WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary market assessment

  1. Preliminary market assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.T.; Fey, C.L.; Grogan, P.J.; Klein, N.P.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR) system market potential is presented with emphasis on the factors influencing industrial acceptability. Preliminary market potential areas are identified based on the availability of waste heat. Trends in energy use are examined to see the effect they might have on these market potential areas in the future. Focus groups interviews are used to explore important factors in the industrial decision-making process. These important factors are explored quantitatively in a survey of industrial plant engineers. The survey deals with the waste-heat boiler configuration of the FBWHR system. Results indicate market acceptance of the fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler could be quite low.

  2. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. A preliminary assessment of the market coupling arrangement on the Kontek cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the market coupling arrangement on the Kontek (KT) cable between East Denmark and Germany and an assessment of the original auction mechanism. KT, the new spot price area, was introduced in Germany on October 5, 2005 to facilitate a market coupling arrangement on the KT cable between East Denmark and Germany. We would expect the KT price to correlate more with the European Energy Exchange (EEX) price because arbitrage normally levelizes the price. However, spot prices in late 2005 were both high and volatile because congestion management practices in Sweden transferred internal bottlenecks to the cable between Sweden and East Denmark. Since spot prices were equal in East Denmark and the KT area for a substantial time, it implies that some hours had no congestion on the KT cable. Market players valued the previous monthly auctions for transmission capacity more than the daily auctions. Compared to the daily auctions, market players received smaller payoffs on average for the market coupling arrangement, and the smallest payoffs for the monthly auctions

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85: Presentation Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, Bentley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85 presentation and supplementary report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory examine how the spacing of E85 fueling stations impacts E85 retail pricing. The analysis finds an inverse correlation between station density and E85 prices, with local competition putting downward pressure on E85 prices. A gas station with E85 whose nearest competitor is within a 0.5 mile radius is associated with a lower E85 price per gallon than an otherwise identical station with E85 whose nearest competitor is farther away. The analysis also finds a higher level of correlation between E85 and both E10 and wholesale gasoline prices than with ethanol costs. This indicates that E85 may, in fact, be priced with respect to its substitute fuel, and not based on the cost of its inputs. These findings help identify key trends and barriers in E85 markets and highlight data gaps that, if addressed, could help enable competitive E85 markets. The analysis was released in February 2017 and uses national and Minnesota-specific price data.

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley Clinton

    2017-02-01

    The Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85 presentation and supplementary report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory examine how the spacing of E85 fueling stations impacts E85 retail pricing. The analysis finds an inverse correlation between station density and E85 prices, with local competition putting downward pressure on E85 prices. A gas station with E85 whose nearest competitor is within a 0.5 mile radius is associated with a lower E85 price per gallon than an otherwise identical station with E85 whose nearest competitor is farther away. The analysis also finds a higher level of correlation between E85 and both E10 and wholesale gasoline prices than with ethanol costs. This indicates that E85 may, in fact, be priced with respect to its substitute fuel, and not based on the cost of its inputs. These findings help identify key trends and barriers in E85 markets and highlight data gaps that, if addressed, could help enable competitive E85 markets. The analysis was released in February 2017 and uses national and Minnesota-specific price data.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85: Presentation Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, Bentley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests retail E85 prices may track retail gasoline prices rather than wholesale costs. This indicates E85 prices may be higher than they would be if priced on a cost basis hence limiting adoption by some price-sensitive consumers. Using publicly available and proprietary E85 and regular gasoline price data, we examine pricing behavior in the market for E85. Specifically, we assess the extent to which local retail competition in E85 markets decreases E85 retail prices. Results of econometric analysis suggest that higher levels of retail competition (measured in terms of station density) are associated with lower E85 prices at the pump. While more precise causal estimates may be produced from more comprehensive data, this study is the first to our knowledge that estimates the spatial competition dimension of E85 pricing behavior by firms. This technical report elaborates on a related presentation.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, Bentley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests retail E85 prices may track retail gasoline prices rather than wholesale costs. This indicates E85 prices may be higher than they would be if priced on a cost basis hence limiting adoption by some price-sensitive consumers. Using publicly available and proprietary E83 and regular gasoline price data, we examine pricing behavior in the market for E85. Specifically, we assess the extent to which local retail competition in E85 markets decreases E85 retail prices. Results of econometric analysis suggest that higher levels of retail competition (measured in terms of station density) are associated with lower E85 prices at the pump. While more precise causal estimates may be produced from more comprehensive data, this study is the first to our knowledge that estimates the spatial competition dimension of E85 pricing behavior by firms. This is an initial presentation; a related technical report is also available.

  8. How big is the gig? Assessing the preliminary evidence on the effects of digitalization on the labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorst, Werner; Hinte, Holger; Rinne, Ulf; Tobsch, Verena

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses the importance of digitalization in Germany and other developed countries with a particular attention to the potential or actual impact it may have on the labor market. Referring to available empirical evidence, we document the already developing transformation of occupations and forms of employment and the role of the platform economy, including the phenomenon of solo self-employment. We then derive current and future challenges for social protection and suggest some idea...

  9. HTGR market assessment: interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    The purpose of this Assessment is to establish the utility perspective on the market potential of the HTGR. The majority of issues and conclusions in this report are applicable to both the HTGR-Gas Turbine (GT) and the HTGR-Steam Cycle (SC). This phase of the HTGR Market Assessment used the HTGR-GT as the reference design as it is the present focus of the US HTGR Program. A brief system description of the HTGR-GT is included in Appendix A. This initial report provides the proposed structure for conducting the HTGR Market Assessment plus preliminary analyses to establish the magnitude and nature of key factors that affect the HTGR market. The HTGR market factors and their relationship to the present HTGR Program are discussed. This report discusses two of these factors in depth: economics and water availability. The water availability situation in the US and its impact on the potential HTGR market are described. The approach for applying the HTGR within a framework of utility systems analyses is presented

  10. Marketing Prior Learning Assessment Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeger, Gerald A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiential learning programs must be marketed effectively if they are to succeed. The formulation of market strategy is discussed including: strategic planning; identification of a market target; and development of a market mix. A commitment to marketing academic programs is seen as a commitment to self-assessment. (MW)

  11. The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa

    2003-01-01

    Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission......Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission...

  12. rf duress alarms: market survey and preliminary characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, B.L.

    1979-05-01

    This report represents the first phase of the duress alarm studies. Presented here are the results of an extensive market survey and some preliminary observations on the effectiveness of many system components

  13. TCA High Lift Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G. H.; Polito, R. C.; Yeh, D. T.; Elzey, M. E.; Tran, J. T.; Meredith, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a TCA (Technology Concept Airplane) High lift Preliminary Assessment. The topics discussed are: 1) Model Description; 2) Data Repeatability; 3) Effect of Inboard L.E. (Leading Edge) Flap Span; 4) Comparison of 14'x22' TCA-1 With NTF (National Transonic Facility) Modified Ref. H; 5) Comparison of 14'x22' and NTF Ref. H Results; 6) Effect of Outboard Sealed Slat on TCA; 7) TCA Full Scale Build-ups; 8) Full Scale L/D Comparisons; 9) TCA Full Scale; and 10) Touchdown Lift Curves. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  14. ALMR market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, P.R.; Yates, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report examines the potential market size for electrical generating capacity requirements from the year 2010 through the year 2030 in the United States. In particular, the report explores the ability of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) to be a viable generating capacity option in terms of competing economics during that period. In this study, the impact of cost sensitivities, including ALMR capital costs and fossil fuel prices, on the economic potential of the ALMR are analyzed as well

  15. From Game to Gamification: Preliminary Research of Gamification Marketing Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Yun Wu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a new understanding of the theoretical foundations of gamification and the related phenomena in the field of marketing communication. We started from redefining the concept of marketing gamification, and tried to point out the mechanisms of the phenomena by proposing theoretical basis from brand and consumer perspective separately. Finally, we tried to clarify some similar concepts, and put forward a marketing gamification model and a gamification concept map as the preliminary theoretical framework for further research in the future.

  16. Market based consumer adaptation. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saele, Hanne

    2005-04-01

    This report is a foundation for further research in the project ''Market based consumer adaptation'', project period 2005-2008. The report describes characteristics of shortage periods for both energy and effects, low priority consumption, power products and network tariffs that may contribute to increased flexibility in consumption and limitations in the IT-systems of today and discusses what problems would be of interest for further studies. The reduction of low priority consumption and the activation of price elasticity would be challenges both for effect and energy shortages. Private consumption would however, partly be different due to the time perspective. It is expected that periods of effect shortages would be of only a few hours and the challenge would be to obtain sufficient response at an hourly basis at load disconnection. The energy shortage is expected to last longer which results in problems in obtaining sufficient and real consumer reduction over time in order to reduce the danger of critical shortage. Important elements in order to supply new power products and network tariffs which contributes to increased flexibility in the consumption, are technology for current registration and remote control of consumption, contracts between the involved parties and the framework conditions that gives incentives for establishing new network/power products. When several parties shall use the same measurements for accounting it would be necessary for all the figures to arrive in time and that corrections are avoided as much as possible. It would also be challenging for the parties whether new products satisfy the regulations. Pricing in network tariffs is subject to more legal public regulations than developing a power product. This may make it difficult to produce ''correct'' network tariffs due to regulation and at the same time interest more customers to making deals with such tariffs. Even if the power suppliers to a certain extent, are more free to develop

  17. Market for small waste gasification projects - preliminary scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a market analysis for small waste gasification/pyrolysis plant in the UK. The overall objectives of the study are to assess the potential merits in establishing a demonstration plant in the UK, and to identify the size, profile and characteristics of the potential market based on municipal solid waste (MSW) feedstock. (author)

  18. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  19. Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary safety assessment of the WIPP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestri, R.J.; Torres, B.W.; Pahwa, S.B.; Brannen, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the efforts to perform a safety assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility being proposed for southeastern New Mexico. This preliminary safety assessment is limited to a consequence assessment in terms of the dose to a maximally exposed individual as a result of introducing the radionuclides into the biosphere. The extremely low doses to the organs as a result of the liquid breach scenarios are contrasted with the background radiation

  1. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  2. Preliminary melter performance assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Cooper, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.; Shafer, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design

  3. Stock Market Reaction to CEO Appointment – Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Byrka-Kita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine shareholders’ reaction to the decision of the supervisory board to appoint a CEO in companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Methodology: An event study and the mean-adjusted model were applied. The abnormal returns were measured as the CAAR in the entire (-60, + 60 window and selected sub-windows. Findings: The obtained values of abnormal returns indicate the shareholder’s negative reaction. Throughout the observation window, they oscillate slightly below zero, and in the window (0, +20 they are negative at -1.566%. Irrespective of the observation window, negative abnormal returns were obtained for over half of the observation (52–57%. Therefore, preliminary results indicate the predominance of the information effect over the real one. The decrease in market value as a result of the event may result from an increase in investors’ uncertainty as to the effects of changes in strategy and skills of the new CEO. Originality: The research is a unique one. To date, no one has carried out research into shareholders’ reaction to a CEO appointment in either the Polish or Central and Eastern European capital markets. They primarily bring the value of cognition of shareholders’ behaviour in the analysed event, which is reflected in share prices. They extend the literature on the signalization instruments, i.e. the activities that boards can undertake due to the new information transmitted to the capital market participants and stakeholders. The market reaction to a CEO appointment will without a doubt interest investors; the institutions responsible for supervision (which in the case of Poland is the Financial Oversight Commission and the legislator in charge of regulations that prevent insider trading while promoting corporate disclosure transparency.

  4. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-06-01

    This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

  5. Preliminary risk assessments of the small HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everline, C.J.; Bellis, E.A.

    1985-05-01

    Preliminary investment and safety risk assessments were performed for a preconceptual design of a four-module 250-MW(t) side-by-side steel-vessel pebble bed HTGR plant. Broad event spectra were analyzed involving component damage resulting in unscheduled plant outages and fission product releases resulting in offsite doses. The preliminary assessment indicates at this stage of the design that two categories of events govern the investment risk envelope: primary coolant leaks which release some circulating and plate-out activity that contaminates the confinement and turbogenerator damage which involves extensive turbine blade failure. Primary coolant leaks are important contributors because associated cleanup and decontamination requirements result in longer outages that arise from other events with comparable frequencies. Turbogenerator damage is the salient low-frequency investment risk accident due to the relatively long outages being experienced in the industry. Thermal transients are unimportant investment risk contributors because pressurized core heatups cause little damage, and depressurized core heatups occur at negligible frequencies relative to the forced outage goal. These preliminary results demonstrate investment and safety risk goal compliance at this stage in the design process. Studies are continuing in order to provide valuable insights into risk-significant events to assure a balanced approach to meeting user and regulatory requirements

  6. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Market reactions to the ECB's Comprehensive Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahin, Cenkhan; de Haan, Jakob

    Using an event study approach, we examine financial markets' reactions to the publication of the ECB's Comprehensive Assessment of banks in the euro area. Our results suggest that banks' stock market prices and CDS spreads generally showed no reaction. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing Competition in Philippine Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Aldaba, Rafaelita M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the current empirical literature on competition and market structure of Philippine industries. It shows that weak competition is one of the fundamental factors that explain limited growth, productivity, and employment in the economy. Philippine experience has shown that reforms such as trade liberalization, deregulation, and privatization, while necessary, are not sufficient to foster effective competition. The success of these reforms depends on the creation of a competiti...

  9. Industrial process heat market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve

  10. Industrial process heat market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve.

  11. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  12. Assessing the efficiency of US electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arciniegas, I.; Barrett, C.; Marathe, A.

    2003-01-01

    The recent California's energy crisis has raised doubts about the benefits of energy deregulation. While it is true that the California electricity market is in turmoil, other electricity markets like the Pennsylvania-NewJersey-Maryland (PJM) are doing fine. This paper assesses the mark of efficiency reached by the electricity markets in California, New York, and PJM. It also compares the degree of efficiency across markets (forward vs. real time) and across time. No significant differences between the California and PJM electricity markets were discovered in the year of California's energy crisis (2000) using the co-integration tests. This research suggests that differences in price behavior between these two markets during 2000 did not arise from differences in efficiency. According to our analysis and measures of efficiency, PJM and California electricity markets are more efficient than the New York market. Also, as these markets become more mature over time, their efficiency level goes up. We also found evidence that a multi-settlement scheduling system leads to higher efficiency. (author)

  13. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131 I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131 I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10 6 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10 7 person-rem (2 x 10 5 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  14. Preliminary geological suitability assessment for LILW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomse, P.; Mele, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the growing need for a final disposal of LILW, the final solution for the short-lived LILW is the key issue of radioactive waste management in Slovenia at the moment. ARAO - the Slovenian Agency for Radwaste Management - is intensely involved in the re-initiated site selection process for a LILW repository. In this new process we are trying to combine as best as possible the technical, geologically-led and the advocacy-site selection processes. By a combination of technical and volunteer approach to the site selection we wish to guarantee high public involvement and sufficient flexibility of the process to adapt to specific conditions or new circumstances while the project is ongoing. In the technical phase, our tendency is to retain a larger number of potential areas/sites. We also keep open the possibility of choosing the type of repository. The decision between the surface and underground option will be made only once the site has been defined. In accordance with the IAEA recommendations the site selection process is divided into four stages: the conceptual and planning stage, area survey stage, site characterisation stage and site confirmation stage. Last year the area survey stage was started. In the preliminary geological suitability assessment the required natural predisposition of Slovene territory was assessed in order to locate geologically suitable formations. The assessment of natural conditions of the system was based on consideration of the main geological, hydro-geological and seismotectonic conditions. It was performed with ARC/INFO technology. The results are compiled in a map, showing potential areas for underground and surface disposal of LILW in Slovenia. It has been established that there is a potential suitability for both surface and underground disposal on about 10 000 km 2 of the Slovenian territory, which represents almost half of the entire Slovenian territory. These preliminary results are now being carefully re-examined. As an

  15. Corporate Sponsorship in the Marketing Curriculum: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Ann; Kuzma, John

    2009-01-01

    Corporate sponsorship of sports, the arts, community events, and causes has been recognized as a marketing communications tool. Corporations and organizations have embraced sponsorship as a vital component of their marketing strategy. The use of corporate sponsorship has increased over the last twenty years and it now provides an economic impact…

  16. Preliminary Study of Potential Market for Small Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, A.; Brown, N. W.

    2008-01-01

    Small reactors are an energy supply for a specific purpose and oriented for a different market than large reactors. Small reactors will provide a local solution for developed and developing countries, such as, in remote areas, on small grids, or for non-electricity applications such as, district heating, seawater desalination and process heat. Single or medium sized power stations with small reactors should be compared with single fissile or renewable energy source and not be compared with large reactors. CRIEPI and LLNL have studied the business opportunities for small reactors. The small reactor concept is planned for initial use in small remote communities and in developing countries with small power distribution grid. Rapid installation and simple operation of the small plants is intended to support use in these communities without requiring development of a substantial nuclear technology infrastructure. In this study, two approaches were used in the assessment of the potential market. The first approach took a global look at the need for small nuclear plants. Then selected countries and sites were identified based on countries expressing interest in small reactors to the IAEA and consideration of sites in the US and Japan. (1) Tunisia, Mexico, Indonesia, Uruguay, Egypt and Argentina have demonstrated interest in nuclear power. Selecting one of these is dependent on political and socioeconomic factors, some of which have been identified, that require direct interaction with the countries to establish if they represent real opportunities. (2) The states of Hawaii and Alaska in the United States have high power cost and remote or island communities that may benefit from small nuclear plants. Alaska has shown greater interest in power alternatives including small than Hawaii and there is clearly less public resistance to nuclear power in Alaska. (3) The countries in Central America are actively expanding their power grids but have not demonstrated great interest

  17. Preliminary Assessment of a Compliant Gait Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Manuel; Sanz-Merodio, Daniel; Garcia, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Current commercial wearable gait exoskeletons contain joints with stiff actuators that cannot adapt to unpredictable environments. These actuators consume a significant amount of energy, and their stiffness may not be appropriate for safe human-machine interactions. Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented because of their ability to minimize large forces due to shocks, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Introduction of such compliant actuation in gait exoskeletons, however, has been limited by the larger power-to-weight and volume ratio requirement. This article presents a preliminary assessment of the first compliant exoskeleton for children. Compliant actuation systems developed by our research group were integrated into the ATLAS exoskeleton prototype. The resulting device is a compliant exoskeleton, the ATLAS-C prototype. The exoskeleton is coupled with a special standing frame to provide balance while allowing a semi-natural gait. Experiments show that when comparing the behavior of the joints under different stiffness conditions, the inherent compliance of the implemented actuators showed natural adaptability during the gait cycle and in regions of shock absorption. Torque tracking of the joint is achieved, identifying the areas of loading response. The implementation of a state machine in the control of knee motion allowed reutilization of the stored energy during deflection at the end of the support phase to partially propel the leg and achieve a more natural and free swing.

  18. 2010 Northwest Federal Market Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlon, Tim; Sandusky, William F.

    2011-09-01

    The primary intent of this market assessment is to provide insights on the effectiveness of current energy efficiency and renewable energy program offerings available to Federal sites in the region. The level of detail, quality and currency of the data used in this market assessment varies significantly by Federal agency and energy efficiency service provider. Limited access to some Federal sites, limited availability of key points of contact, time/resource constraints, and other considerations limited the total number of Federal agencies and energy efficiency service providers participating in the survey.

  19. Preliminary study of the heating market in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The successive deregulation of the market for electric power, in Sweden as well as abroad, results in an increased competition in generation and trade of electricity. This market that previously was known for its oligopoly in the production sector and its monopoly in the distribution sector has now been opened for competition. This study is focused on the district heating sector, because it is still comparatively unregulated, and because it partly comprises what is called natural monopolies

  20. Developing a water market readiness assessment framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Loch, Adam; Crase, Lin; Young, Mike; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2017-09-01

    Water markets are increasingly proposed as a demand-management strategy to deal with water scarcity. Water trading arrangements, on their own, are not about setting bio-physical limits to water-use. Nevertheless, water trading that mitigates scarcity constraints can assist regulators of water resources to keep water-use within limits at the lowest possible cost, and may reduce the cost of restoring water system health. While theoretically attractive, many practitioners have, at best, only a limited understanding of the practical usefulness of markets and how they might be most appropriately deployed. Using lessons learned from jurisdictions around the world where water markets have been implemented, this study attempts to fill the existing water market development gap and provide an initial framework (the water market readiness assessment (WMRA)) to describe the policy and administrative conditions/reforms necessary to enable governments/jurisdictions to develop water trading arrangements that are efficient, equitable and within sustainable limits. Our proposed framework consists of three key steps: 1) an assessment of hydrological and institutional needs; 2) a market evaluation, including assessment of development and implementation issues; and 3) the monitoring, continuous/review and assessment of future needs; with a variety of questions needing assessment at each stage. We apply the framework to three examples: regions in Australia, the United States and Spain. These applications indicate that WMRA can provide key information for water planners to consider on the usefulness of water trading processes to better manage water scarcity; but further practical applications and tests of the framework are required to fully evaluate its effectiveness.

  1. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakwani, R. M.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.; Winsor, R. E.

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  2. Value chain and marketing margins of cassava: An assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Value chain and marketing margins of cassava: An assessment of cassava marketing in ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Cassava is one of the emerging market oriented agricultural commodities with ...

  3. Preliminary nuclear power reactor technology qualitative assessment for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsul Amri Sulaiman

    2011-01-01

    Since the worlds first nuclear reactor major breakthrough in December 02, 1942, the nuclear power industry has undergone tremendous development and evolution for more than half a century. After surpassing moratorium of nuclear power plant construction caused by catastrophic accidents at Three-mile island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986), today, nuclear energy is back on the policy agendas of many countries, both developed and developing, signaling nuclear revival or nuclear renaissance. Selection of suitable nuclear power technology has thus been subjected to primary attention. This short paper attempts to draw preliminary technology assessment for the first nuclear power reactor technology for Malaysia. Methodology employed is qualitative analysis collating recent finding of tnb-kepco preliminary feasibility study for nuclear power program in peninsular malaysia and other published presentations and/or papers by multiple experts. The results suggested that pressurized water reactor (PWR) is the prevailing technology in terms of numbers and plant performances, and while the commercialization of generation IV reactors is remote (e.g. Not until 2030), generation III/ III+ NPP models are commercially available on the market today. Five (5) major steps involved in reactor technology selection were introduced with a focus on introducing important aspects of selection criteria. Three (3) categories for the of reactor technology selection were used for the cursory evaluation. The outcome of these analyses shall lead to deeper and full analyses of the recommended reactor technologies for a comprehensive feasibility study in the near future. Recommendations for reactor technology option were also provided for both strategic and technical recommendations. The paper shall also implore the best way to select systematically the first civilian nuclear power reactor. (Author)

  4. The British Columbia natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the natural gas market in British Columbia (BC) and discusses several issues facing the market. The main challenges facing the market in recent years have been rising prices, price spikes and increased price volatility. New exploration and development projects have been announced along with new gas pipeline projects that move gas to eastern markets. Industrial consumers are exploring fuel alternatives to reduce natural gas consumption. Despite these challenges, the Board believes the natural gas market in British Columbia is working well. Natural gas prices are integrated with the North American market, consumers have responded to higher prices by reducing demand, and producers have increased exploration and production. Price discovery has improved due to better pricing reporting standards and access to electronic gas trading at pricing points for BC gas. The small market size in British Columbia and the lack of storage in the Lower Mainland limit market liquidity in comparison with other major market centres. 20 figs

  5. Content Analysis of Assessment Data in Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowles, Nicole; Hutto, Alexandra; Miller, Peter Max M.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes a sample of students' writing to assess their understanding of marketing concepts in the context of a Principles of Marketing course. Content analysis of pre- and post-essays was used to assess student knowledge of marketing concepts. The data was collected in Principles of Marketing classes. and highlight that many students…

  6. Novel approach to assess local market power considering transmission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Canbing; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing; Jiang, Jianjian

    2008-01-01

    Market power (MP) assessment and mitigation affect the efficiency of the generation market. The traditional indices such as HHI and Lerner index can not express local market power, which caused by transmission constraints. Transmission constraints divide the market into some smaller parts. Some generators can abuse their MP in one part but not in the whole market. This paper describes a new approach to assess market power. The main contributions of the new method can be summarized as following. First, the concept of local market is developed, and the whole power system is divided into several local markets, as transmission congestions dividing the market. In the local markets, there are no transmission constraints so local market power does not exist. Then the local market power index (LMPI) is calculated according to market concentration, transmission constraints, and demand-supply ratio. Based on LMPI, the integrated local market power index which describes the whole picture of market can be obtained. It has been proved that the new approach can assess market power exactly, and identify the critical factor that results in market power and where generators are easy to exercise market power. The finding in this paper is helpful for market monitoring and mitigating market power. Moreover, the new index can be used to evaluate the power grid availability to generation competition and the power transmission expansion planning. (author)

  7. Preliminary environmental site assessments in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, P.; Gasson, D.R.; Longendyke, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary Environmental Site Assessments are often performed prior to real estate transactions or refinancing. These assessments are typically performed for real estate buyers, sellers and lending institutions. Undertaking a Preliminary Environmental Site Assessment in New York City can often be quite complex and time-consuming. This is due, in part, to the age and density of buildings in the city as well as the myriad of regulatory agencies with jurisdiction over environmental issues. This paper will discuss how environmental assessments are performed with a special emphasis on building in New York City. In includes hazardous wastes management for Radon, PCB's and asbestos

  8. Preliminary assessments the shortcut to remediation (category III-surplus facility assessments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byars, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the preliminary assessments for the shortcut of decontamination of surplus nuclear facilities. Topics discussed include: environment, health and safety concerns; economic considerations; reduction of transition time; preliminary characterization reports; preliminary project plan; health and safety plan; quality assurance plan; surveillance and maintenance plan; and waste management plan

  9. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, Amelia [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hampson, Anne [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  10. DEEPENING SERVICES MARKET INTEGRATION - A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest asset of the European Union is undoubtedly its internal market. However, the internal market is not completed: it suffers from a giant hole with respect to many services. The present contribution addresses the status of services in the internal market and, in particular, the horizontal liberalisation (or, the lack of it of services outside the two large sectors which greatly deepened market integration (6 modes of transport and 3 financial services markets. Because a horizontal perspective on services in the EU is still little understood, it is briefly summarized what services really are and how their regulatory logic in the internal market can help to classify them. The (strong economic case for deepening services market integration is built on recent empirical economic analysis as well as simulation. This is followed by a discussion, with flowchart, of the Bolkestein draft directive, against the backdrop of the frustrating lack of, or at best, selective progress on services for decades. A survey of economic impact studies of the draft directive is provided, too, underpinning its importance even when the infamous origin principle is taken out. Some light is subsequently shed on the tumultuous politicisation of the services debate. Emphasis is laid on the socio-economic context (which, it is submitted, sharpened the discussion at times into polarisation and a series of other factors such as the diversity of the national regulatory frameworks of services and the labour employed, the complexity of the draft directive, the potentially radical nature of the origin principle (especially for those not aware of the case law of the ECJ, the dominant role of the EP and the opportunism of leading national politicians. Finally, directive 2006/123 –meanwhile in force – is explained and briefly assessed. Apart from the conspicuous manifestation of 'Angst' in drafting the directive, the (de merits are set out. The conclusion is that a badly

  11. Preliminary identification of potential markets for off-grid electrification: tool development and a case study of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descoqs, Benoit; Bhattacharyya, Subhes

    2018-02-01

    With more than one billion people lacking access to electricity in the world, ensuring universal access to electricity by 2030 remains a major challenge which cannot be left to the government initiatives alone. Access to local information and identification of potential areas for investment can be a challenge for investors. This paper provides a tool for preliminary assessment of potential markets for off-grid electrification in developing countries and applies this to Ghana to demonstrate its applicability. A multi-criteria approach is used to rank the districts according to the overall potential and the best markets and least favourable areas for investment are identified. The tool offers flexibility to include new inputs to the analysis and the factor weights can be adjusted as appropriate. The case study shows that the tool can effectively identify potential areas from a list of candidates and offers support to analysts.

  12. A Marketing Assessment of Beneficiaries at Kimbrough Army Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    environment, organizational goal formulation, strategy formulation, Marketing Assessment 10 organization and systems design ( Kotler , 1987). Second...environmental analysis itself is concerned with identifying marketing opportunities, threats, environmental trends and their implications ( Kotler , 1987...decision to develop beneficiary subgroups was based on the marketing principle of market segmentation which assumes that no one strategy will work for

  13. Preliminary assessment of pump IST effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.; Grove, E.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary review of Inservice Testing (IST) effectiveness for Code Class 1, 2, and 3 pumps at nuclear power plants was performed. IST requirements are specified by ASME Section XI, and the Operations and Maintenance Standard (OM Part 6). The INPO NPRDS database was used to provide failure reports for these components for 1988 to 1992. This time frame coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time period, 2585 pump failures were reported. A review of these failures indicated that the majority (71.6%) were due to external leakage, and were excluded from this study since these events typically do not affect pump operability and are not detected by the measurement of IST parameters. Of the remaining 733 events, a review was performed to identify the primary failure causes, failure modes, and method of detection. Plant testing programs, consisting of IST, surveillance testing, and special testing, detected approximately 40% of these occurrences. Others were detected through operational abnormalities, routine and incidental observations, alarms, and while performing maintenance. This paper provides a discussion of the results of the study

  14. Preliminary assessment of pump IST effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.; Grove, E.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary review of inservice testing (IST) effectiveness for Class 1, 2, and 3 pumps at nuclear power plants was performed. IST requirements are specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, and the Operations and Maintenance Standard (OM Part 6). The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System was used to provide failure reports for these components from 1988 to 1992. This time frame coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time, 2,585 pump failures were reported. A review of these failures indicated that the majority (71.6%) resulted from external leakage. These events were excluded from the study because the typically do not affect pump operability and are not detected by the measurement of IST parameters. The remaining 733 events were reviewed to identify the primary failure causes, failure modes, and method of detection. Plant testing programs, consisting of IST, surveillance testing, detected approximately 40% of these occurrences. Others were detected through operational abnormalities, routine and incidental observations, alarms, and while performing maintenance. This paper discusses the results of the study

  15. Preliminary assessment of valve IST effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, E.; DiBiasio, A.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary review of inservice testing effectiveness for Code Class 1,2, and 3 valves at nuclear power plants was performed. These requirements are specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, and the Operations and Maintenance Standard. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) database was used to provide failure reports for these components for 1988 to 1992. This time period coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time period, 8,593 valve failures were identified. From the review of the NPRDS database, the primary failure causes and failure modes for motor-operated valves (MOV), air-operated valves (AOV), and check valves (CV) were identified. Solenoid-operated valves were not reviewed in this study. Plant testing programs were effective in identifying approximately 60% of the CV failures, 46% of the AOV failures, and 44% of the MOV failures

  16. The Maritimes natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The National Energy Board continually monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the functioning of the natural gas market in the Maritimes and discusses several issues facing the market. The focus of the report is on the existing markets served by the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP) in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. It also includes Prince Edward Island, another Maritime market that may be served by the pipeline before the end of the decade. Since the initiation of the Sable Offshore Energy (SOE) Project more than 3 years ago, pipeline facilities have been built off the mainline M and NP system to serve Halifax and Point Tupper in Nova Scotia, and Saint John, Moncton, and St. George in New Brunswick. Enbridge Gas New Brunswick has built distribution facilities in Fredericton and Oromocto, New Brunswick to serve large industrial, commercial and residential consumers. A distribution system has not been set up for residential or commercial customers in Nova Scotia. Approximately 20 per cent of the Scotian production is being consumed in the Maritimes, while 80 per cent of the gas produced from the SOE Project is being exported to the United States. Despite the high export, the Board is satisfied that the market is working to the benefit of Canadians because energy users in the Maritimes already have access to a variety of fuels at competitive prices. The Maritimes also benefited from the development of the natural gas industry and the export market has provided a large anchor market necessary for the development of offshore reserves. Domestic demand has also grown due to a pipeline system policy that has maintained low transportation rates to domestic users. The challenges facing the Maritimes gas market include the fact than many of the markets in the Maritimes are small, thereby reducing the economics of serving these

  17. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Farish, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This information will be

  18. An Empirical Assessment of the Relationship of Marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Empirical Assessment of the Relationship of Marketing Communication Mix and Performance of ... Marketing efficiency of a communication mix as well as analyzing the effect of using a ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of Agricultural Produce Among Women Marketers in Ogbomoso Agricultural of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  20. Differences in regulation and efficiency on the electricity market. A preliminary study in the Market Design program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergendahl, Goeran; Lindblom, Ted; Olsson, Sven-Olof; Sandoff, Anders

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a pilot study focusing on corporate governance and mechanism design issues concerning the electricity industry. With respect to the on-going deregulation, enlargement and internationalisation of electricity markets, especial emphasis is put on exploring the importance of the regulatory environment for accomplishing overall market efficiency. Throughout this preliminary study a central assumption has been that the actors on electricity markets are trying to maximise profits under conditions of uncertainty and asymmetric information. This means that transaction costs should be taken into consideration when studying and analysing the efficiency of electricity markets. Accordingly, the theoretical framework of this paper is resting largely on information theories, like 'Transaction Cost Economics', 'Agency Theory', 'Public Choice and Regulation' and 'Information Economics'. The pilot study consists of three parts. The first part is focusing on the development of a relevant theoretical framework. This part is demonstrating important pricing principles and regulatory incentives for accomplishing an efficient electricity market and, thus, a fair competition between electricity actors, i.e. power companies and other traders of electricity. In such a market design we have distinguished three cornerstones: 1. Marginal cost based electricity pricing, both for energy and capacity. 2. Long-range planning of production and transmission expansions. 3. Transparent transmission pricing and open access to all regional and local transmission grids. The following areas are examples of theoretical research issues that are of a particular interest in practice: The production and transmission of electricity is characterised by considerable economies of scale. The financing of new production and transmission capacity is, however, hard to manage with internal funding when electricity prices are based on marginal costs. What methods or (pricing) strategies

  1. Short communications A preliminary assessment of predictive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high maintenance requirements of the breeding female contribute largely to this low efficiency (Dickerson, 1978). An improvement of both biological and economical effi- ciency therefore becomes increasingly important. The assessment of efficiency requires measurement of individual feed intake, which is unpractical ...

  2. Bats roosting in public buildings: A preliminary assessment from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar has many synanthropic bat species but relatively little is known about how people interact with them. A preliminary assessment on the presence of bats in buildings and their interactions with people was conducted in the eastern town of Moramanga. Fifty of the 156 buildings were reported to contain active bat ...

  3. A Preliminary Assessment of Groundwater Samples around a Filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a preliminary assessment of groundwater samples around a filling station in Diobu area of Port Harcourt for four years at intervals of two years with a view to determine the level of groundwater pollution. It examines the physiochemical, major ions and heavy metal aspect of groundwater quality around the study ...

  4. A preliminary assessment of the chemical and microbial water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary assessment of the chemical and microbial water quality of the Chunies River - Limpopo: short communication. ... For this purpose sampling was undertaken on 25 and 26 May 2002, and a range of chemical (macro-elements, micro-elements and heavy metals) and microbial variables (HPC, total coliforms and ...

  5. A preliminary simulative assessment of disproportionality indices

    OpenAIRE

    Migheli, Matteo; Ortona, Guido; Ponzano, Ferruccio

    2009-01-01

    What do indices of disproportionality actually measure? They provide an aggregate estimation of the difference between votes cast and seats assignment, but the relation between the value of the indices and the will of the voters is highly questionable. The reason is that when casting the vote the voter is deeply affected by the electoral system itself, possibly more deeply than s/he understands. The aim of this paper is to assess the performance of the most used indices of disproportionality ...

  6. Supporting analysis and assessments quality metrics: Utility market sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In FY96, NREL was asked to coordinate all analysis tasks so that in FY97 these tasks will be part of an integrated analysis agenda that will begin to define a 5-15 year R&D roadmap and portfolio for the DOE Hydrogen Program. The purpose of the Supporting Analysis and Assessments task at NREL is to provide this coordination and conduct specific analysis tasks. One of these tasks is to prepare the Quality Metrics (QM) for the Program as part of the overall QM effort at DOE/EERE. The Hydrogen Program one of 39 program planning units conducting QM, a process begun in FY94 to assess benefits/costs of DOE/EERE programs. The purpose of QM is to inform decisionmaking during budget formulation process by describing the expected outcomes of programs during the budget request process. QM is expected to establish first step toward merit-based budget formulation and allow DOE/EERE to get {open_quotes}most bang for its (R&D) buck.{close_quotes} In FY96. NREL coordinated a QM team that prepared a preliminary QM for the utility market sector. In the electricity supply sector, the QM analysis shows hydrogen fuel cells capturing 5% (or 22 GW) of the total market of 390 GW of new capacity additions through 2020. Hydrogen consumption in the utility sector increases from 0.009 Quads in 2005 to 0.4 Quads in 2020. Hydrogen fuel cells are projected to displace over 0.6 Quads of primary energy in 2020. In future work, NREL will assess the market for decentralized, on-site generation, develop cost credits for distributed generation benefits (such as deferral of transmission and distribution investments, uninterruptible power service), cost credits for by-products such as heat and potable water, cost credits for environmental benefits (reduction of criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions), compete different fuel cell technologies against each other for market share, and begin to address economic benefits, especially employment.

  7. Preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Sumerling, T.J.; Ashton, J.

    1988-06-01

    Preliminary assessments of the post-closure radiological impact from the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow engineered facilities at four sites are presented. This provides a framework to practice and refine a methodology that could be used, on behalf of the Department, for independent assessment of any similar proposal from Nirex. Information and methodological improvements that would be required are identified. (author)

  8. Preliminary Economic Assessment of KALIMER-600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kee-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Su; Hahn, Do-Hee

    2008-01-01

    The GIF(GEN IV International Forum) established an Economic Modelling Working Group(EMWG) in 2003 to create economic models and guidelines to facilitate in a future evaluation of the Generation IV nuclear energy systems and assess progress toward the GIF economic goals. These goals are to have a life cycle cost advantage over other energy sources, and to have a level of financial risk comparable to other energy projects. To do this, EMWG has been developed the G4-ECONS model, which is a generic EXCEL-based model for computation of the projected levelized unit electricity cost and/or levelized non-electricity unit product cost from GEN IV energy systems. KALIMER-600 has been developed as a new design concept based on the KALIMER-150 design. KALIMER-600 is a unique design concept which has a potential to achieve GEN IV technology goals even though there is a room for a design improvement in order to make the KALIMER-600 more competitive with future generation reactors. The objective of this study is to the assess economics of KALIMER-600 by using the G4-ECONS model

  9. Assessing the Returns from Organic Marketing Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farmers face heightened pressure in developing a portfolio of different marketing channels and in bargaining competitively with increasingly sophisticated marketing participants in the supply chain for organic products. This research assists producers by identifying specific farm and demographic factors that enhance earnings given the choice of marketing outlet. The two significant selectivity coefficients confirm that organic earnings when marketing through a single outlet are biased...

  10. Beyond Needs Assessments: Marketing as Change Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piland, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Views marketing techniques as agents of change providing valuable assistance to community college decision makers. Discusses the importance of a balance among the four P's of marketing (i.e., promotion, price, place, and product); and seven procedural steps in developing a sound marketing strategy. (DMM)

  11. Persistence Modeling for Assessing Marketing Strategy Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); D.M. Hanssens (Dominique)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe question of long-run market response lies at the heart of any marketing strategy that tries to create a sustainable competitive advantage for the firm or brand. A key challenge, however, is that only short-run results of marketing actions are readily observable. Persistence modeling

  12. Preliminary results of Aruba wind resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guda, M.H. [Fundashon Antiyano Pa Energia, Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)

    1996-12-31

    As part of a project to assess the possibilities for wind energy utilitization in the Dutch Antilles islands, windspeed and -direction data were collected in Aruba for two years, from March 1992 to February 1994. Five sites that were estimated to be representative for the islands` wind regimes, were monitored during this period: two sites on the windward coast, one east and one west; two inland sites, again one east and one west, and one site topping the cliffs overlooking the eastern windward coast. Additionally, twenty years worth of data were analyzed for the reference site at the airport, which is in the middle part of the island, on the leeward coast. Correlation calculations between these data and the data for the project sites were performed, in order to establish a methodology for estimating the long-term behavior of the wind regimes at these sites. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Social Filters in Assessing Higher Education Services Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurkin, Anatoly; Lutsenko, Ekaterina; Bazhenova, Natalia; Bazhenov, Ruslan; Bogachenko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to reveal social filters in the system of assessing the higher education services market. On the basis of the institutional interpretation of market relations, mechanisms and features of asymmetries formation in the educational services market are investigated. The role of the institutional environment ensuring…

  14. Preliminary safety assessment and preliminary safety report for the treated radwaste store, Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, A.T.

    1992-06-01

    It is the purpose of this assessment to define the categorisation of the Treated Radwaste Store, TRS, B55 at the Winfrith Technology Centre. Its further purpose is to cover all relevant sections required for a Preliminary Safety Report (PSR) encompassing the TRS and the integral Quality Assessment Unit (QUA). The TRS is designed for the interim storage of intermediate level radioactive wastes. All waste material stored in the TRS will be contained within 500 litre stainless steel drums acceptable to NIREX. It is proposed that the TRS will receive 500 litre stainless steel NIREX drums containing either irradiated DRAGON fuel or encapsulated sludge waste. (author)

  15. Principles Involving Marketing Policies: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Randall L. Schultz

    2005-01-01

    We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these stateinents were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical...

  16. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  17. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  18. Market Survey for Nuclear Power in Developing Countries. 1974 Ed. (Preliminary Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In August 1973, the Agency concluded a market survey of nuclear power in fourteen selected developing countries throughout the world. The results of this survey have been reported in individual country reports and in a general report. A summary report on the survey was presented at the seventeenth regular session of the Agency's General Conference. These results indicated that in the fourteen countries surveyed, about 60,000 MWe of nuclear plant capacity might be put into operation during the 1980 to 1989 period. About 94 % of this capacity was represented by units of 600 MWe or larger since under the economic conditions which prevailed in early 1973 nuclear units in the 200 - 400 MWe size range were generally found to be uneconomical compared to oil-fired plants. Following completion of the Market Survey, a very preliminary evaluation of the total potential nuclear market in all developing countries of the world was carried out by Agency staff using the Market Survey results as a basis. This extended study which was completed in late 1973 indicated that the total capacity of nuclear plants which might be installed in the developing world during the 1980 to 1989 period could amount to approximately 160,000 MWe. Of this amount the capacity of small and medium power reactors (200 - 400 MWe) was less than 10,000 MW

  19. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  20. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-01-01

    Often the methodologies for assessing proliferation risk are focused around the inherent vulnerability of nuclear energy systems and associated safeguards. For example an accepted approach involves ways to measure the intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to potential proliferation. This paper describes preliminary investigation into non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve proliferation assessment and advance the approach to assessing nuclear material diversion. Proliferation resistance assessment, safeguard assessments and related studies typically create technical information about the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to diversion of nuclear material. The purpose of this research project is to find ways to integrate social information with technical information by explicitly considering the role of culture, groups and/or individuals to factors that impact the possibility of proliferation. When final, this work is expected to describe and demonstrate the utility of social science modeling in proliferation and proliferation risk assessments.

  1. An assessment of the national labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Walch

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of its participation in the decision-making process of the single monetary policy, the BCL, among other things, needs to analyse the national economy. Different parts of this paper address different audiences: in order to expose to the general and non-expert public why central banks are interested in labour markets, the first section begins with the basic link between monetary policy and labour markets. The discussion reviews the arguments indicating that in the long run a lo...

