, Abraham [US Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Carlsbad Field Office

    2015-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is located about 42 kilometers from the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. It is an operating deep geologic repository in bedded salt 657 meters below the surface of the Chihuahuan desert. Since its opening in March of 1999, it has received about 12,000 shipments totaling about 91,000 cubic meters of defense related transuranic (TRU) wastes. Twenty-two sites have been cleaned up of their defense-legacy TRU waste. The WIPP's shipping program has an untarnished safety record and its trucks and trailers have safely traveled the equivalent of about 60 round-trips to the Moon. WIPP received, and deserved, a variety of safety accolades over its nearly 15 year working life. In February of 2014, however, two incidents resulted in a major operational suspension and reevaluation of its safety systems, processes and equipment. The first incident was an underground mining truck fire, followed nine days later by an airborne radiation release incident. Accident Investigation Board (AIB) reports on both incidents point to failures of plans, procedures and persons. The AIB recommendations for recovery from both these incidents are numerous and are being carefully implemented. One major recommendation is to no longer have different maintenance and safety requirements for nuclear handling equipment and mining equipment. Maintenance and cleanliness of mining equipment was cited as a contributing cause to the underground fire, and the idea that there can be lesser rigor in taking care of mining equipment, when it is being operated in the same underground space as the waste handling equipment, is not tenable. At some point in the future, the changes made in response to these two incidents will be seen as a valuable lesson learned on behalf of future repository programs. WIPP will once again be seen as a ''pilot'' in the nautical sense, in terms of 'showing the way' - the way to a national and international radioactive waste

  15. The magnitude and relevance of the February 2014 radiation release from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository in New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM, 88220 (United States); Lemons, B.G.; White, C.R. [AECOM, Carlsbad Operations, Carlsbad, NM, 88220 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    After almost fifteen years of successful waste disposal operations, the first unambiguous airborne radiation release from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was detected beyond the site boundary on February 14, 2014. It was the first accident of its kind in the 15-year operating history of the WIPP. The accident released moderate levels of radioactivity into the underground air. A small but measurable amount of radioactivity also escaped to the surface through the ventilation system and was detected above ground. The dominant radionuclides released were americium and plutonium, in a ratio consistent with the known content of a breached drum. The radiation release was caused by a runaway chemical reaction inside a transuranic (TRU) waste drum which experienced a seal and lid failure, spewing radioactive materials into the repository. According to source-term estimation, approximately 2 to 10 Ci of radioactivity was released from the breached drum into the underground, and an undetermined fraction of that source term became airborne, setting off an alarm and triggering the closure of seals designed to force exhausting air through a system of filters including high-efficiency-particulate-air (HEPA) filters. Air monitoring across the WIPP site intensified following the first reports of radiation detection underground to determine the extent of impact to WIPP personnel, the public, and the environment, if any. This article attempts to compile and interpret analytical data collected by an independent monitoring program conducted by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) and by a compliance-monitoring program conducted by the WIPP's management and operating contractor, the Nuclear Waste Partnership (NWP), LLC., in response to the accident. Both the independent and the WIPP monitoring efforts concluded that the levels detected were very low and localized, and no radiation-related health effects among local workers or the public would be

  16. Preliminary evaluation of a microtransesophageal probe in neonates and young infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Pavithran

    2014-01-01

    On preliminary evaluation, the microTEE probe provided good quality images in very small infants who were not amenable for transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation so far. The probe could be used safely in small infants without complications. It appears to be a promising imaging modality in the perioperative assessment of young infants undergoing cardiac surgery, in whom intraoperative epicardial echocardiography is currently the only tool.

  17. Grid-connected ICES: preliminary feasibility analysis and evaluation. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    The HEAL Complex in New Orleans will serve as a Demonstration Community for which the ICES Demonstration System will be designed. The complex is a group of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and medical educational facilities. The five tasks reported on are: preliminary energy analysis; preliminary institutional assessment; conceptual design; firming-up of commitments; and detailed work management plan.

