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Sample records for preliminary investigations show

  1. Preliminary Investigation of a Paraglider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Lowry, John G.; Croom, Delwin R.; Taylor, Robert T.

    1960-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the aerodynamic and control characteristics of a flexible glider similar to a parachute in construction has been made at the Langley Research Center to evaluate its capabilities as a reentry glider. Preliminary weight estimates of the proposed vehicle indicate that such a structure can be made with extremely low wing loading. Maximum temperatures during the reentry maneuver might be held as low as about 1,500 F. The results of wind-tunnel and free-glide tests show that the glider when constructed of nonporous material performed extremely well at subsonic speeds and could be flown at angles of attack from about 200 to 900. At supersonic speeds the wing showed none of the unfavorable tendencies exhibited by conventional parachutes at these speeds, such as squidding and breathing. Several methods of packing and deploying the glider have been successfully demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that this flexible-lifting-surface concept may provide a lightweight controllable paraglider for manned space vehicles.

  2. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  3. 42 CFR 457.925 - Preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Program Integrity § 457.925 Preliminary investigation. If the State agency receives a complaint of fraud or abuse...

  4. Archaeogeophysical investigations in Tiwanaku: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Lasaponara, Rosa; Leucci, Giovanni; Orefici, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Enzo

    2017-04-01

    -1450) Tiwanaku was characterized by the resurgence of regional identities and polities In spite of the rich archaeological record numerous issues, related to the function and the extension of Tiwanaku, need to be investigated especially in the monumental core which includes the pyramid of Akapana, and other ceremonial places such Kalasasaya, Putuni and Kantatallita. To this aims some geophysical investigations were performed in 2009 and 2014 in the context of multidisciplinary research including the use of satellite remote sensing [8]. This paper deals with the discussion of preliminary results of geomagnetic and GPR investigations, some of which have been verified by trial archaeological excavations which have unearthed some buried structures, improving the knowledge of the ceremonial areas of Tiwanaku. References [1] Lasaponara R., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Scardozzi G., Towards an operative use of remote sensing for exploring the past using satellite data: The case study of Hierapolis (Turkey), Remote sensing of Environment, 174 (2016) : 148-164, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2015.12.016 [2] Masini N., Lasaponara R., Rizzo E., Orefici G. 2012. Integrated Remote Sensing Approach in Cahuachi (Peru): Studies and Results of the ITACA Mission (2007-2010), In: Lasaponara R., Masini N. (Eds) 2012, Satellite Remote Sensing: a new tool for Archaeology, Springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN 978-90-481-8800-0, doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-8801-7_14; pp. 307-344 [3] Rizzo E., Masini N., Lasaponara R., Orefici G. 2010, ArchaeoGeophysical methods in the Templo del Escalonado (Cahuachi, Nasca, Perù), Near Surface Geophysics 8 (5), 433-439, doi:10.3997/1873-0604.2010030 [4] Masini N., Rizzo E., Lasaponara R., and Orefici G. 2008, Integrated remote sensing techniques for the detection of buried archaeological adobe structures: preliminary results in Cahuachi (Peru), Advances in Geosciences, 19, 75-82 [5] Lasaponara R., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R. 2014. Investigating archaeological looting

  5. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    In this study, we quantified the effect of Bonny- light crude oil contaminated diet ... This preliminary result suggest that Bonny-Light crude oil may have the potential .... different components. Its exploration ... organisms found in crude oil polluted.

  6. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits, modul...

  7. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned.

  8. Preliminary Investigation of Profiling Tools and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Minister of National Defence, 2011 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2011...indicate the need for further investigations to be able to support or negate the usefulness of GP. The critique of GP suggests that “results show...C., Jones, N.J., Taylor, P.J. & Snook, B. (2006). “Validities and Abilities in Criminal Profiling: A Critique of the Studies Conducted by Richard

  9. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits......, modulation schemes, LEDs and LED driving conditions are analyzed. A prototype radial mode PT optimized for ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) is designed. FEM (Final Element Method) and measurements validates the PT design. A prototype PT based AC/DC converter operating from european mains is proposed...

  10. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON KIGELIA PINNATA DC.,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHANASEKARAN.M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kigelia pinnata D.C. the mid sized ornamental tree of the Bignoniaceae has been studied by preliminary phytochemical and histochemical analysis. Several local names are availability to this plants based on their country. They are called worsboom in Africa and sauage tree in America. The tree is 25 meters in hight with a dense rounded crown bark grey. Data gathered on solvent extraction and preliminary phytochemical method suggested that the presence of glycosides, flavonoides, tannin and alkaloids in leaf tissue. Anatomical and histochemical investigation offered some clues on the localization of certain specific metabolites. This paper revealed preliminary phytochemical constituents of Kigelia pinnta D.C.., by phytochemical and histochemical investigation.

  11. Laboratory Investigations on Estuary Salinity Mixing: Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Nuryazmeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries are bodies of water along the coasts that are formed when fresh water from rivers flows into and mixes with salt water from the ocean. The estuaries serve as a habitat to some aquatic lives, including mangroves. Human-induced activities such as dredging of shipping lanes along the bottom estuarine, the disposal of industrial wastes into the water system and shoreline development influence estuarine dynamics which include mixing process. These activities might contribute to salinity changes and further adversely affect the estuarine ecosystem. In order to study at the characteristics of the mixing between salt water (estuary and freshwater (river, a preliminary investigation had been done in the laboratory. Fresh water was released from one end of the flume and overflowing at weir at the other end. Meanwhile, salt water was represented by the red dye tracer released through a weir and intruded upstream as a gravity current. The isohalines are plotted to see the salinity patterns. Besides, to examine the spatial and temporal salinity profiles along the laboratory investigations, the plotted graphs have been made. The results show that the changes in salinity level along the flume due to mixing between fresh water and salt water. This showed typical salt-wedge estuary characteristics.

  12. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children: A preliminary investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Patrick K; Francisco ePons; Harris, Paul L.; Barbara H. Esbjørn; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30–40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sam...

  13. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children: A preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K. Bender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension, anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule, emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and attachment security (Security Scale. Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.

  14. Emotion Understanding in Clinically Anxious Children: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Patrick K; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L

    2015-01-01

    Children's understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, eight girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD) correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.

  15. Community males show multiple-perpetrator rape proclivity: development and preliminary validation of an interest scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Wood, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The literature on Multiple Perpetrator Rape (MPR) is scant; however, a significant proportion of sexual offending involves multiple perpetrators. In addition to the need for research with apprehended offenders of MPR, there is also a need to conduct research with members of the general public. Recent advances in the forensic literature have led to the development of self-report proclivity scales. These scales have enabled researchers to conduct evaluative studies sampling from members of the general public who may be perpetrators of sexual offenses and have remained undetected, or at highest risk of engaging in sexual offending. The current study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Multiple-Perpetrator Rape Interest Scale (M-PRIS), a vignette-based measure assessing community males' sexual arousal to MPR, behavioral propensity toward MPR and enjoyment of MPR. The findings show that the M-PRIS is a reliable measure of community males' sexual interest in MPR with high internal reliability and temporal stability. In a sample of university males we found that a large proportion (66%) did not emphatically reject an interest in MPR. We also found that rape-supportive cognitive distortions, antisocial attitudes, and high-risk sexual fantasies were predictors of sexual interest in MPR. We discuss these findings and the implications for further research employing proclivity measures referencing theory development and clinical practice.

  16. Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2004-04-01

    A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

  17. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions

  18. Preliminary clinical investigations of a new noninvasive venous pulse oximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel; Smith, Peter R.; Caine, Michael P.; Spyt, Tomasz; Boehm, Maria; Machin, David

    2003-10-01

    For decades, the monitoring of mixed venous oxygen saturation, SvO2 has been performed invasively using fibre-optic catheters. This procedure is not without risk as complications may arise from catheterisation. The group has devised a new non-invasive venous oximetry method which involves inducing regular modulations of the venous blood volume and associated measurement of those modulations using optical means. A clinical investigation was conducted in Glenfield Hospital, UK to evaluate the sensitivity of the new technique to haemodynamic changes such as Cardiac Output (CO) in intraoperative and postoperative cardiac patients. Preliminary trials on patients recovering from cardiac surgery yielded an average correlation of r = 0.72 between CO at different Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) augmentation levels and SvO2 measured by the new venous oximeter. In intraoperative patients undergoing off-pump cardiac surgery, SvO2 recorded by the new technique responded to unplanned events such as a cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: The new venous oximetry technique is a promising technique which responds to haemodynamic changes such as CO and with further development might offer an alternative means of monitoring SvO2 non-invasively.

  19. Preliminary investigations into triazole derived androgen receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altimari, Jarrad M; Niranjan, Birunthi; Risbridger, Gail P; Schweiker, Stephanie S; Lohning, Anna E; Henderson, Luke C

    2014-05-01

    A range of 1,4-substituted-1,2,3-N-phenyltriazoles were synthesized and evaluated as non-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. The motivation for this study was to replace the N-phenyl amide portion of small molecule antiandrogens with a 1,2,3-triazole and determine effects, if any, on biological activity. The synthetic methodology presented herein is robust, high yielding and extremely rapid. Using this methodology a series of 17 N-aryl triazoles were synthesized from commercially available starting materials in less than 3h. After preliminary biological screening at 20 and 40 μM, the most promising three compounds were found to display IC50 values of 40-50 μM against androgen dependent (LNCaP) cells and serve as a starting point for further structure-activity investigations. All compounds in this work were the focus of an in silico study to dock the compounds into the human androgen receptor ligand binding domain (hARLBD) and compare their predicted binding affinity with known antiandrogens. A comparison of receptor-ligand interactions for the wild type and T877A mutant AR revealed two novel polar interactions. One with Q738 of the wild type site and the second with the mutated A877 residue.

  20. Preliminary Findings Show Maternal Hypothyroidism May Contribute to Abnormal Cortical Morphology in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischinsky, Julieta E.; Skocic, Jovanka; Clairman, Hayyah; Rovet, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, insufficient thyroid hormone (TH) gestationally has adverse effects on cerebral cortex development. Comparable studies of humans examining how TH insufficiency affects cortical morphology are limited to children with congenital hypothyroidism or offspring of hypothyroxinemic women; effects on cortex of children born to women with clinically diagnosed hypothyroidism are not known. We studied archived MRI scans from 22 children aged 10–12 years born to women treated for preexisting or de novo hypothyroidism in pregnancy (HYPO) and 24 similar age and sex controls from euthyroid women. FreeSurfer Image Analysis Suite software was used to measure cortical thickness (CT) and a vertex-based approach served to compare HYPO versus control groups and Severe versus Mild HYPO subgroups as well as to perform regression analyses examining effects of trimester-specific maternal TSH on CT. Results showed that relative to controls, HYPO had multiple regions of both cortical thinning and thickening, which differed for left and right hemispheres. In HYPO, thinning was confined to medial and mid-lateral regions of each hemisphere and thickening to superior regions (primarily frontal) of the left hemisphere and inferior regions (particularly occipital and temporal) of the right. The Severe HYPO subgroup showed more thinning than Mild in frontal and temporal regions and more thickening in bilateral posterior and frontal regions. Maternal TSH values predicted degree of thinning and thickening within multiple brain regions, with the pattern and direction of correlations differing by trimester. Notably, some correlations remained when cases born to women with severe hypothyroidism were removed from the analyses, suggesting that mild variations of maternal TH may permanently affect offspring cortex. We conclude that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy has long-lasting manifestations on the cortical morphology of their offspring with specific effects reflecting both

  1. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON KIGELIA PINNATA DC.,

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanasekaran, M.; ABRAHAM.G.C; Mohan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Kigelia pinnata D.C. the mid sized ornamental tree of the Bignoniaceae has been studied by preliminary phytochemical and histochemical analysis. Several local names are availability to this plants based on their country. They are called worsboom in Africa and sauage tree in America. The tree is 25 meters in hight with a dense rounded crown bark grey. Data gathered on solvent extraction and preliminary phytochemical method suggested that the presence of glycosides, flavonoides, tannin and alka...

  2. Preliminary investigation of the magnetostratigraphy of the Ringold Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, D.R.; Johnston, J.M.