  2. Assessment of the Competitive Environment in the Regional Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Yuryevich Kokovikhin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The maturity of competitiveness and its dynamics is a focus of assessing state decisions aimed for economic growth. To estimate the maturity of the competitive environment, researchers apply different methods. However, synthesis of the existing approaches has revealed the comparability of various approaches to the assessment of the maturity of the competitive environment. The authors have proposed a methodology of comprehensive assessment, which includes the estimation of market concentration, diverging trends of revenue and costs, survey of entrepreneurs. The comparison of the estimations employs a three-stage model of data processing. This model consequently compares the characteristics of markets maturity obtained while implementing the above-mentioned approaches. We have tested the methodology using the materials of the research performed in 2015–2017 on the territory of Sverdlovsk Region. Our study has shown the following essential results. Firstly, we have classified socially important and priority markets of Sverdlovsk Region by the level of competitiveness development. Most of the markets are estimated as the markets with missing and low competition. The majority of them represent the segments of the education market. The authors also grouped highly competitive markets, which include the retail market, the market of overland carriage of passengers, the market of communication services and the market of cultural services. Moreover, we specified the group of markets with a moderate competition. This group consists of the market of housing and communal services, social services market, and the market of medical products. Secondly, we confirmed that the assessment of a competitive situation using one of the approaches is imprecise. Both in 2015 and in 2016, there is no convergence in estimates received by statistical and survey methods for the market of social services and certain segments of the education market. The authors explain it by

  3. Farmers' Market Utilization among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Recipients in New Orleans, Louisiana: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Henry; Skizim, Meg; Afaneh, Hasheemah; Miele, Lucio; Sothern, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    Farmers' markets are increasingly being promoted as a means to provide fresh produce to poor and underserved communities. However, farmers' market (FM) use remains low among low-income patrons. The purpose of our study was to examine FM awareness and use, grocery shopping behaviors, and internet use among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients. A descriptive analysis of preliminary data was performed to evaluate quantitative baseline data among SNAP recipients between June and August 2016 in New Orleans, Louisiana (N=51). Data were collected via a 42-item online survey that included demographics, internet use, FM awareness and use, health information seeking behaviors and fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviors. Less than half of the survey respondents (n=24) had ever been to a FM. Local grocery stores and Wal-Mart were most used for purchasing fruits and vegetables (88% and 84%, respectively). The most common sources of healthy eating information were Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and the internet, frequently accessed via smartphones. More than 80% of participants were not aware that local FMs accepted electronic benefit transfer payments as a form of payment. These results support the incorporation of promotional methodology that combines internet-based mobile technology and existing services (eg, WIC) as a viable strategy to improve farmers' market use among low-income populations. As most participants were not aware that participating FMs accept electronic benefit transfer payments, this fact should be emphasized in promotional material.

  4. California's forest resources. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Preliminary Assessment was prepared in response to the California Forest Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977 (FRAPA). This Act was passed to improve the information base upon which State resource administrators formulate forest policy. The Act provides for this report and a full assessment by 1987 and at five year intervals thereafter. Information is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction to the forest resources assessment program; the forest area: a general description; classifications of the forest lands; the watersheds; forest lands and the air resource; fish and wildlife resources; the forested rangelands; the wilderness; forest lands as a recreation resource; the timber resource; wood energy; forest lands and the mineral, fossil fuels, and geothermal energy resources; mathematically modeling California's forest lands; vegetation mapping using remote sensing technology; important forest resources legislation; and, State and cooperative State/Federal forestry programs. Twelve indexes, a bibliography, and glossary are included. (JGB)

  5. Natural gas market assessment: Price convergence in North American natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The extent to which Canadian and U.S. natural gas markets have become integrated in the post-deregulation era was assessed. This assessment was accomplished through a statistical analysis of the price movements in Canadian and U.S. gas markets. The analysis pointed to three broad conclusions: (1) on the whole, there has been an increasing degree of integration among North American natural gas markets since price deregulation and the introduction of open access, (2) there is somewhat of a split between eastern and western markets, (3) Alberta's links are stronger with the western U.S. natural gas market than with the market in the eastern U.S. Several factors were cited as contributing to the general increase in market integration, including: (1) increased pipeline capacity and additional pipeline interconnections, coupled with the development of market hubs, (2) improved flexibility of access to pipeline transportation services, (3) improved access to market information and greater trading flexibility which has been facilitated by growing use of electronic bulletin boards and electronic trading systems. The increased market integration was claimed to have benefited both consumers and producers, and to have increased competition in both countries.. 28 refs., 14 figs

  6. Market Assessment and Commercialization Strategy for the Radial Sandia Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Weintraub, Daniel [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This market assessment and commercialization report characterizes and assesses the market potential of the rotating heat exchanger technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), known as the Radial Sandia Cooler. The RSC is a novel, motor-driven, rotating, finned heat exchanger technology. The RSC was evaluated for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation markets. Recommendations for commercialization were made based on assessments of the prototype RSC and the Sandia Cooler technology in general, as well as an in-depth analysis of the six most promising products for initial RSC commercialization.

  7. A preliminary assessment of radiation effects on American Flagfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzivaki, M.; Waller, E., E-mail: margarita.tzivaki@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    In order to add to the knowledge base of radiation effects on non-human biota, it is important to define benchmark values for different species. An experimental set-up was designed to investigate effects from irradiation with Cs-137 to American Flagfish. Preliminary experiments to assess the suitability of the methodology were conducted by exposing Flagfish eggs to 44 h of ionizing radiation. The subsequent observation of the developing fry showed no effect on hatching. However, the mortality and observed vertebral malformations were increased with increasing absorbed dose which is suspected to be a result of developmental defects in the embryonic stage. (author)

  8. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  9. Preliminary study on detection of irradiated foodstuffs from the Romanian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Chirita, Daniel; Savu, Diana; Elisabeta Secu, Corina; Mihai, Radu; Secu, Mihai; Ponta, Corneliu

    2007-01-01

    In order to fulfil the European task for market survey in food irradiation the first Romanian laboratory for detection of irradiated foodstuffs was established at IRASM Irradiation Centre. In this preliminary study, a wide range of Romanian food samples (spices, vegetables and meat) gamma irradiated at IRASM have been studied using different detection methods: (1) DNA comet assay, (2) thermoluminescence (TL) and (3) electron spin resonance (ESR) for foodstuffs containing bone or cellulose. The results suggest that there is no general available detection method and there is no perfect detection method. In conclusion, in order to carry out a correct identification of radiation treatment of a food sample it is recommended to use at least two standardised detection methods

  10. AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

  11. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary assessment of the impact of the Satellite Power System (SPS) on the environment is presented. Information that has appeared in documents referenced herein is integrated and assimilated. The state-of-knowledge as perceived from recently completed DOE-sponsored studies is disclosed, and prospective research and study programs that can advance the state-of-knowledge and provide an expanded data base for use in an assessment planned for 1980 are defined. Alternatives for research that may be implemented in order to achieve this advancement are also discussed in order that a plan can be selected which will be consistent with the fiscal and time constraints on the SPS Environmental Assessment Program. Health and ecological effects of microwave radiation, nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment (terrestrial operations and space operations), effects on the atmosphere, and effects on communications systems are examined in detail. (WHK)

  12. Comparative bioequivalence assessment of aspirin tablets marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In the last few years, aspirin has become a life saver against cardiovascular accidents. This investigation was carried out to determine possible bioequivalence between regular aspirin and soluble aspirin tablets marketed in Nigeria. Methods: The in vivo bioavailability profiles of three commercial brands of aspirin ...

  13. An assessment of the industrial markets for softwood clearwood lumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Eastin; Christine L. Lane; Roger D. Fight; Jamie Barbour

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess market opportunities for second growth clearwood lumber by identifying industry segments that currently utilize clearwood lumber and determining whether alternative markets will continue to exist for clearwood lumber produced from intensively managed forests in the Pacific Northwest. A survey of industrial lumber...

  14. Low-e Storm Windows: Market Assessment and Pathways to Market Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-06-08

    Field studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have shown that the use of low-e storm windows can lead to significant heating and cooling energy savings in residential homes. This study examines the market for low-e storm windows based on market data, case studies, and recent experience with weatherization deployment programs. It uses information from interviews conducted with DOE researchers and industry partners involved in case studies and early deployment efforts related to low-e storm windows. In addition, this study examines potential barriers to market acceptance, assesses the market and energy savings potential, and identifies opportunities to transform the market for low-e storm windows and overcome market adoption barriers.

  15. An assessment of public transportation markets using NHTS data : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the American Public Transportation : Association (APTA) assessed public transit markets : in a national study published as A Profile of Public : Transportation Passenger Demographics and Travel : Characteristics Reported in On-Board Surveys....

  16. An assessment of public transportation markets using NHTS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    In 2007, the American Public Transportation : Association (APTA) assessed public transit markets : in a national study published as A Profile of Public : Transportation Passenger Demographics and Travel : Characteristics Reported in On-Board Surveys....

  17. EUBerry: Competitiveness and marketing strategies of sustainable berries validated for improved health benefits - Introduction to the project and preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Kaim, E.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Zmarlicki, K.

    2014-01-01

    The EUBerry project is not only building on technical research but also studies berry production and consumption from a social sciences perspective. This paper aims to describe the approach used in the EUBerry project about business economics as well as marketing. In addition some preliminary

  18. Comments on SKB's SFL 3-5 preliminary performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Crawford, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Recently introduced regulations in Sweden have established an individual risk criterion ( -6 per year) for the long-term performance of repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. SKB has not focused its assessment of SFL 3-5 on demonstrating compliance with this regulation. Instead, SKB has calculated individual dose and provided a comparison with an annual individual dose of 14 iSv (derived from the risk criteria using the ICRP's dose-risk conversion factor of 0.073 per Sv). The justification of this approach is that probabilities do not need to be determined if doses are less than the dose equivalent to the risk criterion. However, there is insufficient information regarding uncertainty provided in the documentation of the SFL 3-5 assessment to determine whether this approach is reasonable. SKB's parallel assessment of a repository for spent fuel using the KBS-3 concept (SR 97) accounts for uncertainty by specifying a 'reasonable' and a 'pessimistic' value for uncertain parameters in the assessment calculations. Although there are problems with the way probabilities have been assigned to these values, this approach does indicate where there are significant uncertainties. The SFL 3-5 PA does not include a structured approach to defining uncertainty, although a number of assumptions and parameter values are stated to be conservative. As a preliminary assessment, there is insufficient information to identify key uncertainties or sensitivities, or to determine where further work should be focused. Any assessment requires the use of expert judgement to determine how the assessment is conducted, what modelling approach to use, what features, events and processes (FEPs) could potentially affect the disposal system, which FEPs should be included in the conceptual models, and which scenarios should be assessed. Judgements are also required in determining how to parameterize the models, and this may extend to formal expert elicitation for particular parameter

  19. An assessment of food hygiene and safety at farmers' markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsfold, D; Worsfold, P M; Griffith, C J

    2004-04-01

    Farmers' markets are becoming a more significant part of the food-retailing sector. A survey of farmers' markets was conducted to assess aspects of food hygiene and safety. The views of the public using the markets were also examined. The range of farm products was wide and the methods utilised varied. The markets were usually temporary outdoor events with few facilities. Traders had received elementary food hygiene training and rated their hygiene standards highly. Less than half had risk management procedures in place, most did not perceive their produce as high-risk. They believed consumers to be mainly interested in food quality and to regard food safety issues highly. Consumers shopped at the markets because of the quality of the products sold. Their overall satisfaction with the markets was high and they raised no concerns about food safety. Given the restricted facilities at farmers' markets and the early phase of implementation of hygiene management systems by market traders, it may be precautionary to restrict the sale of farm products at farmers markets to those that are regarded as low-risk.

  20. Assessments of the market prospects for Myanmar timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Maung-Win

    2001-08-01

    Myanmar has been exporting teak and hardwood logs and conversions for a long time. It is found that there are three types of market situations with regard to logs and conversions. They are: situation that the demand of the market is strong; situation that the market has just picked up; situation that the demand is sluggish. Countries where the demand is strong are India, Thailand and Malaysia. Countries where the market is picking up are Singapore, PRC and the Middle East. Similarly, Europe's market is on the rise. Japan, Korea, Hong Kong and Pakistan markets are sluggish temporarily. North America's market can be said to be sluggish too. It is found that Australia has not been buying timber directly from Myanmar for the last few years and that it may not be in a position to buy Myanmar teak voluminously in the near future either. This paper is therefore a report focused on Myanmar Timber Enterprises' endeavour to earn foreign exchange in US Dollars and its assessment and evaluation of the market. The international market situation is studied and each country's situation focused on and presented. (author)

  1. Preliminary Ecotoxicity and Biodegradability Assessment of Metalworking Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerulová, Kristína; Amcha, Peter; Filická, Slávka

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of activated sludge from sewage treatment plant to degrade selected MWFs (ecotoxicity to bacterial consortium) and to evaluate the ecotoxicity by Lemna minor-higher plant. After evaluating the ecotoxicity, biodegradations rate with activated sludge was assessed on the basis of COD measurement. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity according to OECD 221 by Lemna minor shows effective concentration of Emulzin H at the rate of 81.6 mg l-1, for Ecocool 82.9 mg l-1, for BC 25 about 99.3 mg l-1, and for Dasnobor about 97.3 mg l-1. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity by bacterial consortium according to OECD 209 (STN EN ISO 8192) shows effective concentration of Blasocut BC 25 at the rate 227.4 mg l-1. According to OECD 302B, the biodegradations level of Emulzin H, Ecocool and BC 25 achieved 80% in 10 days. It can be stated that these MWFs have potential to ultimate degradation, but the statement has to be confirmed by a biodegradability test with other parameters than COD, which exhibits some disadvantages in testing O/W emulsions.

  2. China Oil and Gas Market Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yu

    2004-08-01

    China, with one-fifth of the world's population and one of the fastest rates of economic growth, is experiencing a boom in its energy requirements. China has been identified as a high priority market for the oil and gas sector. This priority has resulted in the high level of investment and many large-scale projects related to the oil and gas industry. Oil production from existing fields is expected to increase, new oil and gas fields will be developed, and the country's oil and gas transmission infrastructure will be extended to meet domestic demands. In addition, total domestic investment needs for the next three decades till 2030 are estimated at around $119 billion, and upstream exploration and development will account for about $69 billion. China's oil and gas exploitation business has been the biggest beneficiary of the bearish crude oil prices, national oil stockpile and the need of infrastructure. In the first six-month period of 2005, this industry has gained a profit of USD16.5 billion, up 73.4 per cent year-on-year. The country is becoming increasingly open to international oil companies, contractors and equipment suppliers, who can bring advanced technology, equipment, and management experience. In this context, considerable opportunities in the supply and service sectors are open to Dutch companies. This report analyses the present situation and market prospect of China upstream oil and gas industry, including: Current status of Chinese oil and gas industry analysis and future development forecast; Potential customers analysis, such as three stated-owned oil companies and their foreign partners;Domestic and foreign competitors analysis; Potential opportunities and challenges analysis; Providing contacts and information on main ongoing oil exploration and development projects, and business practices

  3. Preliminary regulatory assessment of nuclear power plants vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, V.; Petelin, S.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary attempts to develop models for nuclear regulatory vulnerability assessment of nuclear power plants are presented. Development of the philosophy and computer tools could be new and important insight for management of nuclear operators and nuclear regulatory bodies who face difficult questions about how to assess the vulnerability of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities to external and internal threats. In the situation where different and hidden threat sources are dispersed throughout the world, the assessment of security and safe operation of nuclear power plants is very important. Capability to evaluate plant vulnerability to different kinds of threats, like human and natural occurrences and terrorist attacks and preparation of emergency response plans and estimation of costs are of vital importance for assurance of national security. On the basis of such vital insights, nuclear operators and nuclear regulatory bodies could plan and optimise changes in oversight procedures, organisations, equipment, hardware and software to reduce risks taking into account security and safety of nuclear power plants operation, budget, manpower, and other limitations. Initial qualitative estimations of adapted assessments for nuclear applications are shortly presented. (author)

  4. Preliminary assessment on compatibility of DUPIC fuel with CANDU-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang-Bok; Roh, G.H.; Jeong, C.J.; Rhee, B.W.; Choi, J.W.; Boss, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    The compatibility of DUPIC fuel with the existing CANDU-6 reactor was assessed. The technical issues of DUPIC fuel compatibility were chosen based on the CANDU physics design requirements and inherent characteristics of DUPIC fuel. The compatibility was assessed for the reference DUPIC fuel composition which was determined to reduce the composition heterogeneity and improve the spent PWR fuel utilization. Preliminary studies on a CANDU core loaded with DUPIC fuel have shown that the nominal power distribution is flatter than that of a natural uranium core when a 2-bundle shift refueling scheme is used, which reduces the reactivity worths of devices in the core and, therefore, the performance of reactivity devices was assessed. The safety of the core was assessed by a LOCA simulation and it was found that the power pulse upon LOCA can be maintained below that in the natural uranium core when a poison material is used in the DUPIC fuel. For the feasibility of handling DUPIC fuel in the plant, it will be necessary to introduce new equipment to load the DUPIC fuel in the refueling magazine. The radiation effect of DUPIC fuel on both the reactor hardware and the environment will be qualitatively analyzed later. (author)

  5. Energy modeling and comparative assessment beyond the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.; Langlois, L.; McDonald, A.; Jalal, I.

    2004-01-01

    Market participants engage in constant comparative assessment of prices, available supplies, consumer options. Such implicit comparative assessment is a sine qua non for decision making in, and the smooth function of, competitive markets, but it is not always sufficient for policy makers who make decisions based on priorities other than or in addition to market prices. Supplementary mechanisms are needed to make explicit, to expose for consideration and to incorporate into their decision making processes, broader factors that are not necessarily reflected directly in the market price of a good or service. These would include, for example, employment, environment, national security or trade considerations. They would include long-term considerations, e.g., global warming or greatly diminished future supplies of oil and gas. This paper explores different applications of comparative assessment beyond the market, reviews different approaches for accomplishing such evaluations, and presents some tools available for conducting various types of extra-market comparative assessment, including those currently in use by Member States of the IAEA.(author)

  6. Preliminary quantitative assessment of earthquake casualties and damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badal, J.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.

    2005-01-01

    Prognostic estimations of the expected number of killed or injured people and about the approximate cost associated with the damages caused by earthquakes are made following a suitable methodology of wide-ranging application. For the preliminary assessment of human life losses due to the occurrence...... of a relatively strong earthquake we use a quantitative model consisting of a correlation between the number of casualties and the earthquake magnitude as a function of population density. The macroseismic intensity field is determined in accordance with an updated anelastic attenuation law, and the number...... the local social wealth as a function of the gross domestic product of the country. This last step is performed on the basis of the relationship of the macroseismic intensity to the earthquake economic loss in percentage of the wealth. Such an approach to the human casualty and damage levels is carried out...

  7. A preliminary assessment of the Titan planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Results of a preliminary assessment of the characteristic features of the Titan planetary boundary are addressed. These were derived from the combined application of a patched Ekman surface layer model and Rossby number similarity theory. Both these models together with Obukhov scaling, surface speed limits and saltation are discussed. A characteristic Akman depth of approximately 0.7 km is anticipated, with an eddy viscosity approximately equal to 1000 sq cm/s, an associated friction velocity approximately 0.01 m/s, and a surface wind typically smaller than 0.6 m/s. Actual values of these parameters probably vary by as much as a factor of two or three, in response to local temporal variations in surface roughness and stability. The saltation threshold for the windblown injection of approximately 50 micrometer particulates into the atmosphere is less than twice the nominal friction velocity, suggesting that dusty breezes might be an occassional feature of the Titan meteorology.

  8. Market assessment of tuberculosis diagnostics in India in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, P; Chauhan, K; Kadam, R; Pujani, A; Kaur, M; Chitalia, M; Dabas, H; Perkins, M D; Boehme, C C; Denkinger, C M; Raizada, N; Ginnard, J; Jefferson, C; Pantoja, A; Rupert, S; Kik, S V; Cohen, C; Chedore, P; Satyanarayana, S; Pai, M

    2016-03-01

    India represents a significant potential market for new tests. We assessed India's market for tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics in 2013. Test volumes and unit costs were assessed for tuberculin tests, interferon-gamma release assays, sputum smear microscopy, serology, culture, speciation testing, nucleic-acid amplification tests (i.e., in-house polymerase chain reaction, Xpert(®) MTB/RIF, line-probe assays) and drug susceptibility testing. Data from the public sector were collected from the Revised National TB Control Programme reports. Private sector data were collected through a survey of private laboratories and practitioners. Data were also collected from manufacturers. In 2013, India's public sector performed 19.2 million tests, with a market value of US$22.9 million. The private sector performed 13.6 million tests, with a market value of US$60.4 million when prices charged to the patient were applied. The overall market was US$70.8 million when unit costs from the ingredient approach were used for the 32.8 million TB tests performed in the entire country. Smear microscopy was the most common test performed, accounting for 25% of the overall market value. India's estimated market value for TB diagnostics in 2013 was US$70.8 million. These data should be of relevance to test developers, donors and implementers.

  9. Asynchronous Assessment in a Large Lecture Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, W. Scott; Schetzsle, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    Asynchronous assessment, which includes quizzes or exams online or outside class, offers marketing educators an opportunity to make more efficient use of class time and to enhance students' learning experiences by giving them more flexibility and choice in their assessment environment. In this paper, we examine the performance difference between…

  10. Assessment of market possibilities for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, S. [Advanced School of Business Novi Sad (Czechoslovakia)

    2004-07-01

    Global heating increases profitability of solar energy application in the Balkans. The most important market segments for wider solar cells utilization in Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) are solar pumps for irrigation in agriculture, traffic lights, lighting of weekend houses, air-conditioning, telecommunications, electric vehicles, solar hydro-electric power plants, sports centers and schools and orthodox monasteries. In addition to these applications of solar modules of relatively high capacity, a wide scope of applications of mini solar modules in consumer goods is given serious consideration (flashlights, bicycle lights, fan caps, beach hats, solar parasols, toys for children, solar watches, minicomputers, walkmans and alike). In this paper is projected gradually increase of solar cells applications in Yugoslavia, from 772 kW in 2006., to 3,901 kW installed photovoltaic power in 2010. year. The largest parts of this projected 3.9 MW in 2010., ought to be solar pumps (498 kW), telecommunications (470 kW) and traffic lights (468 kW). (orig.)

  11. Social marketing for a farmer’s market in an underserved community: A needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Skizim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to assess local residents’ awareness of utilizing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP benefits to purchase fresh produce at local farmers’ markets, and to determine internet use and media preferences of study participants prior to implementation of a social marketing campaign. A needs assessment was conducted to collect baseline data in an underserved neighbourhood in New Orleans (LA, USA. The study was carried out August 2014-May 2015. The assessment revealed that 73% of the respondents were unaware that the SNAP benefits could be used to purchase food in farmers’ markets; 63% of low-income participants never attended a farmers’ market compared to 27% of mid/high-income. Over 50% of the low-income respondents have access to the internet at least once per day. The results show the potential of raising awareness among a wide range of members in the community. This needs assessment will serve as the foundation for a social marketing intervention, which will be disseminated city-wide.

  12. Labour market participants’ competitiveness assessment based on latent variables theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Sabetova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests innovative model for assessment of labour market subjects’ competitiveness, or successfulness. The authors state that general complex indicator for individual competitiveness within the labour market cannot be identified. Instead, precise enough assessment of such competitiveness can be based on some variables, though different for in-house and external labour market. The model of latent variables’ assessment based on Rasch’s method was selected as the base for the suggested method. The assessment model gives unbiased generalized values of subjects’ competitiveness on the linear non-dimensional scale based on the partial estimates of the selected criteria. The free choice of these criteria allows the model’s appliance for various labour market segments. The article demonstrates the mathematical grounding for the model; methodic of the assessment criteria selection; the way of assessment performance using MS Excel. It also analyses the features of the obtained estimates and shows their comparison with the estimates obtained by traditional methods. The model suggested by the authors can introduce any quantitative parameter of competitiveness as a variable after analysis of the factors affecting it. The quantitative estimates of these factors become the model’s criteria, but the assessment precision does not alter.

  13. Assessing the Penetrating Abilities of Experimental Preparation with Dental Infiltrant Features Using Optical Microscope: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Tanasiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the infiltration technique is to penetrate demineralized enamel with a low viscosity resin. Icon® (DMG) is the first ever and so far the only dental infiltrant. Bacteriostaticity is one of the properties that should be inherent in dental infiltrants, but Icon lacks this feature. The aim of the preliminary study was to properly choose a dye which would allow us to assess the penetrating abilities of our own, experimental preparation with features of a dental infiltrant with bacteriostatic properties and to compare using an optical microscope the depth of infiltration of the designed experimental preparation with the infiltrant available on the market. The preparation is supposed to infiltrate decalcified human enamel and be assessed with an optical microscope. Eosin, neutral fuchsine and methylene blue were added to experimental preparation with dental infiltrant features and to Icon® (DMG) in order to assess the depth of penetration of the experimental solution into the decalcified layers of enamel. The experimental solution mixes well with eosin, neutral fuchsine, and methylene blue. During the preliminary study, the authors concluded that the experimental solution mixes well with methylene blue, neutral fuchsine, and eosin. An addition of eosin to a preparation which infiltrates inner, demineralized enamel layers, facilitates the assessment of such a preparation with an optical microscope. A designed experimental solution with the main ingredients, i.e., 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with a ratio of 75% to 25% penetrates the demineralized (decalcified) inner parts of the enamel and polymerizes when exposed to light. In order to assess the infiltration of the experimental solution into the demineralized enamel layers, it is required to improve the measurement techniques that utilize optical microscopy.

  14. Outlook for electricity markets 2005-2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of electricity as well as its demand in both domestic and export markets. This document was produced in response to a survey with power generation, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, end-users, environmental groups and government agencies who demonstrated the need for more short-and medium-term energy market assessments to supplement the Board's longer term energy analysis. It on the short-term (2005-2006) issues that can have a long-term effect on the electricity sector. The document presents an analysis of Canadian electricity markets with particular focus on the main drivers affecting current trends in generation, demand, prices, infrastructure additions, and inter-regional and international trade. Current restructuring activities in Canada's electricity industry were also described along with the close relationship between the electricity sectors in Canada and the United States which stems from the integrated nature of the North American power grid. A regional market assessment and a summary was provided for each of Canada's provinces and territories with reference to market structure and current market developments. It was revealed that Canada's electricity markets have developed along provincial or regional boundaries. Utilities have tried to provide adequate and reliable electricity supply, environmental sustainability and acceptable electricity prices. It was concluded that supply is adequate in all regions in the short-term, but tight supply conditions could emerge as early as 2007. Alternative and renewable resource and demand management are becoming more important in addressing air quality issues and supply adequacy. Since uncertainty may delay investment and development of new infrastructure, utilities may be forced to increase electricity prices. It was suggested that interprovincial energy transfers should be further explored. Five recommendations were presented to address the key

  15. 76 FR 63628 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...] Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR) AGENCY: Federal... Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR). DATES: Comments must be received by November 14, 2011... of the draft Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR) on...

  16. Market assessment of tuberculosis diagnostics in Brazil in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Improved diagnostics for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed. However, test developers and investors require market size data to support new product development. This study assessed the served available market for TB diagnostics in Brazil in 2012 and the market segmentation in the public and private sectors. Data were collected on test volumes done in the public and private sectors for the diagnosis of latent and active TB, drug susceptibility testing and treatment follow-up. Tests included were tuberculin skin tests, interferon-gamma releases assays, smear microscopy, solid and liquid cultures, nucleic acid amplification tests and phenotypic drug susceptibility tests. The data were collected by means of an electronic survey via the Brazilian State laboratories and from sales information provided by manufacturers. Test costs for the public sector were calculated using a components approach, while costs for the private sector were based on prices paid by patients. The overall market value (expenditure) for the entire country was calculated using the public sector test costs. During 2012, an estimated total of 2.4 million TB diagnostic tests were done in Brazil, resulting in an estimated overall market value of USD 17.2 million. The public sector accounted for 91% of the test volumes and 88% of the market value. Smear microscopy was the most commonly test (n = 1.3 million; 55% of total) at an estimated value of USD 3.7 million. Culture overall (n = 302,761) represented 13% of test volumes and 40% (USD 6.9 million) of the market value. On average, USD 208 was spent on TB diagnostics for every notified TB patient in Brazil, in 2012. The TB diagnostics market value in Brazil in 2012 was over USD 17 million. These study results will help test developers to understand the current and potential market for replacement or add-on diagnostic technologies.

  17. Canadian natural gas market: dynamics and pricing -- an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This publication is part of the Energy Market Assessment Program of the National Energy Board. It focuses on identifying factors that affect natural gas prices and describe the current functioning of domestic regional markets in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and in the Atlantic provinces.The report emphasizes the growth in demand for natural gas throughout North America, and the aggressive response by producers to the current high price environment with increased drilling programs. The report also predicts a supply and demand adjustment over time, and an accompanying relief in natural gas prices, although the Board is not able to predict with certainty any movements in commodity markets. The Board's findings indicate that domestic users of natural gas paid less than export customers until 1998, at which point the two prices have converged. The end result of the convergence was that Canadians have had access to natural gas under terms and conditions which were no less favourable than those in effect for export customers. The influence of electronic trading systems is reviewed, noting that spot markets and futures markets such as the NYMEX and AECO-C/NIT have had a significant impact on the pricing of natural gas, mostly by allowing market participants to manage price volatility by forward contracting. 1 tab., 42 figs., 1 glossary

  18. An Essay on Marketing Performance Assessment: Opportunities in the Context of Research Studies in Marketing in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing marketing performance is important in order to minimize the subjectivism in the decision making process. Assessing marketing performance is an alternative so marketing will no longer be considered as a tactical area but rather strategically. In this context, research in marketing should investigate the effects of marketing activities by applying metrics. Despite marketing’s growing importance in journals and developed markets, there are few research studies in Brazil, so we organized a theoretical essay. This essay intends to contribute to the marketing literature in two ways: i by presenting a detailed overview of the marketing performance literature from the 1960’s until the year 2012, which allows us to complement previous studies, from a new perspective on the evolution of the central ideas in marketing; ii identifying research opportunities related to this topic that may stimulate debates and future research. 

  19. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Thacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  20. Wind power in Eritrea, Africa: A preliminary resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, K.; Rosen, K. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States); Van Buskirk, R. [Dept. of Energy, Eritrea (Ethiopia)

    1997-12-31

    The authors preliminary assessment of Eritrean wind energy potential identified two promising regions: (1) the southeastern Red Sea coast and (2) the mountain passes that channel winds between the coastal lowlands and the interior highlands. The coastal site, near the port city of Aseb, has an exceptionally good resource, with estimated average annual wind speeds at 10-m height above 9 m/s at the airport and 7 m/s in the port. Furthermore, the southern 200 km of coastline has offshore WS{sub aa} > 6 m/s. This area has strong potential for development, having a local 20 MW grid and unmet demand for the fishing industry and development. Although the highland sites contain only marginal wind resources ({approximately} 5 m/s), they warrant further investigation because of their proximity to the capital city, Asmera, which has the largest unmet demand and a larger power grid (40 MW with an additional 80 MW planned) to absorb an intermittent source without storage.

  1. Preliminary Assessment of the Flow of Used Electronics, In ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is the largest growing municipal waste stream in the United States. The improper disposal of e-waste has environmental, economic, and social impacts, thus there is a need for sustainable stewardship of electronics. EPA/ORD has been working to improve our understanding of the quantity and flow of electronic devices from initial purchase to final disposition. Understanding the pathways of used electronics from the consumer to their final disposition would provide insight to decision makers about their impacts and support efforts to encourage improvements in policy, technology, and beneficial use. This report is the first stage of study of EPA/ORD's efforts to understand the flows of used electronics and e-waste by reviewing the regulatory programs for the selected states and identifying the key lessons learned and best practices that have emerged since their inception. Additionally, a proof-of-concept e-waste flow model has been developed to provide estimates of the quantity of e-waste generated annually at the national level, as well as for selected states. This report documents a preliminary assessment of available data and development of the model that can be used as a starting point to estimate domestic flows of used electronics from generation, to collection and reuse, to final disposition. The electronics waste flow model can estimate the amount of electronic products entering the EOL management phase based on unit sales dat

  2. Preliminary Groundwater Assessment using Electrical Method at Quaternary Deposits Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Raqib, A. G. A.; Aziman, M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Khaidir, A. T. M.; Fairus, Y. M.; Rosli, S.; Fakhrurrazi, I. M.; Izzaty, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    Alternative water sources using groundwater has increasingly demand in recent years. In the past, proper and systematic study of groundwater potential was varies due to several constraints. Conventionally, tube well point was drilled based on subjective judgment of several parties which may lead to the uncertainties of the project success. Hence, this study performed an electrical method to investigate the groundwater potential at quaternary deposits area particularly using resistivity and induced polarization technique. Electrical method was performed using ABEM SAS4000 equipment based on pole dipole array and 2.5 m electrode spacing. Resistivity raw data was analyzed using RES2DINV software. It was found that groundwater was able to be detected based on resistivity and chargeability values which varied at 10 - 100 Ωm and 0 - 1 ms respectively. Moreover, suitable location of tube well was able to be proposed which located at 80 m from the first survey electrode in west direction. Verification of both electrical results with established references has shown some good agreement thus able to convince the result reliability. Hence, the establishment of electrical method in preliminary groundwater assessment was able to assist several parties in term groundwater prospective at study area which efficient in term of cost, time, data coverage and sustainability.

  3. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2013-01-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  4. Waste to biodiesel: A preliminary assessment for Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, M; Gardy, J; Demirbas, A; Rashid, U; Budzianowski, W M; Pant, Deepak; Nizami, A S

    2018-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary assessment of biodiesel production from waste sources available in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for energy generation and solution for waste disposal issues. A case study was developed under three different scenarios: (S1) KSA population only in 2017, (S2) KSA population and pilgrims in 2017, and (S3) KSA population and pilgrims by 2030 using the fat fraction of the municipal solid waste. It was estimated that S1, S2, and S3 scenarios could produce around 1.08, 1.10 and 1.41 million tons of biodiesel with the energy potential of 43423, 43949 and 56493 TJ respectively. Furthermore, annual savings of US $55.89, 56.56 and 72.71 million can be generated from landfill diversion of food waste and added to the country's economy. However, there are challenges in commercialization of waste to biodiesel facilities in KSA, including waste collection and separation, impurities, reactor design and biodiesel quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: alicesante@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  6. Natural gas market assessment ten years after deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    Changes which have taken place in the Canadian natural gas market in the ten years since the gas market was de-regulated, were reviewed. A 1985 agreement created conditions for a competitive natural gas market. However, the National Energy Board ensured that the pipeline transmission sector of the gas industry would continue to be regulated because of its natural monopoly characteristics. Open non-discriminatory access was to be provided to all shippers on inter-provincial gas pipelines. One objective of this report was to provide the Board with the means of assuring itself that the market was operating in such a way that Canadian requirements for natural gas were being met at fair market prices. The report also provided a review of the major changes in the gas producing and transmission sector, and reviewed developments in gas markets and sales practices. The overall assessment was that the natural gas industry was efficient and responsive to the demands of the marketplace. 5 tabs., 30 figs

  7. Solar collectors and heat pump: Market review and preliminary simulation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe, Rainer; Roennelid, Mats

    2002-01-01

    Heating systems that combine solar collectors and a heat pump available on the market in Sweden have been studied. A majority of the systems found combine the solar collectors with a ground source heat pump. The technology for combining the collectors and the heat pump does however vary considerably. In the most simple systems, the collectors heat the return water from the heat pump, i.e. the collectors are used for raising the temperature in the boreholes for the heat pump. In the advanced systems, the solar heat is used for tap water, space heating and for raising the temperature of the heat pump's evaporator. There exist only very few comparative evaluations of the contributions from solar collectors in heat pump systems, and there is a need for finding the potential for this technique. In the present study, results are reported from preliminary simulations of solar collectors and ground source heat pumps installed in one-family houses. Simulations are made for two heating loads: 8,650 and 16,500 kWh/year resp., and a hot water load of 3,000 kWh/year. The study shows that: the temperature of the borehole decreases when solar collectors are not used (about 1.2 deg C in three years): 8 m 2 glazed solar collectors used for hot water production can reduce the electricity consumption with up to 13%, with best results in the house with low heating load: 50 m 2 unglazed solar collectors coupled to the evaporator or the borehole can give reductions of up to 14%, largest reduction in the house with high heating load, where the heat extraction from the borehole is large: the unglazed collectors have the highest economic potential, and can be cost effective for houses with high heating load: the simulations do not include a thorough system optimization, better results can be expected from continued optimization work

  8. Utility market penetration assessment of fusion-fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B.K.; Nour, N.E.; Piascik, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the utility generation expansion evaluation procedure and to present the results of a fusion-fission hybrid market penetration assessment in a model of a typical utility system. The analysis addresses the key factors and tradeoffs affecting the utility's evaluation of generation alternatives

  9. Advanced Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains duties and tasks, multiple-choice test items, and other assessment techniques for Missouri's advanced marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum begins with a list of 13 suggested textbook resources. Next, nine duties with their associated tasks are given. Under each task appears one or more citations to appropriate…

  10. Assessment of the world market for small and medium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The market for SMRs until 2015 was assessed by individual countries, taking into account energy demand and supply patterns, growth rates, energy resources, economic and financial resources, electric grids, industrial and technical development, infrastructure availability, environmental and nuclear safety concerns and other policy issues. The market assessment includes all applications of these reactors, that is electricity generation as well as the supply of process head and district heating. It is expected that SMRs will be deployed primarily in countries which have already started nuclear projects, in particular in countries which have developed SMR designs themselves. Thus, projects would be supplied predominantly by domestic sources in the years ahead; later, the export market is expected to attain more importance. It is further expected that over two thirds of the SMR units would be in the medium size range, i.e. from 300 to 700 MW(e), the rest would be smaller. About one third of the SMRs to be implemented are expected to supply heat and/or electricity to integrated seawater desalination plants. More than half of these reactors would be below 300 MW(e) or 1000 MW(th). The overall market is estimated at about 60 to 100 SMR units to be implemented up to the year 2015. It is recognized that forecasts, just like national development plans, tend to err on the optimistic side. Therefore, an overall market estimate of 70 to 80 units seems reasonable. (author)

  11. Maritimes natural gas market : an overview and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, G.

    2003-01-01

    In 1987, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) adopted a market-based procedure (MBP) to assess long-term gas exports. The MPB included monitoring and assessment of Maritimes natural gas markets. The NEB is responsible for interprovincial and international oil and gas pipelines as well as tolls and tariffs on NEB-regulated pipelines. The NEB is also responsible for electricity and natural gas exports and exploration programs on federally regulated lands not covered by an Accord agreement. The province of New Brunswick requested a new set of rules for the export of natural gas from the Maritimes to ensure competitiveness with other jurisdictions. The NEB decided that the public interest is best served by allowing the market to work. It also decided that the developing Maritimes market faces several challenges not faced by buyers in the export market. It was concluded that the market is working reasonably well to meet the needs of domestic consumers. 20 per cent of Scotian gas is being used in the Maritimes and many laterals have been constructed to extend service. Most major population centres have natural gas. However, there is no residential or commercial natural gas service in Nova Scotia, and only limited penetration of natural gas in residential and commercial markets in New Brunswick. Maritimers have a long history of using other fuel options and must make capital investment to switch to natural gas. They must, therefore, be convinced that investment will pay off in fuel savings and other benefits. The NEB will have to improve price transparency and strive for regulatory efficiency and cooperation with other jurisdictions. 2 figs

  12. Physician offices marketing: assessing patients' views of office visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Dennis; Chandra, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Physician offices often lack the sense of incorporating appropriate strategies to make their facilities as marketer of their services. The patient experience at a physician's office not only incorporates the care they receive from the physician but also the other non-healthcare related aspects, such as the behavior of non-health professionals as well as the appearance of the facility itself. This paper is based on a primary research conducted to assess what patients assess from a physician office visit.

  13. Preliminary biogeochemical assessment of EPICA LGM and Holocene ice samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, S.; Alekhina, I.; Marie, D.; Wagenbach, D.; Raynaud, D.; Petit, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    weak signals were possible to generate which are now under cloning. The signals were hard to reproduce because of rather low volume of samples. More ice volume is needed to get the biosignal stronger and reproducible. Meantime we are adjusting PCR and in addition testing DNA repair-enzyme cocktail in case of DNA damage. As a preliminary conclusion we would like to highlight the following. Both Holocene and LGM ice samples (EDC99 and EDML) are very clean in terms of Ultra low biomass and Ultra low DOC content. The most basal ice of EDC and EDML ice cores could help in assessing microbial biomass and diversity if present under the glacier at the ice-bedrock boundary. * The present-day consortium includes S. Bulat, I. Alekhina, P. Normand, D. Prieur, J-R. Petit and D. Raynaud (France) and E. Willerslev and J.P. Steffensen (Denmark)

  14. Does Marketing Attract Less Ethical Students? An Assessment of the Moral Reasoning Ability of Undergraduate Marketing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Carmel; Weaven, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the level of moral reasoning ability (MRA) of undergraduate marketing students and compares the results with the MRA of students in a range of other business disciplines. The aim was to determine if marketing attracts individuals who have a greater predisposition to unethical behaviors given that marketing is often reported…

  15. How to Assess Market Readiness for an Innovative Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Sune Solberg; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    motivations and barriers when it comes to energy efficiency. Based on these findings, this paper argues that the biggest advancements are not to be made within the SMEs, but partly through the legislation that affects the financial benefits of energy improvement solutions, and through the marketing approach......The uptake of solutions that increase energy efficiency is significantly lower for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This is due to several barriers, among which legislation, motivation, finance and other resources play a large role. In this paper, we describe a framework of market...... readiness and use it to assess the asymmetry between existing solutions and opportunities in the market. The aim is to identify which steps can be taken in order to introduce more energy optimizations into SMEs, and who should be taking those steps. More specifically, we explore how four Danish SMEs...

  16. New method of scoliosis assessment: preliminary results using computerized photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroeira, Rozilene Maria Cota; Leal, Jefferson Soares; de Melo Pertence, Antônio Eustáquio

    2011-09-01

    A new method for nonradiographic evaluation of scoliosis was independently compared with the Cobb radiographic method, for the quantification of scoliotic curvature. To develop a protocol for computerized photogrammetry, as a nonradiographic method, for the quantification of scoliosis, and to mathematically relate this proposed method with the Cobb radiographic method. Repeated exposure to radiation of children can be harmful to their health. Nevertheless, no nonradiographic method until now proposed has gained popularity as a routine method for evaluation, mainly due to a low correspondence to the Cobb radiographic method. Patients undergoing standing posteroanterior full-length spine radiographs, who were willing to participate in this study, were submitted to dorsal digital photography in the orthostatic position with special surface markers over the spinous process, specifically the vertebrae C7 to L5. The radiographic and photographic images were sent separately for independent analysis to two examiners, trained in quantification of scoliosis for the types of images received. The scoliosis curvature angles obtained through computerized photogrammetry (the new method) were compared to those obtained through the Cobb radiographic method. Sixteen individuals were evaluated (14 female and 2 male). All presented idiopathic scoliosis, and were between 21.4 ± 6.1 years of age; 52.9 ± 5.8 kg in weight; 1.63 ± 0.05 m in height, with a body mass index of 19.8 ± 0.2. There was no statistically significant difference between the scoliosis angle measurements obtained in the comparative analysis of both methods, and a mathematical relationship was formulated between both methods. The preliminary results presented demonstrate equivalence between the two methods. More studies are needed to firmly assess the potential of this new method as a coadjuvant tool in the routine following of scoliosis treatment.

