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Sample records for preliminary laboratory column

  1. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned.

  2. Complex conductivity results to silver nanoparticles in partically saturated laboratory columns

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Laboratory complex conductivity data from partially saturated sand columns with silver nanoparticles. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: It involves...

  3. Column flotation monitoring based on electrical capacitance volume tomography: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Didied; Harjanto, Sri; Nugraha, Harisma; Huda, Mahfudz Al; Taruno, Warsito Purwo

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary study of column flotation monitoring process using electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) was conducted. ECVT was one of the monitoring systems which based on the capacitance measurement. It was used to understand the phenomenon that occurs inside the column in a three-dimensional (3-D) image. A linear back projection (LBP) algorithm technique was used to reconstruct the 3-D ECVT images from all measurement data obtained in this study. As a preliminary study, the effect of gas injection in the two-phase (liquid and gas) system was conducted. This study is conducted to assess the possibility of ECVT system in the monitoring of column flotation process. The experiments were conducted by using column flotation with 5 cm diameter and 150 cm height in which a sparger was installed at the bottom of column to inject air inside the column. 32-CH rectangular ECVT sensor was installed at 13 cm above the sparger and placed around the column. The gas injection variations used were 2-7 l/min with interval 1 l/min and all experiments were conducted at room temperature. Based on the signal and image analysis, the signals and 3-D ECVT images showed differences when the gas injection was varied. An increase in gas injection will decrease the fluctuation of signal intensity which correlates to the 3-D ECVT images. Average signals obtained by ECVT when given gas injection variations were in the range of 440.09 to 453.62 mV from high to low gas injection. Based on these results, ECVT has a prospect as an imaging tool to monitor the column flotation process. And also, hopefully, based on the analysis of 3-D images generated by ECVT system, the metallurgical performance would be analyzed in the further researches.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of a Neutron Calibration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Talysson S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Sanches, Matias P.; Mitake, Malvina B.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: talvarenga@ipen.br, E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br, E-mail: aperini@ipen.br, E-mail: msanches@ipen.br, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial

    2013-07-01

    In the past few years, Brazil and several other countries in Latin America have experimented a great demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, mainly due to the increase in oil prospection and extraction. The only laboratory for calibration of neutron detectors in Brazil is localized at the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, which is part of the IAEA SSDL network. This laboratory is the national standard laboratory in Brazil. With the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for another calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new calibration laboratory for neutron detectors. In this work, the ambient equivalent dose rate (H⁎(10)) was evaluated in several positions inside and around this laboratory, using Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP5 code), in order to verify the adequateness of the shielding. The obtained results showed that the shielding is effective, and that this is a low-cost methodology to improve the safety of the workers and evaluate the total staff workload. (author)

  5. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  6. Using polymer mats to biodegrade atrazine in groundwater: laboratory column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B. M.; Franzmann, P. D.; Davis, G. B.; Elbers, J.; Zappia, L. R.

    2002-02-01

    Large-scale column experiments were undertaken to evaluate the potential of in situ polymer mats to deliver oxygen into groundwater to induce biodegradation of the pesticides atrazine, terbutryn and fenamiphos contaminating groundwater in Perth, Western Australia. The polymer mats, composed of woven silicone (dimethylsiloxane) tubes and purged with air, were installed in 2-m-long flow-through soil columns. The polymer mats proved efficient in delivering dissolved oxygen to anaerobic groundwater. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased from biodegradation rates, suggesting that organic carbon was not limiting biodegradation. Atrazine degradation rates estimated in the column experiments were similar to rates determined in laboratory culture experiments, using pure cultures of atrazine-mineralising bacteria. No significant degradation of terbutryn or fenamiphos was observed under the experimental conditions within the time frames of the study. Results from these experiments indicate that remediation of atrazine in a contaminated aquifer may be achievable by delivery of oxygen using an in situ polymer mat system.

  7. Laboratory column studies for evaluating a barrier system for providing oxygen and substrate for TCE biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Su, M C

    2001-08-01

    The industrial solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to develop a biobarrier system containing oxygen-organic releasing material to enhance the aerobic cometabolism of TCE in situ. The oxygen-organic material, which contains calcium peroxide and peat, is able to release oxygen and primary substrates continuously upon contact with water. Batch experiments were conducted to design and identify the components of the oxygen-organic releasing material, and evaluate the oxygen and organic substrate (presented as COD equivalent) release from the designed oxygen-organic material. The observed oxygen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) release rates were approximately 0.0246 and 0.052 mg/d/g of material, respectively. A laboratory-scale column experiment was then conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system for the bioremediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater. This system was performed using a series of continuous-flow glass columns including a soil column, an oxygen-organic material column, followed by two consecutive soil columns. Aerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in all three soil columns to provide microbial consortia for TCE biodegradation. Simulated TCE-contaminated groundwater with a flow rate of 0.25 l/day was pumped into this system. Effluent samples from each column were analyzed for TCE and other indicating parameters (e.g., pH, dissolved oxygen). Results show that the decreases in TCE concentrations were observed over a 4-month operating period. Up to 99% of TCE removal efficiency was obtained in this passive system. Results indicate that the continuously released oxygen and organic substrates from the oxygen-organic materials enhanced TCE biotransformation. Thus, the biobarrier treatment scheme has the potential to be developed into an environmentally and economically acceptable remediation technology.

  8. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  9. Helium at White Dwarf Photospheric Conditions: Preliminary Laboratory Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeuble, M.; Falcon, R. E.; Gomez, T. A.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Bailey, J. E.

    2017-03-01

    We present preliminary results of an experimental study exploring helium at photospheric conditions of white dwarf stars. These data were collected at Sandia National Laboratories' Z-machine, the largest x-ray source on earth. Our helium results could have many applications ranging from validating current DB white dwarf model atmospheres to providing accurate He pressure shifts at varying temperatures and densities. In a much broader context, these helium data can be used to guide theoretical developments in new continuum-lowering models for two-electron atoms. We also discuss future applications of our updated experimental design, which enables us to sample a greater range of densities, temperatures, and gas compositions.

  10. Helium at white dwarf photospheric conditions: preliminary laboratory results

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeuble, Marc; Gomez, Thomas A; Winget, Don E; Montgomery, Michael H; Bailey, James E

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results of an experimental study exploring helium at photospheric conditions of white dwarf stars. These data were collected at Sandia National Laboratories' Z-machine, the largest x-ray source on earth. Our helium results could have many applications ranging from validating current DB white dwarf model atmospheres to providing accurate He pressure shifts at varying temperatures and densities. In a much broader context, these helium data can be used to guide theoretical developments in new continuum-lowering models for two-electron atoms. We also discuss future applications of our updated experimental design, which enables us to sample a greater range of densities, temperatures, and gas compositions.

  11. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Ames Laboratory, conducted April 18 through 22, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are being supplied by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Ames Laboratory. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at the Ames Laboratory, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A plan is being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When S A is completed, the results will be incorporated into the Ames Laboratory Environmental Survey findings for inclusion in the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 60 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Investigating Controls on Denitrification Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge: Linking Field and Laboratory Column Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, G.; Beganskas, S.; Weir, W. B.; Karim, P.; Saltikov, C.; Hernandez, J.; Fisher, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    We present initial results from a series of laboratory column experiments aimed at elucidating the underlying controls on water quality improvement during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). During field infiltration experiments, we have observed decreases in nitrate (NO3-) concentrations of up to 20% at infiltration rates as high as 15 m/day in the presence of woodchips, but no nitrate removal in the absence of woodchips at slower infiltration rates. These results suggest that the extent of nitrate removal is strongly influenced by the rate of infiltrating water and the presence of a carbon amendment in the form of redwood chips or biochar, which facilitates microbial processing. We probe these relationships at a finer spatial scale with laboratory flow-through column experiments. The columns are constructed as analogues to field experiments, with fluid and substrate sampled directly from field sites. Each day, we sample fluid along the length of the column during experiments to analyze for nitrate, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved organic carbon, in order to track changes in redox conditions and biogeochemistry. The experimental setup allows us to finely control the fluid flow rate and fluid residence time, in order to quantify the relationship between nitrate removal rate and total infiltration rate over a wider range of conditions than is possible during field studies. To determine how the addition of reactive media might increase nitrate removal rates, we conduct side-by-side comparisons of native soil and soil amended with a carbon source. We also analyze changes in nitrate isotope enrichment and microbial ecology to gain a better understanding of the microbial processes and communities responsible for nitrate removal. These field and lab experiments are helping us learn how fluid flow rate, soil type, and availability of carbon sources influences nitrate removal during infiltration for MAR, which can improve the quality of MAR water resources.

  13. Transient groundwater chemistry near a river: Effects on U(VI) transport in laboratory column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Haggerty, Roy; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Istok, Jonathan D.; Greskowiak, Janek; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    In the 300 Area of a U(VI)-contaminated aquifer at Hanford, Washington, USA, inorganic carbon and major cations, which have large impacts on U(VI) transport, change on an hourly and seasonal basis near the Columbia River. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the factors controlling U(VI) adsorption/desorption by changing chemical conditions over time. Low alkalinity and low Ca concentrations (Columbia River water) enhanced adsorption and reduced aqueous concentrations. Conversely, high alkalinity and high Ca concentrations (Hanford groundwater) reduced adsorption and increased aqueous concentrations of U(VI). An equilibrium surface complexation model calibrated using laboratory batch experiments accounted for the decrease in U(VI) adsorption observed with increasing (bi)carbonate concentrations and other aqueous chemical conditions. In the column experiment, alternating pulses of river and groundwater caused swings in aqueous U(VI) concentration. A multispecies multirate surface complexation reactive transport model simulated most of the major U(VI) changes in two column experiments. The modeling results also indicated that U(VI) transport in the studied sediment could be simulated by using a single kinetic rate without loss of accuracy in the simulations. Moreover, the capability of the model to predict U(VI) transport in Hanford groundwater under transient chemical conditions depends significantly on the knowledge of real-time change of local groundwater chemistry.

  14. Model prediction uncertainty of bromide and pesticides transport in laboratory column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Dohnal, Michal; Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Ray, Chittaranjan; Vogel, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of transport parameters of reactive solutes such as pesticides is a prerequisite for reliable predictions of their fate and transport in soil porous systems. Water flow and transport of bromide tracer and five pesticides (atrazine, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl, S-metolachlor, and imidacloprid) through an undisturbed soil column of tropical Oxisol were analyzed using a one-dimensional numerical model. Laboratory column leaching experiment with three flow interruptions was conducted. The applied numerical model is based on Richards' equation for solving water flow and the advection-dispersion equation for solving solute transport. A global optimization method was used to evaluate the model's sensitivity to transport parameters and the uncertainty of model predictions. Within the Monte Carlo modeling framework, multiple forward simulations searching through the parametric space, were executed to describe the observed breakthrough curves. All pesticides were found to be relatively mobile. Experimental data indicated significant non-conservative behavior of bromide tracer. All pesticides, with the exception of imidacloprid, were found less persistent. Three of the five pesticides (atrazine, sulfometuron methyl, and S-metolachlor) were better described by the linear kinetic sorption model, while the breakthrough curves of imazaquin and imidacloprid were more appropriately approximated using nonlinear instantaneous sorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the model is most sensitive to sorption distribution coefficient. The prediction limits contained most of the measured points of the experimental breakthrough curves, indicating adequate model concept and model structure for the description of transport processes in the soil column under study.

  15. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), conducted June 15 through 26, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with ANL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ANL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the Argonne National Laboratory Environmental Survey findings for inclusion in the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 75 refs., 24 figs., 60 tabs.

  16. Performance of a Novel Gas Separation Research Column at Sanford Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanson Chiller, Angela; Chiller, Christopher; Mei, Dongming

    2014-03-01

    A world-wide rise in demand for ultrapure materials has necessitated innovation in the production of low impurity and isotopically separated materials that either has not been utilized in these new applications or relies on aging or energy intensive methods. These materials are sought after for large physics investigations, nuclear non-proliferation detection industries, medical imaging and new frontiers in electronic applications. Techniques in separating and purifying nuclear magnetic resonance isotopes of carbon, oxygen, xenon, krypton, and nitrogen are being developed at Sanford Laboratory, Lead, SD. A two-meter laboratory scale selective phase change column designed specifically for real-time sampling of the gas space at specific temperature and pressure is operated at gas/liquid and gas/solid equilibrium temperatures and pressures for selected gases. We report initial results and future applications. Research Funded by SD Governors 2010 Center.

  17. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), conducted September 14 through 25, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Fermilab. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Fermilab, and interviews with site personnel. 110 refs., 26 figs., 41 tabs.

  18. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the Department of Energy (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), conducted December 1 through 19, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with LLNL. The Survey covers all environmental media all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at LLNL, and interviews with site personnel. A Sampling and Analysis Plan was developed to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during performance of on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the LLNL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LLNL Survey. 70 refs., 58 figs., 52 tabs.,

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) conducted April 6 through 17, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with BNL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at BNL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the BNL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the BNL Survey. 80 refs., 24 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. Laboratory Investigations on Estuary Salinity Mixing: Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Nuryazmeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries are bodies of water along the coasts that are formed when fresh water from rivers flows into and mixes with salt water from the ocean. The estuaries serve as a habitat to some aquatic lives, including mangroves. Human-induced activities such as dredging of shipping lanes along the bottom estuarine, the disposal of industrial wastes into the water system and shoreline development influence estuarine dynamics which include mixing process. These activities might contribute to salinity changes and further adversely affect the estuarine ecosystem. In order to study at the characteristics of the mixing between salt water (estuary and freshwater (river, a preliminary investigation had been done in the laboratory. Fresh water was released from one end of the flume and overflowing at weir at the other end. Meanwhile, salt water was represented by the red dye tracer released through a weir and intruded upstream as a gravity current. The isohalines are plotted to see the salinity patterns. Besides, to examine the spatial and temporal salinity profiles along the laboratory investigations, the plotted graphs have been made. The results show that the changes in salinity level along the flume due to mixing between fresh water and salt water. This showed typical salt-wedge estuary characteristics.

  1. Insight into the dynamics of granular column collapse using Discrete Element Methods and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hugo; Mangeney, Anne; Farin, Maxime; Richard, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The mechanical behavior of granular flows is still an open issue. In particular, quantitative agreement between the detailed dynamics of the flow and laboratory experiments is necessary to better constrain the performance and limits of the models. We propose here to compare quantitatively the flow profiles and the force during granular column collapse simulated using Discrete Element Models and laboratory experiments. These small scale experiments are performed with dry granular material released initially from a cylinder on a sloping plane. The flow profiles and the acoustic signal generated by the granular impacts and stresses on the plane are recorded systematically [Farin et al., 2015]. These experiments are simulated using the Discrete Element Method Modys [Richard et al., 2000]. We show that the effect of the removing gate should be taken into account in the model in order to quantatively reproduce the flow dynamics. Furthermore we compare the simulated and observed acoustic signals that are generated by the fluctuating stresses exerted by the grains on the substrate in different frequency bands. [1] P. Richard et Luc Oger. 2000 Etude de la géométrie de milieux granulaires modèles tridimensionnels par simulation numérique. [2] Farin, M., Mangeney, A., Toussaint, R., De Rosny, J., Shapiro, N., Dewez, T., Hibert, C., Mathon, C., Sedan, O., Berger. 2015, Characterization of rockfalls from seismic signal: insights from laboratory experiments

  2. Redox-sensitivity and mobility of selected pharmaceutical compounds in a laboratory column experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, S.; Nödler, K.; Licha, T.; Krein, A.; Scheytt, T.

    2012-04-01

    Laboratory column experiments are suitable to investigate the sediment water interaction and to study the transport behaviour of solutes. Processes like retardation and degradation can be identified and quantified. The conducted experiment, which is closely connected to a field study in Luxembourg, investigated the transport behaviour of selected pharmaceutical compounds and their redox-dependent metabolism under water saturated conditions. Fine-grained natural sediment with a low hydraulic conductivity from a study site in Luxembourg was filled into the column. The water for the experiment was taken from a small stream at the same fieldsite. It was spiked with four pharmaceutical compounds (carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazole) with concentrations between 170 and 300 ng/L for the different substances. The chosen pharmaceuticals were also detected in groundwater and surface water samples at the study site and used to qualify exchange/mixing of surface water and groundwater (BANZHAF et al., 2011). As some of the substances are known to exhibit redox-sensitive degradation, the redox-conditions were systematically varied throughout the experiment. This was realised by adding nitrate at the inflow of the column. During the experiment, which lasted for 2.5 months, four different nitrate concentrations (20-130 mg/L) were applied, beginning with the highest concentration. During the experiment water from the reservoir tank was sampled daily in order to detect a potential degradation of the pharmaceutical compounds before they enter the column. The effluent water was sampled every three hours to guarantee a maximum resolution for the analysis of the pharmaceuticals where necessary. In addition, major ions were analysed in the influent and effluent samples. Throughout the experiment physicochemical parameters (oxidation reduction potential (ORP), dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, and pH-value) were measured and logged at the outflow of the column

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories Livermore (SNLL), located at Livermore, California. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The SNLL Survey is a portion of the larger, comprehensive DOE Environmental Survey encompassing all major operating facilities of DOE. The DOE Environmental Survey is one of a series of initiatives announced on September 18, 1985, by Secretary of Energy, John S. Herrington, to strengthen the environmental, safety, and health programs and activities within DOE. The purpose of the Environmental Survey is to identify, via a no fault'' baseline Survey of all the Department's major operating facilities, environmental problems and areas of environmental risk. The identified problem areas will be prioritized on a Department-wide basis in order of importance in 1989. The findings in this report are subject to modification based on the results from the Sampling and Analysis Phase of the Survey. The findings are also subject to modification based on comments from the Albuquerque Operations Office concerning the technical accuracy of the findings. The modified preliminary findings and any other appropriate changes will be incorporated into an Interim Report. The Interim Report will serve as the site-specific source for environmental information generated by the Survey, and ultimately as the primary source of information for the DOE-wide prioritization of environmental problems in the Survey Summary Report. 43 refs., 21 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weimin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Criddle, Craig S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  5. Removal of PAHs from laboratory columns simulating the humus upper layer of vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, N; Merlin, G

    2008-10-01

    Removal of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene and benzo(k)fluoranthene) from two types of PAH-contaminated effluents was investigated using four laboratory columns filled with two different organic media: a green compost and a layer coming from the first stage of vertical flow constructed wetlands. Synthetic runoff polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were fed through the columns during a period of two months. After a period of hydrodynamic stabilisation, the results showed a great adsorption of PAHs (>95%) on the solid media due to their large adsorption capacities. Leaching of these compounds by water was monitored. The concentrations of PAHs in leaching samples indicated that PAHs were strongly adsorbed on organic substrates and that lixiviation was limited. Fluoranthene metabolites were also investigated. Accumulation of metabolites was transitory and located in the first few cm of the media, as was observed for PAH concentrations. A toxicity test of leachates based on the inhibition of the bioluminescence of luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri indicated a low inhibition which can be enhanced by metal traces.

  6. Laboratory analogue of a supersonic accretion column in a binary star system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. E.; Gregori, G.; Foster, J. M.; Graham, P.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. -M.; Busschaert, C.; Charpentier, N.; Danson, C. N.; Doyle, H. W.; Drake, R. P.; Fyrth, J.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Koenig, M.; Krauland, C.; Kuranz, C. C.; Loupias, B.; Michaut, C.; Mouchet, M.; Patankar, S.; Skidmore, J.; Spindloe, C.; Tubman, E. R.; Woolsey, N.; Yurchak, R.

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical flows exhibit rich behaviour resulting from the interplay of different forms of energy—gravitational, thermal, magnetic and radiative. For magnetic cataclysmic variable stars, material from a late, main sequence star is pulled onto a highly magnetized (B>10 MG) white dwarf. The magnetic field is sufficiently large to direct the flow as an accretion column onto the poles of the white dwarf, a star subclass known as AM Herculis. A stationary radiative shock is expected to form 100–1,000 km above the surface of the white dwarf, far too small to be resolved with current telescopes. Here we report the results of a laboratory experiment showing the evolution of a reverse shock when both ionization and radiative losses are important. We find that the stand-off position of the shock agrees with radiation hydrodynamic simulations and is consistent, when scaled to AM Herculis star systems, with theoretical predictions. PMID:27291065

  7. Laboratory analogue of a supersonic accretion column in a binary star system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J E; Gregori, G; Foster, J M; Graham, P; Bonnet-Bidaud, J-M; Busschaert, C; Charpentier, N; Danson, C N; Doyle, H W; Drake, R P; Fyrth, J; Gumbrell, E T; Koenig, M; Krauland, C; Kuranz, C C; Loupias, B; Michaut, C; Mouchet, M; Patankar, S; Skidmore, J; Spindloe, C; Tubman, E R; Woolsey, N; Yurchak, R; Falize, É

    2016-06-13

    Astrophysical flows exhibit rich behaviour resulting from the interplay of different forms of energy-gravitational, thermal, magnetic and radiative. For magnetic cataclysmic variable stars, material from a late, main sequence star is pulled onto a highly magnetized (B>10 MG) white dwarf. The magnetic field is sufficiently large to direct the flow as an accretion column onto the poles of the white dwarf, a star subclass known as AM Herculis. A stationary radiative shock is expected to form 100-1,000 km above the surface of the white dwarf, far too small to be resolved with current telescopes. Here we report the results of a laboratory experiment showing the evolution of a reverse shock when both ionization and radiative losses are important. We find that the stand-off position of the shock agrees with radiation hydrodynamic simulations and is consistent, when scaled to AM Herculis star systems, with theoretical predictions.

  8. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the preliminary findings made during the Environmental Survey, February 22--29, 1988, at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in Berkeley, California. The University of California operates the LBL facility for DOE. The LBL Survey is part of the larger DOE-wide Environmental Survey announced by Secretary John S. Herrington on September 18, 1985. The purpose of this effort is to identify, via no fault'' baseline Surveys, existing environmental problems and areas of environmental risk at DOE facilities, and to rank them on a DOE wide basis. This ranking will enable DOE to more effectively establish priorities for addressing environmental problems and allocate the resources necessary to correct them. Because the Survey is no fault'' and is not an audit,'' it is not designed to identify specific isolated incidents of noncompliance or to analyze environmental management practices. Such incidents and/or management practices will, however, be used in the Survey as a means of identifying existing and potential environmental problems. The LBL Survey was conducted by a multidisciplinary team of technical specialists headed and managed by a Team Leader and Assistant Team Leader from DOE's Office of Environmental Audit. A complete list of the LBL Survey participants and their affiliations is provided in Appendix A. 80 refs., 27 figs., 37 tabs.

  9. Validating the Goldstein-Wehner Law for the Stratified Positive Column of DC Discharge in an Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovskiy, V. A.; Koval, V. A.; Artushenko, E. P.; Yegorenkov, V. D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a simple technique for validating the Goldstein-Wehner law for a stratified positive column of dc glow discharge while studying the properties of gas discharges in an undergraduate laboratory. To accomplish this a simple device with a pre-vacuum mechanical pump, dc source and gas pressure gauge is required. Experiments may…

  10. Response of Atmospheric-Methane Oxidation to Methane-Flux Manipulation in a Laboratory Soil-Column Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, M. H.; Mignola, I.; Henneberger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Upland soils are an important sink for atmospheric methane (CH4). Uptake of atmospheric CH4 in soils is generally diffusion limited, and is mediated by aerobic CH4 oxidizing bacteria (MOB) that possess a high-affinity form of a key enzyme, allowing CH4 consumption at near-atmospheric concentrations (≤ 1.9 µL/L). As cultivation attempts for these high-affinity MOB have shown little success, there remains much speculation regarding their functioning in different environments. For example, it is frequently assumed that they are highly sensitive to physical disturbance, but their response in activity and abundance to changes in substrate availability remains largely unknown. We present results of a laboratory column experiment conducted to investigate the response in activity and abundance of high-affinity MOB to an increase in CH4 flux. Intact soil cores, collected at a field site where atmospheric CH4 oxidation activity is frequently quantified, were transferred into two 1-m-long, 12-cm-dia. columns. The columns were operated at constant temperature in the dark, their headspace being continuously flushed with air. Diffusive gas-transport conditions were maintained in the reference column, whereas CH4 flux was increased in several steps in the treatment column by inducing advective gas flow using a diaphragm pump. Soil-gas samples periodically collected from ports installed along the length of the columns were analyzed for CH4 content. Together with measurements of soil-water content, atmospheric CH4 oxidation was quantified using the soil-profile method. First results indicate that atmospheric CH4 oxidation activity comparable with the field was maintained in the reference column throughout the experiment. Moreover, high-affinity MOB quickly adjusted to an increase in CH4 flux in the treatment column, efficiently consuming CH4. Quantification of MOB abundance is currently ongoing. Our data provide new insights into controls on atmospheric CH4 oxidation in soils.

  11. Remediation of PCE-contaminated aquifer by an in situ two-layer biobarrier: laboratory batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Wang, J Y; Chen, Y L; Lee, S Z

    2003-01-01

    The industrial solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ two-layer biobarrier system consisting of an organic-releasing material layer followed by an oxygen-releasing material layer. The organic-releasing material, which contained sludge cakes from a domestic wastewater treatment plant, is able to release biodegradable organics continuously. The oxygen-releasing material, which contained calcium peroxide, is able to release oxygen continuously upon contact with water. The first organic-releasing material layer was to supply organics (primary substrates) to reductively dechlorinate PCE in situ. The second oxygen-releasing material layer was to release oxygen to aerobic biodegrade or cometabolize PCE degradation byproducts from the first anaerobic layer. Batch experiments were conducted to design and identify the components of the organic and oxygen-releasing materials, and evaluate the organic substrate (presented as chemical oxygen demand (COD) equivalent) and oxygen release rates from the organic-releasing material and oxygen-releasing materials, respectively. The observed oxygen and COD release rates were approximately 0.0368 and 0.0416 mg/d/g of material, respectively. A laboratory-scale column experiment was then conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system for the bioremediation of PCE-contaminated groundwater. This system was performed using a series of continuous-flow glass columns including a soil column, an organic-releasing material column, two consecutive soil columns, and an oxygen-releasing material column, followed by two other consecutive soil columns. Anaerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in the first four columns, and aerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in the last three columns to provide microbial consortia for contaminant biodegradation. Simulated PCE-contaminated groundwater with a

  12. Effects of Heterogeneous Adsorption Affinity on Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Transport in Laboratory Sand Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, D. P.; Bolster, D.; Maurice, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    Transport of reactive sorbing solutes through porous media is commonly quantified by implementing an effective retardation coefficient in the advection-dispersion equation (ADE), which describes dispersion in accordance with Fick's law. However, anomalous (non-Fickian) transport behavior can be observed in systems with heterogeneous retardation coefficients (Dentz & Castro, 2009). In such systems, the ADE is unable to reproduce the non-Fickian nature of plume shapes and breakthrough curves, motivating the development and application of alternative solute transport theories, such as the continuous time random walk (CTRW) or multi-rate mass transfer (MRMT). Heterogeneity in retardation coefficients in practice arises from variability in the geochemical properties controlling sorption-desorption kinetics between the solute and mineral surfaces. These distributions have been described in the context of heterogeneity of the porous medium, but to date little attention has been given to the potential role of a geochemically heterogeneous solute. In this work, we consider a system in which anomalous transport arises during the passage of natural organic matter (NOM), a polydisperse mixture of compounds derived from the breakdown of plants and microorganisms in the environment, through homogeneous laboratory sand columns. NOM solutions were passed through columns containing either hematite, corundum, or a naturally-coated quartz sand at a variety of pH and ionic strength conditions. Influent and effluent NOM concentration was measured as UV absorbance at 254 nm. The resulting breakthrough curves are non-Fickian, displaying power-law tailing at late times. Such curves cannot be predicted by the ADE model. Reactivity of NOM components is known to be related to their molecular weight (MW), which tends to be log-normally distributed in aquatic NOM isolates (Cabaniss et al., 2000). Low-MW compounds are more water-soluble, have a higher diffusion coefficient, and due to their

  13. Laboratory evaporation experiments in undisturbed peat columns for determining peat soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, U.; Frahm, E.; Bechtold, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about hydraulic properties of organic soils is crucial for the interpretation of the hydrological situation in peatlands. This in turn is the basis for designing optimal rewetting strategies, for assessing the current and future climatic water balance and for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O, which are strongly controlled by the depth of the peat water table. In contrast to mineral soils, the hydraulic properties of organic soils differ in several aspects. Due to the high amount of organic components, strong heterogeneity, and shrinkage and swelling of peat, accompanied by changing soil volume and bulk density, the applicability of standard hydraulic functions developed for mineral soils for describing peat soil moisture dynamics is often questioned. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of the commonly applied van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) parameterization and to evaluate model errors for various peat types. Laboratory column experiments with undisturbed peat soils (diameter: 30 cm, height: 20 cm) from 5 different peatlands in Germany were conducted. In numerical simulations using HYDRUS-1D the experimental data were used for an inverse estimation of the soil hydraulic parameters. Using the VGM parameterization, the model errors between observed and measured pressure heads were quantified with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 20 - 65 cm. The RMSE increased for soils with higher organic carbon content and higher porosity. Optimizing the VGM 'tortuosity' parameter (τ) instead of fixing it to its default of 0.5 strongly reduced the RMSE, especially for the soils that showed high pressure head gradients during the experiment. Due to the fact, that very negative pressure heads in peatlands occur rarely, we reduced the range of pressured heads in the inversion to a 'field-relevant' range from 0 to -200 cm which strongly reduced the RMSE to 6 - 12 cm and makes the VGM parameterization applicable for all

  14. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    impact at different geographical areas, as well as driving and charging patterns. Electric circuit model is deployed in this work to represent the electrical properties of a lithium-ion battery. This paper reports the preliminary modeling and validation work based on manufacturer data sheet and realistic......Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  15. Preliminary Design of a Multi-Column TLP Foundation for a 5-MW Offshore Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, floating wind turbines (FWTs may be the more economical and suitable systems with which to exploit offshore wind energy in deep waters. Among the various types of floating foundations for offshore wind farms, a tension leg platform (TLP foundation can provide a relatively stable platform for currently available offshore wind turbines without requiring major modifications. In this study, a new multi-column TLP foundation (WindStar TLP was developed for the NREL 5-MW offshore wind turbine according to site-specific environmental conditions, which are the same as the OC3-Hywind (NREL conditions. The general arrangement, main structure and mooring system were also designed and investigated through hydrodynamic and natural frequency analyses. The complete system avoids resonance through the rotor excitations. An aero-hydro-servo-elastic coupled analysis was carried out in the time domain with the numerical tool FAST. Statistics of the key parameters were obtained and analysed and comparisons to MIT/NREL TLP are made. As a result, the design requirements were shown to be satisfied, and the proposed WindStar TLP was shown to have favourable motion characteristics under extreme wind and wave conditions with a lighter and smaller structure. The new concept holds great potential for further development.

  16. Reductive dissolution of Mn oxides in river-recharged aquifers: a laboratory column study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunic, B. M.; MacQuarrie, K. T. B.; Al, T. A.

    2005-01-01

    River-recharged aquifers are developed for drinking water supplies in many parts of the world. Often, however, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present in the infiltrating river water causes biogeochemical reactions to occur in the adjacent aquifer that create elevated Mn and Fe. Mn concentrations in groundwater from some of the production wells installed in the aquifer at Fredericton, New Brunswick exceed the Canadian Drinking Water Guideline of 9.1×10 -4 mmol/l by up to 5.5×10 -2 mmol/l. It has previously been hypothesized that the influx of DOC from the Saint John River is causing bacterially mediated reductive dissolution of Mn oxides in the aquifer system, leading to elevated aqueous Mn concentrations. Previous work was limited to the collection of water samples from production wells and several observation wells installed in the glacial outwash aquifer. The objective of this study was to investigate the biogeochemical controls on Mn concentrations using sand-filled columns. One column was inoculated with bacteria while a second column was treated with ethanol in order to decrease the microbial population initially present in the system. Both columns received the same influent solution that contained acetate as a source of DOC. The results of the experiments suggested that the two main controls on Mn concentrations in the columns were microbially mediated reductive dissolution of Mn oxides and cation exchange. The conceptual model that was developed based on the experimental data was supported by the results obtained using a one-dimensional reactive-transport model. The reductive dissolution of Mn oxides in the aquifer sands could be adequately simulated using dual-Monod kinetics. Similar trends are observed in the experimental data and field data collected from Production Well 5, located in the Fredericton Aquifer. From the experiments, it is evident that cation-exchange reactions may be an important geochemical control on Mn concentrations during the initial

  17. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  18. Simulation of estrogen transport and behavior in laboratory soil columns using a cellular automata model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingcai; Shi, Jianghong; Liu, Xiaowei; Wu, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    A cellular automata model (CA model) was used to simulate the soil column leaching process of estrogens during the processes of migration and transformation. The results of the simulated leaching experiment showed that the first-order degradation rates of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were 0.131 h- 1 for E2, 0.099 h- 1 for E1 and 0.064 h- 1 for EE2 in the EE2 and E2 leaching process, and the first-order sorption rates were 5.94 h- 1 for E2, 5.63 h- 1 for EE2, 3.125 h- 1 for E1. Their sorption rates were positively correlated with the n-octanol/water partition coefficients. When the diffusion rate was low, its impact on the simulation results was insignificant. The increase in sorption and degradation rates caused the decrease in the total estrogens that leached. In addition, increasing the sorption rate could delay the emerging time of the maximum concentration of estrogen that leached, whereas increasing the degradation rate could shorten the emerging time of the maximum concentration of estrogen that leached. The comparison made between the experimental data and the simulation results of the CA model and the HYDRUS-1D software showed that the establishment of one-component and multi-component CA models could simulate EE2 and E2 soil column leaching processes, and the CA models achieve an intuitive, dynamic, and visual simulation.

  19. Laboratory column experiments for radionuclide adsorption studies of the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, D.A.; Heath, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, G.O. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Dept.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide transport experiments were carried out using intact cores obtained from the Culebra member of the Rustler Formation inside the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Air Intake Shaft. Twenty-seven separate tests are reported here and include experiments with {sup 3}H, {sup 22}Na, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Np, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}U and {sup 241}Pu, and two brine types, AIS and ERDA 6. The {sup 3}H was bound as water and provides a measure of advection, dispersion, and water self-diffusion. The other tracers were injected as dissolved ions at concentrations below solubility limits, except for americium. The objective of the intact rock column flow experiments is to demonstrate and quantify transport retardation coefficients, (R) for the actinides Pu, Am, U, Th and Np, in intact core samples of the Culebra Dolomite. The measured R values are used to estimate partition coefficients, (kd) for the solute species. Those kd values may be compared to values obtained from empirical and mechanistic adsorption batch experiments, to provide predictions of actinide retardation in the Culebra. Three parameters that may influence actinide R values were varied in the experiments; core, brine and flow rate. Testing five separate core samples from four different core borings provided an indication of sample variability. While most testing was performed with Culebra brine, limited tests were carried out with a Salado brine to evaluate the effect of intrusion of those lower waters. Varying flow rate provided an indication of rate dependent solute interactions such as sorption kinetics.

  20. Preliminary study: Formaldehyde exposure in laboratories of Sharjah university in UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Omer Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Laboratory technicians, students, and instructors are at high risk, because they deal with chemicals including formaldehyde. Thus, this preliminary study was conducted to measure the concentration of formaldehyde in the laboratories of the University of Sharjah in UAE. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two air samples were collected and analyzed for formaldehyde using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH method 3500. In this method, formaldehyde reacts with chromotropic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid to form a colored solution. The absorbance of the colored solution is read in spectrophotometer at wavelength 580 nm and is proportional to the quantity of the formaldehyde in the solution. Results: For the anatomy laboratory and in the presence of the covered cadaver, the mean concentration of formaldehyde was found to be 0.100 ppm with a range of 0.095-0.105 ppm. Whereas for the other laboratories, the highest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.024 ppm in the general microbiology laboratory and the lowest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.001 ppm in the environmental health laboratory. The 8-hour (time-weighted average concentration of formaldehyde was found to be ranging between 0.0003 ppm in environmental health laboratory and 0.026 ppm in the anatomy laboratory. Conclusions: The highest level of concentration of formaldehyde in the presence of the covered cadaver in anatomy laboratory exceeded the recommended ceiling standard established by USA-NIOSH which is 0.1 ppm, but below the ceiling standard established by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists which is 0.3 ppm. Thus, it is recommended that formaldehyde levels should be measured periodically specially during the dissection in the anatomy laboratory, and local exhaust ventilation system should be installed and personal protective equipment such as safety glass and gloves should be available and be used to prevent

  1. Effects of implant angulation, material selection, and impression technique on impression accuracy: a preliminary laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sveikata, Kestutis; Savickas, Raimondas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary laboratory study was to evaluate the effects of 5- and 25-degree implant angulations in simulated clinical casts on an impression's accuracy when using different impression materials and tray selections. A convenience sample of each implant angulation group was selected for both open and closed trays in combination with one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The influence of material and technique appeared to be significant for both 5- and 25-degree angulations (P impression accuracy. The open-tray technique was more accurate with highly nonaxially oriented implants for the small sample size investigated.

  2. Lead Biosorption by Self-Immobilized Rhizopus nigricans Pellets in a Laboratory Scale Packed Bed Column: Mathematical Model and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Kogej

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption of lead ions from aqueous solution on a self-immobilized Rhizopus nigricans biomass has been studied. Experiments were performed in a laboratory scale packed bed column at different liquid flow rates and biosorbent bed heights. Recorded experimental breakthrough curves were compared to those predicted by a mathematical model, which was developed to simulate a packed bed biosorption process by a soft, self-immobilized fungal biosorbent. In the range of examined experimental conditions, the biomass characteristics such as pellet porosity and biosorption capacity substantially affected the predicted response curve. General correlations for the estimation of the intra-pellet effective diffusivity, the external mass transfer coefficient, as well as axial dispersion were successfully applied in this biological system with specific mechanical properties. Under the experimental conditions, mass transfer is controlled by the external film resistance, while the intra-pellet mass transfer resistance, as well as the effect of axial dispersion, can be neglected. A new parameter α, the fraction of active biomass, with an average value of α=0.7, was introduced to take into account the specific biomass characteristics, and consequently the observed non-ideal liquid flow through the bed of fungal pellets.

  3. A microfluidic device for preparing next generation DNA sequencing libraries and for automating other laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Jin Tan

    Full Text Available Library preparation for next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS remains a key bottleneck in the sequencing process which can be relieved through improved automation and miniaturization. We describe a microfluidic device for automating laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps and demonstrate its utility for preparing Next Generation sequencing libraries for the Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms. Sixteen different libraries can be generated simultaneously with significantly reduced reagent cost and hands-on time compared to manual library preparation. Using an appropriate column matrix and buffers, size selection can be performed on-chip following end-repair, dA tailing, and linker ligation, so that the libraries eluted from the chip are ready for sequencing. The core architecture of the device ensures uniform, reproducible column packing without user supervision and accommodates multiple routine protocol steps in any sequence, such as reagent mixing and incubation; column packing, loading, washing, elution, and regeneration; capture of eluted material for use as a substrate in a later step of the protocol; and removal of one column matrix so that two or more column matrices with different functional properties can be used in the same protocol. The microfluidic device is mounted on a plastic carrier so that reagents and products can be aliquoted and recovered using standard pipettors and liquid handling robots. The carrier-mounted device is operated using a benchtop controller that seals and operates the device with programmable temperature control, eliminating any requirement for the user to manually attach tubing or connectors. In addition to NGS library preparation, the device and controller are suitable for automating other time-consuming and error-prone laboratory protocols requiring column chromatography steps, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation.

  4. Characterize Behaviour of Emerging Pollutants in Artificial Recharge: Column Experiments - Experiment Design and Results of Preliminary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Carrera, J.; Ayora, C.; Licha, T.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging pollutants (EPs) have been detected in water resources as a result of human activities in recent years. They include pharmaceuticals, personal care products, dioxins, flame retardants, etc. They are a source of concern because many of them are resistant to conventional water treatment, and they are harmful to human health, even in low concentrations. Generally, this study aims to characterize the behaviour of emerging pollutants in reclaimed water in column experiments which simulates artificial recharge. One column set includes three parts: influent, reactive layer column (RLC) and aquifer column (AC). The main influent is decided to be Secondary Effluent (SE) of El Prat Wastewater Treatment Plant, Barcelona. The flow rate of the column experiment is 0.9-1.5 mL/min. the residence time of RLC is designed to be about 1 day and 30-40 days for AC. Both columns are made of stainless steel. Reactive layer column (DI 10cm * L55cm) is named after the filling material which is a mixture of organic substrate, clay and goethite. One purpose of the application of the mixture is to increase dissolve organic carbon (DOC). Leaching test in batchs and columns has been done to select proper organic substrate. As a result, compost was selected due to its long lasting of releasing organic matter (OM). The other purpose of the application of the mixture is to enhance adsorption of EPs. Partition coefficients (Kow) of EPs indicate the ability of adsorption to OM. EPs with logKow>2 could be adsorbed to OM, like Ibuprofen, Bezafibrate and Diclofenac. Moreover, some of EPs are charged in the solution with pH=7, according to its acid dissociation constant (Ka). Positively charged EPs, for example Atenolol, could adsorb to clay. In the opposite, negatively charged EPs, for example Gemfibrozil, could adsorb to goethite. Aquifer column (DI 35cm * L1.5m) is to simulate the processes taking place in aquifer in artificial recharge. The filling of AC has two parts: silica sand and

  5. Attenuation of landfill leachate by UK Triassic sandstone aquifer materials. 2. Sorption and degradation of organic pollutants in laboratory columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Steven F.; Bright, Mildred I.; Lerner, David N.; Tellam, John H.

    2000-05-01

    The sorption and degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and 13 organic micropollutants (BTEX, aromatic hydrocarbons, chloro-aromatic and -aliphatic compounds, and pesticides) in acetogenic and methanogenic landfill leachate was studied in laboratory columns containing Triassic sandstone aquifer materials from the English Midlands. Solute sorption and degradation relationships were evaluated using a simple transport model. Relative to predictions, micropollutant sorption was decreased up to eightfold in acetogenic leachate, but increased up to sixfold in methanogenic leachate. This behaviour reflects a combination of interactions between the micropollutants, leachate DOM and aquifer mineral fraction. Sorption of DOM was not significant. Degradation of organic fractions occurred under Mn-reducing and SO 4-reducing conditions. Degradation of some micropollutants occurred exclusively under Mn-reducing conditions. DOM and benzene were not significantly degraded under the conditions and time span (up to 280 days) of the experiments. Most micropollutants were degraded immediately or after a lag phase (32-115 days). Micropollutant degradation rates varied considerably (half-lives of 8 to >2000 days) for the same compounds (e.g., TeCE) in different experiments, and for compounds (e.g., naphthalene, DCB and TeCA) within the same experiment. Degradation of many micropollutants was both simultaneous and sequential, and inhibited by the utilisation of different substrates. This mechanism, in combination with lag phases, controls micropollutant degradation potential in these systems more than the degradation rate. These aquifer materials have a potentially large capacity for in situ bioremediation of organic pollutants in landfill leachate and significant degradation may occur in the Mn-reducing zones of leachate plumes. However, degradation of organic pollutants in acetogenic leachate may be limited in aquifers with low pH buffering capacity and reducible Mn oxides

  6. GeoLab—A habitat-based laboratory for preliminary examination of geological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Calaway, Michael J.; Sue Bell, Mary; Young, Kelsey E.