    1979-05-01

    The Ringold Formation consists of lacustrine and fluvial deposits overlying the Columbia River Basalt. The Ringold Formation, because of its thickness, extent, and age, is an excellent unit in which to detect and possibly data the deformation that has occurred since deposition of the basalt. One objective of this study was to investigate the paleomagnetism of the upper Ringold unit exposed at one location in the White Bluffs in enough detail to resolve, with reasonable confidence, the magnetostratigraphy of the rock units sampled. The other objective was to evaluate, in a preliminary manner, the paleomagnetic favorability and magnetostratigraphy of the subsurface Ringold Formation in the Pasco Basin and at selected exposures outside the Pasco Basin. The scope of this study was the collection of 300 paleomagnetic samples, their measurement, and analysis. Samples were collected from the White Bluffs, from core recovered from six drill holes on the Hanford Site, and from two surface exposures outside the Pasco Basin. A total of 294 samples was collected, and 2928 paleomagnetic measurements were performed on these samples. The samples were measured by means of a three-axis super-conducting rock magnetometer having a sensitivity of 10/sup -8/ emu/cm/sup 3/ and were demagnetized progressively in a 400-hertz alternating field (AF). All data were recorded and processed during measurement by an on-line computer.The declination, inclination, and intensity of magnetization of the samples from the various sections are plotted as a function of their stratigraphic position. The directions of the magnetization of the various sections are also plotted as a group on Wulff equal-angle stereonets. 22 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Social support and fires in the workplace: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimmie, Blake M; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Mathews, Rebecca; Moffat, Kieren

    2009-01-01

    Workers who experience fire in the workplace are faced with disruption to their work routine, as well as the emotional strain of the fire. In the broader occupational stress literature, researchers have suggested that social support will be most effective at reducing the negative effects of stressors on strain when the type of support matches the type of stressor being experienced (either instrumental or emotional). This study was a preliminary investigation into employee responses to less routine stressors, such as workplace fires, and the role of different sources of social support in predicting coping effectiveness. This study also was a first attempt at considering the influence of the social context (in terms of group identification) on the effectiveness of social support as a predictor of coping effectiveness. Specifically, it was predicted that social support would be more effective when it came from multiple sources within the organization, that it would be especially effective when provided from a group that workers identified more strongly with, and that simply feeling part of a group would improve adjustment. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 33 employees who had recently experienced a significant fire in their workplace. Results suggested that the type of stressors experienced and the type of support were mismatched, but despite this, coping effectiveness was generally moderate to high. There was mixed support for predictions about the effects of social support-no moderating effect of group identification on coping effectiveness was observed for measures of workplace support, although it did moderate the effects of family support on this adjustment indicator.

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of Female Entrepreneurs’ Behavior in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Avram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to carry out a preliminary analysis of the Romanian female entrepreneurs’ behavior. In order to reach this aim we studied the specialized literature which tries to define the entrepreneur, the feminine entrepreneur, to identify the women’s motivation to become entrepreneurs, the required skills, as well as the potential similarities and differences between female and male entrepreneurs. In the case study we elaborated in this paper, the percentage of women-entrepreneurs from the total number of entrepreneurs who set up a new business represents the independent variable. We used as dependent variable quantitative variables expressed in percentages which describe the situation of newly founded enterprises one year into their set up (active, inactive and liquidated, the size of the newly founded enterprise (0 employees, 1 to 49 employees, and over 49 employees and the type of employment (employers, full-time employees, part-time employees. The data we used are annual, refer to a period of time ranging from 1995 to 2013, and were gathered by the Romanian National Institute of Statistics. The conclusions show that the percentage of Romanian women-entrepreneurs is in tight link with the percentage of active companies one year into their set up. As regards the size of the company, we noticed that women-entrepreneurs own companies with fewer employees. And when referring to the head-office of the company, we notices that it is not influenced by the increase or decrease of the percentage of Romanian women-entrepreneurs.

  5. Preliminary investigation of dose for a dedicated mammotomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Randolph L.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2006-03-01

    We use a previously reported, optimized quasi-monochromatic beam technique together with unique complex acquisition trajectories made possible with a novel, dedicated cone-beam transmission computed mammotomography (CmT) system to investigate effects of low dose imaging of pendant, uncompressed breasts. Investigators have used a guideline of dose for CmT type applications as that used for dual-view mammography (4-6 mGy for average breast size). This dose is somewhat arbitrary, and it may be possible to reduce this significantly without sacrificing image quality using our quasi-monochromatic x-ray beam, 3D complex acquisition orbits, and iterative reconstruction techniques. A low-scatter acrylic resolution phantom in various media, a breast phantom with sponge and oil-filled lesions, and a cadaver breast are used to evaluate the effect of lowered dose on resolution and image artifacts. Complex saddle acquisition trajectories (necessary to overcome cone-beam distortion) are carried out for total exposures of 96, 300, and 600 mAs over 240 projections. These exposures relate approximately to 1/10 th, 1/3 rd, and 2/3 rd of the standard dual view mammography dose for an average sized 50% adipose/glandular breast. Iterative reconstruction uses an OSTR algorithm with 0.125 mm 3 voxels. Image artifacts increased as dose was reduced but did not appear to greatly degrade image quality except at the lowest contrast tested (1% absolute contrast). As expected, noise increased as dose was reduced. However, this did not appear to affect resolution for rods in air (high contrast), nor rods in oil (20% absolute contrast). Resolution was reduced for rods in water (1% absolute contrast) due to increased prevalence of image artifacts as well as increased noise. Breast phantom imaging of soft lesions in a highly glandular breast (6% absolute contrast) clearly yielded the 60uL and all larger volume lesions. Preliminary biological breast tissue results illustrate excellent subjective

  6. Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

  7. Public Relations Ethics and Communitarianism: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Kathie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a preliminary examination of communitarianism and its emphasis on community and responsibility as an ethical base for public relations. Suggests that the emphasis business currently places on quality, social responsibility, and stewardship may fit within a communitarian approach. Argues that a communitarian base to public relations may…

  8. Magnetotelluric investigation across the Agri Valley: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasco, Marianna; Romano, Gerardo; Siniscalchi, Agata; Alfredo Stabile, Tony

    2017-04-01

    The Agri Valley is an axial zone of the Southern Apennines thrust belt chain with a strong seismogenic potential where two important energy technologies responsible for inducing/triggering seismicity are active: (1) the disposal at the Costa Molina 2 injection well of the wastewater produced during the exploitation of the biggest onshore oil field in west Europe (27 wells producing more than 80,000 barrels of crude oil per day), managed by the Eni S.p.A., and (2) the water loading and unloading operations in the Pertusillo artificial reservoir. It is recognized the possibility that the fluctuation of the water level inside the reservoir, due to the hydrological cycle for example, produces pressure perturbations at the bottom of reservoir, causing induced seismicity. Furthermore it is even more known the role of fluids in the rupture processes which could cause an increase of pore pressure specially at high rate of injection fluids and/or for the presence of weakening of preexisting faults. With the aim to better characterize and understand the physical processes involved in the observed induced/triggered seismicity, in 2016 a broadband seismic network, covering an area of about 20 km x 20 km nearby the Pertusillo Dam and Costa Molina2 well has been installed in the framework of SIR-MIUR project INSIEME (INduced Seismicity in Italy: Estimation, Monitoring, and sEismic risk mitigation) and a MagnetoTelluric (MT) survey has been performed. The MT investigation consists of 25 soundings aligned along 30 km profile oriented at about N40 direction, orthogonal with the strike of the major and noticeable geological structures and crossing both of the source that may induce/trigger seismicity. In this work, we present the preliminary 2D resistivity model which provides useful deep geophysical information for understanding the geological and structural setting of the Agri Valley. Moreover, the comparison of the resistivity model with the earthquake location as inferred from

  9. A preliminary investigation into the acquisition of fingerprints on food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Nicholson, Lynsey; Farrugia, Kevin; Bremner, David; Gentles, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    The potential for enhancement and recovery of latent fingerprints on a variety of foodstuffs has been investigated. In general, black magnetic powder and black powder suspensions appear to be the most successful enhancement techniques with a high number of ridge detail-developed prints over a selected time scale. Banana, apple and tomato surfaces showed enhancement of latent prints but potato and egg surfaces proved to be less successful.

  10. A preliminary experimental investigation into lateral pedestrian-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Knudsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from a preliminary experimental study on lateral human-structure dynamic interaction on footbridges using an instrumented platform. The platform has a natural frequency within the range of an average pedestrian and consists of a suspended concrete girder. With a length...... of 17 m and weight of 19.6 ton, the platform provides a realistic comparison to an actual footbridge. Based on experiments with single pedestrians walking across the platform at resonance, the fundamental dynamic load factor is determined using only the recorded acceleration signal. Furthermore, tests...

  11. Summary of preliminary contaminant impacts investigations in the Clinch River Basin, Virginia, using multiple bioassessment techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1992 multiple investigations were performed to collect preliminary information to direct future studies aimed at characterizing contaminant problems in the Clinch...

  12. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1 in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available, 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition, and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available. The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2, the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research.

  13. Alcohol-Dependent Subjects Show Different Personality Traits Compared With Subjects With Multiple Substance Dependence: Preliminary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Gabi; Preuss, Ullrich; Lü, Osman; Soyka, Michael; Pogarell, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We compared personality traits of 27 persons with multiple substance dependence with personality data of 52 alcohol-dependent persons regarding their personality traits and disorders (obtained by using SCID-II, TCI and NEO FFI). Both patient groups were free of any other mental disorder. In SKD-II, we found significant differences in the male group in dependent and scizotypic personality disorder. There were no significant differences in the female group, but sample was very small. We also found significant differences between alcohol-dependent and multiple substance-dependent persons in extraversion and novelty seeking. We detected significant differences in personality disorders evaluated by SCID-II. Temperament and character items—as evaluated by NEO FFI and TCI—showed also significant differences in personality traits. Given the limited number of subjects, the data should be regarded as preliminary until replicated in a larger sample. Nevertheless, the findings may be of clinical relevance with respect to prognosis or individualized treatment. These findings should be treated with caution until replicated.

  14. Geothermal investigations in Czechoslovakia 1974-1975: preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermak, V. (Geophys. Inst., Prague); Kresl, M.; Lizon, I.; Marusiak, I.; Vesely, I.

    1977-01-01

    New heat flow data collected during 1974 and 1975, as well as the corresponding temperature versus depth profiles for Czechoslovakia are discussed, and a preliminary heat flow map is drafted, based on these data. The heat flow patterns are analyzed on the basis of their relation to the tectonic setting in each instance, including major units such as the Bohemian Massif, the Carpathian Foredeep, and the Western Carpathians. The heat flow is obviously related to the tectonic setting, with increased heat flow corresponding to local elevation of the Mohorovicic discontinuity and tectonic instability. There is a general increase in heat flow from the outer zones of the Carpathian belt toward the inner structural units. A marked increase occurs along a northeast trend across the Carpathian Foredeep. Twenty-four references are provided.

  15. Investigation of Sorption and Diffusion Mechanisms, and Preliminary Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sankar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. Several monovalent and divalent cation exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water. Experiments were performed using tritiated water feed solution containing tritium at the high end of the range (1 mCi/mL) anticipated in a nuclear fuel processing system that includes both acid and water streams recycling. The tritium concentration was about 0.1 ppm. The permeate was recovered under vacuum. The HTO/H2O selectivity and separation factor calculated from the measured tritium concentrations ranged from 0.99 to 1.23, and 0.83-0.98, respectively. Although the membrane performance for HTO separation was lower than expected, several encouraging observations including molecular sieving and high vapor permeance are reported. Additionally, several new approaches are proposed, such as tuning the sorption and diffusion properties offered by small pore LTA zeolite materials, and cation exchanged aluminosilicates with high metal loading. It is hypothesized that substantially improved preferential transport of tritium (HTO) resulting in a more concentrated permeate can be achieved. Preliminary economic analysis for the membrane-based process to concentrate tritiated water is also discussed.

  16. Capillary blood glucose screening for gestational diabetes: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M B; Cembrowski, G S; Gabbe, S G

    1986-10-01

    Home glucose monitoring with the use of reflectance meters is an important adjunct in the care of pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The accuracy of reflectance meters for the assay of capillary glucose specimens has been well documented. The present preliminary study was undertaken to determine the utility of outpatient screening for gestational diabetes mellitus with the use of a reflectance meter (Accu-Chek, Boehringer Mannheim Co.). One hundred twenty-five patients in our high-risk practice had a standard 50 gm glucose load at 26 to 28 weeks' gestation. Capillary glucose values were measured on site with the Accu-Chek. Venous plasma glucose levels were measured by the central laboratory chemistry analyzer. While the laboratory (x) and meter (y) glucose determinations between the two sets of values were highly correlated (R = 0.89, p less than 0.001), there was a significant difference in their average values (x = 111.74, y = 136.35, p less than 0.0001). With the use of a receiver operator characteristic curve, a meter value of 160 mg/dl was determined as the optimal threshold for performing a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. The sensitivity and specificity with the use of a meter value of 160 mg/dl were 93% and 96%, respectively, for detecting an abnormal screening test in venous plasma (greater than or equal to 135 mg/dl). A total of 32 glucose tolerance tests were performed, with four patients included who had venous values less than 135 mg/dl. All eight patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were correctly identified. These data suggest that a glucose reflectance meter can be used for accurate outpatient screening of gestational diabetes mellitus. The potential advantages of capillary blood glucose screening include both cost and efficiency. Patients with abnormal screening values can be promptly identified and scheduled for a follow-up 3-hour glucose tolerance test.

  17. Preliminary study showing safety/efficacy of nanoss bioactive versus vitoss as bone graft expanders for lumbar noninstrumented fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this preliminary study of patients undergoing multilevel lumbar lamienctomies with posterolateral noninstrumented fusions, results were nearly comparable utilizing Vitoss or NanOss as bone graft expanders. Although the number of NanOss patients was substantially lower, the comparable efficacy and absence of postoperative complications for noninstrumented fusions is promising.