  17. Risk Assessment of Healthcare Waste by Preliminary Hazard Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouran Morovati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Improper management of healthcare waste (HCW can pose considerable risks to human health and the environment and cause serious problems in developing countries such as Iran. In this study, we sought to determine the hazards of HCW in the public hospitals affiliated to Abadan School of Medicine using the preliminary hazard analysis (PHA method. Methods: In this descriptive and analytic study, health risk assessment of HCW in government hospitals affiliated to Abadan School of Medicine (4 public hospitals was carried out by using PHA in the summer of  2016. Results: We noted the high risk of sharps and infectious wastes. Considering the dual risk of injury and disease transmission, sharps were classified in the very high-risk group, and pharmaceutical and chemical and radioactive wastes were classified in the medium-risk group. Sharps posed the highest risk, while pharmaceutical and chemical wastes had the lowest risk. Among the various stages of waste management, the waste treatment stage was the most hazardous in all the studied hospitals. Conclusion: To diminish the risks associated with healthcare waste management in the studied hospitals, adequate training of healthcare workers and care providers, provision of suitable personal protective and transportation equipment, and supervision of the environmental health manager of hospitals should be considered by the authorities.  

  18. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  19. Preliminary market analysis for customer side of the meter thermal-energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-31

    An examination is made of the potential market size for thermal energy storage space heating, water heating, and air conditioning in the residential and commercial sector. It is concluded that a significant market for TES could develop over the next 20 years; the analysis considers the electric utility perspective, the perspective, and the expected market in detail. (MCW)

  20. Assessment of market potential of compressed air energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. W.; Buckley, O. E.; Clark, C. E., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    This report describes an assessment of potential roles that EPRI might take to facilitate the commercial acceptance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The assessment is based on (1) detailed analyses of the market potential of utility storage technologies, (2) interviews with representatives of key participants in the CAES market, and (3) a decision analysis synthesizing much of the information about market and technology status. The results indicate a large potential market for CAES systems if the overall business environment for utilities improves. In addition, it appears that EPRI can have a valuable incremental impact in ensuring that utilities realize the potential of CAES by (1) continuing an aggressive information dissemination and technology transfer program, (2) working to ensure the success of the first United States CAES installation at Soyland Power Cooperative, (3) developing planning methods to allow utilities to evaluate CAES and other storage options more effectively and more realistically, and (4) supporting R and D to resolve residual uncertainties in first-generation CAES cost and performance characteristics. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25121

  1. Improving the Transfer and Use of Agricultural Market Information in Zambia: A User Needs Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Chomba, Geoffrey; Mbozi, Green; Mundia, David; Simpamba, Mike; Mwiinga, Billy; Donovan, Cynthia; Mushingwani, Stanely

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of the assessment is to review the current agricultural marketing information system and to establish felt marketing needs for agricultural marketing participants and other interested parties. Specifically, the study aimed at achieving the following- to assess the marketing information needs among user groups; to assess the current level of satisfaction and utilization of existing marketing support (information) services including AMIC; to identify other agricultural mar...

  2. Assessing market competition in the Philippine cigarette industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Reganon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The recent passage of the Philippine Competition Act has caused many to rethink the market structure of Philippine industries. Foremost is the cigarette industry, whose structure bear important implications on the health of Filipinos. A competitive cigarette industry may mean price wars and intensified advertising, disproportionately harming the young and the poor. On the other hand, a concentrated industry may mean a dominant player with ability to engage in predatory pricing. The latter will also likely possess power to lobby against tobacco control policies. In this study, we assess the market competition in the Philippine cigarette industry, and its correlation with cigarette affordability in recent years. Methods Using retail volume data from Euromonitor International and financial reports from the Securities and Exchange Commission, we calculate for various measures of market concentration such as the Top 4 Concentration Ratio (C4, the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index (HHI, and the Dominance Index (DI over the period 2007 to 2016. We then compare these measures against cigarette affordability trends. Results Across all measures, we find a highly concentrated cigarette industry. C4 ratios ranged from 97%-99%, HHI from 4754-8848, and DI from 7479-9973. In 2010 when Philip Morris acquired Fortune Tobacco, industry concentration peaked (HHI rose by 72% and DI by 33%. In 2012 when the Sin Tax Law was passed, competition slightly intensified with Mighty Corporation taking advantage of the transitionary dual tax structure. Most significantly, fluctuations in market concentration did not affect cigarette affordability. A pack of cigarettes costed 7.4%-8.4% of the daily minimum wage between 2006-2012. Conclusions Assessing the market structure of the cigarette industry better informs the formulation of effective tobacco control regulations. For a concentrated cigarette industry such as in the Philippines, an effective tax policy must temper

  3. Assessment of the condition of a consumer market: interactive research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Yevgenyevna Sudakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of an assessment of a condition of the consumer market are presented in the article on the basis of official statistics data. At the heart of an assessment, the method of the indicative analysis lies. The technique includes five modules: quality of consumer goods, works, services; food security, nonfood safety; safety of services; security of participants of the consumer market. Also results of interactive Internet research of the condition of the ultimate consumer are presented in the article, by means of the carried out research. Interactive research is presented by 3 blocks: the general block (allows to make the respondent’s portrait; the special block (allows to estimate the changes in price, quality and the range of consumer goods and services; the additional block (allows respondents to leave comments. On the basis of the conducted research, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the assessment of the state received on the basis of methodical tools, shows positive dynamics, nevertheless, the condition of the consumer market remains unsatisfactory that also is confirmed by results of interactive research. The recommendations, allowing to lower the rise in prices and increase the quality of consumer goods and services are presented in the article

  4. Preliminary assessment of risk of ozone impacts to maize (Zea mays) in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tienhoven, AM

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface ozone concentrations in southern Africa exceed air quality guidelines set to protect agricultural crops. This paper addresses a knowledge gap by performing a preliminary assessment of potential ozone impacts on vegetation in southern African...

  5. A preliminary assessment of the potential risks from electrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Grey-crowned Crane Balearica regulorum, Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor, White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus, Rüppell's Vulture Gyps rueppellii, Martial Eagle Polemaetus bellicosus, White Stork Ciconia ciconia, Secretarybird Sagittarius serpentarius, and various sit-and-wait raptors. These preliminary findings ...

  6. Market assessment of tuberculosis diagnostics in China in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y-L; Pang, Y; Xia, H; Du, X; Chin, D; Huan, S-T; Dong, H-Y; Zhang, Z-Y; Ginnard, J; Perkins, M D; Boehme, C C; Jefferson, C; Pantoja, A; Qin, Z Z; Chedore, P; Denkinger, C M; Pai, M; Kik, S V

    2016-03-01

    To assess the 2012 served available market for tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics in China in the sector served by the China Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the hospital sector in China, including both designated TB hospitals and general hospitals. Test volumes and unit costs were assessed for tuberculin skin tests, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs), smear microscopy, serology, cultures, speciation tests, nucleic-acid amplification tests (NAATs), drug susceptibility tests and adenosine-deaminase tests (ADA). Data were obtained from electronic databases (CDC sector) and through surveys (hospital sector), and were estimated for the two sectors and for the country as a whole. Test costs were estimated by staff at China CDC, and using published literature. In 2012, the China CDC and hospital sectors performed a total of 44 million TB diagnostic tests at an overall value of US$294 million. Tests used by the CDC sector were smear microscopy, solid and liquid culture and DST, while the hospital sector also used IGRAs, NAATs, ADA and serology. The hospital sector accounted for 76% of the overall test volume and 94% of the market value. China has a very large TB diagnostic market that encompasses a wide range of diagnostic tests, with the majority being performed in Chinese hospitals.

  7. Assessment of target markets for deployment of modular HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, M.; Hamilton, C.; Venneri, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Industry Alliance (NIA) consists of 16 companies and organizations that support development and deployment of modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (modular HTGRs or MHRs). These companies include reactor vendors, utilities, potential industrial end users of MHR process steam/heat, nuclear graphite vendors, and companies with design, technology development, regulatory licensing, and other HTGR subject matter expertise. The NIA has been investigating potential markets for MHRs in both North America and globally as part of its business plan development. MHRs have inherent, melt-down proof safety with high-temperature capability and high utilization of the nuclear heat for production of electricity and process heat. These features allow MHRs to be located within close proximity to the public and industrial end users, and in locations with very limited or no availability of cooling water as the ultimate heat sink. This paper provides a summary of recent NIA target market assessments, including selected markets which currently utilize high value oil and expensive liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuels for process heat and electricity generation on a large scale (e.g., Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Japan, and Korea). Results show that significant markets exist today for economical deployment of steam-cycle MHRs for electricity and process heat, especially in countries/regions that utilize expensive (or heavily subsidized) fossil fuels for energy needs. Low natural gas prices in North America presently inhibit expansion of any nuclear technology, but MHRs should be economically competitive by the 2030 - 2040 time frame, when natural gas prices are projected to be in the $7 to $10 per MMBtu price range. There is also good market potential for higher temperature MHR applications, including nuclear steel manufacturing, production of synthetic fuels, and hydrogen production. (author)

  8. Assessment of target markets for deployment of modular HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, M.; Hamilton, C.; Venneri, F., E-mail: mrichards@ultrasafe-nuclear.com, E-mail: chamilton@ultrasafe-nuclear.com, E-mail: fvenneri@ultrasafe-nuclear.com [Ultra Safe Nuclear Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Industry Alliance (NIA) consists of 16 companies and organizations that support development and deployment of modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (modular HTGRs or MHRs). These companies include reactor vendors, utilities, potential industrial end users of MHR process steam/heat, nuclear graphite vendors, and companies with design, technology development, regulatory licensing, and other HTGR subject matter expertise. The NIA has been investigating potential markets for MHRs in both North America and globally as part of its business plan development. MHRs have inherent, melt-down proof safety with high-temperature capability and high utilization of the nuclear heat for production of electricity and process heat. These features allow MHRs to be located within close proximity to the public and industrial end users, and in locations with very limited or no availability of cooling water as the ultimate heat sink. This paper provides a summary of recent NIA target market assessments, including selected markets which currently utilize high value oil and expensive liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuels for process heat and electricity generation on a large scale (e.g., Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Japan, and Korea). Results show that significant markets exist today for economical deployment of steam-cycle MHRs for electricity and process heat, especially in countries/regions that utilize expensive (or heavily subsidized) fossil fuels for energy needs. Low natural gas prices in North America presently inhibit expansion of any nuclear technology, but MHRs should be economically competitive by the 2030 - 2040 time frame, when natural gas prices are projected to be in the $7 to $10 per MMBtu price range. There is also good market potential for higher temperature MHR applications, including nuclear steel manufacturing, production of synthetic fuels, and hydrogen production. (author)

  9. Distributed power generation, a market assessment; Marktaspekte der verteilten Energieerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, T.

    2001-03-01

    The article assesses in the light of current energy policy the development of distributed power generation in the future, and resulting impacts on the structure the deregulated power industry in Germany. The author defines the essential characteristics of distributed power generation as opposed to centralized power generation, explains the various existing and emerging power generation technologies, and discusses market penetration scenarios and marketing opportunities in the context of technological developments, environmental and energy efficiency aspects, and consumer attitudes. (orig./CB) [German] Der Artikel bietet wichtige Definitionen fuer eine zielfuehrende Diskussion ueber das gesamte Gebiet der verteilten und dezentralen Energieerzeugung. Er versucht, teilweise emotional besetzte Themen auf sachlich begruendbare Grundannahmen zurueckzufuehren und zieht erste Folgerungen fuer das Zusammenwirken von erneuerbaren Energien und verteilter Energieerzeugung. (orig./CB)

  10. Liquefied natural gas : a Canadian perspective : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    World requirements for energy and natural gas are expected to increase in the near future. This energy market assessment presented an overview of global liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply and demand, and discussed the potential effects that imported LNG may have on Canadian gas markets and energy infrastructure. Regasification projects will double the world's existing LNG receiving capacity by 2015. However, LNG pricing will still be indexed to the price of crude oil and oil products in the future. LNG price differences will affect trading opportunities as well as the flow of LNG between regions. North American LNG facility development will be influenced by outlooks for continental gas supply and demand. Current declines combined with recent increases in United States natural gas production from unconventional gas resources will reduce requirements for LNG in the near future, and may have a significant impact on long-term North American and global LNG requirements. Canada's existing facilities are located competitively with other terminals. 33 figs.

  11. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  12. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described

  13. Preliminary study of the heating market in Sweden; Foerstudie av vaermemarknaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The successive deregulation of the market for electric power, in Sweden as well as abroad, results in an increased competition in generation and trade of electricity. This market that previously was known for its oligopoly in the production sector and its monopoly in the distribution sector has now been opened for competition. This study is focused on the district heating sector, because it is still comparatively unregulated, and because it partly comprises what is called natural monopolies.

  14. Ethical Values and Biological Diversity: A Preliminary Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel I. Cohen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been five major extinction events over geological time. However, the current rate of extinction or reduction of species and their habitats is directly related to anthropomorphic causes. For seventh grade students, biodiversity and its ethical considerations were introduced in a life sciences curriculum, following lessons on evolution, natural selection, and decent from common ancestry. This paper takes a preliminary look at the approach used in this unit, the ethical survey developed, and improvements to be made in subsequent years.

  15. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter

  16. Low head hydro market assessment : main report : vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    Hydroelectric power is a predictable renewable energy source that produces no greenhouse gases (GHGs) and has low maintenance costs. In addition to river resources, low head hydro is available in sluice gates, irrigation canals, drinking water pressure release valves, and municipal wastewater outfalls. Canada's potential for low head hydro has been estimated at 5000 MW at 2000 different sites across the country. Sites of up to 50 MW have been identified in Ontario and Manitoba. This study performed a market assessment on low head hydro developments. Available and emerging technologies for developing low head hydro were identified. The economics of low head hydro in Canada were explored, and barriers to low head hydro development were identified. Strategies to promote low head hydro development were also explored, and the impact of different incentive types on the low head hydropower market were estimated using a simple economic model. It was concluded that a reduced, streamlined, and standardized environmental assessment process will significantly benefit low head hydro development in Canada. 5 refs., 14 tabs., 17 figs

  17. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors-a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand-appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service-to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to

  18. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-11-01

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to

  19. [Marketability of food supplements - criteria for the legal assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitweg-Lehmann, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart. All vitamins, minerals and other substances used have to meet the legal conditions. Food business operators have to make sure that their products do not contain medicinal ingredients based on their pharmacologic effect. It is prohibited to place medicinal products as food supplements on the market. Furthermore, food business operators have to make sure that their products are not non-authorized novel foods according to the novel food regulation (EC) no. 258/97. Also, food supplements have to meet the requirements of article 14 of Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 concerning the safety of foodstuff. Food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe. For food supplements that fail the German food-related legal standards but are legally manufactured in another EU member state or are legally put into circulation, the importer requires the so-called general disposition, which must be applied for at the BVL according to § 54 of the German Food and Feed Act. Another possibility for food which fails to meet German food law is to apply for a certificate of exemption according to § 68 of the Food and Feed Act. The food business operator has to meet the harmonized regulations concerning maximum and minimum levels of additives, flavors and enzymes. The packaging has to meet the compulsory labeling as well the voluntary labeling, like health claims. The BVL is also the relevant authority for other tasks concerning food supplements. A figure shows all

  20. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action. 300.305 Section 300.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the OSC is informed of their activities in natural resource damage assessment that may affect response...

  1. Assessing market structures in resource markets. An empirical analysis of the market for metallurgical coal using various equilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.

  2. Assessing market structures in resource markets. An empirical analysis of the market for metallurgical coal using various equilibrium models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics

    2015-05-15

    The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.

  3. Preliminary radiological assessments of near-surface low-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerling, T.J.; Nancarrow, D.J.

    1988-08-01

    This report summarises preliminary assessments of post-closure radiological impact of LLW repositories at four sites previously under investigation by UK Nirex Ltd. The objectives of the assessments were: to demonstrate a methodology for site specific assessments, to identify important information requirements for detailed assessments; to identify methodological and research requirements. Doses and risks due to groundwater pathways, human intrusion, gaseous release and natural environmental change are estimated. (author)

  4. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjuman Ara Begum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information.

  5. Preliminary assessment of beam impact consequences on LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Carra, F; Dallocchio, A; Deboy, D; Mariani, N; Rossi, A; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2011-01-01

    The correct functioning of the LHC collimation system is crucial to attain the desired LHC luminosity performance. However, the requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, the robustness of the collimators plays an important role. An accident, which causes the proton beam to hit a collimator, might result in severe beam-induced damage and, in some cases, replacement of the collimator, with consequent downtime for the machine. In this paper, several case studies representing different realistic beam impact scenarios are shown. A preliminary analysis of the thermal response of tertiary collimators to beam impact is presented, from which the most critical cases can be identified. Such work will also help to give an initial insight on the operational constraints of the LHC by taking into account all relevant collimator damage limits.

  6. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  7. ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT TRENDS OF THE MARKET NANOCOSMETICS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Korzh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, nanotechnology has become one of the strategic directions of economic development of the leading countries. According to literary sources, it is established that more than 50 countries of the world are adopting national programs in this field of new knowledge, and various methods of nanotechnology have received the greatest development and application in microelectronics, aerospace, chemical, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. It should be noted, that beauty is the most represented products with the use of nanotechnologies in the world. On the evaluation of the European Commission in 2009, the specific weight of cosmetics with nanoparticles amounted to 5%. The aim of the work was to assess the current trends of the market nanocosmetic photoprotectors development. In the last years in Ukraine the market of cosmetics is developing dynamically. Manufacturers of medical cosmetics invest heavily in scientific researches, patents, improvement of existing technologies. To determine the status of the security of the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine, we have analyzed the volume of sales and range of medical cosmetics, presented at the domestic market. In terms of sales volume in money terms of therapeutic cosmetics every year loses its position. Thus, the volume of sales in 2011, has decreased on 1,1 % in comparison with 2009. In Ukraine cosmetics of native production occupies 8% of the total volume of sales, cosmetics of foreign production - 92%. At the next stage of the research we have analyzed the medical cosmetic means, which are used for the prevention of photo-aging of the skin. In General, the Ukrainian market of medicinal cosmetics contains 125 trademarks of foreign and native manufacture. The largest share in the market of Ukraine belongs to the French medical cosmetics - 48,6 % of the total number of medical cosmetic means. It is represented by the various lines of medical cosmetics brands such: Vichy, Avene, RoC, Uriage

  8. United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-01

    The Market Assessment is designed to be of value to manufacturers, distributors, engineers, and others in the supply channels for motor systems. It provides a detailed and highly differentiated portrait of their end-use markets.

  9. Assessment of citrus marketing in Benue and Kano states of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of citrus marketing in Benue and Kano states of Nigeria. ... tends towards pure competition. Keywords: Benue, citrus, gini coefficient, Kano, marketing, pure competition, traders. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Preliminary seismic design cost-benefit assessment of the tuff repository waste-handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Abrahamson, N.; Hadjian, A.H.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary assessment of the costs and benefits associated with changes in the seismic design basis of waste-handling facilities. The objectives of the study are to understand the capability of the current seismic design of the waste-handling facilities to mitigate seismic hazards, evaluate how different design levels and design measures might be used toward mitigating seismic hazards, assess the costs and benefits of alternative seismic design levels, and develop recommendations for possible modifications to the seismic design basis. This preliminary assessment is based primarily on expert judgment solicited in an interdisciplinary workshop environment. The estimated costs for individual attributes and the assumptions underlying these cost estimates (seismic hazard levels, fragilities, radioactive-release scenarios, etc.) are subject to large uncertainties, which are generally identified but not treated explicitly in this preliminary analysis. The major conclusions of the report do not appear to be very sensitive to these uncertainties. 41 refs., 51 figs., 35 tabs

  11. Assessing the market for long-term care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J A; Taylor, S

    1984-02-01

    Traditionally, long-term care services have been used by a diverse marketplace. The chronically ill, developmentally disabled, mentally ill and aging population has looked to long-term care support services as a means of physical and emotional support. Much of the time these services were housed together for the sake of efficiency. The enormous burden these services are creating on the economy, and the growing aging population, have forced the recognition that long-term care service delivery systems must change. Alternate programming for long-term care services that reach out into the community and into individual homes is becoming an attractive approach to meeting the growing demands of the marketplace. Home health, specialized housing and creative funding mechanisms such as HMOs, are examples of initiatives undertaken by healthcare organizations that view diversification as a vehicle for survival. Market research techniques that have been used in other industries are being adapted to the healthcare industry to ensure the proper mix of services that are demanded by older, more knowledgeable consumers. The programs of the future will be market driven, with the ability of the individual to pay for such services playing a significant role. The healthcare provider of today is in a position to serve the community in new ways. By becoming an integral link in the long-term care system and by developing new programs, the organization can serve as a catalyst for change. It is up to the governing bodies and managers of these facilities to become visionaries and to accept responsibility for assessing the market for long-term care services and to guide their organization into the future.

  12. Canadian electricity exports and imports : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report focuses on recent trends in exports and imports of Canadian electricity and the associated revenue and pricing. It also outlines major developments in electricity markets in Canada and the United States in the past decade with reference to the implications of electricity trade for both consumers and the power industry. This guide comes at a time of market openings in Alberta and Ontario, and with recent increases in applications to the National Energy Board for electricity exports and international power lines. The first chapter presents an overview of current Canadian federal regulatory regime for electricity exports and restructuring of the electric power industry in Canada and the United States. The second chapter reviews electricity exports and imports from a national perspective. Provincial analyses were presented in the third chapter which also covered international interconnections, export and import trends, export and import pricing, implications for consumer prices, and factors affecting future trade. The final chapter presents some observations on each of these issues. It is noted that exports have fluctuated significantly from year to year due to specific events including the shutdown of nuclear power plants, high gas prices, and the California electricity crisis in 2000-2001. Canadian international electricity trade has continued to yield net revenues of $1 to $2 billion per year due to strong electricity export prices. The relationship between export and import prices varies from province to province. Canadian utilities have emphasized the need for more transmission to the U.S. to foster future trade and improve transmission reliability. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Alternate entropy measure for assessing volatility in financial markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Ranjan; Hamacher, Kay

    2012-11-01

    We propose two alternate information theoretical approaches to assess non-Gaussian fluctuations in the return dynamics of financial markets. Specifically, we use superinformation, which is a measure of the disorder of the entropy of time series. We argue on theoretical grounds on its usefulness and show that it can be applied effectively for analyzing returns. A study of stock market data for over five years has been carried out using this approach. We show how superinformation helps to identify and classify important signals in the time series. The financial crisis of 2008 comes out very clearly in the superinformation plots. In addition, we introduce the super mutual information. Distinct super mutual information signatures are observed that might be used to mitigate idiosyncratic risk. The universality of our approach has been tested by carrying out the analysis for the 100 stocks listed in S&P100 index. The average superinformation values for the S&P100 stocks correlates very well with the VIX.

  14. Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun; Yildiz, Bilge; Conzelmann, Guenter; Petri, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies

  15. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Ellis, E.C.; Letourneau, A.

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here

  16. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Peter H [Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ellis, Erle C [Department of Geography and Environmental Systems, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Letourneau, Aurelien, E-mail: Peter.Verburg@ivm.vu.nl [UMR 5175 Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  17. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-07-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  18. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verburg, Peter H; Ellis, Erle C; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  19. Economic valuation of acidic deposition damages: Preliminary results from the 1985 NAPAP [National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program] damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies methods used to evaluate the economic damages of acid deposition in the 1985 Damage Assessment being coordinated by the National Acid Precipitation Program. It also presents the preliminary estimates of economic damages for the Assessment. Economic damages are estimated for four effect areas: commercial agriculture and forests, recreational fishing and selected types of materials. In all but the last area, methods are used which incorporate the behavioral responses of individuals and firms or simulated physical damages to resources at risk. The preliminary nature of the estimated damages in each area is emphasized. Over all, the damage estimates should be interpreted with caution. 44 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Preliminary assessment report for Kent National Guard Facility (Installation 53065), 24410 Military Road, Kent, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.; Rose, C.M.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard property in Kent, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment

  1. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  2. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brown, Marilyn A.

    2010-01-01

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  3. Bitumen to refined products and petrochemicals : a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    Purvin and Gertz is an energy consulting firm that provides advise to the energy sector. A review of western Canadian crude oil supply suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), bitumen and diluent. It is expected that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. This presentation reviewed the potential of Alberta's oil sands and presented a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. In particular, the author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. tabs., figs

  4. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Preliminary Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2011-08-01

    This paper summarizes the potential market for process heat produced by a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), the environmental benefits reduced CO2 emissions will have on these markets, and the typical economics of projects using these applications. It gives examples of HTGR technological applications to industrial processes in the typical co-generation supply of process heat and electricity, the conversion of coal to transportation fuels and chemical process feedstock, and the production of ammonia as a feedstock for the production of ammonia derivatives, including fertilizer. It also demonstrates how uncertainties in capital costs and financial factors affect the economics of HTGR technology by analyzing the use of HTGR technology in the application of HTGR and high temperature steam electrolysis processes to produce hydrogen.

  5. The shareholder wealth effects of insurance securitization: preliminary evidence from the catastrophe bond market

    OpenAIRE

    Hagendorff, Bjoern; Hagendorff, Jens; Keasey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Insurance securitization has long been hailed as an important tool to increase theunderwriting capacity for companies exposed to catastrophe-related risks. However, globalvolumes of insurance securitization have remained surprisingly low to date which raisesquestions over its benefits. In this paper, we examine changes in the market value ofinsurance and reinsurance firms which announce their engagement in insurance securitizationby issuing catastrophe (Cat) bonds. Consistent with the hithert...

  6. Music therapy assessment in school settings: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B L; Smith, D S

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken in response to music therapists working in school settings for information relating to the availability of music therapy assessments and the feasibility of standardizing an assessment instrument for music therapists to use in school settings. Five research questions were identified, and the music therapy literature was surveyed to compile responses to those questions. Three different online data bases (ERIC, PsycINFO, and Article 1st) were used, covering articles published between 1980 and 1997. Individual hand searches were done of the Arts in Psychotherapy, Journal of Music Therapy, Journal of Research in Music Education, Journal of the International Association of Music for the Handicapped, Music Therapy and Music Therapy Perspectives. The questions and responses were as follows: 1. Which music-based assessment tools are being used with children with disabilities? Little commonality in assessment tools being used by music therapists and researchers was discovered. Of the total 41 studies, 20 (49%) reported using a "named" or "titled" assessment tool, and in the remaining 51% of studies, the authors reported using an untitled, and usually experimenter-designed, original assessment tool. 2. Have certain assessments been used in more than one study? Very limited replication of existing assessments was found. Of the 16 "named" assessments, only 3 were found to be used in more than one research study. 3. Are the actual assessments published along with the articles describing their use? Only 3 of the 20 studies using named assessments were published along with the journal article. Of the remaining 21 studies using original, experimenter-designed assessment tools, only 6 (28%) had the assessment instrument published with the article. 4. What is the primary purpose for using the assessment? Six primary purposes emerged from the review of the literature: to compare with data obtained from other assessment measures or from other

  7. "PRELIMINARY SCREENING FOR THE LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE HORMONE IN THE MARKET MEAT IN TEHRAN "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Oveisi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many xenobiotic and natural compounds such as testosterone have been used and sometime misused to improve the growth of cattle and other livestock animals. In order to control the testosterone hormone residues in meat and to ensure the safety of Iranian consumers, a monitoring system must be put in place to address the concerns. The present study was undertaken to detect and quantify the levels of testosterone residue in the market meat. Cattle meat samples were collected randomly from the market in Tehran. A total of 120 samples of cattle meat were analyzed for the level of testosterone by Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA method. The average experimental value of testosterone in cattle meat was 810.9 ng/kg. The average value of cattle meat testosterone was significantly upper than FDA (Food and Drug Administration allowable level but was in agreement with the values proposed by JESFA (Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. So it seems that the present status of this anabolic hormone in market meat is not at risk but there is need to routinely monitor this chemical as a food quality control measure.

  8. Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    between selected socio-economic characteristics of women marketers and their perceived level of severity of identified corrupt ... Women participation in agricultural produce marketing is not a ... economic growth, democratic culture, national.

  9. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000: Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Potential customer premises service (CPS), telecommunication services, potential CPS user classes, a primary research survey, comparative economics, market demand forcasts, distance distribution of traffic, segmentation of market demand, and a nationwide traffic distribution model are discussed.

  10. Green power marketing in retail competition: an early assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.; Porter, K.; Fang, J.

    1999-01-01

    With retail competition being introduced throughout the United States, green power marketing offers the promise of customer-driven markets for renewable energy. This paper summarizes early experience with green marketing under full retail competition. We conclude that (1) niche markets exist today among residential and non-residential consumers for green power; (2) green demand may ultimately offer an important strategic market for renewable technologies, but the market is currently rather small and the long-term prospects remain uncertain; (3) the success of green markets will depend critically on the regulatory rules established at the onset of restructuring; and (4) the biomass industry will be forced to better communicate the environmental benefits of its technology in order to play a strong role within the green market. This paper is based on a more detailed NREL Topical Issues Brief, which is available on the Internet. (author)

  11. Preliminary investigation on reliability assessment of passive safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Changfan; Kuang Bo

    2012-01-01

    The reliability evaluation of passive safety system plays an important part in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plant applying passive safety design, which depends quantitatively on reliabilities of passive safety system. According to the object of reliability assessment of passive safety system, relevant parameters are identified. Then passive system behavior during accident scenarios are studied. A practical example of this method is given for the case of reliability assessment of AP1000 passive heat removal system in loss of normal feedwater accident. Key and design parameters of PRHRS are identified and functional failure criteria are established. Parameter combinations acquired by Latin hyper~ cube sampling (LHS) in possible parametric ranges are input and calculations of uncertainty propagation through RELAP5/MOD3 code are carried out. Based on the calculations, sensitivity assessment on PRHRS functional criteria and reliability evaluation of the system are presented, which might provide further PSA with PRHR system reliability. (authors)

  12. Preliminary Chemical and Biological Assessment of Ogbe Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of water from the Ogbe Creek ... indicated the impact of the perturbational stress on the organisms inhabiting the creek. ... experiences seasonal flooding which introduces a lot of detritus and ...

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution of Opa Reservoir, Ile

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria, with a view to assessing its pollution level. ... Heavy metals are not biodegradable, but are assimilated .... samples were filtered (with Whatman filter paper. No 42) and ..... acidity,Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  14. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J J

    1999-06-30

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, approaches are presented for the exposure assessment to be used for estimation of risks in authorization procedures under the recently accepted Directive 98/8/EC. Gaps in knowledge are indicated, making it possible to study the issues involved in a comprehensive and cost-effective way. Some recommendations are given on how to best do this. The current project has been detailed in a final report.

  15. Electricity prices in a competitive market: a preliminary analysis of the deregulated Thai electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipattanasomporn, M.; Ongsakul, W.; Pacudan, R.; Lefevre, T.

    2000-01-01

    The electricity industry throughout the world is currently undergoing a significant transition towards restructuring and deregulation. Following this new legislation, Thailand has initiated an institutional and structural reform with a belief that this could be the best way forward for the Thai electricity supply industry (ESI) to improve efficiency, lower electricity prices, and tackle financial debts. This paper presents an analysis of the extent to which prices for generation services in a competitive market may differ from regulated electricity prices, if competitive prices are based on marginal costs and regulated prices are based on average costs, by using Thailand as a case study. (Author)

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March 2014, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for HBCD to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in c...

  17. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  18. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence,

  19. INSIGHTS INTO QUALITATIVE VARIABLES ASSESSMENT IN MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a number of issues to be taken into account in assessing the marketing qualitative variables. Thus, the opinions, the preferences, the attitudes, etc. of the consumers are qualitative variables whose measurement requires the use of different scales presented in the literature and, where appropriate, the researcher must develop scales adapted to the particularities of the study undertaken. Using a certain scale it is not random action. The literature presents both comparative methods and non-comparative scaling methods. Each of these categories generates certain types of information, and also they are complementary in the evaluation of various products, brands, organizations etc. Thus, if in a non-comparative scaling method can get information about how a product is evaluated (favorable or unfavorable, for example by the respondents, comparative scaling method allows us to determine where that product is in a series of investigated competing products. Another aspect to be taken into account in the construction of the scales is the number of levels used. It is intended to obtain information with high degree of detail, but without the risk of increasing the rate of non-response due to inability of respondents to make assessments through scales with too many levels. Finally, the expression used to collect information from respondents is essential in obtaining accurate and comparable information, with the emphasis on avoiding ambiguity in drawing scales.

  20. Preliminary Performance Assessment for Disposal of APT and CLWR/TEF Wastes at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    This section provides the descriptive information for understanding the analyses presented in this preliminary performance assessment. This section addresses the approach taken in the PA, provides a general description of the Savannah River Site E-Area low-level waste facility, and discusses the performance criteria used for evaluating performance

  1. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0850; FRL-8886-6] Chlorpyrifos Registration... chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document extends the comment... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This document extends the public comment period for the chlorpyrifos reregistration...

  2. 78 FR 14540 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Volatilization Assessment; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0850; FRL-9380-7] Chlorpyrifos Registration... Federal Register issue of February 6, 2013, concerning Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary... volatilization assessment for the registration review of chlorpyrifos. EPA received requests from several...

  3. A preliminary assessment of the true morels (Morchella) in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary assessment of true morels (Morchella) from Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) was obtained by using DNA sequence data from portions of three genes to identify 20 collections from Newfoundland and one from a remote location in Labrador. To place this work in a broader context, data on 25 co...

  4. Emerging technologies in electricity generation : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) monitors the supply of electricity as well as its demand in both domestic and export markets. It monitors the main drivers affecting current trends in generation, demand, prices, infrastructure additions, and inter-regional and international trade. This document presented an assessment of renewable and other emerging technologies that are considered to have significant promise and increased application in Canada over the longer term. It provided comprehensive information on the status and prospects for these technologies, related issues and regional perspectives. Alternative and renewable resources and demand management are becoming more important in addressing air quality issues and supply adequacy. In preparation of this report, staff at the NEB participated in a series of informal meetings with electric utilities, independent power producers, provincial energy regulators, power system operators and those engaged in technology development. The report involved on-site information gathering at wind farms, small hydro facilities, biomass, solar and geothermal operations and other facilities associated with emerging energy technologies such as fuel cells and ocean energy. Clean coal technologies that refer to methods by which emissions from coal-fired generation can be reduced were also evaluated. It was noted that the prospects for emerging technologies vary among the provinces and territories depending on regional resources, provincial government policies and strategies regarding fuel preferences. It was noted that currently in Canada, only 3 per cent of the installed generating capacity consists of emerging technologies. This low penetration is due to the low cost of electricity derived from conventional sources and to the structure of the industry in which large publicly owned utilities have historically opted for large central generating stations. It was suggested that the large increase in fossil fuel prices, public concern

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL MARKETING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Savelyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns with essence of assessment of the business environment and specific directions of analysis during the working out of global marketing strategy. The classification of the global marketing environment researches and tasks sequence in the context of the decisions made on each stage of global marketing strategy is proposed.

  6. Teaching Students How to Integrate and Assess Social Networking Tools in Marketing Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.

    2013-01-01

    This research is based on two studies that focus on teaching students how to integrate and assess social networking tools in marketing communications. Study 1 examines how students in marketing classes utilize social networking tools and explores their attitudes regarding the use of such tools for marketing communications. Study 2 focuses on an…

  7. 76 FR 65694 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Non-Market Economy Antidumping... refining its practice to instruct CBP to liquidate such entries at the non-market economy (``NME'')-wide... Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 76 FR 34046 (June 10...

  8. Assessing demand for physical objects among marketing agencies : market research for Alphaform RPI Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Oxana

    2012-01-01

    The market for 3D printing services is projected to grow significantly. A service provider of 3D printing and rapid prototyping services, Alphaform RPI Oy recognizes that there are numerous growth opportunities that can be exploited. A market research was initiated by the case company to look for any emerging trends to use physical objects. The study was focused on exploring marketing agencies and their vision on 3D printing and rapid prototyping services. Theoretical framework was built ...

  9. Preliminary Options Assessment of Versatile Irradiation Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramazan Sonat [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the work undertaken at INL from April 2016 to January 2017 and aimed at analyzing some options for designing and building a versatile test reactor; the scope of work was agreed upon with DOE-NE. Section 2 presents some results related to KNK II and PRISM Mod A. Section 3 presents some alternatives to the VCTR presented in [ ] as well as a neutronic parametric study to assess the minimum power requirement needed for a 235U metal fueled fast test reactor capable to generate a fast (>100 keV) flux of 4.0 x 1015 n /cm2-s at the test location. Section 4 presents some results regarding a fundamental characteristic of test reactors, namely displacement per atom (dpa) in test samples. Section 5 presents the INL assessment of the ANL fast test reactor design FASTER. Section 6 presents a summary.

  10. Assessing the market power due to the network constraints in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y.C.; Napoli, R.; Jiang, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The physical and operational constraints of the network pose very specific problems to market power analysis in the oligopolistic electricity markets. This paper presents a direct analytical approach to find the market equilibrium based on a supply function game model. The model is exploited to undertake a sensitivity analysis of the producer surplus with reference to the line flow limits under a DC power flow model for network representation. Two different kinds of indices, that can capture the market power arising under network constraints, are proposed. The first set of indices is the location privilege (LP), that measure the effect of the generators positioning in the grid on their surplus under perfect competition. The second set is for the network market power (NMP) indices that take into account the strategic behaviors of the producers that may take advantage of the congestion of the transmission lines. The indices allow for a ranking of the lines in terms of the market power they can induce and, in this respect, they may help the market regulator to focus on the network weakness in terms of the possible market outcomes under the market power behaviors from the supply side. The application of the proposed indices is illustrated with reference to the IEEE 30-bus test system. (author)

  11. Preliminary assessment of factors influencing riverine fish communities in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (MDCR), Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP), and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game (MDFG), conducted a preliminary investigation of fish communities in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this investigation was to determine relations between fish-community characteristics and anthropogenic alteration, including flow alteration and impervious cover, relative to the effect of physical basin and land-cover (environmental) characteristics. Fish data were obtained for 756 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select a set of fish metrics responsive to flow alteration. Fish metrics tested include two fish-community metrics (fluvial-fish relative abundance and fluvial-fish species richness), and five indicator species metrics (relative abundance of brook trout, blacknose dace, fallfish, white sucker, and redfin pickerel). Streamflows were simulated for each fish-sampling site using the Sustainable Yield Estimator application (SYE). Daily streamflows and the SYE water-use database were used to determine a set of indicators of flow alteration, including percent alteration of August median flow, water-use intensity, and withdrawal and return-flow fraction. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine a set of environmental characteristics, including elevation, basin slope, percent sand and gravel, percent wetland, and percent open water, and a set of anthropogenic-alteration variables, including impervious cover and dam density. Two analytical techniques, quantile regression and generalized linear modeling, were applied to determine the association between fish-response variables and the selected environmental and

  12. Preliminary assessment report for National Guard Training Center, Georgia Army National Guard, Fort Stewart, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard (GAARNG) facility near Hinesville, Georgia, known as the National Guard Training Center (NGTC). Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a priority basis for completing corrective actions (where necessary) in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining previous site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the NGTC. Preliminary assessment site score sheet information is also provided for the NGTC. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of Fort Stewart completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on the NGTC area for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of Fort Stewart

  13. A Preliminary Investigation of Dynamic Assessment With Native American Kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A; Harpell, Stacey; Walsh, Chandra; Coyle, Catherine

    2000-04-01

    This study examined dynamic assessment as a lessbiased evaluation procedure for assessing the languagelearning ability of Native American children. Twenty-three Arapahoe/Shoshone kindergartners were identified as stronger (n = 15) or weaker (n = 8) language learners through teacher report and examiner classroom observation. Through a test-teach-test protocol, participants were briefly taught the principles of categorization. Participant responses to learning were measured in terms of an index of modifiability and post-test categorization scores. The modifiability index, determined during the teaching phase, was a combined score reflecting the child's learning strategies, such as ability to attend, plan, and self-regulate, and the child's responses to the learning situation. Post-test scores consisted of performance on expressive and receptive subtests from a standardized categorization test after partialling out pretest score differences. Effect sizes and confidence intervals were also determined. Group and individual results indicated that modifiability and post-test scores were significantly greater for stronger than for weaker language learners. The response to modifiability components was a better discriminator than was the learner strategies components. These results provide support for the further development of dynamic assessment as a valid measure of language learning ability in minority children.

  14. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  15. The Use of Statistically Based Rolling Supply Curves for Electricity Market Analysis: A Preliminary Look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Larson, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ben [U.S. Department of Energy; Spitsen, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy

    2018-03-27

    In light of the changing electricity resource mixes across the United States, an important question in electricity modeling is how additions and retirements of generation, including additions in variable renewable energy (VRE) generation could impact markets by changing hourly wholesale energy prices. Instead of using resource-intensive production cost models (PCMs) or building and using simple generator supply curves, this analysis uses a 'top-down' approach based on regression analysis of hourly historical energy and load data to estimate the impact of supply changes on wholesale electricity prices, provided the changes are not so substantial that they fundamentally alter the market and dispatch-order driven behavior of non-retiring units. The rolling supply curve (RSC) method used in this report estimates the shape of the supply curve that fits historical hourly price and load data for given time intervals, such as two-weeks, and then repeats this on a rolling basis through the year. These supply curves can then be modified on an hourly basis to reflect the impact of generation retirements or additions, including VRE and then reapplied to the same load data to estimate the change in hourly electricity price. The choice of duration over which these RSCs are estimated has a significant impact on goodness of fit. For example, in PJM in 2015, moving from fitting one curve per year to 26 rolling two-week supply curves improves the standard error of the regression from 16 dollars/MWh to 6 dollars/MWh and the R-squared of the estimate from 0.48 to 0.76. We illustrate the potential use and value of the RSC method by estimating wholesale price effects under various generator retirement and addition scenarios, and we discuss potential limits of the technique, some of which are inherent. The ability to do this type of analysis is important to a wide range of market participants and other stakeholders, and it may have a role in complementing use of or providing

  16. Preliminary assessment of the controlled release of radionuclides from waste packages containing borosilicate waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Apted, M.J.; Engle, D.W.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the release-rate for an engineered barriers subsystem (EBS) containing waste packages of defense high-level waste borosilicate glass at geochemical and hydrological conditions similar to the those at Yucca Mountain. The relationship between the proposed Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) test of glass- dissolution rate and compliance with the NRC's release-rate criterion is also evaluated. Calculations are reported for three hierarchical levels: EBS analysis, waste-package analysis, and waste-glass analysis. The following conclusions identify those factors that most acutely affect the magnitude of, or uncertainty in, release-rate performance

  17. Assessment of online marketing communications of an automotive company - A case study of Jaguar Cars, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Bendzovska, Daniela; Blomqvist, Michelle; Rubenstein, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the traditional face of marketing has changed. Companies need to adopt ongoing marketing strategies to stay ahead of their competitors; the design and content of their strategies continue to evolve. In this thesis a case study has been conducted on one company within the automotive industry in Sweden. The case study was performed on Jaguar Cars in Sweden and an assessment of their use of Online Marketing Communication (OMC) as a marketing tool was made. The case study indicat...