    2013-10-01

    GeoLab is a prototype geological laboratory designed for deployment and testing during NASA's analog demonstrations. Scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) built GeoLab as part of a technology project to support the development of science operational concepts for future planetary surface missions. It was integrated into NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit 1 - Pressurized Excursion Module (HDU1-PEM), a first generation exploration habitat test bed. As a test bed, GeoLab provides a high fidelity working space for crewmembers to perform preliminary examination and characterization of geologic samples. The GeoLab concept builds from the hardware and cleanroom protocols used in JSC's Astromaterials Sample Curation laboratories. The main hardware component of the GeoLab is a custom-built glovebox, constructed from stainless steel and polycarbonate, and built to provide a positive pressure nitrogen environment. The glovebox is mounted onto the habitat's structural ribs; the unique shape (trapezoidal prism) fits within a pie-shaped section of the cylindrical habitat. A key innovation of GeoLab is the mechanism for transferring samples into the glovebox: three antechambers (airlocks) that pass through the shell of the habitat. These antechambers allow geologic samples to enter and exit the main glovebox chamber directly from (and to) the outside, thereby controlling contamination from inside the habitat. The glovebox is configured to include imaging systems, instrumentation, and computer controls. The first field trials tested a simple configuration including a microscope, a commercially available handheld X-ray Fluorescence instrument, network cameras, and simple sample handling tools inside the glovebox. We present results from the initial field trials of GeoLab during the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) planetary analog test near Flagstaff, AZ. These field tests examined the general operations of the GeoLab hardware and the crew

  7. The preliminary results of fast neutron flux measurements in the DULB laboratory at Baksan

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurashitov, J N; Kalikhov, A V; Shikhin, A A; Yants, V E; Zaborskaia, O S; Klimenko, A A; Osetrov, S B; Smolnikov, A A; Vasilev, S I

    2000-01-01

    One of the main sources of a background in underground physics experiments (such as the investigation of solar neutrino flux, neutrino oscillations, neutrinoless double beta decay, and the search for annual and daily Cold Dark Matter particle flux modulation) are fast neutrons originating from the surrounding rocks. The measurements of fast neutron flux in the new DULB Laboratory situated at a depth of 4900 m w.e. in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory have been performed. The relative neutron shielding properties of several commonly available natural materials were investigated too. The preliminary results obtained with a high-sensitive fast neutron spectrometer at the level of sensitivity of about 10^(-7) neutron/ (cm^2 sec) are presented and discussed.

  8. Post-depositional changes in snow isotope content: preliminary results of laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ekaykin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic content of the snow and firn thickness is assumed to be altered significantly due to the post-depositional (PD mass- and isotope exchange with the atmospheric water vapor. If so, these effects should be accounted for in the ice core-based isotope-temperature paleo-reconstructions. In order to study the intensity of the PD processes we set up a series of laboratory experiments. In this paper we describe in detail the experimental technique and briefly overview preliminary results. It is shown that the PD modifications in the upper layer of snow thickness are noticeably strong even under such a low temperature as −35°C (the value typical for the Central Antarctic summer. It is demonstrated that the PD isotopic changes in snow can be approximated as a linear function of the relative mass loss due to snow sublimation. Possible applications for improving the isotope-temperature paleo-reconstructions are shortly discussed.

  9. A preliminary survey of the National Wetlands Inventory as mapped for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, N.L.; Rope, R.C.; Glennon, J.M.; Moor, K.S.

    1995-02-01

    Approximately 135 areas within the boundaries of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been mapped as wetland habitat as part of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). A preliminary survey of these wetlands was conducted to examine their general characteristics and status, to provide an estimation of relative ecological importance, to identify additional information needed to complete ecological characterization of important INEL wetlands, and to identify high priority wetland areas on the INEL. The purpose of the survey was to provide information to support the preparation of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Information characterizing general vegetation, hydrology, wildlife use, and archaeology was collected at 105 sample sites on the INEL. Sites representing NWI palustrine, lacustrine, and riverine wetlands (including manmade), and areas unmapped or unclassified by the NWI were included in the sample. The field information was used to develop a preliminary ranking of relative ecological importance for each wetland visited during this survey. Survey limitations are identified.

  10. Preliminary laboratory studies of the optical scattering properties of the crystal clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Saunders

    Full Text Available Ice crystal clouds have an influence on the radiative budget of the earth; however, the exact size and nature of this influence has yet to be determined. A laboratory cloud chamber experiment has been set up to provide data on the optical scattering behaviour of ice crystals at a visible wavelength in order to gain information which can be used in climate models concerning the radiative characteristics of cirrus clouds. A PMS grey-scale probe is used to monitor simultaneously the cloud microphysical properties in order to correlate these closely with the observed radiative properties. Preliminary results show that ice crystals scatter considerably more at 90° than do water droplets, and that the halo effects are visible in a laboratory-generated cloud when the ice crystal concentration is sufficiently small to prevent masking from multiple scattering.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmosphere dynamics · Climatology · Radiative process · Atmospheric composition and structure · Cloud physics and chemistry

  11. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10), Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), X-10 site, conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with ORNL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORNL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for ORNL. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the ORNL Survey. 120 refs., 68 figs., 71 tabs.

  12. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), conducted March 29, 1987 through April 17, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the LANL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at the LANL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the LANL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Survey for the LANL. 65 refs., 68 figs., 73 tabs.

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), conducted November 16 through 20, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the LEHR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation, and is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations at the LEHR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for the LEHR at UC Davis. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LEHR Survey. 75 refs., 26 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), conducted June 13 through 17, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Team members are being provided by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with PPPL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at PPPL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environment problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A plan is being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the PPPL Survey findings for inclusion in the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 70 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  15. Preliminary correlations of feature strength in spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy of bioaerosols with concentrations measured in laboratory analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Bauer, Amy J. Ray

    2010-05-01

    We present preliminary results that show good correlation between elemental compositions of three bioaerosol samples, as measured in the laboratory by combustion analysis and with proton-induced x-ray emission and spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy signals integrated over the entire emission time profiles. Atomic (Ca, Al, Fe, and Si) and molecular features (CN, N2{sup +}, and OH) were observed compared to the laboratory data.

  16. Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

  17. The effect of redox conditions and adaptation time on organic micropollutant removal during river bank filtration: A laboratory-scale column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelkamp, C; Verliefde, A R D; Schoutteten, K; Vanhaecke, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Singhal, N; van der Hoek, J P

    2016-02-15

    This study investigated the redox dependent removal and adaptive behaviour of a mixture of 15 organic micropollutants (OMPs) in laboratory-scale soil columns fed with river water. Three separate pilot systems were used consisting of: (1) two columns, (2) ten columns and (3) twenty two columns to create oxic, suboxic (partial nitrate removal) and anoxic (complete nitrate removal). The pilot set-up has some unique features--it can simulate fairly long residence times (e.g., 45 days using the 22 column system) and reduced conditions developed naturally within the system. Dimethoate, diuron, and metoprolol showed redox dependent removal behaviour with higher biodegradation rates in the oxic zone compared to the suboxic/anoxic zone. The redox dependent behaviour of these three OMPs could not be explained based on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) or functional groups present in the molecular structure. OMPs that showed persistent behaviour in the oxic zone (atrazine, carbamazepine, hydrochlorothiazide and simazine) were also not removed under more reduced conditions. Adaptive behaviour was observed for five OMPs: dimethoate, chloridazon, lincomycin, sulfamethoxazole and phenazone. However, the adaptive behaviour could not be explained by the physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) investigated in this study and only rough trends were observed with specific functional groups (e.g. ethers, sulphur, primary and secondary amines). Finally, the adaptive behaviour of OMPs was found to be an important factor that should be incorporated in predictive models for OMP removal during river bank filtration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Laboratory tools to quantify biogenic dissolution of rocks and minerals: a model rock biofilm growing in percolation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz eSeiffert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sub-aerial biofilms (SAB are ubiquitous, self-sufficient microbial ecosystems found on mineral surfaces at all altitudes and latitudes. SABs, which are the principal causes of weathering on exposed terrestrial surfaces, are characterised by patchy growth dominated by associations of algae, cyanobacteria, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. A recently developed in vitro system to study colonisation of rocks exposed to air included two key SAB participants - the rock-inhabiting ascomycete Knufia petricola (CBS 123872 and the phototrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC29133. Both partners are genetically tractable and we used them here to study weathering of granite, K-feldspar and plagioclase. Small fragments of the various rocks or minerals (1 to 6 mm were packed into flow-through columns and incubated with 0.1% glucose and 10 µM thiamine-hydrochloride (90 µL.min-1 to compare weathering with and without biofilms. Dissolution of the minerals was followed by: analysing (i the degradation products in the effluent from the columns via Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy and (ii by studying polished sections of the incubated mineral fragment/grains using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses. K. petricola/N. punctiforme stimulated release of Ca, Na, Mg and Mn. Analyses of the polished sections confirmed depletion of Ca, Na and K near the surface of the fragments. The abrupt decrease in Ca concentration observed in peripheral areas of plagioclase fragments favoured a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. Percolation columns in combination with a model biofilm can thus be used to study weathering in closed systems. Columns can easily be filled with different minerals and biofilms, the effluent as well as grains can be collected after long-term exposure under axenic conditions and easily analysed.

  19. Reactive-transport modeling of fly ash-wate-brines interactions from laboratory-scale column studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, John M.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Kindness, Andrew; Demlie, Molla

    Dynamic leaching tests are important studies that provide more insights into time-dependent leaching mechanisms of any given solid waste. Hydrogeochemical modeling using PHREEQC was applied for column modeling of two ash recipes and brines generated from South African coal utility plants, Sasol and Eskom. The modeling results were part of a larger ash-brine study aimed at acquiring knowledge on (i) quantification and characterization of the products formed when ash is in contact with wate-brines in different scenarios, (ii) the mineralogical changes associated with wate-brine-ash interactions over time, (iii) species concentration, and (iv) leaching and transport controlling factors. The column modeling was successfully identified and quantified as important reactive mineralogical phases controlling major, minor and trace elements' release. The pH of the solution was found to be a very important controlling factor in leaching chemistry. The highest mineralogical transformation took place in the first 10 days of ash contact with either water or brines, and within 0.1 m from the column inflow. Many of the major and trace elements Ca, Mg, Na, K, Sr, S(VI), Fe, are leached easily into water systems and their concentration fronts were high at the beginning (within 0.1 m from the column inflow and within the first 10 days) upon contact with the liquid phase. However, their concentration decreased with time until a steady state was reached. Modeling results also revealed that geochemical reactions taking place during ash-wate-brine interactions does affect the porosity of the ash, whereas the leaching processes lead to increased porosity. Besides supporting experimental data, modeling results gave predictive insights on leaching of elements which may directly impact on the environment, particularly ground water. These predictions will help develop scenarios and offer potential guide for future sustainable waste management practices as a way of addressing the co

  20. Laboratory tools to quantify biogenic dissolution of rocks and minerals: a model rock biofilm growing in percolation columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Franz; Bandow, Nicole; Kalbe, Ute; Milke, Ralf; Gorbushina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Sub-aerial biofilms (SAB) are ubiquitous, self-sufficient microbial ecosystems found on mineral surfaces at all altitudes and latitudes. SABs, which are the principal causes of weathering on exposed terrestrial surfaces, are characterised by patchy growth dominated by associations of algae, cyanobacteria, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. A recently developed in vitro system to study colonisation of rocks exposed to air included two key SAB participants - the rock-inhabiting ascomycete Knufia petricola (CBS 123872) and the phototrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC29133. Both partners are genetically tractable and we used them here to study weathering of granite, K-feldspar and plagioclase. Small fragments of the various rocks or minerals (1 to 6 mm) were packed into flow-through columns and incubated with 0.1% glucose and 10 µM thiamine-hydrochloride (90 µL.min-1) to compare weathering with and without biofilms. Dissolution of the minerals was followed by: analysing (i) the degradation products in the effluent from the columns via Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy and (ii) by studying polished sections of the incubated mineral fragment/grains using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses. K. petricola/N. punctiforme stimulated release of Ca, Na, Mg and Mn. Analyses of the polished sections confirmed depletion of Ca, Na and K near the surface of the fragments. The abrupt decrease in Ca concentration observed in peripheral areas of plagioclase fragments favoured a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. Percolation columns in combination with a model biofilm can thus be used to study weathering in closed systems. Columns can easily be filled with different minerals and biofilms, the effluent as well as grains can be collected after long-term exposure under axenic conditions and easily analysed.

  1. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a Spacelab mission payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The following areas related to the final definition and preliminary design study of the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) were covered: (1) proposal organization, personnel, schedule, and project management, (2) proposed configurations, (3) study objectives, (4) ACPL experiment program listing and description, (5) mission/flight flexibility and modularity/commonality, (6) study plan, and (7) description of following tasks: requirement analysis and definition task flow, systems analysis and trade studies, subsystem analysis and trade studies, specifications and interface control documents, preliminary design task flow, work breakdown structure, programmatic analysis and planning, and project costs. Finally, an overview of the scientific requirements was presented.

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of the Control of Microbial Fouling by Laboratory and Pilot-Scale Air-Stripping Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Corparisons, Journal AWWA, August 1981, p. 420. 11. American Public Health Association American Water Works Association Water Polution Control ...or control measures to be taken in future applications of these water treatment methods. Measures to prevent buildup of microbial slimes will allow...tap water --the town of Natick uses well water as the public water supply-- and flow was monitored with a "Gilmont model E6677" water flowmeter. The

  3. Laboratory-scale column study for remediation of TCE-contaminated aquifers using three-section controlled-release potassium permanganate barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Baoling; Li, Fei; Chen, Yanmei; Fu, Ming-Lai

    2013-05-01

    A laboratory-scale study with a sand column was designed to simulate trichloroethylene (TCE) pollution in the aquifer environment with three-section controlled-release potassium permanganate (CRP) barriers. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of CRP barriers in remediation of TCE in aquifers in a long-term and controlled manner. CRP particles with a 1:3 molar ratio of KMnO4 to stearic acid showed the best controlled-release properties in pure water, and the theoretical release time was 138.5 days. The results of TCE removal in the test column indicated that complete removal efficiency of TCE in a sand column by three-section CRP barriers could be reached within 15 days. The molar ratio of KMnO4 to TCE in the three-section CRP barriers was 16:1, which was much lower than 82:1 as required when KMnO4 solution is used directly to achieve complete destruction of TCE. This result revealed that the efficiency of CRP for remediation of TCE was highly improved after encapsulation.

  4. Laboratory-scale column study for remediation of TCE-contaminated aquifers using three-section controlled-release potassium permanganate barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoling Yuan; Fei Li; Yanmei Chen; Ming-Lai Fu

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study with a sand column was designed to simulate trichloroethylene (TCE) pollution in the aquifer environment with three-section controlled-release potassium permanganate (CRP) barriers.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of CRP barriers in remediation of TCE in aquifers in a long-term and controlled manner.CRP particles with a 1:3 molar ratio of KMnO4 to stearic acid showed the best controlled-release properties in pure water,and the theoretical release time was 138.5 days.The results of TCE removal in the test column indicated that complete removal efficiency of TCE in a sand column by three-section CRP barriers could be reached within 15 days.The molar ratio of KMnO4 to TCE in the three-section CRP barriers was 16:1,which was much lower than 82∶1 as required when KMnO4 solution is used directly to achieve complete destruction of TCE.This result revealed that the efficiency of CRP for remediation of TCE was highly improved after encapsulation.

  5. Preliminary validation of column-averaged volume mixing ratios of carbon dioxide and methane retrieved from GOSAT short-wavelength infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Column-averaged volume mixing ratios of carbon dioxide and methane retrieved from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT Short-Wavelength InfraRed observation (GOSAT SWIR XCO2 and XCH4 were compared with the reference data obtained by ground-based high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometers (g-b FTSs participating in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON.

    Through calibrations of g-b FTSs with airborne in-situ measurements, the uncertainty of XCO2 and XCH4 associated with the g-b FTS was determined to be 0.8 ppm (~0.2% and 4 ppb (~0.2%, respectively. The GOSAT products are validated with these calibrated g-b FTS data. Preliminary results are as follows: The GOSAT SWIR XCO2 and XCH4 (Version 01.xx are biased low by 8.85 ± 4.75 ppm (2.3 ± 1.2% and 20.4 ± 18.9 ppb (1.2 ± 1.1%, respectively. The precision of the GOSAT SWIR XCO2 and XCH4 is considered to be about 1%. The latitudinal distributions of zonal means of the GOSAT SWIR XCO2 and XCH4 show similar features to those of the g-b FTS data.

  6. A Preliminary Clinical Laboratory Investigation of Endemic Spiking Mortality Syndrome of Broiler Chickens in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Ram Neupane

    Full Text Available During the period of March-April-May 2008 first time a sudden and unexpected jump in mortality in Broiler of 8 to 16 days of age was reported from broiler farms from Chitwan and Kathmandu valley in Nepal.Affected birds become recumbent, depressed and often go into a star-gazing spasm. Those signs included, huddling of the birds, trembling, blindness, loud chirping, litter eating, ataxia, comatose, birds dead with breast down and feet and legs straight out behind birds. Death within two to six hours after the onset of the symptoms Postmortem Lesions found with this syndrome include hemorrhages in the liver with necrosis of liver cells, regressed thymus, regression of the bursa of Fabricius, dehydration with the accumulation of kidney urates, fluid in the crop, fluid in the lower gut and watery contents of the ceca.Yellow elastic shanks swollen joints. Molted appearance of brain. . The mortality lasted for three to five days, after which, the mortality patterns return to a relatively normal level. When treated with liquid toxin binders like toxol,toxolivum,livertonic like hepatocare,naturaliv, immunomodulaters like immunocare,promin,pentasol and antibiotics there was check in mortality but the body weight recovery was not satisfactory only half as in comparison of in other illness. During this period laboratory culture of total 298 tissue specimen from dead bird was conducted which revealed growth of fungus spp like Aspergillus and Penicillium in 182 specimen while mixed E.coli and Staphylococcus were recovered in 68 specimen 24 specimen revealed the growth of Salmonella spp of bacteria and 24 samples were turn out to be negative while the attempt to isolate the Avian encephalomyelitis virus as it might be the cause suspected also turnout negative. On the basis of all laboratory findings and response to the treatment attempted finding of this preliminary investigation work is suggestive that the above syndrome indicates that mycosis emerging as

  7. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  8. A Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds with a Bubble Column and a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shan-Hu; Mukherjee, Souptik; Brewer, Brittany; Ryan, Raphael; Yu, Huan; Gangoda, Mahinda

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to measure Henry's law constants of organic compounds using a bubble column and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). This experiment is designed for upper-division undergraduate laboratory courses and can be implemented in conjunction with physical chemistry, analytical…

  9. A Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds with a Bubble Column and a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shan-Hu; Mukherjee, Souptik; Brewer, Brittany; Ryan, Raphael; Yu, Huan; Gangoda, Mahinda

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to measure Henry's law constants of organic compounds using a bubble column and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). This experiment is designed for upper-division undergraduate laboratory courses and can be implemented in conjunction with physical chemistry, analytical…

  10. Factors controlling short-term soil microbial response after laboratory heating. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Jordán, Antonio; Bárcenas-Moreno, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Soil microbial response after fire is controlled by numerous variables which conclude with a mosaic of results depending on organic carbon alterations or pH fire-induced changes. This fact has complicated the studies focused on post-fire microbial response, compiling high variability of opposite result in the bibliography. Soil laboratory heating cannot emulate a real wildfire effect on soil but lead us the possibility to control several variables and it is a valid tool to clarify the relative weight of different factors controlling microbial response after soil heating. In this preliminary study different heated treatments were applied to unaltered forest soil samples, obtaining 4 different heating treatments to simulate a range of fire intensities: unaltered-control (UH), and soil heated at 300, 450 and 500 °C. In order to isolate possible nutrient availability or pH heating-induced changes, different culture media were prepared using soil:water extract from each heating treatments and adding different supplements to obtain the total of 11 different culture media: unheated soil without supplements (UH-N-), unheated soil with nutrient supplement (UH-N+), soil heated at 300 °C without supplements (300-N-), soil heated at 300 °C with nutrient supplement (300-N+), soil heated at 300 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (300-N+pH); soil heated at 450 °C without supplements (450-N-), soil heated at 450 °C with nutrient supplement (450-N+), soil heated at 450 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (450-N+); soil heated at 500 °C without supplements (500-N-), soil heated at 500 °C with nutrient supplement (500-N+), soil heated at 500 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (500-N+). Each media was inoculated with different dilutions of a microbial suspension from the original unaltered soil, and the abundance of viable and cultivable microorganisms were measured by plate count method. In addition, the analysis of heating-induced soil organic

  11. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-10-15

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbially mediated clinoptilolite regeneration in a multifunctional permeable reactive barrier used to remove ammonium from landfill leachate contamination: laboratory column evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooten, Thomas Van; Diels, Ludo; Bastiaens, Leen

    2010-05-01

    This study focuses on multifunctional permeable reactive barrier (multibarrier) technology, combining microbial degradation and abiotic ion exchange processes for removal of ammonium from landfill leachate contamination. The sequential multibarrier concept relies on the use of a clinoptilolite-filled buffer compartment to ensure a robust ammonium removal in case of temporary insufficient microbial activities. An innovative strategy was developed to allow in situ clinoptilolite regeneration. Laboratory-scale clinoptilolite-filled columns were first saturated with ammonium, using real landfill leachate as well as synthetic leachates as feed media. Other inorganic metal cations, typically present in landfill leachate, had a detrimental influence on the ammonium removal capacity by competing for clinoptilolite exchange sites. On the other hand, the metals had a highly favorable impact on regeneration of the saturated material. Feeding the columns with leachate deprived from ammonium (e.g., by microbial nitrification in an upgradient compartment), resulted in a complete release of the previously sorbed ammonium from the clinoptilolite, due to exchange with metal cations present in the leachate. The released ammonium is then available for microbial consumption in a downgradient compartment. The regeneration process resulted in a slightly increased ammonium exchange capacity afterward. The described strategy throws a new light on sustainable use of sorption materials for in situ groundwater remediation, by avoiding the need for material replacement and the use of external chemical regenerants.

  13. Effects of pulsed and oscillatory flow on water vapor removal from a laboratory soil column. Final report, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, K.E.

    1993-05-01

    Subsurface contamination by volatile organic contaminants (VOC`s) in the vadose zone and groundwater is primarily due to leaking underground storage tanks and industrial spills. Soil vapor extraction is a technique that is being used successfully to remove VOC`s from the subsurface. A flow of air is established through the soil to remove the vapor phase component of the contaminant. Soil vapor extraction will initially remove high levels of contaminant that is already present in the macropores. The concentration will start to decline as the removal from the soil matrix becomes limited by diffusion of contaminant from regions away from the air flow paths. This study examines potential methods of overcoming the diffusion limitation by adding an oscillatory component to the steady air flow and by pulsed flow, which involves turning air flow on and off at predetermined intervals. The study considered only the removal of water from the soil to try to establish general vapor behavior in the soil under the imposed conditions. Based on a statistical analysis, both the oscillatory and pulsed flow showed an improved water removal rate over the steady state flow. The effect of oscillatory flow was only examined at higher frequencies. The literature indicates that oscillations at lower frequencies may be more effective. Pulsed flow showed the most efficient removal of water compared to steady state conditions. The pulsed flow was most efficient because rather than reducing the diffusion limitation, the system would shut down and wait for diffusion to occur. This optimizes energy consumption, but does not reduce treatment time. The oscillatory flow actually reduced the diffusion limitation within the column which could result in a shorter treatment time.

  14. Transport of microbial tracers in clean and organically contaminated silica sand in laboratory columns compared with their transport in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Louise, E-mail: louise.weaver@esr.cri.nz; Sinton, Lester W.; Pang, Liping; Dann, Rod; Close, Murray

    2013-01-15

    Waste disposal on land and the consequent transport of bacterial and viral pathogens in soils and aquifers are of major concern worldwide. Pathogen transport can be enhanced in the presence of organic matter due to occupation of attachment sites in the aquifer materials thus preventing pathogen attachment leading to their faster transport for longer distances. Laboratory column studies were carried out to investigate the effect of organic matter, in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), on the transport of Escherichia coli and MS2 phage in saturated clean silica sand. Transport rates of these microbial tracers were also studied in a contaminated field site. Laboratory column studies showed that low concentrations (0.17 mg L{sup −1}) of DOC had little effect on E. coli J6-2 removal and slightly reduced the attachment of MS2 phage. After progressive conditioning of the column with DOC (1.7 mg L{sup −1} and 17 mg L{sup −1}), neither E. coli J6-2 nor MS2 phage showed any attachment and recovery rates increased dramatically (up to 100%). The results suggest that DOC can affect the transport rates of microbial contaminants. For E. coli J6-2 the predominant effect appeared to be an increase in the secondary energy minimum leading to an increase in E. coli attachment initially. However, after 17 mg L{sup −1} DOC conditioning of the silica sand no attachment of E. coli was observed as the DOC took up attachment sites in the porous media. MS2 phage appeared to be affected predominantly by out-competition of binding sites in the clean silica sand and a steady reduction in attachment was observed as the DOC conditioning increased. Field study showed a high removal of both E. coli and MS2 phage, although E. coli was removed at a lower rate than MS2 phage. In the field it is likely that a combination of effects are seen as the aquifer material will be heterogeneous in its surface nanoscale properties, demonstrated by the differing removal of E. coli and MS2 phage

  15. Column flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohmuench, J.N.; Norrgran, D.A.; Luttrell, E.; Luttrell, G.H. [Virginia Tech. (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Over the last decade, column flotation has been recognised in the industry to be most efficient and economical means of recovering fine coal while maximizing product grade. When designed properly, flotation columns provide a high combustible recovery while maintaining a low product ash. The paper looks at the benefits of using column flotation for fine coal recovery. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.

    1998-10-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is the fourth threatened or endangered species to undergo a preliminary assessment for estimating potential risk from environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The assessments are being conducted as part of a three-year project to develop a habitat management plan for threatened and endangered species and species of concern at the Laboratory. For the preliminary assessment, estimated doses were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (HIs). This assessment included a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic chemicals) to 100 simulated nest sites located within flycatcher potential habitat. Sources of contaminant values were 10,000-ft{sup 2} grid cells within an Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU). This EEU was estimated around the potential habitat and was based on the maximum home range for the fly catcher identified in the scientific literature. The tools used included a custom FORTRAN program, ECORSK5, and a geographic information system. Food consumption and soil ingestion contaminant pathways were addressed in the assessment. Using a four-category risk evaluation, HI results indicate no appreciable impact is expected to the southwestern willow flycatcher. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, flycatcher habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain low levels of risk from contaminants.

  17. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  18. Preliminary laboratory evaluation of iron-bearing reactive media for pesticide water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural pesticides are often found in ground and surface waters, and if present in high enough concentrations, create risks to human and ecological health. Filter treatment systems can potentially remove pesticides from water. Therefore, a laboratory investigation was initiated to assess the wa...

  19. Characterizing the Experimental Procedure in Science Laboratories: A Preliminary Step towards Students Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cedric; Ney, Muriel; Sanchez, Eric; Wajeman, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have stressed students' lack of understanding of experiments in laboratories. Some researchers suggest that if students design all or parts of entire experiment, as part of an inquiry-based approach, it would overcome certain difficulties. It requires that a procedure be written for experimental design. The aim of this paper is to…

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory corregated metal pipe saw facility preliminary safety analysis report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-09-19

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and design operation of the processing systems in the Corrugated Metal Pipe Saw Facility with respect to normal and abnormal conditions. Potential hazards are identified, credible accidents relative to the operation of the facility and the process systems are analyzed, and the consequences of postulated accidents are presented. The risk associated with normal operations, abnormal operations, and natural phenomena are analyzed. The accident analysis presented shows that the impact of the facility will be acceptable for all foreseeable normal and abnormal conditions of operation. Specifically, under normal conditions the facility will have impacts within the limits posted by applicable DOE guidelines, and in accident conditions the facility will similarly meet or exceed the requirements of all applicable standards. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Design and preliminary test results of the 40 MW power supply at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenig, H.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bogdan, F.; Morris, G.C. [ABB Drives Inc., New Berlin, WI (United States); Ferner, J.A.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Rumrill, R.H.; Rumrill, R.S. [Alpha Scientific Electronics Inc., Hayward, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Four highly stabilized, steady-state, 10 MW power supplies have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL. Each supply consists of a 12.5 kV vacuum circuit breaker, two three-winding, step-down transformers, a 24-pulse rectifier with interphase reactors and freewheeling diodes, and a passive and an active filter. Two different transformer tap settings allow dc supply output voltages of 400 and 500 V. The rated current of a supply is 17 kA and each supply has a one hour overload capability of 20 kA. The power supply output bus system, including a reversing switch at the input and 2 {times} 16 disconnect switches at the output, connects each supply to 16 different magnet cells. The design of the power supply is described and preliminary test results with a supply feeding a 10 MW resistive load are presented.

  2. Preliminary Assessment of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, David W.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed inside Gale Crater. This landing was only the seventh successful landing and fourth rover to be delivered to Mars. Weighing nearly one metric ton, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover ever sent to investigate another planet. Safely landing such a large payload required an innovative Entry, Descent, and Landing system, which included the first guided entry at Mars, the largest supersonic parachute ever flown at Mars, and a novel and untested Sky Crane landing system. A complete, end-to-end, six degree-of-freedom, multibody computer simulation of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing sequence was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. In-flight data gathered during the successful landing is compared to pre-flight statistical distributions, predicted by the simulation. These comparisons provide insight into both the accuracy of the simulation and the overall performance of the vehicle.

  3. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, A. R.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Hall, C. J.; Rogers, K. D.; Glatter, O.; Wess, T.; Ellis, I. O.

    2005-09-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  4. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, A R [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, S J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Hall, C J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rogers, K D [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Glatter, O [Department of Chemistry, University of Graz (Austria); Wess, T [School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, Wales (United Kingdom); Ellis, I O [Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-07

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  5. The preliminary results of fast neutron flux measurements in the DULB laboratory at Baksan

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    One of the main sources of a background in underground physics experiments (such as the investigation of solar neutrino flux, neutrino oscillations, neutrinoless double beta decay, and the search for annual and daily Cold Dark Matter particle flux modulation) are fast neutrons originating from the surrounding rocks. The measurements of fast neutron flux in the new DULB Laboratory situated at a depth of 4900 m w.e. in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory have been performed. The relative neutron sh...

  6. Preliminary laboratory testing on the sound absorption of coupled cavity sonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiani, R.; Yahya, I.; Harjana; Suparmi

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on the sound absorption performance of coupled cavity sonic crystal. It constructed by a pair of a cylindrical tube with different values in diameters. A laboratory test procedure after ASTM E1050 has been conducted to measure the sound absorption of the sonic crystal elements. The test procedures were implemented to a single coupled scatterer and also to a pair of similar structure. The results showed that using the paired structure bring a better possibility for increase the sound absorption to a wider absorption range. It also bring a practical advantage for setting the local Helmholtz resonant frequency to certain intended frequency.

  7. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, Delphine; Soubrand, Marilyne; Casellas, Magali; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Dagot, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of sludge stabilization treatments (liming and anaerobic digestion) on the mobility of different pharmaceutical compounds in soil amended by landspreading of treated sludge from different sources (urban and hospital). The sorption and desorption potential of the following pharmaceutical compounds: carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to stabilization) were investigated in the course of batch testing. The different sludge samples were then landspread at laboratory scale and leached with an artificial rain simulating 1 year of precipitation adapted to the surface area of the soil column used. The quality of the resulting leachate was investigated. Results showed that ibuprofen had the highest desorption potential for limed and digested urban and hospital sludge. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac, and paracetamol were the only compounds found in amended soil leachates. Moreover, the leaching potential of these compounds and therefore the risk of groundwater contamination depend mainly on the origin of the sludge because ibuprofen and diclofenac were present in the leachates of soils amended with urban sludge, whereas paracetamol and salicylic acid were found only in the leachates of soils amended with hospital sludge. Although carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, econazole, and atenolol were detected in some sludge, they were not present in any leachate. This reflects either an accumulation and/or (bio)degradation of these compounds (CBZ, CIP, SMX, KTP, ECZ, and ATN ), thus resulting in very low mobility in soil. Ecotoxicological risk assessment, evaluated by calculating the risk quotients for each studied pharmaceutical compound, revealed no high risk due to the

  8. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs.

  9. Boxing and mixed martial arts: preliminary traumatic neuromechanical injury risk analyses from laboratory impact dosage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J; Benzel, Edward C; Miele, Vincent J; Morr, Douglas R; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-05-01

    In spite of ample literature pointing to rotational and combined impact dosage being key contributors to head and neck injury, boxing and mixed martial arts (MMA) padding is still designed to primarily reduce cranium linear acceleration. The objects of this study were to quantify preliminary linear and rotational head impact dosage for selected boxing and MMA padding in response to hook punches; compute theoretical skull, brain, and neck injury risk metrics; and statistically compare the protective effect of various glove and head padding conditions. An instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was struck in 54 pendulum impacts replicating hook punches at low (27-29 J) and high (54-58 J) energy. Five padding combinations were examined: unpadded (control), MMA glove-unpadded head, boxing glove-unpadded head, unpadded pendulum-boxing headgear, and boxing glove-boxing headgear. A total of 17 injury risk parameters were measured or calculated. All padding conditions reduced linear impact dosage. Other parameters significantly decreased, significantly increased, or were unaffected depending on padding condition. Of real-world conditions (MMA glove-bare head, boxing glove-bare head, and boxing glove-headgear), the boxing glove-headgear condition showed the most meaningful reduction in most of the parameters. In equivalent impacts, the MMA glove-bare head condition induced higher rotational dosage than the boxing glove-bare head condition. Finite element analysis indicated a risk of brain strain injury in spite of significant reduction of linear impact dosage. In the replicated hook punch impacts, all padding conditions reduced linear but not rotational impact dosage. Head and neck dosage theoretically accumulates fastest in MMA and boxing bouts without use of protective headgear. The boxing glove-headgear condition provided the best overall reduction in impact dosage. More work is needed to develop improved protective padding to minimize

  10. Preliminary laboratory report of fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Pham, Cau D; Gade, Lalitha; Iqbal, Naureen; Scheel, Christina M; Cleveland, Angela A; Whitney, Anne M; Noble-Wang, Judith; Chiller, Tom M; Park, Benjamin J; Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Brandt, Mary E

    2013-08-01

    In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiated an outbreak investigation of fungal infections linked to injection of contaminated methylprednisolone acetate (MPA). Between 2 October 2012 and 14 February 2013, the CDC laboratory received 799 fungal isolates or human specimens, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), synovial fluid, and abscess tissue, from 469 case patients in 19 states. A novel broad-range PCR assay and DNA sequencing were used to evaluate these specimens. Although Aspergillus fumigatus was recovered from the index case, Exserohilum rostratum was the primary pathogen in this outbreak and was also confirmed from unopened MPA vials. Exserohilum rostratum was detected or confirmed in 191 specimens or isolates from 150 case patients, primarily from Michigan (n=67 patients), Tennessee (n=26), Virginia (n=20), and Indiana (n=16). Positive specimens from Michigan were primarily abscess tissues, while positive specimens from Tennessee, Virginia, and Indiana were primarily CSF. E. rostratum antifungal susceptibility MIC50 and MIC90 values were determined for voriconazole (1 and 2 μg/ml, respectively), itraconazole (0.5 and 1 μg/ml), posaconazole (0.5 and 1 μg/ml), isavuconazole (4 and 4 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml). Thirteen other mold species were identified among case patients, and four other fungal genera were isolated from the implicated MPA vials. The clinical significance of these other fungal species remains under investigation. The laboratory response provided significant support to case confirmation, enabled linkage between clinical isolates and injected vials of MPA, and described significant features of the fungal agents involved in this large multistate outbreak.

  11. Reading Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Coutts, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Reading Columns are twin permanent public sculptures commissioned as part of a £245m scheme for the redevelopment of the Chatham Place area in Reading. Dimensions: 3.5m high x 1.3m diameter each Field of knowledge: The work consists of twin bespoke columns of stainless steel and glass over digital colour transparencies. The piece revisits and reworks the idea of the Morris Column, a 19th C feature characteristic of major European metropolitan centres. A wraparound image on each of ...

  12. Preliminary stress characterization for an in-situ stimulation experiment at the Grimsel Underground Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krietsch, Hannes; Doetsch, Joseph; Gischig, Valentin; Amann, Florian; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Madonna, Claudio; Evans, Keith; Valley, Benoit; Giardini, Domenico; Wiemer, Stefan; Maurer, Hansruedi; Loew, Simon

    2016-04-01

    A decameter-scale in-situ stimulation experiment is currently being executed at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland, spanning from hydraulic fracturing to controlled fault-slip experiments. For the feasibility of this project the in-situ stress tensor is of foremost importance. Therefore a unique stress characterization campaign combining stress relief methods (overcoring of USBM and CSIRO-HI probes) with hydraulic fracturing (HF) and hydraulic testing on pre-existing fractures (HTPF) in three boreholes was conducted in a first phase of this project. During all hydraulic stress measurements, micro-seismicity was monitored and localized in real time utilizing a dense network of piezo-electric sensors. In this contribution, we present preliminary results of the stress characterization and compare the derived stress tensor with previous estimates of the stress state. The stress characterization campaign was conducted in three boreholes, one sub-vertical and two sub-horizontal boreholes, assuming that the sub-vertical and one sub-horizontal are parallel to a principal stress component. A major task in this contribution is the integration of the different stress characterization methods. Our results of the different methods (overcoring and HF) are largely consistent, but disagree with some of the previous stress orientation estimates. From the new campaign the overcoring measurements indicate a sub-horizontal sigma1 of 17.3 MPa with a strike of 145°, a sigma2 of 9.7 MPa with 241°/69° and a sigma3 of 8.3 MPa with 055°/21° using an isotropic approach for inversion calculation. Whereas the USBM-Probe measures a projection of the principal stresses in a plane normal to borehole axis, the CSIRO-HI Probe provides the real 3D stress tensor. The HF and HTPF measurements indicate a far-field minimum horizontal stress between 8.7 and 9.1 MPa, consistent with the overcoring. Principal stresses, estimated by location of micro-seismic events during HF and HTPF, suggest that

  13. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  14. Preliminary results of orthotopic en bloc uterus and ovary transplantation in the laboratory rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoc, A; Jiga, L; Ionac, M; Raica, M; Motoc, M; Chiovschi, S

    2003-01-01

    A new experimental model of whole uterus and ovary transplantation in the laboratory rat was achieved. The main goals of this study were concerned with developing and standardizing the microsurgical technique of uterus transplantation in rats and observing the particular cellular patterns of acute allograft rejection at the level of the transplanted graft. Thirty-five orthotopic uterus transplantations were performed. An additional 20 female rats were used for dissection training sessions. Recipients were euthanasied at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Immediate postoperative survival was 100%. Patency of the microsurgical anastomoses, checked at 24 hours, was 100%. At 72 hours thrombosis occurred in all anastomoses. The explanted uterine grafts were fixed in formaline and analyzed under light microscopy and specific imunohistochemical analysis. The acute allograft rejection has a particular cellular reaction pattern, probably due to the unique diversity of the tissues that compose it. Inflammatory cells like LTCD8+, LBCD20+ and mastocytes tend to agglomerate in the vicinity of nervous and vascular structures, showing no signs of lymphoid tissue disposition like in typical acute rejection. Uterus transplantation in rats has proven to be a valid experiment that allows us to express hope that by further research on transplantation of the uterus gynecologists will be able to introduce an adapted technique in the treatment of specific cases of human female infertility.

  15. Biological cycle and preliminary data on vectorial competence of Triatoma boliviana in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie

    2014-12-01

    With more than 140 potential vectors of Chagas disease, it is important to better know the biology and especially the vectorial capacity of the triatomine species which live in the surroundings of human dwellings. In Bolivia where 17 triatomine species are reported, the principal vector is Triatoma infestans. In some valleys of the department of La Paz where T. infestans is not present, a new species (Triatoma boliviana) was described in 2007. This species lives in a sylvatic environment not far away from the dwellings, and occasionally some individuals are found inside the houses. This study was carried out to describe the biological cycle of T. boliviana and to determine its vectorial competence. The development of a cohort of 95 nymphs of first instar (N1) was followed through nymphal instars and adult stage until death in laboratory (22°C). They were fed twice a week on an immobilized mouse. The median egg-to-adult development time was 8.4 months. The mortality by nymphal instar was lower than 7% except for N1 (67%) and N5 (18%). All nymph instars needed at least two feedings to molt (until six feedings for N5). The differentiation of a nymph into a female or a male could not be detected until the fifth instar for which the food intake was greater for a nymph developing into a female. Adults fed about once a week. The adult life span was around 400 days. The fecundity was 4.2 eggs/female/week, with a hatching rate of 50% and a hatching time of 39 days. In the same conditions, T. infestans showed a similar fecundity but a greater hatching rate and hatching time. A trial for rearing the adults at a higher temperature (26°C) showed a drastic fall in the fecundity and in the hatching rate. The vectorial competence was analyzed for fifth instars and adults by three parameters: the ability to feed on human beings, the capacity to be infected by T. cruzi and the postfeeding defecation delay. Results showed a relatively high vectorial competence: (1) insects fed

  16. Design and Preliminary Thermal Performance of the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, A. J.; Beatty, John; Kelly, Frank; Birur, Gajanana; Bhandari, Pradeep; Pauken, Michael; Illsley, Peter; Liu, Yuanming; Bame, David; Miller, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The challenging range of proposed landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover requires a rover thermal management system that is capable of keeping temperatures controlled across a wide variety of environmental conditions. On the Martian surface where temperatures can be as cold as -123 degrees Centigrade and as warm as 38 degrees Centigrade, the Rover relies upon a Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop (MPFL) and external radiators to maintain the temperature of sensitive electronics and science instruments within a -40 degrees Centigrade to 50 degrees Centigrade range. The MPFL also manages significant waste heat generated from the Rover power source, known as the Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). The MMRTG produces 110 Watts of electrical power while generating waste heat equivalent to approximately 2000 Watts. Two similar Heat Exchanger (HX) assemblies were designed to both acquire the heat from the MMRTG and radiate waste heat from the onboard electronics to the surrounding Martian environment. Heat acquisition is accomplished on the interior surface of each HX while heat rejection is accomplished on the exterior surface of each HX. Since these two surfaces need to be at very different temperatures in order for the MPFL to perform efficiently, they need to be thermally isolated from one another. The HXs were therefore designed for high in-plane thermal conductivity and extremely low through-thickness thermal conductivity by using aerogel as an insulator inside composite honeycomb sandwich panels. A complex assembly of hand welded and uniquely bent aluminum tubes are bonded onto the HX panels and were specifically designed to be easily mated and demated to the rest of the Rover Heat Recovery and Rejection System (RHRS) in order to ease the integration effort. During the cruise phase to Mars, the HX assemblies serve the additional function of transferring heat from the Rover MPFL to the separate Cruise Stage MPFL so that heat

  17. Preliminary Conceptual Design Report for the FACET-II Project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Mark [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Plasma wakefield acceleration has the potential to dramatically shrink the size and cost of particle accelerators. Research at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has demonstrated that plasmas can provide 1,000 times the acceleration in a given distance compared with current technologies. Developing revolutionary and more efficient acceleration techniques that allow for an affordable high-energy collider is the focus of FACET, a National User Facility at SLAC. The existing FACET National User Facility uses part of SLAC’s two-mile-long linear accelerator to generate high-density beams of electrons and positrons. FACET-II is a new test facility to develop advanced acceleration and coherent radiation techniques with high-energy electron and positron beams. It is the only facility in the world with high energy positron beams. FACET-II provides a major upgrade over current FACET capabilities and the breadth of the potential research program makes it truly unique. It will synergistically pursue accelerator science that is vital to the future of both advanced acceleration techniques for High Energy Physics, ultra-high brightness beams for Basic Energy Science, and novel radiation sources for a wide variety of applications. The design parameters for FACET-II are set by the requirements of the plasma wakefield experimental program. To drive the plasma wakefield requires a high peak current, in excess of 10kA. To reach this peak current, the electron and positron design bunch size is 10μ by 10μ transversely with a bunch length of 10μ. This is more than 200 times better than what has been achieved at the existing FACET. The beam energy is 10 GeV, set by the Linac length available and the repetition rate is up to 30 Hz. The FACET-II project is scheduled to be constructed in three major stages. Components of the project discussed in detail include the following: electron injector, bunch compressors and linac, the positron system, the Sector 20 sailboat and W chicanes

  18. Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and [sup 137]Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

  19. A spatially-dynamic preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Gallegos, A.F.; Foxx, T.S.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Pratt, L.E.; Gomez, P.E.

    1998-04-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 and the Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require that the Department of Energy protect the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), a state and federally listed species, from stressors such as contaminants. A preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle was performed using a custom FORTRAN code, ECORSK5, and the geographical information system. Estimated exposure doses to the eagle for radionuclide, inorganic metal, and organic contaminants were derived for varying ratios of aquatic vs. terrestrial simulated diet and compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (His). HI results indicate that no appreciable impact to the bald eagle is expected from contaminants at LANL from soil ingestion and food consumption pathways. This includes a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes linear additive toxicity. Improving model realism by weighting simulated eagle foraging based on distance from potential roost sites increased the HI by 76%, but still to inconsequential levels. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, eagle habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at low levels.