  18. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

  19. Preliminaries to an investigation of reduced product set finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Principles of financial product synthesis from a few basic financial products constitute an interesting research topic inspired by Islamic finance. We make an effort to answer general questions that should be answered before starting to investigate the main issues concerning this topic with the form

  20. Preliminaries to an investigation of reduced product set finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Principles of financial product synthesis from a few basic financial products constitute an interesting research topic inspired by Islamic finance. We make an effort to answer general questions that should be answered before starting to investigate the main issues concerning this topic with the form

  1. Preliminary Investigations into the Development of Textile Based Temperature Sensor for Healthcare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kennon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human body temperature is an important sign of physical condition in terms of comfort, heat or cold stresses, and of performance. This paper presents the preliminary investigation into the design, manufacturing and testing of the textile based temperature sensor. This sensing fabric may be employed to measure the temperature of the human body on a continuous basis over extensive periods of time, outside the clinical environment. The sensing fabric was manufactured on an industrial scale flat-bed knitting machine by laying-in the sensing element (in the form of fine metal wire into the double layer knitted structure. The operational principle of the sensing fabric is based on the inherent tendency of metal wire to change in its electrical resistance because of the change in its temperature. An experimental resistance-temperature relationship showed promising validation in comparison with their modeled counterparts.

  2. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharyya Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  3. Aerobic Exercise Equipment Preferences among Older Adults: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure the aerobic exercise equipment preference of a frail older population and applied many-facet Rasch analysis to study construct validity and equipment preferences. Results for 16 participants show the usefulness of many-facet Rasch analysis in guiding instrument revision. (SLD)

  4. Preliminary investigation of radiatively driven convection in marine stratocumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Marine stratocumulus play an important yet still poorly modeled role in the climate system. These clouds cool the planet, having a large albedo, but little infrared effect. A fundamental question is whether such clouds will exist at a given time and location. Stratocumulus is often formed at higher latitudes as stratus and advected equatorward until it breaks up. Possible mechanisms for cloud breakup include strong subsidence, cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI), drizzle, solar heating and resultant boundary layer decoupling, and surface forcing. The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) was conducted to investigate these potential cloud breakup mechanisms. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Preliminary experimental investigation of boundary layer in decelerating flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Příhoda J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of characteristics of turbulence inside boundary layer under decelerating flow were studied by means of constant temperature anemometer. The decelerating flow was simulated in the closed circuit wind tunnel 0.9 m × 0.5 m at IT AS CR. The free stream turbulence was either natural o risen up by square mesh plane grid. The details of experimental settings and measurement procedures of the instantaneous longitudinal velocity component are described and the distributions of intensity, skewness and kurtosis of turbulent fluctuations are discussed in the contribution.

  6. Altered Passive Eruption and Familial Trait: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered passive eruption is described as a condition in which the relationship between teeth, alveolar bone, and the soft tissues creates an excessive gingival display and, in turn, in some circumstances, it may reveal a clinical aspect also known as the “gummy smile.” The surgical management of such cases is well understood and has been widely described, with mucogingival and osseous resective procedures being predictable surgical means leading to more balanced aesthetics and proper display of the teeth anatomy. The possible familial trait in case of passive eruption and therefore the possibility of recurrence of the same condition in families of siblings or parents of affected patients have been investigated in this study. 20 patients have been selected and treated in both a private practice and university settings and their immediate family trees were evaluated in order to understand the incidence of the condition. 65% of the treated patients had one or more family members with the same condition leading to seeking further investigation on the possible genetic correlation.

  7. Preliminary investigations of antioxidation of dihydromyricetin in polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qiukai Zheng; Linli Xu; Linhua Zhu; Jia Chen; Feiyue Liu; Dehong Chen; Kai Xu; Mingcai Chen

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidative properties of dihydromyricetin (DMY), extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata, in different solid polymers were evaluated by measuring the oxidation induction temperature (OIT*). The antioxidative efficiency was compared with Irganox 1010. The results showed that DMY was more efficient than the synthetical antioxidant. The high antioxidant activity of DMY is attributed to the special chemical structure, including the quantity and positions of the hydroxy groups in the molecule. DMY was harmless and highly effective to be a good natural antioxidant.

  8. Preliminary investigation on the coastal rogue waves of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As an eye-catching issue, rogue waves have been undergoing different stages from theory to practice gradually, whose occurrence always brings about severe threat to not only ships and sailors but also coastal structural integrity. Due to the scarce wave observations in coastal zone and meager study in Mainland China, the discussion specifically aimed at observed coastal rogue waves in China was at elementary stage. Based on the measured data from Xiangshui station of Jiangsu, China, the characteristics including occurrence probability and nonlinearity are investigated, which is a supplement to the previous research works. Surprisingly, the outcomes tend to refute rather than confirming some of the traditional conceptions about rogue waves. A new concept for the classification of coastal rogue waves is proposed afterwards.

  9. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, K.; Pastula, E., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the 15-month investigation now in the analysis phase is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area, jointly acquired by private and professional fishermen and NASA and NOAA/NMFS elements, in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data.

  10. The effect of stuttering on communication: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; Ferguson, Alison

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a study in which Systemic Functional Linguistics was applied to describe how people who stutter use language. The aim of the study was to determine and describe any differences in language use between a group of 10 adults who stutter and 10 matched normally-fluent speakers. In addition to formal linguistic analyses, analyses drawn from Systemic Functional Linguistics were used to further investigate the expression of both syntactic and semantic complexity. The findings from this study replicated previous findings of Packman et al. in which they found that the language used by people who stutter was significantly less complex than the control group. Another major finding was that adults who stuttered used the linguistic resource of modality significantly less than the normally-fluent matched peers. The implications these strategies have on communication and social participation will be discussed.

  11. Preliminary investigation of trapped particle instabilities in EBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Hedrick, C.L.

    1978-05-01

    An investigation is presented of the role which trapped particles might play in the drift wave stability of ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT). The model adopted consists of a bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation with a Krook collision operator. Care has been taken to model, at least in an elementary way, the features which distinguish the physics of EBT from that of tokamaks, namely the large magnitude and velocity space dependence of the poloidal drift frequency ..cap omega.., the relatively small collisionality ..nu../..cap omega.., the enhancement of ..nu../sub eff/ for passing particles, and the closed nature of the field lines. Instabilities are found which have a somewhat dissipative character, however the precessional drift is found to be a significant stabilizing influence. In most cases, the modes are completely stabilized when ..omega../sub *//l..cap omega.. approximately equal to 1 for normal gradients. For reversed gradients (..omega../sub *//l..cap omega.. < 0), stability is greatly enhanced.

  12. The Genesis of Lincang Germanium Deposit—A Preliminary Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞忠; 叶造军; 等

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of formation of the Lincang germanium deposit is discussed in the light of the spatial distribution of Ge-rich coal and siliceous rocks,the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in the Ge-rich coal,the variation of Ge abundance in the coal seams and the geochemical characteristics of the siliceous rocks.The results show that the siliceous rocks intercalated with the coal seamw were deposited from a hyrothermal medium through which germanium was enriched in the coal beds.The primary source of germanium is thought to be the Gerich granite in the basement of the sedimentary basin.

  13. Preliminary investigation on concentrating of acetol from wood vinegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ze, E-mail: windw100@sohu.co [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin Weigang [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Song Wenli, E-mail: wlsong@home.ipe.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yao Jianzhong [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Acetol, as one of the components in biomass pyrolysis liquid, is a high value added compound for medicine synthesis. Benefit may be obtained if acetol can be extracted from the pyrolysis liquid, while the instability of acetol makes the concentrating difficult. In this paper, the concentrating of acetol from wood vinegar is preliminarily investigated, and the conditions of distillation, solvent extraction, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} effect on the concentrating result are discussed. Herein the content of acetol can be concentrated from below 4% in the raw wood vinegar to above 60%, and the number of main components reduce from over 20 to 5, while the yield of acetol is still rather low. It was found that in the organic solution distillation process, acetol can be easily concentrated from 1% to above 40%, while a further distillation of the concentrated acetol system was rather hard. The conversion of acetol in the distillation process was probably an important cause to the low yield of acetol, and a lower distillation temperature was advantageous for the concentrating of acetol.

  14. Preliminary investigations on high energy electron beam tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertling, Yves; Hoppe, Dietrich; Hampel, Uwe

    2010-12-15

    In computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional images of the attenuation distribution within a slice are created by scanning radiographic projections of an object with a rotating X-ray source detector compound and subsequent reconstruction of the images from these projection data on a computer. CT can be made very fast by employing a scanned electron beam instead of a mechanically moving X-ray source. Now this principle was extended towards high-energy electron beam tomography with an electrostatic accelerator. Therefore a dedicated experimental campaign was planned and carried out at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk. There we investigated the capabilities of BINP's accelerators as an electron beam generating and scanning unit of a potential high-energy electron beam tomography device. The setup based on a 1 MeV ELV-6 (BINP) electron accelerator and a single detector. Besides tomographic measurements with different phantoms, further experiments were carried out concerning the focal spot size and repeat accuracy of the electron beam as well as the detector's response time and signal to noise ratio. (orig.)

  15. Preliminary Investigation of the Process Capabilities of Hydroforging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Alzahrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroforging is a hybrid forming operation whereby a thick tube is formed to a desired geometry by combining forging and hydroforming principles. Through this process hollow structures with high strength-to-weight ratio can be produced for applications in power transmission systems and other structural components that demands high strength-to-weight ratio. In this process, a thick tube is deformed by pressurized fluid contained within the tube using a multi-purpose punch assembly, which is also used to feed tube material into the die cavity. Fluid pressure inside the thick tube is developed by volume change governed by the movement of the punch assembly. In contrast to the conventional tube hydroforming (THF, the hydroforging process presented in this study does not require external supply of pressurized fluid to the deforming tube. To investigate the capability of hydroforging process, an experimental setup was developed and used to hydroforge various geometries. These geometries included hollow flanged vessels, hexagonal flanged parts, and hollow bevel and spur gears.

  16. A preliminary investigation of daily variability of stuttering in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Christopher D; Leslie, Paula; Quesal, Robert W; Yaruss, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Variability in frequency of stuttering has made the results of treatment outcome studies difficult to interpret. Many factors that affect variability have been investigated; yet the typical range of variability experienced by speakers remains unknown. This study examined the day-to-day variability in the percentage of syllables containing stuttered and nonstuttered disfluencies in the speech of six adult speakers in three spontaneous speaking situations and two reading tasks. The frequency of moments stuttering during the tasks were compared within and between speakers and days to document the degree of variability in stuttering frequency and explore whether there were any consistent patterns. The Stuttering Severity Instrument-Fourth Edition (SSI-4) and Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering for Adults (OASES-A) were also tested for day-to-day variability. Correlations between frequency, severity, and life impact were made. The primary result of this study was the large range over which frequency of stuttering varied from day to day for the same individual. This variability did not correlate with any measures of stuttering severity but did correlate with life impact as measured by the OASES-A. No global pattern was detected in variability from day to day within or between participants. However, there were significantly more nonstuttered disfluencies present during the spontaneous speaking tasks than during the reading tasks. The day-to-day variability in the life impact of the disorder (OASES-A) was less than the day-to-day variability in observable stuttering behavior (percentage of syllables stuttered and SSI-4). Frequency of stuttering varies significantly from situation to situation and day to day, with observed variability exceeding the degree of change often reported in treatment outcomes studies from before to after treatment. This variability must be accounted for in future clinical and scientific work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  17. A preliminary study of material homogeneity for size effect investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krompholz, K.; Kamber, J.; Kalkhof, D.

    1999-06-01

    The forged material 20 MnMoNi 55, material number 1.6310 (heat number 69906) with a heat treatment of 900 {sup o}C, water quenched, 730 {sup o}C, air cooled, was subjected to an intensive quality control consisting of chemical analysis, metallography, hardness tests, tensile tests, and impact tests. Six plates of the material were investigated, and all specimens were taken from a diagonal of each plate in three positions, outer margins and the centre of the plates. The quality control exhibits the following results: (1) The material fulfill the material specification in all respects. (2) This material is a fine grained homogeneous ferritic material of bainitic structure; neither from the chemical analysis, metallography, nor from hardness tests influences from the position of the specimens taken from the plates could be derived. (3) The tensile tests clearly revealed position dependent material properties. With the exception of one plate, one of the selected positions exhibits no natural yield strength, higher rupture strength, and lower elongation to fracture compared with the other two positions at 293 K and 573 K. (4) Many of the data obtained from the impact tests at room temperature were larger than the capacity of the impact machine, i.e. 225 Joule; the experimental condition was changed from tests at 573 K to tests at 253 K to obtain data from the transition region. The main conclusions drawn for the size effect experiments where that all the tensile test results for different specimen sizes have to be discussed with respect of the specimen positions within the plates, and that for all bend bar as well as impact experiments with different specimen sizes the notch depth to specimen width ratio a/w has to be changed from a/w = 0.2 to a/w = 0.3 to get reasonable results within the frame of the available test equipment. (author)

  18. Preliminary investigation of a polyethylene glycol hydrogel "nerve glue"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel Candice

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyethylene glycol (PEG hydrogel is a biocompatible semi-adherent gel like substance that can potentially augment nerve repair much like a fibrin sealant. Potential advantages of this substance include fast preparation and set up time, as well as adhesion inhibiting properties. The purpose of this study was to perform an initial evaluation of PEG hydrogel in this application. Methods The sciatic nerves of 29 rats were transected and repaired using two 10-0 nylon sutures and either PEG hydrogel or fibrin glue. After 10 weeks, contraction forces of the reinnervated muscles were evaluated and histological assessment of scar tissue performed. Results Muscle strength testing revealed the average ratio of experimental to control sides for the fibrin glue group was 0.75 and for the PEG hydrogel group was 0.72 (no significant difference. Longitudinal sections through the nerve repair site showed no significant difference in nerve diameter but did demonstrate a significant reduction in scar thickness in the PEG hydrogel group (p Conclusion Though further study is necessary to fully evaluate, PEG hydrogel results in less scar tissue formation and equivalent muscle recovery as fibrin sealant when applied as a nerve glue in a rodent sciatic nerve repair model.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation into the Information Sharing Behavior of Social Media Users after a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides the results of a preliminary investigation into the information sharing behavior of social media users after a natural disaster. The results indicate that users shared information that they thought victims would find useful. On the other hand, they reported that they usually do not or never share information considered useful to…

  20. Using Web-Based Homework to Teach Principles of Microeconomics: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jeannette C.; Mitchell, Johanna E.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates an interactive web-based homework designed to increase student understanding in a principles of microeconomics course. Employing concepts from Action Research, the preliminary investigation was undertaken based on assumptions about the efficacy of online educational resources. Do students who do well on online homework improve…

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

  2. A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

  3. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  4. A preliminary investigation of fine sediment dynamics in Cumbarjua canal, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehta, A.J.; Nayak, B.U.; Hayter, E.J.