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  19. A preliminary market research about tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in Costa Rica (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon van Anrooy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to July 1995, a market trial was conducted in Costa Rica with the fresh water fish species. Colossoma macropomum, commonly named “tambaqui”. About 1200 fish with an average weight of 800g were obtained from the fish culture station of the Universidad Nacional near La Rita, Guápiles. About 20 fish were delivered each Monday initially to three and later to each of four fishdealers in Limón, Guápiles, San José and Heredia. The shopkeepers purchased the fish at a price of $1.40/kg, covering all production and transport costs, and sold it for $1.97/kg. The motivations of the consumers for purchasing the fish were: curiosity, low price, good taste and recommendations by the shopkeepers. Most of the participants appreciated the taste, meat texture, freshness, colour and appearance very much. Some repondents criticized the amount of intramuscular spines in the fish. Eighty nine percent of the consumers intended to purchase more of the fish and 38% preferred this fish species above all other species. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of gender, householdsize or income level on the responses of the costumers. Chinese costumers were the only group discernible in the survey. Almost all participants thought tambaqui could get a good market position in Costa Rica. This trial shows that the price can be increased a little without losing much customers, but promotion would be necessary to get the product more known among the Costa Rican Population. The production of tambaqui could meet part of the demand for low priced fish in Costa Rica.

  20. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preliminary socioeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluett, C.; Bolton, P.A.; Malhotra, S.; McStay, J.R.; Slingsby, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report was prepared as a part of the continuing site characterization activities for a proposed nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) to be located on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The purpose of this study is to assess the social and economic impacts that could be caused by the construction and operation of the proposed NWRB facility. The specific objectives of this study are to describe historical socioeconomic trends in the study area, to describe current conditions, to project future baseline conditions without the NWRB, to project potential impacts due to the proposed NWRB under two alternative regional development scenarios and assess their significance, and to suggest an overall impact management and mitigation strategy. A closely related objective is to assemble a comprehensive socioeconomic data base that can be easily updated for future analyses. This study examines employment, labor supply, population change, housing, local transportation, revenues, and expenditures for public services. This report documents the marked demographic and economic decline that has occurred in the study area since 1981 and concludes that future baseline growth will resume at a relatively slower pace after further expected declines have been experienced through about 1985. The projected socioeconomic impacts of the NWRB development are assessed under two alternative baseline scenarios and are not expected to be significant in either case. With careful planning and attention to impact mitigation, including public participation and interaction with local and regional planning agencies, potential socioeconomic impacts can be anticipated and managed effectively. Recommendations are made for providing frequent updating of the data base and for improving the analysis of socioeconomic impacts. 68 references, 19 figures, 38 tables

  1. Preliminary assessment of potential CDM early start projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.; Lehman, B.; Schumacher, K.; van Vliet, O.; Moreira, J.R.

    2000-11-01

    The Brazil/US Aspen Global Forum on Climate Change Policies and Programs has facilitated a dialogue between key Brazil and US public and private sector leaders on the subject of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). With support from the US government, a cooperative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo conducted an assessment of a number of projects put forth by Brazilian sponsors. Initially, we gathered information and conducted a screening assessment for ten projects in the energy sector and six projects in the forestry sector. Some of the projects appeared to offer greater potential to be attractive for CDM, or had better information available. We then conducted a more detailed assessment of 12 of these projects, and two other projects that were submitted after the initial screening. An important goal was to assess the potential impact of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) on the financial performance of projects. With the exception of the two forestry-based fuel displacement projects, the impact of CERs on the internal rate of return (IRR) is fairly small. This is true for both the projects that displace grid electricity and those that displace local (diesel-based) electricity production. The relative effect of CERs is greater for projects whose IRR without CERs is low. CERs have a substantial effect on the IRR of the two short-rotation forestry energy substitution projects. One reason is that the biofuel displaces coke and oil, both of which are carbon-intensive. Another factor is that the product of these projects (charcoal and woodfuel, respectively) is relatively low value, so the revenue from carbon credits has a strong relative impact. CERs also have a substantial effect on the NPV of the carbon sequestration projects. Financial and other barriers pose a challenge for implementation of most of the projects. In most cases, the sponsor lacks sufficient capital, and loans are available only at high interest

  2. Wages and Subjective Assessments of Regional Labour Market Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre

    2002-01-01

    We utilise a rich set of regional labour market variables to explain regional variation in Norwegian manufacturing wages. In particular, regional indicators of labour market pressure are computed from survey data in which respondents are asked to evaluate local job prospects. We find that average reported satisfaction with local job prospects and other survey-based indicators perform better in regional wage equations than traditional labour market variables, including the regional unemploymen...

  3. Personality assessment and feedback (PAF): strategies and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats; Pedersen, Mads Kjær

    2008-01-01

    Background: Co-morbid personality disorders are common in substance dependent patients, and personality disorders are associated with worse clinical outcomes, worse retention and compliance, and alliance problems. The whole range of personality disorders is present in substance dependent patients......, and antisocial personality disorder is particularly common. However, clinical strategies must vary strongly across disorders. Objectives: To test the clinical effectiveness of a full personality disorder assessment and individual feedback to patient and caseworker, against screening for axis I disorders alone...... anxiety or depression, drug and alcohol dependence, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and current level of functioning. The axis II disorder includes a semi-structured interview for personality disorders. Outcomes include global functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), substance use...

  4. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  5. Preliminary assessment of the healing of fractures in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Natural fractures in salt are not common but have been observed. An assessment is made of whether and under what conditions such fractures regain cohesion (heal). Evidence comes from observations in mines, commercial processing, and laboratory testing of both fractured and granular salt. Healing can take the form of chemical precipitation, ductile injection, and creep closure. Of these, creep closure is of principal interest. Healing is measured in terms of recovered strength and reduced permeability. It is found to increase with increased confining pressure and is greatly enhanced when the salt is in contact with brine. Research at Sandia National Laboratories has demonstrated salt fracture healing in relatively short time periods under conditions consistent with the environment of a geologic repository. 45 references

  6. Preliminary assessment of soil erosion impact during forest restoration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Sheng; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan has a fragile geology and steep terrain. The 921 earthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Morakot, and the exploitation and use of the woodland by local residents have severely damaged the landscape and posed more severe challenges to the montane ecosystem. A land conservation project has been implemented by the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University which reclaimed approximately 1,500 hectares of leased woodland from 2008 to 2010, primarily used to grow bamboo, tea trees, betel nut, fruit, and vegetable and about 1,298 hectares have been reforested. The process of forest restoration involves clear cutting, soil preparation and a six-year weeding and tending period which may affect the amount of soil erosion dramatically. This study tried to assess the impact of forest restoration from the perspective of soil erosion through leased-land recovery periods and would like to benefit the practical implementation of reforestation in the future. A new plantation reforested in the early 2013 and a nearby 29-year-old mature forest were chosen as experimental and comparison sites. A self-designed weir was set up in a small watershed of each site for the runoff and sediment yield observation. According to the observed results from May to August 2013, a raining season in Taiwan, the runoff and erosion would not as high as we expected, because the in-situ soil texture of both sites is sandy loam to sandy with high percentage of coarse fragment which increased the infiltration. There were around 200 kg to 250 kg of wet sand/soil yielded in mature forest during the hit of Typhoon Soulik while the rest of the time only suspended material be yielded at both sites. To further investigate the influence of the six-year weeding and tending period, long term observations are needed for a more completed assessment of soil erosion impact.

  7. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  8. Latin America wind market assessment. Forecast 2013-2022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    Wind Power Activities by Country: Developers/Owners, Wind Plant Sizes, Wind Turbines Deployed, Commissioning Dates, Market Share, and Capacity Forecasts Latin American markets are a subject of intense interest from the global wind industry. Wind plant construction across Latin America is modest compared to the more established markets like the United States, Europe, and China, but it is an emerging market that is taking off at a rapid pace. The region has become the hottest alternative growth market for the wind energy industry at a time when growth rates in other markets are flat due to a variety of policy and macroeconomic challenges. Globalization is driving sustainable economic growth in most Latin American countries, resulting in greater energy demand. Wind is increasingly viewed as a valuable and essential answer to increasing electricity generation across most markets in Latin America. Strong wind resources, coupled with today's sophisticated wind turbines, are providing cost-effective generation that is competitive with fossil fuel generation. Most Latin American countries also rely heavily on hydroelectricity, which balances well with variable wind generation. Navigant Research forecasts that if most wind plants under construction with planned commissioning go online as scheduled, annual wind power installations in Latin America will grow from nearly 2.2 GW in 2013 to 4.3 GW by 2022. This Navigant Research report provides a comprehensive view of the wind energy market dynamics at play in Latin America. It offers a country-by-country analysis, outlining the key energy policies and development opportunities and barriers and identifying which companies own operational wind plants and which wind turbine vendors supplied those projects. Market forecasts for wind power installations, capacity, and market share in Latin America, segmented by country and company, extend through 2022. The report also offers an especially close analysis of Brazil and Mexico

  9. Assessing welfare impact of entry into power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, In-Koo; Kim, Hyunsook

    2013-01-01

    This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry in the Korean electricity market. We use two different models. One is the optimal fuel mix model to estimate the effect of a new entry in the long run. The other is the variable cost minimization model to assess the contribution of an existing installed private generator in the short run. A specific private generator, which has a cost advantage, saves a substantial amount of system-wide variable costs. We show that the right location for a new entrant can save power generation costs significantly, even if a new entrant does not have a cost advantage. - Highlights: • This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry. • We use two different models to estimate the entry effect. • The minimum and maximum cost savings of a new entrant are about 0.3% and 0.84% of total generation cost. • Even if a new entrant has no cost advantage, its choice of location could save money

  10. Assessment of cattle marketing practices in Guradamole woreda, Bale zone of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Taye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess cattle marketing practice in the crop-livestock production system areas of the highland, mid-altitude and pastoralists in the lowlands of Guradamole Woreda of Bale zone of Ethiopia. That is conducted from July 2015 to 2015 March. Cattle marketing practice were assessed based on market monitoring and questionnaire survey in each altitude. A total of 100 farmers were selected randomly from 10 peasant associations which are selected from each altitude based on proportion of peasant association in each altitude. Market monitoring was done at two livestock marketing places of Rayitu town and Jibri, which is capital city of Guradamole Woreda. Cattle marketing varied considerably across the peasant associations and marketing places. Cattle supplied to markets include calves, heifers, bulls and oxen, dry and lactating cows. Who often supply cattle to marketing places are farmers and pastoralists from Guradamole Woreda and neighboring ethnic societies. Livestock market infrastructure and management are among the key constraints to the development and sustainable management of livestock markets. Long trekking distances to markets are a significant impediment to pastoralists’ ability to profitably sell their cattle. During drought periods, animals lose weight on the journey to market, which significantly lowers their value. In some cases, animals are too weak to embark on the homeward journey, forcing producers to sell at very low prices. Poor and uneven access to market information remains a major constraint for market actors and producers in particular. Observations at market sites point to an imbalance in the bargaining power of traders and producers. Traders collude and jointly determine prices ahead of market day and producers have very little or no ability to negotiate prices.

  11. A Preliminary Assessment of HTST Processing on Donkey Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniazzi, Sara; Gariglio, Gian Marco; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Cavallarin, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing attention from consumers on non-bovine milk types, and to the increase in the number of small dairy donkey farms in Italy, farmers require more advanced and reliable processing devices, in order to guarantee a safe product of high quality. To this aim, a new small-scale High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST) pasteurizer (72 °C for 15 s), prototyped by the authors, was tested on donkey milk. The efficacy of the HTST device was tested on raw donkey milk microflora by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus cereus. The biochemical quality was assessed by determining the protein profile by monodimensional electrophoresis and by measuring lysozyme activity. The HTST apparatus was able to reduce the total bacteria count, and to completely eradicate Enterobacteriaceae. Bacillus cereus, when present, was decreased with low efficiency. Changes in the protein profile were observed in milk pasteurized in accordance with both processes, although HTST seemed to limit casein degradation. Lysozyme activity was not substantially affected in comparison to raw donkey milk. In conclusion, a tailored small-volume HTST device could be safely applied to pasteurize donkey milk in on-farm pasteurization processes on small dairy donkey farms. PMID:29056708

  12. A Preliminary Assessment of HTST Processing on Donkey Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribaldi, Marzia; Antoniazzi, Sara; Gariglio, Gian Marco; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Cavallarin, Laura

    2017-10-09

    Due to increasing attention from consumers on non-bovine milk types, and to the increase in the number of small dairy donkey farms in Italy, farmers require more advanced and reliable processing devices, in order to guarantee a safe product of high quality. To this aim, a new small-scale High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST) pasteurizer (72 °C for 15 s), prototyped by the authors, was tested on donkey milk. The efficacy of the HTST device was tested on raw donkey milk microflora by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus cereus. The biochemical quality was assessed by determining the protein profile by monodimensional electrophoresis and by measuring lysozyme activity. The HTST apparatus was able to reduce the total bacteria count, and to completely eradicate Enterobacteriaceae. Bacillus cereus, when present, was decreased with low efficiency. Changes in the protein profile were observed in milk pasteurized in accordance with both processes, although HTST seemed to limit casein degradation. Lysozyme activity was not substantially affected in comparison to raw donkey milk. In conclusion, a tailored small-volume HTST device could be safely applied to pasteurize donkey milk in on-farm pasteurization processes on small dairy donkey farms.

  13. A Preliminary Assessment of HTST Processing on Donkey Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Giribaldi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing attention from consumers on non-bovine milk types, and to the increase in the number of small dairy donkey farms in Italy, farmers require more advanced and reliable processing devices, in order to guarantee a safe product of high quality. To this aim, a new small-scale High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST pasteurizer (72 °C for 15 s, prototyped by the authors, was tested on donkey milk. The efficacy of the HTST device was tested on raw donkey milk microflora by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus cereus. The biochemical quality was assessed by determining the protein profile by monodimensional electrophoresis and by measuring lysozyme activity. The HTST apparatus was able to reduce the total bacteria count, and to completely eradicate Enterobacteriaceae. Bacillus cereus, when present, was decreased with low efficiency. Changes in the protein profile were observed in milk pasteurized in accordance with both processes, although HTST seemed to limit casein degradation. Lysozyme activity was not substantially affected in comparison to raw donkey milk. In conclusion, a tailored small-volume HTST device could be safely applied to pasteurize donkey milk in on-farm pasteurization processes on small dairy donkey farms.

  14. Preliminary Assessment of the Loss of Flow Accident for PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Andong; Choi, Yong Won; Bae, Moohoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    TRACE code have being considered as a candidate tool for SFR audit calculation for licensing review since 2012. On the basis of modeling and precalculation experience for the Demonstration Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (DSFR-600), TRACE code model for PGSFR was developed this year. In this paper, one of representing Design Base Event (DBE), Loss of Flow (LOF) accident was pre-calculated and Locked Rotor (LR) case was compared with LOF case since it could be a possible limiting case for LOF representing DBE. Sensitivity calculation for the LR case was implemented for identifying major parameters for the scenario. For the preparation of the review of licensing application for PGSFR, TRACE model for the PGSFR was developed and the loss of flow accident was precalculated. The locked pump rotor case was also calculated as a possible bounding case for the loss of flow scenario. Pre-calculation showed that the locked rotor case was similar or worst case to the loss of flow accident. Therefore, the locked rotor case should take into account in design base accident assessment of PGSFR. Sensitivity calculations for the rocked rotor case also studied for identification of unfixed design parameters influencing to estimation of inner surface temperature. Sensitivity result showed that the first temperature peak was largely influenced by reactor trip delay and second peak mostly influenced by pump coast down characteristic.

  15. Preliminary indicators for restoration assessment in riparian reforestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nogueira dos Reis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration success in forest ecosystems can be adequately assessed by correct selection of indicators that represent the achievement of established goals. The discriminant analysis technique on indicators selection consists of separation and classification of new observations on pre-defined groups, reducing the number of variables that are discriminant functions linearly dependent of the original variables. This study aims to define an index composed by structural attributes (number of species and individuals planted, height, basal area, number of regenerant species and individuals and chemical and pedological soil attributes to classify riparian reforested environments regarding to restoration taking as reference reforestation around the the Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Eleven variables were used for previous classification of plots in partially restored or unrestored groups and also used for discriminant analysis. Variables selected by the discriminant function generated were: number of species and basal area of planted individuals, number of regenerant species and individuals litter accumulation and soil cation exchange capacity. Compatibility of 98% from previous plot classifications and after index formation, show the representativeness of the selected variables on evaluation of restoration of riparian reforestations.

  16. Albeni Falls Wildlife Management Plan - preliminary environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the development and implementation of the Albeni Falls Wildlife Management Plan. Approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in 1990, the project is a cooperative effort with the Interagency Work Group that includes the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG); United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS); United States Forest Service (USFS); United States Army Corps of Engineers (COE); the Kalispel Tribe; and the Upper Columbia United Tribes (UCUT). The proposed action would enable the Interagency Work Group to protect and enhance a variety of wetland and riparian habitats, restore 28,587 habitat units lost as a result of the construction and operation of Albeni Falls Dam, and implement long-term wildlife management activities at selected sites within the overall study area. This Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of protecting and enhancing wildlife habitat in selected portions of a 225,077 hectare (556,160 acre) study area surrounding Lake Pend Oreille in Bonner County, and 7,770 hectare (19,200 acre) area surrounding Spirit and Twin lakes, in Kootenai County, Idaho. Four proposed activities are analyzed: habitat protection; habitat enhancement; operation and maintenance (O ampersand M); and monitoring and evaluation (M ampersand E)

  17. Development and preliminary reliability of a multitasking assessment for executive functioning after concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurel B; Radomski, Mary Vining; Davidson, Leslie Freeman; Finkelstein, Marsha; Weightman, Margaret M; McCulloch, Karen L; Scherer, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Executive functioning deficits may result from concussion. The Charge of Quarters (CQ) Duty Task is a multitask assessment designed to assess executive functioning in servicemembers after concussion. In this article, we discuss the rationale and process used in the development of the CQ Duty Task and present pilot data from the preliminary evaluation of interrater reliability (IRR). METHOD. Three evaluators observed as 12 healthy participants performed the CQ Duty Task and measured performance using various metrics. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) quantified IRR. RESULTS. The ICC for task completion was .94. ICCs for other assessment metrics were variable. CONCLUSION. Preliminary IRR data for the CQ Duty Task are encouraging, but further investigation is needed to improve IRR in some domains. Lessons learned in the development of the CQ Duty Task could benefit future test development efforts with populations other than the military. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. Criteria for safety-related nuclear plant operator actions: a preliminary assessment of available data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Bott, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    In the US, an effort has been underway for a number of years to develop a design standard to define when required manual operator action can be accepted as part of a nuclear plant design basis. Insufficient data are available to provide quantitative guidelines for the standard. To provide the necessary data base to support such standards and the necessary quantitative assessment of operator reliability, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a study at Oak National Laboratory to develop the data base. A preliminary assessment completed in April, 1979 concluded that sufficient data from US operating experience did not exist to provide an adequate data base. A program of research using full-scope nuclear plant simulators and results that are correlated to field data was suggested. That program was recently initiated. The approach, results and conclusions of the preliminary assessment are reviewed and the planned research program of simulator studies is summarised. (author)

  19. Assessment of the sweetpotato market structure in Nasarawa state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Product differentiation existed and there were little or no barriers to entry into the sweetpotato market. The Gini Coefficient values of 0.5457 (wholesalers) and 0.6001 (retailers) were recorded, indicating an existence of some degree of sellers' concentration. This implies that sweetpotato market is an imperfect competitive ...

  20. Empirical assessment of market power in the Alberta wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, F.

    2007-01-01

    In the 1990s, many countries began to unbundle regulated electricity monopolies into generation, transmission, distribution and retail companies. Transmission and distribution services remained regulated, but generation and retail services were open for competition. Wholesale and retail electricity markets were created. This paper presented a newly developed competitiveness index specifically for the Alberta market through a simple and standard economic approach. The Alberta Electric Utilities Act came into effect in January 1996. This paper described how the Alberta wholesale electricity market works and demonstrated how to model market power in the electricity market. In this study, power generating companies in Alberta were divided into 2 groups. The first group contained the 5 largest firms called strategic firms, while the other group contained the small generating companies called non-strategic firms or the competitive fringe. In the sample years 2003 and 2004, strategic firms withheld capacity when price was above marginal cost and behaved within the range of competitive pricing. They were more likely to price competitively than to use unilateral market power prices. In addition, firms had higher price-cost margins during the off-peak season. This paper explained in detail the reason for this unusual off-peak pattern. The index to measure a firm's strategic behaviour in the Alberta electricity market was developed according to price-cost margin data where firm-behaviour effect was distinguished from the demand-elasticity effect. It was concluded that policy-makers and regulations should consider the magnitude and source of market power when designing market structure, rules and trading practices. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  1. The Anaclitic-Introjective Depression Assessment: Development and preliminary validity of an observer-rated measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Felicitas; Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter

    2018-03-01

    The two-configurations model developed by Blatt and colleagues offers a comprehensive conceptual and empirical framework for understanding depression. This model suggests that depressed patients struggle, at different developmental levels, with issues related to dependency (anaclitic issues) or self-definition (introjective issues), or a combination of both. This paper reports three studies on the development and preliminary validation of the Anaclitic-Introjective Depression Assessment, an observer-rated assessment tool of impairments in relatedness and self-definition in clinical depression based on the item pool of the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure. Study 1 describes the development of the measure using expert consensus rating and Q-methodology. Studies 2 and 3 report the assessment of its psychometric properties, preliminary reliability, and validity in a sample of 128 patients diagnosed with treatment-resistant depression. Four naturally occurring clusters of depressed patients were identified using Q-factor analysis, which, overall, showed meaningful and theoretically expected relationships with anaclitic/introjective prototypes as formulated by experts, as well as with clinical, social, occupational, global, and relational functioning. Taken together, findings reported in this paper provide preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the Anaclitic-Introjective Depression Assessment, an observer-rated measure that allows the detection of important nuanced differentiations between and within anaclitic and introjective depression. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. EXPLOSION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK AT THE PRELIMINARY DESIGN STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHSIN PASHA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The failure of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (STHE is being extensively observed in the chemical process industries. This failure can cause enormous production loss and have a potential of dangerous consequences such as an explosion, fire and toxic release scenarios. There is an urgent need for assessing the explosion potential of shell and tube heat exchanger at the preliminary design stage. In current work, inherent safety index based approach is used to resolve the highlighted issue. Inherent Safety Index for Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (ISISTHE is a newly developed index for assessing the inherent safety level of a STHE at the preliminary design stage. This index is composed of preliminary design variables and integrated with the process design simulator (Aspen HYSYS. Process information can easily be transferred from process design simulator to MS Excel spreadsheet owing to this integration. This index could potentially facilitate the design engineer to analyse the worst heat exchanger in the heat exchanger network. Typical heat exchanger network of the steam reforming process is presented as a case study and the worst heat exchanger of this network has been identified. It is inferred from this analysis that shell and tube heat exchangers possess high operating pressure, corrected mean temperature difference (CMTD and flammability and reactive potential needs to be critically analysed at the preliminary design stage.

  3. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo, J C; González-Correa, C H; González-Correa, C A

    2013-01-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r 2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r 2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D 2 O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  4. Preliminary Hazard Assessment for Tectonic Tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, B.; Bayazitoglu, O.; Sharghi vand, N.; Kanoglu, U.

    2017-12-01

    There are many critical industrial facilities such as energy production units and energy transmission lines along the southeast coast of Turkey. This region is also active on tourism, and agriculture and aquaculture production. There are active faults in the region, i.e. the Cyprus Fault, which extends along the Mediterranean basin in the east-west direction and connects to the Hellenic Arc. Both the Cyprus Fault and the Hellenic Arc are seismologically active and are capable of generating earthquakes with tsunamigenic potential. Even a small tsunami in the region could cause confusion as shown by the recent 21 July 2017 earthquake of Mw 6.6, which occurred in the Aegean Sea, between Bodrum, Turkey and Kos Island, Greece since region is not prepared for such an event. Moreover, the Mediterranean Sea is one of the most vulnerable regions against sea level rise due to global warming, according to the 5th Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. For these reasons, a marine hazard such as a tsunami can cause much worse damage than expected in the region (Kanoglu et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 373, 2015). Hence, tsunami hazard assessment is required for the region. In this study, we first characterize earthquakes which have potential to generate a tsunami in the Eastern Mediterranean. Such study is a prerequisite for regional tsunami mitigation studies. For fast and timely predictions, tsunami warning systems usually employ databases that store pre-computed tsunami propagation resulting from hypothetical earthquakes with pre-defined parameters. These pre-defined sources are called tsunami unit sources and they are linearly superposed to mimic a real event, since wave propagation is linear offshore. After investigating historical earthquakes along the Cyprus Fault and the Hellenic Arc, we identified tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean and proposed tsunami unit sources for the region. We used the tsunami numerical model MOST (Titov et al

  5. ONE APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE SIZE AND CAPACITY OF THE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the economic and statistical essence and development of methods of calculation of the market’s size and capacity. Described further material is focused on experts on statistics of the market of goods and services, as well as marketers. Evaluation of size and capacity market is an extremely demanded in practice. However, a review of publications, scientific direction of research is the size and capacity of the market is not yet complete. Researchers are working to develop new approaches to the assessment of the market and to develop relevant procedures. Problems arise distinction between the notions of demand and market capacity. Theoretical basis of the research are the provisions of the economic theory, statistics of the market of goods and services, and marketing.

  6. Viva Voce (Oral Examination) as an Assessment Method: Insights from Marketing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Glenn; Lee, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    Viva voce (viva) or oral examinations are widely used in medical education, clinical examinations, and doctoral defenses, yet the assessment method is seldom adopted by university marketing departments. Correspondingly, the marketing education literature makes no reference to vivas as an alternative academic assessment technique. This research…

  7. ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MARKET FACTORS AND REGIONAL PRICE DYNAMICS IN U.S. CATTLE MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Walburger, Allan M.; Foster, Kenneth A.

    1997-01-01

    Regional live cattle prices are decomposed into two components: (a) a trend common to all regional cattle price series and (b) regional deviations or price dynamics around that trend. Tests are developed to determine if market factors are related to the regional price deviations around a common trend. Slaughter volume, distance between a market and the next closest, and forward contract deliveries are significantly related to price deviations from the estimated common trend.

  8. ProTec Tear-Offs: A Preliminary Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D

    2005-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has conducted a series of ''scoping'' tests (referred to as Phase 1) to assess the potential use of a Mylar(reg s ign) tear-off system as a primary or secondary protective barrier to minimize acid etching (''frosting''), accidental scratching, and/or radiation damage for shielded cells windows. Conceptually, thin, multi-layered sheets of Mylar (referred to as a ''tear-off'' system) could be directly applied to the Lexan(reg s ign) sheet or glovebox/hood sash window to serve as a secondary (or primary) barrier. Upon degradation of visual clarity due to accidental scratching, spills/splatters, and/or radiation damage, the outer layer (or sheet) of Mylar could be removed ''refreshing'' or restoring the view. Due to the multi-layer aspect, the remaining Mylar layers would provide continued protection for the window from potential reoccurrences (which could be immediate or after some extended time period). Although the concept of using a tear-off system as a protective barrier was conceptually enticing, potential technical issues were identified and addressed as part of this Phase 1 feasibility study. These included resistance to: (1) acid(s) (concentrated (28.9 M) HF, concentrated (15.9M) HNO 3 , 6M HCl, and 0.6M H 3 BO 3 ), (2) base (a simulated sludge with pH of 12.9), (3) gamma radiation (cumulative dose of ∼200,000 rad), and (4) scratch resistance (simulating accidental scratching with the manipulators). Not only can these four factors play a significant role in determining the visual clarity of the integrated system, they can also contribute to the mechanical integrity issues which could dictate the ability to remove the outer layer when visual clarity has degraded. The results of the Phase 1 study clearly indicate that the Mylar tear-off concept (as a primary or secondary protective barrier) is a potential technical solution to prevent or retard excessive damage that would result from acid etching, base damage (as a

  9. Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R. (LBL); Fang, J.; Porter, K.; Houston, A. (NREL)

    1999-02-26

    Green power marketing-the business of selling electricity products or services based in part on their environmental values-is still in an early stage of development. This Topical Issues Brief presents a summary of early results with green power marketing under retail competition, covering both fully competitive markets and relevant direct access pilot programs. The brief provides an overview of green products that are or were offered, and discusses consumers' interest in these products. Critical issues that will impact the availability and success of green power products under retail competition are highlighted.

  10. Assessment of 48 Stock markets using adaptive multifractal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo; Dionísio, Andreia; Movahed, S. M. S.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Stock market comovements are examined using cointegration, Granger causality tests and nonlinear approaches in context of mutual information and correlations. Since underlying data sets are affected by non-stationarities and trends, we also apply Adaptive Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (AMF-DFA) and Adaptive Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (AMF-DXA). We find only 170 pair of Stock markets cointegrated, and according to the Granger causality and mutual information, we realize that the strongest relations lies between emerging markets, and between emerging and frontier markets. According to scaling exponent given by AMF-DFA, h(q = 2) > 1, we find that all underlying data sets belong to non-stationary process. According to Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH), only 8 markets are classified in uncorrelated processes at 2 σ confidence interval. 6 Stock markets belong to anti-correlated class and dominant part of markets has memory in corresponding daily index prices during January 1995 to February 2014. New-Zealand with H = 0 . 457 ± 0 . 004 and Jordan with H = 0 . 602 ± 0 . 006 are far from EMH. The nature of cross-correlation exponents based on AMF-DXA is almost multifractal for all pair of Stock markets. The empirical relation, Hxy ≤ [Hxx +Hyy ] / 2, is confirmed. Mentioned relation for q > 0 is also satisfied while for q behavior of markets for small fluctuations is affected by contribution of major pair. For larger fluctuations, the cross-correlation contains information from both local (internal) and global (external) conditions. Width of singularity spectrum for auto-correlation and cross-correlation are Δαxx ∈ [ 0 . 304 , 0 . 905 ] and Δαxy ∈ [ 0 . 246 , 1 . 178 ] , respectively. The wide range of singularity spectrum for cross-correlation confirms that the bilateral relation between Stock markets is more complex. The value of σDCCA indicates that all pairs of stock market studied in this time interval

  11. Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Porter; Ryan Wiser

    1999-01-01

    Green power marketing-the business of selling electricity products or services based in part on their environmental values-is still in an early stage of development. This Topical Issues Brief presents a summary of early results with green power marketing under retail competition, covering both fully competitive markets and relevant direct access pilot programs. The brief provides an overview of green products that are or were offered, and discusses consumers' interest in these products. Critical issues that will impact the availability and success of green power products under retail competition are highlighted

  12. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  13. Assessing unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market : An application to the Dutch daily newspaper market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.; Michielsen, T.O.

    2012-01-01

    We compare different methods to assess unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market by applying them to a hypothetical merger in the Dutch newspaper industry. We first specify and estimate a structural model of demand for differentiated products in both the readership and the advertising sides of

  14. Assessing Unilateral Merger Effects in a Two-Sided Market : An Application to the Dutch Daily Newspaper Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.; Michielsen, T.O.

    2011-01-01

    We compare different methods to assess unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market by applying them to a hypothetical merger in the Dutch newspaper industry. For this, we first specify and estimate a structural model of demand for differentiated products on both the readership and the

  15. Assessment of emission trading impacts on competitive electricity market price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, S.N.; Saxena, D.; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    analyzes the impact of electricity prices in the competitive electricity markets having a uniform market clearing price mechanism. Findings - It is found that the electricity prices depend on the system loading, generation mix, etc. at a particular hour. Various emission trading instruments are discussed...... side emission trading impact on electricity prices in the competitive power market. Design/methodology/approach - Various schemes are suggested and are being implemented to achieve this objective. It is expected that electricity price will increase due to imposition of emission taxes. This paper...... with a special emphasis on the European market. Research limitations/implications - Block bidding of the suppliers is considered whereas the demand is assumed to be inelastic. Originality/value - The emission trading impacts are analyzed on a simple example....

  16. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here

  17. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  18. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable renewable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility and sufficient capacity, and greater concern for overgeneration from renewable sources not well matched in time with electric loads. Hydrogen systems have the potential to support the grid in each of these areas. However, limited information is available about the economic competitiveness of hydrogen system configurations. This paper quantifies the value for hydrogen energy storage and demand response systems to participate in select California wholesale electricity markets using 2012 data. For hydrogen systems and conventional storage systems (e.g., pumped hydro, batteries), the yearly revenues from energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets are compared to the yearly cost to establish economic competitiveness. Hydrogen systems can present a positive value proposition for current markets. Three main findings include: (1) For hydrogen systems participating in California electricity markets, producing and selling hydrogen was found to be much more valuable than producing and storing hydrogen to later produce electricity; therefore systems should focus on producing and selling hydrogen and opportunistically providing ancillary services and arbitrage. (2) Tighter integration with electricity markets generates greater revenues (i.e., systems that participate in multiple markets receive the highest revenue). (3) More storage capacity, in excess of what is required to provide diurnal shifting, does not increase competitiveness in current California wholesale energy markets. As more variable renewable generation is installed, the importance of long duration storage may become apparent in the energy price or through additional markets, but currently, there is not a sufficiently large price differential between days to generate enough revenue to offset the cost of additional storage. Future work will involve

  19. Preliminary assessment report for Fort Custer Training Center, Installation 26035, Augusta, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaim, S.; Krokosz, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Michigan Army National Guard property near Augusta, Michigan. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort Custer Training Center, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. The environmentally significant operations associated with the property are (1) storage of hazardous materials and hazardous waste, (2) storage and dispensing of fuel, (3) washing of vehicles and equipment, and (4) weapons training ranges that may have accumulated lead

  20. Fukushima. A preliminary assessment in July 2011; Fukushima. Eine vorlaeufige Bilanz im Juli 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Rolf

    2011-07-01

    Four months after the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi a preliminary assessment of the accident sequence vents is performed based on the available incomplete information. The following topics are discussed: initiating events and accident sequences, radioactive materials release and dispersion, fundamentals on radiation exposure following the accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi, contamination of food stuff, fission product release into the Pacific Ocean, source tern and external radiation exposure in the first year, preliminary radiological assessment, radiological situation throughout the different accident phases (radioactive cloud and fallout, late phase), estimation of radiation exposure in the first year due to decay of short-lived radionuclides based on the state end of July 2011, comparison of the reactor accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi.

  1. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program

  2. Assessments and market design for the water market at Xiying Irrigation, Shiyang River Basin, Gansu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Zhao, J.; Zheng, H.

    2016-12-01

    As one of the pilot water markets in China, the market in Xiying Irrigation was built in 2008. Based on the historical trading data, it can be concluded that the studied market is growing but facing quite a few challenges. To solve these challenges, the first step we have done is assessment on the market. Some comparable indices were introduced from network science by us. These indices straightforwardly show the status and major problems in the market. One main problem we have found from surveys and our assessment is that there are barriers between distant seller and buyer. This discovery incentives us to develop a new mechanism for matching sellers and buyers to reduce the loss on social welfare. By modelling the trading barriers between a buyer and a seller as an indicator -- tradable or nontradable, the authors propose a mixed-integer linear programming algorithm to optimize the social welfare. According to the theories on competitive equilibrium, the authors are able to extend the programming to compute a reasonable price profile for each pair of tradable seller and buyer. It can be proved that given the price profile, the optimal strategy for each seller or buyer is to follow the optimal assignment. This mechanism significantly reduces the social welfare loss. However, this study shows that removing the trading barriers can brings more social welfare increments.

  3. Canadian electricity trends and issues : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This report examines the supply and demand of electricity in Canada and provides a province by province analysis of trade, regulatory developments and electricity prices. The Canadian electricity market is regionally diverse, as evidenced by the variety of fuels used for power generation and the differences in market structure, regulation and pricing. Hydro accounts for 61 per cent of Canadian electricity generation. Other sources include coal (18 per cent), nuclear (13 per cent), natural gas (4 per cent) and oil and renewables (4 per cent). Most new power generation projects in Canada are expected to be gas-fired leading to a convergence between natural gas and electricity markets. Most provincial electricity markets are being adequately supplied, even with rising power demands. Alberta restructured its electricity market over a five year period culminating in full retail access on 1 January 2001. While power supply has been relatively tight in Alberta, new generation capacity is expected to become available over the next few years. Ontario plans to implement full retail access in May 2002. Most other provinces are implementing wholesale access. Canadian residential electricity prices are among the lowest of the industrialized countries, and tend to be lowest in hydro-rich provinces. Most hydro-rich provinces have surplus energy available for domestic and international trade. Some provinces are undergoing basic changes with respect to the restructuring of their markets through the unbundling of power generation, transmission and distribution services. 53 figs

  4. Towards an E-market Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivang, Reimer; Hinson, Robert; Somasundaram, Ramanathan

    2006-01-01

    on the literature survey and ídentification of gaps in the present e-market definitive models, the authors postulate a preliminary e-market reference model. Originality/ Value: Through synthesizing the e-market literature, and by taking into account contemporary e-market developments, key dimensions that define......Purpose: Seeks to argue that there are problems associated with e-market definitive efforts and consequently seeks proposes a new e-market model. Design/methodology/Approach: Paper based largely on literature survey and an assessment of the existing e-market conceptualizations. Findings: Based...

  5. Assessing Internet addiction using the parsimonious Internet addiction components model - a preliminary study [forthcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Shorter, GW; Van Rooij, AJ; Griffiths, MD; Schoenmakers, T

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (2005), i...

  6. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...

  7. Preliminary Marine Safety Risk Assessment, Brandon Road Lock and Dam Invasive Species Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Decision makers must include control-measure monitoring and emergency “interventions” to insure safety. The Coast Guard operational commanders...system” incorporates a travelling car on a rail above the barge-loading wharf to prevent loading personnel, cargo surveyors, or others from falling...to the Gulf of Mexico . As “Loopers”, they will have already transited the CSSC electric barriers. Preliminary Marine Safety Risk Assessment, BRLD

  8. Preliminary assessment of the possibility of supporting the decomposition of biodegradable packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Niekraś Lidia; Moliszewska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary evaluation of the possibility of using grass biomass from a sports field as a compost ingredient which positively affects the degree of decomposition of the biodegradable wrappings. For 5 months the biodegradable bags were stored, both empty and filled with organic waste in the heap of grass clippings. After that period, fragments of the bags were observed under the microscope and then assessed the state of their decomposition. The results indicate that the...

  9. Preliminary Shielding Assessment for the IFF System in the RAON Heavy-ion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Woo; Lee, Youngouk; Kim, Jong Won; Kim, Mijung

    2014-01-01

    A heavy-ion accelerator facility is under a development in Korea to use in the basic science research and various application areas. In this facility, the In-Flight Fragment (IFF) target and isotope separator has been designed to produce various isotopes and transport the interesting isotopes into the experimental rooms. In this work, preliminary radiation shielding assessment was performed for the IFF target room

  10. The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of technical complexity, tight coupling, speed, and human fallibility contribute to the unexpected failure of large-scale energy technologies. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the social and economic costs of major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It documents 279 incidents that have been responsible for $41 billion in property damage and 182,156 deaths. Such disasters highlight an often-ignored negative externality to energy production and use, and emphasize the need for further research

  11. Preliminary Safeguards Assessment for the Pebble-Bed Fluoride High-Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR) Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disser, Jay; Arthur, Edward; Lambert, Janine

    2016-09-01

    This report examines a preliminary design for a pebble bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (PB-FHR) concept, assessing it from an international safeguards perspective. Safeguards features are defined, in a preliminary fashion, and suggestions are made for addressing further nuclear materials accountancy needs.

  12. The opening of electricity and gas retail markets - Assessment 2009, Assessment 2010, Assessment 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Three articles present and comment data related to the evolution of the electricity and gas retail markets after their opening in July 2007 and during respectively 2009, 2010 and 2011. This evolution is notably addressed in terms of number of residential and non-residential clients and sites, in terms of annual consumption for residential and non-residential sites, and in terms of site location in France

  13. High-temperature gas reactor (HTGR) market assessment, synthetic fuels analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This study is an update of assessments made in TRW's October 1979 assessment of overall high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) markets in the future synfuels industry (1985 to 2020). Three additional synfuels processes were assessed. Revised synfuel production forecasts were used. General environmental impacts were assessed. Additional market barriers, such as labor and materials, were researched. Market share estimates were used to consider the percent of markets applicable to the reference HTGR size plant. Eleven HTGR plants under nominal conditions and two under pessimistic assumptions are estimated for selection by 2020. No new HTGR markets were identified in the three additional synfuels processes studied. This reduction in TRW's earlier estimate is a result of later availability of HTGR's (commercial operation in 2008) and delayed build up in the total synfuels estimated markets. Also, a latest date for HTGR capture of a synfuels market could not be established because total markets continue to grow through 2020. If the nominal HTGR synfuels market is realized, just under one million tons of sulfur dioxide effluents and just over one million tons of nitrous oxide effluents will be avoided by 2020. Major barriers to a large synfuels industry discussed in this study include labor, materials, financing, siting, and licensing. Use of the HTGR intensifies these barriers

  14. Assessment of the candidate markets for liquid boiler fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Liquid fuels can be produced from coal in a number of indirect and direct liquefaction processes. While indirect coal liquefaction has been proved commercially outside the United States, most attention in this country has focused on the direct liquefaction processes, which include the processes under examination in this report; namely, the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), the H-Coal, and the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) II processes. The objectives of the study were to: compare the boiler fuels of direct coal liquefaction with residual fuel oil (No. 6 fuel oil) including physical characteristics and environmental hazards, such as carcinogenic characteristics and toxic hazard characteristics; determine whether a boiler fuel market would exist for the coal liquefaction products given their physical characteristics and potential environmental hazards; determine the advantages of utilizing methanol as a boiler fuel on a continuous basis in commercial boilers utilizing existing technology; identify the potential regional candidate markets for direct coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the distributing and handling costs associated with marketing coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the current regulatory issues associated with the marketing of coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels; and determine and evaluate other institutional issues associated with the marketing of direct coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels.

  15. Natural gas prices in the Maritimes : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply and price of natural gas in the Maritimes. This report contains the results and analysis of a survey of the wholesale natural gas prices paid by Canadian buyers in the Maritimes from November 2002 to October 2003. The objective of the report is to improve the understanding of the market factors that influence wholesale natural gas prices in the Maritimes. A comparative evaluation of domestic and export prices shows that Canadian buyers have had access to gas at prices similar to the export market at St. Stephen, New Brunswick. Since the number of participants in the domestic market is low, only four large buyers have a major impact on average prices in the region. The challenge for small buyers will be to buy gas from others who can divert some of their own sales of use. However, these sellers may not want to over-commit to new firm sales in case they have to re-purchase the gas during shortages that may occur due to fluctuations in production or shipping. It was noted that a new gas supply into the region would support many buyers and sellers, and could lead to a more transparent Maritime natural gas market. The National Energy Board is satisfied that the Maritime natural gas market is currently performing as well as can be expected, given its young stage of development. 1 tab., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  16. Preliminary risk assessment of Power Plant Plomin site contaminated by radioactive slag and ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Sinka, D.; Lokner, V.; Schaller, A.

    1996-01-01

    There is a certain number of radioactively contaminated sites in the Republic of Croatia, one of them being known as Power Plant Plomin site, which contains radioactive slag and ash. Due to a relatively high quantity of the deposited material, as well as relatively high population density of the neighbouring area, it is very important to assess the impact of the site on human health and environment. Using RESRAD computer code and PATHRAE method a preliminary assessment of doses and radiation risks for the workers who spend most of their working day at the pile has been performed. PATHRAE method has also been used for the assessment of radiation risks for the neighbouring population. The assessment is preliminary in its character due to the lack of input data. On the basis of assessment results, recommendations are being given comprising measurements to be taken with a view to coming up with the final risk assessment, as well as protective measures which should be undertaken in the meantime. (author)

  17. Hybrid Storage Market Assessment: A JISEA White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Sean J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rose, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jayaswal, Harshit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffery [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Glassmire, John [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States); Klawiter, Steffi [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States); Rajasekaran, Dhiwaakar [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    This white paper evaluates which markets are best suited for battery storage and storage hybrids and reviews regulations and incentives that support or impede the implementation of standalone storage and battery hybrids. The costs of battery storage technologies have dropped in recent years, resulting in a seven-fold increase in installed capacity over the last decade (1). These technologies offer an attractive rate of return in some locations; however, cost and regulatory barriers still limit the market for storage. Hybridizing a battery (combining the battery with a generator) can in some instances reduce total system costs and increase value compared to separate installations. The fast ramping and dispatchability of a battery can complement the generator to provide services that neither battery nor generator could provide alone. Battery hybrids also benefit from some policy incentives and may be better able to meet market and regulatory requirements.