  20. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of pesticides in water by C-18 solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Smith, Steven G.; Fehlberg, Kevin M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 41 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in natural-water samples using C-18 solid-phase extraction and determination by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction columns containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica to extract the pesticides. The columns are dried using carbon dioxide or nitrogen gas, and adsorbed pesticides are removed from the columns by elution with 3.0 milliliters of hexane-isopropanol (3:1). Extracted pesticides are determined by capillary- column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of three characteristic ions. The upper concentration limit is 4 micrograms per liter (g/L) for most pesticides, with the exception of widely used corn herbicides--atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and metolachlor--which have upper concentration limits of 20 g/L. Single- operator method detection limits in reagent-water samples range from 0.001 to 0.018 g/L. Average short-term single-operator precision in reagent- water samples is 7 percent at the 0.1- and 1.0-g/L levels and 8 percent at the 0.01-g/L level. Mean recoveries in reagent-water samples are 73 percent at the 0.1- and 1.0-g/L levels and 83 percent at the 0.01-g/L level. The estimated holding time for pesticides after extraction on the solid-phase extraction columns was 7 days. An optional on-site extraction procedure allows for samples to be collected and processed at remote sites where it is difficult to ship samples to the laboratory within the recommended pre-extraction holding time.

  1. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  2. Column: lef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reep, Frans van der

    2012-01-01

    1e alinea column: Ook in je beleggingsbeslissingen is het voor echte performance wellicht tijd om eens voorbij best practices (dan word je namelijk hoogstens tweede) te kijken naar next practices. Als je op zeker speelt, verdien je weinig geld. Want anderen gingen je al voor. Maar kun je nog meer op

  3. Geophysical surveys combined with laboratory soil column experiments to identify and explore risk areas for soil and water pollution in feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Pérez, Antonio Jesus; Sainato, Claudia Mabel; Jairo Márquez-Molina, John; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Changes of land use without a correct planning may produce its deterioration with their social, economical and environmental irreversible consequences over short to medium time range. In Argentina, the expansion of soybean fields induced a reduction of the area of pastures dedicated to stockbreeding. As cattle activity is being progressively concentrated on small pens, at feedlots farms, problems of soil and water pollution, mainly by nitrate, have been detected. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content is very important because the mostly advective transport of solutes. To avoid intensive soil samplings, very expensive, one has to recur to geophysical exploration methods. The objective of this work was to identify risk areas within a feedlot of the NW zone of Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina through geophysical methods. The surveys were carried out with an electromagnetic induction profiler EMI-400 (GSSI) and a Time domain Reflectometry (TDR) survey of depth 0-0.10 m with soil sampling and measurement of moisture content with gravimetric method (0-1.0 m). Several trenches were dug inside the pens and also at a test site, where texture, apparent density, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), electrical conductivity of the saturation paste extract and organic matter content (OM) were measured. The water retention curves for these soils were also determined. At one of the pens undisturbed soil columns were extracted at 3 locations. Laboratory analysis for 0-1.0 m indicated that soil texture was classified as sandy loam, average organic matter content (OM) was greater than 2.3% with low values of apparent density in the first 10 cm. The range of spatial dependence of data suggested that the number of soil samples could be reduced. Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil moisture were well correlated and indicated a clear spatial pattern in the corrals. TDR performance was acceptable to identify the spatial

  4. Preliminary results of field mapping of methane plumes offshore of Coal Oil Point, California with a RESON 7125 multibeam sonar in water-column mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, D. P.; Hatcher, G.; Lorenson, T. D.; Greinert, J.; Maillard, E.; Weirathmueller, M.; Leifer, I.

    2010-12-01

    From June 17 - 23 2010, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement(BOEMRE), the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) , RESON Inc. and the University of California, Santa Barbara(UCSB) conducted a comprehensive marine-seep gas-plume mapping study offshore of Coal Oil Point, California. The ultimate goal of the experiment is to quantify the amount of methane emitted from natural seeps using multibeam sonar, with results calibrated using field measurements of aqueous and atmospheric methane in the seep fields. Success will lead to better estimates of natural marine methane contributions to the global methane budget. We mapped selected seeps, some twice, with a pole-mounted RESON 7125 multibeam with a 10-degree forward rake. Other equipment included a Benthos Stingray ROV equipped with high-definition video cameras and in situ gas sampling apparatus, Niskin bottles for water column sampling of dissolved methane, and a Picarro G1301 cavity ringdown spectrometer for mapping atmospheric methane concentrations. This paper focuses primarily on the data reduction and data visualization strategies employed while processing the more than 1.2 TB of raw water column data collected by the multibeam system over several high-output oil and gas seep areas. Water depths ranged from about 30 to 80m. Turnkey software solutions for processing these data are currently unavailable so most of the processing code was developed in-house by the USGS. The main challenge in processing the sonar water-column data is ray-tracing the large volume of data, with each ping containing more than 4500 times as many samples as a conventional multibeam ping. We employed two strategies to make processing tractable on conventional workstations: (1) decimate the raw data based on desired output resolution before ray-tracing; and (2) design the ray-tracing program to run in parallel on multi-core workstations

  5. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of coal and carbon dioxide derived from laboratory coal combustion: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has dramatically increased from the start of the industrial revolution in the mid-1700s to present levels exceeding 400 ppm. Carbon dioxide derived from fossil fuel combustion is a greenhouse gas and a major contributor to on-going climate change. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope geochemistry is a useful tool to help model and predict the contributions of anthropogenic sources of CO2 in the global carbon cycle. Surprisingly few studies have addressed the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 derived from coal combustion. The goal of this study is to document the relationships between the carbon and oxygen isotope signatures of coal and signatures of the CO2 produced from laboratory coal combustion in atmospheric conditions.Six coal samples were selected that represent various geologic ages (Carboniferous to Tertiary) and coal ranks (lignite to bituminous). Duplicate splits of the six coal samples were ignited and partially combusted in the laboratory at atmospheric conditions. The resulting coal-combustion gases were collected and the molecular composition of the collected gases and isotopic analyses of δ13C of CO2, δ13C of CH4, and δ18O of CO2 were analysed by a commercial laboratory. Splits (~ 1 g) of the un-combusted dried ground coal samples were analyzed for δ13C and δ18O by the U.S. Geological Survey Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory.The major findings of this preliminary work indicate that the isotopic signatures of δ13C (relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite scale, VPDB) of CO2 resulting from coal combustion are similar to the δ13CVPDB signature of the bulk coal (− 28.46 to − 23.86 ‰) and are not similar to atmospheric δ13CVPDB of CO2 (~ − 8 ‰, see http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/outreach/isotopes/c13tellsus.html). The δ18O values of bulk coal are strongly correlated to the coal dry ash yields and appear to have little or no influence on the δ18O values of CO2

  6. A spatially-dynamic preliminary risk assessment of the American peregrine falcon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (version 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Endangered Species Act and the Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory require protection of the American peregrine falcon. A preliminary risk assessment of the peregrine was performed using a custom FORTRAN model and a geographical information system. Estimated doses to the falcon were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices. Hazard index results indicated no unacceptable risk to the falcon from the soil ingestion pathway, including a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes a linear additive toxicity type. Scaling home ranges on the basis of maximizing falcon height for viewing prey decreased estimated risk by 69% in a canyons-based home range and increased estimated risk by 40% in a river-based home range. Improving model realism by weighting simulated falcon foraging based on distance from potential nest sites decreased risk by 93% in one exposure unit and by 82% in a second exposure unit. It was demonstrated that choice of toxicity reference values can have a substantial impact on risk estimates. Adding bioaccumulation factors for several organics increased partial hazard quotients by a factor of 110, but increased the mean hazard index by only 0.02 units. Adding a food consumption exposure pathway in the form of biomagnification factors for 15 contaminants of potential ecological concern increased the mean hazard index to 1.16 ({+-} 1.0), which is above the level of acceptability (1.0). Aroclor-1254, dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenylethelyne (DDE) accounted for 81% of the estimated risk that includes soil ingestion and food consumption Contaminant pathways and a biomagnification component. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, falcon habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations. 123 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Preliminary results from a microvolume, dynamically heated analytical column for preconcentration and separation of simple gases prior to stable isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Robert James; Seed, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Stable isotope applications that call for preconcentration (i.e., greenhouse gas measurements, small carbonate samples, etc.) universally call for cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen, dry ice slurries, or expensive external recirculation chillers. This adds significant complexity, first and foremost in the requirements to store and handle such dangerous materials. A second layer of complexity is the instrument itself - with mechanisms to physically move either coolant around the trap, or move a trap in or out of the coolant. Not to mention design requirements for hardware that can safely isolate the fluid from other sensitive areas. In an effort to simplify the isotopic analysis of gases requiring preconcentration, we have developed a new separation technology, UltiTrapTM (patent pending), which leverage's the proprietary Advanced Purge & Trap (APT) Technology employed in elemental analysers from Elementar Analysensysteme GmbH products. UltiTrapTM has been specially developed as a micro volume, dynamically heated GC separation column. The introduction of solid-state cooling technology enables sub-zero temperatures without cryogenics or refrigerants, eliminates all moving parts, and increases analytical longevity due to no boiling losses of coolant . This new technology makes it possible for the system to be deployed as both a focussing device and as a gas separation device. Initial data on synthetic gas mixtures (CO2/CH4/N2O in air), and real-world applications including long-term room air and a comparison between carbonated waters of different origins show excellent agreement with previous technologies.

  8. Optimized determination of trace jet fuel volatile organic compounds in human blood using in-field liquid-liquid extraction with subsequent laboratory gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis and on-column large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Pleil, J D

    2001-03-05

    A practical and sensitive method to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from JP-8 jet fuel in human whole blood was developed by modifying previously established liquid-liquid extraction procedures, optimizing extraction times, solvent volume, specific sample processing techniques, and a new on-column large-volume injection method for GC-MS analysis. With the optimized methods, the extraction efficiency was improved by 4.3 to 20.1 times and the detection sensitivity increased up to 660 times over the standard method. Typical detection limits in the parts-per-trillion (ppt) level range were achieved for all monitored JP-8 constituents; this is sufficient for assessing human fuels exposures at trace environmental levels as well as occupational exposure levels. The sample extractions are performed in the field and only solvent extracts need to be shipped to the laboratory. The method is implemented with standard biological laboratory equipment and a modest bench-top GC-MS system.

  9. Degradation of toluene by a mixed population of archetypal aerobes, microaerophiles, and denitrifiers: laboratory sand column experiment and multispecies biofilm model formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Su; Jaffé, Peter R

    2008-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in a saturated sand column with three bacterial strains that have different growth characteristics on toluene, Pseudomonas putida F1 which degrades toluene only under aerobic conditions, Thauera aromatica T1 which degrades toluene only under denitrifying conditions, and Ralstonia pickettii PKO1 has a facultative nature and can perform nitrate-enhanced biodegradation of toluene under hypoxic conditions (DO concentration profiles showed that oxygen and nitrate appeared to be utilized simultaneously, regardless of the dissolved oxygen concentration and the results from fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that PKO1 maintained stable cells numbers throughout the column, even when the pore water oxygen concentration was high. Since PKO1's growth rate under aerobic condition is much lower than that of F1, except under hypoxic conditions, these observations were not anticipated. Therefore these observations require a mechanistic explanation that can account for localized low oxygen concentrations under aerobic conditions. To simulate the observed dynamics, a multispecies biofilm model was implemented. This model formulation assumes the formation of a thin biofilm that is composed of the three bacterial strains. The individual strains grow in response to the substrate and electron acceptor flux from bulk fluid into the biofilm. The model was implemented such that internal changes in bacterial composition and substrate concentration can be simulated over time and space. The model simulations from oxic to denitrifying conditions compared well to the experimental profiles of the chemical species and the bacterial strains, indicating the importance of accounting for the biological activity of individual strains in biofilms that span different redox conditions. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was completed as required by DOE Order 5480.23. The purpose of this document is to construct a safety basis that supports the design and permits construction of the facility. The facility has been designed to the requirements of a Radioactive Solid Waste Facility presented in DOE Order 6430.1A.

  11. Preparation of tamarind fruit seed activated carbon by microwave heating for the adsorptive treatment of landfill leachate: A laboratory column evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Lee, L K; Hameed, B H

    2013-04-01

    The preparation of tamarind fruit seed granular activated carbon (TSAC) by microwave induced chemical activation for the adsorptive treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate has been attempted. The chemical and physical properties of TSAC were examined. A series of column tests were performed to determine the breakthrough characteristics, by varying the operational parameters, hydraulic loading rate (5-20 mL/min) and adsorbent bed height (15-21 cm). Ammonical nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which provide a prerequisite insight into the prediction of leachate quality was quantified. Results illustrated an encouraging performance for the adsorptive removal of ammonical nitrogen and COD, with the highest bed capacity of 84.69 and 55.09 mg/g respectively, at the hydraulic loading rate of 5 mL/min and adsorbent bed height of 21 cm. The dynamic adsorption behavior was satisfactory described by the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. The findings demonstrated the applicability of TSAC for the adsorptive treatment of landfill leachate.

  12. Beam Studies with Electron Columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Kuznetsov, G.; /Fermilab; Kamerdzhiev, V.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum; Romanov, A.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2009-04-01

    We report preliminary results of experimental studies of 'electron columns' in the Tevatron and in a specialized test setup. In the Tevatron, a beam of 150 GeV protons ionizes residual gas and ionization electrons are stored in an electrostatic trap immersed into strong longitudinal magnetic field. Shifts of proton betatron frequencies are observed. In the test setup, we observe effects pointing to accumulation and escape of ionization electrons.

  13. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes plans and preliminary results for using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) to experimentally study the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This paper presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  14. Tropospheric vertical column densities of NO2 over managed dryland ecosystems (Xinjiang, China): MAX-DOAS measurements vs. 3-D dispersion model simulations based on laboratory-derived NO emission from soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtimin, B.; Behrendt, T.; Badawy, M. M.; Wagner, T.; Qi, Y.; Wu, Z.; Meixner, F. X.

    2015-01-01

    We report on MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 over an oasis-ecotone-desert ecosystem in NW China. There, local ambient NO2 concentrations originate from enhanced biogenic NO emission of intensively managed soils. Our target oasis "Milan" is located at the southern edge of the Taklimakan desert, very remote and well isolated from other potential anthropogenic and biogenic NOx sources. Four observation sites for MAX-DOAS measurements were selected, at the oasis centre, downwind and upwind of the oasis, and in the desert. Biogenic NO emissions in terms of (i) soil moisture and (ii) soil temperature of Milan oasis (iii) different land-cover type sub-units (cotton, Jujube trees, cotton/Jujube mixture, desert) were quantified by laboratory incubation of corresponding soil samples. Net potential NO fluxes were up-scaled to oasis scale by areal distribution and classification of land-cover types derived from satellite images using GIS techniques. A Lagrangian dispersion model (LASAT, Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol Transport) was used to calculate the dispersion of soil emitted NO into the atmospheric boundary layer over Milan oasis. Three-dimensional (3-D) NO concentrations (30 m horizontal resolution) have been converted to 3-D NO2 concentrations, assuming photostationary state conditions. NO2 column densities were simulated by suitable vertical integration of modelled 3-D NO2 concentrations at those downwind and upwind locations, where the MAX-DOAS measurements were performed. Downwind-upwind differences (a direct measure of Milan oasis' contribution to the areal increase of ambient NO2 concentration) of measured and simulated slant (as well as vertical) NO2 column densities show excellent agreement. This agreement is considered as the first successful attempt to prove the validity of the chosen approach to up-scale laboratory-derived biogenic NO fluxes to ecosystem field conditions, i.e. from the spatial scale of a soil sample (cm2) to the size of an entire agricultural

  15. Tropospheric vertical column densities of NO2 over managed dryland ecosystems (Xinjiang, China): MAX-DOAS measurements vs. 3-D dispersion model simulations based on laboratory derived NO emission from soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtimin, B.; Behrendt, T.; Badawy, M. M.; Wagner, T.; Qi, Y.; Wu, Z.; Meixner, F. X.

    2014-07-01

    We report on MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 over an oasis-ecotone-desert ecosystem in NW-China. There, local ambient NO2 concentrations originate from enhanced biogenic NO emission of intensively managed soils. Our target oasis "Milan" is located at the southern edge of the Taklimakan desert, very remote and well isolated from other potential anthropogenic and biogenic NOx sources. Four observation sites for MAX-DOAS measurements were selected, at the oasis center, downwind and upwind of the oasis, and in the desert. Biogenic NO emissions in terms of (i) soil moisture and (ii) soil temperature of Milan oasis' (iii) different land-cover type sub-units (cotton, Jujube trees, cotton/Jujube mixture, desert) were quantified by laboratory incubation of corresponding soil samples. Net potential NO fluxes were up-scaled to oasis scale by areal distribution and classification of land-cover types derived from satellite images using GIS techniques. A Lagrangian dispersion model (LASAT, Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol-Transport) was used to calculate the dispersion of soil emitted NO into the atmospheric boundary layer over Milan oasis. Three dimensional NO concentrations (30 m horizontal resolution) have been converted to 3-D NO2 concentrations, assuming photostationary state conditions. NO2 column densities were simulated by suitable vertical integration of modeled 3-D NO2 concentrations at those downwind and upwind locations, where the MAX-DOAS measurements were performed. Downwind-upwind differences (a direct measure of Milan oasis' contribution to the areal increase of ambient NO2 concentration) of measured and simulated slant (as well as vertical) NO2 column densities show excellent agreement. This agreement is considered as the first successful attempt to prove the validity of the chosen approach to up-scale laboratory derived biogenic NO fluxes to ecosystem field conditions, i.e. from the spatial scale of a soil sample (cm2) to the size of an entire agricultural

  16. Tropospheric vertical column densities of NO2 over managed dryland ecosystems (Xinjiang, China: MAX-DOAS measurements vs. 3-D dispersion model simulations based on laboratory derived NO emission from soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mamtimin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 over an oasis-ecotone-desert ecosystem in NW-China. There, local ambient NO2 concentrations originate from enhanced biogenic NO emission of intensively managed soils. Our target oasis "Milan" is located at the southern edge of the Taklimakan desert, very remote and well isolated from other potential anthropogenic and biogenic NOx sources. Four observation sites for MAX-DOAS measurements were selected, at the oasis center, downwind and upwind of the oasis, and in the desert. Biogenic NO emissions in terms of (i soil moisture and (ii soil temperature of Milan oasis' (iii different land-cover type sub-units (cotton, Jujube trees, cotton/Jujube mixture, desert were quantified by laboratory incubation of corresponding soil samples. Net potential NO fluxes were up-scaled to oasis scale by areal distribution and classification of land-cover types derived from satellite images using GIS techniques. A Lagrangian dispersion model (LASAT, Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol-Transport was used to calculate the dispersion of soil emitted NO into the atmospheric boundary layer over Milan oasis. Three dimensional NO concentrations (30 m horizontal resolution have been converted to 3-D NO2 concentrations, assuming photostationary state conditions. NO2 column densities were simulated by suitable vertical integration of modeled 3-D NO2 concentrations at those downwind and upwind locations, where the MAX-DOAS measurements were performed. Downwind-upwind differences (a direct measure of Milan oasis' contribution to the areal increase of ambient NO2 concentration of measured and simulated slant (as well as vertical NO2 column densities show excellent agreement. This agreement is considered as the first successful attempt to prove the validity of the chosen approach to up-scale laboratory derived biogenic NO fluxes to ecosystem field conditions, i.e. from the spatial scale of a soil sample (cm2 to the size of an entire

  17. Analysis of the avoidance of nitrogen fertilizers in the water column by juvenile Iberian water frog, Pelophylax perezi (Seoane, 1885), in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Tejedo, Miguel; Torralva, Mar

    2008-02-01

    In an experiment carried out in the laboratory in beakers, the avoidance of ammonium chloride, isolated or combined with sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, in aquatic habitat by froglets of Pelophylax perezi was studied. The results obtained suggest that nitrogen polluted treatments were not avoided by froglets of the studied species. However, despite the non-avoidance of the aquatic environment as a consequence of the presence of nitrogen compounds, significant inter-individual variation in treatment avoidance was detected. Although these results are not conclusive, they would suggest that froglets of P. perezi might occupy habitats which contain high levels of organic compounds and that they differ in their level of avoidance to fertilizer exposure.

  18. Produced fluids separation using a coalascer column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, G.; Soveran, D.; Soveran, L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a laboratory study in which a coalescer column was used to successfully remove water from produced heavy oil emulsions. The coalescer column is a simple, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly technology that can improve basic sediment and water values after 4 hours of settling time by about 38 per cent. The laboratory study tested the use of the column, and the effects of column length, column packing size, temperature, flow rate, demulsifier concentration, and water addition. More than 100 tests were conducted and 24 pairs of tests compared the treating effects with and without the column. The use of the coalescer column in the treatment facility resulted in a a reduction of demulsifier concentration from 250 ppm to 70 ppm, translating to an annual cost savings of $320,000 to $1,100,000 per battery. Incorporating the coalescer column also allowed operators to reduce both temperatures and demulsifier concentrations. The column also promoted faster treating. Water droplets grew by as much as 34 per cent, suggesting that treating time could be faster by 21 to 80 per cent. It was concluded that the coalescer column was very successful at improving water removal from heavy oil battery emulsions. 22 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. Preliminary Feasibility, Design, and Hazard Analysis of a Boiling Water Test Loop Within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A Boiling Water Test Loop (BWTL) is being designed for one of the irradiation test positions within the. The objective of the new loop will be to simulate boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions to support clad corrosion and related reactor material testing. Further it will accommodate power ramping tests of candidate high burn-up fuels and fuel pins/rods for the commercial BWR utilities. The BWTL will be much like the pressurized water loops already in service in 5 of the 9 “flux traps” (region of enhanced neutron flux) in the ATR. The loop coolant will be isolated from the primary coolant system so that the loop’s temperature, pressure, flow rate, and water chemistry can be independently controlled. This paper presents the proposed general design of the in-core and auxiliary BWTL systems; the preliminary results of the neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses; and the preliminary hazard analysis for safe normal and transient BWTL and ATR operation.

  20. Laboratory studies of H2SO4/H2O binary homogeneous nucleation from the SO2+OH reaction: evaluation of the experimental setup and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Kameel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new laboratory nucleation setup to study binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN of sulphuric acid and water (H2SO4/H2O. Here we provide a detailed evaluation of this new experimental setup and also discuss our preliminary results by comparing with other laboratory studies. H2SO4 is produced from the SO2+OH →HSO3 reaction and OH radicals are produced from water vapor UV absorption. The residual H2SO4 concentrations ([H2SO4] are measured at the end of the fast flow nucleation reactor with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The measured BHN rates (J ranged from 0.02 and 550 cm−3 s−1 at the residual [H2SO4] from 108 to 1010 cm−3, a temperature of 288 K and relative humidity (RH from 6 to 23%; J increased with increasing [H2SO4] and RH. J also showed a power dependence on [H2SO4] with the exponential power of 3 to 8. These results are consistent with other laboratory studies under similar [H2SO4] and RH, but different from atmospheric field observations which showed that particle number concentrations are often linearly dependent on [H2SO4]. Both particle sizes and number concentrations increased with increasing [H2SO4], RH, and nucleation time, consistent with the predictions from nucleation theories. Particle growth rates were estimated between 28 to 127 nm h−1, much higher than those seen from atmospheric field observations, because of the higher [H2SO4] used in our study. While these experimental results demonstrate a validation of our laboratory setup, there are also technical difficulties associated with nucleation studies, including wall loss and H2SO4 measurements.

  1. Novel pre-fractionation method of trans fatty acids by gas chromatography with silver-ion cartridge column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hirofumi; Shionoya, Noriko; Sugie, Megumi; Tominaga, Makoto; Shimelis, Olga; Taniguchi, Makoto; Igarashi, Tomoji; Hirata, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    We developed a novel pre-separation method of trans fatty acids (TFAs) using a silver-ion cartridge column and GC. As a preliminary study, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters consisting of saturated, cis-unsaturated, and trans-unsaturated fatty acids was dissolved in dichloromethane and loaded onto a Bond Elut SCX ion-exchange cartridge column that was converted to the silver-ion form. The column was then eluted with dichloromethane to obtain the saturated fatty acids, dichloromethane/ethyl acetate (90/10) for the trans mono-ene, dichloromethane/ethyl acetate (65/35) for the cis mono-ene, dichloromethane/acetone (60/40) for the trans di-ene, and acetone/acetonitrile (80/20) for the others. Satisfactory separation of the cis/trans isomers was confirmed by GC analysis. To generalize this technique, the elution conditions of the ready-to-use Discovery Ag-ION SPE cartridge column were also optimized. Both cartridge columns had good separation, recovery, and repeatability. Peer laboratory verification was carried out between two laboratories using different production lots of the ready-to-use cartridge column, and the robustness of the product and reproducibility of the method were found to be satisfactory. This technique is therefore a powerful tool not only for routine analyses of TFAs in oils, fats, and foods but also for detailed analyses of TFAs in various research fields.

  2. Automated Composite Column Wrapping

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Automated Composite Column Wrapping is performed by a patented machine known as Robo-Wrapper. Currently there are three versions of the machine available for bridge retrofit work depending on the size of the columns being wrapped. Composite column retrofit jacket systems can be structurally just as effective as conventional steel jacketing in improving the seismic response characteristics of substandard reinforced concrete columns.

  3. Preliminary Waste Form Compliance Plan for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. A. Staples; T. P. O' Holleran

    1999-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has specific technical and documentation requirements for high-level waste (HLW) that is to be placed in a federal repository. This document describes in general terms the strategy to be used at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that vitrified HLW, if produced at the INEEL, meets these requirements. Waste form, canister, quality assurance, and documentation specifications are discussed. Compliance strategy is given, followed by an overview of how this strategy would be implemented for each specification.

  4. A survey of macromycete diversity at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bandelier National Monument, and Los Alamos County; A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J. [Mycology Associates, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The authors have completed a 5-year survey (1991--1995) of macromycetes found in Los Alamos County, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Bandelier National Monument. The authors have compiled a database of 1,048 collections, their characteristics, and identifications. The database represents 123 (98%) genera and 175 (73%) species reliably identified. Issues of habitat loss, species extinction, and ecological relationships are addressed, and comparisons with other surveys are made. With this baseline information and modeling of this baseline data, one can begin to understand more about the fungal flora of the area.

  5. Preliminary study of effects of military obscurant smokes on flora and fauna during field and laboratory exposures. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, D.J.; Lower, W.R.; Kapila, S.; Yanders, A.F.; Wang, R.

    1986-12-01

    Since continued routine use of obscurant smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna of training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical study of smokes was conducted to determine whether tests could be developed to demonstrate measurable changes in organisms exposed to smokes and to evaluate whether short exposures to smokes produced measurable changes in the organisms tested. Fog oil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes were tested. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and Ambrosia dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or several of the assay systems at one or more of the exposure distances. These studies indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are control organisms for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  6. The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI): A Progress Report and Preliminary Results from Our Laboratory Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Richard; Rajagopa, J.; Danchi, W. C.; Allen, R. J.; Benford, D. J.; Deming, D.; Gezari, D. Y.; Kuchner, M.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Linfield, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) is a mission concept for an imaging and nulling interferometer for the near-infrared to mid-infrared spectral region (3-8 microns). FKSI is conceived as a scientific and technological pathfinder to TPF/DARWIN as well as SPIRIT, SPECS, and SAFIR. It will also be a high angular resolution system complementary to JWST. The scientific emphasis of the mission is on the evolution of protostellar systems, from just after the collapse of the precursor molecular cloud core, through the formation of the disk surrounding the protostar, the formation of planets in the disk, and eventual dispersal of the disk material. FKSI will also search for brown dwarfs and Jupiter mass and smaller planets, and could also play a very powerful role in the investigation of the structure of active galactic nuclei and extra-galactic star formation. We report additional studies of the imaging capabilities of the FKSI with various configurations of two to five telescopes, studies of the capabilities of FKSI assuming an increase in long wavelength response to 10 or 12 microns (depending on availability of detectors), and preliminary results from our nulling testbed.

  7. Preliminary Report on Oak Ridge National Laboratory Testing of Drake/ACSS/MA2/E3X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Davis, Cody [General Cable Corporation; Temple, Bill [General Cable Corporation; Baker, Gord [General Cable Corporation; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    A key to industry acceptance of a new technology is extensive validation in field trials. The Powerline Conductor Accelerated Test facility (PCAT) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is specifically designed to evaluate the performance and reliability of a new conductor technology under real world conditions. The facility is set up to capture large amounts of data during testing. General Cable used the ORNL PCAT facility to validate the performance of TransPowr with E3X Technology a standard overhead conductor with an inorganic high emissivity, low absorptivity surface coating. Extensive testing has demonstrated a significant improvement in conductor performance across a wide range of operating temperatures, indicating that E3X Technology can provide a reduction in temperature, a reduction in sag, and an increase in ampacity when applied to the surface of any overhead conductor. This report provides initial results of that testing.

  8. Preliminary Status Report of Neutron Radiation Effects and Damage to Neutron Imaging System Equipment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, L. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brand, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, J. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Caggiano, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); FItsos, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Goldblum, B. L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hall, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Harrig, K. P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Johnson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kruse, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Laplace, T. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mahowald, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Matthews, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nielson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ratkiewicz, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Souza, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ureche, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ummel, C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiedrick, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zeiser, F. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway)

    2017-02-08

    A high-intensity neutron source is being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform neutron imaging (NI). Two accelerators are be- ing installed in the shielded, underground, north cave of Building 194 to produce neutrons via deuterium- deuterium fusion at 4 MeV or 7 MeV in a windowless gas cell. Over months to years of future experiments, elec- tronic and mechanical equipment in the room will be ir- radiated by a large uence of neutrons, which could cause them to fail or function incorrectly. Neutrons will also activate equipment and materials in the room, making frequent maintenance di cult and time-consuming, ex- acerbating the consequence of equipment failure. To test the neutron response and failure probability of mission- critical components, a variety of equipment intended to be located closest to the neutron source was irradiated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL's) 88-inch cyclotron, using neutrons produced from the breakup of deuterons impinging a thick beryllium target. The high neutron production and high neutron energy of this reaction in combination with the close-in geom- etry possible at the cyclotron allows the application of neutron doses expected to be delivered in months of NI facility operation in only a few days. In most cases, each piece of equipment was irradiated while powered, moni- tored remotely for failure, to test both its live response to irradiation in addition to permanent e ects. Aluminum activation foils were used as uence monitors, assuming the spectral shape measured by Meulders et. al.[1] While the neutron spectrum of the NI facility and the LBNL fa- cility were not identical, relative electronics and materials damage cross sections were used to equate an equivalent amount of energy-dependent neutron damage.

  9. Effects of topiramate on urge to drink and the subjective effects of alcohol: a preliminary laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robert; MacKillop, James; Monti, Peter M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Tidey, Jennifer; Gwaltney, Chad; Swift, Robert; Ray, Lara; McGeary, John

    2008-03-01

    Topiramate was recently reported to be efficacious in reducing drinking rates and craving among individuals with alcohol dependence in a randomized controlled trial, but dose effects could not be determined. This laboratory study systematically examined the dose-dependent effects of topiramate on cue-elicited craving and other putative mechanisms of its pharmacotherapeutic effects on drinking. Male and female heavy drinkers (n = 61) were randomized to 1 of 3 medication conditions (200 mg/d; 300 mg/d; placebo) in a double-blind study. Participants reached the target dose after a 32-day titration period, then were stabilized for approximately 1 week. All then participated in a laboratory assessment of alcohol cue reactivity and of the subjective effects of a moderate dose of alcohol. Both doses of topiramate reduced the frequency of heavy drinking during the titration period as compared to placebo. However, topiramate did not affect self-reported craving for alcohol during the titration period, during the cue reactivity protocol, or in response to the alcohol challenge procedure. Topiramate reduced the stimulating effects of alcohol ingestion compared to placebo, but only in the 200 mg group. The results of this study support previous findings that topiramate reduces drinking, but the behavioral mechanism underlying this effect does not appear to be attenuation of craving for alcohol as measured using the approaches employed in this study. Rather, the results tentatively suggest that topiramate may exert its beneficial effects by altering the subjective experiences of alcohol consumption. Limitations of the current study are discussed and complementary methods are recommended for future studies, such as the use of behavioral economic paradigms and ecological momentary assessment.

  10. Preliminary Scaling and controls Analysis of an FHR-HTSE System Idaho National Laboratory Summer 2013 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Piyush Sabharwall; Rohit Upadhya

    2014-01-01

    For new nuclear reactor system designs to be approved by regulatory agencies like the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the details of system operation must be validated with respect to standards of safety, control, and output. A scaled experiment that replicates certain properties of the system can be used to validate compliance with regulatory standards, while avoiding the prohibitive cost and labor required to develop a fully functional prototype system; therefore, designing such an experiment is of special interest to current efforts to develop hybrid energy systems (HES) that integrate small modular reactors (SMRs), renewable energy systems, and industrial process applications such as hydrogen production and desalination. In addition, a scaled experiment can be an economical method of analyzing the interconnections between HES components and understanding the time constants associated between inter-component energy and information flows. This report discusses the results of a preliminary scaling analysis done for the primary loop of a 300 MWth Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactor (FHR) that is coupled with a High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis system (HTSE), as well as the basic control logic that governs the primary components and the necessary hardware to achieve optimal functionality. The scaled facility will be a 1 MWth system that uses Dowtherm A as the simulant fluid for Flibe (the coolant of choice for the primary loop of molten salt reactors), and can validate the heat transfer and steady-state operational requirements of the 300 MWth prototype. The scaled facility matches the Prandtl and Reynolds numbers associated with steady-state operation of the FHR-HTSE’s primary loop without having to deal with very high temperatures, flow rates, or power inputs. This will allow the facility to run experiments that analyze various thermophysical and fluid-dynamic properties that characterize reactor operation, such as pressure drops, radial

  11. Preliminary Scaling and controls Analysis of an FHR-HTSE System Idaho National Laboratory Summer 2013 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Piyush Sabharwall; Rohit Upadhya

    2013-08-01

    For new nuclear reactor system designs to be approved by regulatory agencies like the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the details of system operation must be validated with respect to standards of safety, control, and output. A scaled experiment that replicates certain properties of the system can be used to validate compliance with regulatory standards, while avoiding the prohibitive cost and labor required to develop a fully functional prototype system; therefore, designing such an experiment is of special interest to current efforts to develop hybrid energy systems (HES) that integrate small modular reactors (SMRs), renewable energy systems, and industrial process applications such as hydrogen production and desalination. In addition, a scaled experiment can be an economical method of analyzing the interconnections between HES components and understanding the time constants associated between inter-component energy and information flows. This report discusses the results of a preliminary scaling analysis done for the primary loop of a 300 MWth Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactor (FHR) that is coupled with a High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis system (HTSE), as well as the basic control logic that governs the primary components and the necessary hardware to achieve optimal functionality. The scaled facility will be a 1 MWth system that uses Dowtherm A as the simulant fluid for Flibe (the coolant of choice for the primary loop of molten salt reactors), and can validate the heat transfer and steady-state operational requirements of the 300 MWth prototype. The scaled facility matches the Prandtl and Reynolds numbers associated with steady-state operation of the FHR-HTSE’s primary loop without having to deal with very high temperatures, flow rates, or power inputs. This will allow the facility to run experiments that analyze various thermophysical and fluid-dynamic properties that characterize reactor operation, such as pressure drops, radial

  12. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Louise C.; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Adelson, P. David; Arango, Jorge; Balaj, Leonora; Breakefield, Xandra; Carlson, Elizabeth; Carter, Bob S.; Majem, Blanca; Chen, Clark C.; Cocucci, Emanuele; Danielson, Kirsty; Courtright, Amanda; Das, Saumya; Elmageed, Zakaria Y. Abd; Enderle, Daniel; Ezrin, Alan; Ferrer, Marc; Freedman, Jane; Galas, David; Gandhi, Roopali; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall; Kalani, Yashar; Kim, Yong; Krichevsky, Anna M.; Lai, Charles; Lal-Nag, Madhu; Laurent, Clara D.; Leonardo, Trevor; Li, Feng; Malenica, Ivana; Mondal, Debasis; Nejad, Parham; Patel, Tushar; Raffai, Robert L.; Rubio, Renee; Skog, Johan; Spetzler, Robert; Sun, Jie; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Vickers, Kasey; Wang, Liang; Wang, Yaoyu; Wei, Zhiyun; Weiner, Howard L.; Wong, David; Yan, Irene K.; Yeri, Ashish; Gould, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field. PMID:26320937

  13. Equipment, preliminary research and research opportunities at the High Power Laser Laboratory at Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, M.; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Parys, P.; Gasior, P.; Ryc, L.; Badziak, J.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the newly-opened High Power Laser Laboratory (HPLL) at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM) and presents its research possibilities in terms of the laser source and the available diagnostics. The interactions of the ultra-short laser pulses of femto to pico second duration and energies of up to 1 J with solid-state targets leads to very distinguish phenomena which can be used for investigation of exotic states of matter and to apply them for numerous technological purposes. in this goal the application of sophisticated and especially designed diagnostic systems is also needed. As the effects of interactions include the broad range of processes as acceleration of fast ions and electrons, x-rays generation and solid material modification in terms of its mechanical, physical and optical properties the research needs to use both online plasma diagnostics and the methods of post-mortem material research characterization methods. The paper presents a brief description of the laser system, the interaction vacuum chambers and the available diagnostics as well as the scientific investigation trends which can be picked up at the HPLL at the IPPLM.

  14. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise C. Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field.

  15. Modeling Stone Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the “unit cell”, longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, either a full three-dimensional model or just a three-dimensional row or slice of columns. Some guidelines for obtaining these simplified geometrical models are provided and the particular case of groups of columns under footings is also analyzed. For the latter case, there is a column critical length that is around twice the footing width for non-encased columns in a homogeneous soft soil. In the literature, the column critical length is sometimes given as a function of the column length, which leads to some disparities in its value. Here it is shown that the column critical length mainly depends on the footing dimensions. Some other features related with column modeling are also briefly presented, such as the influence of column installation. Finally, some guidance and recommendations are provided on parameter selection for the study of stone columns.

  16. Modeling Stone Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the “unit cell”, longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, either a full three-dimensional model or just a three-dimensional row or slice of columns. Some guidelines for obtaining these simplified geometrical models are provided and the particular case of groups of columns under footings is also analyzed. For the latter case, there is a column critical length that is around twice the footing width for non-encased columns in a homogeneous soft soil. In the literature, the column critical length is sometimes given as a function of the column length, which leads to some disparities in its value. Here it is shown that the column critical length mainly depends on the footing dimensions. Some other features related with column modeling are also briefly presented, such as the influence of column installation. Finally, some guidance and recommendations are provided on parameter selection for the study of stone columns. PMID:28773146

  17. Preliminary observations on the impact of complex stress histories on sandstone response to salt weathering: laboratory simulations of process combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, S.; Smith, B. J.; Warke, P. A.

    2007-03-01

    Historic sandstone structures carry an inheritance, or a ‘memory’, of past stresses that the stone has undergone since its placement in a façade. This inheritance, which conditions present day performance, may be made up of long-term exposure to a combination of low magnitude background environmental factors (for example, salt weathering, temperature and moisture cycling) and, superimposed upon these, less frequent but potentially high magnitude events or ‘exceptional’ factors (for example, lime rendering, severe frost events, fire). The impact of complex histories on the decay pathways of historic sandstone is not clearly understood, but this paper seeks to improve that understanding through the use of a laboratory ‘process combination’ study. Blocks of quartz sandstone (Peakmoor, from NW England) were divided into subsets that experienced different histories (lime rendering and removal, fire and freeze-thaw cycles in isolation and combination) that reflected the event timeline of a real medieval sandstone monument in NE Ireland, Bonamargy Friary (McCabe et al. 2006b). These subsets were then subject to salt weathering cycles using a 10% salt solution of NaCl and MgSO4 that represents the ‘every-day’ stress environment of, for example, sandstone structures in coastal, or polluted urban, location. Block response to salt weathering was monitored by collecting, drying and weighing the debris that was released as blocks were immersed in the salt solution at the beginning of each cycle. The results illustrate the complexity of the stone decay system, showing that seemingly small variations in stress history can produce divergent response to salt weathering cycles. Applied to real-world historic sandstone structures, this concept may help to explain the spatial and temporal variability of sandstone response to background environmental factors on a single façade, and encourage conservators to include the role of stress inheritance when selecting and

  18. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  19. Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

  20. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Determination of Wastewater Compounds by Polystyrene-Divinylbenzene Solid-Phase Extraction and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; Schroeder, Michael P.; Barber, Larry B.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the determination of 67 compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater on aquatic organisms. This method also may be useful for evaluating the impact of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water quality of urban streams. The method focuses on the determination of compounds that are an indicator of wastewater or that have been chosen on the basis of their endocrine-disrupting potential or toxicity. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and their degradates, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are extracted by vacuum through disposable solid-phase cartridges that contain polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. Cartridges are dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds are eluted with dichloromethane-diethyl ether (4:1) and determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-water samples fortified at 4 micrograms per liter averaged 74 percent ? 7 percent relative standard deviation for all method compounds. Initial method detection limits for single-component compounds (excluding hormones and sterols) averaged 0.15 microgram per liter. Samples are preserved by filtration, the addition of 60 grams NaCl, and storage at 4 degrees Celsius. The laboratory has established a sample-holding time (prior to sample extraction) of 14 days from the date of sample collection until a statistically accepted method can be used to determine the effectiveness of these sample-preservation procedures.

  1. Preliminary results of 3D-DDTC pixel detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; Dalla Betta, G F; Darbo, G; Gemme, C; Pernegger, H; Piemonte, C; Povoli, M; Ronchin, S; Zoboli, A; Zorzi, N; Bolle, E; Borri, M; Da Via, C; Dong, S; Fazio, S; Grenier, P; Grinstein, S; Gjersdal, H; Hansson, P; Huegging, F; Jackson, P; Kocian, M; Rivero, F; Rohne, O; Sandaker, H; Sjobak, K; Slavicek, T; Tsung, W; Tsybychev, D; Wermes, N; Young, C

    2009-01-01

    3D Silicon sensors fabricated at FBK-irst with the Double-side Double Type Column (DDTC) approach and columnar electrodes only partially etched through p-type substrates were tested in laboratory and in a 1.35 Tesla magnetic field with a 180GeV pion beam at CERN SPS. The substrate thickness of the sensors is about 200um, and different column depths are available, with overlaps between junction columns (etched from the front side) and ohmic columns (etched from the back side) in the range from 110um to 150um. The devices under test were bump bonded to the ATLAS Pixel readout chip (FEI3) at SELEX SI (Rome, Italy). We report leakage current and noise measurements, results of functional tests with Am241 gamma-ray sources, charge collection tests with Sr90 beta-source and an overview of preliminary results from the CERN beam test.

  2. Preliminary Results of 3D-DDTC Pixel Detectors for the ATLAS Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rosa, Alessandro; /CERN; Boscardin, M.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Darbo, G.; Gemme, C.; /INFN, Genoa; Pernegger, H.; /CERN; Piemonte, C.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Povoli, M.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Ronchin, S.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Zoboli, A.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Zorzi, N.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Bolle, E.; /Oslo U.; Borri, M.; /INFN, Turin /Turin U.; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Dong, S.; /SLAC; Fazio, S.; /Calabria U.; Grenier, P.; /SLAC; Grinstein, S.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Gjersdal, H.; /Oslo U.; Hansson, P.; /SLAC; Huegging, F.; /Bonn U. /SLAC /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Oslo U. /Bergen U. /Oslo U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Bonn U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Bonn U. /SLAC

    2012-04-04

    3D Silicon sensors fabricated at FBK-irst with the Double-side Double Type Column (DDTC) approach and columnar electrodes only partially etched through p-type substrates were tested in laboratory and in a 1.35 Tesla magnetic field with a 180 GeV pion beam at CERN SPS. The substrate thickness of the sensors is about 200 {mu}m, and different column depths are available, with overlaps between junction columns (etched from the front side) and ohmic columns (etched from the back side) in the range from 110 {mu}m to 150 {mu}m. The devices under test were bump bonded to the ATLAS Pixel readout chip (FEI3) at SELEX SI (Rome, Italy). We report leakage current and noise measurements, results of functional tests with Am{sup 241} {gamma}-ray sources, charge collection tests with Sr90 {beta}-source and an overview of preliminary results from the CERN beam test.