    A preliminary field investigation was carried out in a 10 km reach of Cumbarjua Canal, Goa, India, where the sediment is in the fine size range, and the flow is primarily tide-induced. Results based on observations made during February, 1980...

  5. A preliminary investigation: the impact of microscopic condenser on depth of field in cytogenetic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liqiang; Qiu, Yuchen; Li, Zheng; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2013-02-01

    As one of the important components of optical microscopes, the condenser has a considerable impact on system performance, especially on the depth of field (DOF). DOF is a critical technical feature in cytogenetic imaging that may affect the efficiency and accuracy of clinical diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of microscopic condenser on DOF using a prototype of transmitted optical microscope, based on objective and subjective evaluations. After the description of the relationship between condenser and objective lens and the theoretical analysis of the condenser impact on system numerical aperture and DOF, a standard resolution pattern and several cytogenetic samples are adopted to assess the condenser impact on DOF, respectively. The experimental results of these objective and subjective evaluations are in agreement with the theoretical analysis and show that, under the specific intermediate range of condenser numerical aperture ( NAcond ), the DOF value decreases with the increase of NAcond . Although the above qualitative results are obtained under the experimental conditions with a specific prototype system, the methods presented in this preliminary investigation could offer useful guidelines for optimizing operational parameters in cytogenetic imaging.

  6. Biosorption of {sup 241}Am by Rhizopus arrihizus: preliminary investigation and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ning E-mail: 5416507@mail.sc.cninfo.net; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali; Hua Xifeng

    2002-08-01

    The biosorption of {sup 241}Am from solution by a fungus--Rhizopus Arrihizus (R. arrihizus), and the effect of experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the biosorption of {sup 241}Am by R. arrihizus is very efficient. An average of more than 99% of the total {sup 241}Am was removed by R. arrihizus of 1.3 g/l (dry weight) from {sup 241}Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/l (44.3-877.2 {mu}g/l) (C{sub 0}), with adsorption capacities (W) of 4.2-79.4 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (33.2-627.5 {mu}g/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h and the optimum pH ranged from 1 to 3. No significant differences in {sup 241}Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 deg. C, or in solutions containing Au{sup 3+} or Ag{sup +}, even 2000 times above {sup 241}Am concentration. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of {sup 241}Am indicated that the {sup 241}Am biosorption by R. arrihizus obeys the Freundlich adsorption equation.

  7. Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation: Tooele Army Depot, Utah. Volume 2. South Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-29

    Classification) Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation, Toefle Army Depot., Utah; Volume ’fl-South Area Q2 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Andris Lapins CPG, Li 3a...Regulations CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act CES Civil Engineering Squadron CGW Chemistry Groundwater File CRL...area around s rEAD . 2-12 Low humidity is a characteristic of the valley climate and visibility is generally good. During winter months, however, storm

  8. Investigating CSI: portrayals of DNA testing on a forensic crime show and their potential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Barbara L; Jankowski, Natalie; Brewer, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of forensic crime shows such as CSI has fueled debate about their potential social impact. This study considers CSI's potential effects on public understandings regarding DNA testing in the context of judicial processes, the policy debates surrounding crime laboratory procedures, and the forensic science profession, as well as an effect not discussed in previous accounts: namely, the show's potential impact on public understandings of DNA and genetics more generally. To develop a theoretical foundation for research on the "CSI effect," it draws on cultivation theory, social cognitive theory, and audience reception studies. It then uses content analysis and textual analysis to illuminate how the show depicts DNA testing. The results demonstrate that CSI tends to depict DNA testing as routine, swift, useful, and reliable and that it echoes broader discourses about genetics. At times, however, the show suggests more complex ways of thinking about DNA testing and genetics.

  9. LOD 1 VS. LOD 2 - Preliminary Investigations Into Differences in Mobile Rendering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, C.; Altenbuchner, J.

    2013-09-01

    The increasing availability, size and detail of 3D City Model datasets has led to a challenge when rendering such data on mobile devices. Understanding the limitations to the usability of such models on these devices is particularly important given the broadening range of applications - such as pollution or noise modelling, tourism, planning, solar potential - for which these datasets and resulting visualisations can be utilized. Much 3D City Model data is created by extrusion of 2D topographic datasets, resulting in what is known as Level of Detail (LoD) 1 buildings - with flat roofs. However, in the UK the National Mapping Agency (the Ordnance Survey, OS) is now releasing test datasets to Level of Detail (LoD) 2 - i.e. including roof structures. These datasets are designed to integrate with the LoD 1 datasets provided by the OS, and provide additional detail in particular on larger buildings and in town centres. The availability of such integrated datasets at two different Levels of Detail permits investigation into the impact of the additional roof structures (and hence the display of a more realistic 3D City Model) on rendering performance on a mobile device. This paper describes preliminary work carried out to investigate this issue, for the test area of the city of Sheffield (in the UK Midlands). The data is stored in a 3D spatial database as triangles and then extracted and served as a web-based data stream which is queried by an App developed on the mobile device (using the Android environment, Java and OpenGL for graphics). Initial tests have been carried out on two dataset sizes, for the city centre and a larger area, rendering the data onto a tablet to compare results. Results of 52 seconds for rendering LoD 1 data, and 72 seconds for LoD 1 mixed with LoD 2 data, show that the impact of LoD 2 is significant.

  10. PROCEDURAL INDEPENDENCE OF THE INVESTIGATOR AND JUDICIAL REVIEW OF PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsukhov A. Z.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Judicial review is a necessary and sufficient guarantee of the rights and legitimate interests of participants in criminal proceedings. The only judicial control over the investigation of crimes will expand unreasonably narrowed the boundaries of procedural autonomy and independence of the investigator, will enhance the efficiency, agility pre-trial proceedings. These and other problems were considered by the author from the perspective of theory and practice, as well as in the aggregate of rules of the code of criminal procedure regulating the activities of the investigator

  11. Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian K Castle

    2012-05-01

    As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

  12. Preliminary investigation of self-as-context in people with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Norton, Sam; Almarzooqi, Sarah; McCracken, Lance M

    2017-08-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), based on the Psychological Flexibility (PF) model, has been recently applied to fibromyalgia (FM), and appeared effective in improving functioning. However, evidence for some of the processes within the PF model, self-as-context (SAC) in particular, is lacking within this population. The current study validates a measure of SAC, the Self Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ), and preliminarily investigates the role of SAC in relation to functioning in FM. Participants (N = 298, 93.3% women) self-reporting a diagnosis of FM were recruited via the Internet and completed an online survey. Measures included pain, pain acceptance and SAC, as processes, and pain interference, work and social adjustment, depression and depression-related interference, as outcomes. Confirmatory factor analysis of the SEQ suggested a bi-factor structure, with a general factor underlying all items and two sub-factors, self-as-distinction and self-as-observer (χ2 = 46.55, p = .06, comparative fit index (CFI) = .99, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = .99, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .04). Component factors showed good reliability, Cronbach's α = .90, and construct validity, supported by significant Pearson's correlations between SEQ scores, acceptance and outcomes (r = -.14 to -.33). In multiple regression analyses, SEQ scores significantly predicted pain-related interference (β = -.17, p < .05), work and social adjustment (β = -.14, p < .05) and depression (β = -.21, p < .01), but not depression-related interference, after controlling for pain, but only significantly predicted depression after controlling pain acceptance. These preliminary results show potentially important associations between SAC and functioning in people with FM.

  13. Preliminary Investigation on Generation of Electricity Using Micro Wind Turbines Placed on A Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Chaudhary

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the prominent resources for renewable energy and it is traditionally extracted using stationary wind turbines. However, it can also be extracted using mini or micro wind turbines on a moving body, such as an automobile, while cruising at high speeds on freeways. If the electricity is produced using air flowing around the vehicle without affecting aerodynamic performance of the vehicle, it can be used to charge up the battery or power up additional accessories of the vehicle. For the first time, in the present work, a preliminary investigation was carried out to generate electricity by utilizing air flow on a moving car. Initially, a correlation between the car speed and wind velocity was established using an anemometer. Placing a set of two micro wind turbines along with two micro generators on the rear end of the car trunk, the present study investigated the feasibility of generating electricity from these micro wind turbines while evaluating the effect of drag force on the performance of the car through the experimental approach and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. Both approaches confirmed negligible effect of drag force on the vehicle performance in terms of gas mileage and changes in drag coefficient values. Following these studies, the micro wind turbines were also tested for electricity generation at various cruising speeds of the car ranging from 50 to 80 mph on the freeways. The voltage and power generated always showed an increasing trend with increasing the car speed, however they saturated when a cut off limit was setup with the voltage controllers. A maximum voltage of 3.5 V and a maximum current of 0.8 A were generated by each micro wind turbine when a cut off limit was used along with a load consisting of four LED bulbs in parallel with 3.5 V and 0.2 A rating each. On the other hand, when the tests were repeated without using the cut-off limit, a maximum voltage of 18.91 V and a maximum current

  14. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoping, E-mail: zhangxiaoping@nudt.edu.cn; Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO.

  15. A preliminary investigation of Nigerian Gmelina arborea and Bambusa vulgaris for pulp and paper production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Azeez, MA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 18(1): 65 - 78, 2016 DOI: 10.4067/S0718-221X2016005000007 ISSN impresa 0717-3644 ISSN online 0718-221X A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF NIGERIAN Gmelina arborea AND Bambusa vulgaris FOR PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION... Mayowa Akeem Azeez1,♠, Jerome E. Andrew2, B. Bruce Sithole3 ABSTRACT Two common Nigerian-grown biomasses, gmelina (Gmelina arborea) and bamboo (Bambusaa vulgaris) have been pulped and their fibre characteristics and paper properties examined. The results...

  16. Preliminary Investigation of the Thermal Behavior of High-Speed Helical Gear Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Kilmain, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary experimental investigation of the thermal behavior of high-speed helical gears will be presented. A full-scale torque regenerative test stand has been built to test a representative helical gear train as that used in tiltrotor aircraft. Power loss and temperature data from a wide range of operating conditions were measured. Loop power ranged up to 3730 kW (5000 hp). Drive system components representative of flight quality hardware were used in the test program. The results attained in this initial study indicated that windage losses due to the high rotational speeds that were tested were far more important than the losses due to the gear meshing losses.

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Ductility-Enhancement Mechanism through In Situ Nanofibrillation in Thermoplastic Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Patham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary investigation of interrelationships between tensile stress-strain characteristics and morphology evolution during deformation is conducted on a commercially available thermoplastic composite with a low-surface-energy nanofibrillating poly(tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE additive. In this class of composites, the deformation-associated nanofibrillation of the low-surface-energy additive has been hypothesized to provide an additional dissipation mechanism, thereby enhancing the ductility of the composite. This class of composites offers potential for automotive light weighting in exterior and interior body and fascia applications; it is therefore of interest to investigate processing-structure-property interrelationships in these materials. This study specifically probes the interrelationships between the plastic deformation within the matrix and the fibrillation of the low-surface-energy additive; tensile tests are carried out at two different temperatures which are chosen so as to facilitate and suppress plastic deformation within the matrix polymer. Based on these preliminary investigations, it is noted that PTFE fibrillation acts synergistically with the ductile deformation of the matrix resin resulting in higher strains to failure of the composite; the results also suggest that the mechanism of fibrillation-assisted enhancement of strains to failure may not operate in the absence of matrix plasticity.

  18. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of the Hanger Vibrations on the Great Belt East Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstrup, Henrik; Georgakis, Christos; Larsen, Allan

    2007-01-01

    On March 29, 2001, the Great Belt East Bridge exhibited large-amplitude hanger vibrations having elliptical orbits for wind speeds of between 16 - 17 m/s. Vibration amplitudes were in the order of 1.4m in the across-wind direction and 1.0m in the along-wind. In this paper, a preliminary...... investigation behind the causes of this relatively isolated hanger vibration event on the Great Belt East Bridge is undertaken. One of the main assumptions of the investigation is that coincidental icy conditions may have contributed in some way to large hanger response, by changing the cylindrical cross...... of the vibrations it is assumed that the aerodynamic moment coefficient is zero....