  18. Identifying and assessing the factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing in communication industry companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghotbifar, Fereshteh; Marjani, Mohammad Reza; Ramazani, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications indust...

  19. A New Human-Derived Acellular Dermal Matrix for Breast Reconstruction Available for the European Market: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folli, Secondo; Curcio, Annalisa; Melandri, Davide; Bondioli, Elena; Rocco, Nicola; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Falcini, Fabio; Purpura, Valeria; Mingozzi, Matteo; Buggi, Federico; Marongiu, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    The introduction of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) contributed to the growing diffusion of direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (DTI-BR) following mastectomy for breast cancer. According to specific legislations, European specialists could not benefit from the use of human-derived ADMs, even though most evidence in the literature are available for this kind of device, showed optimal outcomes in breast reconstruction. The Skin Bank of the Bufalini Hospital (Cesena, Italy) obtained in 2009 the approval for the production and distribution of a new human cadaver-donor-derived ADM (named with the Italian acronym, MODA, for matrice omologa dermica acellulata) from the Italian National Transplant Center and National Health Institute. We report preliminary results of MODA application in direct-to-implant breast reconstruction following nipple-areola complex (NAC)-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer treatment. We prospectively enrolled all women undergoing NAC-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer and DTI-BR in our breast surgical unit from June 2015 to January 2017. We enrolled a selected population without previous chest wall irradiation, not being heavy tobacco smokers or diabetic, with a BMI MODA in direct-to-implant breast reconstruction following NAC-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer treatment. This is particularly relevant for the European market, where no other human-derived devices are available for breast reconstruction due to regulatory restrictions. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  20. Assessing the effectiveness of consumer narratives for destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Park, S.; Fesenmaier, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Using tourists' stories to promote destinations is believed to be an innovative approach in destination marketing. This study conceptualizes and investigates the effectiveness of such an approach. This study supports the underlying premise of introducing narrative in marketing, that is......, the narrative reasoning that human beings possess with which they can retrieve information better through a story. Furthermore, it is argued that the increased knowledge of a destination will have a stronger effect on the intention to visit a destination if the audiences can identify themselves with the story...

  1. Mexico's Geothermal Market Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Sarah [Booth Clean Energy LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Graves, Andrew [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2017-03-29

    This report is intended to help U.S. companies in the geothermal sector understand potential business opportunities created by recent changes in the Mexican energy market and regulatory environment. can also provide a variety of technology products and services for export into the Mexican market. This report will help U.S. companies identify the many public and private sector stakeholders in the United States and Mexico, which can help U.S. companies navigate the new regulatory and permitting environment, build new partnerships, and identify vehicles for financial assistance and risk mitigation.

  2. Site Characterization and Preliminary Performance Assessment Calculation Applied To JAEA-Horonobe URL Site of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Doo Hyun; Hatanaka, Koichiro; Ishii, Eiichi

    2010-01-01

    JAEA-Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is designed for research and development on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in sedimentary rock. For a potential HLW repository, understanding and implementing fracturing and faulting system, with data from the site characterization, into the performance assessment is essential because fracture and fault will be the major conductors or barriers for the groundwater flow and radionuclide release. The objectives are i) quantitative derivation of characteristics and correlation of fracturing/faulting system with geologic and geophysics data obtained from the site characterization, and ii) preliminary performance assessment calculation with characterized site information

  3. Site Characterization and Preliminary Performance Assessment Calculation Applied To JAEA-Horonobe URL Site of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Doo Hyun [NE Union Hill Road, Suite 200, WA 98052 (United States); Hatanaka, Koichiro; Ishii, Eiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    JAEA-Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is designed for research and development on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in sedimentary rock. For a potential HLW repository, understanding and implementing fracturing and faulting system, with data from the site characterization, into the performance assessment is essential because fracture and fault will be the major conductors or barriers for the groundwater flow and radionuclide release. The objectives are i) quantitative derivation of characteristics and correlation of fracturing/faulting system with geologic and geophysics data obtained from the site characterization, and ii) preliminary performance assessment calculation with characterized site information

  4. Needs assessment as a marketing strategy: an experience for baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, R; Goldrick, B

    1991-04-01

    A marketing needs assessment was undertaken as a community health project for baccalaureate nursing students. The objective of the project were: (1) to conduct a needs assessment utilizing the concepts of marketing in health planning, and (2) to identify health needs of a community based on active participation by members of the community. Through a collaborative effort with a community health agency, students were able to integrate the principles of marketing and participative decision-making into a learning experience. The results of the needs assessment provided the agency with valuable information for strategic planning.

  5. Transferring Road Maps for Learning and Assessment Procedures to Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberger, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Learning is a lifelong process. It is therefore worthwhile looking at instances where learning takes place outside educational institutions and see how educational principles can be applied there. In a market economy companies have to quest for profit to ensure their long-term survival. In the end, their educational goals have to serve themselves.…

  6. A Journal-Neutral Ratio for Marketing Faculty Scholarship Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeck, Matt; Baruca, Arne

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a journal-neutral Publication to Citation Ratio (PCR) to complement qualitative methods to evaluate a marketing educator's scholarship for reappointment, promotion, tenure, and post-tenure review (RPTP) decisions. We empirically establish a minimum time period to evaluate scholarship data, then benchmark publication and…

  7. Real-time traveler information market assessment white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    This report takes a multi-modal look at the lay of the land of the real-time traveler information : market in the United States. This includes identification and characterization of the gaps in the : domestic industry with respect to data cover...

  8. The 1993 timber assessment market model: structure, projections, and policy simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius M. Adams; Richard W. Haynes

    1996-01-01

    The 1993 timber assessment market model (TAMM) is a spatial model of the solidwood and timber inventory elements of the U.S. forest products sector. The TAMM model provides annual projections of volumes and prices in the solidwood products and sawtimber stumpage markets and estimates of total timber harvest and inventory by geographic region for periods of up to 50...

  9. Cheap versus expensive trades: Assessing the determinants of market impact costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.; van der Sluis, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses the determinants of market impact costs of institutional equity trades, using unique data from the world's second largest pension fund. We allow the impact of trade characteristics and market conditions on trading costs to depend on the level of trading costs itself and establish

  10. EMAIL MARKETING CAMPAIGNS: THE EASIEST PATH FROM ORGANIZATIONS TO CONSUMERS – AN EXPLORATORY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The email is a valuable marketing tool for conveying short, simple messages that call for action on behalf of the recipient. Usually companies develop email marketing campaigns for attracting new customers, persuading the existing customers to buy again, encourage customer loyalty, announce or remind about special offers or events. For an email marketing campaign to be efficient, it is wanted a greater number of responses from those in the target. The paper assesses in an exploratory manner the frequency in using the email accounts, the level of exposure to email marketing campaigns as well as the type of information wanted to be received by the Romanian users.

  11. An assessment of the watch market in the Gulf Cooperation Council, with a view to develop a model for entering a new brand in this market

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. Increased environmental pressure in a firms' local market are forcing many companies to consider markets outside of their own to do maximize their profitability. According to Henisz (2000) when expanding internationally, a firm's management often must contend with a new culture, a new language, a new social system, new market structures, and a new political system. Titan, a premier brand in the Indian sub-continent aspires to assess the Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC) market for wa...

  12. Egypt--United States cooperative energy assessment: report on preliminary discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Egyptian and U.S. Government representatives met in Cairo during the period of February 14-22, 1978 to discuss a cooperative Egypt-U.S. assessment of the energy demand and supply options available to Egypt. This report summarizes those preliminary discussions. The discussions accomplished the following: the background and objectives of the U.S. initiative for a cooperative energy assessment with Egypt were explained; Egyptian electric energy activities and their priorities were presented; methods under consideration for the systematic identification and assessment of energy options available to Egypt were explained; the cooperation of Egyptian energy resource and planning organizations was assured; and arrangements to carry out the cooperative assessment were planned.

  13. Assessing Differentiating Aspects of Karaj Citizens' Orientation to Buy from Fruits and Vegetables Market and Its Parallel Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aghasafari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to assess distinct aspects of citizens' intention to buy fruits and vegetables from municipal markets and its parallel markets within Karaj city. The required data was collected by completing 150 questionnaires from Karaj citizens in 2013. Using the multi-Group discriminant analysis, analysis ofthe study results within the three groups including buyers from municipal markets, local shops and fruit pickups show that possibility for non-cash payment, presenting printed purchase receipts, a higher quality of product, degree of fruit importance in the household basket, seller’s behaviour, more openning hours, use the benefit of the more familiar seller, and length of time allocated to buy fruit play the greatest role in making a distinction between two groups of buyers including buyers from local shops and buyers from municipal markets against buyers from fruit pickups. In addition, the results of this study indicate that monthly household expenditures, number of monthly fruit purchase, possibility for customers to select his desired items , a reasonable price comapared to the product’s quality, appropriate packing, education, how often a household buy fruits in a month a wide variety of products, trust to the offered prices, distance to the market play the greatest role in making a distinction between two groups of buyers from local shops and buyers from municipal markets, respectively. Ultimately, it is suggested to train sellers how to behave properly withcustomers. In addition, it should be paid more attention to appropriate packing and to make it possible for the citizens to select their desired items themselves.

  14. Criteria for safety related nuclear plant operator actions: a preliminary assessment of available data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Bott, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    The need for a quantitative data base on the reliability of nuclear power plant operators has long been recognised by human factors and reliability analysts, and the great need for further assessment of operator performance under accident conditions has been dramatically emphasised by the incident at Three Mile Island-2. In the US, an effort has been under way for a number of years to develop a design standard to define when required manual operator action can be accepted as part of a nuclear plant design basis. To provide the necessary data base to support such standards and the necessary quantitative assessment of operator reliability, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop the data base. A preliminary assessment, completed in April 1979, concluded that sufficient data from US operating experience did not exist to provide an adequate data base. A programme of research using full-scope nuclear plant simulators and results that are correlated to field data was suggested. That programme was recently initiated. This paper reviews the approach, results and conclusions of the preliminary assessment and summarises the planned research programme of simulator studies. (author)

  15. The Risk Assessment Study for Electric Power Marketing Competitiveness Based on Cloud Model and TOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cunbin; Wang, Yi; Lin, Shuaishuai

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of the energy internet and the deepening of the electric power reform, the traditional marketing mode of electric power does not apply to most of electric power enterprises, so must seek a breakthrough, however, in the face of increasingly complex marketing information, how to make a quick, reasonable transformation, makes the electric power marketing competitiveness assessment more accurate and objective becomes a big problem. In this paper, cloud model and TOPSIS method is proposed. Firstly, build the electric power marketing competitiveness evaluation index system. Then utilize the cloud model to transform the qualitative evaluation of the marketing data into quantitative values and use the entropy weight method to weaken the subjective factors of evaluation index weight. Finally, by TOPSIS method the closeness degrees of alternatives are obtained. This method provides a novel solution for the electric power marketing competitiveness evaluation. Through the case analysis the effectiveness and feasibility of this model are verified.

  16. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haves, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDonald, S. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Torcellini, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hansen, D. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Holmberg, D. R. [National Institute of Science and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Roth, K. W. [TIAX, LLC, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  17. Current assessment and future potential of the international nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    This is a study of the current and future situation of the international nuclear market. This paper highlights the projections as seen not only by Bechtel Power Corporation, but also by the international nuclear community. It covers in particular the electric power growth projection; the percentage of probable nuclear power generation; operating services for existing nuclear power plants; and the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr

  18. Assessing the options for a competitive electricity market in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishler, A.; Newman, J.; Spekterman, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    In July 2006, the Israeli government affirmed its 2003 decision to reform the Israeli electricity industry, currently dominated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC), a government-owned vertically integrated electric utility. The reform calls for the deregulation and privatization of the generation and customer service segments of the industry, leaving transmission and distribution (T and D) regulated to provide open access to all end-users. This paper projects the performance of the post-reform market structure for the period 2007-2030 relative to that of the status quo. The post-reform generation market's prices are determined according to the Cournot conjecture. To mitigate excessive price volatility and surges, the generation market also includes a firm that is contracted to make peak electricity sales to customers at a pre-determined price, only when the competitive price exceeds the pre-determined level. Our results show (a) the post-reform retail prices for end-users will exceed those under the status quo; (b) the post-reform profits may not be sufficient to keep firms operating combined cycle generation units financially viable; and (c) the net benefit from deregulating the electricity sector in Israel will most likely be negative. (author)

  19. Preliminary safety assessment study for the conceptual design of a repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.L.; Gram, H.F.; Hong, K.J.; Ng, H.S.; Pendergrass, A.M.

    1984-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of the upper bounds on postulated worst-case radiological releases resulting from possible accidents during the operating period of a prospective repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain are presented. Possible disrupting events are screened to identify the accidents of greatest potential consequence. The radiological dose commitments for the general public and repository personnel are estimated for postulated releases caused by natural phenomena, man-made events, and operational accidents. All postulated worst-case releases result in doses to the public that are lower than the 0.5-rem, whole-body dose-per-accident limit set by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 60. Doses to repository personnel are within the NRC's 5.0-rem/yr occupational exposure limit set in 10 CFR 20 for normal operations. Doses are within this limit for all accidents except the transportation accident and fire in a drift. A preliminary risk assessment has also been performed. Based on this preliminary safety study, the proposed site boundaries and design criteria routinely used in constructing nuclear facilities appear to be adequate to protect the safety of the general public during the operating phase of the repository

  20. USING OF MULTI-CRITERIAL EVALUATION METHODS TO ASSESS POSITION OF THE OBJECT IN THE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ižaríková

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the evaluation of the firm's position. Recognition of market position among competitors but also among customers is important for the development of the company. A comparison can be made by using multicriterial methods. The ranking of companies is based on different methods (method of simple order, weighted order sum method, point methods, standardized variable method. Compliance order will be assessed by the rank correlation coefficients. Acquired assessment of market state allows us to design a strategic.

  1. Interactive Block Games for Assessing Children's Cognitive Skills: Design and Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiju Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents design and results from preliminary evaluation of Tangible Geometric Games (TAG-Games for cognitive assessment in young children. The TAG-Games technology employs a set of sensor-integrated cube blocks, called SIG-Blocks, and graphical user interfaces for test administration and real-time performance monitoring. TAG-Games were administered to children from 4 to 8 years of age for evaluating preliminary efficacy of this new technology-based approach.Methods: Five different sets of SIG-Blocks comprised of geometric shapes, segmented human faces, segmented animal faces, emoticons, and colors, were used for three types of TAG-Games, including Assembly, Shape Matching, and Sequence Memory. Computational task difficulty measures were defined for each game and used to generate items with varying difficulty. For preliminary evaluation, TAG-Games were tested on 40 children. To explore the clinical utility of the information assessed by TAG-Games, three subtests of the age-appropriate Wechsler tests (i.e., Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Concept were also administered.Results: Internal consistency of TAG-Games was evaluated by the split-half reliability test. Weak to moderate correlations between Assembly and Block Design, Shape Matching and Matrix Reasoning, and Sequence Memory and Picture Concept were found. The computational measure of task complexity for each TAG-Game showed a significant correlation with participants' performance. In addition, age-correlations on TAG-Game scores were found, implying its potential use for assessing children's cognitive skills autonomously.

  2. The Challenge of Assessing Creative Problem Solving in Client-Based Marketing Development Projects: A SOLO Taxonomy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskari, Minna-Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Creativity and marketing imagination are essential core competencies for marketers. Therefore, higher marketing education emphasizes creativity in several ways. However, assessing creativity and creative problem solving is challenging and tools for this purpose have not been developed in the context of marketing education. To address this gap, we…

  3. An Instrument to Assess Self-Statements During Public Speaking: Scale Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2006-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the “Positive Self-Statements” (SSPS-P) and the “Negative Self-Statements” subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument. PMID:16763666

  4. Preliminary assessment of the possibility of supporting the decomposition of biodegradable packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niekraś Lidia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a preliminary evaluation of the possibility of using grass biomass from a sports field as a compost ingredient which positively affects the degree of decomposition of the biodegradable wrappings. For 5 months the biodegradable bags were stored, both empty and filled with organic waste in the heap of grass clippings. After that period, fragments of the bags were observed under the microscope and then assessed the state of their decomposition. The results indicate that the biomass used favourably affected the process of bag degradation, however the speed of decomposition of the empty bags was quicker than the bags filled with the organic waste.

  5. Preliminary psycometric assessment of the Brazilian version of the DISABKIDS Atopic Dermatitis Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deon, Keila Cristiane; Santos, Danielle Maria de Souza Sério dos; Bullinger, Monika; Santos, Claudia Benedita dos

    2011-12-01

    To assess preliminary psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of a questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis. Cross-sectional study with a sample consisting of 52 children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 diagnosed with atopic dermatitis, and their parents or caregivers, selected at the dermatology department of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil, in 2009. Construct validity, internal consistency and agreement between the responses of children and adolescents and their parents or caregivers were assessed in the Brazilian Portuguese version of the DISABKIDS-Atopic Dermatitis Module (ADM). Adequate internal consistency was found with Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.7024/0.8124 and 0.7239/0.8604. The multitrait multimethod analysis for assessing convergent validity showed measures higher than 0.30 for all items. The analysis showed good discriminant validity. Agreement between child self-report and parent proxy-report was evaluated using intra-class correlation with measures impact and social stigma of disease of 0.8173 and 0.7629, respectively. The study results showed that the DISABKIDS-ADM can be used by Brazilian researchers after its complete validation as it showed adequate preliminary psychometric properties and can be considered a valid, reliable instrument.

  6. Assessment of the world market for small and medium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    In the past decades, the major focus for nuclear power has been the design and construction of nuclear plants of ever increasing size. This was appropriate for many industrialized countries, which could readily add generation capability to their electrical grids in large increments. However, recently there has been an increasing emphasis on the development of small and medium reactors especially to meet needs in developing countries where electrical grids cannot accept the additional capacity of a large nuclear plant. The paper presents an estimation of the world market for small and medium sized reactors giving the basic assumptions, criteria, scope, methods and important factors. (author)

  7. Measuring Exposure to Protobacco Marketing and Media: A Field Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Deborah M.; Setodji, Claude M.; Shadel, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to validate ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as a method for measuring exposure to tobacco-related marketing and media and to use this method to provide detailed descriptive data on college students’ exposure to protobacco marketing and media. Methods: College students (n = 134; ages 18–24 years) recorded their exposures to protobacco marketing and media on handheld devices for 21 consecutive days. Participants also recalled exposures to various types of protobacco marketing and media at the end of the study period. Results: Retrospectively recalled and EMA-based estimates of protobacco marketing exposure captured different information. The correlation between retrospectively recalled and EMA-logged exposures to tobacco marketing and media was moderate (r = .37, p marketing through multiple channels in a relatively short period: Exposures (M = 8.24, SD = 7.85) occurred primarily in the afternoon (42%), on weekends (35%), and at point-of-purchase locations (68%) or in movies/TV (20%), and exposures to Marlboro, Newport, and Camel represented 56% of all exposures combined and 70% of branded exposures. Conclusions: Findings support the validity of EMA as a method for capturing detailed information about youth exposure to protobacco marketing and media that are not captured through other existing methods. Such data have the potential to highlight areas for policy change and prevention in order to reduce the impact of tobacco marketing on youth. PMID:22039076

  8. Measuring exposure to protobacco marketing and media: a field study using ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Steven C; Scharf, Deborah M; Setodji, Claude M; Shadel, William G

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to validate ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as a method for measuring exposure to tobacco-related marketing and media and to use this method to provide detailed descriptive data on college students' exposure to protobacco marketing and media. College students (n = 134; ages 18-24 years) recorded their exposures to protobacco marketing and media on handheld devices for 21 consecutive days. Participants also recalled exposures to various types of protobacco marketing and media at the end of the study period. Retrospectively recalled and EMA-based estimates of protobacco marketing exposure captured different information. The correlation between retrospectively recalled and EMA-logged exposures to tobacco marketing and media was moderate (r = .37, p marketing through multiple channels in a relatively short period: Exposures (M = 8.24, SD = 7.85) occurred primarily in the afternoon (42%), on weekends (35%), and at point-of-purchase locations (68%) or in movies/TV (20%), and exposures to Marlboro, Newport, and Camel represented 56% of all exposures combined and 70% of branded exposures. Findings support the validity of EMA as a method for capturing detailed information about youth exposure to protobacco marketing and media that are not captured through other existing methods. Such data have the potential to highlight areas for policy change and prevention in order to reduce the impact of tobacco marketing on youth.

  9. Identifying and assessing the factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing in communication industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ghotbifar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications industry to identify most important skill gaps in digital marketing and factors affecting them; also, managers and specialists of these companies were investigated to determine the role of identified factors in reducing skills gaps. Using localized questionnaire and interviewing with ten experts who were selected by Delphi snowball method, the skill gaps in marketing and factors affecting them were identified. Also, a researcher made questionnaire with 32 questions was distributed among 226 employees to investigate the identified factors role in reducing skills gap in digital marketing. The results showed that from four identified factors, the components including operational strategic factors and environmental factors had direct and positive impact on creating skill gap in digital marketing of studied companies. The environmental factors such as social and cultural conditions, religion, technology, and economy had more proactive impact on skills gap in digital marketing. Also, the results showed that among skills gaps in digital marketing of studied companies, the skills (Principles of Communication and (Predicting Future had the highest and lowest gaps, respectively.

  10. Natural gas market assessment. Canadian natural gas market mechanisms: Recent experiences and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The increase in natural gas demand and the associated expansions of most of the pipeline systems serving western Canada have reduced the excess deliverability or excess productive capacity that existed at the time of deregulation of the natural gas industry in 1985. Based on an industry survey, the responses of natural gas buyers and sellers to recent supply difficulties are described. Specific production, transportation, and contractual difficulties were encountered in winter 1992/93 as production was stretched to meet record levels of demand during periods of very cold temperatures and as short-term spot prices reached very high levels. Problems at this time included wellhead freezeups, pipeline outages, and inadequate contract terms and conditions. Methods used to maintain gas flows to end users are reviewed, including a discussion of force majeure, spot gas purchases, storage, supply curtailment, and special loan arrangements. In 1992/93, in most instances where the responsibility fell on the end-user to solve the supply problem, the difficulty was shifted to local distribution companies who have traditionally had more experience with such situations. No cases were identified where either a firm or interruptible end-user was forced to curtail gas consumption because of inadequate supply. New market mechanisms are emerging that will enable buyers and sellers of western Canadian gas to avoid many of the problems encountered in 1992/93. These include prearranged backstopping arrangements, short-term spot markets, access to other gas basins, standardized gas contracts, electronic trading, and price risk management tools. 11 figs

  11. Qualitative assessment of imported frozen fish fillets in Sulaimani markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.K. Khidhir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the quality of frozen fish fillets sold in Sulaimani city markets a total number of (64 sample of frozen fish fillets belonged to 4 foreign trademarks were collected from different parts of Sulaimani markets. The samples were subjected to physical and chemical tests to determine their quality and suitability for human consumption. The proximate chemical analysis referred to presence of significant differences in moisture, fat and protein content among the four trademarks except for ash content. While the physical indices showed that White fish fillets recorded the lowest thawing and cooking loss which in return recorded the highest WHC. Chemical indices showed that the pH mean values of Myanmar and Flander mark were significantly differed (P<0.05 than Hasson and White fish fillet, Although, the results of FFA recorded no significant differences among the trademarks, and Flander mark recorded the highest PV and TBA among the other which made it significantly differed than them and White fish fillet recorded the lowest, still, they were within the international standard limits. Where, the results of TVN values recorded no significant differences ( among the inspected marks. All obtained results referred to the validity of these fish fillets for human consumption.

  12. Assessment of patient experience with unilateral vocal fold immobility: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David O; McKiever, Monique E; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Jacobson, Barbara; Penson, David F

    2014-09-01

    Systematically moving toward patient-centered care for unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) requires comprehensive understanding of the variability of actual patient experiences. This rigorous qualitative study assesses UVFI-related disability and proposes a preliminary taxonomy of UVFI patient experience. (1) Semistructured interviews and (2) taxonomy development. Consecutive UVFI patients presenting July to September, 2012, prospectively underwent open-ended interviews investigating how UVFI affected their quality of life (QOL) and had caused disability. Comments reported by >20% were synthesized into axes based on content similarity. Variables were arranged into a preliminary taxonomy of UVFI patient experience, which was evaluated for four attributes of face validity. The majority of 39 patients had "extensive" baseline voice use (56%) and an iatrogenic etiology (62%). Taxonomy of patient experience included three main axes of symptomatic classification: (1) voice, (2) swallowing, and (3) breathing-all with intrinsic (physical and emotional) and extrinsic (social) subaxes that describe major impacts on QOL. Voice complaints were 100% penetrant, whereas breathing and swallowing symptoms afflicted 76% and 66%, respectively, of interviewees. Of affected patients, solid and liquid dysphagia was experienced by 70% and 63%, respectively. Of dyspneic patients, shortness of breath existed with talking (97%) and exercise (72%). Persistent throat congestion (76%), weakened cough (62%), globus (62%), and dysfunctional valsalva (41%) were frequent. Patient experience with UVFI has been incompletely characterized. This qualitative assessment and preliminary taxonomy highlight several related patient experiences not well documented in the literature or incorporated into currently available metrics. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing tobacco marketing receptivity among youth: integrating point of sale marketing, cigarette package branding and branded merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sandra; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos, Inti; Mejía, Raúl; Morello, Paola; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    As countries prohibit tobacco marketing through traditional channels, marketing at point of sale (PoS) and through tobacco packaging is increasingly important for promoting tobacco consumption. Assess the validity of a novel marketing receptivity index that considers frequency of PoS exposures, tobacco brand recall and ownership of branded merchandise. Data come from a cross-sectional survey of 3172 secondary school students in Argentina. Questions assessed frequency of going to stores where tobacco is often sold; cued recall of brand names for 3 cigarette packages with brand name removed and ownership of branded merchandise. A four-level marketing receptivity index was derived: low PoS exposure only; high PoS exposure or recall of 1 brand; recall of 2 or more brands; and ownership of branded merchandise. Indicators of marketing receptivity and smoking involvement were regressed on the index, including in adjusted models that controlled for sociodemographics, social influences and sensation seeking. Among never-smokers, the index had independent positive associations with smoking susceptibility (ie, adjusted OR (AOR) 2v1 =1.66; AOR 3v1 =1.64; AOR 4v1 =2.95), willingness to try a specific brand (ie, AOR 2v1 =1.45; AOR 3v1 =2.38; AOR 4v1 =2.20) and positive smoking expectancies (ie, B adj 2v1 =0.09; B adj 3v1 =0.18; B adj 4v1 =0.34). A more marked dose-response independent association was found with current smoking behaviour (ie, AOR 2v1 =2.47; AOR 3v1 =3.16; AOR 4v1 =3.62). The marketing receptivity index was associated with important variation in smoking-related perceptions, intentions and behaviour among Argentine adolescents. Future research should determine the predictive validity and generalisability of this measure to other contexts, including the explanatory power gained by integrating cigarette package brand recognition tasks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Heavy-Water Thorium Reactors in the Brazilian Nuclear Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvo Brito, S. de; Lepecki, W. P.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Radioativas, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    1968-04-15

    Since December 1965, the Instituto de Pesquisas Radioativas has been studying for the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission the feasibility of a thorium reactor programme in Brazil; since June 1966, the programme has been developed in close co-operation with the French Atomic Energy Commission. A reference conceptual design of a heavy-water-cooled and -moderated thorium converter reactor has been developed. The main features of that concept are the use of a prestressed-concrete pressure vessel, integrated arrangement of the primary circuit and the possibility of on-load fuel management. Economic competitiveness could be the result of high compactness, low capital costs and low fuel consumption. The technology involved is not very sophisticated; intensive engineering development work must be done in areas like fuel charge machine, concrete vessel insulation, and proper design of heat exchangers, but it is the feeling of the Group that these problems could be solved without seriously compromising the economic feasibility of the concept. Preliminary studies were made on the alternative use of enriched uranium or plutonium as a feed for the programme; in the latter case, plutonium could be produced in natural uranium reactors of the same type. The general conditions favouring each of these approaches to the thorium cycle have been determined, in particular those related to the costs of the fissile materials in the world market and to the country's policy related to nuclear fuel imports. The results of the preliminary studies are very encouraging and could justify the beginning of a research and development programme leading to the construction of a prototype in the 1970's. (author)

  16. Assessing market competition and vendors' size and scope on AlphaBay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet-Clouston, Masarah; Décary-Hétu, David; Morselli, Carlo

    2018-04-01

    Since 2011, drug market participants have traded illegal drugs through cryptomarkets, a user-friendly infrastructure in which drug market participants can conduct business transactions. This study assesses market competition and the size and scope of drug vendors' activities on one of the largest cryptomarkets, AlphaBay, in order to better understand the challenges that drug vendors face when selling on this venue. Relying on data collected from AlphaBay, we calculate the degree of competition within the drug market using the Herfindhal-Hirshmann Index (HHI). We then follow a micro analytical approach and assess the size and scope of vendors' accounts. This is done by evaluating each vendor's market share over time using a group-based trajectory model (GBTM). Results from the GBTM are then used to assess vendors' exposure, diversity and experience based on their selling position in the market. The HHI scores demonstrate that cryptomarkets offer a highly competitive environment that fits in a top-heavy market structure. However, the distribution of vendors' market share trajectories shows that only a small portion of vendors (referred to as high-level vendors) succeed in generating regular sales, whereas the majority of vendors are relegated to being mere market spectators with almost zero sales. This inequality is exacerbated by the aggressive advertising of high-level vendors who post many listings. Overall, product diversity and experience is limited for all market participants regardless of their level of success. We interpret these results through Reuter's work on traditional illegal markets, e-commerce studies and the growing field of cryptomarket research. We conclude that, while offering a new venue for illegal drug transactions, in many ways, the economics of cryptomarkets for drug dealing are consistent with Reuter's classic assessment of illegal markets and the consequences of product illegality that underlie it. Cryptomarkets conflicting features, a

  17. A preliminary social and economic assessment of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluett, C.; Bolton, P.; York, K.; Wood, M.; Radford, L.

    1981-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the social and economic impacts that could be caused by the construction and operation of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This assessment involved assembling a comprehensive data base for the local Tri-Cities impact area and the surrounding region, establishing a network of local and regional contacts, making preliminary judgments about potential social impacts caused by the proposed repository, and recommending further research. This report concludes that growth effects under the anticipated work force scenario are expected to be relatively minor. With a strong public involvement program on the part of the project developers, including an ongoing dialogue with local and regional planners, potential socio-economic impacts can be anticipated and managed effectively. Specific recommendations are made for filling gaps in the available data, exploring key issues in more detail, and improving the analysis of social impacts. The report was prepared by the Battelle-Human Affairs Research Center in 1980 and 1981

  18. Preliminary assessment report for Redmond Army National Guard Facility, Installation 53120, Redmond, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard (WAARNG) property in Redmond, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Redmond ARNG property, Phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. The environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) supply/storage of hazardous materials, (2) weapons cleaning, (3) the underground storage tanks (USTs), and (4) the use of herbicides. These ESOs are no longer active because of the closure of OMS 10 activities in 1988

  19. Preliminary feasibility assessment for Earth-to-space electromagnetic (Railgun) launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Earhart, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    An Earth to space electromagnetic (railgun) launcher (ESRL) for launching material into space was studied. Potential ESRL applications were identified and initially assessed to formulate preliminary system requirements. The potential applications included nuclear waste disposal in space, Earth orbital applications, deep space probe launchers, atmospheric research, and boost of chemical rockets. The ESRL system concept consisted of two separate railgun launcher tubes (one at 20 deg from the horizontal for Earth orbital missions, the other vertical for solar system escape disposal missions) powered by a common power plant. Each 2040 m launcher tube is surrounded by 10,200 homopolar generator/inductor units to transmit the power to the walls. Projectile masses are 6500 kg for Earth orbital missions and 2055 kg for nuclear waste disposal missions. For the Earth orbital missions, the projectile requires a propulsion system, leaving an estimated payload mass of 650 kg. For the nuclear waste disposal in space mission, the high level waste mass was estimated at 250 kg. This preliminary assessment included technical, environmental, and economic analyses.

  20. Transportation Electrification Beyond Light Duty: Technology and Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartaglia, Katie [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Birky, Alicia [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Laughlin, Michael [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Price, Rebecca [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Commercial fleets form the backbone of the nation’s economy, getting people and the things they need to the places they need to go and performing services necessary to keep public and private physical infrastructure in working order. Commercial fleets include a wide range of vehicle and equipment types, typical uses, and sizes, and involve millions of on-road and offroad vehicles. This diversity means there is no single solution to the challenges these vehicles pose for reducing petroleum dependence, impact on air quality, and emission of greenhouse gases. This document focuses on electrification of government, commercial, and industrial fleets. These fleets have been divided into three market segments based on equipment use: service fleets, goods movement, and people movement. In particular, it addresses highway vehicles not used for personal transport; non-highway modes, including air, rail, and water; and non-road equipment used directly or in support of these uses.

  1. Preliminary assessment of future refining impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1991-09-01

    A preliminary assessment of the future refining impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has been performed with the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting Systems. The assessment suggests that gasoline reformulation costs in domestic coastal and near-coastal refining regions in the year 2000 could be 3.5 to 5.6 cents per gallon (in terms of 1989 currency). For heating value equivalent to one gallon of conventional gasoline, the regional total added costs (including reformulation costs) for reformulated gasoline could be 5.9 to 8.0 cents. In blending reformulated gasolines, the reduction of butane for lower Reid vapor pressure and the reduction of reformate for lower aromatics are generally compensated by increased percentages of alkylate and/or straight run naphthas. Relatively larger refinery process capacity additions are required for butane isomerization, alkylation, aromatics recovery, and distillate hydrotreating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs

  2. Preliminary assessment of PWR Steam Generator modelling in RELAP5/MOD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, R.J.; Putney, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    A preliminary assessment of Steam Generator (SG) modelling in the PWR thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD3 is presented. The study is based on calculations against a series of steady-state commissioning tests carried out on the Wolf Creek PWR over a range of load conditions. Data from the tests are used to assess the modelling of primary to secondary side heat transfer and, in particular, to examine the effect of reverting to the standard form of the Chen heat transfer correlation in place of the modified form applied in RELAP5/MOD2. Comparisons between the two versions of the code are also used to show how the new interphase drag model in RELAP5/MOD3 affects the calculation of SG liquid inventory and the void fraction profile in the riser

  3. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  4. Systematic Review Protocol for the IRIS Chloroform Assessment (Inhalation) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2018, EPA released the Systematic Review Protocol for the IRIS Chloroform Assessment (Inhalation). As part of developing a draft IRIS assessment, EPA presents a methods document, referred to as the protocol, for conducting a chemical-specific systematic revie...

  5. Thinking about "Think Again" in Canada: assessing a social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Anthony P; Léger, Yves A

    2007-06-01

    The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign.

  6. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  7. Two Years into the Journey: AACSB Assessment of Learning in a "Principles of Marketing" Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Steven R.; Marco, Gayle; Chu, Yun

    2009-01-01

    Using a "Principles of Marketing" course, the authors demonstrate how compliance with AACSB standards and assessment of learning has been undertaken at Robert Morris University over a two-year period. Learning goals and objectives are tied to a specific assessment instrument to provide an illustration of how broad conceptual ideas are…

  8. STRUCTURE OF THE MARKET OF INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS: APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE IMPACT ON EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elagina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of innovation policy innovative economy is impossible without an understanding of the conceptual basis of the efficiency of production of innovative products. In particular, determination of the influence of market structure on the possibility of expanded reproduction of innovative products. The article is devoted to consideration of existing in this field of research and definition of the limits of quantitative assessment of the influence of defects of market structures on efficiency.

  9. Vulnerability Assessments and Resilience Planning at Federal Facilities. Preliminary Synthesis of Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, R. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.; Blohm, A. J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Delgado, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.; Henriques, J. J. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Malone, E L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.

    2015-08-15

    U.S. government agencies are now directed to assess the vulnerability of their operations and facilities to climate change and to develop adaptation plans to increase their resilience. Specific guidance on methods is still evolving based on the many different available frameworks. Agencies have been experimenting with these frameworks and approaches. This technical paper synthesizes lessons and insights from a series of research case studies conducted by the investigators at facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Defense. The purpose of the paper is to solicit comments and feedback from interested program managers and analysts before final conclusions are published. The paper describes the characteristics of a systematic process for prioritizing needs for adaptation planning at individual facilities and examines requirements and methods needed. It then suggests a framework of steps for vulnerability assessments at Federal facilities and elaborates on three sets of methods required for assessments, regardless of the detailed framework used. In a concluding section, the paper suggests a roadmap to further develop methods to support agencies in preparing for climate change. The case studies point to several preliminary conclusions; (1) Vulnerability assessments are needed to translate potential changes in climate exposure to estimates of impacts and evaluation of their significance for operations and mission attainment, in other words into information that is related to and useful in ongoing planning, management, and decision-making processes; (2) To increase the relevance and utility of vulnerability assessments to site personnel, the assessment process needs to emphasize the characteristics of the site infrastructure, not just climate change; (3) A multi-tiered framework that includes screening, vulnerability assessments at the most vulnerable installations, and adaptation design will efficiently target high-risk sites and infrastructure

  10. Regulatory assessment of brand changes in the commercial tobacco product market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, G Ferris; Connolly, G N

    2009-08-01

    Regulatory oversight of tobacco product design has gained momentum in the US and internationally. Appropriate standards for assessing commercial brands and characterising product features must be considered a priority. An area of potential concern is in-market design changes adopted within a single commercial brand over time. Internal tobacco industry documents were identified and used to assess internal discussion of product guidelines and practices regarding in-market brand changes. Commercial tobacco products undergo a constant process of revision in-market, beginning at the most basic level of physical product characteristics and components, and including every aspect of design. These revisions commonly exceed guidelines for acceptable product variance adopted within the industry. While consumer and market testing is conducted to ensure that products remain acceptable to users, explicit marketing often may not accompany brand changes. In the absence of such marketing, it should not be assumed that a brand remains unchanged. For manufacturers, assessment of competitor brands includes identification and analysis of non-routine changes; that is, those changes likely to significantly alter the character of a given brand. Regulators must adopt a similar practice in determining standards for product evaluation in the face of ongoing commercial product revision.

  11. Preliminary report of the Hepatic Encephalopathy Assessment Driving Simulator (HEADS) score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Bey, Edwina S; Stewart, Charmaine A; Mitchell, Mary M; Bida, John P; Rosenthal, Theodore J; Nyberg, Scott L

    2008-01-01

    Audiovisual simulations of real-life driving (ie, driving simulators) have been used to assess neurologic dysfunction in a variety of medical applications. However, the use of simulated driving to assess neurologic impairment in the setting of liver disease (ie, hepatic encephalopathy) is limited. The aim of this analysis was to develop a scoring system based on simulated driving performance to assess mild cognitive impairment in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy. This preliminary analysis was conducted as part of the Hepatic Encephalopathy Assessment Driving Simulator (HEADS) pilot study. Cirrhotic volunteers initially underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests to identify those cirrhotic patients with mild cognitive impairment. Performance during an audiovisually simulated course of on-road driving was then compared between mildly impaired cirrhotic patients and healthy volunteers. A scoring system was developed to quantify the likelihood of cognitive impairment on the basis of data from the simulated on-road driving. Mildly impaired cirrhotic patients performed below the level of healthy volunteers on the driving simulator. Univariate logistic regression and correlation models indicated that several driving simulator variables were significant predictors of cognitive impairment. Five variables (run time, total map performance, number of collisions, visual divided attention response, and average lane position) were incorporated into a quantitative model, the HEADS scoring system. The HEADS score (0-9 points) showed a strong correlation with cognitive impairment as measured by area under the receiver-operator curve (.89). The HEADS system appears to be a promising new tool for the assessment of mild hepatic encephalopathy.

  12. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary as...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours.......The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary...... assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  13. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA's Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6

  14. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Furlan, Marcos R.

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  15. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  16. Effects of Poland’s Pro‑Export Policy Implementation in the Context of the Plan for Responsible Development – a Preliminary Comparative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a preliminary assessment of Poland’s export expansion policy in relation to the export of commodities, which is a result of the Government’s Plan for Responsible Development, in the context of existing barriers and the external and internal conditions reported by small and medium‑sized enterprises sector (SMEs. In the latest ranking of its competitive position in the global market for the period 2016-2017, Poland ranked 36th in the world. It should also be stressed that in this most recent world ranking Poland held the 16th position among EU Member States. A positive phenomenon in relation to Poland’s foreign trade in 2016, as compared to previous years, was that the value of export exceeded import, which allowed for a turnover surplus of nearly EUR 4.8 billion, i.e. two times higher than in 2015. In 2016 (and also in the first half of 2017 there was a favorable diversification of Polish export, demonstrating an increase in export to non‑EU markets of economically developed countries. After two years of relatively slow growth, export to this group of countries in 2016 increased by 5.6% (to EUR 12 billion, i.e. nearly 2.5 times faster than the total export. Despite the tariff‑free and quota‑free access to the single European market, there are still limits and barriers to the free movement of goods, and especially services. There are also many internal barriers in small and medium‑sized enterprises’ export to foreign markets, which limit their export expansion. Despite the gradual increase in export observed in recent years, the internationalization of non‑Polish enterprises is still much lower than in Western European countries. As a result, the share of Polish SMEs in the EU market is one third smaller than the EU average.

  17. Consensus modeling to develop the farmers' market readiness assessment and decision instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunlye; Dalton, Jarrod; Ngendahimana, David; Bebo, Pat; Davis, Ashley; Remley, Daniel; Smathers, Carol; Freedman, Darcy A

    2017-09-01

    Nutrition-related policy, system, and environmental (PSE) interventions such as farmers' markets have been recommended as effective strategies for promoting healthy diet for chronic disease prevention. Tools are needed to assess community readiness and capacity factors influencing successful farmers' market implementation among diverse practitioners in different community contexts. We describe a multiphase consensus modeling approach used to develop a diagnostic tool for assessing readiness and capacity to implement farmers' market interventions among public health and community nutrition practitioners working with low-income populations in diverse contexts. Modeling methods included the following: phase 1, qualitative study with community stakeholders to explore facilitators and barriers influencing successful implementation of farmers' market interventions in low-income communities; phase 2, development of indicators based on operationalization of qualitative findings; phase 3, assessment of relevance and importance of indicators and themes through consensus conference with expert panel; phase 4, refinement of indicators based on consensus conference; and phase 5, pilot test of the assessment tool. Findings illuminate a range of implementation factors influencing farmers' market PSE interventions and offer guidance for tailoring intervention delivery based on levels of community, practitioner, and organizational readiness and capacity.

  18. EMPLOYEES COMPETITIVENESS ASSESSMENT ON INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL LABOUR MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ismailova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of foreign and domestic research to the approaches of employees assessment in terms of their competitiveness. Based on the experience of large industrial enterprises the dominant elements that form employee competitiveness were determined. A different methodology that takes into account the impact of economic globalization was given. Its validity is based on mathematical calculations and use of software.