  3. Establishing cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory in Saudi Arabia and producing preliminary calibration curve of dicentric chromosomes as biomarker for medical dose estimation in response to radiation emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadyan, Khaled; Elewisy, Sara; Moftah, Belal; Shoukri, Mohamed; Alzahrany, Awad; Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-12-01

    In cases of public or occupational radiation overexposure and eventual radiological accidents, it is important to provide dose assessment, medical triage, diagnoses and treatment to victims. Cytogenetic bio-dosimetry based on scoring of dicentric chromosomal aberrations assay (DCA) is the "gold standard" biotechnology technique for estimating medically relevant radiation doses. Under the auspices of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan in Saudi Arabia, we have set up a biodosimetry laboratory and produced a national standard dose-response calibration curve for DCA, pre-required to estimate the doses received. For this, the basic cytogenetic DCA technique needed to be established. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected from four healthy volunteers and irradiated with radiation doses between 0 and 5 Gy of 320 keV X-rays. Then, lymphocytes were PHA stimulated, Colcemid division arrested and stained cytogenetic slides were prepared. The Metafer4 system (MetaSystem) was used for automatic and manually assisted metaphase finding and scoring of dicentric chromosomes. Results were fit to the linear-quadratic dose-effect model according to the IAEA EPR-Biodosimetry-2011 report. The resulting manually assisted dose-response calibration curve (Y = 0.0017 + 0.026 × D + 0.081 × D(2)) was in the range of those described in other populations. Although the automated scoring over-and-under estimates DCA at low (2 Gy) doses, respectively, it showed potential for use in triage mode to segregate between victims with potential risk to develop acute radiotoxicity syndromes. In conclusion, we have successfully established the first biodosimetry laboratory in the region and have produced a preliminary national dose-response calibration curve. The laboratory can now contribute to the national preparedness plan in response to eventual radiation emergencies in addition to providing information for decision makers and public health officials who assess the

  4. Contribution of the mobile remote sensing laboratory to the 16. Antarctic expedition. Preliminary results; 16. Campagna oceanografica antartica. Attivita' del laboratorio di telerilevamento laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A. [ENEA, Dipartimento Innovazione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The ENEA mobile fluorosensor laboratory has successfully joined the oceanographic campaign in the frame of the 16. Italian Antarctic expedition with the R/V Italica, Jan-Feb'01. The remote and local instruments have been operated during the transferring transect from/to New Zealand and the Antarctic Ross sea. Two lidar fluorosensors have been used for a continuous monitoring, the external one for a superficial inspection and the second, installed on the craft keel, operated in the range resolved mode. The main spectral channels recorded correspond to the phytoplankton fluorescence (Chlorophylla; Chl-a) and to the chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). In order to complete and calibrate the remote sensed data, in-situ analyses have been performed with local instruments, on sampled seawaters and filters have been stored for successive analyses in Italy. Lidar and local preliminary data are presented in thematic maps together with the seasonal parameters monitored during the oceanographic campaign. [Italian] Il laboratorio mobile lidar fluorosensore ha partecipato con successo alla campagna oceanografica nell'ambito della 16. spedizione antartica coon i propri sistemi di monitoraggio laser remoti e con la strumentazione di corredo. Due lidar fluorosensori, uno esterno e l'altro montato a scafo, sono stati utilizzati per un monitoraggio, continuo superficiale nel primo caso e range resolved nel secondo, lungo tutto il percorso effettuato dalla M/N Italica durante i transetti di trasferimento da e verso la Nuova Zelanda e attraverso il mare di Ross. I canali spettrali principali registrati corrispondono alla fluorescenza del fitoplancton e della sostanza organica disciolta. Per la taratura dei sistemi remoti e per completare l'analisi delle acque attraversate, sono state effettuate misure locali, filtrazioni e determinazioni allo spettrofluorimetro e al PAM, sono state effettuate per la taratura dei sistemi remoti e per completare l

  5. Circulation in gas-slurry column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, N.; Kuhlman, J.; Celik, I.; Gross, R.; Nebiolo, E.; Wang, Yi-Zun.

    1990-08-15

    Circulation in bubble columns, such as those used in fischer-tropsch synthesis, detracts from their performance in that gas is carried on average more rapidly through the column, and the residence time distribution of the gas in the column is widened. Both of these factors influence mass-transfer operations in bubble columns. Circulation prediction and measurement has been undertaken using probes, one-dimensional models, laser Doppler velocimetry, and numerical modeling. Local void fraction was measured using resistance probes and a newly developed approach to determining air/water threshold voltage for the probe. A tall column of eight inch diameter was constructed of Plexiglas and the distributor plate was manufactured to distribute air evenly through the base of the column. Data were gathered throughout the volume at three different gas throughputs. Bubble velocities proved difficult to measure using twin probes with cross-correlation because of radial bubble movement. A series of three-dimensional mean and RMS bubble and liquid velocity measurements were also obtained for a turbulent flow in a laboratory model of a bubble column. These measurements have been made using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), to determine velocity distributions non-intrusively. Finally, the gas-liquid flow inside a vertically situated circular isothermal column reactor was simulated numerically. 74 refs., 170 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Preliminary risk assessment of the Mexican Spotted Owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Pratt, L.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that the Department of Energy takes special precautions to protect the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida). In order to do so, risk to the owl presented by radiological and nonradiological contaminants must be estimated. A preliminary risk assessment on the Mexican Spotted Owl in two Ecological Exposure Units (EEUs) was performed using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Quotient method, the FORTRAN model ECORSK4, and a geographic information system. Estimated doses to the owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime were compared against toxicological reference doses generating hazard indices (HIs) and hazard quotients (HQs) for three risk source types. The average HI was 0.20 for EEU-21 and 0.0015 for EEU-40. Under the risk parameter assumptions made, hazard quotient results indicated no unacceptable risk to the owl, including a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes a linear additive toxicity type. An HI of 1.0 was used as the evaluative criteria for determining the acceptability of risk. This value was exceeded (1.06) in only one of 200 simulated potential nest sites. Cesium-137, Ni, {sup 239}Pu, Al and {sup 234}U we`re among the constituents with the highest partial HQs. Improving model realism by weighting simulated owl foraging based on distance from potential nest sites decreased the estimated risk by 72% (0.5 HI units) for EEU-21 and by 97.6% (6.3E-02 HI units) for EEU-40. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, owl habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at acceptably low levels.

  7. Spiral multicapillary columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, A. P.; Naumenko, I. I.; Soboleva, V. K.

    2008-08-01

    It was shown in a theoretical study and confirmed by experiment that a spiral multicapillary column had maximum efficiency if the bunch of capillaries was additionally coiled around its longitudinal axis to produce an integral number of coils. This technique made it possible to manufacture gas-chromatographic columns with performance as high as 12 to 16 thousand theoretical plates. These columns can find various applications, especially if quick separation is required.

  8. Comparison between a spray column and a sieve tray column operating as liquid-liquid heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, A. S.; Jacobs, H. R.; Boehm, R. F.

    The reported investigation was conducted in connection with research intended to improve the efficiency of direct contact devices for geothermal and solar applications. The investigation had the objective to evaluate the effect of adding sieve trays to the laboratory column used in studies concerned with the development of models for spray column heat transfer. Hot water is pumped from a supply vessel into the top of the heat exchanger column where, as the continuous phase, it flows down through the column. The dispersed phase is kerosene. Using an identical pump to that used for the water, the kerosene flows into a dispersion plate in the bottom of the column. The droplets rise through the column and coalesce at the top. It was found that the heat transfer performance of the perforated plate column was significantly improved over that in a spray column for similar operating conditions.

  9. JCE Feature Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  10. Glass-silicon column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  11. Behavior of high strength concrete columns under eccentric loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany A. Kottb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, high strength concrete (HSC has been widely accepted by designers and contractors to be used in concrete structures, especially in high compressive stress elements. The research aims to study the behavior of high strength concrete columns under eccentric compression using experimental and analytical programs. The research is divided into two main parts; the first part is an experimental investigation for ten square columns tested at the Cairo University Concrete Research Laboratory. The main studied parameters were eccentricity of the applied load, column slenderness ratio; and ratios of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. The second part is analytical analysis using nonlinear finite element program ANSYS11 on nineteen columns (ten tested square columns and nine rectangular section columns to study the effect of the previous parameters on the column ultimate load, mid-height displacement, and column cracking patterns. The analyzed columns revealed a good agreement with the experimental results with an average difference of 16% and 17% for column ultimate load and mid-height displacement respectively. Results showed an excellent agreement for cracking patterns. Predictions of columns capacities using the interaction diagrams based on ACI 318-08 stress block parameters indicated a safe design procedure of HSC columns under eccentric compression, with ACI 318-08 being more conservative for moderate reinforced HSC columns.

  12. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of chlorinated pesticides in aquatic tissue by capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiker, Thomas J.; Madsen, J.E.; Deacon, J.R.; Foreman, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of chlorinated organic compounds in aquatic tissue by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection is described. Whole-body-fish or corbicula tissue is homogenized, Soxhlet extracted, lipid removed by gel permeation chromatography, and fractionated using alumina/silica adsorption chromatography. The extracts are analyzed by dissimilar capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. The method reporting limits are 5 micrograms per kilogram (μg/kg) for chlorinated compounds, 50 μg/kg for polychlorinated biphenyls, and 200 μg/kg for toxaphene.

  13. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  14. Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1999-06-16

    This document reports results from an ion exchange column heat transfer analysis requested by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades.

  15. Behaviour of the gasoline containing ethanol (E-20) and the pure one after a leakage simulation in laboratory columns; Comportamento da gasolina com etanol (E-20) e da gasolina pura apos a simulacao de um vazamento em colunas de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Silvia Maria; Oliveira, Everton [Hidrologia e Planejamento Ambiental - HIDROPLAN, Cotia, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: silvia@hidroplan.com.br; Duarte, Uriel [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental

    2004-10-15

    Commercial gasolines sold in Brazil are added ethanol from 20 to 24% by volume. This oxygenated additive raises the octane level and reduces carbon monoxide emissions to the atmosphere. Underground storage tanks and gasoline lines are a major potential problem for soil and groundwater contamination. Since ethanol has cosolvent properties that alter the behavior of phase distribution in subsurface, this study compares the existing relationship between apparent and real thicknesses of free phase gasoline and E-20 (80% gasoline and 20% ethanol by volume) found respectively in monitoring wells and porous medium material used in two column experiments. Two cylindrical plexiglass columns were used (100 cm long and 23 cm in internal diameter). The bottom ends were capped using plexiglass plate 0.60 cm thick. A spout-like connection of PVC was fitted near the base of each column as an inlet/outlet. One well screen (100 cm long and 3,5 cm in internal diameter) in white PVC was cut in half lengthwise and attached to the inside walls of columns to be used as monitoring wells. The columns were then filled with 0,088 mm grain size sand (very fine). The apparent thickness of pure gasoline was 2.6 times thicker than the actual thickness in the aquifer while it was only 0.6 thicker for E-20. The interfacial tension of E-20 is 67% lower than that of the pure gasoline, allowing a larger quantity of pores to be accessed, which was reflected in oil saturation 54% greater than that of pure gasoline. (author)

  16. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of semivolatile organic compounds in bottom sediment by solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatographic fractionation, and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, E.T.; Vaught, D.G.; Merten, L.M.; Foreman, W.T.; Gates, Paul M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the determination of 79 semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) and 4 surrogate compounds in soils and bottom sediment is described. The SOCs are extracted from bottom sediment by solvent extraction, followed by partial isolation using high-performance gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The SOCs then are qualitatively identified and quantitative concentrations determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This method also is designed for an optional simultaneous isolation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) insecticides, including toxaphene. When OCs and PCBs are determined, an additional alumina- over-silica column chromatography step follows GPC cleanup, and quantitation is by dual capillary- column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC/ECD). Bottom-sediment samples are centrifuged to remove excess water and extracted overnight with dichloromethane. The extract is concentrated, centrifuged, and then filtered through a 0.2-micrometer polytetrafluoro-ethylene syringe filter. Two aliquots of the sample extract then are quantitatively injected onto two polystyrene- divinylbenzene GPC columns connected in series. The SOCs are eluted with dichloromethane, a fraction containing the SOCs is collected, and some coextracted interferences, including elemental sulfur, are separated and discarded. The SOC-containing GPC fraction then is analyzed by GC/MS. When desired, a second aliquot from GPC is further processed for OCs and PCBs by combined alumina-over-silica column chromatography. The two fractions produced in this cleanup then are analyzed by GC/ECD. This report fully describes and is limited to the determination of SOCs by GC/MS.

  17. The maximum force in a column under constant speed compression

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzkin, Vitaly A

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic buckling of an elastic column under compression at constant speed is investigated assuming the first-mode buckling. Two cases are considered: (i) an imperfect column (Hoff's statement), and (ii) a perfect column having an initial lateral deflection. The range of parameters, where the maximum load supported by a column exceeds Euler static force is determined. In this range, the maximum load is represented as a function of the compression rate, slenderness ratio, and imperfection/initial deflection. Considering the results we answer the following question: "How slowly the column should be compressed in order to measure static load-bearing capacity?" This question is important for the proper setup of laboratory experiments and computer simulations of buckling. Additionally, it is shown that the behavior of a perfect column having an initial deflection differ significantlys form the behavior of an imperfect column. In particular, the dependence of the maximum force on the compression rate is non-monotoni...

  18. Eruption column physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, G.A.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper the author focuses on the fluid dynamics of large-scale eruption columns. The dynamics of these columns are rooted in multiphase flow phenomena, so a major part of the paper sets up a foundation on that topic that allows one to quickly assess the inherent assumptions made in various theoretical and experimental approaches. The first part is centered on a set of complex differential equations that describe eruption columns, but the focus is on a general understanding of important physical processes rather than on the mathematics. The author discusses briefly the relative merits and weaknesses of different approaches, emphasizing that the largest advances in understanding are made by combining them. He then focuses on dynamics of steady eruption columns and then on transient phenomena. Finally he briefly reviews the effects of varying behavior of the ambient medium through which an eruption column moves. These final sections will emphasize concepts and a qualitative understanding of eruption dynamics. This paper relies on principles of continuum mechanics and transport processes but does not go into detail on the development of those principles. 36 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Stone Columns - Determination of the soil improvement factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarč, J.

    2011-09-01

    A stone column is one of the soil stabilizing methods that is used to increase strength, decrease the compressibility of soft and loose fine graded soils, accelerate a consolidation effect and reduce the liquefaction potential of soils. The columns consist of compacted gravel or crushed stone arranged by a vibrator. This paper deals with Priebe's theory (1976) on the design of an improvement factor, which belongs among the most used analytical methods and also describes the numerical and laboratory models of stone columns. The improvement factors calculated from numerical and laboratory models are compared with the improvement factors resulting from Priebe's theory.

  20. Electrolytic redox and electrochemical generated alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) in sand columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, David B; Wani, Altaf H; Davis, Jeffrey L; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2009-08-15

    Sand-packed horizontal flow columns (5 cm i.d. x 65 cm)l were used in laboratory experiments to simulate in situ electrolytic and alkaline hybrid treatment zone for aqueous phase decomposition of RDX. An upgradient cathode and downgradient anode, spaced 35 cm apart were used to create alkaline reducing conditions followed by oxic, acidic conditions to degrade RDX by combination of alkaline hydrolysis and direct electrolysis. A preliminary experiment (25 mg/L RDX influent) with seepage velocity of 30.5 cm/day and current density of 9.9 A/m2 was used to determine the treatment feasibility and the aqueous products of RDX decomposition. Three additional column experiments (0.5 mg/L RDX influent) under the same conditions as the preliminary column were used to observe the treatment process repeatability and the alkaline treatment zone development. The results demonstrated approximately 95% decomposition of RDX in the column with an applied current density of 9.9 A/m2. Aqueous end-products formate, nitrite, and nitrate were detected in the effluent. Approximately 75% of the RDX was destroyed near the cathode, presumably by electrolysis, with 23% decomposed downstream of the cathode by alkaline hydrolysis. The preliminary column pseudo first order alkaline hydrolysis rate coefficient of 10.7 x 10(-3) min(-1) was used to estimate a treatment zone length less than 100 cm for RDX treatment below the EPA drinking water lifetime health advisory of 0.002 mg/L.

  1. Methods of analysis by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - determination of organonitrogen herbicides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Wydoski, Duane S.; Schroeder, Michael P.; Zamboni, Jana L.; Foreman, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the isolation of organonitrogen herbicides from natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and analysis by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction cartridges containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica to remove the herbicides. The cartridges are dried using carbon dioxide, and adsorbed herbicides are removed from the cartridges by elution with 1.8 milliliters of hexaneisopropanol (3:1). Extracts of the eluants are analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of at least three characteristic ions. The method detection limits are dependent on sample matrix and each particular herbicide. The method detection limits, based on a 100-milliliter sample size, range from 0.02 to 0.25 microgram per liter. Recoveries averaged 80 to 115 percent for the 23 herbicides and 2 metabolites in 1 reagent-water and 2 natural-water samples fortified at levels of 0.2 and 2.0 micrograms per liter.

  2. Columns in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  3. Slender CRC Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarup, Bendt; Jensen, Lars Rom; Ellegaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    CRC is a high-performance steel fibre reinforced concrete with a typical compressive strength of 150 MPa. Design methods for a number of structural elements have been developed since CRC was invented in 1986, but the current project set out to further investigate the range of columns for which...

  4. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom sediment by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, William T.; Connor, Brooke F.; Furlong, Edward T.; Vaught, Deborah G.; Merten, Leslie M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of 30 individual organochlorine pesticides, total toxaphene, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediment is described. The method isolates the pesticides and PCBs by solvent extraction with dichlorobenzene, removes inorganic sulfur, large naturally occurring molecules, and other unwanted interferences by gel permeation chromatography, and further cleans up and class fractionates the extract using adsorption chromatography. The com- pounds then are instrumentally determined using dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Reporting limits range from 1 to 5 micrograms per kilogram for 30 individual pesticides, 50 micrograms per kilogram for total PCBs, and 200 micrograms per kilogram for total toxaphene. The method also is designed to allow the simultaneous isolation of 79 other semivolatile organic compounds from the sediment, which are separately quantified using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The method was developed in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program.

  5. Removal of suspended solids from municipal wastewater using geotextile columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, M.H. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, Texas (United States); Kotha, K.K. [Hillis-Carnes Inc., Manassas, VA (United States)

    2002-06-15

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to investigate the filtration behavior of geotextiles to remove suspended solids from municipal wastewater. Four nonwoven geotextiles were used in this preliminary investigation. The study also involved evaluating the suspended solids removal efficiency and regeneration potential of geotextiles for using as filter media. Wastewater samples were collected from the local wastewater treatment plant. Influent and effluent suspended solids concentration, chemical oxygen demand, and effluent flow rates were monitored during the tests. During filtration tests, suspended solids were retained on the upstream face and within the geotextile as wastewater passed through it. Due to the formation of a thin layer of suspended solids or filter cake on the upstream face of the geotextile, the effluent flow rate and suspended solids concentration decreased exponentially with time. When the effluent flow rate reduced below 90%, the filter media was backwashed to restore its filtering efficiency, for reuse. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that using geotextile columns, it was possible to remove 50 to 70% of suspended solids and decrease in chemical oxygen demand from 70 to 90% from the influent. This technique may be suitable for treating wastewater streams with low inflow and suspended solids concentrations, preferably in the range of 100 to 200 mg/L. The technique may be further evaluated for determining its suitability for treatment of wastewater generated from less populated areas and as a polishing step after secondary treatment. (author)

  6. Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Column CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, William S.; Kawa, Randolph; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 measurements are essential to resolving significant discrepancies in our understanding of the global carbon budget and, hence, humankind's role in global climate change. The science measurement requirements for CO2 are extremely demanding (precision approx. 0.3%). No atmospheric chemical species has ever been measured from space with this precision. We are developing a novel application of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to detect spectral absorption of reflected sunlight by CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere. Preliminary design studies indicate that the method will be able to achieve the sensitivity and signal-to-noise detection required to measure column CO2 at the target specification. The objective of this program is to construct a prototype instrument for deployment on an aircraft to test the instrument performance and our ability to retrieve the data in the real atmosphere. To date we have assembled a laboratory bench system to begin testing the optical and electronic components. We are also measuring signal and noise levels in actual sunlight to evaluate component performance.

  7. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  8. Enhanced reductive dechlorination in columns treated with edible oil emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Cameron M.; Borden, Robert C.

    2006-09-01

    The effect of edible oil emulsion treatment on enhanced reductive dechlorination was evaluated in a 14 month laboratory column study. Experimental treatments included: (1) emulsified soybean oil and dilute HCl to inhibit biological activity; (2) emulsified oil only; (3) emulsified oil and anaerobic digester sludge; and (4) continuously feeding soluble substrate. A single application of emulsified oil was effective in generating strongly reducing, anaerobic conditions for over 14 months. PCE was rapidly reduced to cis-DCE in all three live columns. Bioaugmentation with a halorespiring enrichment culture resulted in complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene in the soluble substrate column (yeast extract and lactate). However, an additional treatment with a pulse of yeast extract and bioaugmentation culture was required to stimulate complete dechlorination in the emulsion treated columns. Once the dechlorinating population was established, the emulsion only column degraded PCE from 90-120 μM to below detection with concurrent ethene production in a 33 day contact time. The lower biodegradation rates in the emulsion treated columns compared to the soluble substrate column suggest that emulsified oil barriers may require a somewhat longer contact time for effective treatment. In the HCl inhibited column, partitioning of PCE to the retained oil substantially delayed PCE breakthrough. However, reduction of PCE to more soluble degradation products ( cis-DCE, VC and ethene) greatly reduced the impact of oil-water partitioning in live columns. There was only a small decline in the hydraulic conductivity ( K) of column #1 (low pH + emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.57) and column #2 (live + emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.73) indicating emulsion injection did not result in appreciable clogging of the clayey sand. However, K loss was greater in column #3 (sludge +emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.12) and column #4 (soluble substrate, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.03) indicating clogging due

  9. Behavior of Columns During Earthquakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The behavior of columns during earthquakes is very important since column failures may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building collapses....

  10. Determination of Two Columns Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    When protein is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the selection of column is one of the most important factors. There are four quality control parameters for the column, which are theoretical plates n, capacity facto

  11. NMFS Water Column Sonar Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water column sonar data are an important component of fishery independent surveys, habitat studies and other research. NMFS water column sonar data are archived here.

  12. Methods of analysis and quality-assurance practices of the U.S. Geological Survey organic laboratory, Sacramento, California; determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    1994-01-01

    Analytical method and quality-assurance practices were developed for a study of the fate and transport of pesticides in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Sacramento and San Joaquin River. Water samples were filtered to remove suspended parti- culate matter and pumped through C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract the pesticides. The cartridges were dried with carbon dioxide, and the pesticides were eluted with three 2-milliliter aliquots of hexane:diethyl ether (1:1). The eluants were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. Method detection limits for analytes determined per 1,500-milliliter samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.047 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 47 to 89 percent for 12 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.05 and 0.26 microgram per liter. The method was modified to improve the pesticide recovery by reducing the sample volume to 1,000 milliliters. Internal standards were added to improve quantitative precision and accuracy. The analysis also was expanded to include a total of 21 pesticides. The method detection limits for 1,000-milliliter samples ranged from 0.022 to 0.129 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 38 to 128 percent for 21 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.10 and 0.75 microgram per liter.

  13. Preliminary parametric performance assessment of potential final waste forms for alpha low-level waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Sussman, M.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Myers, J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; DeBiase, T.A.; Goodrich, M.T.; DeWitt, D. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents a preliminary parametric performance assessment (PA) of potential waste disposal systems for alpha-contaminated, mixed, low-level waste (ALLW) currently stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of INEL. The ALLW, which contains from 10 to 100 nCi/g of transuranic (TRU) radionuclides, is awaiting treatment and disposal. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of several parameters on the radiological-confinement performance of potential disposal systems for the ALLW. The principal emphasis was on the performance of final waste forms (FWFs). Three categories of FWF (cement, glass, and ceramic) were addressed by evaluating the performance of two limiting FWFs for each category. Performance at five conceptual disposal sites was evaluated to illustrate the effects of site characteristics on the performance of the total disposal system. Other parameters investigated for effects on receptor dose included inventory assumptions, TRU radionuclide concentration, FWF fracture, disposal depth, water infiltration rates, subsurface-transport modeling assumptions, receptor well location, intrusion scenario assumptions, and the absence of waste immobilization. These and other factors were varied singly and in some combinations. The results indicate that compliance of the treated and disposed ALLW with the performance objectives depends on the assumptions made, as well as on the FWF and the disposal site. Some combinations result in compliance, while others do not. The implications of these results for decision making relative to treatment and disposal of the INEL ALLW are discussed. The report compares the degree of conservatism in this preliminary parametric PA against that in four other PAs and one risk assessment. All of the assessments addressed the same disposal site, but different wastes. The report also presents a qualitative evaluation of the uncertainties in the PA and makes recommendations for further study.

  14. Study of clean up procedures using Charcoal-Alumina-Celite column, immunoaffinity column and strata x column to determine deoxynivalenol by high performance liquid chromatography in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Cea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is the most common toxic fungal species affecting grains in Uruguay. Since 1977, due to favorable climate conditions, there have been harvests with prominent Fusarium Head Blight in wheat. This were in 1984, 1990, 1993, 1996 and 2001.Natural Toxin Department of Technological Laboratory of Uruguay as National Reference Laboratory, is continuously improving the analytical methods in order to have a good response to the industry requirements and to the monitoring programs for import and exports commodities. The objective of this work was to compare different clean up methods in order to select the best one for routine determination of deoxynivalenol (DON in wheat (grain and flour.  Charcoal-alumina-celite (7+5+3,  immunoaffinity columns DONPREP R-Biopharm Rhone and Strata X 33 m polymeric sorbent  Phenomenex columns were used to perform the study. Considering as reference analytical method the internal protocol  PEC.TOX.063 accredited by United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS  following the ISO 17025 requirements, and  based on AOAC method 986.17( chapter 49, 2002 for extraction and clean-up  and on J.AOAC 70(3, 1987:479-483 for the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC detection, two more clean up methods were evaluated. In all of them PEC.TOX.063 detection procedure was carried out. PEC.TOX.063 used for the clean up an in house column chromatography prepared with charcoal-alumina-celite (7+5+3 . Extraction was performed using acetonitrile- water (84+16 and an aliquot of the extract was passed through the column. Extract was dryed under vacuum and DON detected by HPLC using photodiode array detector. For the method that used immunoaffinity columns, water was the extraction solvent, and manufacture protocol was followed up. An aliquot of the extract was passed through the column. Column was washed using water and DON eluated using methanol 100%. For the method that used Strata X column for the clean up, the

  15. Column: Every Last Byte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance powder is the name that was given to poisons, especially arsenic, that were commonly used in the 17th and early 18th centuries to hasten the death of the elderly. For most of the 17th century, arsenic was deadly but undetectable, making it nearly impossible to prove that someone had been poisoned. The first arsenic test produced a gas—hardly something that a scientist could show to a judge. Faced with a growing epidemic of poisonings, doctors and chemists spent decades searching for something better.(see PDF for full column

  16. Water Column Profile Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories conducts standardized fisheries independent resource surveys in the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic,...

  17. Discrete Water Column Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories conducts standardized fisheries independent resource surveys in the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic,...

  18. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organophosphate pesticides in whole water by continuous liquid-liquid extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Virendra K.; Wydoski, Duane S.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 organophosphate pesticide degradates from natural-water samples is described. Compounds are extracted from water samples with methylene chloride using a continuous liquid-liquid extractor for 6 hours. The solvent is evaporated using heat and a flow of nitrogen to a volume of 1 milliliter and solvent exchanged to ethyl acetate. Extracted compounds are determined by capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator derived method detection limits in three water-matrix samples ranged from 0.003 to 0.009 microgram per liter. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds in three different matrices at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration in each matrix. Mean recoveries of most method compounds spiked in surface-water samples ranged from 54 to 137 percent and those in ground-water samples ranged from 40 to 109 percent for all pesticides. Recoveries in reagent-water samples ranged from 42 to 104 percent for all pesticides. The only exception was O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-propylphosphorothioate, which had variable recovery in all three matrices ranging from 27 to 79 percent. As a result, the detected concentration of O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-propylphosphorothioate in samples is reported in this method with an estimated remark code. Based on the performance issue, two more compounds, disulfoton and ethion monoxon, also will be reported in this method with an estimated remark code. Estimated-value compounds, which are ?E-coded? in the data base, do not meet the performance criteria for unqualified quantification, but are retained in the method because the compounds are important owing to high use or potential environmental effects and because analytical performance has been consistent and reproducible.

  19. Laboratory studies of H2SO4/H2O binary homogeneous nucleation from the SO2+OH reaction: evaluation of the experimental setup and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN of sulphuric acid and water (H2SO4/H2O is one of the most important atmospheric nucleation processes, but laboratory observations of this nucleation process are very limited and there are also large discrepancies between different laboratory studies. The difficulties associated with these experiments include wall loss of H2SO4 and uncertainties in estimation of H2SO4 concentration ([H2SO4] involved in nucleation. We have developed a new laboratory nucleation setup to study H2SO4/H2O BHN kinetics and provide relatively constrained [H2SO4] needed for nucleation. H2SO4 is produced from the SO2+OH→HSO3 reaction and OH radicals are produced from water vapor UV absorption. The residual [H2SO4] were measured at the end of the nucleation reactor with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS. Wall loss factors (WLFs of H2SO4 were estimated by assuming that wall loss is diffusion limited and these calculated WLFs were in good agreement with simultaneous measurements of the initial and residual [H2SO4] with two CIMSs. The nucleation zone was estimated from numerical simulations based on the measured aerosol sizes (particle diameter, Dp and [H2SO4]. The measured BHN rates (J ranged from 0.01–220 cm−3 s−1 at the initial and residual [H2SO4] from 108−1010 cm−3, a temperature of 288 K and relative humidity (RH from 11–23%; J increased with increasing [H2SO4] and RH. J also showed a power dependence on [H2SO4] with the exponential power of 3–8. These power dependences are consistent with other laboratory studies under similar [H2SO4] and RH, but different from atmospheric field observations which showed that particle number concentrations are often linearly dependent on [H2SO4]. These results, together with a higher [H2SO4] threshold (108–109 cm−3 needed to produce the unit J measured from the laboratory studies compared to the atmospheric conditions (106–107 cm−3, imply that H2SO4/H2O BHN alone is

  20. Design, testing, and simulation of microscale gas chromatography columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, M.L.; Kottenstette, R.; Matzke, C.M.; Frye-Mason, G.C.; Shollenberger, K.A.; Adkins, D.R.; Wong, C.C.

    1998-08-01

    A microscale gas chromatography column is one component in a microscale chemistry laboratory for detecting chemical agents. Several columns were fabricated using the Bosch etch process which allows deep, high aspect ratio channels of rectangular cross-section. A design tool, based on analytical models, was developed to evaluate the effects of operating conditions and column specifications on separation resolution and time. The effects of slip flow, channel configuration, and cross-sectional shape were included to evaluate the differences between conventional round, straight columns and the microscale rectangular, spiral columns. Experimental data were obtained and compared with the predicted flowrates and theoretical number of plates. The design tool was then employed to select more optimum channel dimensions and operating conditions for high resolution separations.

  1. Exploration of remediation of acid rock drainage with clinoptilolite as sorbent in a slurry bubble column for both heavy metal capture and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Heping; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R

    2006-10-01

    Preliminary work was carried out to explore a novel process for high-efficiency high-capacity remediation of acid rock drainage. Zn and other metal ions were adsorbed and desorbed in a laboratory Plexiglas slurry bubble column with natural clinoptilolite particles as sorbent. The results indicate that both adsorption and desorption in this medium have considerable advantages over those in the packed beds and rotating columns, leading to faster batch adsorption and desorption, as well as greater uptake of zinc. The adsorption order of clinoptilolite particles to different metal ions appeared to be Fe>Al>Cu>Zn>Mg>Mn on the basis of normalized concentrations. Smaller particles had significantly higher capacity and rates of the adsorption than larger particles for the same operating conditions.

  2. New chitosan salt in gastro-resistant oral formulation could interfere with enteric bile salts emulsification of diet fats: preliminary laboratory observations and physiologic rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratter, Andrea; Frare, Carmen; Uras, Giovanni; Bonini, Mauro; Casari Bariani, Enrico; Ragazzo, Barbara; Gaballo, Paolo; Longobardi, Pasquale; Codemo, Carlo; Paoli, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Chitosan (CH) is a polymer of glucosamine that is extracted from the shells of several sea fruits. It is well recognized as a nutritional supplement that is used to reduce body weight and blood lipid levels, but its clinical efficacy has not been clearly demonstrated. The true mechanism of action and physiological processes involved in these properties of CH are not yet understood or explained. The most accepted theories assume that CH reduces dietary fat absorption by trapping the fat in the gastric lumen. The very low pH of the gastric lumen induces CH jellification and, therefore, entrapment of the fats. This article describes the most plausible mechanism by which CH interferes with fat absorption in the first part of the enteric tract while interacting with cholic acids. We emphasize the weak points of the classic CH-containing formulations, which are unable to prove this theory. We also report preliminary experimental data of a new CH salt-containing formulation that is capable of effectively interfering with bile salt emulsification processes and, as a result, reducing dietary fat absorption.

  3. Preliminary laboratory experimentation on the potential of mass-scale cultivation of a high-potein blue-green alga, spirulina geitleri, utilizing cattle feedlot manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santerre, M.T.; Dugan, G.L.; Takahashi, P.K.

    1978-01-01

    Major detriments to beef production in Hawaii are the cost of feed and the problems associated with the treatment and disposal of the manure in a environmentally safe manner. In an effort to alleviate these problems, laboratory studies were conducted on the feasibility of culturing the high protein (> 50%) blue-green alga Spirulina in elutriated (washed) manure and in the supernatant resulting from anaerobically digesting animal manure. This scheme lends itself to a proposed environmentally acceptable integrated manure handling system with the major outputs being a high-protein feed ingredient (Spirulina); methane gas for heating and power production; and a stabilized sludge (from the anaerobic digester), that can be used as a soil conditioner. The laboratory results proved that unialgal cultures of Spirulina geitleri were capable of attaining dense concentrations in medium prepared from elutriated manure or the supernatant from anaerobically digested cattle manure; however, a high concentration (> 1.0 g/l) of sodium bicarbonate was necessary for successful establishment of growing cultures. In addition, supplemental nitrogen was required to maximize the utilization of the dissolved nutrients in the digester supernatant. Several potential sources of waste carbon dioxide and nitrogen are available for integration into the scheme. Finally, Spirulina geitleri responded favorably to the substitution of manure-enriched modified FCRG medium with a 20% seawater mixture, thus opening up the possibility of utilizing this organism in future OTEC-aquacultural projects. 3 figures, 6 tables.

  4. Round robin testing of a percolation column leaching procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Roeland; Spooren, Jeroen; Quaghebeur, Mieke; Broos, Kris; Kenis, Cindy; Debaene, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Round robin test results of a percolation column leaching procedure (CEN/TS 14405:2004), organised by the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), over a time span of 13years with a participation of between 8 and 18 different laboratories are presented and discussed. Focus is on the leachability of heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn from mineral waste materials. By performing statistical analyses on the obtained results, insight into the reproducibility and repeatability of the column leaching test is gathered. A ratio of 1:3 between intra- and inter-laboratory variability is found. The reproducibility of the eluates' element concentrations differ significantly between elements, materials and fractions (i.e. different liquid-to-solid ratios). The reproducibility is discussed in light of the application of the column leaching test for legal and environmental policy purposes. In addition, the performances of laboratories are compared.

  5. Why Hexagonal Basalt Columns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Martin; Anderssohn, Robert; Bahr, Hans-Achim; Weiß, Hans-Jürgen; Nellesen, Jens

    2015-10-09

    Basalt columns with their preferably hexagonal cross sections are a fascinating example of pattern formation by crack propagation. Junctions of three propagating crack faces rearrange such that the initial right angles between them tend to approach 120°, which enables the cracks to form a pattern of regular hexagons. To promote understanding of the path on which the ideal configuration can be reached, two periodically repeatable models are presented here involving linear elastic fracture mechanics and applying the principle of maximum energy release rate. They describe the evolution of the crack pattern as a transition from rectangular start configuration to the hexagonal pattern. This is done analytically and by means of three-dimensional finite element simulation. The latter technique reproduces the curved crack path involved in this transition.

  6. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  7. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  8. SPIRAL CONTACTOR FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, C.R.

    1961-06-13

    The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.

  9. Development of e-Juba, a preliminary proof of concept unmanned aerial vehicle designed to facilitate the transportation of microbiological test samples from remote rural clinics to National Health Laboratory Service laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelow, B; Muir, P; Boshielo, B T; Robertson, J

    2007-11-01

    For students and academics within the field of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, it is readily apparent what an enormous professional contribution Professor Hendrik Koornhof has made to this critically important specialty, not only in Africa, but worldwide. For those outside of the specialty, his contributions as a thoroughly decent person and role model are no less evident. What emerges in both spheres is his clear commitment to the welfare of others, as opposed to himself. His modesty and self-effacing nature have endeared Hendrik to many generations of students, peers and others who have indeed been privileged to have benefited from knowing him and working with him. In his 50 years with the South African Institute for Medical Research, and subsequently with the National Health Laboratory Service, Hendrik Koornhof has been the ideal academic, who is not as concerned about receiving financial rewards, recognition, etc. as about contributing to scientific knowledge. Many of his contributions have been in guiding others by his words and his deeds, and as a result he has been rewarded in seeing the accomplishments of his students, many of whom have gone on to achieve greatness in diverse fields, both locally and abroad. As we reflect in this festschrift on Hendrik's many achievements over 80 years, we thank him for more than just his research and teaching contributions over half a century with the South African Institute for Medical Research and the National Health Laboratory Service. We thank him for showing us what a privilege it is to work in the world of academia. Although we are not microbiologists, we thank him for having inspired us with the will to address problems of service delivery in the fight against microbiological diseases, which constitute the overwhelming bulk of the burden of disease in the developing world, both in Africa and further afield.

  10. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  11. A preliminary investigation of microcracks in the overcored borehole 210-020-RST1, 240 level of the Underground Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, R.G.

    1992-05-01

    A section of borehole 210-020-RST1 was sampled and thin sections were cut in order to investigate the occurrence of microcracks within the borehole. The petrology of the sample was described and the presence of microcracks was noted. In total, 1894 microcracks were recorded during the investigation. Microcrack sets were defined on the basis of filling type (or lack of filling) and three-dimensional orientations attributed to the microcrack sets based on structural observations. Many microcrack sets are shown to have similar orientations to mesoscopic fractures observed within the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) lease area and within the URL subsurface. The relative age of observed microcracks, in terms of fillings, is from oldest to youngest: fluid-inclusion-filled fractures; unknown filled fractures; chlorite-filled fractures; and coeval in formation, chlorite-, hematite- and sericite-filled fractures. Fractures without filling are considered the youngest. Plates documenting some observed fractures are included. Biases in the generation and interpretation of the data are discussed and alternatives are mentioned. (auth)

  12. Preliminary experimental results of Sewage Sludge (SS) Co-digestion with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for Enhanced Biogas Production in Laboratory Scale Anaerobic Digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankari, R.; Kumaran, P.; Normanbhay, Saifuddin; Halim Shamsuddin, Abd

    2013-06-01

    An investigation on the feasibility of co-digesting Sewage Sludge with Palm Oil Mill Effluent for enhancing the biogas production and the corresponding effect of the co-digestion substrate ratio on the biogas production has been evaluated. Anaerobic co-digestion of POME with SS was performed at ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 60:40 and 0:100 to find the optimum blend required for enhanced waste digestion and biogas production. Single stage batch digestion was carried out for 12 days in a laboratory scale anaerobic digester. Co-digestion of sludge's at the 70:30 proportion resulted in optimal COD and C: N ratio which subsequently recorded the highest performance with regards to biogas production at 28.1 L's compared to the 1.98 L's of biogas produced from digestion of SS alone. From the results obtained, it is evident that co-digestion of POME and SS is an attractive option to be explored for enhancement of biogas production in anaerobic digesters.

  13. Microbiology of shallow subsurface aquifer and carbonate rocks studied by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Preliminary results on an underground laboratory, the LSBB, Rustrel, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galès Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the microbiology of a shallow subsurface site, the LSBB, located near Avignon. This site lies in carbonate rocks, belonging to the Urgonian facies. Rock, concrete and water samples were collected and directly transferred to the laboratory. Studies of microorganisms as pure cultures are the only way to get their real physiological properties. Nevertheless, microbiologists cannot cultivate and isolate the majority of microorganisms for several reasons, one being our lack of understanding of their minimal needs. Molecular studies, e.g. extraction and sequencing of the total nucleic acids present in an environment provide phylogenetic and metabolic information on uncultivated microorganisms. We performed aerobic and anaerobic culture with various electron acceptors and donors, searching for heterotrophic, methanogenic, sulphate- nitrate- and FeIII- reducing Prokaryotes. We also performed DNA extractions and PCR amplification of ribosomal RNA genes, to test if our protocols were adapted to this environment. Our results show that the LSBB galleries are colonized by a low diversity microbiote, with a strong influence of anthropogenic activities. Further studies will link the microorganisms biodiversity and the petrophysic properties of rocks.

  14. Evaluation of Seismic Behaviors of Partially Deteriorated Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns Retrofitted with CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the concrete strength in some regions of reinforced concrete (RC columns in practice may weaken the seismic behaviors of columns. Its effects on RC columns should be well understood. This paper aims to investigate the influences of deteriorated segment on the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated RC columns and attempts to recover the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated columns with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composites. A finite element analysis was carried out to simulate the seismic behaviors of CFRP-confined partially deteriorated RC columns. The numerical results were verified by the laboratory tests of six specimens. Based on the finite element results, the failure location of partially deteriorated columns in an earthquake was predicted, and the effectiveness of CFRP retrofitted on partially deteriorated columns was evaluated.

  15. Segmental Kinematic Coupling of the Human Spinal Column during Locomotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-ru Zhao; Lei Ren; Lu-quan Ren; John R.Hutchinson; Li-mei Tian; Jian S.Dai

    2008-01-01

    As one of the most important daily motor activities, human locomotion has been investigated intensively in recent decades. The locomotor functions and mechanics of human lower limbs have become relatively well understood. However, so far our understanding of the motions and functional contributions of the human spine during locomotion is still very poor and simul-taneous in-vivo limb and spinal column motion data are scarce. The objective of this study is to investigate the delicate in-vivo kinematic coupling between different functional regions of the human spinal column during locomotion as a stepping stone to explore the locomotor function of the human spine complex. A novel infrared reflective marker cluster system was constructed using stereophotogrammetry techniques to record the 3D in-vivo geometric shape of the spinal column and the segmental position and orientation of each functional spinal region simultaneously. Gait measurements of normal walking were conducted. The preliminary results show that the spinal column shape changes periodically in the frontal plane during locomotion. The segmental motions of different spinal functional regions appear to be strongly coupled, indicating some synergistic strategy may be employed by the human spinal column to facilitate locomotion. In contrast to traditional medical imaging-based methods, the proposed technique can be used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the spinal column, hence providing more insight into the functional biomechanies of the human spine.