  18. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Culebra dolomite near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, M.D.; Anderholm, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, a thin (10 m) fractured dolomite aquifer, lies approximately 450 m above the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, USA. Salinities of water in the Culebra range roughly from 10,000 to 200,000 mg/L within the WIPP site. A proposed model for the post-Pleistocene hydrochemical evolution of the Culebra tentatively identifies the major sources and sinks for many of the groundwater solutes. Reaction-path simulations with the PHRQPITZ code suggest that the Culebra dolomite is a partial chemical equilibrium system whose composition is controlled by an irreversible process (dissolution of evaporites) and equilibrium with gypsum and calcite. Net geochemical reactions along postulated modern flow paths, calculated with the NETPATH code, include dissolution of halite, carbonate and evaporite salts, and ion exchange. R-mode principal component analysis revealed correlations among the concentrations of Si, Mg, pH, Li, and B that are consistent with several clay-water reactions. The results of the geochemical calculations and mineralogical data are consistent with the following hydrochemical model: 1. (1) solutes are added to the Culebra by dissolution of evaporite minerals 2. (2) the solubilities of gypsum and calcite increase as the salinity increases; these minerals dissolve as chemical equilibrium is maintained between them and the groundwater 3. (3) equilibrium is not maintained between the waters and dolomite; sufficient Mg is added to the waters by dissolution of accessory carnallite or polyhalite such that the degree of dolomite supersaturation increases with ionic strength 4. (4) clays within the fractures and rock matrix exert some control on the distribution of Li, B, Mg, and Si via sorption, ion exchange, and dissolution. ?? 1994.

  19. Chemical, biomedical and ecological studies of SRC-I materials from the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlum, D.D. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    This document discusses studies performed with solvent refined coal (SRC) materials obtained from the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant during operation in the SRC-I mode. The development of analytical methodology is presented as well as results obtained from the application of these methods to light oil (LO), wash solvent (WS) and process solvent (PS). Results of cellular and animal studies with LO, WS and PS are included, along with a description of methods for the generation and characterization of LO and PS aerosols, and for exposing rats, mice and guinea pigs to these aerosols. The effects of SRC-I product on seed germination and plant growth which have also been studied are discussed. The SRC-I product, feed coal and the mineral residue have been analyzed for organic and inorganic constituents. The higher-boiling-point material, PS, exhibited significant mutagenic activity in the Ames assay; LO and WS were inactive. Process solvent also caused transformation of cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells. Additional chemical fractionation studies suggest that primary aromatic amines are major determinants of the observed mutagenic activity. Skin-painting studies with SRC-II naphtha, heavy distillate, shale oil and petroleum crude indicate a good correlation between the results of the cellular assays and skin carcinogenesis in mice. Wash solvent was more toxic after oral administration to rats than was light oil or process solvent. The effects of LO, WS and PS on development were studied after administration to pregnant rats. The tissue distribution of a number of components of PS was studied after oral administration of PS to rats. The effect of SRC-I product on the germination and growth of barley was investigated by mixing or layering the product with soil and placing the mixture in a field lysimeter.

  20. WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT (WIPP): THE NATIONS' SOLUTION TO NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE AND DISPOSAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-17

    In the southeastern portion of my home state of New Mexico lies the Chihuahauan desert, where a transuranic (TRU), underground disposal site known as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) occupies 16 square miles. Full operation status began in March 1999, the year I graduated from Los Alamos High School, in Los Alamos, NM, the birthplace of the atomic bomb and one of the nation’s main TRU waste generator sites. During the time of its development and until recently, I did not have a full grasp on the role Los Alamos was playing in regards to WIPP. WIPP is used to store and dispose of TRU waste that has been generated since the 1940s because of nuclear weapons research and testing operations that have occurred in Los Alamos, NM and at other sites throughout the United States (U.S.). TRU waste consists of items that are contaminated with artificial, man-made radioactive elements that have atomic numbers greater than uranium, or are trans-uranic, on the periodic table of elements and it has longevity characteristics that may be hazardous to human health and the environment. Therefore, WIPP has underground rooms that have been carved out of 2,000 square foot thick salt formations approximately 2,150 feet underground so that the TRU waste can be isolated and disposed of. WIPP has operated safely and successfully until this year, when two unrelated events occurred in February 2014. With these events, the safety precautions and measures that have been operating at WIPP for the last 15 years are being revised and improved to ensure that other such events do not occur again.