  19. Adapting the helpful responses questionnaire to assess communication skills involved in delivering contingency management: preliminary psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-08-01

    A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues' (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write 'what they would say next.' In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. System of tactical assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT: Development and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to report the development and preliminary validation of tactical assessment system in Soccer and highlight its advantages. The validation process followed five perspectives of the concept of validity that consider the value of heuristic methods and the importance of the description of behavior performed in playing situations. Thus, the process of validation was focused on four points: i acceptability and reasonableness of the test perceived by players; ii analysis of content of assessment tool through a panel of experts; iii potential of the assessment tool to discriminate the quality of the performance of players; iv observation reliability. The results displayed values higher than 0.63 for correlation between the evaluations of coaches and the system. It shows the potential of this system to distinguish the performances of players based on the evaluations of coaches. The players who performed the field test agreed with its physical demands and spatial and normative configurations. All experts endorsed the categories and variables of this system. The reliabilities showed values higher than 0.79 for intra and inter-observers. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the system is valid and reliable for the assessment of the tactical behavior of soccer players.

  1. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  2. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part II. High Temperature Structural Integrity Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A high temperature structural integrity assessment belongs to the Part II of a whole preliminary guideline for the high temperature structure. The main contents of this guideline are the evaluation procedures of the creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth in high temperature condition, the high temperature LBB evaluation procedure, and the inelastic evaluations of the welded joints in SFR structures. The methodologies for the proper inelastic analysis of an SFR structures in high temperatures are explained and the guidelines of inelastic analysis options using ANSYS and ABAQUS are suggested. In addition, user guidelines for the developed NONSTA code are included. This guidelines need to be continuously revised to improve the applicability to the design and analysis of the SFR structures.

  3. Preliminary assessment of the tritium inventory and permeation in the plasma facing components of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Holland, D.; Brooks, J.; Causey, R.; Dolan, T.J.; Longhurst, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses preliminary quantitative predictions for the tritium inventory in- and permeation through the first-wall and divertor PFC's of ITER. The primary plasma facing material under consideration is beryllium, with possible use of tungsten or carbon fiber composites (CFC's) on high-heat-flux surfaces. They use state-of-the-art tritium transport models, in conjunction with design parameters, and loading conditions anticipated for the first-wall, baffle, limiter and divertor. The analysis includes the synergistic effects of erosion on tritium implantation and trapping, which are expected to play a key role, particularly in the divertor regions where the interaction of the plasma with the surfaces will be most severe. The influence of several key parameters that strongly affect tritium build-up and release is assessed. Finally, they discuss the uncertainties in materials properties under ITER operating conditions and the R and D needed to resolve these uncertainties

  4. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S P [Forskningscente Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Iosjpe, M; Strand, P [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Barents and Kara Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansieverts calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs is found to dominate the doses. (au) 8 tabs., 56 ills., 19 refs.

  5. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Kara and Barents Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario, which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater, is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansievert calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide 137 Cs is found to dominate the doses. 19 refs., 56 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Identification and evaluation of areas of interest (AOIs): A screening tool for CERCLA preliminary assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Allen, K.L.; Smith, L.A.; Schumacher, J.; McDermott, M.

    1994-01-01

    A cost-effective alternative to the traditional Preliminary Assessment (PA) procedure is to identify and evaluate potential Areas of Interest (AOIs) that may become Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites prior to entry into Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability Information System (CERCLIS) and the execution of a PA. AOIs would be identified by using much of the same methodology as would be used for site discovery in a CERCLA investigation, including aerial photograph review, reviews of building drawings, a limited review of historical records, and limited interviews and site visits. Once AOIs have been identified in this manner, decision criteria can be used to ascertain the regulatory status of the AOI and, based on regulatory guidance, whether the site should be considered for further investigation under CERCLA. This approach was used at Griffiss Air Force Base to identify 463 AOIs, where the primary problem was petroleum spills

  7. Effects of energy development on ground water quality: an overview and preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.M. III; Yin, S.C.L.; Davis, M.J.; Kutz, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    A preliminary national overview of the various effects on ground water quality likely to result from energy development. Based on estimates of present and projected energy-development activities, those regions of the country are identified where ground water quality has the potential for being adversely affected. The general causes of change in ground water quality are reviewed. Specific effects on ground water quality of selected energy technologies are discussed, and some case-history material is provided. A brief overview of pertinent legislation relating to the protection and management of ground water quality is presented. Six methodologies that have some value for assessing the potential effects on ground water quality of energy development activities are reviewed. A method of identifying regions in the 48 contiguous states where there is a potential for ground water quality problems is described and then applied

  8. Visual Assessment on Coastal Cruise Tourism: A Preliminary Planning Using Importance Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisutomo, S.

    2017-07-01

    Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) has been widely applied in many cases. In this research, IPA was applied to measure perceive on coastal tourism objects and its possibility to be developed as coastal cruise tourism in Makassar. Three objects, i.e. Akkarena recreational site, Losari public space at waterfront, and Paotere traditional Phinisi ships port, were selected and assessed visually from water area by a group of purposive resource persons. The importance and performance of 10 attributes of each site were scored using Likert scale from 1 to 5. Data were processed by SPSS-21 than resulted Cartesian graph which the scores were divided in four quadrants: Quadrant I concentric here, Quadrant II keep up the good work, Quadrant III low priority, and Quadrant IV possible overkill. The attributes in each quadrant could be considered as the platform for preliminary planning of coastal cruise tour in Makassar

  9. Alternative conceptual models and codes for unsaturated flow in fractured tuff: Preliminary assessments for GWTT-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.K.; Altman, S.J.; Arnold, B.W.

    1995-09-01

    Groundwater travel time (GWTT) calculations will play an important role in addressing site-suitability criteria for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain,Nevada. In support of these calculations, Preliminary assessments of the candidate codes and models are presented in this report. A series of benchmark studies have been designed to address important aspects of modeling flow through fractured media representative of flow at Yucca Mountain. Three codes (DUAL, FEHMN, and TOUGH 2) are compared in these benchmark studies. DUAL is a single-phase, isothermal, two-dimensional flow simulator based on the dual mixed finite element method. FEHMN is a nonisothermal, multiphase, multidimensional simulator based primarily on the finite element method. TOUGH2 is anon isothermal, multiphase, multidimensional simulator based on the integral finite difference method. Alternative conceptual models of fracture flow consisting of the equivalent continuum model (ECM) and the dual permeability (DK) model are used in the different codes

  10. An inventory to assess empathic concern for disability and accessibility: development and preliminary psychometric investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide Miyahara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultivating empathy and prosocial attitude towards disability is a first step for university students to become the leaders of society and professions to create accessible environments and inclusive society. Gauging levels of empathy and prosocial attitude towards disability among the students is important for evaluating the adequacy of disability training and education. We developed and conducted an initial psychometric validation of a novel inventory in Japanese and English languages to assess Empathic Concern for Disability and Accessibility (ECDA in Japan and New Zealand. Preliminary psychometric evaluation indicates strong internal consistency in the Japanese sample (α = .96 and the New Zealand sample (α = .93. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a four-factor solution for both samples. The present study has resulted in the development of the ECDA that demonstrated initial support for internal consistency and construct validity. The ECDA may be used for the cross-cultural comparisons of disability training and education.

  11. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Barents and Kara Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansieverts calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide 137 Cs is found to dominate the doses. (au) 8 tabs., 56 ills., 19 refs

  12. Market Assessment for Capturing Water Conservation Opportunities in the Federal Sector; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Graham B; McMordie-Stoughton, Katherine L; Sullivan, Gregory P; Elliott, Douglas B

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is considering the development of a technology-specific Super-Energy Saving Performance Contract (ESPC) for water conservation. Prior to the development however, FEMP requires the completion of a market assessment to better understand the water conservation opportunities and the strategies available for capturing them. Thus, this market assessment has been undertaken to evaluate the water conservation opportunities and answer the key questions necessary for FEMP to make recommendations on whether or not to proceed with strategies for water conservation primarily through the development of a water conservation technology-specific performance contract

  13. Market Assessment for Capturing Water Conservation Opportunities in the Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mcmordie, Katherine; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2001-08-17

    The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is considering the development of a technology-specific Super-Energy Saving Performance Contract (ESPC) for water conservation. Prior to the development however, FEMP requires the completion of a market assessment to better understand the water conservation opportunities and the strategies available for capturing them. Thus, this market assessment has been undertaken to evaluate the water conservation opportunities and answer the key questions necessary for FEMP to make recommendations on whether or not to proceed with strategies for water conservation primarily through the development of a water conservation technology-specific performance contract.

  14. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space. Volume I. Executive summary of technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, E.E.; Denning, R.S.; Friedlander, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    Three major conclusions come from this preliminary risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal in space. Preliminary estimates of space disposal risk are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated mined geologic repository (MGR) release risks remain low, and the EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort is warranted. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as an MGR complement is warranted. As a result of this study, the following recommendations are made to NASA and the US DOE: During the continued evaluation of the mined geologic repository risk over the years ahead by DOE, if any significant increase in the calculated health risk is predicted for the MGR, then space disposal should be reevaluated at that time. The risks perceived by the public for the MGR should be evaluated on a broad basis by an independent organization to evaluate acceptance. If, in the future, MGR risks are found to be significant due to some presently unknown technical or social factor, and space disposal is selected as an alternative that may be useful in mitigating the risks, then the following space disposal study activities are recommended: improvement in chemical processing technology for wastes; payload accident response analysis; risk uncertainty analysis for both MGR and space disposal; health risk modeling that includes pathway and dose estimates; space disposal cost modeling; assessment of space disposal perceived (by public) risk benefit; and space systems analysis supporting risk and cost modeling

  15. Preliminary assessment of the dose to the interventional radiologist in fluoro-CT-guided procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M. F.; Alves, J. G.; Sarmento, S.; Santos, J. A. M.; Sousa, M. J.; Gouvea, M.; Oliveira, A. D.; Cardoso, J. V.; Santos, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the occupational dose to the intervention radiologist received in fluoroscopy computerised tomography (CT) used to guide the collection of lung and bone biopsies is presented. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of the reading system as well as of the available whole-body (WB) and extremity dosemeters used in routine monthly monitoring periods to measure per procedure dose values. The intervention radiologist was allocated 10 WB detectors (LiF: Mg, Ti, TLD-100) placed at chest and abdomen levels above and below the lead apron, and at both right and left arms, knees and feet. A special glove was developed with casings for the insertion of 11 extremity detectors (LiF:Mg, Cu, P, TLD-100H) for the identification of the most highly exposed fingers. The H p (10) dose values received above the lead apron (ranged 0.20-0.02 mSv) depend mainly on the duration of the examination and on the placement of physician relative to the beam, while values below the apron are relatively low. The left arm seems to receive a higher dose value. H p (0.07) values to the hand (ranged 36.30-0.06 mSv) show that the index, middle and ring fingers are the most highly exposed. In this study, the wrist dose was negligible compared with the finger dose. These results are preliminary and further studies are needed to better characterise the dose assessment in CT fluoroscopy. (authors)

  16. Interdependency Assessment of Coupled Natural Gas and Power Systems in Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongzhao; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Sanhua; Lai, Mingyong; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the technological development of natural gas exploration and the increasing penetration of gas-fired power generation, gas and power systems inevitably interact with each other from both physical and economic points of view. In order to effectively assess the two systems' interdependency, this paper proposes a systematic modeling framework and constructs simulation platforms for coupled gas and power systems in an energy market environment. By applying the proposed approach to the Australian national electricity market (NEM) and gas market, the impacts of six types of market and system factors are quantitatively analyzed, including power transmission limits, gas pipeline contingencies, gas pipeline flow constraints, carbon emission constraints, power load variations, and non-electric gas load variations. The important interdependency and infrastructure weakness for the two systems are well studied and identified. Our work provides a quantitative basis for grid operators and policy makers to support and guide operation and investment decisions for electric power and natural gas industries.

  17. Key tasks in healthcare marketing: assessing importance and current level of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  18. METHOD OF ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPETITION’S LEVEL AMONG FITNESS CLUBS ON THE LOCAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Krasnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the author’s method of assessment of the level of competition among tness clubs on the local market in conditions of limited information about the economic performance of competitors. Reveals the mechanism of dening the boundaries of the local market of the tness club and determine its capacity and structure. Shows the author’s view of possible variants of structure of tness clubs’ market. Presents the coefcients for calculation the limit value of customers of tness clubs for different price market segments. The possibility of applying the proposed methodology is illustrated by the example of the tness club. Demonstrates the necessity of the described methodology for developing the ways of increasing the competitiveness of tness clubs based on price and non-price methods.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the feasibility of using AB words to assess candidacy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Deborah A; Riley, Alison; Ricaud, Rebecca; Verschuur, Carl; Cooper, Stacey; Nunn, Terry; Webb, Kath; Muff, Joanne; Harris, Frances; Chung, Mark; Humphries, Jane; Langshaw, Alison; Poynter-Smith, Emma; Totten, Catherine; Tapper, Lynne; Ridgwell, Jillian; Mawman, Deborah; de Estibariz, Unai Martinez; O'Driscoll, Martin; George, Nicola; Pinto, Francesca; Hall, Anne; Llewellyn, Carol; Miah, Razun; Al-Malky, Ghada; Kitterick, Pádraig T

    2016-04-01

    Adult cochlear implant (CI) candidacy is assessed in part by the use of speech perception measures. In the United Kingdom the current cut-off point to fall within the CI candidacy range is a score of less than 50% on the BKB sentences presented in quiet (presented at 70 dBSPL). The specific goal of this article was to review the benefit of adding the AB word test to the assessment test battery for candidacy. The AB word test scores showed good sensitivity and specificity when calculated based on both word and phoneme scores. The word score equivalent for 50% correct on the BKB sentences was 18.5% and it was 34.5% when the phoneme score was calculated; these scores are in line with those used in centres in Wales (15% AB word score). The goal of the British Cochlear Implant Group (BCIG) service evaluation was to determine if the pre-implant assessment measures are appropriate and set at the correct level for determining candidacy, the future analyses will determine whether the speech perception cut-off point for candidacy should be adjusted and whether other more challenging measures should be used in the candidacy evaluation.

  20. Preliminary Validation of a Parent-Child Relational Framework for Teaching Developmental Assessment to Pediatric Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Michael; Schneiderman, Janet U; Duan, Lei; Ragusa, Gisele

    A parent-child relational framework was used as a method to train pediatric residents in basic knowledge and observation skills for the assessment of child development. Components of the training framework and its preliminary validation as an alternative to milestone-based approaches are described. Pediatric residents were trained during a 4-week clinical rotation to use a semistructured interview and observe parent-child behavior during health visits using clinical criteria for historical information and observed behavior that reflect developmental change in the parent-child relationship. Clinical impressions of concern versus no concern for developmental delay were derived from parent-child relational criteria and the physical examination. A chart review yielded 330 preterm infants evaluated using this methodology at 4 and 15 months corrected age who also had standardized developmental testing at 6 and 18 months corrected age. Sensitivities and specificities were computed to examine the validity of the clinical assessment compared with standardized testing. A subset of residents who completed 50 or more assessments during the rotation was timed at the end of 4 weeks. Parent-child behavioral markers elicited from the history and/or observed during the health visit correlated highly with standardized developmental assessment. Sensitivities and specificities were 0.72/0.98 and 0.87/0.96 at 4 to 6 and 15 to 18 months, respectively. Residents completed their assessments parent-child relational framework is a potentially efficient and effective approach to training residents in the clinical knowledge and skills of child development assessment. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Marketing and Assessment in Academic Libraries: A Marriage of Convenience or True Love?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Porat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper describes the process of cooperation between the Marketing and Assessment Teams at the University of Haifa in Israel, from initial apprehension about working together to the successful marketing of a suite of user studies.Methods – The first step was a formal meeting in which the leader of the assessment team explained the aims of assessment. For each assessment activity, the assessment team submitted a formal request for assistance to the marketing team, conducted team meetings on how to market each assessment, and met with the marketing team to explain the survey and receive their input on how it should be marketed. Over a 3-year period, 5 joint activities were undertaken: a 1-day, in-library use survey; a wayfinding study, in which 10 new students were filmed as they searched for 3 items in the library; 5 focus group sessions regarding upcoming library renovations; a LibQUAL+® survey measuring perceptions of service quality among the entire campus population; and an online survey of non-users of the library. The success of the assessment/marketing projects was measured by the response rates, the representativeness of the results, and the number of free-text comments with rectifiable issues.Results – Although the response rates were not very high in any of the surveys, they were very representative of the university population. With over 40% or respondents filling in free-text comments, the information received was used and applied in making service changes, including the creation and marketing of additional group study rooms, improved signage, and the launch of a “quiet” campaign. In addition, a “You said – We did” document was compiled that outlines all of the changes that were implemented since the first four surveys were conducted; this document was published on the library’s blog, Facebook page, and website.Conclusion – The number of issues that appear in the first “You said – We did

  2. Generation reliability assessment in oligopoly power market using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroonabadi, H.; Haghifam, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addressed issues regarding power generation reliability assessment (HLI) in deregulated power pool markets. Most HLI reliability evaluation methods are based on the loss of load (LOLE) approach which is among the most suitable indices to describe the level of generation reliability. LOLE refers to the time in which load is greater than the amount of available generation. While most reliability assessments deal only with power system constraints, this study considered HLI reliability assessment in an oligopoly power market using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). It evaluated the sensitivity of the reliability index to different reserve margins and future margins. The reliability index was determined by intersecting the offer and demand curves of power plants and comparing them to other parameters. The paper described the fundamentals of an oligopoly power pool market and proposed an algorithm for HLI reliability assessment for such a market. The proposed method was assessed on the IEEE-Reliability Test System with satisfactory results. In all cases, generation reliability indices were evaluated with different reserve margins and various load levels. 19 refs., 7 figs., 1 appendix

  3. Preliminary assessment of adjuster system performance in CANDU-6 RUFIC core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Young; Suk, Ho Chun

    2002-07-01

    Four operational transients in CANDU-6 RUFIC core have been simulated to assess the adjuster system performance. These transients included startup after a short shutdown, startup after a poison-out shutdown, shim mode operation, and a stepback to 60% full power. Also, an alternative adjuster-banking scheme has been assessed in this report. The alternative adjuster-banking scheme involves rods in Bank 1 and Bank 7 being re-distributed within the two banks. In the alternative adjuster-banking scheme, Bank 1 becomes the heaviest one. The results of the preliminary assessment indicated that the adjuster system as currently designed and installed in the NU core will adequately meet the functional requirements in the RUFIC core. Comparing to the adjuster system performance in the NU core, the total worth of the adjuster in the RUFIC core is reduced, leading to less xenon override capability and shimming capability. However, the overall performance is expected to still be satisfactory. The overall results from the transient studied indicated that the alternative banking scheme does show some better performance characteristics and merits further detailed studies

  4. Preliminary risk assessment database and risk ranking of pharmaceuticals in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Emily R.; Siewicki, Thomas C.; Phillips, Karl

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing concern about pharmaceuticals entering surface waters and the impacts these compounds may have on aquatic organisms. Many contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, are not completely removed by wastewater treatment. Discharge of effluent into surface waters results in chronic low-concentration exposure of aquatic organisms to these compounds, with unknown impacts. Exposure of virulent bacteria in wastewater to antibiotic residues may also induce resistance, which could threaten human health. The purpose of this study was to provide information on pharmaceutical threats to the environment. A preliminary risk assessment database for common pharmaceuticals was created and put into a web-accessible database named 'Pharmaceuticals in the Environment, Information for Assessing Risk' (PEIAR) to help others evaluate potential risks of pharmaceutical contaminants in the environment. Information from PEIAR was used to prioritize compounds that may threaten the environment, with a focus on marine and estuarine environments. The pharmaceuticals were ranked using five different combinations of physical-chemical and toxicological data, which emphasized different risks. The results of the ranking methods differed in the compounds identified as high risk; however, drugs from the central nervous system, cardiovascular, and anti-infective classes were heavily represented within the top 100 drugs in all rankings. Anti-infectives may pose the greatest overall risk based upon our results using a combination of factors that measure environmental transport, fate, and aquatic toxicity. The dataset is also useful for highlighting information that is still needed to assuredly assess risk

  5. Assurance of Learning for Principles of Marketing Students: A Longitudinal Study of a Course-Embedded Direct Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Elizabeth K.; Babin, Laurie A.; Lopez, Tara Burnthorne

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process one marketing faculty followed to demonstrate assurance of learning for marketing students and presents longitudinal results associated with a course-embedded direct assessment device in the Principles of Marketing course. The process follows closely the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business…

  6. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Leiby, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Maxwell L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The United States government has been promoting increased use of biofuels, including ethanol from non-food feedstocks, through policies contained in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The objective is to enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide economic benefits. However, the United States has reached the ethanol blend wall, where more ethanol is produced domestically than can be blended into standard gasoline. Nearly all ethanol is blended at 10 volume percent (vol%) in gasoline. At the same time, the introduction of more stringent standards for fuel economy and GHG tailpipe emissions is driving research to increase the efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. Advanced strategies for increasing SI engine efficiency are enabled by higher octane number (more highly knock-resistant) fuels. Ethanol has a research octane number (RON) of 109, compared to typical U.S. regular gasoline at 91-93. Accordingly, high RON ethanol blends containing 20 vol% to 40 vol% ethanol are being extensively studied as fuels that enable design of more efficient engines. These blends are referred to as high-octane fuel (HOF) in this report. HOF could enable dramatic growth in the U.S. ethanol industry, with consequent energy security and GHG emission benefits, while also supporting introduction of more efficient vehicles. HOF could provide the additional ethanol demand necessary for more widespread deployment of cellulosic ethanol. However, the potential of HOF can be realized only if it is adopted by the motor fuel marketplace. This study assesses the feasibility, economics, and logistics of this adoption by the four required participants--drivers, vehicle manufacturers, fuel retailers, and fuel producers. It first assesses the benefits that could motivate these participants to adopt HOF. Then it focuses on the drawbacks and barriers that these participants could face when adopting HOF and proposes strategies--including incentives and

  7. AN ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP INTENTION AMONG SUNYANI POLYTECHNIC MARKETING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeboah Asuamah Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess the entrepreneurial intention among the students of Sunyani Polytechnic, and also to determine the motivators, and obstacles to entrepreneurial intentions. The study is based on quantitative exploratory survey design. The sample size for the study is 136 comprising of 94 males and 42 females, who were selected by convenient sample method. Primary data were obtained using self designed questionnaire which were administered by the researchers. Data were analysed using percentages, One-way ANOVA. Results indicated that there is high entrepreneurial intention among the respondents. It was also revealed that there are important motivators for intention as well as obstacles to setting up ones firm. The finding again indicated that demographic variables such as gender, age, religion affect responses given by respondents. It is recommended that, future research must be done in the public and private universities to provide support for these findings and also entrepreneurial education must be introduced into the tertiary institutions which are not currently offering entrepreneurship courses.

  8. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  9. Bacteriological and parasitological assessment of currencies obtained in selected markets of Metro Manila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Lo Sia Su

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the bacterial and parasitic contamination of coins and paper bills obtained in selected public markets of Metro Manila. Methods: Money collected from the markets was assessed through culture, microscopy, and biochemical tests. Results: Results showed that the prevalence of bacterial contamination (70.00% was higher than that of parasitic contamination (11.67%. Paper bills were more contaminated with bacteria and parasites compared with coins examined. Money with low denominations had more bacterial and parasitic contamination. Conclusions: Findings indicated that money could be a potential vehicle for the transmission of diseases. There is a need to safeguard oneself from the possible sources of infection that one can get even from money circulating in the market systems.

  10. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-04-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  11. A Preliminary Exploration on E-commerce Marketing Strategies%电子商务营销策略初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明霞

    2015-01-01

    本文通过对传统商业营销策略与电子商务营销策略的对比分析,总结出电子商务营销策略的六个特征。阐明在互联网时代,不能把传统的商业营销策略照搬到网上执行就说是在做电子商务,而是要用全新的电子商务营销策略指导电子商务。%Through a comparative analysis on traditional com-merce marketing strategies and e-commerce marketing strategies, this paper summarizes six features of e-commerce marketing strategies, points out that to put traditional commerce marketing strategies online mechanically is not to operate e-commerce in the Internet age, and brand new e-commerce marketing strategies should be used to guide e-commerce.

  12. Assessment of the knowledge and attitudes of preliminary school students toward smoking in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jabbar Sahib

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early smoking considered as a major challenge for health promoters, as well it is socially not acceptable, thus interventions must tackle childhood starts of smoking.Aim: Assessing the knowledge and attitude of preliminary students towards tobacco use. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 2195, 5th grade students from 30 preliminary schools in Baghdad (15 from each side Karkh & Rusafa during November 2014. They were selected by multistage sampling technique.Results:  Participated students age ranged between (10-13 years and (51.9% of them were girls, (54.3% of their parents were nonsmoker while the rest reported that both or one of them are smokers, direct and indirect risks of cigarette  smoking were known by (82.4% and (66.2% respectively, and (70.8% of students’ families were found to wear their kids from smoking hazards, while more than (50% of them have received health education massages from their teachers. Sitting near smoker person was not in favor of (86.2% of the participants, as (51.4% considered it religiously inconvenient and (34.6% considered smoking as a sign of no self-confidence. At last, (73.7% of the surveyed students agreed with smoking prohibition in public places while (25.8% opposed that.Conclusion: In spite of the high percentage of students’ parents were smokers; nevertheless, risks of smoking are well known by the surveyed students and they showed positive attitudes toward smoking prohibition in public places. Parental advising for quit smoking and urging teachers to educate their students about smoking hazards are thought to be the right action.

  13. Risk assessment of genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in botanical containing products present on the Chinese market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ning, Jia; Cui, Xin Yue; Kong, Xiang Nan; Tang, Yi Fei; Wulandari, Riana; Chen, Lu; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, a risk assessment of plant food supplements (PFS), traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and herbal teas containing alkenylbenzenes was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. The levels of alkenylbenzenes in botanical preparations collected on the Chinese market

  14. Assessing the Demand for Annuities in an Undeveloped Market: Evidence from Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K-L. Chou (Kee-Lee); J. Inkmann (Joachim); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans); W.S. Chan (Wai)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHow to design an attractive annuity for an undeveloped market and how to assess the potential demand for such a product? We first conduct a discrete choice experiment among participants of a large-scale occupational defined contribution pension scheme in Hong Kong to identify desired

  15. RMT Assessments of the Market Latent Information Embedded in the Stocks' Raw, Normalized, and Partial Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Shapira, Yoash; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2009-01-01

    We present here assessment of the latent market information embedded in the raw, affinity (normalized), and partial correlations. We compared the Zipf plot, spectrum, and distribution of the eigenvalues for each matrix with the results of the corresponding random matrix. The analysis was performed on stocks belonging to the New York ...

  16. Timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Paul E. Sendak; William H. McWilliams; Neil Huyler; Thomas Malecek; Worthen Muzzey; Toni Jones

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area using USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis data, production information provided by forest industry, and a stump-to-mill logging cost-prediction model. Nonavailable timberland that includes reserve and steep-terrain lands is...

  17. A socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity on the Ghanaian market: implications for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E.S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the

  18. Assessment of the competing technologies to fuel cells in the stationary power and CHP markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pears, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the commercial technologies that are likely to compete with fuel cells in the fields of stationary power and cogeneration markets. The competing technologies examined include clean coal technologies, reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines, and stirling engines. Energy and environmental legislation, and the ranking of the competing technologies are discussed. (UK)

  19. Social Marketing for the Environment: An Assessment of Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Social marketing has emerged in the last decades as a popular behavior change approach. Its application has produced mixed results, but the noticeable increase in its application in the environmental arena calls for an assessment of its development. This study presents an analysis of such development in both theory and practice. Results suggest…

  20. Assessing the marketing potential of communicating corporate social responsibility of a supply chain: method and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Kuipers, A.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This article provides a method to assess the marketing potential of communicating corporate social responsibility of (agricultural) supply chains. The willingness of small firms in agricultural supply chains to make available information about certain dimensions of CSR is measured and

  1. Assessing Satisfaction with Selected Student Services Using SERVQUAL, a Market-Driven Model of Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Carl A.

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how the use of SERVQUAL, a market-driven assessment model adapted from business, can be used to study student satisfaction with four areas of support services hypothetically related to enrollment management. The sample included 748 students enrolled in general education courses at ten different private institutions. (Contains 27…

  2. Assessing the Impact of Gender and Race on Earnings in the Library Science Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeper, Darren; Smith, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, this paper examines earnings in the library science labor market and assesses the impact of gender on the income attainment process. We use this cross-sectional dataset to determine if there are significant income differences between male and female library science professionals. The…

  3. Market Assessment of Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.; Coburn, T.

    2000-09-29

    This report presents research done in response to a decision by the Colorado Governor's Office of Energy Conservation and Management (OEC) and Colorado utility companies to consider making residential grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems available in Colorado. The idea was to locate homeowners willing to pay the costs of grid-tied PV (GPV) systems without batteries-$8,000 or $12,000 for a 2- or 3-kilowatt (kW) system, respectively, in 1996. These costs represented two-thirds of the actual installed cost of $6 per watt at that time and assumed the remainder would be subsidized. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and OEC partnered to conduct a market assessment for GPV technology in Colorado. The study encompassed both qualitative and quantitative phases. The market assessment concluded that a market for residential GPV systems exists in Colorado today. That market is substantial enough for companies to successfully market PV systems to Colorado homeowners. These homeo wners appear ready to learn more, inform themselves, and actively purchase GPV systems. The present situation is highly advantageous to Colorado's institutions-primarily its state government and its utility companies, and also its homebuilders-if they are ready to move forward on GPV technology.

  4. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  5. A Market Assessment of Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.; Coburn, T.

    2000-09-13

    This is the Executive Summary of a report that presents research done in response to a decision by the Colorado Governor's Office of Energy Conservation and Management (OEC) and Colorado utility companies to consider making residential grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems available in Colorado. The idea was to locate homeowners willing to pay the costs of grid-tied PV (GPV) systems without batteries--$8,000 or $12,000 for a 2- or 3-kilowatt (kW) system, respectively, in 1996. These costs represented two-thirds of the actual installed cost of $6 per watt at that time and assumed the remainder would be subsidized. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and OEC partnered to conduct a market assessment for GPV technology in Colorado. The study encompassed both qualitative and quantitative phases. The market assessment concluded that a market for residential GPV systems exists in Colorado today. That market is substantial enough for companies to successfully market PV systems to Colorado homeowners. These homeowners appear ready to learn more, inform themselves, and actively purchase GPV systems. The present situation is highly advantageous to Colorado's institutions--primarily its state government and its utility companies, and also its homebuilders--if they are ready to move forward on GPV technology.

  6. A preliminary economic feasibility assessment of nuclear desalination in Madura Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.-H.; Hwang, Y.-D.; Konishi, T.; Hudi Hastowo

    2005-01-01

    A joint study between KAERI and BATAN, which is entitled 'A preliminary economic feasibility assessment of nuclear desalination in Madura Island', is being conducted under the framework of the Interregional Technical Cooperation Project of IAEA, signed on Oct. 10, 2001 at IAEA. The duration of the project is January 2002 to December 2004. An economic feasibility of nuclear desalination using system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART), which will provide Madura Island with electricity and potable water and also support industrialisation and tourism, will be assessed during the project. The scope of this joint study includes the analyses for the short- and long-term energy and water demand as well as the supply plan for Madura Island, evaluation of the site characteristics, environmental impacts and health aspects, technical and economic evaluation of SMART and its desalination system, including the feasibility of its being identified on the Madura Island. KAERI and BATAN are cooperating in conducting a joint study, and IAEA provides technical support and a review of the study products. This paper presents the interim results of the joint study by focussing on the technical and economic aspects of nuclear desalination using SMART in Madura Island. (author)

  7. Preliminary engineering assessment of the HCLL and HCPB Neutron Activation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, Pattrick; Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona, (Spain); Angelone, Maurizio [ENEA, Unita Tecnica Fusione, Frascati, (Italy); Klix, Axel [KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Neutron Activation System (NAS) is one of the four types of neutronics sensors considered for the testing of the HCLL and HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER. It measures the absolute neutron flux intensity with information on the neutron spectrum in selected positions of the TBM. The working principle of the NAS is as follows: the system moves small activation probes (capsules) into selected positions in the TBM (irradiation ends) by means of pneumatic transport with pressurized helium gas; the capsules are irradiated for a selected period, depending on their materials composition (several tens of seconds up to the full plasma pulse length); immediately after the irradiation they are extracted and transported to a gamma spectrometer by means of the same pneumatic transport system; the gamma spectrometer determines the induced gamma activity; the neutron flux and neutron fluence is calculated from the measured gamma activity and the known activation cross section of the materials in the activation probe; after the measurement the capsule is sent either to a disposal or storage (for later measurement). This paper summarizes the results of the feasibility assessment of the TBM NAS in the conceptual design phase, including design justification, identification of requirements based on the expected operating conditions in ITER and preliminary engineering assessment of the activation materials, irradiation ends integration in the modules design and the counting station. (authors)

  8. A preliminary assessment of noise level during Deepawali festival in Balasore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shreerup; Swain, Bijay Kumar; Mohapatra, Hara Prasad; Bal, Kshirod Kumar

    2013-11-01

    A preliminary assessment of noise levels during Deepawali, was made in the present study. In order to assess the situation of noise levels in and around Balasore during two consecutive Deepawali of the year 2010 and 2011; noise monitoring was carried out in three different specified times (4:30-7:00 p.m., 7:00-10:30 p.m., 10:30 p.m.-1:00 a.m.). Noise descriptors such as L10, L50, L90, Leq, noise pollution level and noise climate were assessed to reveal the extent of noise pollution in this festival of crackers. Permissible limit of noise levels (Leq) prescribed by WHO during the festival was 100 dB and Lmax must not exceed 110 dB during such occasion. However, in all the cases Lmax and NPL values exceeded 110 dB, while Leq values ranged from 92.9 to 101.9 dB during 2010 Deepawali and 81.5 to 100.8 dB during 2011 Deepawali. On the other hand, all the noise monitoring sites belonged to residential areas. The assessed noise levels during such festivity are much more than 55/45 dB i.e. prescribed for residential areas for day/night time by CPCB. However, it was observed that the noise of Deepawali (Leq) decreased considerably and was less during 2011 than 2010. These may be due to increased environmental awareness among the public. Subsequently, the people of Balasore prefered to celebrate Deepawali, the festival of lights without sound and smoke. Noise policy should also be worked out for a better understanding of such local, social and cultural festivals in which annoyance arise.

  9. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  10. Five years of opening the electricity market in Germany: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, A.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, the German federal government decided to transpose in national law the principle of competition in the sector of electricity. To set up an electricity market, the new law has more or less dismantled the former system of the juxtaposed monopolies of approximately nine hundred local energy firms. The author tries to answer the following questions: How were the new market's legal and institutional modalities determined? What political choices underlie them? What benefits will consumers draw from this liberalization? What assessment has Germany made about these past five years ? What are the hopes and fears for coming years? (author)

  11. A Risk Metric Assessment of Scenario-Based Market Risk Measures for Volatility and Risk Estimation: Evidence from Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitima Innocent

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the sensitivity of the Value- at- Risk (VaR and Expected Shortfalls (ES with respect to portfolio allocation in emerging markets with an index portfolio of a developed market. This study utilised different models for VaR and ES techniques using various scenario-based models such as Covariance Methods, Historical Simulation and the GARCH (1, 1 for the predictive ability of these models in both relatively stable market conditions and extreme market conditions. The results showed that Expected Shortfall has less risk tolerance than VaR based on the same scenario-based market risk measures

  12. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of mineral and hydrocarbon activities on the Nuussuaq peninsula, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Asmund, G.; Glahder, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2008-01-15

    There is an increasing interest for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration in Greenland and in both regards the Nuussuaq peninsula is in focus. This preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment describes the status of the biological knowledge from the area and designates potential conflicts between activities and the biological environment. Furthermore biological knowledge gaps are identified. These should be filled before specific environmental impacts assessments can be carried out and relevant studies to fill these data gaps are proposed. (au)

  13. Asia/Pacific Rim renewable energy market assessments by the State of Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimura, D.M.; Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.

    1999-01-01

    The State of Hawaii has begun to encourage its economic growth and diversification by increasing the export of U.S. energy, environment, ocean, and information technologies. Hawaii's Strategic Technology Market Assessment and Development (STMAD) program promotes the transfer of U.S. technology into Asia and the Pacific Rim, locations having phenomenal growth potential and vast technological infrastructure demands. The STMAD program is managed by the State's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT). Under the auspices of STMAD, the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii is assessing biomass energy resources of Asian and Pacific Rim countries to identify and investigate sustainable energy markets. This paper reviews the STMAD program and reports findings of renewable energy assessment performed by HNEI and DBEDT. (author)

  14. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  15. RMT Assessments of the Market Latent Information Embedded in the Stocks' Raw, Normalized, and Partial Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Y. Kenett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here assessment of the latent market information embedded in the raw, affinity (normalized, and partial correlations. We compared the Zipf plot, spectrum, and distribution of the eigenvalues for each matrix with the results of the corresponding random matrix. The analysis was performed on stocks belonging to the New York and Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, for the time period of January 2000 to March 2009. Our results show that in comparison to the raw correlations, the affinity matrices highlight the dominant factors of the system, and the partial correlation matrices contain more information. We propose that significant stock market information, which cannot be captured by the raw correlations, is embedded in the affinity and partial correlations. Our results further demonstrate the differences between NY and TA markets.

  16. Developing an Evidence-Based Epilepsy Risk Assessment eHealth Solution: From Concept to Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Craig; Shankar, Rohit; Hanna, Jane; McLean, Brendan; Osland, Alex; Milligan, Cathryn; Ball, Abbie; Jory, Caryn; Walker, Matthew

    2016-06-07

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is possibly the most common cause of death as a result of complications from epilepsy. The need to educate and regularly review risk for all patients with epilepsy is paramount, but rarely delivered in actual clinical practice. Evidence suggests that education around SUDEP and modifiable risk variables translate into better self-management of epilepsy. We aimed to develop and implement an eHealth solution to support education and self-management of risks, in epilepsy. We undertook an innovation pathways approach, including problem identification, feasibility assessment, design, implementation, and marketing. People with epilepsy were provided a smartphone-based app (Epilepsy Self-Monitor, EpSMon), which translates the clinical risk assessment tool into an educational and self-monitoring platform, for the self-management of epilepsy. Results include the success of the marketing campaign, and in what areas, with an estimated reach of approximately 38 million people. EpSMon has proved a success in academic and clinical circles, attracting awards and nominations for awards. The number of users of EpSMon, after 3 months, turned out to be lower than expected (N=221). A 4-month trial of the app in use in the United Kingdom, and the success of the marketing strategy, point to necessary changes to the model of delivery and marketing, summarized in this paper. These include the marketing message, user cost model, and need for the availability of an Android version. EpSMon has proven a success in respect to its reception by academics, clinicians, stakeholder groups, and the patients who use it. There is work needed to promote the model and increase its acceptability/attractiveness, including broadening the marketing message, increasing its availability, and reducing its cost. Future development and promotion of the tool will hopefully inform iterative design of its core features for a receptive audience and lead to increased uptake

  17. Solar power tower commercialization in the Southwest: A market and technical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.; DeGroat, K.; Tanner, S.

    1995-01-01

    This market and technical assessment illustrates that the Southwestern power market can support the commercialization needs of Solar Power Tower (SPT) technology over the next 10 to 15 years. Realizing full commercial development during this time is contingent on successful completion of Solar Two and development of an initial follow-on plant around 2000. After 2002, the power market will become increasingly robust, presenting new opportunities for SPT development. The important conclusion of this analysis is that SPT projects can reach a cost level that puts them at or below the expected norm of costs for their main competitor, combined cycle natural gas. This means that with the same competitive focus on minimizing costs and finding opportunities to be more competitive that characterize combined cycle project developers, SPT has a realistic chance of competing and winning market share. The ability of SPT technology to compete in this market will be greatly affected by the rate of cost-reductions and technological improvements, but perhaps as importantly, by the environmental and regulatory climate which will unfold over the next decade and the availability of low cost financing options

  18. Preliminary assessment of radiological conditions at the Ranger land application area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasnicka, J.; Bywater, J.

    1992-01-01

    Some 18 GBq of uranium and 1.5 GBq of 226 Ra were disposed of by land application on the designated disposal area by March 1989. This preliminary study, which is part of a longer-term project, outlines the assessment of external gamma radiation exposures from short-lived gamma-ray emitting decay products of 226 Ra and of internal exposures from inhalation of uranium and 226 Ra resuspended from the soil surface. The effective dose equivalent from these two exposure pathways for an adult member of the public was calculated to be about 0.05 mSv.y -1 (based on a 4 hour per day occupancy of the disposal area). This dose implies a total combined load limit of 490 kBq.m -2 of uranium plus 41 kBq.m -2 of 226 Ra. It is expected that the load limit will be reduced when all pathways and more recent data are taken into the account. 8 refs., 14 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Assessment of Nano Cellulose from Peach Palm Residue as Potential Food Additive: Part II: Preliminary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Dayanne Regina Mendes; Mendonça, Márcia Helena; Helm, Cristiane Vieira; Magalhães, Washington L E; de Muniz, Graciela Ines Bonzon; Kestur, Satyanarayana G

    2015-09-01

    High consumption of dietary fibers in the diet is related to the reduction of the risk of non-transmitting of chronic diseases, prevention of the constipation etc. Rich diets in dietary fibers promote beneficial effects for the metabolism. Considering the above and recognizing the multifaceted advantages of nano materials, there have been many attempts in recent times to use the nano materials in the food sector including as food additive. However, whenever new product for human and animal consumption is developed, it has to be tested for their effectiveness regarding improvement in the health of consumers, safety aspects and side effects. However, before it is tried with human beings, normally such materials would be assessed through biological tests on a living organism to understand its effect on health condition of the consumer. Accordingly, based on the authors' finding reported in a previous paper, this paper presents body weight, biochemical (glucose, cholesterol and lipid profile in blood, analysis of feces) and histological tests carried out with biomass based cellulose nano fibrils prepared by the authors for its possible use as food additive. Preliminary results of the study with mice have clearly brought out potential of these fibers for the said purpose.

  20. Preliminary assessment of modified borosilicate glasses for chromium and ruthenium immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farid, Osama M. [Reactors Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt, P.O. 13759, Inshas, Cairo (Egypt); Centre of Nuclear Engineering (CNE), Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Abdel Rahman, R.O., E-mail: alaarehab@yahoo.com [Hot Laboratory Center, Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt, P.O. 13759, Inshas, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-01-15

    The feasibility of using modified alkali borosilicate glasses for ruthenium and chromium immobilization is preliminary assessed by investigating the immobilization system structure under normal conditions. Within this context, reference alkali borosilicate, and simulated Magnox-modified glasses were prepared and studied. The results indicate that ruthenium is immobilized in the vitreous structure as encapsulated RuO{sub 2} crystallites that act as seeds for heterogeneous nucleation of other crystalline phases. The presence of Zn, as modifier, has contributed to chromium immobilization in zincochromite spinel structure, whereas Ca is accommodated in the vitreous structure. Immobilization performance was evaluated by conducting conservative static leach test and studying the leached glass. Leached glass morphology was altered, where near surface reference glass is leached over 400 nm and simulated Magnox-modified sample is altered over 300 nm. Normalized release rates are within normal range for borosilicate material. For simulated Magnox-modified sample, Ca and alkali structural element, i.e. Na and Li, are leached via ion-exchange reaction. The ion-exchanged fraction equals 1.06 × 10{sup −8} mol/m{sup 2} s and chromium has slightly lower normalized release rate value than ruthenium. - Highlights: • The presence of modifiers and waste oxides led to localized de-vitrification. • Ruthenium is encapsulated within the vitreous glass network as RuO{sub 2} crystals. • Chromium is immobilized within the zincochromite spinel structure. • Pitting and cracks induced by leaching did not affect the immobilization performance.