  20. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae and preliminary investigation of its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Dong; Feng, Yong; Li, Zu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Chao-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zi-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae (BFC) is widely used in China both for food and folk medicine because of its powerful biological activities. Firstly, this study was designed to examine the antiproliferative activities of the different fractions from BFC in vitro by MTT assay. The results showed that chloroform extracts (CE) and the purified total alkaloids of BFC (TAF) exhibited stronger antiproliferative activity than the other fractions. We further determined the total alkaloids and 3 main alkaloids monomers content of CE and TAF by UV and HPLC-ELSD methods, respectively. Moreover, we assessed the antitumor activity of TAF in vivo and made preliminary investigation of its antitumor mechanism by histological and immunohistochemical staining technique. These results demonstrate that TAF showed significant antitumor activity and low toxicity in vivo. Meanwhile, TAF significantly inhibited tumor angiogenesis and induced apoptosis by improvement of expression level of caspase-3. These results suggest that alkaloids of BFC could hold a good potential for use as an antitumor drug.

  1. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation of Two Basaltic Landslide Sites in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabycharun, Bhoopendra; Kuwano, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kensuke; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Landslide hazards in developing areas in Mauritius became a great challenge as well as a fundamental concern for the government and the citizen of the country. In recent years, landslide disasters have caused losses of both public and private properties. In 2005, a large-scale landslide at Chitrakoot affected 54 houses and infrastructures, and it was reactivated in 2006, damaging another 14 houses. Vallee Pitot landslide is frequently reactivated in these years and threatening several houses in densely-populated zone. Although the long-term annual precipitation show slightly decreasing trend, number of tropical cyclone over Mauritius is clearly increasing at least in the past 3 decades. Being of volcanic origin, Mauritius has observed dramatic and quick weathering of the soil which may partly contributes to creating landslide-prone geo-environment. This study focuses on the preliminary geotechnical investigation of the above-mentioned two basaltic landslide areas in Mauritius. Recent investigation was conducted jointly by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius on both sites from 2012 to 2015 to survey the landslide surface and to implement countermeasures works. In the field investigation, aerial photo interpretation was used to investigate the zone of cracks and scarps for both sites. The landslide areas for Chitrakoot and Vallee Pitot were estimated to 1.8 km2 and 5,000 m2 respectively. Both sites are located in the highly populated area in the capital city of Mauritius. The geological features of the sites were studied with the borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes and it was found that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. The rate of landslide movement during heavy rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm/hr was elaborated with past records of

  2. Investigating the role of combined acoustic-visual feedback in one-dimensional synchronous brain computer interfaces, a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Mohamed, Armin; McEwan, Alistair L; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario; Jin, Craig T; Ruffo, Mariano; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André

    2012-01-01

    Feedback plays an important role when learning to use a brain computer interface (BCI), particularly in the case of synchronous feedback that relies on the interaction subject. In this preliminary study, we investigate the role of combined auditory-visual feedback during synchronous μ rhythm-based BCI sessions to help the subject to remain focused on the selected imaginary task. This new combined feedback, now integrated within the general purpose BCI2000 software, has been tested on eight untrained and three trained subjects during a monodimensional left-right control task. In order to reduce the setup burden and maximize subject comfort, an electroencephalographic device suitable for dry electrodes that required no skin preparation was used. Quality and index of improvement was evaluated based on a personal self-assessment questionnaire from each subject and quantitative data based on subject performance. Results for this preliminary study show that the combined feedback was well tolerated by the subjects and improved performance in 75% of the naïve subjects compared with visual feedback alone. PMID:23152713

  3. CEM V based special cementitious materials investigated by means of SANS method. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragolici, A. C.; Balasoiu, M.; Orelovich, O. L.; Ionascu, L.; Nicu, M.; Soloviov, D. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Lizunov, E. I.; Dragolici, F.

    2017-05-01

    The management of the radioactive waste assume the conditioning in a cement matrix as an embedding, stable, disposal material. Cement matrix is the first and most important engineering barrier against the migration in the environment of the radionuclides contained in the waste packages. Knowing how the microstructure develops is therefore desirable in order to assess the compatibility of radioactive streams with cement and predict waste form performance during storage and disposal. For conditioning wastes containing radioactive aluminum new formulas of low basicity cements, using coatings as a barrier between the metal and the conditioning environment or introducing a corrosion inhibitor in the matrix system are required. Preliminary microstructure investigation of such improved CEM V based cement matrix is reported.

  4. A preliminary investigation of the use of throttles for emergency flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Wolf, Thomas D.; Stewart, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted regarding the use of throttles for emergency flight control of a multiengine aircraft. Several airplanes including a light twin-engine piston-powered airplane, jet transports, and a high performance fighter were studied during flight and piloted simulations. Simulation studies used the B-720, B-727, MD-11, and F-15 aircraft. Flight studies used the Lear 24, Piper PA-30, and F-15 airplanes. Based on simulator and flight results, all the airplanes exhibited some control capability with throttles. With piloted simulators, landings using manual throttles-only control were extremely difficult. An augmented control system was developed that converts conventional pilot stick inputs into appropriate throttle commands. With the augmented system, the B-720 and F-15 simulations were evaluated and could be landed successfully. Flight and simulation data were compared for the F-15 airplane.

  5. Preliminary investigation on the relation between maximum wave height and wave spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Aifeng; Wen, Cheng; Wu, Yuqing; Wu, Haoran; Li, Shuo; Cao, Guangsui

    2016-04-01

    The maximum wave height is important not only for the determination of design wave parameters but also for the marine disaster defense. While it cannot be predicted straightforwardly at present, since the general numerical models for wave forecasting are all based on phase averaged spectra model. Then it becomes very useful to make clear the relationship between the maximum wave height and wave spectra parameters, such as average wave steepness, spectra width and spectra type, such as one single peak spectra or multi peaks spectra. In order to perform this research procedure, plenty of observed wave data are required. We collected ten years wave data measured from a ship in North Sea, one year wave pressure data from nine points around Korea, four years buoy data from three points along Chinese coast. The preliminary investigation results on the relations between maximum waves and spectra via the mention observed data will be present here.

  6. Investigation of fracture-matrix interaction: Preliminary experiments in a simple system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, S.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.; Sobolik, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Paramount to the modeling of unsaturated flow and transport through fractured porous media is a clear understanding of the processes controlling fracture-matrix interaction. As a first step toward such an understanding, two preliminary experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of matrix imbibition on water percolation through unsaturated fractures in the plane normal to the fracture. Test systems consisted of thin slabs of either tuff or an analog material cut by a single vertical fracture into which a constant fluid flux was introduced. Transient moisture content and solute concentration fields were imaged by means of x-ray absorption. Flow fields associated with the two different media were significantly different owing to differences in material properties relative to the imposed flux. Richards` equation was found to be a valid means of modeling the imbibition of water into the tuff matrix from a saturated fracture for the current experiment.

  7. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and thin layer chromatography profiling of sequential extracts of Moringa oleifera pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Aim: The present study, primarily aims to carry out a preliminary phytochemical screening so as to detect the major class of compounds present in M. oleifera and to perform thin layer chromatography (TLC profiling of all sequential extracts. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis was performed by various qualitative methods and TLC profiling was carried out using various solvent system of varying polarity. Results and Conclusions: Qualitative phytochemical analysis reflects the presence of phenolics, triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides, steroid, alkaloids and saponin in the plant extract. TLC profiling of the M. oleifera pods was carried out using sequential extracts of petroleum ether, benzene, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water respectively. The results obtained in the present investigation indicated M. oleifera pods as a rich source of natural antioxidants.

  8. Preliminary investigation of cement materials in the Taif area, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Conrad

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of possible sources of cement rock in the Taft area was made during the latter part of August 1968. Adequate deposits of limestone, clay, quartz conglomerate and sandstone, and pisolitic iron ore, yet no gypsum, were located to support a Cement plant should it prove feasible to establish one in this area. These materials, made up mostly of Tertiary and later sediments, crop out in isolated, inconspicuous low hills in a north- trending belt, 10 to 15 kilometers wide, lying about 90 kilometers to-the east of At Taft. The belt extends for more than 90 kilometers from the vicinity of Jabal 'An in the south to the crushed rock pits at Radwan and beyond in the north. The area is readily accessible either from the Talf-Riyadh highway or from the Taif-Bishah road presently under construction. The limestone, which is quite pure and dense in some localities but dolomitic, argillaceous, and cherty in others, occurs in a variety of colors and would make suitable decorative building stone. The volcanic rocks of the Harrat Hadan, lying directly to the east of the limestone belt, include volcanic ash beds some of which may have been altered to bentonitlc clays. Others may have been lithified and might be suitable for light-weight aggregate. These possibilities remain to be investigated. Precambrian metamorphic rocks lying directly to the south and southeast of Taif were also investigated as possible cement rock sources, but no suitable material was found here.

  9. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: a preliminary investigation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irish, Muireann

    2011-08-04

    Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient\\'s daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants\\' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory), associative memory (face-name pairings), spatial memory (route learning and recall), and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months), 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  10. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  11. Preliminary investigation of an ultrasound method for estimating pressure changes in deep-positioned vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagomez-Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand; Chee, Adrian J. Y.; Yiu, Billy Y. S.; Ho, Chung Kit; Yu, Alfred C. H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring pressure changes in deep-tissue vessels using vector velocity ultrasound data. The large penetration depth is ensured by acquiring data using a low frequency phased array transducer. Vascular pressure changes are then calculated from 2-D angle-independent vector velocity fields using a model based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Experimental scans are performed on a fabricated flow phantom having a constriction of 36% at a depth of 100 mm. Scans are carried out using a phased array transducer connected to the experimental scanner, SARUS. 2-D fields of angle-independent vector velocities are acquired using directional synthetic aperture vector flow imaging. The obtained results are evaluated by comparison to a 3-D numerical simulation model with equivalent geometry as the designed phantom. The study showed pressure drops across the constricted phantom varying from -40 Pa to 15 Pa with a standard deviation of 32%, and a bias of 25% found relative to the peak simulated pressure drop. This preliminary study shows that pressure can be estimated non-invasively to a depth that enables cardiac scans, and thereby, the possibility of detecting the pressure drops across the mitral valve.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Investigation of Cell Interaction of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Catechol-Containing Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kerstin; Seemann, Thomas; Wyrwa, Ralf; Clement, Joachim H.; Müller, Robert; Nietzsche, Sandor; Schnabelrauch, Matthias

    2010-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and subsequently stabilized by coating with different catechols (levodopa, dopamine, hydrocaffeic acid, dopamine-containing carboxymethyl dextran) known to act as high-affinity, bidentate ligands for Fe(III). The prepared stable magnetic fluids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition (content of iron and shell material, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) and their physical properties (size, surface charge, magnetic parameters). The nanoparticles showed no or only slight cytotoxic effects within 1 and 4 days of incubation with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Preliminary experiments were performed to study the interaction of the prepared nanoparticles with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and leukocytes. An intense interaction of the MCF-7 cells with these particles was found whereas the leukocytes showed a lower tendency of interaction. Based on these finding, the novel magnetic nanoparticles possess the potential for use in depletion of tumor cells from peripheral blood.

  13. Prospective investigation of serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration in ovulatory intrauterine insemination patients: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, N la Cour; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Johannsen, Trine Holm;

    2010-01-01

    This preliminary prospective study investigated serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) through correlations to other basal parameters (123 patients) and according to ovarian response to 75 IU recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH)/day (62 patients) in ovulatory patients' first rFSH treatment...

  14. Cognitive and Linguistic Sources of Variance in 2-Year-Olds' Speech-Sound Discrimination: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2- year-olds' speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds. Method: Twenty typically…

  15. Preliminary investigation into landslide in the national park Mt. Seorak in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.-K.; Choi, S.-Y.; Park, K.; Park, H.-D.

    2003-04-01

    There are 20 national parks with a site of superb scenic beauty in Korea. Total area covered by Mt. Seorak of Korean national parks is 354.6 km^2, which is of great value to be preserved naturally. Mt. Seorak is composed of granite, granitic gneiss and porphyroblastic gneiss. Mt. Seorak has been appointed as preservation area by IUCN(International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) from early 1960's. Although a great number of people have visited to enjoy the beautiful panorama of Mt. Seorak, visitors are exposed to natural hazards, such as rock-fall, rockslide and debris flow. Based on preliminary investigation for total 68 sites on tracking routes, 7 sites were determined to be dangerous for visitors. Recently, rock-fall has occurred at 2 sites and debris flow happened at another 2 sites, where roads and tracking routes have been destroyed completely. In others, there is potential danger of rock-fall and debris flow. In 61 sites except the above sites, though there is no apparent danger, visitors need to be notified whether they pass through potential dangerous site. From future working using GIS technology and continuous monitoring for dangerous sites, small natural hazards can be predicted.