  16. A preliminary evaluation of the San Pedro daisy (Lasianthaea podocephala tuber powder, as a feed additive on the intensive culture of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martínez-Porchas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out during seven weeks to preliminarily evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of powder from the tuber Lasianthaeapodocephala, commonly known as the San Pedro daisy or pionilla, as a feed additive on the production parameters, food consumption, and nutritional condition of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, intensively farmed under laboratory conditions. Hypothetically, the additive should improve these parameters as it does when used for humans. The powder was included at different levels (0 [Control], 0.2 [T1] and 1 g kg-1 [T2] in a commercial shrimp feed. The tuber powder exhibited a free amino acid profile being arginine (8.59 mg g-1 and glutamine (3.36 mg g-1 the most abundant. Feed consumption was not influenced by any treatment; however, the survival and the overall production responses were higher in both treatments using the powder (T1 and T2 compared to the control. No significant differences were detected in muscle concentrations of lactate and glucose, although higher protein and lower cholesterol concentrations were observed in shrimp reared in the control. The lower cholesterol concentration of shrimp from the control could be associated to a poor nutritional status. In conclusion, addition of the powder of San Pedro daisy did not improve the feed consumption, but apparently had a positive effect on survival, production response and nutritional status of shrimp. These responses could be associated to an hypothetic effect of some plant components at a nutritional-molecular level, or to a possible antimicrobial effect; however, further specific studies are needed.

  17. Preliminary engineering report waste area grouping 5, Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks content removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that are removed from service are evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Five inactive LLLW tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9, located at the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Facility in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been evaluated and are now entering the remediation phase. As a precursor to final remediation, this project will remove the current liquid and sludge contents of each of the five tanks (System Requirements Document, Appendix A). It was concluded in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis [EE/CA] for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks (DOE 1996) that sluicing and pumping the contaminated liquid and sludge from the five OHF tanks was the preferred removal action. Evaluation indicated that this alternative meets the removal action objective and can be effective, implementable, and cost-effective. Sluicing and removing the tank contents was selected because this action uses (1) applicable experience, (2) the latest information about technologies and techniques for removing the wastes from the tanks, and (3) activities that are currently acceptable for storage of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste.

  18. Practical design of stepped columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girao Coelho, A.M.; Simao, P.D.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with buckling aspects of the design of stepped columns in heavy mill buildings. In these structures, columns have to carry significant axial loads that usually act eccentrically and strength reducing bending moments due to lateral loads. A simple physical model for buckling behaviou

  19. An Undergraduate Column Chromatography Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danot, M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for an experiment designed to introduce undergraduate students to the theoretical and technical aspects of column chromatography. The experiment can also be shortened to serve as a demonstration of the column chromatography technique. (JN)

  20. Column: Putting the Science in Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cohen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent study, digital forensics was found to lack a consensus around even the most basis notions and terminology of the field. To quote: “These two preliminary studies individually suggest that scientific consensus in the area of digital forensic evidence examination is lacking in the broad sense, but that different groups within that overall community may have limited consensus around areas in which they have special expertise, and that the current peerreviewed publication process is not acting to bring about the sorts of elements typically found in the advancement of a science toward such a consensus. ... perhaps the most significant challenge may be in the development of a common language to describe the field...”(see PDF for full column

  1. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  2. Preliminary establishment of the laboratory diagnostic test for malignant hyperthermia%恶性高热实验室诊断方法的初步建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖林; 郭向阳; 罗爱伦; 黄宇光; 叶铁虎; 任洪智; 谭刚; 崔旭蕾

    2008-01-01

    目的 初步建立恶性高热(MH)的实验室诊断方法-咖啡因-氟烷骨骼肌收缩试验(CHCT).方法 选取10头实验小型猪和1头皮特兰猪,肌肉注射氯胺酮和地西泮麻醉后,静脉注射硫喷妥钠5mg/kg和琥珀胆碱2mg/kg麻醉诱导后气管插管,机械通气,吸入2%~3%氟烷4 h,新鲜气流量为2 L/min,纯氧和空气各1 L/min.记录麻醉过程中及麻醉结束后48 h内MH的发生情况.气管插管后即刻取耳组织,采用常规酚氯仿方法提取基因组DNA,检测蓝尼定受体-1(RYR1)基因的突变情况.根据北美MH研究组的标准建立CHCT的实验装置,气管插管后即刻取股四头肌近肌腱部位的肌纤维,进行CHCT.结果 实验小型猪均未见MH发作,而皮特兰猪在麻醉过程中出现MH的特征性表现.RYR1基因检测显示,实验小型猪均为氟烷抗性基因型(HALNN);皮特兰猪为氟烷易感基因型(HALnn).CHCT结果表明,实验小型猪诊断为非MH易感猪,皮特兰猪诊断为MH易感猪.结论 .实验小型猪和皮特兰猪的CHCT诊断结果与特征性表现及RYR1基因检测结果均一致,初步验证本实验室CHCT设备的稳定性及测定结果的可靠性.%Objective To preliminarily establish laboratory diagnostic test for malignant hyperthermia (MH) -- caffeine and halothane contracture test (CHCT). Methods Ten Chinese experimental miniature pigs (CEMP) and one pietrain swine were selected in this study. The animals were anesthetized with ketamine and diasepam. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium 5 mg/kg and tracheal intubation was facilitated with suecinylcholine 2 mg/kg intravenously. The animals were mechanically ventilated and anesthesia was maintained with inhalation of 2%-3% halothane for4 h. Frash gas flow was set at 2 L/min and oxygen and air flow at 1 L/ min. All the aninals were observed whether the MH episodes were initiated or not during the process of anesthesia and 48 h after anesthesia. Ear tissues were removed immediately after

  3. Preparation and Characterization of a Polymeric Monolithic Column for Use in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindis, Michael P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.

    2011-01-01

    The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiment, most often done in the undergraduate analytical instrumentation laboratory course, generally illustrates reversed-phase chromatography using a commercial C[subscript]18 silica column. To avoid the expense of periodic column replacement and introduce a choice of columns with different…

  4. Preparation and Characterization of a Polymeric Monolithic Column for Use in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindis, Michael P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.

    2011-01-01

    The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiment, most often done in the undergraduate analytical instrumentation laboratory course, generally illustrates reversed-phase chromatography using a commercial C[subscript]18 silica column. To avoid the expense of periodic column replacement and introduce a choice of columns with different…

  5. Preliminary Results of an On-Line, Multi-Spectrometer Fission Product Monitoring System to Support Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Testing and Qualification in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John B. Walter; Mark W. Drigert

    2007-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 (AGR-1) experiment is the first experiment in a series of eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments scheduled for placement in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The experiment began irradiation in the ATR with a cycle that reached full power on December 26, 2006 and will continue irradiation for about 2.5 years. During this time six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The goals of the irradiation experiment is to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. This paper presents the preliminary test details of the fuel performance, as measured by the control and acquisition software.

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. Numerical models of Plinian eruption columns and pyroclastic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Wohletz, Kenneth H.

    1989-02-01

    Numerical simulations of physical processes governing the large-scale dynamics of Plinian eruption columns reveal conditions contributing to column collapse and emplacement of pyroclastic flows. The simulations are based on numerical solution of the time-dependent, two-phase, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for jets in a gravitational field. This modeling effort is directed toward studying the steady discharge phase of eruptions in contrast to our previous models of the initial, unsteady blast phase. Analysis of 51 eruption models covers a wide range of vent exit pressures, inertial and buoyancy driving forces, and coupling of energy and momentum between gas and pyroclasts. Consideration of three dimensionless groups (Richardson and Rouse numbers and thermogravitational parameter) facilitates this analysis and defines conditions leading to column collapse. For eruptions with similar particle size characteristics, exit pressure ratios are also very important in determining column behavior; column behavior is much more sensitive to exit pressure ratio than to the density ratio between the column and the atmosphere. Model eruption columns with exit pressures exceeding atmospheric pressure have diamond-shaped patterns at their bases with internal dynamics that correspond closely to observations of overpressured jets in laboratory experiments. Collapsing fountains form pyroclastic flows that consist of low-concentration fronts, relatively thick heads, vortex development along the top surfaces, and rising clouds of buoyant ash. The presence of coarse-grained proximal deposits primarily reflects tephra size sorting within the eruption column before collapse, as opposed to that which occurs during lateral transport of the material in pyroclastic flows. The dynamics and particle behavior in the proximal zone around collapsing eruption columns is examined; the modeling indicates that flow within a few kilometers of a vent will be at its highest particle concentration

  8. Water Column Sonar Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The collection and analysis of water column sonar data is a relatively new avenue of research into the marine environment. Primary uses include assessing biological...

  9. Leaching Behavior Of Mineral Processing Waste: Comparison Of Batch And Column Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a comparison of laboratory batch and column experiments on metal release profile from a mineral processing waste (MPW) is presented. Batch (equilibrium) and column (dynamic) leaching tests were conducted on ground MPW at different liquid–solid ratios (LS) to determ...

  10. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  11. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  12. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  13. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, Eγ = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) → Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  14. Stationary phase modulation in liquid chromatography through the serial coupling of columns: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Segura, T; Torres-Lapasió, J R; Ortiz-Bolsico, C; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2016-06-01

    Liquid chromatography with single columns often does not succeed in the analysis of complex samples, in terms of resolution and analysis time. A relatively simple solution to enhance chromatographic resolution is the modulation of the stationary phase through the serial coupling of columns. This can be implemented with any type of column using compatible elution conditions and conventional instruments. This review describes the key features of column coupling and published procedures, where two or more columns were coupled in series to solve separation problems. In all reports, the authors could not resolve their samples with single columns, whereas significant enhancement in chromatographic performance was obtained when the columns were combined. Particularly interesting is the reduction in the analysis time in the isocratic mode, which alleviates the "general elution problem" of liquid chromatography, and may represent a stimulus for the proposal of new procedures, especially in combination with mass spectrometric, electrochemical and refractometric detection. Developments proposed to make the serial coupling of columns useful in routine and research laboratories are outlined, including optimisation strategies that facilitate the selection of the appropriate column combination and elution conditions (solvent content, flow rate or temperature) in both isocratic and gradient modes. The availability of zero dead volume couplers, able to connect standard columns, and the commercialisation of short columns with multiple lengths, have expanded the possibilities of success.

  15. Revised Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J

    2006-04-11

    This document updates a previous calculation of the temperature distributions in a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion exchange column.1 LANL operates two laboratory-scale anion exchange columns, in series, to extract Pu-238 from nitric acid solutions. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has requested an updated analysis to calculate maximum temperatures for higher resin loading capacities obtained with a new formulation of the Reillex HPQ anion exchange resin. The increased resin loading capacity will not exceed 118 g plutonium per L of resin bed. Calculations were requested for normal operation of the resin bed at the minimum allowable solution feed rate of 30 mL/min and after an interruption of flow at the end of the feed stage, when one of the columns is fully loaded. The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades. At low temperatures, resin bed temperatures increase primarily due to decay heat. At {approx}70 C a Low Temperature Exotherm (LTE) resulting from the reaction between 8-12 M HNO{sub 3} and the resin has been observed. The LTE has been attributed to an irreversible oxidation of pendant ethyl benzene groups at the termini of the resin polymer chains by nitric acid. The ethyl benzene groups are converted to benzoic acid moities. The resin can be treated to permanently remove the LTE by heating a resin suspension in 8M HNO{sub 3} for 30-45 minutes. No degradation of the resin performance is observed after the LTE removal treatment. In fact, heating the resin in boiling ({approx}115-120 C) 12 M HNO{sub 3} for 3 hr displays thermal stability analogous to resin that has been treated to remove the LTE. The analysis is based on a previous study of the SRS Frames Waste Recovery (FWR) column, performed in support of the Pu-238 production campaign for NASA's Cassini mission. In that study, temperature transients

  16. Column Holdup Formula of Soil Solute Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The shortcomings of the present two formulae for describing column holdup are analyzed and deductions are made to find a new formula. The column holdup, Hw, described by the new formula is dimensional,and related to soil solute transport kinesis and column physical properties. Compared with the other two column holdups, Hw is feasible to describe dimensional column holdup during solute transport process. The relationships between Hw and retardation factor, R, in different solute transport boundary conditions are established.

  17. 应用脊椎操纵器顶椎双侧去旋转技术治疗特发性脊柱侧凸的早期疗效%Preliminary outcome of three-dimensional correction on idiopathic scoliosis by bilateral apical vertebral derotation by vertebral column manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙麟; 宋跃明; 刘立岷; 周春光; 安永刚; 龚全; 孔清泉

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估应用脊椎操纵器(vertebral column manipulation,VCM)顶椎双侧去旋转技术治疗特发性脊柱侧凸(idiopathic scoliosis,IS)的早期疗效.方法 2011年2~9月使用VCM去旋转技术治疗IS患者17例(VCM组),其中男6例,女11例,平均年龄14.3岁;Lenke 1型10例,2型7例;术前主弯Cobb角平均57.5°.2010年7月~2011年2月采用旋棒技术治疗IS患者18例(旋棒组),男6例,女12例,年龄平均14.5岁;Lenke 1型10例,2型8例;术前主弯Cobb角平均58.1°.手术采用后路椎弓根螺钉固定、VCM矫形或旋棒技术矫形以及同种异体骨植骨融合.以主弯Cobb角矫正率、胸椎后凸角、腰椎前凸角及顶椎椎体旋转角(rotation angle sagittal,RAsag)矫正率评价矫形情况.结果 所有患者成功完成手术,无严重并发症发生.VCM组Cobb角矫正率为(85.3±7.2)%,旋棒组为(79.4±11.4)%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).矫形后胸椎后凸角及腰椎前凸角2组之间差别无统计学意义(P>0.05).VCM组顶椎RAsag矫正率为(61.4±12.9)%,旋棒组为(26.1±20.6)%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).VCM组随访8.7个月,旋棒组13.4个月,随访期间未见明显的失代偿和矫形度数丢失(P>0.05).结论 VCM顶椎双侧去旋转技术是一种有效的IS矫形方法,三维矫形效果满意,去旋转矫形方面矫形效果明显.%Objective To evaluate the preliminary outcome of bilateral apical vertebral derotation by vertebral column manipulation ( VCM ) for the management of idiopathic scoliosis( IS ). Methods A total of 35 patients with IS undergoing posterior pedicle screw fixation,bilateral apical vertebral derotation by VCM or freehand derotation technique correction ,and allograft fusion were included in this study. Of all patients, 17 IS cases ( 6 males and 11 females ) were included in the VCM group from February to September 2011 with an average age of 14.3 years old. IS presented with Lenke type 1 ( n = 10 ), 2 ( n = 7 ). The average Cobb' s angle of

  18. Partially saturated granular column collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Barbara; Johnson, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows are gravity-driven sub-aerial mass movements containing water, sediments, soil and rocks. These elements lead to characteristics common to dry granular media (e.g. levee formation) and viscous gravity currents (viscous fingering and surge instabilities). The importance of pore fluid in these flows is widely recognised, but there is significant debate over the mechanisms of build up and dissipation of pore fluid pressure within debris flows, and the resultant effect this has on dilation and mobility of the grains. Here we specifically consider the effects of the liquid surface in the flow. We start with a simple experiment constituting a classical axisymmetric granular column collapse, but with fluid filling the column up to a depth comparable to the depth of grains. Thus, as the column collapses, capillary forces may be generated between the grains that prevent dilation. We explore a parameter space to uncover the effects of fluid viscosity, particle size, column size, aspect ratio, grain shape, saturation level, initial packing fraction and significantly, the effects of fine sediments in suspension which can alter the capillary interaction between wetted macroscopic grains. This work presents an initial scaling analysis and attempts to relate the findings to current debris flow modelling approaches.

  19. Increase the Visibility of Microbial Growth in a Winogradsky Column by Substituting Diatomaceous Earth for Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty students have seeing the color associated with microbial growth in a traditional Winogradsky column can be overcome by substituting diatomaceous earth (DE for sediment. Microbial growth in a DE column is visible from the early stages of ecological succession and the colors produced appear more vibrant. A flat-sided tissue culture flask can be used as a column container to provide a large surface area for observation. The enhanced visual experience provided by a DE column increases student engagement and learning. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices.

  20. Verificação intralaboratorial da performance obtida em método de determinação de ocratoxina A por purificação em coluna de imunoafinidade e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência usando café Verifying the performance in the determination of ochratoxin by immunoaffinity column cleanup and high performance liquid chromatography in a laboratory using single laboratory validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Mendes de Souza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A ocratoxina A é um contaminante que pode estar presente em vários alimentos e ser prejudicial tanto para a saúde quanto para a economia, então deve ser medida. Mas, para bem quantificar um analito, mesmo com o uso de métodos oficiais, é necessário verificar o sistema de medição; nisto se empregam requisitos de validação. Assim, procedeu-se a uma verificação intralaboratorial de método por purificação em coluna de imunoafinidade e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em amostras de café verde artificialmente contaminadas e medidas. Foi obtido o comportamento de medição esperado ao longo do analito, a faixa de trabalho teve o limite inferior entre 0,489 e 1,59 e o superior entre 220 e 300 μg.kg-1. A linearidade não foi rejeitada nesta faixa e não houve interferência externa significativa no modelo. O intercepto não diferiu significativamente da origem e o coeficiente linear não diferiu significativamente de 1,00. Os níveis de desvios padrão dependeram das concentrações estudadas, como ocorrido em diversas publicações, e os desvios padrão relativos não demonstraram inconformidade nos estudos colaborativos localizados. Concluiu-se pela competência do laboratório no método pesquisado, especialmente para café verde.Ochratoxin A is a food contaminant which can appear in several foods and can be harmful not only to human health, but also to the economy. In order to quantify properly an analite, even when using standard methods, it is necessary to check the validation method requirements. Therefore, a single laboratory validation of the method using immunoaffinity column and high performance liquid chromatography in spiked samples of ground green coffee beans was conducted. The evolution of the measurements along the analyte was sigmoid, as expected, and the range showed botton between 0.489 and 1.59, and top between 220 and 300 μg.kg-1, top. Linear regression was not rejected in this range and there was no

  1. Tapped granular column dynamics: simulations, experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, A. D.; Zuo, L.; Blackmore, D.; Wu, H.; Horntrop, D. J.; Parker, D. J.; Windows-Yule, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper communicates the results of a synergistic investigation that initiates our long term research goal of developing a continuum model capable of predicting a variety of granular flows. We consider an ostensibly simple system consisting of a column of inelastic spheres subjected to discrete taps in the form of half sine wave pulses of amplitude a/ d and period τ . A three-pronged approach is used, consisting of discrete element simulations based on linear loading-unloading contacts, experimental validation, and preliminary comparisons with our continuum model in the form of an integro-partial differential equation.

  2. Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓悠; 丁燕燕; 韩多妮; Ray; Carrie; 未冉

    2010-01-01

    <正>New York Whitney艺术双年展今年第75届纽约Whitney双年展不设题目,但以"2010"指示策展方向,继续以发掘年轻艺术家、展示创作实验为目标。参展的55位艺术家,最年轻的是23岁摄影师Tam Tran,最老资历的是75岁的概念艺术家Lorraine O’Grady。这届的另一先创性,是每位艺术家只限一件或一个系列的作品,避免了去届双年展的"小型个人回顾展"现象,而五层楼的展场各有特色,如录像及短片将独立于三楼展出,而美术馆馆藏则移师五楼。这届双年展由著名的意大利策展人Francesco Bonami联同助手Gary Carrion-Murayarn共同制作,两位策展人说明,双年展的重要性是预示未来,创新及前瞻性依然是取决原则。

  3. Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carrie Tsang; 丁燕燕; 韩多妮; RAY

    2009-01-01

    <正>Paris承诺的展现33岁的墨西哥艺术家Mario Garcia Torres是近年国际艺坛炙手可热的新星,他以录象、摄影、幻灯及装置为创作形式,透过个人视点及独特演绎手法来重新思考历史。他是一个思考型艺术家,同时又是一个淘气的大孩子,作品往往反映了他的双重性格——嬉戏中带有深沉的历史感。这次是GarciaTorres首次在法国的国家博物馆举行展览,整合出版了他过往两年间在

  4. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  5. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  6. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  7. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  8. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR). DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  9. Experimental engineering section off-gas decontamination facility's fractionator column: installation and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T. M.; Fowler, V. L.; Inman, D. J.

    1978-03-01

    A detailed description of the third column recently installed in the Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility (EES-ODF) is presented. The EES-ODF is being used to provide engineering-scale experiments (nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm, respectively) in the development of the Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO/sub 2/ (KALC) process. A detailed discussion of the column's construction is provided. This discussion includes the peripherals associated with the column, such as refrigeration, heat exchangers, instrumentation, etc. The compressibility of Goodloe packing (the packing in the other columns) and the possible reduced throughput due to this compression have revealed the desirablility of a random (i.e., noncompressible) packing. Toward this end, the third column is packed with a new random packing (PRO-PAK). A preliminary comparison between this packing and the woven wire mesh packing (Goodloe) used in the other two columns has been made. Experiments comparing the throughput capacity indicate that the PRO-PAK packing has approximately 60% the capacity of Goodloe for a CO/sub 2/ system. When used as a fractionator or stripper with the basic O/sub 2/-Kr-CO/sub 2/ KALC system, the PRO-PAK column produced HTU values less than or equal to the GOODLOE columns under similar operating conditions.

  10. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  11. Comparison of drug substance impurity profiles generated with extended length columns during packed-column SFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roston, D A; Ahmed, S; Williams, D; Catalano, T

    2001-10-01

    The current study assesses the effect of extending column length during gradient packed column sub/supercritical fluid chromatography (PCSFC) experiments on the detection of known and unknown impurities in a drug substance sample. Quantitative drug substance impurity profiles were generated and compared using multiple column PCSFC and HPLC conditions. Also, chromatographic figures of merit were estimated and compared for components of a standard mixture during PCSFC experiments, which used one column, four columns, and six columns in series.

  12. Water Column Methylation in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartup, A. T.; Calder, R.; Soerensen, A. L.; Mason, R. P.; Balcom, P. H.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and affects humans and wildlife through fish consumption. Many studies have measured active methylation/demethylation in ocean margin sediments but few have reported similar rates for the marine water column. This presentation will review available evidence for water column methylation in estuaries, including new experimental measurements of methylation/demethylation rates from a deep subarctic fjord in Labrador Canada collected in Spring and Fall of 2012-2013. We used these and other data to construct a mass budget for MeHg in the estuary and show that water column methylation (with rates ranging from 1.5 to 2.8 % day-1), is the largest contributor, followed by inputs from rivers (4.9 mol year-1), to the in situ pool of MeHg available for uptake by biota. By contrast, the sediment in this system is a net sink for MeHg (-1.5 mol year-1). We discuss the relationship between observed MeHg and other ancillary environmental factors (organic carbon, sulfur and nutrients) as well as implications for the response time of fish to future changes in mercury inputs.

  13. [Ion-pair chromatography-indirect ultraviolet detection for determination of tetraethyl ammonium using a monolithic column and a packed column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chunmiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yu, Hong; Guan, Chao; Wang, Miaoyu

    2015-07-01

    Two methods were developed for the determination of tetraethyl ammonium by ion-pair chromatography-indirect ultraviolet detection using a monolithic column and a packed column with ionic liquid as additive in mobile phase. Chromatographic separations were performed on a monolithic column and a packed column both on reversed phase using imidazolium ionic liquid aqueous solution-ion-pair reagent-organic solvent as mobile phase. The effects of the background ultraviolet absorption reagent, detection wavelength, ion-pair reagent, organic solvent, column temperature and flow rate on the determination of tetraethyl ammonium were investigated. The difference between the two chromatographic columns was compared and the retention rules were discussed. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, for tetraethyl ammonium on monolithic column and packed column, the retention times were 2.40 and 3.02 min; the detection limits (S/N=3), 0.04 and 0.07 mg/L; the RSDs (n = 5) for peak areas, 0.16% and 0.11%; and the RSDs (n=5) for retention times, 0.02% and 0.01%, respectively. The two methods have been successfully applied to the determination of tetraethyl ammonium ionic liquids synthesized by laboratory. The recoveries of the tetraethyl ammonium after spiking were 98.2% and 99.1%, respectively. The two methods can meet the requirements for the quantitative analysis of tetraethyl ammonium.

  14. Fast HPLC for quality control of Harpagophytum procumbens by using a monolithic silica column: method transfer from conventional particle-based silica column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander H

    2005-05-06

    The applicability of a monolithic C18-bonded silica column for the rapid HPLC separation of ingredients in medicinal plants and their phytopharmaceutical preparations has been evaluated in the author's laboratory. In this presentation, an existing method for the determination of the iridoid glycoside harpagoside in Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw) was successfully transferred from a conventional particle-based C18 silica column to a monolithic silica column. The very high porosity of the stationary phase allows chromatography with a much lower backpressure than on conventional columns. Therefore, the flow rate could be easily increased from 0.8 mL/min (particle-based column) to 5 mL/min (monolithic column) and the run-time reduced from 30 to 5 min (that is a reduction about 85% !), without losing any chromatographic resolution of the compound of interest. The amount of harpagoside was measured with the original method on a conventional particle-based silica column and on the adapted method on a monolithic silica column. The statistical mean t-test showed no significant differences of the variances and the means indicating that the fast HPLC method is an acceptable alternative. The shorter analysis time makes the method very valuable for commercial quality control of Harpagophytum extracts and its pharmaceutical preparations.

  15. Potential of preliminary test methods to predict biodegradation performance of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichberger, H; Hasinger, Marion; Braun, Rudolf; Loibner, Andreas P

    2005-03-01

    Preliminary tests at different scales such as degradation experiments (laboratory) in shaking flasks, soil columns and lysimeters as well as in situ respiration tests (field) were performed with soil from two hydrocarbon contaminated sites. Tests have been evaluated in terms of their potential to provide information on feasibility, degradation rates and residual concentration of bioremediation in the vadose zone. Sample size, costs and duration increased with experimental scale in the order shaking flasks - soil columns - lysimeter - in situ respiration tests, only time demand of respiration tests was relatively low. First-order rate constants observed in degradation experiments exhibited significant differences between both, different experimental sizes and different soils. Rates were in line with type and history of contamination at the sites, but somewhat overestimated field rates particularly in small scale experiments. All laboratory experiments allowed an estimation of residual concentrations after remediation. In situ respiration tests were found to be an appropriate pre-testing and monitoring tool for bioventing although residual concentrations cannot be predicted from in situ respiration tests. Moreover, this method does not account for potential limitations that might hamper biodegradation in the longer term but only reflects the actual degradation potential when the test is performed.

  16. Dynamic characterization of the Chamousset rock column before its fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, C.; Baillet, L.; Jongmans, D.

    2009-04-01

    that the progressive block decoupling, resulting from a crack propagation inside the mass, generates a decrease of the natural frequency, as it was measured on the site. These results highlight the interest to study the dynamic response of an unstable column for hazard assessment purposes. In a second phase, we studied the recorded impulsive signals in which we were able to identify P and S waves. Seismic experiments were performed in September 2008 on the plateau in order to constrain the ground velocity structure. Preliminary event location shows that the signal sources were located along the broken plane and probably result from micro-cracks along rock bridges.

  17. Laboratory studies of ocean mixing by microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John O.

    2011-11-01

    Ocean mixing plays a major role in nutrient and energy transport and is an important input to climate models. Recent studies suggest that the contribution of fluid transport by swimming microorganisms to ocean mixing may be of the same order of magnitude as winds and tides. An experimental setup has been designed in order to study the mixing efficiency of vertical migration of plankton. To this end, a stratified water column is created to model the ocean's density gradient. The vertical migration of Artemia Salina (brine shrimp) within the water column is controlled via luminescent signals on the top and bottom of the column. By fluorescently labelling portions of the water column, the stirring of the density gradient by the animals is visualized and quantified. Preliminary results show that the vertical movement of these organisms produces enhanced mixing relative to control cases in which only buoyancy forces and diffusion are present.

  18. A Simple Design to Realize Micro-column Separation by Conventional Analytical HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG,Wenjun; ZHANG,Junxia; ZHANG,Yuping; ZHANG,Yijun; TIAN,Mengkui; WU,Dafu

    2009-01-01

    The conventional analytical HPLC was successfully developed for micro-column separation by using a simple eluate splitting system,self-preparation of packing column and on-capillary column detector in our laboratory.Porous inlet frit in fused silica capillary was rapidly prepared by sintering stainless steel powders under 500 meshes for about 20 s.The use of such frits or metal meshes in capillary to retain C18 particles of chromatographic packing was demonstrated to be stable and specially robust with continuous packing and long chromatographic runs.Furthermore,the chromatographic behavior was detailedly evaluated by changing the flow rate and the percentage of mobile phase using the prepared capillary column.Under the optimal experimental conditions,baseline separation of the model analytes including thiourea,benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene was obtained with a high column efficiency near 70000N (plates/m) by the developed capillary-HPLC.

  19. Fate of triclocarban during soil aquifer treatment: Soil column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K

    2010-04-01

    There are current concerns about the presence of persistent chemicals in recharge water used in soil aquifer treatment systems. Triclocarban (TCC) has been reported as a persistent, high production volume chemical with the potential to bioaccumulate in the environment. It is also known to have adverse effects such as toxicity and suspected endocrine disruption. This study was carried out to study the fate of TCC in soil aquifer treatment (SAT) through laboratory simulations in a soil column. The system performance was evaluated with regards to TCC influent concentration, sand (column) depth, and residence time. Results obtained confirmed the ability of SAT to reduce TCC concentrations in wastewater. Sorption and biodegradation were responsible for TCC removal, the latter mechanism however being unsustainable. The removal efficiency was found to be dependent on concentration and decreased over time and increased with column depth. Within the duration of the experimental run, TCC negatively impacted on treatment performance through a reduction in COD removals observed in the column. © IWA Publishing 2010.

  20. Bubble Size Distribution in a Vibrating Bubble Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Wilson, Trevor; Valenzuela, Bret; Hinds, Tyler; Moseni, Kevin; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    While vibrating bubble columns have increased the mass transfer between phases, a universal scaling law remains elusive. Attempts to predict mass transfer rates in large industrial scale applications by extrapolating laboratory scale models have failed. In a stationary bubble column, mass transfer is a function of phase interfacial area (PIA), while PIA is determined based on the bubble size distribution (BSD). On the other hand, BSD is influenced by the injection characteristics and liquid phase dynamics and properties. Vibration modifies the BSD by impacting the gas and gas-liquid dynamics. This work uses a vibrating cylindrical bubble column to investigate the effect of gas injection and vibration characteristics on the BSD. The bubble column has a 10 cm diameter and was filled with water to a depth of 90 cm above the tip of the orifice tube injector. BSD was measured using high-speed imaging to determine the projected area of individual bubbles, which the nominal bubble diameter was then calculated assuming spherical bubbles. The BSD dependence on the distance from the injector, injector design (1.6 and 0.8 mm ID), air flow rates (0.5 to 5 lit/min), and vibration conditions (stationary and vibration conditions varying amplitude and frequency) will be presented. In addition to mean data, higher order statistics will also be provided.

  1. Elastic stability of non-uniform columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y.; Kuo, Y. H.

    1991-07-01

    A simple and efficient method is proposed to investigate the elastic stability of three different tapered columns subjected to uniformly distributed follower forces. The influences of the boundary conditions and taper ratio on critical buckling loads are investigated. The critical buckling loads of columns of rectangular cross section with constant depth and linearly varied width ( T1), constant width and linearly varied depth ( T2) and double taper ( T3) are investigated. Among the three different non-uniform columns considered, taper ratio has the greatest influence on the critical buckling load of column T3 and the lowest influence on that of column T1. The types of instability mechanisms for hinged-hinged and cantilever non-uniform columns are divergence and flutter respectively. However, for clamped-hinged and clamped-clamped non-uniform columns, the type of instability mechanism for column T1 is divergence, while that for columns T2 and T3 is divergence only when the taper ratio of the columns is greater than certain critical values and flutter for the rest value of taper ratio. When the type of instability mechanism changes from divergence to flutter, there is a finite jump for the critical buckling load. The influence of taper ratio on the elastic stability of cantilever column T3 is very sensitive for small values of the taper ratio and there also exist some discontinieties in the critical buckling loads of flutter instability. For a hinged-hinged non-uniform column ( T2 or T3) with a rotational spring at the left end of the column, when the taper ratio is less than the critical value the instability mechanism changes from divergence to flutter as the rotational spring constant is increased. For a clamped-elastically supported non-uniform column, when the taper ratio is greater than the critical value the instability mechanism changes from flutter to divergence as the translational spring constant is increased.

  2. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil columns packed to different bulk densities and water uptake by plantroots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi-Pisa, P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory metbod used to determine both the soil moisture retention curve and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in soil columns under transient flow conditions during evaporation.

  3. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  4. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  5. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  6. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  7. Temperature of Steel Columns under Natural Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wald

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Current fire design models for time-temperature development within structural elements as well as for structural behaviour are based on isolated member tests subjected to standard fire regimes, which serve as a reference heating, but do not model natural fire. Only tests on a real structure under a natural fire can evaluate future models of the temperature developments in a fire compartment, of the transfer of heat into the structure and of the overall structural behaviour under fire.To study overall structural behaviour, a research project was conducted on an eight storey steel frame building at the  Cardington Building Research Establishment laboratory on January 16, 2003. A fire compartment 11×7 m was prepared on the fourth floor. A fire load of 40 kg/m2 was applied with 100 % permanent mechanical load and 65 % of imposed load. The paper summarises the experimental programme and shows the temperature development of the gas in the fire compartment and of the fire protected columns bearing the unprotected floors.

  8. Determining the Influence of Groundwater Composition on the Performance of Arsenic Adsorption Columns Using Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, A. R.; Siegel, M.

    2004-12-01

    The USEPA has established a more stringent drinking water standard for arsenic, reducing the maximum contaminant level (MCL) from 50 μ g/L to 10 μ g/L. This will affect many small communities in the US that lack the appropriate treatment infrastructure and funding to reduce arsenic to such levels. For such communities, adsorption systems are the preferred technology based on ease of operation and relatively lower costs. The performance of adsorption media for the removal of arsenic from drinking water is dependent on site-specific water quality. At certain concentrations, co-occurring solutes will compete effectively with arsenic for sorption sites, potentially reducing the sorption capacity of the media. Due to the site-specific nature of water quality and variations in media properties, pilot scale studies are typically carried out to ensure that a proposed treatment technique is cost effective before installation of a full-scale system. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an approach to utilize rapid small-scale columns in lieu of pilot columns to test innovative technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of treatment in small communities. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) were developed to predict full-scale treatment of organic contaminants by adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). This process greatly reduced the time and costs required to verify performance of GAC adsorption columns. In this study, the RSSCT methodology is used to predict the removal of inorganic arsenic using mixed metal oxyhydroxide adsorption media. The media are engineered and synthesized from materials that control arsenic behavior in natural and disturbed systems. We describe the underlying theory and application of RSSCTs for the performance evaluation of novel media in several groundwater compositions. Results of small-scale laboratory columns are being used to predict the performance of pilot-scale systems and ultimately to design full

  9. Column flotation testing at Suncor Energy Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleyle, P.; Lee, L. [Suncor Energy Inc. Oil Sands, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The operations at Suncor's primary extraction plant were reviewed with reference to the column flotation process and the history of column flotation testing at Suncor. Tertiary bitumen recovery processes were also reviewed. In March and August 2005, an in-plant pilot scale column flotation test was conducted at Suncor's Millennium Primary Extraction plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta. The purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of using column flotation for tertiary bitumen recovery from cyclone overflow. The test was performed in a 4 ft diameter by 25 ft high column to determine the effects of column feed flow rate, froth wash water supply, and froth depth. The feed ranged from 0.14 to 3.79 wt per cent bitumen. Feed flow rate ranged from 59 to 237 USGPM. The test results indicated that wash water reduced froth mineral content. Increasing the wash water did not make any difference in mineral rejection. Although bitumen upgrading improved when the test column was operated at a deeper froth depth, the mineral content was not reduced. Both mechanical cell and flotation column tailings samples were collected in the flotation column tests. The average tailings composition for the last cell in the tertiary mechanical bank was 0.22 per cent bitumen, 12.10 per cent mineral, and 87.66 per cent water. At an average test column feed rate of 158 USGPM, the average tailings composition was 0.23 per cent bitumen, 12.13 per cent mineral, and 87.62 per cent water. It was concluded that flotation columns are capable of producing a tailings product similar to that of the tertiary mechanical bank. Therefore, it is feasible to use flotation columns as an alternative to mechanical cells. In fact, since there are no rotating parts requiring off-line maintenance work, flotation columns may be a better alternative from a maintenance and operations perspective. tabs., figs.

  10. Deformation Monitoring of Retrofitted Short Concrete Columns with Laser Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, E. Ö.; Celik, M. F.; Binbir, E.; Arslan, A. E.; Çokkeçeci, D.; Seker, D. Z.; Pala, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents one of the applications of monitoring mechanical tests carried out in Construction Materials Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. In Turkey, as in many countries, large amount of existing buildings exposed to seismic hazard, therefore various analytical and experimental studies are being conducted to contribute to the solution of the problem. One of the new generation retrofitting techniques is to strength the structural members by using Fiber Reinforcing Polymer (FRP). This study summarize the results of monitoring of deformations short concrete column samples under the incremental compression load. In this study, result of two rectangular short columns are given. One of them was tested as a reference sample, the other sample were tested after strengthening by PET reinforced polymer composite materials. Besides conventional displacement and strain measurement systems, laser scanning method was used to get three dimensional deformed shape of sample at each selected steps.

  11. Oscillating water column structural model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the publicly available Laboratory for Breast Radiodensity Assessment (LIBRA) software tool: comparison of fully automated area and volumetric density measures in a case-control study with digital mammography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keller, Brad M; Chen, Jinbo; Daye, Dania; Conant, Emily F; Kontos, Despina

    2015-01-01

    .... We investigated associations between breast cancer and fully automated measures of breast density made by a new publicly available software tool, the Laboratory for Individualized Breast Radiodensity Assessment (LIBRA...

  13. On-line testing of a horizontally-baffled flotation column in an operating coal-cleaning plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisele, T.C.; Kawatra, S.K. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    1995-10-01

    A horizontal-baffle arrangement has been developed to prevent excessive axial mixing in flotation columns. These baffles have been shown in previous work to improve the grade/recovery performance of both a laboratory-scale column and a pilot-scale column. In this paper, results are given for continuous on-line operation of the pilot-scale baffled column in a commercial coal-cleaning plant. These results show its ability to operate for extended periods without plugging, to produce a consistent-quality product even while the feed quality was fluctuating, and to remove much of the pyritic sulfur from the coal.

  14. Study on a continuous heat integrated distillation column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenchur, T.; Govind, R.

    1987-12-01

    A novel continuous heat integrated distillation column called a concentric column has been studied using computer simulation. It is shown that a concentric column is a novel implementation of a thermodynamically reversible distillation column and has a lower energy loss than an ordinary distillation column. Their studies show that a concentric column has reduced column height, since the stripping section is configured concentrically around the rectifying section, and uses less utilities than a conventional column.

  15. The jet flotation column control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhiqiang; Ming Shangzhi; Liu Lijian; Huangfu Jinghua; Huo Sen; Zhang Rongzeng [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Mineral Processing Dept.; Yang Hongjun [Hebi Coal Mine Administrative (China)

    1998-12-31

    Compared with the conventional mechanical flotation column, the jet flotation column has the advantages of high selectivity of separation, low investment and production cost, low floor space requirement, low dosage of reagent, easy control; it is more suitable to process fine particles. Recently, many new types of flotation columns have been developed with new methods. Mineral Processing Dept., China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing) designed an aerated, double-jet flotation column in the lab and the industrial trial will be put into operation. One of the significant characteristics of the new type of flotation column is high selectivity of separation, fast bubble mineralization speed. As it is sensitive to various factors, a control system for flotation column has been developed to stabilize the working condition, and this set of control system has been operated in the lab experiment.

  16. SNAP-TITE Composite Column Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Recent earthquakes throughout the world have demonstrated the vulnerabilities of older reinforced concrete columns to seismic deformation demands. The Snap Tite Composite Column Reinforcement strengthens a concrete column by confining it in an external composite jacket, which prevents the concrete from expanding during seismic activity or prolonged freeze-thaw cycles. The pre-manufactured fiberglass jacket is comprised of glass fibers and corrosion resistant isopolyester resins.

  17. Parametric resonance in concrete beam-columns

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma,Mamta R.; Singh,Arbind K; Benipal,Gurmail S

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic instability, called parametric resonance, is exhibited by undampedelastic beam-columns when under the action of pulsating axial force. The scope of the existing theory of parametric resonance is restricted to physically linear beam-columns undergoing finite lateral displacements. In this Paper, the dynamic behaviour of physically nonlinear elastic cracked concrete beam-columns under pulsating axial force and constant lateral force is investigated. The constitutive equations derived ...

  18. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  19. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  20. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  1. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  2. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  3. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  4. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  5. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  6. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  7. Learning Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  8. Transport of contaminants from energy-process-waste leachates through subsurface soils and soil components: laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangen, L.E.; Stallings, E.A.; Walker, R.D.

    1982-08-01

    The subsurface transport and attenuation of inorganic contaminants common to a variety of energy process waste leachates are being studied using laboratory column methods. Anionic species currently being emphasized are As, B, Mo, and Se. Transport of the cations Cd and Ni is also being studied. The solid adsorbents consist of three soil mineral components (silica sand, kaolinite, and goethite), and four subsurface soils (a dunal sand, an oxidic sandy clay loam, an acidic clay loam, and an alkaline clay loam). Breakthrough patterns of these species from packed soil columns are followed by monitoring eluent concentrations vs time under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. This report describes the experimental methods being used, the results of preliminary batch adsorption studies, and the results of column experiments completed through calendar year 1981. Using column influent concentrations of about 10 mg/l, adsorption (mmoles/100 g) has been determined from the eluent volume corresponding to 50% breakthrough. On silica sand, kaolinite, dunal sand, and goethite, respectively, these are 2.0 x 10/sup -4/, 0.020, 0.013, and 0.31 for cadmium, 4.4 x 10/sup -4/, 0.039, 0.020, and 0.98 for nickel. On kaolinite, dunal sand, and goethite, respectively, adsorption values (mmoles/100 g) are As (0.24, 0.019, and 20.5), B (0.041, 0.0019, and 1.77), Mo (0.048, 0.0010, and 5.93), and Se (0.029, 0.00048, and 1.30). Arsenic is the most highly adsorbed contaminant species and goethite has the largest adsorption capacity of the adsorbents.

  9. 考虑火灾全过程的钢管混凝土组合框架力学性能初步研究%Preliminary Research on Mechanical Behavior of Composite Frame with Concrete-filled Steel Tubular Columns after Exposure to Overall Stage of Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景玄; 张鹏鹏; 王文达

    2012-01-01

    In order to simulate the real fire resistance in the projects, this paper presented a finite element model(FEM) of concrete-filled steel tubular(CFST) columns and composite beam single-story-single-span planar frame after exposure to overall stage of fire based on ABAQUS. The whole phases including loading at ambient, heating, cooling and post-fire, which followed the ISO-834 standard fire curve. The temperature model was established with the determinations of thermal parameters of steel and core concrete. The temperature distribution of CFST columns and composite beam was calculated using FEM. The mechanical behavior of CFST columns and composite beam frame working in entire stage of fire was discussed in this paper. The result shows that: The CFST composite frame still has high bearing capacity after exposure to overall stage of fire due to the heat absorption and the constraint function of reinforced concrete floor. The results of this paper can provide a basis for fire-damage assessment of composite beam frame with CFST columns.%为进一步研究真实火灾工况下钢管混凝土组合框架的抗火性能,基于有限元软件ABAQUS建立了单层单跨圆形钢管混凝土柱-组合梁平面框架经历火灾全过程的数值分析模型.通过合理选取热工参数,进行了组合框架在ISO-834标准升降温曲线下的热传分析,研究了组合框架钢管混凝土柱与组合梁截面温度场的变化规律;在热传模型的基础上,通过合理选取材料本构模型、单元类型、边界条件以及网格划分等,对经历常温加载、升温、降温以及火灾后的钢管混凝土柱-组合梁平面框架的力学性能进行初步探讨.结果表明,由于钢筋混凝土楼板在受火过程中的吸热与约束作用使组合框架在受火后仍具有较高承载力.该方法可进一步完善钢管混凝土结构抗火分析理论,也可供实际工程应用参考.

  10. Rasch models with exchangeable rows and columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    The article studies distributions of doubly infinite binary matrices with exchangeable rows and columns which satify the further property that the probability of any $m \\times n$ submatrix is a function of the row- and column sums of that matrix. We show that any such distribution is a (unique...... of existence of measures with given marginals....