  1. Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, S.; Kison, P.V.; Greenough, R.; Grossman, H.B.; Wahl, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of imaging of bladder cancer with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning. We studied 12 patients with histologically proven bladder cancer who had undergone surgical procedures and/or radiotherapy. Retrograde irrigation of the urinary bladder with 1000-3710 ml saline was performed during nine of the studies. Dynamic and static PET images were obtained, and standardized uptake value images were reconstructed. FDG-PET scanning was true-positive in eight patients (66.7%), but false-negative in four (33.3%). Of 20 organs with tumor mass lesions confirmed pathologically or clinically, 16 (80%) were detected by FDG-PET scanning. FDG-PET scanning detected all of 17 distant metastatic lesions and two of three proven regional lymph node metastases. FDG-PET was also capable of differentiating viable recurrent bladder cancer from radiation-induced alterations in two patients. In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate the feasibility of FDG-PET imaging in patients with bladder cancer, although a major remaining pitfall is intense FDG accumulation in the urine. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Preliminary assessment on the competency of technical staff of Atomic Energy Licensing Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina Mishar; Redzuwan Yahya

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to carry out a preliminary assessment on the competency level of technical staff of Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), the nuclear regulatory body in Malaysia for effectively monitoring and supervising the activities of the first nuclear power plant in Malaysia. The study is conducted out on the whole group of AELB technical staff, comprising 81 personnel from the supporting and professional categories. Findings showed that AELB technical staff who have been in the workforce for more than ten years have the required competency level for legal and regulatory processes competencies, regulatory practices competencies and effectiveness in personal and inter-personal competencies. Regression analysis between competency and working experience (length of service) showed a weak positive correlation, which could be contributed by job not related to the competency parameters for major functions of a regulatory body in controlling nuclear activity of a nuclear power plant. Results obtained could assist AELB in manpower development once Malaysia makes the decision to embark on a nuclear power programme. (author)

  3. Preliminary risk assessment of the Integral Inherently-Safe Light Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarroll, Kellen R.; Lee, John C.; Manera, Annalisa; Memmott, Matthew J.; Ferroni, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The Integral, Inherently Safe Light Water Reactor (I 2 S-LWR) concept seeks to significantly increase nuclear power plant safety. The project implements a safety-by-design philosophy, eliminating several initiating events and providing novel, passive safety systems at the conceptual phase. Pursuit of unparalleled safety employs an integrated development process linking design with deterministic and probabilistic safety analyses. Unique aspects of the I 2 S-LWR concept and design process present challenges to the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), particularly regarding overall flexibility, auditability and resolution of results. Useful approaches to initiating events and conditional failures are presented. To exemplify the risk-informed design process using PRA, a trade-off study of two safety system configurations is presented. Although further optimization is required, preliminary results indicate that the I 2 S-LWR can achieve a core damage frequency (CDF) from internal events less than 1.01 × 10 −8 /ry, including reactor vessel ruptures. Containment bypass frequency due to primary heat exchanger rupture is found to be comparable to non-vessel rupture CDF.

  4. A preliminary spatial assessment of risk: Marine birds and chronic oil pollution on Canada's Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C H; O'Hara, P D; Bertazzon, S; Morgan, K; Underwood, F E; Paquet, P C

    2016-12-15

    Chronic oil pollution poses substantial risks to marine birds and other marine wildlife worldwide. On Canada's Pacific coast, the negative ecological consequences to marine birds and marine ecosystems in general remain poorly understood. Using information relating to oil spill probability of occurrence, areas of overall importance to marine birds, and the at-sea distribution and density of 12 marine bird species and seven bird groups, including multiple Species at Risk, we undertook a spatial assessment of risk. Our results identify two main areas important to marine birds potentially at higher risk of exposure to oil. For individual bird species or species groups, those predicted to have elevated bird densities near the mainland and the northeast coast of Vancouver Island were identified as being at higher potential risk of exposure. Our results, however, should be considered preliminary. As with other anthropogenic stressors, in order to better understand and subsequently mitigate the consequences of chronic oil pollution on marine birds, improved information relating to marine birds and the occurrence of oil spills on Canada's Pacific coast is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary assessment of an S.G.H.W. type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicevskis, A.; Chapman, A.G.; Hesse, E.W.

    1970-08-01

    A preliminary design study has been made of a research reactor, based on the enriched S.G.H.W.R. concept, to be used for power reactor fuel irradiation, isotope production, basic research, and training in nuclear technology. A reactor physics assessment established a core size which would allow uninterrupted operation for the required irradiation period consistent with low capital and operating costs. A design was selected with 24 channels, a D 2 O calandria diameter of 2.7 m and an overall core height of 4.0 m. The capital cost was estimated as $750,000 for the fuel and $1,600,000 for the moderator, the refuelling cost being $340,000 per annum. A thermal design study showed that the fission heat of 65 MW could be transmitted to pressurised light water at 200 lb/in 2 abs. and rejected to sea water in two conventional U-tube heat exchangers. The basic design is flexible and can be adapted to meet many special requirements. (author)

  6. New Reactor Siting in Finland, Hanhikivi Site in Pyhaejoki - STUK preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    STUK has performed a preliminary assessment of the Decision-in-Principle on the Fennovoima application. A variety of factors must be considered in the selection of a site, including effects of the site on the plant design and the effects of the plant on the site environment. These include external hazards, both natural and human-induced. Since this is a new site, an extensive siting process is followed, that can include an EIA. A site survey is performed to identify candidate sites, after investigating a large region and rejecting unsuitable sites. The remaining sites are then screened and compared on the basis of safety and other considerations to select one or more preferred sites. Natural hazards include geology, seismology, hydrology and meteorology. Offshore ice will be a particular hazard for this plant, since the site is on average only 1.5 m above sea level. The design basis earthquake corresponds to a return frequency of 100,000 years, with 50 % confidence. The existing sites in southern Finland used a design peak ground acceleration of 0.1 g with the ground response spectrum maximum at 10 Hz. The candidate sites in northern Finland will require a peak ground acceleration of 0.2 g with the ground response spectrum maximum at 25 Hz

  7. Assessing the Impact of Wind/PV Power Generation and Market Policies on Decentralized Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.M. Arnoux, Luciana; Santiago, Leonardo

    In this paper, we offer a comprehensive approach to assess the impact of wind and photovoltaic power generation on decentralized hybrid systems. In particular, we focus on three performance measures of the energy system, namely reliability, costs, and efficiency. Most of the current studies focus...... level. Therefore, we appropriately assess the inherent uncertainty and design options. First, we use linear and quantile regression models to estimate the wind speed and solar insolation. Then, we use different quantiles as an input for the hybrid system design to assess market policies (e.g., net...

  8. Assessing health-related resiliency in HIV+ Latin women: Preliminary psychometric findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys J Jimenez-Torres

    Full Text Available HIV-associated vulnerabilities-especially those linked to psychological issues-and limited mental health-treatment resources have the potential to adversely affect the health statuses of individuals. The concept of resilience has been introduced in the literature to shift the emphasis from vulnerability to protective factors. Resilience, however, is an evolving construct and is measured in various ways, though rarely among underserved, minority populations. Herein, we present the preliminary psychometric properties of a sample of HIV-seropositive Puerto Rican women, measured using a newly developed health-related resilience scale.The Resilience Scales for Children and Adolescents, an instrument with solid test construction properties, acted as a model in the development (in both English and Spanish of the HRRS, providing the same dimensions and most of the same subscales. The present sample was nested within the Hispanic-Latino longitudinal cohort of women (HLLC, that is part of the NeuroAIDS Research Program at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR, Medical Sciences Campus (MSC. Forty-five consecutively recruited, HIV+ women from the HLLC completed a demographic survey, the HRRS, and the Beck Depression Inventory-I, Spanish version.The results demonstrate excellent overall internal consistency for the total HRRS score (α = 0.95. Each of the dimensional scores also evidenced acceptable internal consistency (α ≥ 0.88. All the dimensional and subscale content validity indices were above the 0.42 cut-off. Analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the HRRS total score and BDI-I-S (r(45 = -0.453, p < 0.003.Albeit preliminary in nature, the present study provides support for the HRRS as a measure to assess resilience among individuals living with chronic medical conditions. Minority populations, especially non-English speaking ones, are understudied across the field of medicine, and when efforts are made to include these patient

  9. Canada's conventional natural gas resources : a status report : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada as well as the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. Energy market assessment reports examine different facets of the Canadian energy market and include long term-assessments of Canada's supply and demand as well as near-term energy market issues. This report examines the geological potential for conventional natural gas resources. An estimate of those resources for Canada was also presented. The main objective of the report is to set the groundwork for future partnerships between provincial, territorial and federal agencies. The size of Alberta's conventional natural gas resources is being examined in partnership with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The ultimate potential for conventional natural gas in British Columbia is being assessed by the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines. The Board's internal assessment for 2004 has revealed an estimate of 207 trillion cubic feet for the ultimate of conventional natural gas in Alberta. This estimate is higher than the estimate provided by the Canadian Gas Potential Committee in 2001 and higher than the 1992 assessment of the EUB. It was noted that most undiscovered resources in Alberta will be found in the shallow Cretaceous zones, not in deep Devonian zones. The Board also revised its estimate for the Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea region and the East Newfoundland Basin. The current estimate for ultimate potential of conventional natural gas in Canada is 501 trillion cubic feet, with the following distribution of the resources by basin: Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (54.5 per cent), Northern Canada (23.1 per cent), East Coast (18.3 per cent), West Coast (3.4 per cent), Ontario (0.5 per cent), and Gulf of St. Lawrence (0.3 per cent). 39 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  10. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA's Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal

  11. Preliminary assessment of partitioning and transmutation as a radioactive waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Tedder, D.W.; Drago, J.P.; Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1977-09-01

    Partitioning (separating) the actinide elements from nuclear fuel cycle wastes and transmuting (burning) them to fission products in power reactors represents a potentially advanced concept of radioactive waste management which could reduce the long-term (greater than 1000 years) risk associated with geologic isolation of wastes. The greatest uncertainties lie in the chemical separations technology needed to recover greater than 99 percent of the actinides during the reprocessing of spent fuels and their refabrication as fresh fuels or target elements. Preliminary integrated flowsheets based on modifications of the Purex process and supplementary treatment by oxalate precipitation and ion exchange indicate that losses of plutonium in reprocessing wastes might be reduced from about 2.0 percent to 0.1 percent, uranium losses from about 1.7 percent to 0.1 percent, neptunium losses from 100 percent to about 1.2 percent, and americium and curium from 100 percent to about 0.5 percent. Mixed oxide fuel fabrication losses may be reduced from about 0.5 percent to 0.06 percent for plutonium and from 0.5 percent to 0.04 percent for uranium. Americium losses would be about 5.5 percent for the reference system. Transmutation of the partitioned actinides at a rate of 5 to 7 percent per year is feasible in both fast and thermal reactors, but additional studies are needed to determine the most suitable strategy for recycling them to reactors and to assess the major impacts of implementing the concept on fuel cycle operations and costs. It is recommended that the ongoing program to evaluate the feasibility, impacts, costs, and incentives of implementing partitioning-transmutation be continued until a firm assessment of its potentialities can be made. At the present level of effort, achievement of this objective should be possible by 1980. 27 tables, 50 figures

  12. Preliminary Assessment for the Effects of the External Hazard Factors on the Safety of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, So Beom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Sung Kyu; Hur, Youl

    2010-01-01

    The Ch.etsu Offshore Earthquake(2007.7.16) in Japan caused damage to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa(K-K) Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) with seismic ground motion that exceeded the design level. This incident drew the interest of the safety evaluation studies for NPPs subjected to earthquakes exceeding the design basis around the world. Also, the Indian Ocean Tsunami(2004.12.26) tripped the Madras NPP by reason of flooding of the intake pump house and inundated the construction site of a fast breeder reactor site in India. In addition, from the various man-made and natural hazards such as the oil spill accident near Mallipo, Taean, Chungnam (2007.12), the forest fire near the Ulchin NPP site, the several inflows of marine organism into the intake of the Ulchin NPP, it was confirmed that the safety of NPPs may be affected by natural and human induced disasters. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been warned about global warming; the average temperature rose about 1.5 .deg. C during the 20th century and the damages caused by typhoons and heavy rains have also increased in Korea. Accordingly, a natural disaster prevention research team(hereafter team) ,which have been organized and operated since 2009, has assessed the impact of various hazards such as earthquakes and environmental changes due to global warming on the safety of NPP and has discussed to establish countermeasures. This paper introduces that the preliminary assessment for the effects of the external hazard factors on the safety of NPPs was conducted by the team

  13. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost

  14. Preliminary safety assessment of C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, J E P S; Pereda, M C V; Nogueira, C; Dieamant, G; Cesar, C K M; Assanome, K M; Silva, M S; Torello, C O; Queiroz, M L S; Eberlin, S

    2016-02-01

    Most of the cosmetic compounds with preservative properties available in the market pose some risks concerning safety, such as the possibility of causing sensitization. Due to the fact that there are few options, the proper development of new molecules with this purpose is needed. Xylitol is a natural sugar, and the antimicrobial properties of xylitol-derived compounds have already been described in the literature. C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters may be useful for the development of skincare products. As an initial screen for safety of chemicals, the combination of in silico methods and in vitro testing can aid in prioritizing resources in toxicological investigations while reducing the ethical and monetary costs that are related to animal and human testing. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters regarding carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, skin and eye irritation/corrosion and sensitization through alternative methods. For the initial safety assessment, quantitative structure-activity relationship methodology was used. The prediction of the parameters carcinogenicity/mutagenicity, skin and eye irritation/corrosion and sensitization was generated from the chemical structure. The analysis also comprised physical-chemical properties, Cramer rules, threshold of toxicological concern and Michael reaction. In silico results of candidate molecules were compared to 19 compounds with preservative properties that are available in the market. Additionally, in vitro tests (Ames test for mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phototoxicity tests and hen's egg test--chorioallantoic membrane for irritation) were performed to complement the evaluation. In silico evaluation of both molecules presented no structural alerts related to eye and skin irritation, corrosion and sensitization, but some alerts for micronucleus and carcinogenicity were detected. However, by comparison, C-8 xylitol monoester, xylitol

  15. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as 36 Cl and 93 Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon

  16. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  17. Market profile and conservation opportunity assessment for small businesses in Ontario : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-30

    This report discussed the results of a study that analysed electric energy efficiency, fuel substitution and demand response (CDM) opportunities for small and medium-sized commercial enterprises (SME) in Ontario and made recommendations. The report first provided a market overview of the SME. It addressed the study methodology, building inventory, electricity use and performance, and interpretation of results. Next, the report provided market profiles of priority sub-sectors. These included: office, food retail, food service, shopping malls, as well as an interpretation of results. A stakeholder assessment and energy management opportunity assessment were then provided. Insight into the experience of other jurisdictions relating to energy conservation were also addressed. Last, the report presented recommendations. It was concluded that, the SME Commercial sector demonstrated good potential for energy conservation and demand management. tabs., figs.

  18. A Preliminary Assessment of Social Vulnerability in Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Sugata; Islam, Nabiul

    2017-04-01

    The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta has a high population density and is exposed to rapid environmental changes making it one of the most stressed deltas in the world. The low-lying coastal areas of the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta comprise 19 coastal districts of Bangladesh and two districts in India with significant land areas within 5 meters of sea level has a population of more than 50 million people at an average population density of 1100 people/km2. This population is exposed to a range of hazards such as severe cyclones, coastal erosion, and salinization, exacerbated by climate change and subsidence which imply severe stress on the resource dependent community of this region. This situation is further complicated by poverty and limited social well-being such as poor access to education/ health/ drinking water/ sanitation facilities, and lack of food and energy security. Thus assessing social vulnerability can help to understand which communities are susceptible to environmental change and guide adaptation actions to address these threats. This preliminary study aims to construct a socio-economic index by assessing the social vulnerability of coastal communities of GBM Delta taking consistent and common secondary data from the Census of India and the Bangladesh Bureau of Statisticsand applyinga Principle Component Analysis(PCA) methodology. Several statistical tests like Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) have also been used to assess the appropriateness of using PCA. Among the selected common indicators, five major components are found to explain majority of the total variation of social vulnerability across the delta: (1) poverty, (2) dependency ratio, (3) agriculture dependency, (4) lack of sanitation and (5) existence of mud houses. The most important observation is the existence of a social vulnerability gradient across the coast. In other words, socially marginalised and vulnerable communities are found on the Delta margin in both India and

  19. A Preliminary Assessment of a Deep Borehole disposal of Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Younmyoung; Jeon, Jongtae

    2014-01-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of such radioactive waste as spent nuclear fuels (SFs) and other waste forms has been investigating mainly at Sandia National Labs for the US DOE as an alternative option. DBD can give advantages over less deep geological disposal since the disposal of wastes at a great depth where a low degree of permeability in the potentially steady rock condition will be beneficial for nuclide movement. Groundwater in the deep basement rock can even have salinity and less chance to mix with groundwater above. The DBD concept is quite straightforward and even simple: Waste canisters are simply emplaced in the lower 2 km part of the borehole down to 5 km deep. Through this study, a conceptual DBD is assessed for a similar case as the US DOE's approach, in which 400 SF canisters are to be emplaced at a deep bottom between 3km and 5km depths, upon which an additional 1km-thick compacted bentonite is overbuffered, and the remaining upper part of the borehole is backfilled again with a mixture of crushed rock and bentonite. Then, the total 5km-deep borehole has three zones: a disposal zone at the bottom 2km, a buffer zone at the next 1km, and backfill zone at the rest top 2km, as illustrated conceptually in Fig. 1. To demonstrate the feasibility in view of long-term radiological safety, a rough model for a safety assessment of this conceptual deep borehole repository system, providing detailed models for nuclide transport in and around the geosphere and biosphere under normal nuclide release scenarios that can occur after a closure of the repository, has been developed using GoldSim. A simple preliminary result in terms of the dose exposure rate from a safety assessment of the DBD is also presented and compared to the case of direct disposal of SFs in a KBS-3V vertical type repository, carried out in previous studies. For different types and shapes of repositories at each different depth, direct comparison between a DBD and a KBS-3 type disposal of

  20. A Preliminary Assessment of a Deep Borehole disposal of Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Younmyoung; Jeon, Jongtae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of such radioactive waste as spent nuclear fuels (SFs) and other waste forms has been investigating mainly at Sandia National Labs for the US DOE as an alternative option. DBD can give advantages over less deep geological disposal since the disposal of wastes at a great depth where a low degree of permeability in the potentially steady rock condition will be beneficial for nuclide movement. Groundwater in the deep basement rock can even have salinity and less chance to mix with groundwater above. The DBD concept is quite straightforward and even simple: Waste canisters are simply emplaced in the lower 2 km part of the borehole down to 5 km deep. Through this study, a conceptual DBD is assessed for a similar case as the US DOE's approach, in which 400 SF canisters are to be emplaced at a deep bottom between 3km and 5km depths, upon which an additional 1km-thick compacted bentonite is overbuffered, and the remaining upper part of the borehole is backfilled again with a mixture of crushed rock and bentonite. Then, the total 5km-deep borehole has three zones: a disposal zone at the bottom 2km, a buffer zone at the next 1km, and backfill zone at the rest top 2km, as illustrated conceptually in Fig. 1. To demonstrate the feasibility in view of long-term radiological safety, a rough model for a safety assessment of this conceptual deep borehole repository system, providing detailed models for nuclide transport in and around the geosphere and biosphere under normal nuclide release scenarios that can occur after a closure of the repository, has been developed using GoldSim. A simple preliminary result in terms of the dose exposure rate from a safety assessment of the DBD is also presented and compared to the case of direct disposal of SFs in a KBS-3V vertical type repository, carried out in previous studies. For different types and shapes of repositories at each different depth, direct comparison between a DBD and a KBS-3 type disposal of

  1. Assessment of private sector anticipatory response to greenhouse gas market development : Final analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrister, D.; Marsh, D.; Varilek, M.

    2002-01-01

    Some active markets in greenhouse gases are beginning to emerge, which will lead to actual data concerning market performance becoming available and rendering the prediction of future prices for global greenhouse gas reductions more accurate. Market participants use studies as a starting point for the calibration of their understanding then seize opportunities in the external market and therefore refine their price expectations. In addition, they attempt to outperform their competitors. In this study, the authors reviewed the results of some of the most recent economic modeling results, synthesized pricing data, assessed the price and risk expectations of a broad range of corporate market players and examined their response strategies. The authors also took advantage of their expertise as market brokers to offer their views. The representatives of 35 companies operating in Canada, the United States, Japan, the European Union and Russia were interviewed for this study. Their price expectations were just over 5 dollars per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2005 before the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, and raised to an average of 11 dollars per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2010. The major assumption was that the Kyoto Protocol would begin to take effect in 2002, and also that the United States would fail to ratify the Protocol. The respondents believed that some demand would force state and/or local programs to be implemented for a carbon reduction program. Poorly harmonized or delayed national policies, the potential costs of the Clean Development Mechanism projects and national pressure to take action at home are some of the concerns expressed which could prevent prices from becoming fully efficient. 41 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  2. An Assessment of "Sustainable Competitive Advantage" for Artex Limited, within the UK DIY Multiple Market Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Craig Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis This dissertation critically examines the business of Artex Limited and the industry that it operates within, in the context of serving the UK DIY multiple market, a sector that the company is highly reliant on from a turnover and profit perspective. Through the practical application of a number of strategic assessment frameworks, and in conjunction with a study of the relevant literature, the principle objective is to test for empirical evidence of competitive advantage within ...

  3. Assessing the Impact of the ECB's Monetary Policy on the Stock Markets: A Sectoral View

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Kholodilin; Alberto Montagnoli; Oreste Napolitano; Boriss Siliverstovs

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the response of the European stock markets to the monetary policy shocks by the European Central Bank using the heteroskedasticity based approach of Rigobon (2003). We find that monetary policy tightening has a heterogeneous impact on the Euro Area sectors on the day the monetary policy is publicly announced. Furthermore, we provide statistical evidence against the use of the popular event study approach when assessing the impact of monetary policy shocks on the stock mark...

  4. Preliminary assessment of potential underground stability (wedge and spalling) at Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Derek [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Geotechnical Engineering

    2005-12-15

    In SKB's Underground Design Premises the objective in the early design phase is to estimate if there is sufficient space for the repository at a site. One of the conditions that could limit the space available is stability of the underground openings, i.e., deposition tunnels and deposition boreholes. The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential for wedge instability and spalling that may be encountered at the Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites based on information from the site investigations program up to July 30, 2004. The rock mass spalling strength was defined using the in-situ results from SKB's Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment and AECL's Mine-by Experiment. These experiments suggest that the rock mass spalling strength for crystalline rocks can be estimated as 0.57 of the mean laboratory uniaxial compressive strength. A probability-based methodology utilizing this in-situ rock mass spalling strength has been developed for assessing the risk for spalling in a repository at the Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites. The in-situ stresses and the uniaxial compressive strength data from these sites were used as the bases for the analyses. Preliminary findings from all sites suggest that, generally, the risk for spalling increases as the depth of the repository increases, simply because the stress magnitudes increase with depth. The depth at which the risk for spalling is significant, depends on the individual sites which are discussed below. The greatest uncertainty in the spalling analyses for Forsmark is related to the uncertainty in the horizontal stress magnitudes and associated stress gradients with depth. The confidence in these analyses can only be increased by increasing the confidence in the stress and geology model for the site. From the analyses completed it appears that spalling in the deposition tunnels can be controlled by orienting the tunnels approximately parallel to the maximum horizontal

  5. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  6. Reliability and validity of a novel tool to comprehensively assess food and beverage marketing in recreational sport settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Rachel J L; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Olstad, Dana Lee; Carson, Valerie; Mâsse, Louise C; Storey, Kate; Kirk, Sara F L; Raine, Kim D

    2018-05-31

    Current methods for evaluating food marketing to children often study a single marketing channel or approach. As the World Health Organization urges the removal of unhealthy food marketing in children's settings, methods that comprehensively explore the exposure and power of food marketing within a setting from multiple marketing channels and approaches are needed. The purpose of this study was to test the inter-rater reliability and the validity of a novel settings-based food marketing audit tool. The Food and beverage Marketing Assessment Tool for Settings (FoodMATS) was developed and its psychometric properties evaluated in five public recreation and sport facilities (sites) and subsequently used in 51 sites across Canada for a cross-sectional analysis of food marketing. Raters recorded the count of food marketing occasions, presence of child-targeted and sports-related marketing techniques, and the physical size of marketing occasions. Marketing occasions were classified by healthfulness. Inter-rater reliability was tested using Cohen's kappa (κ) and intra-class correlations (ICC). FoodMATS scores for each site were calculated using an algorithm that represented the theoretical impact of the marketing environment on food preferences, purchases, and consumption. Higher FoodMATS scores represented sites with higher exposure to, and more powerful (unhealthy, child-targeted, sports-related, large) food marketing. Validity of the scoring algorithm was tested through (1) Pearson's correlations between FoodMATS scores and facility sponsorship dollars, and (2) sequential multiple regression for predicting "Least Healthy" food sales from FoodMATS scores. Inter-rater reliability was very good to excellent (κ = 0.88-1.00, p marketing in recreation facilities, the FoodMATS provides a novel means to comprehensively track changes in food marketing environments that can assist in developing and monitoring the impact of policies and interventions.

  7. Assessing the Financial and Market Components of the Enterprise’s Economic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhlakova Viktoriia V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The most common in assessing economic security of an enterprise is the functional approach, but it needs to be improved on the basis of accumulated knowledge in the science of economic security at the micro-level, thus allowing for different organizing its usage. In order to assess the economic security of enterprise using a functional approach, it is proposed to abandon many functional components in favor of focusing on the financial and market ones, and to discard the traditional rollup of the normalized single and complex indicators to obtain an integral measure of the enterprise’s economic security. In order to assess the economic security of enterprise by the financial and market components, it is proposed to use the signature criteria for the selected indicators by each component, the number of which should be small. For each of the assessed components of the enterprise’s economic security four single indicators were selected, making possible to visualize the assessments by using the elliptic form of the Euler – Venn circles for the four multitudes of assessments as to each component.

  8. Assessing the benefits of residential demand response in a real time distribution energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Sarno, Debora

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new probabilistic methodology, integrating DR in a distribution energy market is proposed. • The method can alleviate distribution network congestions. • This method based on D-LMPs allows cost savings for end-user customers. • Innovative thermal and shiftable loads Real Time control algorithms are also presented. - Abstract: In the field of electricity distribution networks and with the advent of smart grids and microgrids, the use of Distribution Locational Marginal Price (D-LMPs) in a Real Time (RT) distribution market managed by a Distribution System Operator (DSO) is discussed in presence of empowered residential end-users that are able to bid for energy by a demand aggregator while following Demand Response (DR) initiatives. Each customer is provided by a transactive controller, which reads the locational market signals and answers with a bid taking into account the user preferences about some appliances involved in DR activities and controlled by smart plugs-in. In particular, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) appliances and shiftable loads are controlled so that their consumption profile can be modified according to the price of energy. In order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of energy and cost saving, an innovative probabilistic methodology for evaluating the impact of residential DR choices considering uncertainties related to load demand, user preferences, environmental conditions, house thermal behavior and wholesale market trends has been proposed. The uncertainties related to the stochastic variations of the variables involved are modeled by using the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. The combination of MCS and RT distribution market simulation based on D-LMPs are used to assess the operation and impact of the DR method over one month. Simulations results on an 84-buses distribution network confirmed that the proposed method allows saving costs for residential end-users and making

  9. Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, Carsten; Wartmann, Sina; Höhne, Niklas; Blok, Kornelis

    2014-01-01

    The current project-based carbon market mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI) do not have a direct impact on global greenhouse gas emission levels, because they only replace or offset emissions. Nor do they contribute to host country's national greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Contributions to net emission reductions in host countries is likely to become mandatory in new mechanisms under development such as in the framework for various approaches, a new market-based mechanism and even in a reformed JI. This research analysed the question if approaches for carbon market-based mechanisms exist that allow the generation of net emission reductions in host countries while keeping project initiation attractive. We present a criteria-based assessment method and apply it for four generic options in existing mechanisms and derive implications for future mechanism frameworks. We identified the application of “discounts” on the amount of avoided emissions for the issuance of carbon credits and “standardisation below business as usual” as most promising options over “limiting the crediting period” and “over-conservativeness”. We propose to apply these options differentiated over project types based on internal rate of return to ensure cost-efficiency and attractiveness. - Highlights: • Options for net emission reductions of market-based mechanisms are assessed. • Research combines past and current views for project and sector-based mechanisms. • Implementation ensures initiation of mitigation activities is not discouraged. • Important insights for methodological design of new market-based mechanisms. • Profitability-based approach for project-based mechanisms suggested

  10. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  11. Distribution and preliminary exposure assessment of bisphenol AF (BPAF) in various environmental matrices around a manufacturing plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanjun; Ruan, Ting; Wang, Thanh; Liu, Runzeng; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-12-18

    Increasing attention has been paid to bisphenol A and bisphenol (BP) analogues due to high production volumes, wide usage and potential adverse effects. Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is considered a new bisphenol analogue which is used as raw material in plastic industry, but little is known about its occurrence in the environment and the potential associated risk. In this work, BPAF levels and environmental distribution were reported in samples collected around a manufacturing plant and a preliminary exposure risk assessment to local residents was conducted. BPAF was detected in most of the samples, with levels in river ranging between environment and organic carbon was the domain factor during the process. The preliminary BPAF exposure assessment based on the CSOIL model suggested that children could have higher intake of BPAF than adults through inhalation of soils, dermal exposure by soils contact and bathing with well water.

  12. Preliminary assessment report for Virginia Army National Guard Army Aviation Support Facility, Richmond International Airport, Installation 51230, Sandston, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, C.B.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Virginia Army National Guard (VaARNG) property in Sandston, Virginia. The Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) is contiguous with the Richmond International Airport. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The PA is designed to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The AASF, originally constructed as an active Air Force interceptor base, provides maintenance support for VaARNG aircraft. Hazardous materials used and stored at the facility include JP-4 jet fuel, diesel fuel, gasoline, liquid propane gas, heating oil, and motor oil

  13. Preliminary assessment report for Grubbs/Kyle Training Center, Smyrna/Rutherford County Regional Airport, Installation 47340, Smyrna, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, C.; Stefano, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Tennessee Army National Guard (TNARNG) property near Smyrna, Tennessee. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Grubbs/Kyle Training Center property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program

  14. "Bare Branches" and the Marriage Market in Rural China: Preliminary Evidence from a village-level survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Liu, Lige; Li, Yan; Feldman, Marcus W; Li, Shuzhuo

    Using data from a village survey in rural China, this study explores the relationships between current prevalence of involuntary bachelorhood and its causes and social consequences at the village level. We find that bachelors, inter-county marriage and marriage fraud exist in all regions, and are expected to become more frequent with the increasing surplus of males born after 1980 entering the marriage market. The marriage squeeze and social problems related to the bachelors are more serious in less-developed western villages, and heterogeneity within central villages is significant. Economic and socio-demographic factors are shown to be the major causes of the prevalence of bachelors at the village level in contemporary rural China. Our findings confirm the negative consequences of the marriage squeeze, and effective policies are urgently needed to respond to and prevent more negative consequences of gender imbalance in the foreseeable future.

  15. Concurrent Multidisciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Final Report: Advanced Long-Life Lander Investigating the Venus Environment (ALIVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    The COncurrent Multidisciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Team partnered with the Applied Research Laboratory to perform a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program study to evaluate chemical based power systems for keeping a Venus lander alive (power and cooling) and functional for a period of days. The mission class targeted was either a Discovery ($500M) or New Frontiers ($750M to $780M) class mission.

  16. Preliminary assessment of the gender aspects of disaster vulnerability and loss of human life in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tandlich, Roman; Chirenda, Tatenda G; Srinivas, Chandra S S

    2013-01-01

    South Africa has reached a medium level of human development and has a heterogeneous situation with respect to disaster risk management. In this article, a preliminary assessment of the gender aspects of disaster vulnerability and fatalities is presented. The United Nations, the Health Systems Trust and Statistics South Africa were used as data sources for the following gender-segregated values: the life expectancy at birth, unemployment rates, the human development index values, the maternal...

  17. Assessing antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using fossil pollen data: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yao; Jackson, Stephen T; Brewer, Simon; Williams, John W

    2010-01-01

    We explored formal approaches to identifying and interpreting the antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using pollen records. Preliminary results of cluster analyses, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, and likelihood estimation of ecosystem analog in a simple Bayesian model allow assessment of modern ecosystem antiquities and past ecosystem turnovers. Approaches discussed in this study thus provide a vehicle for further studies.

  18. Preliminary assessment of the interaction of introduced biological agents with biofilms in water distribution systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Caldwell, Sara; Jones, Howland D. T.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Souza, Caroline Ann; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2005-12-01

    Basic research is needed to better understand the potential risk of dangerous biological agents that are unintentionally or intentionally introduced into a water distribution system. We report on our capabilities to conduct such studies and our preliminary investigations. In 2004, the Biofilms Laboratory was initiated for the purpose of conducting applied research related to biofilms with a focus on application, application testing and system-scale research. Capabilities within the laboratory are the ability to grow biofilms formed from known bacteria or biofilms from drinking water. Biofilms can be grown quickly in drip-flow reactors or under conditions more analogous to drinking-water distribution systems in annular reactors. Biofilms can be assessed through standard microbiological techniques (i .e, aerobic plate counts) or with various visualization techniques including epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy and confocal fluorescence hyperspectral imaging with multivariate analysis. We have demonstrated the ability to grow reproducible Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms in the annular reactor with plate counts on the order of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/cm{sup 2}. Stationary phase growth is typically reached 5 to 10 days after inoculation. We have also conducted a series of pathogen-introduction experiments, where we have observed that both polystyrene microspheres and Bacillus cereus (as a surrogate for B. anthracis) stay incorporated in the biofilms for the duration of our experiments, which lasted as long as 36 days. These results indicated that biofilms may act as a safe harbor for bio-pathogens in drinking water systems, making it difficult to decontaminate the systems.

  19. Preliminary assessment of streamflow characteristics for selected streams at Fort Gordon, Georgia, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamey, Timothy C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, began collection of periodic streamflow data at four streams on the military base to assess and estimate streamflow characteristics of those streams for potential water-supply sources. Simple and reliable methods of determining streamflow characteristics of selected streams on the military base are needed for the initial implementation of the Fort Gordon Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan. Long-term streamflow data from the Butler Creek streamflow gaging station were used along with several concurrent discharge measurements made at three selected partial-record streamflow stations on Fort Gordon to determine selected low-flow streamflow characteristics. Streamflow data were collected and analyzed using standard U.S. Geological Survey methods and computer application programs to verify the use of simple drainage area to discharge ratios, which were used to estimate the low-flow characteristics for the selected streams. Low-flow data computed based on daily mean streamflow include: mean discharges for consecutive 1-, 3-, 7-, 14-, and 30-day period and low-flow estimates of 7Q10, 30Q2, 60Q2, and 90Q2 recurrence intervals. Flow-duration data also were determined for the 10-, 30-, 50-, 70-, and 90-percent exceedence flows. Preliminary analyses of the streamflow indicate that the flow duration and selected low-flow statistics for the selected streams averages from about 0.15 to 2.27 cubic feet per square mile. The long-term gaged streamflow data indicate that the streamflow conditions for the period analyzed were in the 50- to 90-percent flow range, or in which streamflow would be exceeded about 50 to 90 percent of the time.

  20. Effect of alternative conceptual models in a preliminary performance assessment for the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Beyeler, W.; Garner, J.W.; Iuzzolino, H.J.; Marietta, M.G.; Rudeen, D.K.; Schreiber, J.D.; Swift, P.N.; Tierney, M.S.; Vaughn, P.

    1995-01-01

    The most appropriate conceptual model for performance assessment (PA) at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) is believed to include gas generation resulting from corrosion and microbial action in the repository, and a dual-porosity (matrix and fracture porosity) representation for the solute transport in the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler formation. Under these assumptions, complementary cummulative distribution functions (CCDFs) which summarize the radionuclide releases to the accessible environment, resulting from both cutting removal and groundwater transport, fall substantially below the release limits promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with the releases being dominated by cuttings removal. To provide additional views, the following alternative conceptual models were considered as part of a preliminary PA for the WIPP: no gas generation in the repository and a dual-porosity transport model in the Culebra; gas generation in the repository and a single-porosity (fracture porosity) transport model in the Culebra; no gas generation in the repository and a single-porosity transport model in the Culebra; gas generation in the repository and a dual-porosity transport model in the Culebra, without chemical retardation; gas generation in the repository, chemical retardation in the Culebra, and extremes of climatic variation. These variations relate to groundwater transport, so do not affect the releases resulting from cuttings removal. Several of these variations substantially increase the importance of releases resulting from groundwater transport relative to releases resulting from cuttings removal. However, the total amount of releases generally remained small, with the CCDFs which summarize the releases to the accessible environment falling below the EPA release limits

  1. Preliminary geological assessment for rare earths at Ombo Area, San Vicente, Northern Palawan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Angelito F.; Santos, Gabriel Jr.; Magsambol, Wilfred N.; Castillo, Marilyn K.; Tabora, Estrelita U.

    2001-04-01

    A preliminary geological assessment for rare earths was conducted along Ombo beach area, San Vicente, northern Palawan to evaluate the potential geologic reserve and to determine the relative concentration of REE, thorium and uranium. This investigation also aims to establish the distribution of heavy minerals. The study area, covering, about 6500 m 2 is comprised of the undisturbed beach sand deposits confined between the high tide line and the base of the mountains that borders the coastline. The investigation involved the establishment of shallow test pits with depths varying from one meter ot less than three meters. A total of 23 heavy mineral panned concentrates were collected. All the samples were analyzed for REE, Th and U using the portable X-MET 820 x-ray fluorescence and GR-320 gamma ray spectrometer. Radiometric measurements were also taken along the stretch of Ombo beach to establish the natural background radioactivity. The radiometric values vary from 27 cps to 420 cps. The high readings could be attributed to the presence of radioactive rare earth bearing minerals, principally allanite. This initial investigation indicates a positive geologic reserve of approximately 19,000 metric tons beach sand deposits, containing an average grade of 22.19% REE (Ce, La), 0.85% Th and 0.55% U. The average distribution of heavy minerals is 3600 gm heavies per cubic meter. Moreover, a probable geologic reserve of about 41,000 metric tons with an average grade of 22.13% REE (Ce, La), 0.85% Th and 0.55% U was also determined. The average distribution of heavy minerals is about 3300 gm heavies per cubic meter. (Author)

  2. Update of Market Assessment for Capturing Water Conservation Opportunities in the Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmordie, Katherine; Solana, Amy E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.

    2005-09-08

    This updated market assessment for capturing water conservation opportunities in the Federal sector is based on a new analytical approach that utilizes newly available data and technologies. The new approach fine-tunes the original assessment by using actual Federal water use, which is now tracked by DOE (as compared to using estimated water use). Federal building inventory data is also used to disseminate water use by end-use technology in the Federal sector. In addition, this analysis also examines the current issues and obstacles that face performance contracting of water efficiency projects at Federal sites.

  3. Economic assessment and optimal operation of CSP systems with TES in California electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Alexander W.; Dyreson, Ana; Miller, Franklin; Zavala, Victor M.

    2017-06-01

    The economics and performance of concentrated power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) inherently depend on operating policies and the surrounding weather conditions and electricity markets. We present an integrated economic assessment framework to quantify the maximum possible revenues from simultaneous energy and ancillary services sales by CSP systems. The framework includes both discrete start-up/shutdown restrictions and detailed physical models. Analysis of coinci-dental historical market and meteorological data reveals provision of ancillary services increases market revenue 18% to 37% relative to energy-only participation. Surprisingly, only 53% to 62% of these revenues are available through sole participation in the day-ahead market, indicating significant opportunities at faster timescales. Motivated by water-usage concerns and permitting requirements, we also describe a new nighttime radiative-enhanced dry-cooling system with cold-side storage that consumes no water and offers higher effciencies than traditional air-cooled designs. Operation of this new system is complicated by the cold-side storage and inherent coupling between the cooling system and power plant, further motivating integrated economic analysis.

  4. Canada's oil sands, opportunities and challenges to 2015 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the current state of the oil sands industry and the potential for growth. It also identifies the major issues and challenges associated with the development of Canada's oil sands, one of the world's largest hydrocarbon resources. Initial production of Canada's oil sands began in 1967. The resource has become more economic to develop in recent years due to higher energy prices and new technologies. The economic potential of Canada's oil sands has been recognized internationally. Canadian oil sands production in 2004 will surpass 160,000 cubic metres per day. By 2015, production is expected to more than double to meet market demands. The challenges facing the industry include higher natural gas prices, capital cost overruns and environmental impacts. The major factors that affect the rate of oil sands development include natural gas supply, energy demand, oil and gas pricing, markets and pipelines, environmental considerations, emerging technologies, geopolitical issues, and labour. This report includes key findings for the following four key components: economic potential and development of the resource base; markets and pipelines; environmental and socio-economic impacts; and, potential spin-off developments in the electricity and petrochemical industries. 26 tabs., 53 figs

  5. Economic impact assessment and operational decision making in emission and transmission constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanduri, Vishnu; Kazemzadeh, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a bilevel game-theoretic model for allowance and electricity markets. ► We solve the model using a reinforcement learning algorithm. ► Model accounts for transmission constraints, cap-and-trade constraints. ► Study demonstrated on 9-bus electric power network. ► Obtain insights about supply shares, impact of transmission constraints, and cost pass through. -- Abstract: Carbon constrained electricity markets are a reality in 10 northeastern states and California in the US, as well as the European Union. Close to a Billion US Dollars have been spent by entities (mainly generators) in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in procuring CO 2 allowances to meet binding emissions restrictions. In the near future, there are expected to be significant impacts due to the cap-and-trade program, especially when the cap stringency increases. In this research we develop a bilevel, complete-information, matrix game-theoretic model to assess the economic impact and make operational decisions in carbon-constrained restructured electricity markets. Our model is solved using a reinforcement learning approach, which takes into account the learning and adaptive nature of market participants. Our model also accounts for all the power systems constraints via a DC-OPF problem. We demonstrate the working of the model and compute various economic impact indicators such as supply shares, cost pass-through, social welfare, profits, allowance prices, and electricity prices. Results from a 9-bus power network are presented.

  6. News media and the stock market: Assessing mutual relationships : An interdisciplinary multi-method study of financial journalism, news media, emotions, market events and the stock market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauß, N.