  16. Preliminary numerical investigation of bandwidth effects on CBET using the LPSE-CBET code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jason; Myatt, Jason; Shaw, John; Weaver, James; Obenschain, Keith; Lehmberg, Robert; Obenschain, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Cross beam energy transfer (CBET) is a significant energy-loss mechanism for direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser facility. Recently, a working group that includes participants from the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) was formed to investigate strategies for ameliorating the deleterious effects of CBET. As part of this collaboration, the wave-based code LPSE-CBET developed at LLE has been made available to researchers at NRL and is being used to study the feasibility of suppressing CBET through the enhancement of laser bandwidth by stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS). In this poster, we present some preliminary results on this subject. In particular, we discuss initial efforts to evaluate mitigation levels of 4 discrete Stokes lines from SRRS in air and compare our findings with ray-based simulation results of wavelength shifted (-6Å ,0, +6Å) driver-lines on OMEGA. Work Supported by DoE/NNSA.

  17. Preliminary Experimental Investigation on MHD Power Generation Using Seeded Supersonic Argon Flow as Working Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yiwen; LI Yinghong; LU Haoyu; ZHU Tao; ZHANG Bailing; CHEN Feng; ZHAO Xiaohu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary experimental investigation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation using seeded supersonic argon flow as working fluid.Helium and argon are used as driver and driven gas respectively in a shock tunnel.Equilibrium contact surface operating mode is used to obtain high temperature gas,and the conductivity is obtained by adding seed K2CO3 powder into the driven section.Under the conditions of nozzle inlet total pressure being 0.32 MPa,total temperature 6 504 K,magnetic field density about 0.5 T and nozzle outlet velocity 1 959 m/s,induction voltage and short-circuit current of the segmentation MHD power generation channel are measured,and the experimental results agree with theoretical calculations; the average conductivity is about 20 S/m calculated from characteristics of voltage and current.When load factor is 0.5,the maximum power density of the MHD power generation channel reaches 4.797 1 MW/m3,and the maximum enthalpy extraction rate is 0.34%.Finally,the principle and method of indirect testing for gas state parameters are derived and analyzed.

  18. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Maladaptive Perfectionism in Medical Students: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Suma P; Chibnall, John T; Slavin, Stuart J

    2017-04-10

    Maladaptive perfectionism is associated with psychological distress and psychopathology. Medical students have been found to be particularly prone to maladaptive perfectionism. Recent research has indicated that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) that targets unhealthy perfectionism leads to reductions in perfectionism and related distress. This preliminary investigation aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a CBT program directed at medical students who had significant levels of maladaptive perfectionism. The impact on associated psychological distress was also assessed. The study used a case series methodology with an A-B design plus follow-up. First-year medical students who screened positive for maladaptive perfectionism and consented for the study (N = 4) were assessed at baseline to evaluate the levels of maladaptive perfectionism, anxiety, and depression. They participated in an eight-session CBT program for reducing maladaptive perfectionism after a waiting period. Assessments were repeated post CBT and at 3- and 6-month follow up periods. Results indicated positive and durable effects on maladaptive perfectionism among program participants. The current research provides promising results for the use of CBT in at risk medical students with maladaptive perfectionism.

  19. A Preliminary Empirical Investig ation of ‘Brick-to-Click’ Banking Presence in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Budd

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study undertakes to investigate the extent and quality of electronic banking (e-banking in UAE. Banks worldwide are now moving rapidly to an era of technological change. Online versions of ne arly all existing payment methods are appearing rapidly bringing about profound changes in the whole system of financial services and intermediation. While many banks especially in Europe and the U.S. have adopted internet banking, this research shows that the majority of banks in U.A.E. are still in the early stages of developing e-bank ing. Only 18 of the 46 banks in this emerging nation have well-developed e-banking facilicities, despite all banks having an internet banking website for the convenience of their customers. This study sets out to answer several important questions. Namely, what is e-banking? What services does e-banking provide in the UAE and what prov isions are made to improve customer relationship using this technology? Using a functionality-interactivity matrix cell model and a survey of 46 banks, evidence shows that the development of electronic ban king services within the UAE are moving closer towards western models, albeit, slowly. Evidence shows that reluctance of many banks to whole-heartedly brace e-banking is caused by security fears

  20. Investigating the role of combined acoustic-visual feedback in one-dimensional synchronous brain computer interfaces, a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargiulo GD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano D Gargiulo,1–3 Armin Mohamed,1 Alistair L McEwan,1 Paolo Bifulco,2 Mario Cesarelli,2 Craig T Jin,1 Mariano Ruffo,2 Jonathan Tapson,3 André van Schaik31School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 2Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni "Federico II" University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3BENS Laboratory, MARCS Institute, The University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Feedback plays an important role when learning to use a brain computer interface (BCI, particularly in the case of synchronous feedback that relies on the interaction subject. In this preliminary study, we investigate the role of combined auditory-visual feedback during synchronous µ rhythm-based BCI sessions to help the subject to remain focused on the selected imaginary task. This new combined feedback, now integrated within the general purpose BCI2000 software, has been tested on eight untrained and three trained subjects during a monodimensional left-right control task. In order to reduce the setup burden and maximize subject comfort, an electroencephalographic device suitable for dry electrodes that required no skin preparation was used. Quality and index of improvement was evaluated based on a personal self-assessment questionnaire from each subject and quantitative data based on subject performance. Results for this preliminary study show that the combined feedback was well tolerated by the subjects and improved performance in 75% of the naïve subjects compared with visual feedback alone.Keywords: brain computer interface, dry electrodes, subject feedback

  1. Bimanual elbow robotic orthoses: preliminary investigations on an impairment force feedback rehabilitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eHerrnstadt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today’s robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance.Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover studies suggest limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy.In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A Bimanual Wearable Robotic Device (BWRD with a Master-Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three one-hour sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre and post training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post assessment was performed at the end of the last training session.The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force feedback movements, force feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to

  2. Seismic Investigations of the Murci Geothermal Field (Southern Tuscany, Italy): Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Alexandrakis, C.; Buske, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Amiata region in the Southern Tuscany, Central Italy, describes a volcanic complex with great significance in terms of the regional fresh water supply, mining and geothermal power generation. Mainly for the latter purpose, the volcanic area of Mt Amiata has been the subject of extensive geological and geophysical research (e.g. Dini et al., 2010 and references therein). The insights from these studies have led to successful geothermal production in the Mt Amiata region since the early 1960s (e.g. Batini et al., 2003). Today's most important reservoirs in this area are the Bagnore and the Piancastagnaio fields which are both operated by the company Enel Green Power. The work presented here deals with the Murci area, another potential reservoir located about 10 km southwest of the Mt Amiata volcanic complex. Therefore, in order to get a more detailed understanding of this area, five reflection seismic profiles were carried out. We have performed on three of them a preliminary depth-migrated images, through Kirchhoff prestack depth migration (KPSDM). The vital point of depth migration algorithms is the accuracy of the velocity model that is used for the backpropagation of the seismic data. Therefore, we derived a suitable 1D starting model from nearby well logs and VSP measurements. In order to remove the large topography effects along the profiles, we then utilized first-arrival tomography for each seismic line. For the following processing we incorporated these 2D tomographic results into our starting model which compensates for static effects and improves the resolution in the near-surface area. The velocity models were then used in the application of KPSDM to the seismic data for each profile, respectively. The resulting preliminary images show a zone of high seismic reflectivity, known as the 'K-horizon' (e.g. Brogi, 2008), and could improve its geological interpretation. These promising results encourage us to proceed with deeper migration velocity

  3. Physiological Markers of Arousal Change with Psychological Treatment for Insomnia: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Miller

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate if Sleep Restriction Therapy for insomnia is associated with modifications to physiological arousal, indexed through overnight measures of plasma cortisol concentrations and core body temperature.In a pre-to-post open label study design, eleven patients with chronic and severe Psychophysiological Insomnia underwent 5 weeks of Sleep Restriction Therapy.Eight (73% patients out of 11 consented completed therapy and showed a decrease in insomnia severity pre-to-post treatment (mean (SD: 18.1 (2.8 versus 8.4 (4.8; p = .001. Six patients were analyzed with pre-to-post overnight measures of temperature and cortisol. Contrary to our hypothesis, significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol concentrations were found during the early morning at post-treatment compared to baseline (p < .01, while no change was observed in the pre-sleep phase or early part of the night. Core body temperature during sleep was however reduced significantly (overall mean [95% CI]: 36.54 (°C [36.3, 36.8] versus 36.45 [36.2, 36.7]; p < .05.Sleep Restriction Therapy therefore was associated with increased early morning cortisol concentrations and decreased core body temperature, supporting the premise of physiological changes in functioning after effective therapy. Future work should evaluate change in physiological variables associated with clinical treatment response.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTR 12612000049875.

  4. Examining emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in Native Americans: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L; Bartley, Emily J; Shadlow, Joanna O; Rhudy, Jamie L

    2013-11-01

    Pain problems are more prevalent in Native Americans than in any other group in the U.S., and this might result from group differences in pain modulation. This study was designed to examine emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in healthy, pain-free Native Americans (n = 21) relative to non-Hispanic Whites (n = 20). To assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception), participants underwent a well-validated emotional picture-viewing paradigm during which suprathreshold pain stimuli were delivered to the ankle. Compared to Whites, Native Americans reported less pleasure to erotic pictures and failed to show corrugator reactivity to mutilation pictures. Unlike Whites, Native Americans only evidenced pain inhibition in response to erotica, but no pain facilitation (disinhibition) to mutilation pictures. Emotional modulation of NFR was similar in both groups. These preliminary findings suggest that Native Americans failed to disinhibit pain, perhaps due to over-activation of pain inhibitory mechanisms. Chronic over-activation of this system could ultimately exhaust it, thus putting Native Americans at future risk for chronic pain.

  5. A phenomenographic investigation into Information Literacy in nursing practice - preliminary findings and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Information Literacy is essential to 'evidence-based practice'; without the ability to locate evidence, evidence-based practice is rendered extremely difficult if not impossible. There is currently little evidence to show how Information Literacy is experienced by nurses or what its parameters are within evidence-based practice and therefore whether Information Literacy educational interventions are actually promoting the correct knowledge and skills. Using phenomenographic interviews the author will attempt to discover how nurses experience Information Literacy. Insights from the findings will be used to map out its parameters and to put forward a theoretical model for a course or module to develop it effectively. This article presents preliminary findings, including 7 draft categories of description of how Information Literacy is experienced in nursing. This pilot study indicates that the complete findings may be of significant potential value in the promotion and development of Information Literacy education in nursing. It is argued that such insights into how nurses actually experience the phenomenon of Information Literacy can be used to develop potentially more effective, research-based, educational interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hazards by shock waves during explosive eruptions: preliminary results of experimental investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, Teresa; Alatorre Ibarguengoïtia, Miguel; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    A recent study (Scolamacchia and Shouwenaars, 2009) investigated the nature of microscopic craters on the steel surface of a basketball pole left standing in one of the villages destroyed by the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano. The craters were attributed to the impacts of ash particles (70-280 μm) accelerated by shock waves due to an efficient momentum coupling with a gas phase, such that a sudden expansion of the gas, caused by shock wave propagation, drag the particles up to speeds of 710 to 980 m/s. Several open questions existed on this kind of phenomena. Preliminary tests were performed to investigate the correlation between particle size and the high velocities calculated, based on inner deformation of the steel and crater geometry. We used a shock tube apparatus consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave, pressurized with Ar gas, and a low pressure (LP) tank at atmospheric conditions. We used ash and lapilli bulk samples from El Chichón trachyandesites, and lapilli with random irregular shapes obtained by crushing and abrading dacitic blocks from pyroclastic flow deposits of Unzen volcano. The samples were placed inside an autoclave at ambient T and P, located between the HP autoclave and the LP tank. Steel plates (same type of the original impacted material), were fixed to the LP tank walls, 10 cm above the autoclave that contained the samples. Shock waves were generated by the sudden decompression of the Ar gas due to the systematical failure of a diaphragm (which separate the LP from the HP section). Air expansion accelerated the particles from below toward the steel plate. The speed of the particles was measured using a system of 4 copper wires conducting an electric signal. The signals dropped when the particles reached the wires. We used low pressure ranges (3.1 to 9.8 MPa) for all experimental runs, obtaining a range of particles velocities between 40 and 257 m/s. These velocities can be attained by pyroclastic density currents. Higher

  7. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of human EEG: preliminary investigation and comparison with the wavelet transform modulus maxima technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Zorick

    Full Text Available Recently, many lines of investigation in neuroscience and statistical physics have converged to raise the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG signals is nonlinear, with self-affine dynamics, while scalp-recorded EEG signals themselves are nonstationary. Therefore, traditional methods of EEG analysis may miss many properties inherent in such signals. Similarly, fractal analysis of EEG signals has shown scaling behaviors that may not be consistent with pure monofractal processes. In this study, we hypothesized that scalp-recorded human EEG signals may be better modeled as an underlying multifractal process. We utilized the Physionet online database, a publicly available database of human EEG signals as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis on human EEG signals derived from waking and different sleep stages, and show evidence that supports the use of multifractal methods. Next, we compare multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to a previously published multifractal technique, wavelet transform modulus maxima, using EEG signals from waking and sleep, and demonstrate that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis has lower indices of variability. Finally, we report a preliminary investigation into the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis as a pattern classification technique on human EEG signals from waking and different sleep stages, and demonstrate its potential utility for automatic classification of different states of consciousness. Therefore, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis may be a useful pattern classification technique to distinguish among different states of brain function.