  11. Influence of tray hydraulics on tray column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.; Azink, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    To column control, in contrast to column design, tray hold-up and dependencies of tray hold-up on the operating conditions play an important role. The essence of this article is the development of an improved model of tray hydraulics over a broad operating range and its experimental validation by

  12. Chemometrics applications in biotechnology processes: predicting column integrity and impurity clearance during reuse of chromatography resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag S; Mittal, Shachi; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Separation media, in particular chromatography media, is typically one of the major contributors to the cost of goods for production of a biotechnology therapeutic. To be cost-effective, it is industry practice that media be reused over several cycles before being discarded. The traditional approach for estimating the number of cycles a particular media can be reused for involves performing laboratory scale experiments that monitor column performance and carryover. This dataset is then used to predict the number of cycles the media can be used at manufacturing scale (concurrent validation). Although, well accepted and widely practiced, there are challenges associated with extrapolating the laboratory scale data to manufacturing scale due to differences that may exist across scales. Factors that may be different include: level of impurities in the feed material, lot to lot variability in feedstock impurities, design of the column housing unit with respect to cleanability, and homogeneity of the column packing. In view of these challenges, there is a need for approaches that may be able to predict column underperformance at the manufacturing scale over the product lifecycle. In case such an underperformance is predicted, the operators can unpack and repack the chromatography column beforehand and thus avoid batch loss. Chemometrics offers one such solution. In this article, we present an application of chemometrics toward the analysis of a set of chromatography profiles with the intention of predicting the various events of column underperformance including the backpressure buildup and inefficient deoxyribonucleic acid clearance.

  13. RHEOLOGY OF SETTLED SOLIDS IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, C.; Prior, M.; Koopman, D.; Edwards, T.

    2011-06-20

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank as process housing. This method includes the addition of monosodium titanate (MST) to a waste tank containing salt solution and entrained sludge solids, followed by tank mixing and filtration. The filtrate is then processed through in-tank ion exchange columns containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) media. While the process is operating, it is known that solid particles begin to settle in the tank and temperatures may reach beyond 45 C. Previous testing has shown that sludge-MST slurries that sit for extended periods at elevated temperatures can develop large shear strengths, making them difficult to resuspend and remove from the tank. The authors conducted rheological testing of mixtures containing various concentrations of sludge simulant, MST, and CST (three preparations) that were aged at different times (i.e., 0 to 13 weeks) and isothermally maintained to 30, 45, or 60 C. Two types of grinding methodologies were employed to prepare CST for this testing, herein called Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) ground materials. Unground CST particles were also tested. A small number of samples were irradiated prior to 4 week settling and 60 C temperature treatment, with exposures ranging from 0 to 100 MRad. Additional tests are also being conducted that will allow the solid particles to settle at 45 C for 6, 12, and 24 months. The objectives of this task are to determine the impact of feed composition, settling time, and temperature on the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency of the slurries and to determine the impact of radiation on slurry rheology. The testing will determine the relative impact of these parameters rather than predict the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency as a function of feed and operating conditions. This

  14. Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Column CO2: Airborne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Heaps, W. S.; Mao, J.; Andrews, A. E.; Burris, J. F.; Miodek, M.; Georgieva, E.

    2002-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 measurements are essential to resolving significant discrepancies in our understanding of the global carbon budget and, hence, humankind's role in global climate change. The science measurement requirements for CO2 are, however, extremely demanding (precision approximately 0.3%). We are developing a novel application of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to detect spectral absorption of reflected sunlight by CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere that should be able to achieve sufficient sensitivity and signal-to-noise to measure column CO2 at the target specification. We are currently constructing a prototype instrument for deployment on aircraft. The aircraft version will measure total column CO2 and CO2 below the aircraft as well as O2, which allows normalization of CO2 column amounts for varying surface height and pressure. This instrument will be a valuable asset in carbon budget field studies as well as a useful tool for evaluating existing and future space-based CO2 measurements. We will present the instrument concept, sensitivity calculations, and the results of testing a bench system in the laboratory and outdoors on the ground. We will also discuss our plan for deployment on the aircraft and potential flight applications to the CO2 budget problem.

  15. Methodology for optimally sized centrifugal partition chromatography columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Sébastien; Marchal, Luc; Jérémy Meucci; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Legrand, Jack; Foucault, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) is a separation process based on the partitioning of solutes between two partially miscible liquid phases. There is no solid support for the stationary phase. The centrifugal acceleration is responsible for both stationary phase retention and mobile phase dispersion. CPC is thus a process based on liquid-liquid mass transfer. The separation efficiency is mainly influenced by the hydrodynamics of the phases in each cell of the column. Thanks to a visualization system, called "Visual CPC", it was observed that the mobile phase can flow through the stationary phase as a sheet, or a spray. Hydrodynamics, which directly governs the instrument efficiency, is directly affected during scale changes, and non-linear phenomena prevent the successful achievement of mastered geometrical scale changes. In this work, a methodology for CPC column sizing is proposed, based on the characterization of the efficiency of advanced cell shapes, taking into account the hydrodynamics. Knowledge about relationship between stationary phase volume, cell efficiency and separation resolution in CPC allowed calculating the optimum cell number for laboratory and industrial scale CPC application. The methodology is highlighted with results on five different geometries from 25 to 5000 mL, for two applications: the separation of alkylbenzene by partitioning with heptane/methanol/water biphasic system; and the separation of peptides by partitioning with n-butanol/acetic acid/water (4/1/5) biphasic system. With this approach, it is possible to predict the optimal CPC column length leading to highest productivity.

  16. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were applied to specimens while being subjected to simulated building fire conditions in a laboratory furnace. Several parameters from the experimental results were comparatively analyzed, including the temperature change, vertical displacement, lateral deflection, fire endurance, and failure characteristics of specimens. The temperature field of specimens was simulated with ABAQUS Software (ABAQUS Inc., Provindence, RI, USA and the results agreed quite well with those from the experiments. Results show that the rate of heat transfer from the surface to the interior of the column increases with the increase of the concrete’s compressive strength for both RAC columns and normal concrete columns. Under the same initial axial force ratio, for columns with the same cross section, those with lower concrete compressive strengths demonstrate better fire resistance performance. The fire resistance performance of RAC columns is better than that of normal concrete columns, with the same concrete compressive strength.

  17. A study of thin-walled Taylor column under the influence of rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kuan-Ruei; Chu, Chin-Chou; Chang, Chien-Cheng

    2016-11-01

    An extended study of thin-walled Taylor column under the influence of rotating cylinder is presented with very consistent results in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments. In the previous set-up, the Taylor column effect is produced under the influence of protruded cylinder from the top lid, and the thin-walled Taylor column is formed by draining of the fluid at the bottom. The primary interest of this study is to investigate the influence to thin-walled Taylor column when the cylinder is exerted with a relative rotation rate under very small Rossby number (Ro = U / fR) and Ekman number (Ek = ν / fR2) . The flow patterns are performed with different cylinder height ratios (h/ H) along with varying relative rotation ratio of cylinder to the background α = ω / Ω . Steady-state solutions being solved numerically in the rotating frame are shown to have good agreements with experimental flow visualizations on the resulting appearance of deformed thin-walled Taylor columns. As a result, the thin-walled Taylor column is observed to strengthen up with increasing α, and weakens with decreasing α. In addition, the weakening thin-walled Taylor column is observed to experience a break through transition near the bottom, which penetration diverged the recirculating region into two portions. Supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, TAIWAN ROC, Contract No's 103-2221-E002-099-MY3; 105-2221-E002-097-MY3.

  18. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Bian, Jianhui; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-12-08

    In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were applied to specimens while being subjected to simulated building fire conditions in a laboratory furnace. Several parameters from the experimental results were comparatively analyzed, including the temperature change, vertical displacement, lateral deflection, fire endurance, and failure characteristics of specimens. The temperature field of specimens was simulated with ABAQUS Software (ABAQUS Inc., Provindence, RI, USA) and the results agreed quite well with those from the experiments. Results show that the rate of heat transfer from the surface to the interior of the column increases with the increase of the concrete's compressive strength for both RAC columns and normal concrete columns. Under the same initial axial force ratio, for columns with the same cross section, those with lower concrete compressive strengths demonstrate better fire resistance performance. The fire resistance performance of RAC columns is better than that of normal concrete columns, with the same concrete compressive strength.

  19. Analytical and Experimental Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability of Beam-Column Joints without Transverse Reinforcement in Concrete Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wael Mohammed

    Beam-column joints in concrete buildings are key components to ensure structural integrity of building performance under seismic loading. Earthquake reconnaissance has reported the substantial damage that can result from inadequate beam-column joints. In some cases, failure of older-type corner joints appears to have led to building collapse. Since the 1960s, many advances have been made to improve seismic performance of building components, including beam-column joints. New design and detailing approaches are expected to produce new construction that will perform satisfactorily during strong earthquake shaking. Much less attention has been focused on beam-column joints of older construction that may be seismically vulnerable. Concrete buildings constructed prior to developing details for ductility in the 1970s normally lack joint transverse reinforcement. The available literature concerning the performance of such joints is relatively limited, but concerns about performance exist. The current study aimed to improve understanding and assessment of seismic performance of unconfined exterior and corner beam-column joints in existing buildings. An extensive literature survey was performed, leading to development of a database of about a hundred tests. Study of the data enabled identification of the most important parameters and the effect of each parameter on the seismic performance. The available analytical models and guidelines for strength and deformability assessment of unconfined joints were surveyed and evaluated. In particular, The ASCE 41 existing building document proved to be substantially conservative in joint shear strength estimation. Upon identifying deficiencies in these models, two new joint shear strength models, a bond capacity model, and two axial capacity models designed and tailored specifically for unconfined beam-column joints were developed. The proposed models strongly correlated with previous test results. In the laboratory testing phase of

  20. The vertebral column of the Regourdou 1 Neandertal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Madelaine, Stéphane; Maureille, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    The Regourdou 1 partial skeleton was found in 1957 in level IV of the eponymous site located in Montignac-sur-Vézère (Dordogne, France) and until now it has been only partially published. The ongoing revision of the faunal remains from the site has yielded additional fossils that pertain to this skeleton. Here we study the vertebral column of this individual, providing for the first time detailed descriptions for all of the fossils and reassessing the anatomical position of all of the fragments. The vertebral column of Regourdou 1 is one of the most complete in the Neandertal fossil record with at least 20 pre-sacral vertebrae (seven cervicals, nine thoracic and four lumbars), a partial sacrum and a fragmentary first coccygeal vertebra. When compared with modern humans, the vertebrae of Regourdou 1 display significant metric differences, and fit well within the range of Neandertal variability. A preliminary analysis of the most complete thoracic vertebrae of this individual indicates that Neandertals displayed significant differences from modern humans in the thoracic spine, which adds to the differences already observed in the cervical and lumbar regions. Finally, we have also observed mild signs of osteoarthrosis, albeit to a lower degree of that present in other Neandertals such as La Chapelle-aux-Saints, La Ferrassie 1 or Shanidar 3. This is consistent with the younger adult age for Regourdou 1.

  1. Highly efficient capillary columns packed with superficially porous particles via sequential column packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, James W; Wyndham, Kevin D; Jorgenson, James W

    2015-11-27

    Highly efficient capillary columns packed with superficially porous particles were created for use in ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography. Superficially porous particles around 1.5μm in diameter were packed into fused silica capillary columns with 30, 50, and 75μm internal diameters. To create the columns, several capillary columns were serially packed from the same slurry, with packing progress plots being generated to follow the packing of each column. Characterization of these columns using hydroquinone yielded calculated minimum reduced plate heights as low as 1.24 for the most efficient 30μm internal diameter column, corresponding to over 500,000plates/m. At least one highly efficient column (minimum reduced plate height less than 2) was created for all three of the investigated column inner diameters, with the smallest diameter columns having the highest efficiency. This study proves that highly efficient capillary columns can be created using superficially porous particles and shows the efficiency potential of these particles.

  2. Structural model for the dynamic buckling of a column under constant rate compression

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzkin, Vitaly A

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic buckling behavior of a column (rod, beam) under constant rate compression is considered. The buckling is caused by prescribed motion of column ends toward each other with constant velocity. Simple model with one degree of freedom simulating static and dynamic buckling of a column is derived. In the case of small initial disturbances the model yields simple analytical dependencies between the main parameters of the problem: critical force, compression rate, and initial disturbance. It is shown that the time required for buckling is inversely proportional to cubic root of compression velocity and logarithmically depends on the initial disturbance. Analytical expression for critical buckling force as a function of compression velocity is derived. It is shown that in a range of compression rates typical for laboratory experiments the dependence is accurately approximated by a power law with exponent equal to $2/3$. Theoretical findings are supported by available results of laboratory experiments. Keywords...

  3. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  4. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  5. Elastomers Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Primary capabilities include: elastomer compounding in various sizes (micro, 3x5, 8x12, 8x15 rubber mills); elastomer curing and post curing (two 50-ton presses, one...

  6. A Computer-Interfaced Drop Counter as an Inexpensive Fraction Collector for Column Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara T.

    2008-01-01

    A computer-interfaced drop counter is described that serves as an inexpensive alternative to a fraction collector for column chromatography experiments. Undergraduate biochemistry laboratories frequently do not have the budget to purchase fraction collectors. Protocols that call for the manual measurement of fraction volumes as well as the manual…

  7. A Computer-Interfaced Drop Counter as an Inexpensive Fraction Collector for Column Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara T.

    2008-01-01

    A computer-interfaced drop counter is described that serves as an inexpensive alternative to a fraction collector for column chromatography experiments. Undergraduate biochemistry laboratories frequently do not have the budget to purchase fraction collectors. Protocols that call for the manual measurement of fraction volumes as well as the manual…

  8. Environmental Characterization of Mine Countermeasure Test Ranges: Hydrography and Water Column Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    the performance characteristics of laser imaging systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as...5 IMPACT/APPLICATIONS This work is an important aspect of the transition of laser imaging systems to the fleet for mine countermeasure...Environmental Characterization of Mine Countermeasure Test Ranges: Hydrography and Water Column Optics David A. Phinney Bigelow Laboratory for

  9. Dynamic Effects of Diabatization in Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic eects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation with primary focus on the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, rst-principle model has been formulated, which is exible to describe various diabatic distillation congurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found. Control...

  10. Dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation emphasizing the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, first-principle model has been formulated, which is flexible enough to describe various diabatic distillation configurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found and control...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.756 - Beams and columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (.46 m) from the extreme outer face of the column in each direction at the top of the column shaft. (e) Perimeter columns. Perimeter columns shall not be erected unless: (1) The perimeter columns extend a minimum of 48 inches (1.2 m) above the finished floor to permit installation of perimeter safety cables prior...

  12. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  13. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  14. Electroosmotic Driving Liquid Using Nanosilica Packed Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xin CHEN; Guo An LUO; Tao WEN

    2005-01-01

    The electroosmotic pump (EOP) using nanosilica particles packed-bed column was experimentally studied. The relationship between flowrate, pressure and applied voltage of the pump, and pressure-flowrate (P-Q) characteristic were investigated.

  15. Early development of the vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaal, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The segmental organization of the vertebrate body is most obviously visible in the vertebral column, which consists of a series of vertebral bones and interconnecting joints and ligaments. During embryogenesis, the vertebral column derives from the somites, which are the primary segments of the embryonic paraxial mesoderm. Anatomical, cellular and molecular aspects of vertebral column development have been of interest to developmental biologists for more than 150 years. This review briefly summarizes the present knowledge on early steps of vertebral column development in amniotes, starting from sclerotome formation and leading to the establishment of the anatomical bauplan of the spine composed of vertebral bodies, vertebral arches, intervertebral discs and ribs, and their specific axial identities along the body axis.

  16. Modeling Tropical Precipitation in a Single Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Adam H.; Bretherton, Christopher S.

    2000-12-01

    A modified formulation of the traditional single column model for representing a limited area near the equator is proposed. This formulation can also be considered a two-column model in the limit as the area represented by one of the columns becomes very large compared to the other. Only a single column is explicitly modeled, but its free tropospheric temperature, rather than its mean vertical velocity, is prescribed. This allows the precipitation and vertical velocity to be true prognostic variables, as in prior analytical theories of tropical precipitation. Two models developed by other authors are modified according to the proposed formulation. The first is the intermediate atmospheric model of J. D. Neelin and N. Zeng, but with the horizontal connections between columns broken, rendering it a set of disconnected column models. The second is the column model of N. O. Rennó, K. A. Emanuel, and P. H. Stone. In the first model, the set of disconnected column models is run with a fixed temperature that is uniform in the Tropics, and insolation, SST, and surface wind speed taken from a control run of the original model. The column models produce a climatological precipitation field that is grossly similar to that of the control run, despite that the circulation implied by the column models is not required to conserve mass. The addition of horizontal moisture advection by the wind from the control run substantially improves the simulation in dry regions. In the second model the sensitivity of the modeled steady-state precipitation and relative humidity to varying SST and wind speed is examined. The transition from shallow to deep convection is simulated in a `Lagrangian' calculation in which the column model is subjected to an SST that increases in time. In this simulation, the onset of deep convection is delayed to a higher SST than in the steady-state case, due to the effect of horizontal moisture advection (viewed in a Lagrangian reference frame). In both of the

  17. Nonlinear control of high purity distillation columns

    OpenAIRE

    Groebel, Markus; Allgöwer, Frank; Storz, Markus; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    1994-01-01

    Two simple models of distillation columns are studied to investigate their suitability for the practical use with exact I/O-linearization. An extension of exact I/O-linearization, the asymptotically exact I/O-linearization is applied to the control of a high purity distillation column, using one of these models to derive the static state feedback law. Simulation studies demonstrate the advantage of asymptotically exact I/O-linearization versus classical exact I/O-linearization techniques. Exp...

  18. The Dissipative Column: A New Hysteretic Damper

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Palazzo; Paolo Castaldo; Ivana Marino

    2015-01-01

    A new replaceable hysteretic damper to better control seismic building damage, consisting of two or more adjacent steel vertical elements connected to each other with continuous mild/low strength steel shear links, is proposed and investigated in this paper. New Dampers, called Dissipative Columns (DC), continuously linked with X-shaped steel plates, provide additional stiffness and damping to a lateral system by using a basic and minimally invasive construction element: the column. Working i...

  19. Fuzzy Based composition Control of Distillation Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru.R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a control scheme based on fuzzy logic for a methanol - water system of bubble cap distillation column. Fuzzy rule base and Inference System of fuzzy (FIS is planned to regulatethe reflux ratio (manipulated variable to obtain the preferred product composition (methanol for a distillation column. Comparisons are made with conventional controller and the results confirmed the potentials of the proposed strategy of fuzzy control.

  20. The handedness of historiated spiral columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzin, Robert

    2016-11-17

    Trajan's Column in Rome (AD 113) was the model for a modest number of other spiral columns decorated with figural, narrative imagery from antiquity to the present day. Most of these wind upwards to the right, often with a congruent spiral staircase within. A brief introductory consideration of antique screw direction in mechanical devices and fluted columns suggests that the former may have been affected by the handedness of designers and the latter by a preference for symmetry. However, for the historiated columns that are the main focus of this article, the determining factor was likely script direction. The manner in which this operated is considered, as well as competing mechanisms that might explain exceptions. A related phenomenon is the reversal of the spiral in a non-trivial number of reproductions of the antique columns, from Roman coinage to Renaissance and baroque drawings and engravings. Finally, the consistent inattention in academic literature to the spiral direction of historiated columns and the repeated publication of erroneous earlier reproductions warrants further consideration.

  1. Gas Chromatograph Method Optimization Trade Study for RESOLVE: 20-meter Column v. 8-meter Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huz, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    RESOLVE is the payload on a Class D mission, Resource Prospector, which will prospect for water and other volatile resources at a lunar pole. The RESOLVE payload's primary scientific purpose includes determining the presence of water on the moon in the lunar regolith. In order to detect the water, a gas chromatograph (GC) will be used in conjunction with a mass spectrometer (MS). The goal of the experiment was to compare two GC column lengths and recommend which would be best for RESOLVE's purposes. Throughout the experiment, an Inficon Fusion GC and an Inficon Micro GC 3000 were used. The Fusion had a 20m long column with 0.25mm internal diameter (Id). The Micro GC 3000 had an 8m long column with a 0.32mm Id. By varying the column temperature and column pressure while holding all other parameters constant, the ideal conditions for testing with each column length in their individual instrument configurations were determined. The criteria used for determining the optimal method parameters included (in no particular order) (1) quickest run time, (2) peak sharpness, and (3) peak separation. After testing numerous combinations of temperature and pressure, the parameters for each column length that resulted in the most optimal data given my three criteria were selected. The ideal temperature and pressure for the 20m column were 95 C and 50psig. At this temperature and pressure, the peaks were separated and the retention times were shorter compared to other combinations. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 operated better at lower temperature mainly due to the shorter 8m column. The optimal column temperature and pressure were 70 C and 30psig. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 8m column had worse separation than the Inficon Fusion 20m column, but was able to separate water within a shorter run time. Therefore, the most significant tradeoff between the two column lengths was peak separation of the sample versus run time. After performing several tests, it was concluded that better

  2. Studies and research concerning BNFP pilot-scale pulsed columns: column profile and holdup studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermak, A. F.

    1980-11-01

    Experimental studies were conducted on pilot-scaled pulsed columns for the purpose of obtaining data for verification of contactor computer programs. This work is in support of safeguards programs related to determination of near real-time inventories in pulsed columns. Holdup tests were performed resulting in the derivation of an empirical equation for estimation of the dispersed phase holdup in a column. Uranium solvent extraction mass-transfer tests were conducted in which all four process cycles were simulated under coprocessing flowsheet conditions. Extensive data were obtained during these tests on uranium profiles and inventories within the columns. Transient profile data were also determined between selected runs under the tested operating conditions. No concentration peaks could be observed during the transient period. Based on the extensive inventory data taken, empirical equations were developed for relating uranium inventory in a column to the test parameters. These equations were found useful for predicting and estimating the column inventory under the known run conditions.

  3. RETENTION TIME EFFECT ON METAL REMOVAL BY PEAT COLUMNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E

    2007-02-28

    The potential use of a peat bed to treat the H-12 Outfall discharge to bring it to new compliance limits was previously investigated and reported utilizing a 7 hour retention time. The influence of retention time (contact time) of water with peat moss on the removal of copper from the water was investigated under laboratory conditions using vertical flow peat moss columns. Reduction of the necessary retention time has a large influence on the design sizing of any peat bed that would be constructed to treat the H-12 discharge on a full scale basis. Retention times of 5 hours, 3 hours and 1 hour were tested to determine the copper removal by the peat columns using vertical flow. Water samples were collected after 4, 8, 12, and 16 water volumes had passed through the columns and analyzed for a suite of metals, with quantitative emphasis on copper. Laboratory results indicated that copper removal was very high at each of the 3 retention times tested, ranging from 99.6 % removal at 5 and 3 hours to 98.8% removal at 1 hour. All these values are much lower that the new compliance limit for the outfall. The results also indicated that most divalent metals were removed to their normal reporting detection limit for the analytical methods used, including zinc. Lead levels in the H-12 discharge used in this study were below PQL in all samples analyzed. While each of the retention times studied removed copper very well, there were indications that 1 hour is probably too short for an operational, long-term facility. At that retention time, there was about 6% compaction of the peat in the column due to the water velocity, and this may affect long term hydraulic conductivity of the peat bed. At that retention time, copper concentration in the effluent was higher than the other times tested, although still very low. Because of the potential compacting and somewhat reduced removal efficiency at a 1 hour retention time, it would be prudent to design to at least a 3 hour retention

  4. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  5. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  6. Column Selection for Biomedical Analysis Supported by Column Classification Based on Four Test Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenis, Alina; Rekowska, Natalia; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-01-21

    This article focuses on correlating the column classification obtained from the method created at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL), with the chromatographic resolution attained in biomedical separation. In the KUL system, each column is described with four parameters, which enables estimation of the FKUL value characterising similarity of those parameters to the selected reference stationary phase. Thus, a ranking list based on the FKUL value can be calculated for the chosen reference column, then correlated with the results of the column performance test. In this study, the column performance test was based on analysis of moclobemide and its two metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography (LC), using 18 columns. The comparative study was performed using traditional correlation of the FKUL values with the retention parameters of the analytes describing the column performance test. In order to deepen the comparative assessment of both data sets, factor analysis (FA) was also used. The obtained results indicated that the stationary phase classes, closely related according to the KUL method, yielded comparable separation for the target substances. Therefore, the column ranking system based on the FKUL-values could be considered supportive in the choice of the appropriate column for biomedical analysis.

  7. Column flotation of bitumen at Fort Hills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizama, H.M. [Teck Cominco, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Romero, D. [UTS Energy Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Armour, M. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Flotation columns are used by mineral processors to separate mineral species. The separation is based on the premise that different mineral particles have different surface hydrophobicities. There are 2 carrier phases, notably air bubbles moving up and aqueous pulp moving down. Hydrophobic particles predominantly adhere to rising air bubbles and form a froth, while hydrophilic particles remain in aqueous suspension and flow down and out the bottom of the column. This paper described a demonstration plant near Fort McMurray where bitumen extraction was tested. The plant included 2 columns for bitumen flotation. Oil sands material was passed through a roll sizer and fed to a countercurrent drum separator, where it was mixed with water at 75 degrees C. Column data from the demonstration plant provided the opportunity to examine the separation behaviour during flotation of bitumen. The bitumen grade was described only in terms of bitumen content and solids content in order to simplify the interpretation of the bitumen flotation data. Bitumen/solids separation in the first column was successful at 50 to 60 degrees C, with feeds having bitumen grades between 1 and 19 per cent, and where the solids had about 60 per cent fines. Bitumen/solids separation did not occur in the second column at 50 to 60 degrees C, with feeds having bitumen grades between 8 and 63 per cent, and where the solids had about 90 per cent fines. The lack of separation was probably due to high solids entrainment in the flotation froth. It was concluded that bitumen column flotation data can be analyzed and interpreted by adopting mineral processing principles. Bitumen/solids separation can be evaluated and predicted by plotting solids recovery as a function of bitumen recovery. 7 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  8. Design and Prototype of an Automated Column-Switching HPLC System for Radiometabolite Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdev, Neil; Collier, Thomas Lee

    2016-08-17

    Column-switching high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is extensively used for the critical analysis of radiolabeled ligands and their metabolites in plasma. However, the lack of streamlined apparatus and consequently varying protocols remain as a challenge among positron emission tomography laboratories. We report here the prototype apparatus and implementation of a fully automated and simplified column-switching procedure to allow for the easy and automated determination of radioligands and their metabolites in up to 5 mL of plasma. The system has been used with conventional UV and coincidence radiation detectors, as well as with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  9. Design and Prototype of an Automated Column-Switching HPLC System for Radiometabolite Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Vasdev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Column-switching high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC is extensively used for the critical analysis of radiolabeled ligands and their metabolites in plasma. However, the lack of streamlined apparatus and consequently varying protocols remain as a challenge among positron emission tomography laboratories. We report here the prototype apparatus and implementation of a fully automated and simplified column-switching procedure to allow for the easy and automated determination of radioligands and their metabolites in up to 5 mL of plasma. The system has been used with conventional UV and coincidence radiation detectors, as well as with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  10. Post Column Derivatization Using Reaction Flow High Performance Liquid Chromatography Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Pravadali-Cekic, Sercan; Hua, Stanley; Kocic, Danijela; Camenzuli, Michelle; Dennis, Gary; Shalliker, Andrew

    2016-04-26

    A protocol for the use of reaction flow high performance liquid chromatography columns for methods employing post column derivatization (PCD) is presented. A major difficulty in adapting PCD to modern HPLC systems and columns is the need for large volume reaction coils that enable reagent mixing and then the derivatization reaction to take place. This large post column dead volume leads to band broadening, which results in a loss of observed separation efficiency and indeed detection in sensitivity. In reaction flow post column derivatization (RF-PCD) the derivatization reagent(s) are pumped against the flow of mobile phase into either one or two of the outer ports of the reaction flow column where it is mixed with column effluent inside a frit housed within the column end fitting. This technique allows for more efficient mixing of the column effluent and derivatization reagent(s) meaning that the volume of the reaction loops can be minimized or even eliminated altogether. It has been found that RF-PCD methods perform better than conventional PCD methods in terms of observed separation efficiency and signal to noise ratio. A further advantage of RF-PCD techniques is the ability to monitor effluent coming from the central port in its underivatized state. RF-PCD has currently been trialed on a relatively small range of post column reactions, however, there is currently no reason to suggest that RF-PCD could not be adapted to any existing one or two component (as long as both reagents are added at the same time) post column derivatization reaction.

  11. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  12. Robust Matrix Completion with Corrupted Columns

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yudong; Caramanis, Constantine; Sanghavi, Sujay

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of matrix completion, when some number of the columns are arbitrarily corrupted, potentially by a malicious adversary. It is well-known that standard algorithms for matrix completion can return arbitrarily poor results, if even a single column is corrupted. What can be done if a large number, or even a constant fraction of columns are corrupted? In this paper, we study this very problem, and develop an efficient algorithm for its solution. Our results show that with a vanishing fraction of observed entries, it is nevertheless possible to succeed in performing matrix completion, even when the number of corrupted columns grows. When the number of corruptions is as high as a constant fraction of the total number of columns, we show that again exact matrix completion is possible, but in this case our algorithm requires many more -- a constant fraction -- of observations. One direct application comes from robust collaborative filtering. Here, some number of users are so-called mani...

  13. RDX degradation in bioaugmented model aquifer columns under aerobic and low oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Andaya, Christina; Rezes, Rachel; Michalsen, Mandy M; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Alon Blakeney, G; Istok, Jonathan D; Hammett, Steven A

    2017-07-01

    Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in laboratory columns following biostimulation and bioaugmentation was investigated using sediment and groundwater from a contaminated aquifer at a US Navy facility. No RDX degradation was observed following aerobic biostimulation with either fructose or lactate (both 0.1 mM) prior to bioaugmentation. Replicate columns were then bioaugmented with either Gordonia sp. KTR9, Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C (Ps I-C), or both strains. Under aerobic conditions (influent dissolved oxygen (DO) >6 mg/L), RDX was degraded following the addition of fructose, and to a lesser extent with lactate, in columns bioaugmented with KTR9. No degradation was observed in columns bioaugmented with only Ps I-C under aerobic conditions, consistent with the known anaerobic RDX degradation pathway for this strain. When influent DO was reduced to RDX degradation was observed in the KTR9-bioaugmented column, and some degradation was also observed in the Ps I-C-bioaugmented column. After DO levels were kept below 1 mg/L for more than a month, columns bioaugmented with KTR9 became unresponsive to fructose addition, while RDX degradation was still observed in the Ps I-C-bioaugmented columns. These results indicate that bioaugmentation with the aerobic RDX degrader KTR9 could be effective at sites where site geology or geochemistry allow higher DO levels to be maintained. Further, inclusion of strains capable of anoxic RDX degradation such as Ps I-C may facilitate bimodal RDX removal when DO levels decrease.

  14. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  15. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  16. Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices for determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at the U.S. Geological Survey California District Organic Chemistry Laboratory, 1996-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Baker, Lucian M.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2000-01-01

    A method of analysis and quality-assurance practices were developed to study the fate and transport of pesticides in the San Francisco Bay-Estuary by the U.S. Geological Survey. Water samples were filtered to remove suspended-particulate matter and pumped through C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract the pesticides. The cartridges were dried with carbon dioxide and the pesticides were eluted with three cartridge volumes of hexane:diethyl ether (1:1) solution. The eluants were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. Method detection limits for pesticides ranged from 0.002 to 0.025 microgram per liter for 1-liter samples. Recoveries ranged from 44 to 140 percent for 25 pesticides in samples of organic-free reagent water and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Bay water fortified at 0.05 and 0.50 microgram per liter. The estimated holding time for pesticides after extraction on C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges ranged from 10 to 257 days.

  17. Buckling driven debonding in sandwich columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    A compression loaded sandwich column that contains a debond is analyzed using a geometrically non-linear finite element model. The model includes a cohesive zone along one face sheet/core interface whereby the debond can extend by interface crack growth. Two geometrical imperfections are introduced......; a global imperfection of the sandwich column axis and a local imperfection of the debonded face sheet axis. The model predicts the sandwich column to be very sensitive to the initial debond length and the local face sheet imperfection. The study shows that the sensitivity to the face sheet imperfection...... results from two mechanisms: (a) interaction of local debond buckling and global buckling and (b) the development of a damaged zone at the debond crack tip. Based on the pronounced imperfection sensitivity, the author predicts that an experimental measurement of the strength of sandwich structures may...

  18. Non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Patrick R.; Wheeler, David R.

    2007-09-25

    A non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column comprises a planar substrate having a plurality of through holes, a top lid and a bottom lid bonded to opposite surfaces of the planar substrate, and inlet and outlet ports for injection of a sample gas and elution of separated analytes. A plurality of such planar substrates can be aligned and stacked to provide a longer column length having a small footprint. Furthermore, two or more separate channels can enable multi-channel or multi-dimensional gas chromatography. The through holes preferably have a circular cross section and can be coated with a stationary phase material or packed with a porous packing material. Importantly, uniform stationary phase coatings can be obtained and band broadening can be minimized with the circular channels. A heating or cooling element can be disposed on at least one of the lids to enable temperature programming of the column.

  19. Computational analysis of ozonation in bubble columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones-Bolanos, E. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]|[Univ. de Cartagena, Facultad de Ciencias e Ingenieria, Cartagena de Indias (Colombia); Zhou, H.; Otten, L. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: hzhou@uoguelph.ca

    2002-06-15

    This paper presents a new computational ozonation model based on the principle of computational fluid dynamics along with the kinetics of ozone decay and microbial inactivation to predict the performance of ozone disinfection in fine bubble columns. The model can be represented using a mixture two-phase flow model to simulate the hydrodynamics of the water flow and using two transport equations to track the concentration profiles of ozone and microorganisms along the height of the column, respectively. The applicability of this model was then demonstrated by comparing the simulated ozone concentrations with experimental measurements obtained from a pilot scale fine bubble column. One distinct advantage of this approach is that it does not require the prerequisite assumptions such as plug flow condition, perfect mixing, tanks-in-series, uniform radial or longitudinal dispersion in predicting the performance of disinfection contactors without carrying out expensive and tedious tracer studies. (author)

  20. Methylmercury production in the marine water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, G.; Davies, I. M.

    1981-03-01

    Although the biosynthesis of methylmercury in sediments is well established1, this is not necessarily the exclusive natural source of methylmercury entering the marine food chain, particularly commercial fish and shellfish species for human consumption. An examination of mercury levels in freshwater fish2, collected from a lake with a history of industrial mercury contamination, suggested that levels in fish are controlled in part by mercury in suspension and it followed that methylation should occur in the water column. Although methylmercury is present in seawater in coastal areas receiving discharges of waste containing either inorganic mercury3 or methylmercury4 there is no evidence that methylmercury is actually formed in the water column. We now present data which demonstrate that inorganic mercury can be methylated in the water column and we compare this production with that known to occur in marine sediments.

  1. Neutron camera employing row and column summations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonts, Lloyd G.; Diawara, Yacouba; Donahue, Jr, Cornelius; Montcalm, Christopher A.; Riedel, Richard A.; Visscher, Theodore

    2016-06-14

    For each photomultiplier tube in an Anger camera, an R.times.S array of preamplifiers is provided to detect electrons generated within the photomultiplier tube. The outputs of the preamplifiers are digitized to measure the magnitude of the signals from each preamplifier. For each photomultiplier tube, a corresponding summation circuitry including R row summation circuits and S column summation circuits numerically add the magnitudes of the signals from preamplifiers for each row and for each column to generate histograms. For a P.times.Q array of photomultiplier tubes, P.times.Q summation circuitries generate P.times.Q row histograms including R entries and P.times.Q column histograms including S entries. The total set of histograms include P.times.Q.times.(R+S) entries, which can be analyzed by a position calculation circuit to determine the locations of events (detection of a neutron).

  2. Accelerating selected columns of the density matrix computations via approximate column selection

    CERN Document Server

    Damle, Anil; Ying, Lexing

    2016-01-01

    Localized representation of the Kohn-Sham subspace plays an important role in quantum chemistry and materials science. The recently developed selected columns of the density matrix (SCDM) method [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 1463, 2015] is a simple and robust procedure for finding a localized representation of a set of Kohn-Sham orbitals from an insulating system. The SCDM method allows the direct construction of a well conditioned (or even orthonormal) and localized basis for the Kohn-Sham subspace. The SCDM procedure avoids the use of an optimization procedure and does not depend on any adjustable parameters. The most computationally expensive step of the SCDM method is a column pivoted QR factorization that identifies the important columns for constructing the localized basis set. In this paper, we develop a two stage approximate column selection strategy to find the important columns at much lower computational cost. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this process using a dissociation process of a BH$_{3}...

  3. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between

  4. Retention Models on Core-Shell Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandera, Pavel; Hájek, Tomáš; Růžičková, Marie

    2017-07-13

    A thin, active shell layer on core-shell columns provides high efficiency in HPLC at moderately high pressures. We revisited three models of mobile phase effects on retention for core-shell columns in mixed aqueous-organic mobile phases: linear solvent strength and Snyder-Soczewiński two-parameter models and a three-parameter model. For some compounds, two-parameter models show minor deviations from linearity due to neglect of possible minor retention in pure weak solvent, which is compensated for in the three-parameter model, which does not explicitly assume either the adsorption or the partition retention mechanism in normal- or reversed-phase systems. The model retention equation can be formulated as a function of solute retention factors of nonionic compounds in pure organic solvent and in pure water (or aqueous buffer) and of the volume fraction of an either aqueous or organic solvent component in a two-component mobile phase. With core-shell columns, the impervious solid core does not participate in the retention process. Hence, the thermodynamic retention factors, defined as the ratio of the mass of the analyte mass contained in the stationary phase to its mass in the mobile phase in the column, should not include the particle core volume. The values of the thermodynamic factors are lower than the retention factors determined using a convention including the inert core in the stationary phase. However, both conventions produce correct results if consistently used to predict the effects of changing mobile phase composition on retention. We compared three types of core-shell columns with C18-, phenyl-hexyl-, and biphenyl-bonded phases. The core-shell columns with phenyl-hexyl- and biphenyl-bonded ligands provided lower errors in two-parameter model predictions for alkylbenzenes, phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds in comparison with C18-bonded ligands.

  5. Complex osteotomies vertebral column resection and decancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Ibrahim; Bourghli, Anouar; Boissière, Louis; Vital, Jean-Marc; Barrey, Cédric

    2014-07-01

    Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is nowadays widely used to treat sagittal imbalance. Some complex malalignment cases cannot be treated by a PSO, whereas the imbalance is coronal or mixed or the sagittal imbalance is major and cannot be treated by a single PSO. The aim of this article was to review these complex situations--coronal imbalance, mixed imbalance, two-level PSO, vertebral column resection, and vertebral column decancellation, and to focus on their specificities. It wills also to evoke the utility of navigation in these complex cases.

  6. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed Using CaSDB MOF for Xe/Kr Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Processing of spent nuclear fuel produces off-gas from which several volatile radioactive components must be separated for further treatment or storage. As part of the Off-gas Sigma Team, parallel research at INL and PNNL has produced several promising sorbents for the selective capture of xenon and krypton from these off-gas streams. In order to design full-scale treatment systems, sorbents that are promising on a laboratory scale must be proven under process conditions to be considered for pilot and then full-scale use. To that end, a bench-scale multi-column system with capability to test multiple sorbents was designed and constructed at INL. This report details bench-scale testing of CaSDB MOF, produced at PNNL, and compares the results to those reported last year using INL engineered sorbents. Two multi-column tests were performed with the CaSDB MOF installed in the first column, followed with HZ-PAN installed in the second column. The CaSDB MOF column was placed in a Stirling cryocooler while the cryostat was employed for the HZ-PAN column. Test temperatures of 253 K and 191 K were selected for the first column while the second column was held at 191 K for both tests. Calibrated volume sample bombs were utilized for gas stream analyses. At the conclusion of each test, samples were collected from each column and analyzed for gas composition. While CaSDB MOF does appear to have good capacity for Xe, the short time to initial breakthrough would make design of a continuous adsorption/desorption cycle difficult, requiring either very large columns or a large number of smaller columns. Because of the tenacity with which Xe and Kr adhere to the material once adsorbed, this CaSDB MOF may be more suitable for use as a long-term storage solution. Further testing is recommended to determine if CaSDB MOF is suitable for this purpose.

  7. Copper biosorption on immobilized seaweed biomass: column breakthrough characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The biosorption of copper by the brown seaweed Sargassum baccularia, immobilized onto polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel beads, was investigated with fixed-bed experiments. Laboratory-scale column tests were performed to determine breakthrough curves with varying flow rates and feed concentrations. A theoretical fixed-bed model, known as the Bohart-Adams equation, was evaluated in simulating the experimental breakthrough curves. The Bohart-Adams model qualitatively predicted the breakthrough trends. PVA-immobilized seaweed biomass beads were amenable to efficient regeneration with aqueous solution containing the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The biosorbent retained most of its original uptake capacity over three cycles of use. The excellent reusability of the biosorbent could lead to the development of a viable metal remediation technology.

  8. Column flotation in coal: does it make `cents?`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Column flotation technology was introduced into the coal industry in 1986. The column can produce higher grade concentrates than conventional cells. This has created a niche market for columns in recovering ultrafine (-100 mesh) coal from waste streams. However, column flotation is much more expensive than froth flotation and columns can only process a maximum of 20 tons per hour per unit and consume more reagents than conventional cells. Researchers at Michigan Technological University have found that baffles along the axis of a column vastly improved performance. Today only two companies in the US participate in the column flotation market, ICF Kaiser and Deister.

  9. This Month in Astronomical History: Preliminary Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This Month in Astronomical History is a short (~500 word) column on the AAS website that revisits significant astronomical events or the lives of people who have made a large impact on the field. The monthly column began in July 2016 at the request of the Historical Astronomical Division. Examples of topics that have been covered include Comet Shoemaker-Levy’s collision with Jupiter, the discovery of the moons of Mars, the life of Edwin Hubble, Maria Mitchell’s comet discovery, and the launch of Sputnik II. A survey concerning the column is in progress to ensure the column addresses the interests and needs of a broad readership, including historians, educators, research astronomers, and the general public. Eleven questions focus on the style and content of the column, while eight collect simple demographics. The survey has been available on the AAS website since and was mentioned in several AAS newsletters; however, non-members of AAS were also recruited to include respondents from a variety of backgrounds. Preliminary results of the survey are presented and will be used to hone the style and content of the column to serve the widest possible audience. Responses continue to be collected at: https://goo.gl/forms/Lhwl2aWJl2Vkoo7v1

  10. Sample Disturbance in Resonant Column Test Measurement of Small-Strain Shear-Wave Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Nicola; Stokoe, K. H.

    The accurate assessment of dynamic soil properties is a crucial step in the solution process of geotechnical earthquake engineering problems. The resonant column test is one of the ordinary procedures for dynamic characterization of soil. In this paper, the impact of sample disturbance on the resonant column test measurement of small-strain S-wave velocity is examined. Sample disturbance is shown to be a function of the ratio of the laboratory to field S-wave velocities: Vs, lab/Vs,field. The influence of four parameters - soil stiffness, soil plasticity index, in-situ sample depth and in-situ effective mean confining pressure - on sample disturbance is investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively. The relative importance of each parameter in predicting the small-strain field S-wave velocity from the resonant column test values is illustrated and predictive equations are presented.

  11. Application of column tests and electrical resistivity methods for leachate transport monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wychowaniak Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of the human civilization leads to the pollution of environment. One of the contamination which are a real threat to soil and groundwater are leachates from landfills. In this paper the solute transport through soil was considered. For this purpose, the laboratory column tests of chlorides tracer and leachates transport on two soil samples have been carried out. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity method was applied as auxiliary tool to follow the movements of solute through the soil column what allowed to compare between the results obtained with column test method and electrical resistivity measurements. Breakthrough curves obtained by conductivity and resistivity methods represents similar trends which leads to the conclusion about the suitability of electrical resistivity methods for contamination transport monitoring in soil-water systems.