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation provides insights in explaining the interrelationships between news media and the stock market. First, the results show that first-hand economic news seems to induce stronger, and more immediate stock market reactions than already known public information. Second, public economic

  7. Assessment of the Impact of the Narcotics Market on the Regional Socio-Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Nikolaevich Klevakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the market of narcotics as a part of the formal and informal economy. By narcotics, the author means psychoactive substances and plants containing them, which are banned, subject to control or non-prohibited, but have a psychophysical effect on human body. Drug-related psychoactive substances are classified according to the prohibition criterion and restrictions on a turnover with reference to the illegal (criminal or shadow economy. The author considers the illegal drug market as a latent self-organizing system of socio-economic relations of criminal and shadow nature. Such market is oriented towards the turnover of potentially illegal or dangerous psychoactive substances, which are prohibited or restricted for use in non-medical purposes. The analysis of the state and development of the drug situation on the territory of the entities of the Ural Federal District confirms the relevance of the problem of drug abuse. In recent years, the primary incidence of drug addiction and harmful drug use among the adolescents aged 15–17 have grown. Synthetic narcotics and psychotropic substances of high narcogenicity dominate in the current drug market. Over the past 5 years, the average cost of a single dose of drug remains virtually unchanged. This reflects the conditional balance of purchasing power and competition in the drug market. The disparity in the volume of seized cannabis drugs and the number of cannabinoid users observed by medical institutions suggests a high level of latency in this category of drug users. To assess the degree of negative impact of the drug market, the author proposes to use a method of calculating the socioeconomic costs of the consequences of drug addiction. The methodology is supplemented with tools for determining the number of psychoactive substances consumers on the basis of the mass of these substances withdrawn from illicit trafficking, using the concentration and recalculation coefficients

  8. Research utilization in the building industry: decision model and preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Johnson, D.R.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1985-10-01

    The Research Utilization Program was conceived as a far-reaching means for managing the interactions of the private sector and the federal research sector as they deal with energy conservation in buildings. The program emphasizes a private-public partnership in planning a research agenda and in applying the results of ongoing and completed research. The results of this task support the hypothesis that the transfer of R and D results to the buildings industry can be accomplished more efficiently and quickly by a systematic approach to technology transfer. This systematic approach involves targeting decision makers, assessing research and information needs, properly formating information, and then transmitting the information through trusted channels. The purpose of this report is to introduce elements of a market-oriented knowledge base, which would be useful to the Building Systems Division, the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and their associated laboratories in managing a private-public research partnership on a rational systematic basis. This report presents conceptual models and data bases that can be used in formulating a technology transfer strategy and in planning technology transfer programs.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Two Alternative Core Design Concepts for the Special Purpose Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Werner, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hummel, Andrew J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kennedy, John C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, Robert C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dion, Axel M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ananth, Krishnan P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Special Purpose Reactor (SPR) is a small 5 MWt, heat pipe-cooled, fast reactor based on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Mega-Power concept. The LANL concept features a stainless steel monolithic core structure with drilled channels for UO2 pellet stacks and evaporator sections of the heat pipes. Two alternative active core designs are presented here that replace the monolithic core structure with simpler and easier to manufacture fuel elements. The two new core designs are simply referred to as Design A and Design B. In addition to ease of manufacturability, the fuel elements for both Design A and Design B can be individually fabricated, assembled, inspected, tested, and qualified prior to their installation into the reactor core leading to greater reactor system reliability and safety. Design A fuel elements will require the development of a new hexagonally-shaped UO2 fuel pellet. The Design A configuration will consist of an array of hexagonally-shaped fuel elements with each fuel element having a central heat pipe. This hexagonal fuel element configuration results in four radial gaps or thermal resistances per element. Neither the fuel element development, nor the radial gap issue are deemed to be serious and should not impact an aggressive reactor deployment schedule. Design B uses embedded arrays of heat pipes and fuel pins in a double-wall tank filled with liquid metal sodium. Sodium is used to thermally bond the heat pipes to the fuel pins, but its usage may create reactor transportation and regulatory challenges. An independent panel of U.S. manufacturing experts has preliminarily assessed the three SPR core designs and views Design A as simplest to manufacture. Herein are the results of a preliminary neutronic, thermal, mechanical, material, and manufacturing assessment of both Design A and Design B along with comparisons to the LANL concept (monolithic core structure). Despite the active core differences, all three reactor concepts behave

  10. Assessing facade value - how clients make business cases in changing real estate markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra den Heijer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relevance: The value of any intervention in the built environment is most relevant for the stakeholders that are investing in it. For them all costs need to be balanced with benefits - not necessarily directly financial, but adding value to the performance of the accommodated organization. Business cases contain performance criteria like competitive advantage (branding the organization, productivity (optimally supporting users of the building, profitability (on organizational level and sustainable development (monitoring the ecological footprint. In the changing real estate markets – from supply-driven to demand-driven and with increasingly higher vacancy rates – priorities in decisions about buildings have been shifting.Purpose: This paper elaborates on how (a the trends in real estate markets and (b changing priorities in decision making affect the quality demand for buildings and their facades.Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on research of the Real Estate Management chair in general (market analysis, transformation trends, conceptual frameworks and more specifically on decisions about university campuses in the past 10 years (14 campuses and 57 buildings assessed.Findings: This paper provides both conceptual frameworks to assess the (added value of interventions in the built environment for the client and their (changing priorities in the brief for buildings and their facades.

  11. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of climate change on U.S. forests, wood-product markets, and forest recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland; Darius Adams; Ralph Alig; Carter J. Betz; Chi-Chung Chen; Mark Hutchins; Bruce A. McCarl; Ken Skog; Brent L. Sohngen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the problems of projecting social and economic changes affecting forests and review recent efforts to assess the wood-market impacts of possible climate changes. To illustrate the range of conditions encountered in projecting socioeconomic change linked to forests, we consider two markedly different uses: forest products markets and forest...

  12. International off-grid market assessment for dish/Stirling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilienthal, P.; Campbell, K.

    1998-01-01

    Several features of dish/Stirling technology offer potential advantages for off-grid power generation. Dish/Stirling technology's size, modularity, the ease with which it might be hybridized with a storable fuel, the elimination of batteries and inverters, and the production of pure sine-wave AC power without a diesel all indicate that a reliable dish/Stirling module could fit well into an off-grid electrification scheme. At the same time, a combination of factors makes success in off-grid applications difficult, regardless of the technology under consideration. Obstacles include consumer expectations (formed by a long history of subsidies) that electricity should be cheap, existing support infrastructure, and the economic resources of rural communities. Cost is always a factor, but reliability and access to parts and service have been more significant barriers so far in the establishment of renewables. This paper summarizes a much more extensive market assessment. Initial research indicates that a reliable 25 kW dish/Stirling system with reasonable servicing requirements could compete well with other off-grid power systems at a cost considered achievable at early production levels ($3,500 per kW). However, by itself the off-grid power market in regions with adequate solar insolation and inviting political regimes does not justify an adequate scale of production. It is estimated that the aggregate market in five of the largest and most promising countries for which adequate information was available could be 23,000 to 38,000 units of 25 kW dish/Stirling systems. Including the rest of the developing world could more than double this number. However, at a reasonable initial market penetration rate of 1% per year this market is not sufficient, by itself, for the mass production rates required to achieve the necessary economies of scale

  13. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA

  14. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  15. A new methodology for assessment of pectus excavatum correction after bar removal in Nuss procedure: Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Fonseca, João; Vilaça, João L; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Direito-Santos, Bruno; Pinho, António C M; Fonseca, Jaime C; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The objective is to present a new methodology to assess quantitatively the impact of bar removal on the anterior chest wall, among patients with pectus excavatum who have undergone the Nuss procedure, and present a preliminary study using this methodology. We propose to acquire, for each patient, the surface of the anterior chest wall using a three-dimensional laser scanner at subsequent time points (short term: before and after surgery; long term: follow-up visit, 6months, and 12months after surgery). After surfaces postprocessing, the changes are assessed by overlapping and measuring the distances between surfaces. In this preliminary study, three time points were acquired and two assessments were performed: before vs after bar removal (early) and before vs 2-8weeks after bar removal (interim). In 21 patients, the signed distances and volumes between surfaces were computed and the data analysis was performed. This methodology revealed useful for monitoring changes in the anterior chest wall. On average, the mean, maximum, and volume variations, in the early assessment, were -0.1±0.1cm, -0.6±0.2cm, and 47.8±22.2cm 3 , respectively; and, in the interim assessment, were -0.5±0.2cm, -1.3±0.4cm, and 122.1±47.3cm 3 , respectively (pbar was in situ was inversely and significantly correlated with postretraction and was a relevant predictor of its decrease following surgery (pbar was in situ may be the main determinant of the anterior chest wall retraction following bar removal. Further studies should continue to corroborate and reinforce the preliminary findings, by increasing the sample size and performing long-term assessments. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. FISH AND SHELLFISH PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTED BY "ETHNIC" MINI-MARKET: CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT TO CURRENT LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giorgi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment on the quality and methods for marketing of fish products sold by ethnic minimarket. Has been inspected 20 supermarkets and buyed 60 fish and shellfish samples. The neatness of the rooms were evaluated during the shopping in the markets. Products purchased in the supermarket (about three samples for each shop were brought in Ichthypathology laboratory of State Veterinary Institute of Piedmont, Liguria and Aosta Valley, in Turin. Were conducted in the laboratory the readings of the labels. The conditions of hygiene were poor, especially in supermarket freezers. Only 16 samples were labelled in accordance with current legislation. According to the results obtained, the products 'ethnic' distributed in the supermarkets visited, may be considered a potential risk to human health.

  17. QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION OF COMPANIES AND MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kovtun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of improving the author’s methodology linked with the assessment of companies’ and markets’ globalization level were presented in this paper. Based on the analysis of the global companies’ and global markets’ features referred to in scientific literature, the specifications which can be used to determine the globalization level of companies and markets were suggested. In addition, the globalization level of the largest top-ten companies (according to the rating of Forbes Global 2000 Leading Companies in 2015 was identified as well as that of corresponding industry markets: auto and truck manufacturers, major banks, software and programming, large department stores (retailers, telecommunication services, electronics producers, electronics, oil and gas operations.

  18. Tracking Young Adults' Attitudes Toward Tobacco Marketing Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Lu, Bo; Browning, Christopher R; Ferketich, Amy K

    2017-07-29

    Decades of research demonstrate the pernicious effects of targeted cigarette marketing on young people. Now, with tobacco marketing shifting toward greater incorporation of alternative products, it is critical to identify current attitudes toward the new landscape of tobacco advertisements. The purpose of this study was to understand the present landscape of tobacco marketing to which young adults are exposed, and to assess how they respond to it. During 2015-2016, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in which 44 young adults (aged 18-28) carried smartphones equipped with a survey app. Seventy-seven percent were ever-users of tobacco and 29.5% were intermittent users of tobacco (someday users of cigarettes and/or those who used another tobacco product >5 times within the past year). For ten days, participants were prompted at three random times/day to complete a brief survey about their exposures and responses to tobacco-related advertising. Analyses used t-test and multilevel modeling. Intermittent users reported greater exposure than non-intermittent users to tobacco advertising. Further, both intermittent and ever-users reported more positive attitudes toward the tobacco advertising. Of the tobacco advertisements reported, 22% were for products unregulated by the FDA at the time of data collection. Conclusions/Importance: These findings indicate that young adults, and especially young adults who use tobacco, are exposed to a fair amount of tobacco advertising on a weekly basis. As the tobacco users in our sample were largely experimental and occasional users, these marketing exposures could put young adults at risk for progression toward regular use.

  19. Preliminary parameter assessments of a spiral FFAG accelerator for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.; Azaryan, N.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerator was invented in the 1950-60s but never progressed beyond the model stage. Starting from 2000, new interest in this type of accelerator arose. Given advantages of the FFAG over the synchrotron, cyclotron and linac, there are many possible applications of the accelerator. Among them, we are mostly interested in acceleration of protons and light ions for hadron therapy. In this connection a preliminary set of parameters of the facility was estimated and, in particular, the magnetic sector shape and corresponding dynamical properties of the magnetic field of the accelerator were calculated. In addition, preliminary considerations about the RF system design are given.

  20. Using Prediction Markets to Generate Probability Density Functions for Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate-related uncertainty is traditionally presented as an error bar, but it is becoming increasingly common to express it in terms of a probability density function (PDF). PDFs are a necessary component of probabilistic risk assessments, for which simple "best estimate" values are insufficient. Many groups have generated PDFs for climate sensitivity using a variety of methods. These PDFs are broadly consistent, but vary significantly in their details. One axiom of the verification and validation community is, "codes don't make predictions, people make predictions." This is a statement of the fact that subject domain experts generate results using assumptions within a range of epistemic uncertainty and interpret them according to their expert opinion. Different experts with different methods will arrive at different PDFs. For effective decision support, a single consensus PDF would be useful. We suggest that market methods can be used to aggregate an ensemble of opinions into a single distribution that expresses the consensus. Prediction markets have been shown to be highly successful at forecasting the outcome of events ranging from elections to box office returns. In prediction markets, traders can take a position on whether some future event will or will not occur. These positions are expressed as contracts that are traded in a double-action market that aggregates price, which can be interpreted as a consensus probability that the event will take place. Since climate sensitivity cannot directly be measured, it cannot be predicted. However, the changes in global mean surface temperature are a direct consequence of climate sensitivity, changes in forcing, and internal variability. Viable prediction markets require an undisputed event outcome on a specific date. Climate-related markets exist on Intrade.com, an online trading exchange. One such contract is titled "Global Temperature Anomaly for Dec 2011 to be greater than 0.65 Degrees C." Settlement is based

  1. Lessons learned from the preliminary performance assessment exercise for the Vienne site strategies for investigating the granodiorite confinement capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebon, P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the three sites under study by ANDRA is located on the Poitou shoal in the Vienne Department. The granitic basement rock is overlain by a 160 m thick layer of Jurassic sediments containing two seasonally pumped aquifers. The preliminary hydrogeological model of the granitic basement assumed that regional flow is SE-NW, and circulates in the hecto-metric fractures, and that groundwater flow velocity is very low. A preliminary performance assessment exercise focusing on the geological barrier was carried out based on these assumptions and a disposal concept where radwaste is stored in separate granodiorite 'blocks' delimited by the water-bearing fractures. As regards of the granodioritic blocks, the programme goals include analysing of detailed structure, obtaining uncontaminated samples of interstitial ground water in order to determine its physicochemical properties and evaluating transport and retention parameters. (author)

  2. Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is the fourth threatened or endangered species to undergo a preliminary assessment for estimating potential risk from environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The assessments are being conducted as part of a three-year project to develop a habitat management plan for threatened and endangered species and species of concern at the Laboratory. For the preliminary assessment, estimated doses were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (HIs). This assessment included a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic chemicals) to 100 simulated nest sites located within flycatcher potential habitat. Sources of contaminant values were 10,000-ft 2 grid cells within an Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU). This EEU was estimated around the potential habitat and was based on the maximum home range for the fly catcher identified in the scientific literature. The tools used included a custom FORTRAN program, ECORSK5, and a geographic information system. Food consumption and soil ingestion contaminant pathways were addressed in the assessment. Using a four-category risk evaluation, HI results indicate no appreciable impact is expected to the southwestern willow flycatcher. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, flycatcher habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain low levels of risk from contaminants

  3. Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.

    1998-10-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is the fourth threatened or endangered species to undergo a preliminary assessment for estimating potential risk from environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The assessments are being conducted as part of a three-year project to develop a habitat management plan for threatened and endangered species and species of concern at the Laboratory. For the preliminary assessment, estimated doses were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (HIs). This assessment included a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic chemicals) to 100 simulated nest sites located within flycatcher potential habitat. Sources of contaminant values were 10,000-ft{sup 2} grid cells within an Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU). This EEU was estimated around the potential habitat and was based on the maximum home range for the fly catcher identified in the scientific literature. The tools used included a custom FORTRAN program, ECORSK5, and a geographic information system. Food consumption and soil ingestion contaminant pathways were addressed in the assessment. Using a four-category risk evaluation, HI results indicate no appreciable impact is expected to the southwestern willow flycatcher. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, flycatcher habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain low levels of risk from contaminants.

  4. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF FAMILIARITY WITH CONCEPTS MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY OF COURSE UNDERGRADUATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Martins Palhares de Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work described in this paper was to conduct a preliminary assessment about the familiarity with basic mathematical concepts by undergraduate students of Geography. This work assumed that the domain of basic concepts of mathematics is important for the students for the real understanding of quantification techniques applied to geography, used for better understanding about geographical space. Therefore, it was applied a questionnaire with six questions related to some basic mathematical concepts. 384 questionnaires were applied in undergraduate courses in geography, in six public institutions of higher education and a private college, located in the Federal District, Goias, Tocantins, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul in May / 2013 June / 2013 August / 2013 and April / 2014. The results showed that the 384 respondents answered correctly on average 2,3 questions of an amount of six questions. This may mean that a priori there is little familiarity of undergraduate Geography students with basic concepts of mathematics. O objetivo do trabalho descrito neste artigo foi realizar uma avaliação preliminar a respeito da familiaridade com conceitos matemáticos em nível de Educação Básica por parte de graduandos de cursos de Geografia. Essa investigação partiu do princípio de que o domínio de conceitos básicos de Matemática é importante para a capacitação em técnicas de quantificação em Geografia, que por sua vez auxiliam o geógrafo, bacharel ou licenciado, a entender melhor o espaço geográfico. Para tanto foi utilizado o instrumento questionário com seis questões versando sobre alguns conceitos matemáticos básicos em nível de Educação Básica. Foram aplicados 384 questionários em cursos de graduação em Geografia, em seis instituições públicas de ensino superior e uma faculdade particular, localizadas no Distrito Federal, Goiás, Tocantins, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná e Rio Grande do

  5. Preliminary assessment of bioengineered fringing shoreline reefs in Grand Isle and Breton Sound, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea

    2013-01-01

    postconstruction data are available. Data for the latter two sites thus reflect only the 2012 spring/summer seasons, which were further impacted by a direct hit by Hurricane Isaac in August 2012, which resulted in shoreward movement of approximately 14 percent of the bioengineered structures at Lake Fortuna. Given the shortened monitoring timeframe and significant differences in construction schedules, we were not able to provide a full postconstruction assessment of the sites or a full comparison of site success based on local site characteristics. Because many of the impacts that were identified for monitoring reflect long-term processes, results and data presented should be interpreted cautiously. Sustainable oyster reefs require recruitment, growth, and survival at a rate that keeps pace with mortality and shell disarticulation. Although one site failed to recruit (establishment plus survival > 50 millimeters [mm]) over two spawning seasons, two sites only had 6 months postconstruction data available for assessment. Although there are good data on the requirements for oyster growth, there is limited explicit information on the site-specific water quality, hydrodynamic, and biological interaction effects that may determine successful reef establishment. Furthermore, interannual variability can significantly affect reef establishment, and our shortened timeframe of sampling (less than one spawning season for two of the reefs; two spawning seasons for one reef), combined with a lack of prerestoration monitoring data, limit our ability to draw any conclusions about long-term reef sustainability. Bioengineered reefs are thought to provide some benefits to shoreline stabilization through their structure by immediately attenuating wave energies and directly reducing erosion rates at shorelines sheltered by the reefs but also by increasing sediment deposition behind the reefs. Preliminary data indicate differences in reef impact by site; given the short timeframe of postconstruction

  6. A Preliminary Assessment of Buddhism's Contextualisation to the English RE Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    In a preliminary study, 20 "migrant" Buddhist parents and children from England participated in semi-structured interviews to compare their home nurture with classroom presentation of Buddhism. In the home Buddhism received more time allocation and was presented mainly by the mother and monks--the content being that of "perpetuating…

  7. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. METHODS: Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year...... and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit...... from the labour market....

  8. Assessing the Possibility of Implementing Tools of Technical Analysys for Real Estate Market Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzezicka Justyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical analysis (TA and its different aspects are widely used to study the capital market. In the traditional approach, this analysis is used to determine the probability of changes in current rates on the basis of their past changes, accounting for factors which had, have or may have an influence on shaping the supply and demand of a given asset. In the practical sense, TA is a set of techniques used for assessing the value of an asset based on the analysis of the asset's trajectories as well as statistical tools.

  9. Mexico; Financial Sector Assessment Program Update: Technical Note: Derivatives Market: Overview and Potential Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This technical note provides an overview of Mexico’s derivatives markets, and describes concisely the derivatives regulatory framework and risk management practices in financial institutions active in these markets. The most important derivatives market in Mexico is the over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market, which is fully integrated with the global derivatives market. The origin of the OTC derivatives market can be traced back to the 1994 Mexican crisis that forced Mexico to abandon its ...

  10. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-01-01

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill(trademark). The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  11. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-09-30

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  12. Preliminary investigations for technology assessment of 99Mo production from LEU [low enriched uranium] targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chaiko, D.J.; Heinrich, R.R.; Kucera, E.T.; Jensen, K.J.; Poa, D.S.; Varma, R.; Vissers, D.R.

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary studies on the effects of substituting low enriched uranium (LEU) for highly enriched uranium (HEU) in targets for the production of fission product 99 Mo. Issues that were addressed are: (1) purity and yield of the 99 Mo//sup 99m/Tc product, (2) fabrication of LEU targets and related concerns, and (3) radioactive waste. Laboratory experimentation was part of the efforts for issues (1) and (2); thus far, radioactive waste disposal has only been addressed in a paper study. Although the reported results are still preliminary, there is reason to be optimistic about the feasibility of utilizing LEU targets for 99 Mo production. 37 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  13. Assessing facade value - how clients make business cases in changing real estate markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Den Heijer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Dr. ir. Alexandra den Heijer, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Department of Real Estate & Housing, Julianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands. Tel.: +31 15 278 4159; E-mail: a.c.denheijer@tudelft.nl RELEVANCE: The value of any intervention in the built environment is most relevant for the stakeholders that are investing in it. For them all costs need to be balanced with benefits - not necessarily directly financial, but adding value to the performance of the accommodated organization. Business cases contain performance criteria like competitive advantage (branding the organization, productivity (optimally supporting users of the building, profitability (on organizational level and sustainable development (monitoring the ecological footprint. In the changing real estate markets – from supply-driven to demand-driven and with increasingly higher vacancy rates – priorities in decisions about buildings have been shifting. PURPOSE: This paper elaborates on how (a the trends in real estate markets and (b changing priorities in decision making affect the quality demand for buildings and their facades. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This paper is based on research of the Real Estate Management chair in general (market analysis, transformation trends, conceptual frameworks and more specifically on decisions about university campuses in the past 10 years (14 campuses and 57 buildings assessed. FINDINGS: This paper provides both conceptual frameworks to assess the (added value of interventions in the built environment for the client and their (changing priorities in the brief for buildings and their facades

  14. A preliminary assessment of the radiological impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the population of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Brown, J.; Williams, J.A.; Crick, M.J.; Simmonds, J.R.; Hill, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident the Commission of the European Communities asked the National Radiological Protection Board to carry out a preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of the accident on the population of the European Community (EC). The aim of the study was to review information on the environmental contamination measured in member states of the EC; to make a preliminary assessment of individual and population doses for each country; to make an estimate of the resulting health impact and to indicate the effects of the various countermeasures taken by member states in terms of the reductions in both individual and population exposure which they produced. All of the main pathways by which people have been and will be exposed to radiation as a result of the accident were included in the assessment. The impact estimate is based on environmental measurements made during the month after the accident, and on calculations made using mathematical models of radionuclide transfer through the environment. The calculated effective doses to average individuals in EC countries from exposure over the next 50 years range from 0.3 μSv (in Portugal) to between about 300 and 500 μSv (in the FRG, Italy and Greece). The total collective effective dose to the population of EC countries, integrated over all time, is estimated to be about 80 000 man Sv. This may be compared to the collective effective dose from natural background radiation of about 500 000 man Sv every year. In some countries, the restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals; the reduction being up to about a factor of 2. The results presented in this paper should therefore be regarded as preliminary

  15. A rapid assessment and response approach for socially marketed nutrition commodities in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Nga, Tran Thuy; Phuong, Huynh; Tung, Le Van Anh; Trang, Vu Hoang

    2017-01-01

    The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6.6% are moderately wasted. Iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency contribute to these and other malnutrition conditions. Given these factors, more evidence based approaches are required to improve understanding of current attitudes, opinions and behaviours of mothers with young children, in order to operationalise social marketing of nutrition commodities in Viet Nam. A literature review supported a rapid assessment and response method involving semi-structured interviews with 77 stakeholders and focus group discussions with 80 program beneficiaries from four geographic locations in the north and south of Viet Nam. Discussion agendas were developed to address key program issues with grounded theory utilized for data analysis. Data analysis highlighted challenges and opportunities within the six Ps of social marketing: Supply and demand side issues included: cost and the quality of products, the limited scale of interventions and promotional activities. Policy issues identified related to current policies that inhibited the broader promotion and distribution of micronutrient products, and opportunities for improved dialogue with policy partners. Partnerships further emphasized the need for public private partnerships to support the social change process. Implications for theory, policy, and practice indicates that rapid assessment and response is a cost-effective, pragmatic method of public health research, in resource constrained settings, to explore policies and behaviours amenable to change and build stakeholder engagement in the program.

  16. Using an Electron Scanning Microscope to Assess the Penetrating Abilities of an Experimental Preparation with Features of a Dental Infiltrant: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Mertas, Anna; Tanasiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The resin infiltration technique is one of the micro-invasive methods whose aim is the penetration of demineralized enamel with a low viscosity resin. This technique allows the dentist to avoid the application of mechanical means of treatment. The objective of this preliminary study was to attempt to determine the possibilities of using an electron microscope to assess the penetrating abilities of an experimental preparation with features of a dental infiltrant and to compare the depth of infiltration of the designed experimental preparation with an infiltrant available on the market. A bioactive methacrylate monomer based on PMMAn with built-in metronidazole was synthesized. The commercially available Icon solution (with contrast agent YbF3) and the experimental solution were applied to the relevant parts of teeth. The dissected sections along the long tooth axis and polished surfaces were then examined with use of an electron scanning microscope. The backscattered electron technique gives much better results than the secondary electron method as it makes it possible to localize even very small YbF3 particles. The authors concluded that the backscattered electron technique gives much better results than the secondary electron method as it makes it possible to localize even very small particles of the contrast agent. In order to prevent blockage of decalcified enamel tissue by ytterbium trifluoride (YbF3) grains, a nanoparticle form of that compound should be used (that is, particles with sizes in the range of 10-9 m).

  17. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  18. Application of the preliminary Geosite Assessment Model (GAM: The case of the Bela Crkva municipality (Vojvodina, north Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boškov Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bela Crkva municipality is located in the northeastern part of Serbia, in the Southeast of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. This Municipality has a high concentration of geo sites which are of a great importance, and providing a good basis for the geo tourism development in this area. This paper proposes an inventory of geo sites in the Bela Crkva municipality. One of the aims of the paper is to evaluate different values of geo sites using preliminary Geosite Assessment Model (GAM in order to determine whether this area has the potential for geo tourism development.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-08-01

    The United States Air Force (USAF) is investigating whether to install wind turbines to provide a supplemental source of electricity at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) near Lompoc, California. As part of that investigation, VAFB sought assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide a preliminary characterization of the potential risk to wildlife resources (mainly birds and bats) from wind turbine installations. With wind power development expanding throughout North America and Europe, concerns have surfaced over the number of bird fatalities associated with wind turbines. Guidelines developed for the wind industry by the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC) recommend assessing potential impacts to birds, bats, and other potentially sensitive resources before construction. The primary purpose of an assessment is to identify potential conflicts with sensitive resources, to assist developers with identifying their permitting needs, and to develop strategies to avoid impacts or to mitigate their effects. This report provides a preliminary (Phase I) biological assessment of potential impacts to birds and bats that might result from construction and operation of the proposed wind energy facilities on VAFB.

  20. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS WITH EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS WITHIN THE REMARCA STUDY: PRELIMINARY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA have a high or very high cardiovascular risk (CVR before therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Objective: to evaluate the impact of antirheumatic therapy performed in accordance with the Treat-to-Target strategy on the progression of atherosclerosis and CVR in patients with early RA. Subjects and methods. This investigation enrolled 74 patients (72% women; median age, 56 years with early RA having moderate to high activity (median DAS28, 5.6 who had not previously received DMARDs and glucocorticoids (GCs. All patients were anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody-positive and 87% of the patients were rheumatoid factor-positive. All patients received methotrexate (MT subcutaneously with dose escalation up to 25–30 mg/week, in case of its inefficiency at 3 months a biological agent (BA was added. After 6 months, 39% of the patients achieved remission; 19% had low; 35 and 7% had moderate and high disease activity, respectively. The majority (n = 20 (69% who achieved remission received MT monotherapy; 9 (31% – MT + BA whereas among the patients who did not achieve remission 15 (33% and 30 (67% respectively. At baseline and after 6 months of treatment, traditional CVR factors were assessed in all patients, by determining the total coronary risk by the SCORE scale, including that modified by EULAR (mSCORE, carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA by duplex scanning data, coronary calcification (CC by multislice spiral computed tomography and by estimating the degree of CVR.Results and discussion. The rates of hypertension, overweight, abdominal obesity, low activity, smoking, and type 2 diabetes mellitus did not change significantly after 6 months. There were increases in the levels of total cholesterol by 7% (p < 0.05, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 9% (p<0.01, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 26% (p < 0.005, and body mass index (BMI by 1% (p < 0.01 and a decrease

  1. Effects of technological learning and uranium price on nuclear cost: Preliminary insights from a multiple factors learning curve and uranium market modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahouli, Sondes

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of returns to scale, technological learning, i.e. learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching, and uranium price on the prospects of nuclear cost decrease. We use an extended learning curve specification, named multiple factors learning curve (MFLC). In a first stage, we estimate a single MFLC. In a second stage, we estimate the MFLC under the framework of simultaneous system of equations which takes into account the uranium supply and demand. This permits not only to enhance the reliability of the estimation by incorporating the uranium price formation mechanisms in the MFLC via the price variable, but also to give preliminary insights about uranium supply and demand behaviors and the associated effects on the nuclear expansion. Results point out that the nuclear cost has important prospects for decrease via capacity expansion, i.e. learning-by-doing effects. In contrast, they show that the learning-by-searching as well as the scale effects have a limited effect on the cost decrease prospects. Conversely, results also show that uranium price exerts a positive and significant effect on nuclear cost, implying that when the uranium price increases, the nuclear power generation cost decreases. Since uranium is characterized by important physical availability, and since it represents only a minor part in the total nuclear cost, we consider that in a context of increasing demand for nuclear energy the latter result can be explained by the fact that the positive learning effects on the cost of nuclear act in a way to dissipate the negative ones that an increase in uranium price may exert. Further, results give evidence of important inertia in the supply and demand sides as well as evidence of slow correlation between the uranium market and oil market which may limit the inter-fuels substituability effects, that is, nuclear capacity expansion and associated learning-by-doing benefits. - Highlights: → We study the prospects of nuclear cost

  2. Assessing the viability of situationally driven segmentation opportunities in the health care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1993-01-01

    The impact of situational factors has typically been investigated in the context of goods marketing. Very few studies have investigated the influence of situational factors on services marketing. This study demonstrates the importance of situational influence on services marketing by delineating a consumer-based, situationally characterized competitive market structure for health care services. The competitive structure of the health care market is delineated in terms of the similarity/substitutability of the three-factor, situational characterizations of ten health care alternatives. The general marketing implications of the market-structure delineation procedure and the health care-specific implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. An Assessment of the Impact of Information Technology on Marketing and Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hosseini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Technology on Marketing and Advertising by using structural equations modeling. To do this, 200 marketing and information technology (IT experts participated in the study. They answered questionnaires regarding IT, marketing mix and advertising. For data analysis, structural equations modeling using SMARTPLS were used. The results showed that the effect of IT on marketing mix and advertising was positive and significant. The effect of marketing mix on advertising was positive and significant. The indirect effect of IT on advertising via marketing mix was therefore positive and significant. Totally, the results emphasized the effect of technology on marketing mix and advertising.

  4. ASSESSING INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACHES: RELATED LITERATURE AT A GLANCE AND SUGGESSTIONS FOR GLOBAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nacar, Ramazan; Uray, Nimet

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing role of globalization, international market segmentation has become a critical success factor for global companies, which aim for international market expansion. Despite the practice of numerous methods and bases for international market segmentation, international market segmentation is still a complex and an under-researched area. By considering all these issues, underdeveloped and under-researched international market segmentation bases such as social, cultural, psychol...

  5. Application of the Beck model to stock markets: Value-at-Risk and portfolio risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, M.; Sato, A.-H.

    2008-02-01

    We apply the Beck model, developed for turbulent systems that exhibit scaling properties, to stock markets. Our study reveals that the Beck model elucidates the properties of stock market returns and is applicable to practical use such as the Value-at-Risk estimation and the portfolio analysis. We perform empirical analysis with daily/intraday data of the S&P500 index return and find that the volatility fluctuation of real markets is well-consistent with the assumptions of the Beck model: The volatility fluctuates at a much larger time scale than the return itself and the inverse of variance, or “inverse temperature”, β obeys Γ-distribution. As predicted by the Beck model, the distribution of returns is well-fitted by q-Gaussian distribution of Tsallis statistics. The evaluation method of Value-at-Risk (VaR), one of the most significant indicators in risk management, is studied for q-Gaussian distribution. Our proposed method enables the VaR evaluation in consideration of tail risk, which is underestimated by the variance-covariance method. A framework of portfolio risk assessment under the existence of tail risk is considered. We propose a multi-asset model with a single volatility fluctuation shared by all assets, named the single β model, and empirically examine the agreement between the model and an imaginary portfolio with Dow Jones indices. It turns out that the single β model gives good approximation to portfolios composed of the assets with non-Gaussian and correlated returns.

  6. Utilization of cellulosic materials through enzymic hydrolysis. 11. Preliminary assessment of an integrated processing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C R; Cysewski, G R; Yang, R D

    1976-01-01

    An integrated processing scheme is described for the conversion of a cellulose waste (newsprint) to sugars by enzymic hydrolysis and then to ethanol and yeast by fermentation. The unconverted solids are burned to produce process energy requirements and surplus electric power. With the preliminary design at an estimate total capital investment of $33.4 x 10/sup 6/, 95% ethanol may be produced FOB (free on board) the plant for approx.61 cents/gal, assuming zero cost for cellulosic feed; taking into account interest rates and taxes and a cellulose feed cost of $20/ton the figure becomes $1.67/gal.

  7. Preliminary Experiments for the Assessment of VW-Band Links for Space-Earth Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Roberto J.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2013-01-01

    Since September 2012, NASA Glenn Research Center has deployed a microwave profiling radiometer at White Sands, NM, to estimate atmospheric propagation effects on communications links in the V and W bands (71-86GHz). Estimates of attenuation statistics in the millimeter wave due to gaseous and cloud components of the atmosphere show good agreement with current ITU-R models, but fail to predict link performance in the presence of moderate to heavy rain rates, due to the inherent limitations of passive radiometry. Herein, we discuss the preliminary results of these measurements and describe a design for a terrestrial link experiment to validaterefine existing rain attenuation models in the VW-bands.

  8. Preliminary assessment of the activation of the IFMIF accelerator structure by deuterons and neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Itacil C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bruhwiler, David L. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States). Advanced Systems and Technology

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the IFMF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) accelerator structure activation by deuterons and neutrons. The main objective of this study is to identify the source terms and to quantify the radioactivity levels at different positions in the accelerator vault. The MCNP code is used to perform radiation transport analysis, the RACC activation code is used for neutron activation analysis, and the cross section library of the LAHET code is used to generate the cross section for the deuteron interaction with the inside surfaces of the accelerator. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs.

  9. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development staff...

  10. Improvement of methodical approaches to higher schools' marketing activity assessment on the basis of Internet technologies application

    OpenAIRE

    Elizaveta E. Tarasova; Evgeny A. Shein

    2014-01-01

    The paper substantiates the necessity of higher schools marketing activity developing on the basis of Internet technologies; suggests the technique of comprehensive assessment of functioning and quality of the site as the main tool of marketing activity on the Internet, substantiates the stages of its implementation and provides the approbation results; suggests strategic directions for the improvement of functioning and quality improvement of a higher school site, which makes it possible to ...

  11. Preliminary post-closure safety assessment of repository concepts for low level radioactive waste at the Bruce Site, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.H.; Penfold, J.S.S.; Egan, M.J.; Leung, H.

    2005-01-01

    The preliminary post-closure safety assessment of permanent repository concepts for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Bruce Site is described. The study considered the disposal of both short and long-lived LLW. Four geotechnically feasible repository concepts were considered (two near-surface and two deep repositories). An approach consistent with best international practice was used to provide a reasoned and comprehensive analysis of post-closure impacts of the repository concepts. The results demonstrated that the deep repository concepts in shale and in limestone, and the surface repository concept on sand should meet radiological protection criteria. For the surface repository concept on glacial till, it appears that increased engineering such as grouting of waste and voids should be considered to meet the relevant dose constraint. Should the project to develop a permanent repository for LLW proceed, it is expected that this preliminary safety assessment would need to be updated to take account of future site-specific investigations and design updates. (author)

  12. Assessment of electromagnetic fields intensity emitted by cellular phone base stations in surrounding flats - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmyslony, M.; Politanski, P.; Mamrot, P.; Bortkiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid development of mobile telecommunications (MT) has resulted in an increased concern about possible detrimental health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by MT systems, and by MT base stations in particular. Research into EMFs effects on the health of inhabitants living in their vicinity requires first of all a solid assessment of the exposure level. Up to now, the reports in this field have been rather scant. This article presents the results of preliminary measurements of EMFs fields in selected flats around selected base stations in the city of Lodz. Measurements of electric field strength, E, to assess EMF exposure were based on the standard procedures currently in force in Poland. As the study is regarded as a preliminary one, the measurements were conducted in buildings with the expected largest radiation. The measurements show that in the flats located up to 500 m from the base station, EMFs are within the limits specified by relevant Polish regulations on the general public and environmental protection. It was also observed that in a few (less than 10%) flats the field with E exceeded 0.8 V/m. The results show that there are no correlations between electric field strength and distance between the flat and the base station. Therefore, the distance from the base station cannot be used to represent the exposure rate; to determine the latter, EMF measurements are necessary. (author)

  13. Assessment of the labor market experiences of CETA-trained solar workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.; Mason, B.; Mikasa, G.Y.

    1980-12-01

    This study assessed solar training offered by CETA-funded programs and labor market experiences of program graduates. The initial research was restricted to programs within California, because the state is involved in a variety of solar-related activities, including development of jobs and training programs in solar energy. Interviews were conducted with 12 CETA solar training programs and graduates in 1979, in cooperation with California's SolarCal Office. Information on graduates includes demographics, educational and work experience, satisfaction with solar training, types of jobs found, wage levels, and job tenure. Program information includes length, types of training, and the number and kinds of solar systems installed. Results show that major programs problems were: limited funding; shortages of trained instructors; insufficient staff; need for local employment information; need for better defined role for unions; and pressures for high placement rates. The curricula involved general skills, skills specific to solar technologies, and basic job behavior and skills. The training involved both classroom and hands-on experience and was mainly tailored to participants and the local job market. Successful placement of program participants was relatively high; over half the initial job placements involved solar energy. Solar jobs appeared to pay more than nonsolar jobs. Participants generally felt that their training had prepared them adequately for their current work.

  14. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  15. Short-term outlook for Canadian crude oil to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report is intended to expand the effectiveness of the Board's monitoring activities by providing an assessment of the current state of the petroleum industry and the potential for growth. It provides an 18-month outlook on international and domestic crude oil prices; drilling and exploration activity; supply projections for Canadian crude oil and petroleum products; Canada's crude oil trade balance and markets for Canadian crude; existing export pipeline networks and project expansion plans; and, the Canadian petroleum products industry and the impact of higher prices. It also identifies the major issues and challenges associated with the development of Canada's crude oil. The 2 major oil producing areas in Canada are the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) including the oil sands, and offshore eastern Canada. While conventional production in the WCSB is declining, development focus has shifted to Alberta's oil sands as well as Hibernia, Terra Nova and White Rose, the 3 major oil fields offshore Newfoundland and Labrador. High energy prices have resulted in record profits for the Canadian oil and gas industry, and has stimulated billions of dollars in investment, with Alberta's oil sands being the main beneficiary. The 19 refineries in Canada have been operating at about 90 per cent capacity for the last several years due to strong demand for transportation fuels. 10 tabs., 37 figs., 2 appendices

  16. Pediatric post-marketing safety systems in North America: assessment of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Ann W; Wharton, Gerold T; Bonnel, Renan; DeCelle, Mary; Swank, Kimberley; Testoni, Daniela; Cope, Judith U; Smith, Phillip Brian; Wu, Eileen; Murphy, Mary Dianne

    2015-08-01

    It is critical to have pediatric post-marketing safety systems that contain enough clinical and epidemiological detail to draw regulatory, public health, and clinical conclusions. The pediatric safety surveillance workshop (PSSW), coordinated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), identified these pediatric systems as of 2010. This manuscript aims to update the information from the PSSW and look critically at the systems currently in use. We reviewed North American pediatric post-marketing safety systems such as databases, networks, and research consortiums found in peer-reviewed journals and other online sources. We detail clinical examples from three systems that FDA used to assess pediatric medical product safety. Of the 59 systems reviewed for pediatric content, only nine were pediatric-focused and met the inclusion criteria. Brief descriptions are provided for these nine. The strengths and weaknesses of three systems (two of the nine pediatric-focused and one including both children and adults) are illustrated with clinical examples. Systems reviewed in this manuscript have strengths such as clinical detail, a large enough sample size to capture rare adverse events, and/or a patient denominator internal to the database. Few systems include all of these attributes. Pediatric drug safety would be better informed by utilizing multiple systems to take advantage of their individual characteristics. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-11-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  18. 2009 reference case scenario : Canadian energy demand and supply to 2020 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The National Energy Board regulates the construction and operation of interprovincial and international oil and gas pipelines and power lines as well as the tolls and tariffs for the pipelines under its jurisdictions. The import and export of natural gas is also regulated by the NEB. The NEB examined the possible energy futures that might unfold for Canadians up to the year 2020. The factors that affect the supply of crude oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, electricity and coal in the short term were examined to determine the outlook for deliverability through 2020. The growing demand for energy was reviewed along with the adequacy of future energy supplies, and related issues of emerging technologies, energy infrastructure and energy exports. This assessment provided separate production outlooks for hydrocarbons, electricity and coal and outlined the key uncertainties to the supply outlook. The likely impact of recent economic, energy and policy trends on energy demand and supply were considered. It was concluded that energy markets in Canada will continue to function well. Energy prices will provide appropriate market signals for the development of energy resources to meet Canadian and export demand. A significant portion of Canadian demand for energy will be met by fossil fuels. However, the demand to move towards greener energy fuels should result in fewer greenhouse gas emissions. 1 tab., 27 figs.

  19. Preliminary assessment of safeguardability on the concepture design of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Ha, Jang Ho; Ko, Won Il; Song, Dae Yong; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-04-01

    In this report, a preliminary study on the safeguardability of ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) was conducted with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The proposed ACP concept is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuels into metal forms, which can achieve significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel to be stored and disposed of. For the safeguardability analysis of the ACP facility, sub-processes and their KMPs (Key Measurement Points) were defined first, and then their material flows were analyzed. Finally, the standard deviation of the Inventory Difference (ID) value of the facility was estimated with assumption by assuming international target values for the uncertainty of measurement methods and their uncertainty. From the preliminary calculation, we concluded that if the assumptions regarding measurement instruments can be achieved in a safeguards system for the ACP facility, the safeguards goals of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could be met. In the second phase of this study, further study on sensitivity analyses considering various factors such as measurement errors, facility capacities, MBA periods etc. may be needed

  20. Preliminary assessment of safeguardability on the concepture design of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Ha, Jang Ho; Ko, Won Il; Song, Dae Yong; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-04-01

    In this report, a preliminary study on the safeguardability of ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) was conducted with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The proposed ACP concept is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuels into metal forms, which can achieve significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel to be stored and disposed of. For the safeguardability analysis of the ACP facility, sub-processes and their KMPs (Key Measurement Points) were defined first, and then their material flows were analyzed. Finally, the standard deviation of the Inventory Difference (ID) value of the facility was estimated with assumption by assuming international target values for the uncertainty of measurement methods and their uncertainty. From the preliminary calculation, we concluded that if the assumptions regarding measurement instruments can be achieved in a safeguards system for the ACP facility, the safeguards goals of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could be met. In the second phase of this study, further study on sensitivity analyses considering various factors such as measurement errors, facility capacities, MBA periods etc. may be needed.