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Simpevarp subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Simpevarp subarea are: to determine, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in the report SKB-TR--00-12. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that even considering remaining uncertainties, the Simpevarp subarea meets all safety requirements and most of the safety preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Simpevarp subarea. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Still, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry within the Simpevarp subarea would allow for a more specified layout, although the sensitivity analysis shows that the space needed is rather robust with respect to uncertainties in the zones. There is substantial uncertainty in the discrete fracture network (DFN

  9. Self-Reported Neuropathic Pain Characteristics of Women With Provoked Vulvar Pain: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargie, Emma; Gilron, Ian; Pukall, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    some symptoms suggestive of NP characteristics, and future research should use NP measures in addition to physical examinations to further investigate the mechanisms that maintain this pain condition. Dargie E, Gilron I, Pukall CF. Self-Reported Neuropathic Pain Characteristics of Women With Provoked Vulvar Pain: A Preliminary Investigation. J Sex Med 2017;14:577-591. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Preliminary investigation on the pathogeny, diagnosis and treatment of chondromalacia patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Q B; Wu, Z H; Wang, Y P; Lin, J; Qiu, G X

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the preliminary investigation on chondromalacia patella at our department in recent years. A random cluster sampling survey covering 2743 normal persons was carried out. The prevalence rate is 36.2%. It was found that, applying transmission electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods on to cartilage tissues of the abnormal region, articular cartilage necrosis was in direct proportion with the abnormal pressure, while the restoration capability of local chondrocytes was in inverse proportion with pathological changes and the pressure. The chondromalacia patella was produced by repeated abnormal stress acting on the cartilage. The stress derived from the uncongruency and the decreasing in the contact area of patellofemoral joint when the subluxation or tilt of patellae was caused by the abnormal anatomical and biomechanical relationship. The initial lesion was at the matrix of cartilage, the collagen network was disrupted, then proteoglycan was lost. The microenvironment of chondrocytes was changed with degradation of matrix. So the chondrocytes became degenerative and necrosis from superficial to deep layer, then feed back the matrix again. Finally, the total cartilage layer might disappear, and the bone under cartilage might proliferate. At late stage, the cartilage was completely destroyed and had no self-restorative ability. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. It is highly suggested axis radiograph of the knee with the tibiae tuberositas localization are helpful to early diagnosis. Furthermore, JKY-Muscle Rehabilitation Instrument is invented for non-operative therapy. It enhances muscle power by selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator to relieve pain and correct subluxation of patella with 90% efficiency (63% of excellent-effective rate). In late stage, patellofemoral replacement is recommended. The excellent-effective rate is 86.3%.

  11. Disrupted Tactile Acuity in People With Achilles Tendinopathy: A Preliminary Case-Control Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, James; Butler, Prue; Mallows, Adrian; Wand, Benedict M

    2016-12-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, preliminary case-control design. Background The mechanisms that contribute to Achilles tendinopathy remain poorly understood. The disparity between pain experience and peripheral pathology demonstrated in patients with Achilles tendinopathy suggests that changes in central nervous system function may be involved. Objectives To investigate whether lower-limb tactile acuity is impaired in people with nonacute Achilles tendinopathy. Methods Thirteen consecutive participants with nonacute midportion Achilles tendinopathy and 13 healthy controls were enrolled. Two-point discrimination thresholds over the affected Achilles tendon, unaffected tendon, and tendon of healthy controls were evaluated. Independent and dependent t tests were used to compare group means. Results Two-point discrimination distance over the affected limb in participants with Achilles tendinopathy was significantly increased when compared to the unaffected limb (mean difference, 11.7 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9, 21.5; P = .02) and to healthy controls (mean difference, 13.1 mm; 95% CI: 1.6, 24.6; P = .03). There was no significant difference between the healthy controls and the unaffected side in people with Achilles tendinopathy (mean difference, 1.4 mm; 95% CI: -7.9, 5.1; P = .66). Conclusion These data provide the first evidence of reduced 2-point discrimination over the affected tendon in patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Further research is needed to determine the cause for the change in tactile acuity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(12):1061-1064. Epub 30 Oct 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6514.

  12. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco.

  13. Preliminary investigation of the effect of air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration on the properties of cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Galluci, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    For preliminary assessment of the engineering properties of concrete with air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration (APC) the possible reactivity of APC and the effect of APC on cement hydration were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, chemical shrinkage (pychnometry), thermal...... metals (approx. 3%) the preliminary studies were performed on untreated samples to evaluate the possible application of the least expensive materials and processes. Pastes and mortars of low alkali sulphate resistant Portland cement with 0%, 10%, and 20% APC substitution were prepared. Mixes with 10......% and 20% APC showed a major retarding effect of APC on the development of hydration. The APC was found to be pozzolanic. Chemical shrinkage measurements indicated early expansive reactions of pastes with the APC including evolution of air. Crack formation was observed in mortars with APC, and strength...

  14. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation of Two Basaltic Landslide Sites in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoopendra, D.; Fukuoka, H.; Kuwano, T.; Ichikawa, K.

    2016-12-01

    Landslide hazards in developing areas in Mauritius became a great challenge as well as a fundamental concern for the government and the citizen of the country. In recent years, landslide disasters have caused losses of both public and private properties. In 2005, a large-scale landslide at Chitrakoot affected 54 houses and infrastructures, and it was reactivated in 2006, damaging another 14 houses. Vallee Pitot landslide is frequently reactivated in these years and threatening several houses in the densely-populated zone. Being of volcanic origin, Mauritius has observed dramatic and quick weathering of the soil which may partly contribute to creating landslide-prone geo-environment. This study focuses on the preliminary geotechnical investigation of the two basaltic landslide areas in Mauritius. A recent investigation was conducted jointly by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius on both sites from 2012 to 2015 to survey the landslide surface and to implement countermeasures works.Both sites are located in the highly populated area in the capital city of Mauritius.The geological features of the sites were studied with the borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes and it was found that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. The rate of landslide movement during heavy rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm/hr was elaborated with past records of extensometers installed on these sites. Colluvium samples from both sites of the same characteristics with the sliding surface were tested in the ring shear apparatus in Japan under different normal stresses reducing from 300 kPa to 50 kPa step-wise at a shear velocity of 0.02 mm/min under drained condition to obtain the residual friction angle (φ) and the cohesion (c). Obtained residual friction angle and cohesion

  15. Preliminary Investigation Of Emirati Women Entrepreneurship In The UAE Motivating Factors Challenges And Government Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rehan Shahnawaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this research is to conduct an in depth preliminary investigation of the Emirati Women Entrepreneurship in the UAE in terms of the factors motivating the Emirati women to engage in the entrepreneurial activities challenges and issues faced by them in that process and initiatives taken by the government of UAE in overcoming those challenges and in encouraging promoting and safeguarding their interests. Methodology This research is an exploratory one due to the fact that the topic of the research strongly requires an in depth analysis or investigation of the underlying motivating factors challenges and issues and the government initiatives taken on behalf of Emirati women entrepreneurs. The research has used qualitative content analysis technique in which the existing literature secondary data on women and Emirati women entrepreneurship was gathered and discussed to serve the purpose of the research such as from other published researches internet searches and books. DiscussionsFindings The research explored an array of factors motivating the Emirati women towards entrepreneurship and the challenges and issues they come across in that process. The motivating factors were divided into positive and negative factors with main emphasis on the positive factors. Among the positive motivating factors were the Emiratization change in the organizational culture and beliefs relaxation of social and cultural structures inde-pendence and self-improvement and development. The negative motivating factors were the necessity unacceptable working conditions inflexible work hours wage gap between males and females and job frustrations. The major challenges and issues they usually come across are traditions cultural religious and social restrictions lack of managerial experience and basic business knowledge low self-confidence and determination male prejudice stereotyping and preconception minimal networking gender based promotional

  16. Bimanual elbow robotic orthoses: preliminary investigations on an impairment force-feedback rehabilitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrnstadt, Gil; Alavi, Nezam; Randhawa, Bubblepreet Kaur; Boyd, Lara A; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today's robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance. Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper-limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover, studies suggest that limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy. In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A bimanual wearable robotic device (BWRD) with a Master-Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three 1-h sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre- and post-training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post-assessment was performed at the end of the last training session. The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force-feedback movements, force-feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to suggest

  17. A Preliminary Clinical Laboratory Investigation of Endemic Spiking Mortality Syndrome of Broiler Chickens in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Ram Neupane

    Full Text Available During the period of March-April-May 2008 first time a sudden and unexpected jump in mortality in Broiler of 8 to 16 days of age was reported from broiler farms from Chitwan and Kathmandu valley in Nepal.Affected birds become recumbent, depressed and often go into a star-gazing spasm. Those signs included, huddling of the birds, trembling, blindness, loud chirping, litter eating, ataxia, comatose, birds dead with breast down and feet and legs straight out behind birds. Death within two to six hours after the onset of the symptoms Postmortem Lesions found with this syndrome include hemorrhages in the liver with necrosis of liver cells, regressed thymus, regression of the bursa of Fabricius, dehydration with the accumulation of kidney urates, fluid in the crop, fluid in the lower gut and watery contents of the ceca.Yellow elastic shanks swollen joints. Molted appearance of brain. . The mortality lasted for three to five days, after which, the mortality patterns return to a relatively normal level. When treated with liquid toxin binders like toxol,toxolivum,livertonic like hepatocare,naturaliv, immunomodulaters like immunocare,promin,pentasol and antibiotics there was check in mortality but the body weight recovery was not satisfactory only half as in comparison of in other illness. During this period laboratory culture of total 298 tissue specimen from dead bird was conducted which revealed growth of fungus spp like Aspergillus and Penicillium in 182 specimen while mixed E.coli and Staphylococcus were recovered in 68 specimen 24 specimen revealed the growth of Salmonella spp of bacteria and 24 samples were turn out to be negative while the attempt to isolate the Avian encephalomyelitis virus as it might be the cause suspected also turnout negative. On the basis of all laboratory findings and response to the treatment attempted finding of this preliminary investigation work is suggestive that the above syndrome indicates that mycosis emerging as

  18. The persistence of and resistance to social norms regarding the appropriate amount to Eat: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Justin R; Pliner, Patricia; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter

    2017-02-01

    We conducted a preliminary investigation on the resistance to, and persistence of, social influence regarding the appropriate amount to eat, defined in terms of eating an amount similar to that eaten by a confederate. Participants ate pizza both alone and in the presence of remote confederates presenting either a high or low eating norm. In the portion of the experiment examining resistance to social influence, participants given an initial opportunity to form a personal eating norm by eating alone for one session in the absence of social influence were no more resistant to low eating norms than were those who had no such opportunity; however, those who ate alone for two or three prior sessions did show resistance. For the high eating norm, it took three eating alone sessions to create resistance. In the portion of the experiment examining persistence of social influence, when participants ate alone following a session with norm-setting remote confederates, the effect of the social influence persisted. However, the persistence effect varied by norm and weakened over time. Participants modeled a low eating norm for only one additional session and the size of the effect was markedly weaker. By contrast, the high norm persisted for all of the remaining sessions. Thus, individuals' social influence histories can affect their eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterising Developmental Language Impairment in Serbian-Speaking Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide preliminary data on the use of auxiliaries and clitics in Serbian-speaking children with developmental language impairment. Two groups of children (a group of 30 children with developmental language impairment and a group of 30 typically developing children) aged between 48 and 83 months and matched on IQ took…

  20. A Preliminary Investigation into the Search Behaviour of Users in a Collection of Digitized Broadcast Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Skov, Mette; Larsen, Birger;

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of large digitized audio-visual collections within digital humanities have recently been made available for users. Often access to digitized audio-visual collections is hampered by little and inconsistent metadata. This paper presents the preliminary findings from a study of ...

  1. Preliminary Investigation of the 1991 Medical College Admission Test Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weichang; Mitchell, Karen J.

    A substantially revised Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) was introduced in spring 1991. The new examination is designed to assess critical thinking skills, basic concepts and problem solving facility in science, and writing skills. This paper reports preliminary findings on the factor structure of the revised MCAT, which consists of four…

  2. 论初查工作的改进与规范%On the improvement and specification of preliminary investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪明; 张加昕

    2011-01-01

    The preliminary investigation work,as an important part of prefiling of prosecutors,has its own particularity and plays a key and decisive role in whether filing the case.However,preliminary investigation work is a pioneering work. There are a lot of uncertainty and instability,which will encounter some unforeseen circumstances.The preliminary investigation itself was flawed and inadequate,so it must be improved and specified.%初查工作作为检察机关一项重要的立案前置环节,具有自身的特殊性,对案件能否立案起关键的决定性作用。但是,初查工作是一项探索性工作,存在诸多不确定性和不稳定性,会遇到一些难以预料的情况,其本身也存在缺陷和不足,故需对其进行相关的改进与规范。

  3. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  4. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  5. The use and effectiveness of the eLib subject gateways: a preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, M; Burton, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Internet subject gateways were set up under the Electronic Libraries Programme (eLib) in order to address some of the problems of searching the Internet which have been identified by information professionals, i.e. locating relevant, good quality information. This preliminary study examines the extent to which academics in two universities use three eLib subject gateways (EEVL, OMNI and SOSIG). The results are generally encouraging for the eLib programme, but it is necessary for the gateways ...