  12. Effect of sulfate fertilization on soil biota in grassland columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoyi, Israel; Donohue, John; Fowler, Andrew; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2017-04-01

    Sulfur (S) is an important macronutrient element in plant nutrition as a component of protein, enzymes, enzyme cofactors as well as being the major constituent of the amino acids cysteine and methionine. Organically bound S is the predominant form of S in the soil constituting up to 95% of S in agricultural soils. The most important form of S in terms of plant nutrition is inorganic sulfate which forms only about 5% of the total soil S content. Air pollution was the major source of S (as SO2) for plants, with up to 80% of the S obtained from this source. However, common effects of S limitation on crops such as chlorosis, yield reduction, and decrease in crop quality are becoming increasingly evident as atmospheric S supply has decreased in recent years. Recent research has shown that organically-bound S in soils is also plant-bioavailable, likely due to interconversion of organic S forms to inorganic sulfate by soil microbes. In this study, soil columns were setup in a greenhouse using moderate S (equivalent to Wisconsin S soil availability index of below 30) soils. The columns were planted with Lolium perenne and fertilized with 0 (control), 5 (low), 10 (medium) and 20 (high) kg/ha sulfate S alongside a full complement of other nutrients. Results after 14 weeks of management show a significant decrease (Pfertilization. In addition, soil from the top 20 cm of the column had significantly higher sulfatase activity compared to the bottom 20 cm. The medium and high S treatments had significantly higher grass dry matter yield compared to the control and low S treatments. All S treatments significantly shifted the bacterial community structure compared to the control. Overall, our preliminary results suggest that applying 5 kg/ ha S had similar effects on the soil biota as the control while the application of medium and high S had similar effects on most parameters. Moreover, this study has shown that S should not be overlooked in grassland nutrition as is often the

  13. The industrial practice and development of flotation column in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jiongtian; Zhang Shuangquan [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept. of Energy Utilization and Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    This paper reviewed the developing course of the flotation column since the 1960`s in China. Based on the practical data from several coal preparation plants, two types of flotation columns (the pressure aerated column and the jetting-cyclone column) were compared by their operation, performance and the reasons why they succeeded in the coal industry in China. The paper points out that the flotation column has come into commercial use and has good application prospects in China.

  14. Wall-Friction Support of Vertical Loads in Submerged Sand and Gravel Columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, O. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vollmer, H. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hepa, V. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Laboratory studies of the ‘floor-loads’ under submerged vertical columns of sand and/or gravel indicate that such loads can be approximated by a buoyancy-corrected Janssen-silo-theory-like relationship. Similar to conditions in storage silos filled with dry granular solids, most of the weight of the sand or gravel is supported by wall friction forces. Laboratory measurements of the loads on the floor at the base of the water-filled columns (up to 25-diameters tall) indicate that the extra floor-load from the addition of the granular solid never exceeded the load that would exist under an unsupported (wide) bed of submerged sand or gravel that has a total depth corresponding to only two column-diameters. The measured floorloads reached an asymptotic maximum value when the depth of granular material in the columns was only three or four pipe-diameters, and never increased further as the columns were filled to the top (e.g. up to heights of 10 to 25 diameters). The floor-loads were stable and remained the same for days after filling. Aggressive tapping (e.g. hitting the containing pipe on the outside, manually with a wrench up and down the height and around the circumference) could increase (and occasionally decrease) the floor load substantially, but there was no sudden collapse or slumping to a state without significant wall friction effects. Considerable effort was required, repeatedly tapping over almost the entire column wall periphery, in order to produce floor-loads that corresponded to the total buoyancy-corrected weight of granular material added to the columns. Projecting the observed laboratory behavior to field conditions would imply that a stable floor-load condition, with only a slightly higher total floor pressure than the preexisting hydrostatic-head, would exist after a water-filled bore-hole is filled with sand or gravel. Significant seismic vibration (either a large nearby event or many micro-seismic events over an extended period) would likely

  15. Virtual Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  16. Type of adsorbent and column height in adsorption process of used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnelly, Hervelly, Taufik, Yusman; Melany, Ivo Nila

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to find out the best adsorbent and column height that can adsorb color and soluble impurities substances in used cooking oil. This research was meant for knowledge development of refined cooking oil technology. The used of this research was giving out information on the recycling process of used cooking oil. Research design used 2 × 2 factorial pattern in randomized group design with 6 repetitions. The first factor is adsorbent type (J) that consist of activated carbon (J1) and Zeolit (J2). The second factor is column height (K) with variations of 15 cm (k1) and 20 cm (k2). Chemical analysis parameter are free fatty acid, water content and saponification value. Physical parameter measurement was done on color with Hunter Lab system analysis and viscosity using viscometer method. Chemical analysis result of preliminary research on used cooking oil showed water content of 1,9%, free fatty acid 1,58%, saponification value 130,79 mg KOH/g oil, viscosity 0,6 d Pas and color with L value of -27,60, a value 1,04 and b value 1,54. Result on main research showed that adsorbent type only gave effect on water content whereas column height and its interaction was not gave significant effect on water content. Interaction between adsorbent type (J) and column height (K) gave significant effect to free fatty acid, saponification value, viscosity and color for L, a and b value of recycled cooking oil.

  17. Reducing axial mixing in flotation columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Taweel, A.M.; Ramadan, A.M. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax (Canada). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Moharam, M.R.; Hassan, T.A. [Al Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt); El Mofty, S.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The axial mixing characteristics of a pilot-scale flotation column were investigated with the objective of identifying means to mitigate the extent of axial mixing that adversely affects its grade/recovery performance. A wide range of design and operating conditions wa investigated and the experimental results, obtained using the dynamic response method, were analyzed using three axial mixing models. The dynamic response of the column can best be described using the axial dispersion model. The results obtained suggest that the value of the axial dispersion coefficient, E{sub L}, can be significantly reduced by judicial selection of hydrodynamic conditions and/or the use of column inserts that suppress the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to the operation of conventional flotation columns. Up to 40% reduction in the value of E{sub L} was thus obtained by using spargers that produce more uniform bubble sizes, while up to 30% reductions were obtained by controlling the residual frother concentration. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  18. On Row Rank Equal Column Rank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    We will prove a well-known theorem in Linear Algebra, that is, for any "m x n" matrix the dimension of row space and column space are the same. The proof is based on the subject of "elementary matrices" and "reduced row-echelon" form of a matrix.

  19. Robust Geometric Control of a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Andersen, Henrik Weisberg

    1987-01-01

    A frequency domain method, which makes it possible to adjust multivariable controllers with respect to both nominal performance and robustness, is presented. The basic idea in the approach is that the designer assigns objectives such as steady-state tracking, maximum resonance peaks, bandwidth, m...... is used to examine and improve geometric control of a binary distillation column....

  20. The Special Column of Primate Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoguo LI; Guest Editor

    2010-01-01

    @@ It is a long-term policy to publish SPECIAL COLUMNs in Current Zoology, and I am delighted that the journal is publishing this special colunm devoted to the topic of Primate Behavior. The eight papers in this seetion present significant new data and synthesize these findings with existing information on sexual selection of human-being and behaviors of living primates.

  1. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  2. WATER COLUMN DATA AND SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water samples collected monthly, for 18 months, from six sites in the Laguna Madre were analyzed to identify and quantify phytopigments using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In addition, water column pigment and nutrient data were acquired at 12 stations in Upper ...

  3. Flexural buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Twilt, L.; Soetens, F.

    2009-01-01

    In order to study buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns, a finite element model is developed. The results of this model are verified with experiments. Based on a parametric study with the finite element model, it is concluded that the simple calculation model for flexural buckling of fire expos

  4. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by…

  5. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by…

  6. NOTA PRÉVIA SOBRE ALGUNS DADOS BIONÔMICOS DO PREDADOR DE ABELHAS Apiomerus nigrilobus Stal, 1872 OBTIDOS EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO PRELIMINARY NOTE ON BIONOMIC DATA OF THE HONEYBEE PREDATOR Apiomerus nigrilobus STAL, 1872 GOTTEN IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Amaral

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Esta nota prévia apresenta alguns dados bionômicos do predador de abelhas Apiomerus nigrilobus Stal, 1872 obtidos sob condições de laboratório. O estudo foi realizado no Departamento de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz” da Universidade do Estado de São Paulo, no período de março de 1972 a dezembro de 1973. O ciclo biológico médico constatado para este predador foi de 246 dias. Os autores apresentam três quadros que resumem os dados obtidos.

    This preliminary note presents some bionomics data of the honeybee predator Apiomerus nigrilobus Stal, 1872 obtained in laboratory. The study was conducted at the Agricultural College ";Luiz de Queiroz” U.S.P. — São Pau1o, Brazil, from March 1972 to December 1973. The evolutionary cycle of this predator, on an average, is 246 days. A table is presented showing the results.

  7. The effect of column purification on cDNA indirect labelling for microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss John Z

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of the microarray reproducibility is dependent upon the performance of standardized procedures. Since the introduction of microarray technology for the analysis of global gene expression, reproducibility of results among different laboratories has been a major problem. Two of the main contributors to this variability are the use of different microarray platforms and different laboratory practices. In this paper, we address the latter question in terms of how variation in one of the steps of a labelling procedure affects the cDNA product prior to microarray hybridization. Results We used a standard procedure to label cDNA for microarray hybridization and employed different types of column chromatography for cDNA purification. After purifying labelled cDNA, we used the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and agarose gel electrophoresis to assess the quality of the labelled cDNA before its hybridization onto a microarray platform. There were major differences in the cDNA profile (i.e. cDNA fragment lengths and abundance as a result of using four different columns for purification. In addition, different columns have different efficiencies to remove rRNA contamination. This study indicates that the appropriate column to use in this type of protocol has to be experimentally determined. Finally, we present new evidence establishing the importance of testing the method of purification used during an indirect labelling procedure. Our results confirm the importance of assessing the quality of the sample in the labelling procedure prior to hybridization onto a microarray platform. Conclusion Standardization of column purification systems to be used in labelling procedures will improve the reproducibility of microarray results among different laboratories. In addition, implementation of a quality control check point of the labelled samples prior to microarray hybridization will prevent hybridizing a poor quality sample to expensive

  8. Laboratory Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  9. A radiation-hydrodynamics model of accretion columns for ultra-luminous X-ray pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomohisa; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken; Ogawa, Takumi

    2016-10-01

    Prompted by the recent discovery of pulsed emission from an ultra-luminous X-ray source, M 82 X-2 ("ULX-pulsar"), we perform a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of a supercritical accretion flow onto a neutron star through a narrow accretion column. We set an accretion column with a cone shape filled with tenuous gas with the density of 10-4 g cm-3 above a neutron star and solve the two-dimensional gas motion and radiative transfer within the column. The side boundaries are set such that radiation can freely escape, but gas cannot. Since the initial gas layer is not in a hydrostatic balance, the column gas falls onto the neutron-star surface, and thereby a shock is generated. As a result, the accretion column is composed of two regions: an upper, nearly free-fall region and a lower settling region, as noted by Basko and Sunyaev (1976, MNRAS, 175, 395). The average accretion rate is very high; dot{M}˜ 10^{2{-}3} L_E/c2 (with LE being the Eddington luminosity), and so radiation energy dominates over gas internal energy entirely within the column. Despite the high accretion rate, the radiation flux in the laboratory frame is kept barely below LE/(4πr2) at a distance r in the settling region so that matter can slowly accrete. This adjustment is made possible, since a large amount of photons produced via dissipation of kinetic energy of matter can escape through the side boundaries. The total luminosity can greatly exceed LE by several orders of magnitude, whereas the apparent luminosity observed from the top of the column is much less. Due to such highly anisotropic radiation fields, the observed flux should exhibit periodic variations with the rotation period, provided that the rotation and magnetic axes are misaligned.

  10. LABORATORY MODEL OF CHRONIC STAPHYLOCOCCAL TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkodovska NYu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and development of new preparations for chronic tonsillitis (CT treatment and prevention requires application of appropriate laboratory model. For the development of CT laboratory model chronic pyoinflammatory process was reproduced in chinchilla rabbits using Staphylococcus aureus 209 Р (АТСС 6538-Р reference-strain. Preliminary sensitizing of animals with inactivated causative agent and repeated infection with the reference-strain made it possible to work out reproducible model of chronic tonsillitis. Adequacy of chronic tonsillitis development was confirmed by the results of microbiological and pathomorphological researchers. The proposed laboratory model can be used for solving of theoretical and practical medicine and pharmacology topical problems.

  11. The opposing effects of bacterial activity and gas production on anaerobic TCE degradation in soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Naresh; Jaffé, Peter; Maier, Walter; Jho, Eun Hea

    2007-11-01

    This laboratory study explores the effect of growth substrate concentration on the anaerobic degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in sand packed columns. In all columns the growth substrate rapidly degraded to gas, that formed a separate phase. Biomass accumulated in the 0-4.8 cm section of the columns in proportion to the influent growth substrate concentration and biomass concentrations in the remaining sections of all columns were similar to the column receiving the lowest substrate concentration. Increases in growth substrate concentration up to 3030 mg-CODl(-1) promoted TCE degradation, but a further increase to 14300 mg-CODl(-1) reduced the amount of TCE completely dechlorinated but did not affect the production of chlorinated TCE intermediates. The mathematical model developed here satisfactorily described the enhancement in TCE dehalogenation for substrate concentration up to 3030 mg-CODl(-1); reproducing TCE dehalogenation for 14300 mg-CODl(-1) required that the moisture content used in simulation be lowered to 0.1. The study shows that volatilization of TCE can be significant and volatilization losses should be taken into account when anaerobic activity in in-situ bioremediation applications is stimulated via addition of growth substrates. An implication of the modeling simulations is that maintaining a lower, but uniform, substrate concentration over the contaminated region may lead to faster contaminant degradation.

  12. Experimental evaluation of the prevention methods for the interface between masonry infill walls and concrete columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tramontin

    Full Text Available Cracks that form at the interfaces between masonry structures are common uncontrolled occurrences in buildings. Numerous methods have been proposed by the construction industry to address this problem. Cracks continuously form in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls. In this study, the most common methods for preventing these types of cracks were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Column masonry models were constructed using different types of joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls, such as steel bars and steel mesh. The efficiency of each type of joint method was evaluated by performing direct tensile tests (pullout tests on the models and monitoring the evolution of the crack opening in the joint between the column and wall, as a function of load applied to the model. The results from this study indicate that the model composed of "electrowelded wire mesh without steel angles" is the best model for controlling cracking in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls.

  13. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  14. Preliminary 2D numerical modeling of common granular problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Granular studies received an increasing interest during the last decade. Many scientific investigations were successfully addressed to acknowledge the ubiquitous behavior of granular matter. We investigate liquid impacts onto granular beds, i.e. the influence of the packing and compaction-dilation transition. However, a physically-based model is still lacking to address complex microscopic features of granular bed response during liquid impacts such as compaction-dilation transition or granular bed uplifts (Wyser et al. in review). We present our preliminary 2D numerical modeling based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using nonlinear contact force law (the Hertz-Mindlin model) for disk shape particles. The algorithm is written in C programming language. Our 2D model provides an analytical tool to address granular problems such as i) granular collapses and ii) static granular assembliy problems. This provides a validation framework of our numerical approach by comparing our numerical results with previous laboratory experiments or numerical works. Inspired by the work of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005), we studied i) the axisymetric collapse of granular columns. We addressed the scaling between the initial aspect ratio and the final runout distance. Our numerical results are in good aggreement with the previous studies of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005). ii) Reproducing static problems for regular and randomly stacked particles provides a valid comparison to results of Egholm (2007). Vertical and horizontal stresses within the assembly are quite identical to stresses obtained by Egholm (2007), thus demonstating the consistency of our 2D numerical model. Our 2D numerical model is able to reproduce common granular case studies such as granular collapses or static problems. However, a sufficient small timestep should be used to ensure a good numerical consistency, resulting in higher computational time. The latter becomes critical

  15. An applicable method for efficiency estimation of operating tray distillation columns and its comparison with the methods utilized in HYSYS and Aspen Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza

    2015-10-01

    Developing general methods that rely on column data for the efficiency estimation of operating (existing) distillation columns has been overlooked in the literature. Most of the available methods are based on empirical mass transfer and hydraulic relations correlated to laboratory data. Therefore, these methods may not be sufficiently accurate when applied to industrial columns. In this paper, an applicable and accurate method was developed for the efficiency estimation of distillation columns filled with trays. This method can calculate efficiency as well as mass and heat transfer coefficients without using any empirical mass transfer or hydraulic correlations and without the need to estimate operational or hydraulic parameters of the column. E.g., the method does not need to estimate tray interfacial area, which can be its most important advantage over all the available methods. The method can be used for the efficiency prediction of any trays in distillation columns. For the efficiency calculation, the method employs the column data and uses the true rates of the mass and heat transfers occurring inside the operating column. It is highly emphasized that estimating efficiency of an operating column has to be distinguished from that of a column being designed.

  16. Part 1: Vadose-zone column studies of toluene (enhanced bioremediation) in a shallow unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J.A.; Friedel, M.J.; Szmajter, R.J.; Cuffin, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the laboratory study described in this paper were (1) to determine the effectiveness of four nutrient solutions and a control in stimulating the microbial degradation of toluene in the unsaturated zone as an alternative to bioremediation methodologies such as air sparging, in situ vitrification, or others (Part I), and (2) to compare the effectiveness of the addition of the most effective nutrient solution from Part I (modified Hoagland type, nitrate-rich) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on microbial degradation of toluene for repeated, simulated spills in the unsaturated zone (Part II). For Part 1, fifteen columns (30-cm diameter by 150-cm height), packed with air-dried, 0.25-mm, medium-fine sand, were prepared to simulate shallow unconfined aquifer conditions. Toluene (10 mL) was added to the surface of each column, and soil solution and soil gas samples were collected from the columns every third day for 21 days. On day 21, a second application of toluene (10 mL) was made, and the experiment was run for another 21 days. Solution 4 was the most effective for microbial degradation in Part I. For Part II, three columns were designated nutrient-rich 3-day toluene columns and received toluene injections every 3 days; three columns were designated as nutrient-rich 7-day columns and received toluene injections every 7 days; and two columns were used as controls to which no nutrient was added. As measured by CO2 respiration, the initial benefits for aerobic organisms from the O2 enhancement were sustained by the bacteria for only a short period of time (about 8 days). Degradation benefits from the nutrient solution were sustained throughout the experiment. The O2 and nutrient-enhanced columns degraded significantly more toluene than the control columns when simulating repeated spills onto the unsaturated zone, and demonstrated a potentially effective in situ bioremediation technology when used immediately or within days after a spill. The combined usage

  17. Manual for the thermal and hdyraulic design of direct contract spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, H. R.

    1985-06-01

    This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for use in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included.

  18. The Inter Facility Testing of a Standard Oscillating Water Column (OWC) Type Wave Energy Converter (WEC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg

    This report describes the behavior and preliminary performance of a simplified standard oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC). The same tests will be conducted at different scales at 6 different test facilities and the results obtained will be used for comparison. This projec...... at Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg. For further information regarding the content of this report please contact Morten Thøtt Andersen (mta@civil.aau.dk) or Jonas Bjerg Thomsen (jbt@civil.aau.dk) from the Department of Civil Engineering....

  19. Column Generation for Transmission Switching of Electricity Networks with Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Philpott, Andy B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the problem of finding the minimum cost dispatch and commitment of power generation units in a transmission network with active switching.We use the term active switching to denote the use of switches to optimize network topology in an operational context. We propose a Dantzig......-Wolfe reformulation and a novel column generation framework to solve the problem efficiently. Preliminary results are presented for the IEEE-118 bus network with 19 generator units. Active switching is shown to reduce total cost by up to 15 % for a particular 24-hour period. Furthermore, the need for generator...

  20. Composite support column assembly for offshore drilling and production platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.H.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a support column assembly for an offshore drilling and/or production comprising: means for anchoring the column assembly on the seabed; an elongated cylindrical support column including at least one generally cylindrical column member having a cylindrical wall formed of a composite of elongated filaments of at least one of carbon and boron bonded in a resin matrix, the support column including a plurality of the column members coupled end to end by coupling means at opposite ends of the column members, the coupling means including a plurality of radially project pins for coupling the composite wall to a coupling member interposed between the column members, respectively; and means for connecting the column to a platform for transmitting platform loads between the platform and the anchor means.

  1. Preliminary Results of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the Orion B Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könyves, Vera; André, Philippe; Palmeirim, Pedro; Schneider, Nicola; Arzoumanian, Doris; Men'shchikov, Alexander

    As a preliminary result of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (André et al. 2010) in the Orion B cloud complex we find a clear connection between the locations of the detected prestellar cores and the column density values. We find that the vast majority of the gravitationally bound prestellar cores are detected above a high column density of about 6-7 × 1021 cm-2 (A V ˜ 6-7). This is in very good agreement with dense core formation thresholds found in other regions. For Orion B, a similar limit appears both in the distribution of background column density values of the prestellar cores, and in the column density PDF of the region. Within our core formation scenario, the found threshold can be translated as the column density above which the filaments become gravitationally unstable and fragment into cores.

  2. Immobilized Lactase in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Matthew J.; Bering, C. Larry

    1998-10-01

    Immobilized enzymes have many practical applications. They may be used in clinical, industrial, and biotechnological laboratories and in many clinical diagnostic kits. For educational purposes, use of immobilized enzymes can easily be taught at the undergraduate or even secondary level. We have developed an immobilized enzyme experiment that combines many practical techniques used in the biochemistry laboratory and fits within a three-hour time frame. In this experiment, lactase from over-the-counter tablets for patients with lactose intolerance is immobilized in polyacrylamide, which is then milled into small beads and placed into a chromatography column. A lactose solution is added to the column and the eluant is assayed using the glucose oxidase assay, available as a kit. We have determined the optimal conditions to give the greatest turnover of lactose while allowing the immobilized enzymes to be active for long periods at room temperature.

  3. Do column frits contribute to the on-column, flow-induced degradation of macromolecules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, André M

    2014-09-12

    Flow-induced, on-column degradation is a major hindrance to the accurate characterization of ultra-high molar mass macromolecules and colloids. This degradation is a direct result of the large shear rates which are generated within the column, which cause chain scission to occur both in the interstitial medium and, it has been postulated, at the packing particle pore boundary. An additional putative source of degradation has been the column frits, though little experimental evidence exists to either support or refute this claim. To this effect, the present experiments examine the role of the frits in the degradation of high molar mass macromolecules. Two narrow dispersity polystyrene standards, the molar mass of which differs by a factor of two, were analyzed on three different size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns, each with frits of different pore size, at various flow rates. In the smallest pore size column, which also contained the smallest frits and which was packed with the smallest diameter particles, the larger standard was forced to degrade by increasing the flow rate of the mobile phase. During the course of the latter portion of the study, the inlet and the outlet frits were removed from the column, in stepwise fashion. It was concluded that neither frit played any appreciable role in the degradation. Results of our studies were applied to explain previously observed degradation in ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography of polymers. The general conclusion arrived at herein is that the column frits are likely to have a secondary role (as compared to interstitial and pore boundary stresses), or no role at all, in polymer degradation for cases where the frit radius is larger than or equal to the hydraulic radius rcof the column.

  4. Engineering evaluation of 55-year-old timber columns recycled from an industrial military building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; David Green; Douglas Rammer; Scott F. Lantz

    2000-01-01

    A large sample of timber was collected from a 548,000-ft.2 (50,900-m2) World War II era industrial military building containing approximately 1, 875,000 board feet (4,400 m3) of lumber and timber. Sixty 12-foot- (3.6-m-) long, nominal 8- by 8-inches (190-by 190-mm) Douglas-fir columns were tested at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, and the results...

  5. Influence of Brick Walls on the Temperature Distribution in Steel Columns in Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. P. Moura Correia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of steel columns embedded in walls in fire. Several fire resistance tests were carried out at the Laboratory of Testing Materials and Structures of the University of Coimbra, in Portugal. The temperatures registered in several points of the experimental models are compared with those obtained in numerical simulations carried out with the SUPERTEMPCALC finite element program. 

  6. Numerical analysis of an oscillating water column converter considering a physical constraint in the chimney outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Mateus das Neves; Seibt, Flávio Medeiros; Rocha, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; Santos, Elizaldo Domingues dos; Isoldi, Liércio André

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a 2D numerical study of an Oscillating Water Column (OWC) converter considering physical constraints in its outlet chimney to represent the turbine pressure drop. Two strategies were adopted. The first considers different dimensions for a physical constraint similar to an orifice plate, being the analysis performed in a laboratory scale. After that, other physical restriction with geometry similar to a rotor turbine was investigated in a real scale by means a dimensional va...

  7. A Multi-User Remote Academic Laboratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Arquimedes; Panche, Stifen; Duque, Mauricio; Grisales, Victor H.; Prieto, Flavio; Villa, Jose L.; Chevrel, Philippe; Canu, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation and preliminary operation assessment of Multiuser Network Architecture to integrate a number of Remote Academic Laboratories for educational purposes on automatic control. Through the Internet, real processes or physical experiments conducted at the control engineering laboratories of four…

  8. Separation of Oil from Wastewater by Column Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new type of device, a dissolved-air flotation column, was developed for separation of oily wastewater.The unique design idea of the dissolved-air flotation column is the combined use of dissolved-air flotation and column flotation.The dissolved air release occurred within the column separation system.As a potential application the column was investigated for its performance in separating emulsified oil droplets in oily wastewater.A high separation efficiency was obtained in a series of tests.The aeration performance of the bubble generator used in the dissolved-air flotation column was also studied in particular.

  9. Synchronized oscillation in a modular neural network composed of columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Su; QI; Xianglin; HU; Hong; WANG; Yunjiu

    2005-01-01

    The columnar organization is a ubiquitous feature in the cerebral cortex. In this study, a neural network model simulating the cortical columns has been constructed. When fed with random pulse input with constant rate, a column generates synchronized oscillations, with a frequency varying from 3 to 43 Hz depending on parameter values. The behavior of the model under periodic stimulation was studied and the input-output relationship was non-linear. When identical columns were sparsely interconnected, the column oscillator could be locked in synchrony. In a network composed of heterogeneous columns, the columns were organized by intrinsic properties and formed partially synchronized assemblies.

  10. Stability of embankments over cement deep soil mixing columns; Estabilidad de terraplenes sobre columnas de suelo-cemento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morilla Moar, P.; Melentijevic, S.

    2014-07-01

    The deep soil mixing (DSM) is one of the ground improvement methods used for the construction of embankments over soft soils. DSM column-supported embankments are constructed over soft soils to accelerate its construction, improve embankment stability, increase bearing capacity and control of total and differential settlements. There are two traditional design methods, the Japanese (rigid columns) and the scandinavian (soft and semi-rigid columns). Based on Laboratory analysis and numerical analysis these traditional approaches have been questioned by several authors due to its overestimation of the embankment stability considering that the most common failures types are not assumed. This paper presents a brief review of traditional design methods for embankments on DSM columns constructed in soft soils, studies carried out determine the most likely failure types of DSM columns, methods to decrease the overestimation when using limit equilibrium methods and numerical analysis methods that permit detect appropriate failure modes in DSM columns. Finally a case study was assessed using both limited equilibrium and finite element methods which confirmed the overestimation in the factors of safety on embankment stability over DSM columns. (Author)

  11. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  12. The Dissipative Column: A New Hysteretic Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Palazzo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new replaceable hysteretic damper to better control seismic building damage, consisting of two or more adjacent steel vertical elements connected to each other with continuous mild/low strength steel shear links, is proposed and investigated in this paper. New Dampers, called Dissipative Columns (DC, continuously linked with X-shaped steel plates, provide additional stiffness and damping to a lateral system by using a basic and minimally invasive construction element: the column. Working in a way similar to coupled shear walls, the proposed element behavior is theoretically analyzed at linear and non-linear ranges. In fact, considering different restrained cases, a parametric analysis is developed in order both to evaluate the effect of the main geometrical and structural parameters and to provide the design capacity curves of this new damper. The DC can be considered a new damping device, easy to install in new as well as existing buildings in order to protect them from seismic damage.

  13. Pressure drop in CIM disk monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelic, Igor; Nemec, Damjan; Podgornik, Ales; Koloini, Tine

    2005-02-11

    Pressure drop analysis in commercial CIM disk monolithic columns is presented. Experimental measurements of pressure drop are compared to hydrodynamic models usually employed for prediction of pressure drop in packed beds, e.g. free surface model and capillary model applying hydraulic radius concept. However, the comparison between pressure drop in monolith and adequate packed bed give unexpected results. Pressure drop in a CIM disk monolithic column is approximately 50% lower than in an adequate packed bed of spheres having the same hydraulic radius as CIM disk monolith; meaning they both have the same porosity and the same specific surface area. This phenomenon seems to be a consequence of the monolithic porous structure which is quite different in terms of the pore size distribution and parallel pore nonuniformity compared to the one in conventional packed beds. The number of self-similar levels for the CIM monoliths was estimated to be between 1.03 and 2.75.

  14. Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-03-09

    Non-elutable ion exchange is being considered as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removing cesium from Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) particles are the reference ion exchange medium for the process. A major factor in the construction cost of this process is the size of the ion exchange column required to meet product specifications for decontaminated waste. To validate SRS column sizing calculations, SRS subcontracted two reknowned experts in this field to perform similar calculations: Professor R. G. Anthony, Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&038;M University, and Professor S. W. Wang, Department of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University. The appendices of this document contain reports from the two subcontractors. Definition of the design problem came through several meetings and conference calls between the participants and SRS personnel over the past few months. This document summarizes the problem definition and results from the two reports.

  15. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  16. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  17. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratory The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  18. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  19. FOOTWEAR PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  20. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  1. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  2. Water Column Variability in Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    offshore waters of energy, mass, and biota. OBJECTIVES Our objective is to determine the processes that cause water column variations in coastal regions...meteorological conditions (solar radiation, wind velocity, and heat fluxes), (iv) tidal mixing, stratification, water mass variations, (v) runoff from land...air-sea gas exchange and biological activity in these offshore waters. Two papers are being submitted to Limnology and Oceanography on the annual

  3. COLLISIONS OF ROAD VEHICLES WITH BRIDGE COLUMNS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As speed limits and traffic on city roads continue to increase, collisions between road vehicles and bridge columns are becoming more common. Current regulations analyze collision with one major simplification: replacing dynamic action with the equivalent static force. In the present paper, we develop a numerical model of a typical Croatian overpass and loaded it with an equivalent static load according to the EN1991-7 and ASSHTO LRFD provisions, analyzing the differences in overpass behavior...

  4. Using Dividing Wall Columns (DWC) in LNG Production: deviding wall column, double dividing wall column, prefractionator arrangement, Petlyuk column, NGL recovery, distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafian, Roohollah

    2014-01-01

    The Dividing Wall Columns (DWC) distillation has attracted growing interest for fractionation of multicomponent mixture due to reduction of energy consumption, auxiliary equipment and space within fractionation process. Recent developments of the process show considerable energy saving, up to 30%-40%, compared to conventional fractionation schemes. The objective of this thesis is to introduce DWC configurations, governing equations and applications in LNG and gas processing as well as explana...

  5. [Cervical vertebral column--anatomy, fractures, treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosiński, Michał; Sienkiewicz-Zawilińska, Justyna; Lipski, Marcin; Zawiliński, Jarosław; Matyja, Andrzej; Walocha, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with anatomy of human cervical spine. It shows close relation between knowledge on the normal structure and methods of treatment of different kinds of spine injuries. It describes detailed anatomy and mechanical features of cervical vertebral column, including the structure of distinct vertebrae, their joints and arrangement of muscles. It reviews also historical methods of treatment of fractures in this region considering current methods.

  6. SVD row or column symmetric matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new architecture for row or column symmetric matrix called extended matrix is defined, and a precise correspondence of the singular values and singular vectors between the extended matrix and its original (namely, the mother matrix) is derived. As an illustration of potential, we show that, for a class of extended matrices, the singular value decomposition using the mother matrix rather than the extended matrix per se can save the CPU time and memory without loss of numerical precision.

  7. Use of a pulsed column contactor as a continuous oxalate precipitation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.borda@cea.f [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Nuclear Energy Division, Fuel Cycle Technology Department, BP17171, F 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Brackx, Emmanuelle; Boisset, Laurence; Duhamet, Jean [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Nuclear Energy Division, Fuel Cycle Technology Department, BP17171, F 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Ode, Denis, E-mail: denis.ode@cea.f [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Nuclear Energy Division, Fuel Cycle Technology Department, BP17171, F 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A new type of continuous precipitating device was patented by CEA and tested with reaction between a surrogate nitrate cerium(III) or neodymium(III) and oxalate complexing agent. {yields} Precipitate is confined in aqueous phase emulsion in tetrapropylene hydrogen and does not form deposit on the vessel walls. {yields} Measure size of the precipitate ranges from 20 to 40 {mu}m, it meets the process requirements to filter, and the precipitation reaction is complete. {yields} The laboratory design can be extrapolated to an industrial uranium(IV) and minor actinide(III) coprecipitating column. - Abstract: The current objective of coprecipitating uranium, and minor actinides in order to fabricate a new nuclear fuel by direct (co)precipitation for further transmutation, requires to develop specific technology in order to meet the following requirements: nuclear maintenance, criticity, and potentially high flowrates due to global coprecipitation. A new type of device designed and patented by the CEA was then tested in 2007 under inactive conditions and with uranium. The patent is for organic confinement in a pulsed column (PC). Actually, pulsed columns have been working for a long time in a nuclear environment, as they allow high capacity, sub-critical design (annular geometry) and easy high activity maintenance. The precipitation reaction between the oxalate complexing agent and a surrogate nitrate - cerium(III) or neodymium(III) alone, or coprecipitated uranium(IV) and cerium(III) - occurs within an emulsion created in the device by these two phases flowing with a counter-current chemically inert organic phase (for example tetrapropylene hydrogen-TPH) produced by the stirring action of the column pulsator. The precipitate is confined and thus does not form deposits on the vessel walls (which are also water-repellent); it flows downward by gravity and exits the column continuously into a settling tank. The results obtained for precipitation

  8. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stability and transport of radio-labeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. Core material collected from shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. Variables in the study included flow rate, pH, i...

  9. Plant practices in fine coal column flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, V.L. Jr.; Bethell, P.J.; Stanley, F.L. [Pittston Coal Management Co., Lebanon, VA (United States); Luttrell, G.H. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mining and Minerals Engineering

    1995-10-01

    Five 3 m (10 ft) diameter Microcel{trademark} flotation columns were installed at Clinchfield Coal Company`s Middle Fork preparation facility in order to reduce product ash and increase recovery and plant capacity. The Middle Fork facility is utilized for the recovery of fine coal from a feed stream that consists primarily of 1.5 mm x 0 material. The columns replaced conventional flotation cells for the treatment of the minus 150 {micro}m fraction while spirals are used to upgrade the plus 150 {micro}m material in the plant feed. The addition of the column flotation circuit resulted in an increase in plant capacity in excess of 20 percent while reducing the flotation product ash content by approximately 7 percentage points. Flotation circuit combustible recovery wa increased by 17 percentage points. This paper discusses circuit design, commissioning, and sparging system design. Circuit instrumentation, level control, reagent system control, performance comparisons with conventional flotation, and general operating procedures are also discussed.

  10. Seepage characteristics of collapse column fillings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Boyang; Bai Haibo; Zhang Kai

    2016-01-01

    With concealment and hysteresis, water-inrush from Karst collapse column has become an important security hazard of lower group coal mining in North China. Based on the MTS815.02 seepage test system, we analyzed the impact of consolidation pressure, initial moisture content and confining pressure on the permeability of fillings in order to study the seepage characteristics of collapse column fillings. The results show that:(1) The permeability of collapse column fillings is of the order of 10?16–10?15 magni-tude and decreases with an increase in consolidation pressure and decrease in initial moisture content. (2) The essence of filling seepage law change is the change in porosity, and a power function relationship exists between the permeability ratio and porosity ratio. (3) With increasing confining pressure, the per-meability of fillings decreases. However, under low confining pressure (1.2–4 MPa), the change of confin-ing pressure has no obvious influence on the permeability.

  11. SPEEDUP{trademark} ion exchange column model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, T.

    2000-03-06

    A transient model to describe the process of loading a solute onto the granular fixed bed in an ion exchange (IX) column has been developed using the SpeedUp{trademark} software package. SpeedUp offers the advantage of smooth integration into other existing SpeedUp flowsheet models. The mathematical algorithm of a porous particle diffusion model was adopted to account for convection, axial dispersion, film mass transfer, and pore diffusion. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was employed to solve the governing transport equations. The model allows the use of a non-linear Langmuir isotherm based on an effective binary ionic exchange process. The SpeedUp column model was tested by comparing to the analytical solutions of three transport problems from the ion exchange literature. In addition, a sample calculation of a train of three crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IX columns in series was made using both the SpeedUp model and Purdue University's VERSE-LC code. All test cases showed excellent agreement between the SpeedUp model results and the test data. The model can be readily used for SuperLig{trademark} ion exchange resins, once the experimental data are complete.

  12. Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholtz, Emily A

    2007-01-01

    Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti).

  13. Dynamics of a Tapped Granular Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Anthony; Blackmore, Denis; Zuo, Luo; Hao, Wu; Horntrop, David

    2015-11-01

    We consider the behavior of a column of spheres subjected to a time-dependent vertical taps. Of interest are various dynamical properties, such as the motion of its mass center, its response to taps of different intensities and forms, and the effect of system size and material properties. The interplay between diverse time and length scales are the key contributors to the column's evolving dynamics. Soft sphere discrete element simulations were conducted over a very wide parameter space to obtain a portrait of column behavior as embodied by the collective dynamics of the mass center motion. Results compared favorably with a derived reduced-order paradigm of the mass center motion (surprisingly analogous to that for a single bouncing ball on an oscillating plate) with respect to dynamical regimes and their transitions. A continuum model obtained from a system of Newtonian equations, as a locally averaged limit in the transport mode along trajectories is described, and a numerical solution protocol for a one-dimensional system is outlined. Typical trajectories and density evolution profiles are shown. We conclude with a discussion of our investigations to relate predictions of the continuum and reduced dynamical systems models with discrete simulations.

  14. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  15. Graphing techniques for materials laboratory using Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1994-01-01

    Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students neither have the mathematical background nor the expertise for graphing. This paper briefly describes the procedure and data obtained from a number of experiments such as spring rate, stress concentration, endurance limit, and column buckling for a variety of materials. Then with a brief introduction to Microsoft Excel the author explains the techniques used for linear regression and logarithmic graphing.

  16. Evaluations of Mechanisms for Pu Uptake and Retention within Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin Columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The unexpected uptake and retention of plutonium (Pu) onto columns containing spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin during ion exchange testing of Cs (Cs) removal from alkaline tank waste was observed in experiments at both the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These observations have raised concern regarding the criticality safety of the Cs removal unit operation within the low-activity waste pretreatment system (LAWPS). Accordingly, studies have been initiated at Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), who manages the operations of the Hanford Site tank farms, including the LAWPS, PNNL, and elsewhere to investigate these findings. As part of these efforts, PNNL has prepared the present report to summarize the laboratory testing observations, evaluate these phenomena in light of published and unpublished technical information, and outline future laboratory testing, as deemed appropriate based on the literature studies, with the goal to elucidate the mechanisms for the observed Pu uptake and retention.

  17. Strength change of clay in the vicinity of soil-cement column; Soil cement kairyotai dasetsu ni tomonau shuhen nendo no sendan kyodo henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, N.; Koga, K. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Shen, S. [Saga University, Saga (Japan); Nakamura, R.

    1998-06-21

    In relation to the installation of the improved soil cement column for improving soft ground, a laboratory experiment and on-site experimental installation are carried out for the study of the surrounding area supporting mechanism of the improved column. In the laboratory experiment, a column is installed using cement slurry into a model ground prepared by placing Ariake clay in a concrete tank, and a load test is conducted after a 28-day curing. In the on-site installation experiment, a column is installed near the mouth of a river flowing into the Ariake Sea, where changes in pore water pressure and soil strength, the latter by use of a double tube cone, are measured before and after the installation, and specimens are collected. Studies are conducted and findings are obtained as outlined below. The effects on the surrounding clay of the improved soil cement column installation consist of a decrease in soil strength during the installation, its recovery to the normal level, and an increase in soil strength due to recompaction and cementation to follow. Surrounding the installed column, there is formed a solidified region as wide as several percent of the column radius and, further surrounding the solidified region, there is formed a region with its strength enhanced, which is as wide by 1.5-20 times as the column radius. 26 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Microbial Life in a Winogradsky Column: From Lab Course to Diverse Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha T. Parks

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many traditional lab courses include both standard and inquiry-based experiments, yet lack cooperative and authentic lab experiences.  Such experiences are important for microbiology students and burgeoning researchers.  In a novel lab environment, students constructed Winogradsky columns using common soil and water sources.  During initial column incubation, students learned methods for identification of microbial isolates including staining, microscopy, biochemistry and 16S-rRNA sequencing.  Concurrently, students challenged their columns via varied substrates and contaminants including enrichment with nitro-compounds, hydrocarbons, acids and other environmental stressors.  Students were encouraged to use both basic and more advanced identification methods to study the effect of such challenges within their columns.  The students were required to maintain lab notebooks and attend weekly lab meetings, which were designed to share progress and facilitate experimentation among their lab-mates.  At the end of the semester, students gathered to present their data and conclusions.  By engaging in weekly meetings and a final conference, students were able to construct a snapshot of the microbial diversity, including phylogeny and metabolism, in the soil and water used to construct the Winogradsky columns.  By using a common source, students were able to observe an array of diversity within individual columns and extrapolate towards the tremendous microbial diversity in the initial soil and water samples.  Equally important to the data obtained, the students engaged in a collaborative effort through discussion, trouble-shooting, weekly meetings and the summative conference.  Such efforts enabled students to participate in an authentic research experience within a traditional undergraduate laboratory course. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory

  19. Affinity Chromatography of Lactate Dehydrogenase: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexander J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a laboratory technique of enzyme purification by affinity chromatography as part of an undergraduate biochemical methodology course. Provides preparation details of the rat muscle homogenate and reagents. Proposes column requirements and assaying information. (MVL)

  20. Experimental Testing Of Partially Encased Composite Beam Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M. Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The past few decades have seen outstanding advances in the use of composite materials in structural applications. There can be little doubt that, within engineering circles, composites have revolutionized traditional design concepts and made possible an unparalleled range of new and exciting possibilities as viable materials for construction. In addition to the well-known advantages of composite columns, partially encased composite columns offered simplified beam-to-column connection as well as reduced or omitted shuttering thus achieved more cost effective construction. Some companies have patented these new types of partially encased composite column made of light welded steel shapes; moreover, the Canadian Institute of Steel construction CISC has recognized and codified this type of columns. In This paper, Partially Encased Composite Beam Columns is introduced; experimental studies are made on five partially encased beam columns to investigate the behavior of eccentrically loaded partially encased composite columns using different parameters.

  1. Composition Estimation in Dividing-Wall Columns Using Temperature Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadrdan, Maryam; Ivar J. Halvorsen; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we propose a method to estimate the product compositions in a distillation column section based on a combination of a number of temperature measurements from different locations in the column stages.

  2. Theme: Laboratory Facilities Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Laboratory Facilities Improvement" (Miller); "Remodeling Laboratories for Agriscience Instruction" (Newman, Johnson); "Planning for Change" (Mulcahy); "Laboratory Facilities Improvement for Technology Transfer" (Harper); "Facilities for Agriscience Instruction" (Agnew et al.); "Laboratory Facility Improvement" (Boren, Dwyer); and…

  3. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  4. Preliminary Laboratory Measurements of the Boss Modulation Transfer Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-05

    NOVS IOSOE190.rTE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATIO~N OF THIS P& PIE fmhnw D.. ut e UNCLASSIFIED $CgUftv CL&Aqmaymm OF TWOI Pawav...these reasons, a focal length between 100 and 20b cm seemed appropriate. A single element, plano -convex lens with a focal length of 105 cm was finally

  5. Determination of the sediment oxidation capacity by column and field experiments with reactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dethlefsen, F.; Bliss, F.; Wachter, T.; Dahmke, A. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Meckenstock, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    2003-07-01

    The oxidation capacity of ferric iron in column studies was determined by phosphate tracer tests and validated by biodegradation experiments with toluene as a carbon source and the iron(III)-oxide reducing bacterium Geobacter metallireducens as well as with wet chemical extraction. Toluene mass balance, Fe(II) production and tracer test results showed that about 1/3 of the total Fe(III) mass had been reduced during the biodegradation experiment. The redox reactive tracer sulfide is supposed to be more practicable for field purposes, because a sulfide mass or electron balance enables evaluation of the tracer test. In this way, consideration of mineral specific sorption parameters and long residence periods of a sorptive reactive tracer can be avoided. Laboratory column experiments were performed with an artificially composed sediment (quartz sand and ferrihydrite) as well as with natural sediments from the margin of the benzene contaminated RETZINA test site in Zeitz (Germany). Fast reaction kinetics of sulfide with iron(III) minerals allowed the observation of a successive fixation of black iron sulfides in all the glas columns. Depending on the mineral iron content, the sedimentary oxidation capacity of the column material was used up in few days to weeks. Mass of sulfide reacted in the tracer test and sulfide mass recovered by sediment extraction after the experiment were in very good agreement. Evaluation of the column experiments confirmed the calculated ratio that 3 molar equivalents sulfide were used to reduce and fix 2 molar equivalents of Fe(III). Mean Fe(III) content of natural sediment samples (drilling SafZz 28/02 in Zeitz) was 0.35 mg/g sediment determined by laboratory sulfide tracer test and 5 M HCl extractions. Finally, a single well push-pull test was performed at the RETZINA test site Zeitz to test the applicability of the sulfide tracer in a field-scale experiment. (orig.)

  6. Numerical Simulations of Settlement of Jet Grouting Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juzwa Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the comparison of results of numerical analyses of interaction between group of jet grouting columns and subsoil. The analyses were conducted for single column and groups of three, seven and nine columns. The simulations are based on experimental research in real scale which were carried out by authors. The final goal for the research is an estimation of an influence of interaction between columns working in a group.

  7. Anchoring FRP laminates for the seismic strengthening of RC columns

    OpenAIRE

    Sadone, Raphaëlle; Quiertant, Marc; FERRIER, Emmanuel; Chataigner, Sylvain; Mercier, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of seismic strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) columns by externally bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP). Particularly, a novel strengthening system, designed for the flexural strengthening of columns is studied. This flexural strengthening is achieved by FRP plates bonded longitudinally and anchored at the column-stub junction. The proposed system is validated through an experimental campaign carried out on full-scale RC columns. Different...

  8. Flexural strength enhancement of confined reinforced concrete columns

    OpenAIRE

    Pam, HJ; Ho, JCM

    2001-01-01

    As part of a continuing research study, this paper proposes a new design aid to calculate the actual moment capacity of confined reinforced concrete columns. Up to now the moment capacity of a reinforced concrete column is calculated based on the code's guidelines for an unconfined section. As most reinforced concrete columns contain transverse or confining reinforcement, which will enhance the column moment capacity, the actual moment capacity will be much higher than the unconfined moment c...

  9. QR factorization for row or column symmetric matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU; Hongxing(邹红星); WANG; Dianjun(王殿军); DAI; Qionghai(戴琼海); LI; Yanda(李衍达)

    2003-01-01

    The problem of fast computing the QR factorization of row or column symmetric matrix isconsidered. We address two new algorithms based on a correspondence of Q and R matrices between the rowor column symmetric matrix and its mother matrix. Theoretical analysis and numerical evidence show that, fora class of row or column symmetric matrices, the QR factorization using the mother matrix rather than therow or column symmetric matrix per se can save dramatically the CPU time and memory without loss of anynumerical precision.

  10. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  11. Combination of Slag, Limestone and Sedimentary Apatite in Columns for Phosphorus Removal from Sludge Fish Farm Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Chazarenc

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory scale studies have repeatedly reported high P-retention in slag, a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry. Thus, it has emerged as a potential material to increase P-removal from constructed wetlands (CWs. However, several limitations were highlighted by field experiments, including the high pH of treated water and clogging. We hypothesized that the addition of sedimentary rocks to slag would preserve P-removal properties while reducing the pH of treated water. Four 2.5 L-columns were filled with 100% apatite (column A; a 50% weight each mixture of limestone with apatite (column B; 10% steel slag located at the inlet, plus 45% limestone mixed with 45% apatite (column C; and a mixture of steel slag (10%, limestone (45% apatite (45% (column D. A synthetic effluent (26 mg P/L and a reconstituted sludge fish farm effluent containing 97 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS, 220 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD and 23.5 mg P/L phosphorus (P were applied sequentially during 373 and 176 days, under saturated flow conditions and 12–24 hours hydraulic residence time (HRT, respectively. Treatment performance, P-removal, pH and calcium (Ca2+ were monitored. Results indicated that columns that contained 10% weight steel slag resulted in a higher P retention capacity than the columns without steel slag. The highest P removal was achieved in column C, containing a layer of slag in the inlet zone, 45% apatite and 45% limestone. Feeding the columns with a reconstituted fish farm effluent led to biofilm development, but this had little effect on the P-removal. A combination of slag and sedimentary rocks represents a promising filtration material that could be useful downstream of CWs to further increase P-removal.

  12. Behavior of reinforced concrete columns strenghtened by partial jacketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. FERREIRA

    Full Text Available This article presents the study of reinforced concrete columns strengthened using a partial jacket consisting of a 35mm self-compacting concrete layer added to its most compressed face and tested in combined compression and uniaxial bending until rupture. Wedge bolt connectors were used to increase bond at the interface between the two concrete layers of different ages. Seven 2000 mm long columns were tested. Two columns were cast monolithically and named PO (original column e PR (reference column. The other five columns were strengthened using a new 35 mm thick self-compacting concrete layer attached to the column face subjected to highest compressive stresses. Column PO had a 120mm by 250 mm rectangular cross section and other columns had a 155 mm by 250mm cross section after the strengthening procedure. Results show that the ultimate resistance of the strengthened columns was more than three times the ultimate resistance of the original column PO, indicating the effectiveness of the strengthening procedure. Detachment of the new concrete layer with concrete crushing and steel yielding occurred in the strengthened columns.

  13. Self-organizing strategies for a column-store database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.G.; Kersten, M.L.; Nes, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Column-store database systems open new vistas for improved maintenance through self-organization. Individual columns are the focal point, which simplify balancing conflicting requirements. This work presents two workload-driven self-organizing techniques in a column-store, i.e. adaptive segmentation

  14. Mechanistic model for dispersion coefficients in bubble column

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skosana, PJ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic model describing the mass and momentum exchange in bubble columns is proposed that is based on the observations that the gas distribution in a bubble column is not uniform across the column and that as a consequence large liquid...

  15. Enhanced nitrobenzene removal and column longevity by coupled abiotic and biotic processes in zero-valent iron column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Weizhao; Wu, Jinhua; Huang, Weilin;

    2015-01-01

    /or co-precipitation and the reduction of NB to aniline (AN) via abiotic reaction in the abiotic column and via both abiotic and biotic reactions in the biotic column. Due to the interactive effect of ZVI and microorganisms, more effective iron consumption and more reactive minerals such as green rust......In this study, abiotic zero-valent iron (ZVI) column and biotic ZVI column were employed to investigate abiotic and biotic effects between iron and microorganisms on NB removal and column longevity. Physical removal and kinetics analysis revealed that NB was largely removed through adsorption and...... and iron sulfide were found in the biotic column. This led to approximately 50% higher total NB removal and 6 times higher AN production in the biotic column as compared to the abiotic column during the entire operation. According to the NB breakthrough curves, longer stability and longer life...

  16. From Single Droplet to Column Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The technique state to design counter-current extraction columns is based on the performance of pilot plant experiments. The modelling is then either with the equilibrium or dispersion model, whereas in the latter the dispersion coefficient accounts for all hydrodynamic non-idealities. A new approach uses single droplet experiments to obtain the basic laws and functions governing droplet breakage, coalescence,relative velocity, and axial dispersion when using droplet populance balance models (DPBM). The hydrodynamics simulation results show that the mean Sauter diameter, hold-up, and concentration profiles could be well predicted, which promotes the use of DPBM models for further applications in industrial scale.

  17. Column: The Physics of Digital Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cohen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the interesting questions underlying creating a science of digital forensics is what form that science might take. At the end of the IEEE Oakland Conference in 2011, I presented some of the underlying questions and identified my approach and why I favored it.2 My basic position is that science is about causality and a scientific theory should require that cause(C produces effect (E via mechanism M (written C→ME. The scientific method then identifies the criteria for rejecting (refuting or accepting (for a time a scientific theory.(see PDF for full column

  18. Lattice approaches to packed column simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a review of the findings into the ability of a digitally based particle packing algorithm, called DigiPac, to predict bed structure in a variety of packed columns, for a range of generic pellet shapes frequently used in the chemical and process engineering industries.Resulting macroscopic properties are compared with experimental data derived from both invasive and non-destructive measurement techniques.Additionally, fluid velocity distributions, through samples of the resulting bed structures, are analysed using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) simulations and are compared against experimental data from the literature.

  19. Hydrodynamic Study Of Column Bioleaching Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Zygmunt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The modelling of flow leaching solution through the porous media has been considered. The heap bioleaching process can be tested using the column experimental equipment. This equipment was employed to the hydrodynamic studies of copper ore bioleaching. The copper ore (black shale ore with the support, inertial materials (glass small balls and polyethylene beads was used to the bioleaching tests. The packed beds were various composition, the ore/support ratio was changed. The correlation between the bed porosity and bioleaching kinetics, and copper recovery was investigated.

  20. Preinjector for Linac 1, accelerating column

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. High up on the wall of the Faraday cage (7403073X) is this drum-shaped container of the ion source (7403083X). It is mounted at the HV end of the accelerating column through which the ions (usually protons; many other types of ions in the course of its long history) proceed through the Faraday cage wall to the low-energy end (at ground potential) of Linac 1. The 520 kV accelerating voltage was supplied by a SAMES generator (7403074X).

  1. Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer Performance in Supercritical Fluid Extraction Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石冰洁; 张泽廷; 等

    2002-01-01

    New models for describing hydrodynamics and mass transfer performance in supercritical fluid extraction columns were proposed.Those models were proved by experimental data,which were obtained in supercritical fluid extraction packed column,spray column and sieve tray column respectively.The inner diameter of those columns areΦ25mm,These experimental systems include supercritical carbon dioxideisopropanol-water and supercritical carbon dioxide-ethanol-water,in which supercritical carbon dioxide was dispersed phase,and another was continuous phase.The extraction processes were operated with continuous countercurrent flow.The predicted values are agreed well with experimental data.

  2. On-column micro gas chromatography detection with capillary-based optical ring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopova, Siyka I; White, Ian M; Sun, Yuze; Zhu, Hongying; Fan, Xudong; Frye-Mason, Greg; Thompson, Aaron; Ja, Shiou-jyh

    2008-03-15

    We developed a novel on-column micro gas chromatography (microGC) detector using capillary based optical ring resonators (CBORRs). The CBORR is a thin-walled fused silica capillary with an inner diameter ranging from a few tens to a few hundreds of micrometers. The interior surface of the CBORR is coated with a layer of stationary phase for gas separation. The circular cross section of the CBORR forms a ring resonator and supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that circulate along the ring resonator circumference hundreds of times. The evanescent field extends into the core and is sensitive to the refractive index change induced by the interaction between the gas sample and the stationary phase. The WGM can be excited and monitored at any location along the CBORR by placing a tapered optical fiber against the CBORR, thus enabling on-column real-time detection. Rapid separation of both polar and nonpolar samples was demonstrated with subsecond detection speed. Theoretical work was also established to explain the CBORR detection mechanism. While low-nanogram detection limits are observed in these preliminary tests, many methods for improvements are under investigation. The CBORR is directly compatible with traditional capillary GC columns without any dead volumes. Therefore, the CBORR-based muGC is a very promising technology platform for rapid, sensitive, and portable analytical devices.

  3. Reversal of elution order for profen acid enantiomers in packed-column SFC on Chiralpak AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhaal, Olle; Stefansson, Morgan

    2005-05-15

    Enantiomeric separations of four 2-substituted propionic acid drugs have been studied using packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) coated on silica as support (Chiralpak AD). Under standard conditions (i.e., flow rate, 1.5 ml/min; column temperature, 30 degrees C; back-pressure, 150 bar), the order of elution could be reversed when the polar alcohol modifier methanol in carbon dioxide was replaced by 2-propanol for ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen. For flurbiprofen, with the highest selectivity factor, no reversal was observed, although selectivity was reduced significantly with higher alcohols. Naproxen and flurbiprofen were also investigated with 2-butanol and 2-pentanol. The former showed reversal of elution order but not the latter. For higher alcohol modifiers, including 2-propanol, the peak symmetry was poor but could be improved by addition of citric acid in the alcohol modifier. These results stress the importance to investigate enantiomer elution order during the development of enantioselective methods and when chromatographic conditions are optimized. Preliminary experiments with column temperatures over the range of -15 to 45 degrees C revealed that, in a few cases, reversal took place with a change in temperature only.

  4. Continuous aqueous two-phase extraction of human antibodies using a packed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, P A J; Azevedo, A M; Sommerfeld, S; Bäcker, W; Aires-Barros, M R

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a pilot scale packed differential contactor was evaluated for the continuous counter-current aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells supernatant (CS) enriched with pure protein. Preliminary studies have been firstly performed in order to select the dispersed phase (phosphate-rich or polyethylene glycol 3350 Da (PEG)-rich phase) and the column packing material. The PEG-rich phase has been selected as the dispersed phase and the stainless steel as the preferred material for the column packing bed since it was not wetted preferentially by the selected dispersed phase. Hydrodynamic studies have been also performed, and the experimental results were successfully adjusted to the Richardson-Zaki and Mísek equations, typically used for the conventional organic-aqueous two-phase systems. An experimental set-up combining the packed column with a pump mixer-settler stage showed to have the best performance and to be advantageous when compared to the IgG batch extraction. An IgG recovery yield of 85% could be obtained with about 50% of total contaminants and more than 85% of contaminant proteins removal. Mass transfer studies have revealed that the mass transfer was controlled by the PEG-rich phase. A higher efficiency could be obtained when using an extra pump mixer-settler stage and higher flow rates.

  5. A thin-walled Taylor column surrounding a bathtub vortex in rotating tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Chou; Lai, Kuan-Ruei; Chen, Yin-Chung; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Vortex Dynamics Team

    2015-11-01

    Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments were jointly conducted to investigate a bathtub vortex under the influence of a protruding cylinder in a rotating tank. The flow pattern depends on Rossby number (Ro = U /fR), Ekman number (Ek = ν /fR2) , and height ratio, h/ H, where R is the radius of the cylinder, f the Coriolis parameter, ν the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, h the vertical length of the cylinder and H the height of the tank. Steady-state solutions obtained by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in the rotating frame are shown to have good agreements with flow visualizations measurements. The bathtub vortex exhibits an interesting two-celled structure with an inner Ekman pumping and an outer up-drafting motion. The two regions of up-drafting motion are separated by a notable finite-thickness structure, identified as thin-walled Taylor column. The Taylor column sets a barrier to the fluid flow that flows into the inner region only through the narrow gaps, one above the Taylor column and one beneath it. Moreover, the dependence of thickness and height of the thin-walled Taylor column on angular velocity ratio of cylinder to background rotation (ω/ Ω) , ranging from -8/3 to 8/3 are also discussed. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology, TAIWAN ROC, under contract no's 102-2221-E-002-068-MY3 & 103C-4514-1.

  6. Bioretention column study of bacteria community response to salt-enriched artificial stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreny, Theodore; Burke, David J; Burchhardt, Kathleen M; Fabian, Mark W; Kretzer, Annette M

    2012-01-01

    Cold climate cities with green infrastructure depend on soil bacteria to remove nutrients from road salt-enriched stormwater. Our research examined how bacterial communities in laboratory columns containing bioretention media responded to varying concentrations of salt exposure from artificial stormwater and the effect of bacteria and salt on column effluent concentrations. We used a factorial design with two bacteria treatments (sterile, nonsterile) and three salt concentrations (935, 315, and 80 ppm), including a deionized water control. Columns were repeatedly saturated with stormwater or deionized and then drained throughout 5 wk, with the last week of effluent analyzed for water chemistry. To examine bacterial communities, we extracted DNA from column bioretention media at time 0 and at week 5 and used molecular profiling techniques to examine bacterial community changes. We found that bacterial community taxa changed between time 0 and week 5 and that there was significant separation between taxa among salt treatments. Bacteria evenness was significantly affected by stormwater treatment, but there were no differences in bacterial richness or diversity. Soil bacteria and salt treatments had a significant effect on the effluent concentration of NO, PO, Cu, Pb, and Zn based on ANOVA tests. The presence of bacteria reduced effluent NO and Zn concentrations by as much as 150 and 25%, respectively, while having a mixed effect on effluent PO concentrations. Our results demonstrate how stormwater can affect bacterial communities and how the presence of soil bacteria improves pollutant removal by green infrastructure.

  7. Reactive transport of metal contaminants in alluvium - Model comparison and column simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.G.; Bassett, R.L.; Glynn, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    A comparative assessment of two reactive-transport models, PHREEQC and HYDROGEOCHEM (HGC), was done to determine the suitability of each for simulating the movement of acidic contamination in alluvium. For simulations that accounted for aqueous complexation, precipitation and dissolution, the breakthrough and rinseout curves generated by each model were similar. The differences in simulated equilibrium concentrations between models were minor and were related to (1) different units in model output, (2) different activity coefficients, and (3) ionic-strength calculations. When adsorption processes were added to the models, the rinseout pH simulated by PHREEQC using the diffuse double-layer adsorption model rose to a pH of 6 after pore volume 15, about 1 pore volume later than the pH simulated by HGC using the constant-capacitance model. In PHREEQC simulation of a laboratory column experiment, the inability of the model to match measured outflow concentrations of selected constituents was related to the evident lack of local geochemical equilibrium in the column. The difference in timing and size of measured and simulated breakthrough of selected constituents indicated that the redox and adsorption reactions in the column occurred slowly when compared with the modeled reactions. MINTEQA2 and PHREEQC simulations of the column experiment indicated that the number of surface sites that took part in adsorption reactions was less than that estimated from the measured concentration of Fe hydroxide in the alluvium.

  8. Transport and degradation of metalaxyl and isoproturon in biopurification columns inoculated with pesticide-primed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Tineke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Sniegowksi, Kristel; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Springael, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory column displacement experiments were performed to examine whether addition of pesticide-primed material to the matrix of an on-farm biopurification system (BPS), intended to remove pesticides from agricultural waste water, positively affects the degradation of mobile pesticides in the system. Percolated column microcosms with varying types and amounts of metalaxyl and/or isoproturon-primed material or non-primed material were irrigated with water artificially contaminated with isoproturon and/or metalaxyl. Transport of isoproturon was well described using the convection dispersion equation and no dissipation was observed, even in columns inoculated with isoproturon-primed material. On the other hand, delayed dissipation of metalaxyl, i.e., after an initial lag phase, was encountered in all columns receiving metalaxyl. In all systems, dissipation could be described using the Monod model indicating that a metalaxyl degrading population grew in the systems. There was a clear correlation between the lag phase and the amount of metalaxyl-primed material added to the system, i.e., increasing amounts of added material resulted into shorter lag phases and hence more rapid initiation of growth-associated metalaxyl degradation in the system. Our observations suggest that indeed pesticide-primed material can reduce the start-up phase of degradation of mobile pesticides in a BPS and as such can increase its efficiency. However, the primed material should be chosen carefully and preferentially beforehand tested for its capacity to degrade the pesticide.

  9. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using Cassava peel (Manihot Esculenta: column experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ricardo Albis Arrieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hexavalent chromium is a highly toxic metal and it is considered one of the contaminants with the highest environmental impact. Bioadsorbents have been considered as a viable option for chromium removal, leading to the necessity to study the behavior of these adsorbents in unit operations similar to the ones employed in the industry. Objective: To study the potential of cassava peels as bio-sorbent in the adsorption of hexavalent chromium in a semi-continuous process in fixed bed columns. Methodology: The effect of parameters such as feed flow rate, initial concentration and bed column height on the response variables rupture time and removal capacity was analyzed using a laboratory scale experimental set-up. Results: Low feed flow rates, low initial concentrations, and higher bed height produce the best conditions for chromium removal. Additionally, three classical models for removal on the packed column were used to fit the dynamic behavior of this process and to obtain significantly physical parameters. However, the best fitting was obtained using the model of the response surface. Conclusions: The concentration of chromium in the feed stream is the experimental factor that has the most influence on removal capacity and rupture time in fixed bed columns packed with cassava peel.

  10. Frontal crash simulation of vehicles against lighting columns using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia A. Abdel-Nasser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many severe and fatal crashes that result from vehicles colliding with street columns such as lighting columns. These cause extremely high impact forces and deformation on the frontal area of the car. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the frontal crash simulation of vehicle against lighting columns to examine injury risk and potential of safety. In particular, various FE models are used to perform contact–impact nonlinear dynamic analysis of lighting columns with vehicle. In this paper Abaqus explicit code is used to numerically simulate the crash of the vehicle with present columns and other lighting columns fabricated from a new suggested material. The acceleration, contact force and deformed energy at the frontal region of the vehicle are traced. It is found that the lighting columns with new suggested material have impact properties to decelerate the vehicle and absorb higher energy during impact.

  11. Monolithic columns in plant proteomics and metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigobello-Masini, Marilda; Penteado, José Carlos Pires; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2013-03-01

    Since "omics" techniques emerged, plant studies, from biochemistry to ecology, have become more comprehensive. Plant proteomics and metabolomics enable the construction of databases that, with the help of genomics and informatics, show the data obtained as a system. Thus, all the constituents of the system can be seen with their interactions in both space and time. For instance, perturbations in a plant ecosystem as a consequence of application of herbicides or exposure to pollutants can be predicted by using information gathered from these databases. Analytical chemistry has been involved in this scientific evolution. Proteomics and metabolomics are emerging fields that require separation, identification, and quantification of proteins, peptides, and small molecules of metabolites in complex biological samples. The success of this work relies on efficient chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques, and on mass spectrometric detection. This paper reviews recent developments in the use of monolithic columns, focusing on their applications in "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches, including their use as supports for immobilization of proteolytic enzymes and their use in two-dimensional and multidimensional chromatography. Whereas polymeric columns have been predominantly used for separation of proteins and polypeptides, silica-based monoliths have been more extensively used for separation of small molecules of metabolites. Representative applications in proteomics and in analysis of plant metabolites are given and summarized in tables.

  12. Faster Energy Efficient Column Compression Multiplication

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, B

    2011-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that faster, energy efficient, column compression multiplication, can be achieved by using a combination of two design techniques: partitioning of the partial products into two parts for independent parallel column compression and acceleration of the final addition using a hybrid adder proposed in this work. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of the techniques we have chosen the Dadda multiplier as an example. Based on the proposed techniques 8, 16, 32 and 64-bit Dadda multipliers are developed and compared with the regular Dadda multiplier. The performance of the proposed multiplier is analyzed by evaluating the delay, area and power, with 180 nm process technologies on interconnect and layout using industry standard design and layout tools. The result analysis shows that the 64-bit regular Dadda multiplier is as much as 41.1% slower than the proposed multiplier and requires only 1.4% and 3.7% less area and power respectively. Also the power-delay product of the proposed design ...

  13. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  14. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation. Annual report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, `Ken-Flote` column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  15. Assessing herbicide leaching from field measurements and laboratory experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Sánchez, Mª Victoria; Calderón, M.J.; Fernández Luque, José Enrique; Hermosín, M.C.; Moreno Lucas, Félix; Cornejo, J.

    2001-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments with undisturbed soil columns were performed for assessing the mobility and persistence of chloridazon and lenacil in a clayey soil in the marshes of Lebrija, southwest Spain. In the laboratory we tried to evaluate the herbicides fate when applied with doses greater than normal, as it happens by overlap when spraying the herbicides. Thus, the herbicides doses in the field experiments were similar to those applied by the growers in the area, while the doses app...

  16. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  17. BROAD SPECTRUM ANALYSIS FOR TRACE ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN LARGE VOLUMES OF WATER BY XAD RESINS-COLUMN DESIGN-FACTS AND MYTHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, J.; Wicklund, A.; Suffet, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The 'rule of thumb' that large volumes of water can be sampled for trace organic pollutants by XAD resin columns which are designed by small column laboratory studies or pure compounds is examined and shown to be a problem. A theory of multicomponent breakthrough is presented as a frame of reference to help solve the problem and develop useable criteria to aid the design of resin columns. An important part of the theory is the effect of humic substances on the breakthrough character of multicomponent chemical systems.

  18. Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report Rev. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    This project Hazard and Risk Analysis Report contains the results of several hazard analyses and risk assessments. An initial assessment was conducted in 2012, which included a multi-step approach ranging from design reviews to a formal What-If hazard analysis. A second What-If hazard analysis was completed during February 2013 to evaluate the operation of the hydrotreater/distillation column processes to be installed in a process enclosure within the Process Development Laboratory West (PDL-West) facility located on the PNNL campus. The qualitative analysis included participation of project and operations personnel and applicable subject matter experts. The analysis identified potential hazardous scenarios, each based on an initiating event coupled with a postulated upset condition. The unmitigated consequences of each hazardous scenario were generally characterized as a process upset; the exposure of personnel to steam, vapors or hazardous material; a spray or spill of hazardous material; the creation of a flammable atmosphere; or an energetic release from a pressure boundary.

  19. Direct probing of chromatography columns by laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuffin, V.L.

    1992-12-07

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments of this research project from September 1, 1989 to February 28, 1993. During this period, we have accomplished all of the primary scientific objectives of the research proposal: (1) constructed and evaluated a laser-induced fluorescence detection system that allows direct examination of the chromatographic column, (2) examined nonequilibrium processes that occur upon solute injection and elution, (3) examined solute retention in liquid chromatography as a function of temperature and pressure, (4) examined solute zone dispersion in liquid chromatography as a function of temperature and pressure, and (5) developed appropriate theoretical models to describe these phenomena. In each of these studies, substantial knowledge has been gained of the fundamental processes that are responsible for chromatographic separations. In addition to these primary research objectives, we have made significant progress in three related areas: (1) examined pyrene as a fluorescent polarity probe insupercritical fluids and liquids as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) developed methods for the class-selective identification of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-derived fluids by microcolumn liquid chromatography with fluorescence quenching detection, and (3) developed methods for the determination of saturated and unsaturated (including omega-3) fatty acids in fish oil extracts by microcolumn liquid chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection. In these studies, the advanced separation and detection techniques developed in our laboratory are applied to practical problems of environmental and biomedical significance.

  20. Direct probing of chromatography columns by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffin, V. L.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments of this research project from 1 Sep. 1989 to 28 Feb. 1993. During this period, we have accomplished all of the primary scientific objectives of the research proposal: (1) constructed and evaluated a laser-induced fluorescence detection system that allows direct examination of the chromatographic column, (2) examined nonequilibrium processes that occur upon solute injection and elution, (3) examined solute retention in liquid chromatography as a function of temperature and pressure, (4) examined solute zone dispersion in liquid chromatography as a function of temperature and pressure, and (5) developed appropriate theoretical models to describe these phenomena. In each of these studies, substantial knowledge has been gained of the fundamental processes that are responsible for chromatographic separations. In addition to these primary research objectives, we have made significant progress in three related areas: (1) examined pyrene as a fluorescent polarity probe in supercritical fluids and liquids as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) developed methods for the class-selective identification of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-derived fluids by microcolumn liquid chromatography with fluorescence quenching detection, and (3) developed methods for the determination of saturated and unsaturated (including omega-3) fatty acids in fish oil extracts by microcolumn liquid chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection. In these studies, the advanced separation and detection techniques developed in our laboratory are applied to practical problems of environmental and biomedical significance.

  1. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  2. Refreshment topics II: Design of distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For distillation column design it is necessary to define all the variable parameters such as component concentrations in different streams temperatures, pressures, mass and energy flow, which are used to represent the separation process of some specific system. They are related to each other according to specific laws, and if the number of such parameters exceeds the number of their relationships, in order to solve a problem some of them must be specified in advance or some constraints assumed for the mass balance, the balance of energy, phase equilibria or chemical equilibria. Knowledge of specific elements which are the constituents of a distillation unit must be known to define the number of design parameters as well as some additional apparati also necessary to realize the distilation. Each separate apparatus might be designed and constructed only if all the necessary and variable parameters for such a unit are defined. This is the right route to solve a distilation unit in many different cases. The construction of some distillation unit requires very good knowledge of mass, heat and momentum transfer phenomena. Moreover, the designer needs to know which kind of apparatus will be used in the distillation unit to realize a specific production process. The most complicated apparatus in a rectification unit is the distillation column. Depending on the complexity of the separation process one, two or more columns are often used. Additional equipment are heat exchangers (reboilers, condensers, cooling systems, heaters, separators, tanks for reflux distribution, tanks and pumps for feed transportation, etc. Such equipment is connected by pipes and valves, and for the normal operation of a distillation unit other instruments for measuring the flow rate, temperature and pressure are also required. Problems which might arise during the determination and selection of such apparati and their number requires knowledge of the specific systems which must

  3. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  4. Strengthening of Steel Columns under Load: Torsional-Flexural Buckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental and numerical research into the strengthening of steel columns under load using welded plates. So far, the experimental research in this field has been limited mostly to flexural buckling of columns and the preload had low effect on the column load resistance. This paper focuses on the local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling of columns. Three sets of three columns each were tested. Two sets corresponding to the base section (D and strengthened section (E were tested without preloading and were used for comparison. Columns from set (F were first preloaded to the load corresponding to the half of the load resistance of the base section (D. Then the columns were strengthened and after they cooled, they were loaded to failure. The columns strengthened under load (F had similar average resistance as the columns welded without preloading (E, meaning the preload affects even members susceptible to local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling only slightly. This is the same behaviour as of the tested columns from previous research into flexural buckling. The study includes results gained from finite element models of the problem created in ANSYS software. The results obtained from the experiments and numerical simulations were compared.

  5. Shear wave velocity-based evaluation and design of stone column improved ground for liquefaction mitigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yanguo; Sun Zhengbo; Chen Jie; Chen Yunmin; Chen Renpeng

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation and design of stone column improvement ground for liquefaction mitigation is a challenging issue for the state of practice.In this paper,a shear wave velocity-based approach is proposed based on the well-defined correlations of liquefaction resistance (CRR)-shear wave velocity (Vs)-void ratio (e) of sandy soils,and the values of parameters in this approach are recommended for preliminary design purpose when site specific values are not available.The detailed procedures of pre-and post-improvement liquefaction evaluations and stone column design are given.According to this approach,the required level of ground improvement will be met once the target Vs of soil is raised high enough (i.e.,no less than the critical velocity) to resist the given earthquake loading according to the CRR-Vs relationship,and then this requirement is transferred to the control of target void ratio (i.e.,the critical e) according to the Vs-e relationship.As this approach relies on the densification of the surrounding soil instead of the whole improved ground and is conservative by nature,specific considerations of the densification mechanism and effect are given,and the effects of drainage and reinforcement of stone columns are also discussed.A case study of a thermal power plant in Indonesia is introduced,where the effectiveness of stone column improved ground was evaluated by the proposed Vs-based method and compared with the SPT-based evaluation.This improved ground performed well and experienced no liquefaction during subsequent strong earthquakes.

  6. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of the Microbial Community of Winogradsky Columns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Esteban

    Full Text Available Winogradsky columns are model microbial ecosystems prepared by adding pond sediment to a clear cylinder with additional supplements and incubated with light. Environmental gradients develop within the column creating diverse niches that allow enrichment of specific bacteria. The enrichment culture can be used to study soil and sediment microbial community structure and function. In this study we used a 16S rRNA gene survey to characterize the microbial community dynamics during Winogradsky column development to determine the rate and extent of change from the source sediment community. Over a period of 60 days, the microbial community changed from the founding pond sediment population: Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, and Planctomycetes increased in relative abundance over time, while most Proteobacteria decreased in relative abundance. A unique, light-dependent surface biofilm community formed by 60 days that was less diverse and dominated by a few highly abundant bacteria. 67-72% of the surface community was comprised of highly enriched taxa that were rare in the source pond sediment, including the Cyanobacteria Anabaena, a member of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum, and a member of the Chloroflexi class Anaerolinea. This indicates that rare taxa can become abundant under appropriate environmental conditions and supports the hypothesis that rare taxa serve as a microbial seed bank. We also present preliminary findings that suggest that bacteriophages may be active in the Winogradsky community. The dynamics of certain taxa, most notably the Cyanobacteria, showed a bloom-and-decline pattern, consistent with bacteriophage predation as predicted in the kill-the-winner hypothesis. Time-lapse photography also supported the possibility of bacteriophage activity, revealing a pattern of colony clearance similar to formation of viral plaques. The Winogradsky column, a technique developed early in the history of microbial ecology to enrich soil

  7. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of the Microbial Community of Winogradsky Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, David J; Hysa, Bledi; Bartow-McKenney, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Winogradsky columns are model microbial ecosystems prepared by adding pond sediment to a clear cylinder with additional supplements and incubated with light. Environmental gradients develop within the column creating diverse niches that allow enrichment of specific bacteria. The enrichment culture can be used to study soil and sediment microbial community structure and function. In this study we used a 16S rRNA gene survey to characterize the microbial community dynamics during Winogradsky column development to determine the rate and extent of change from the source sediment community. Over a period of 60 days, the microbial community changed from the founding pond sediment population: Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, and Planctomycetes increased in relative abundance over time, while most Proteobacteria decreased in relative abundance. A unique, light-dependent surface biofilm community formed by 60 days that was less diverse and dominated by a few highly abundant bacteria. 67-72% of the surface community was comprised of highly enriched taxa that were rare in the source pond sediment, including the Cyanobacteria Anabaena, a member of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum, and a member of the Chloroflexi class Anaerolinea. This indicates that rare taxa can become abundant under appropriate environmental conditions and supports the hypothesis that rare taxa serve as a microbial seed bank. We also present preliminary findings that suggest that bacteriophages may be active in the Winogradsky community. The dynamics of certain taxa, most notably the Cyanobacteria, showed a bloom-and-decline pattern, consistent with bacteriophage predation as predicted in the kill-the-winner hypothesis. Time-lapse photography also supported the possibility of bacteriophage activity, revealing a pattern of colony clearance similar to formation of viral plaques. The Winogradsky column, a technique developed early in the history of microbial ecology to enrich soil microbes, may therefore be

  8. Shear wave velocity-based evaluation and design of stone column improved ground for liquefaction mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanguo; Sun, Zhengbo; Chen, Jie; Chen, Yunmin; Chen, Renpeng

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation and design of stone column improvement ground for liquefaction mitigation is a challenging issue for the state of practice. In this paper, a shear wave velocity-based approach is proposed based on the well-defined correlations of liquefaction resistance (CRR)-shear wave velocity ( V s)-void ratio ( e) of sandy soils, and the values of parameters in this approach are recommended for preliminary design purpose when site specific values are not available. The detailed procedures of pre- and post-improvement liquefaction evaluations and stone column design are given. According to this approach, the required level of ground improvement will be met once the target V s of soil is raised high enough (i.e., no less than the critical velocity) to resist the given earthquake loading according to the CRR- V s relationship, and then this requirement is transferred to the control of target void ratio (i.e., the critical e) according to the V s- e relationship. As this approach relies on the densification of the surrounding soil instead of the whole improved ground and is conservative by nature, specific considerations of the densification mechanism and effect are given, and the effects of drainage and reinforcement of stone columns are also discussed. A case study of a thermal power plant in Indonesia is introduced, where the effectiveness of stone column improved ground was evaluated by the proposed V s-based method and compared with the SPT-based evaluation. This improved ground performed well and experienced no liquefaction during subsequent strong earthquakes.

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Hollow Steel Columns Strengthening by CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keykha A.H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for strengthening and retrofitting is well known and extensive research is progressing in this field. The reasons for strengthening and retrofitting are numerous: increased loads, changes in use, deterioration, and so on. In recent years, the use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP for strengthening has shown to be a competitive method, both regarding structural performance, and economical aspects. Extensive research has been carried out in this field. However, most of the research has been undertaken on concrete structures and for confinement, flexural, and shear strengthening. Limited research has been carried out on steel structures strengthened with CFRP. This paper presents axially loaded steel columns strengthened for increased load. The topic is studied theoretically and through laboratory tests. The theory covers analytical methods. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers has been used to strengthen the columns. The tests have been undertaken on full scale specimens, non-strengthened for reference, partially strengthened and fully strengthened

  10. Transfer of gold nanoparticles from the water column to the estuarine food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, John L.; Craig, Preston; Hexel, Cole; Sisco, Patrick; Frey, Rebecca; Pennington, Paul L.; Fulton, Michael H.; Scott, I. Geoff; Decho, Alan W.; Kashiwada, Shosaku; Murphy, Catherine J.; Shaw, Timothy J.

    2009-07-01

    Within the next five years the manufacture of large quantities of nanomaterials may lead to unintended contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The unique physical, chemical and electronic properties of nanomaterials allow new modes of interaction with environmental systems that can have unexpected impacts. Here, we show that gold nanorods can readily pass from the water column to the marine food web in three laboratory-constructed estuarine mesocosms containing sea water, sediment, sea grass, microbes, biofilms, snails, clams, shrimp and fish. A single dose of gold nanorods (65 nm length × 15 nm diameter) was added to each mesocosm and their distribution in the aqueous and sediment phases monitored over 12 days. Nanorods partitioned between biofilms, sediments, plants, animals and sea water with a recovery of 84.4%. Clams and biofilms accumulated the most nanoparticles on a per mass basis, suggesting that gold nanorods can readily pass from the water column to the marine food web.

  11. A novel closed system bubble column photobioreactor for detailed characterisation of micro and macroalgal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Christensen, L.; Iversen, J. J.L.

    Growth of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis striata Butcher and macroalgae Chondrus crispus Stackhouse was investigated in batch cultures in a closed system bubble column photobioreactor. A laboratory cultivation system was constructed that allowed on-line monitoring of temperature, p...... produced oxygen was catalytically removed from the closed system by addition of hydrogen over a palladium catalyst to avoid photorespiration and to quantify oxygen production. In addition, the bubble column photobioreactor was well suited for cultivation of algae due to fast gas to liquid mass transfer (k......La) and fast mixing provided by split and dual sparging. Specific growth rates (SGRs) were measured using both off-line and on-line measurements. The latter was possible, because linear correlation was observed between carbon dioxide addition and optical density, which proves that carbon dioxide addition may...

  12. Two-Phase Flow in Packed Columns and Generation of Bubbly Suspensions for Chemical Processing in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Brian J.; Green, R. D.; Nahra, H. K.; Sridhar, K. R.

    2000-01-01

    For long-duration space missions, the life support and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) systems necessary to lower the mass and volume of consumables carried from Earth will require more sophisticated chemical processing technologies involving gas-liquid two-phase flows. This paper discusses some preliminary two-phase flow work in packed columns and generation of bubbly suspensions, two types of flow systems that can exist in a number of chemical processing devices. The experimental hardware for a co-current flow, packed column operated in two ground-based low gravity facilities (two-second drop tower and KC- 135 low-gravity aircraft) is described. The preliminary results of this experimental work are discussed. The flow regimes observed and the conditions under which these flow regimes occur are compared with the available co-current packed column experimental work performed in normal gravity. For bubbly suspensions, the experimental hardware for generation of uniformly sized bubbles in Couette flow in microgravity conditions is described. Experimental work was performed on a number of bubbler designs, and the capillary bubble tube was found to produce the most consistent size bubbles. Low air flow rates and low Couette flow produce consistent 2-3 mm bubbles, the size of interest for the "Behavior of Rapidly Sheared Bubbly Suspension" flight experiment. Finally the mass transfer implications of these two-phase flows is qualitatively discussed.

  13. Denver District Laboratory (DEN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDEN-DO Laboratory is a multi-functional laboratory capable of analyzing most chemical analytes and pathogenic/non-pathogenic microorganisms found...

  14. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  15. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  16. Gun Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...

  17. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  18. Experimental validation of pulsed column inventory estimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyerlein, A.L.; Geldard, J.F. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States)); Weh, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hannover (Germany)); Eiben, K.; Dander, T. (Wiederaufbereitungsanlage Karlsruhe Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (WAK), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)); Hakkila, E.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Near-real-time accounting (NRTA) for reprocessing plants relies on the timely measurement of all transfers through the process area and all inventory in the process. It is difficult to measure the inventory of the solvent contractors; therefore, estimation techniques are considered. We have used experimental data obtained at the TEKO facility in Karlsruhe and have applied computer codes developed at Clemson University to analyze this data. For uranium extraction, the computer predictions agree to within 15% of the measured inventories. We believe this study is significant in demonstrating that using theoretical models with a minimum amount of process data may be an acceptable approach to column inventory estimation for NRTA. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Maximum Variance Hashing via Column Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Luo

    2013-01-01

    item search. Recently, a number of data-dependent methods have been developed, reflecting the great potential of learning for hashing. Inspired by the classic nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm—maximum variance unfolding, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing method, named maximum variance hashing, in this work. The idea is to maximize the total variance of the hash codes while preserving the local structure of the training data. To solve the derived optimization problem, we propose a column generation algorithm, which directly learns the binary-valued hash functions. We then extend it using anchor graphs to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on large-scale image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in many cases.

  20. Permutation Analysis of Track and Column Braiding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毓陵; 丁辛; 胡良剑

    2004-01-01

    The positions of braiding carrier in track and column braiding are represented by a diagrammatic braiding plan and a corresponding lattice-array is defined. A set is then formed so that the permutation analysis can be performed to represent the movement of carriers in a braiding process. The process of 4-step braiding is analyzed as an example to describe the application of the proposed method by expressing a braiding cycle as a product of disjoint cycles. As a result, a mapping relation between the disjoint cycles and the movement of carriers is deduced. Following the same analysis principles, a process of 8-step braiding and the corresponding initial state of the lattice-array is developed. A successful permutation analysis to the process manifests the general suitability of the proposed method.

  1. Education and training column: the learning collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald-Wilson, Kim L; Nemec, Patricia B

    2015-03-01

    This column describes the key components of a learning collaborative, with examples from the experience of 1 organization. A learning collaborative is a method for management, learning, and improvement of products or processes, and is a useful approach to implementation of a new service design or approach. This description draws from published material on learning collaboratives and the authors' experiences. The learning collaborative approach offers an effective method to improve service provider skills, provide support, and structure environments to result in lasting change for people using behavioral health services. This approach is consistent with psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices, and serves to increase the overall capacity of the mental health system by structuring a process for discovering and sharing knowledge and expertise across provider agencies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Near shore floating oscillating wave column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Three different types of floating buoys, using oscillating wave columns, have been considered for generating electric power in an Atlantic environment. The study considered the situation close to the shore, but in the ultimate it was hoped to deploy units offshore. Although other designs would have greater power capture efficiency, the Spar Buoy was studied in greatest depth as it was expected to have the edge in terms of building cost and operating economics. A risk assessment was carried out for both concrete and steel buoys. The report covers (1) history of the project development; (2) project definition; (3) power generation and sensitivities and (4) lessons learned. The study was sponsored by Great Britain's DTI.

  3. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton.

  4. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  5. Laboratory Assessment of Nano-Silver Transport in Sand Columns Using Complex Conductivity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nano-materials are emerging into the global marketplace. Nano-particles, and other throwaway nano-devices may constitute a whole new class of non-biodegradable pollutants of which scientists have very little understanding. Therefore, the production of significant quantities of n...

  6. Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....

  7. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  8. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  9. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  10. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  11. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  12. Wind Structural Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides office space for industry researchers, experimental laboratories, computer facilities for analytical work, and space for assembling components...

  13. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  14. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  15. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  16. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies.DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  17. Wind Structural Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides office space for industry researchers, experimental laboratories, computer facilities for analytical work, and space for assembling components...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...

  19. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  20. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  1. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  2. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  3. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  4. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  5. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  6. Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With its pressure vessels that simulate the pressures and temperatures found deep underground, NETL’s Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory in Pittsburgh, PA, gives...

  7. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  8. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  9. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  10. Composites Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose of the Composites Characterization Laboratory is to investigate new and/or modified matrix materials and fibers for advanced composite applications both...

  11. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  12. Photovoltaic Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's PV characterization laboratory is used to measure the electrical performance and opto-electronic properties of solar cells and modules. This facility consists...

  13. Wireless Emulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  14. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies. DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  15. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  16. Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) utilizes a low-frequency acceleration measurement system for the characterization of rigid body inertial forces generated...

  17. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  18. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  19. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  20. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...