  6. Preliminary investigations of equilibrium reconstruction quality during ELMy and ELM-free phases on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfusa, M., E-mail: gelfusa@ing.uniroma2.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA—University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Murari, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Consorzio RFX, 4-35127 Padova (Italy); Peluso, E. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Gaudio, P. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA—University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Orsitto, F.P. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Gerasimov, S. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-08-21

    On JET, the magnetic topology is normally derived from the code EFIT, which solves the Grad–Shafranov equation with constraints imposed by the available measurements, typically the pick-up coils. Both the code and the measurements are expected to perform worse during ELMs. To assess this hypothesis, various statistical indicators, based on the values of the residuals and their probability distribution, have been calculated. They all show that the quality of EFIT reconstructions is clearly better in absence of ELMs. How the responsibility, for the lower quality of the reconstructions, is shared between the measurements and EFIT is a subject under investigation. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Reinforcement on Early-Age Concrete Temperature Stress: Preliminary Experimental Investigation and Analytical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianda Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For concrete under short-term loading, effect of reinforcement on concrete crack resistance capability is usually negligible; however, recent research results show that extension of this viewpoint to concrete under long-term loading (temperature variation may be unsuitable. In order to investigate this phenomenon, this paper presents the experimental and analytical results of early-age reinforced concrete temperature stress development under uniaxial restraint. The experiments were carried out on a temperature stress testing machine (TSTM. Experimental results show that the coupling of reinforcement and concrete creep behavior influenced the concrete temperature stress development, and nearly 16% of concrete stress was reduced in the current research. Moreover, the cracking time of reinforced concrete was also delayed. Finally, based on the principle of superposition, analytical simulations of effect of reinforcement on concrete temperature stress have been performed.

  8. Analysing spatial trends in referral patterns to cancer genetics services: a preliminary investigation of regional variations in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kevin; Higgs, Gary; Iredale, Rachel; Tempest, Vanessa; Gray, Jonathon

    2004-11-01

    This paper discusses spatial trends in referral patterns to a cancer genetics service. It presents a literature review outlining the paucity of existing research, a preliminary analysis at the Unitary Authority level in Wales and advances a programme of further research to be conducted at a more detailed spatial level. The preliminary analysis shows a weak negative relationship between referral rates from primary care and social deprivation by Unitary Authority (Spearman rank correlation coefficient, sigma = -0.38). There is also a weak positive relationship between average settlement size and referral rates (sigma = +0.28), which taken together may indicate that primary care practices in affluent urban areas are more likely to refer than those in poorer rural areas. Future research will be conducted at a finer spatial scale, and will take into account characteristics of primary care practices and the patients being referred, amongst other variables.

  9. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THUJA OCCIDENTALIS LINN. (CUPRESSACEAE DRIED LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhan Meenu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thuja occidentalis is a monoecious coniferous plant having a wide variety of medicinal value. It has hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic activity etc. In the present paper, T. occidentalis leaves has been standardized on the basis of organoleptic, physical and physico-chemical characteristics. Methanolic and hydro-alcoholic extracts have been prepared by microwave assisted extraction technique and subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography (TLC. TLC fingerprinting profile has been obtained using different solvent systems.

  10. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, Arie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  11. Preliminary investigations on fossil diversity variation of Mesozoic Marattialean ferns in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zikun JIANG; Yongdong WANG; and Ning TIAN

    2008-01-01

    The Marattiales is one of the oldest lineages of vascular plants with extensive fossil records dated back to the Carboniferous. Understanding the fossil diversity variation and distribution pattern is helpful for exploring the evolutionary history of this fern group. In this work, the preliminary analysis of diversity change and distribution of the Mesozoic Marattialean fossil records in China are reported covering the Triassic and Jurassic periods based on available published data. In addition, a brief discussion is made regarding to the potential causes for these variation and distribution of this fern group.

  12. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Bodek, A

    2015-01-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  13. Delayed P100-Like Latencies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Investigation Using Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni S M Kiiski

    Full Text Available Conduction along the optic nerve is often slowed in multiple sclerosis (MS. This is typically assessed by measuring the latency of the P100 component of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP using electroencephalography. The Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis (VESPA method, which involves modulating the contrast of a continuous visual stimulus over time, can produce a visually evoked response analogous to the P100 but with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and potentially higher sensitivity to individual differences in comparison to the VEP. The main objective of the study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the utility of the VESPA method for probing and monitoring visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. The latencies and amplitudes of the P100-like VESPA component were compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients, and multiple sclerosis subgroups. The P100-like VESPA component activations were examined at baseline and over a 3-year period. The study included 43 multiple sclerosis patients (23 relapsing-remitting MS, 20 secondary-progressive MS and 42 healthy controls who completed the VESPA at baseline. The follow-up sessions were conducted 12 months after baseline with 24 MS patients (15 relapsing-remitting MS, 9 secondary-progressive MS and 23 controls, and again at 24 months post-baseline with 19 MS patients (13 relapsing-remitting MS, 6 secondary-progressive MS and 14 controls. The results showed P100-like VESPA latencies to be delayed in multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls over the 24-month period. Secondary-progressive MS patients had most pronounced delay in P100-like VESPA latency relative to relapsing-remitting MS and controls. There were no longitudinal P100-like VESPA response differences. These findings suggest that the VESPA method is a reproducible electrophysiological method that may have potential utility in the assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

  14. Delayed P100-Like Latencies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Investigation Using Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiski, Hanni S. M.; Ní Riada, Sinéad; Lalor, Edmund C.; Gonçalves, Nuno R.; Nolan, Hugh; Whelan, Robert; Lonergan, Róisín; Kelly, Siobhán; O'Brien, Marie Claire; Kinsella, Katie; Bramham, Jessica; Burke, Teresa; Ó Donnchadha, Seán; Hutchinson, Michael; Tubridy, Niall; Reilly, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Conduction along the optic nerve is often slowed in multiple sclerosis (MS). This is typically assessed by measuring the latency of the P100 component of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) using electroencephalography. The Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis (VESPA) method, which involves modulating the contrast of a continuous visual stimulus over time, can produce a visually evoked response analogous to the P100 but with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and potentially higher sensitivity to individual differences in comparison to the VEP. The main objective of the study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the utility of the VESPA method for probing and monitoring visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. The latencies and amplitudes of the P100-like VESPA component were compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients, and multiple sclerosis subgroups. The P100-like VESPA component activations were examined at baseline and over a 3-year period. The study included 43 multiple sclerosis patients (23 relapsing-remitting MS, 20 secondary-progressive MS) and 42 healthy controls who completed the VESPA at baseline. The follow-up sessions were conducted 12 months after baseline with 24 MS patients (15 relapsing-remitting MS, 9 secondary-progressive MS) and 23 controls, and again at 24 months post-baseline with 19 MS patients (13 relapsing-remitting MS, 6 secondary-progressive MS) and 14 controls. The results showed P100-like VESPA latencies to be delayed in multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls over the 24-month period. Secondary-progressive MS patients had most pronounced delay in P100-like VESPA latency relative to relapsing-remitting MS and controls. There were no longitudinal P100-like VESPA response differences. These findings suggest that the VESPA method is a reproducible electrophysiological method that may have potential utility in the assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. PMID:26726800

  15. Preliminary investigation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of perfluorinated compounds presence in bass reared and fished in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Farabegoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The term perfluorinated compounds (PFCs defines synthetic fully-fluorinated compounds; since the 50s they have been largely employed in a wide range of industrial and consumer applications, due to their chemical and physical properties. Only recently, research on their potential adverse effects on both the environment and human health has been conducted, highlighting carcinogenic activity, toxic effects on reproduction, liver and kidney. Human exposure to PFCs is mainly through diet, and in particular fishery products are one of the most contaminated food. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA are the two most important and investigated compounds of this group. The aim of this work was to carry out a preliminary monitoring on the presence of these two molecules in 50 bass muscle samples, of which 30 reared and 20 fished, collected from different Italian areas of the Mediterranean Sea. The method used was based on extraction with organic solvent followed by two purification steps: one with salts and one with dispersive solid phase. The extract was finally analysed by means of an ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometric system. Data showed a relevant contamination of this species and evidenced a significant difference of concentrations between fished (PFOS 112.4- >2000 ng/L and PFOA 3.3-487.0 ng/L and reared basses (PFOS 11.1-104.5 ng/L and PFOA <3-51.4 ng/L. Even if these levels of contamination are sensibly lower than those observed in several studies, fished basses could represent a more relevant source of PFCs exposure in human diet.

  16. Family Histories of Anxiety in Overweight Men and Women with Binge Eating Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A preliminary examination of the significance of family histories of anxiety in the expression of binge eating disorder (BED) and associated functioning. Methods Participants were 166 overweight patients with BED assessed using diagnostic interviews. Participants were administered a structured psychiatric history interview about their first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) (N=897) to determine lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV anxiety disorders and completed a battery of questionnaires assessing current and historical eating and weight variables and associated psychological functioning (depression). Results BED patients with a family history of anxiety disorder were significantly more likely than BED patients without a family history of anxiety disorder to have lifetime diagnoses of anxiety disorders and mood disorders but not substance use disorders. A family history of anxiety was not significantly associated with timing or sequencing of age at onset of anxiety disorder, binge eating, dieting, or obesity, or with variability in current levels of binge eating, eating disorder psychopathology, or psychological functioning. Conclusions Although replication with direct interview method is needed, our preliminary findings suggest that a family history of anxiety confers greater risk for comorbid anxiety and mood disorders but is largely unrelated to the development of binge eating, dieting, or obesity and unrelated to variability in eating disorder psychopathology or psychological functioning in overweight patients with BED. PMID:26343481

  17. Preliminary Investigation for Engine Performance by Using Tire-Derived Pyrolysis Oil-Diesel Blended Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiqul, Islam M.; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Alam, Beg R.; Takai, Kazunori

    In the first phase of the present study, the pyrolysis oil derived from light automotive tire waste has been characterized including fuel properties, elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and distillation. The studies on the oil show that it can be used as liquid fuel with a gross calorific value (GCV) of 42.00 MJ/kg and empirical formula of CH1.27O0.025N0.006. In the second phase of the investigation, the performance of a diesel engine was studied blending the pyrolysis oil with diesel fuel in different ratios. The experimental results show that the bsfc of pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels slightly increases and hence the brake thermal efficiency decreases compared to those of neat diesel. The pyrolysis oil-diesel blends show lower carbon monoxide (CO) emission but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions than those of neat diesel. However, NOx emissions with pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels reduced when EGR was applied.

  18. A preliminary investigation into the moral reasoning abilities of UK veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, C E M; Creed, A; McKeegan, D E F

    2015-08-01

    Veterinary medicine is an ethically challenging profession, but the ethical reasoning abilities of practising veterinarians in the UK have never been formally assessed. This study investigated moral reasoning ability in 65 qualified veterinarians (38 practising and 27 academic) and 33 members of the public in the UK using the Defining Issues Test. Academic veterinarians had higher scores than members of the public but practising veterinarians did not. There was large variation in moral reasoning abilities among qualified veterinarians. Moral reasoning score in veterinarians did not improve with years of experience. These results show that despite having a professional degree moral reasoning skills of practising veterinarians may be insufficient to deal with the demands of their profession. This could have implications for animal welfare, client services and veterinarian wellbeing. The results highlight the need for more training in this area. British Veterinary Association.

  19. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  20. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation.

  1. A preliminary investigation of the effect of force variation for myoelectric control of hand prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Timemy, Ali H; Bugmann, Guido; Escudero, Javier; Outram, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The myoelectric control of prostheses has been an important area of research for the past 40 years. Significant advances have been achieved with Pattern Recognition (PR) systems regarding the number of movements to be classified with high accuracy. However, practical robustness still needs further research. This paper focuses on investigating the effect of the change in force levels by transradial amputee persons on the performance of PR systems. Two below-elbow amputee persons participated in the study. Three levels of forces (low, medium, and high) were recorded for different hand grips with the help of visual feedback from the Electromyography (EMG) signals. Results showed that changing the force level degraded the performance of the myoelectric control system by up to 60% with 12 EMG channels for 4 hand grips and a rest position. We investigated different EMG feature sets in combination with a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier. The performance was slightly better with Time Domain (TD) features compared to Auto Regression (AR) coefficients and Root Mean Square (RMS) features. Finally, the error of the classification was considerably reduced to approximately 17% when the PR system was trained with all force levels.

  2. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  3. Preliminary investigations into the bioconversion of gamma irradiated agricultural waste by Pleurotus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedemah, C. M.; Obodai, M.; Sawyerr, L. C.

    1998-06-01

    The application of gamma irradiation for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase their digestibility for rumen animal have been reported in the literature. Gamma irradiation of corn stover in combination with sodium hydroxide for bioconversion of polysaccharide into protein by Pleurotus spp has also been reported. In this study experiments were designed to find out whether gamma radiation could serve both as a decontaminating agent as well as hydrolytic agent of sawdust for the bioconversion of four varieties of Pleurotus spp. Preliminary results indicate that a dose of 20kGy of gamma irradiation increase the yield of Pleurotus eous var ET-8 whilst decreasing the yield of other varieties.

  4. Investigation of the tetraquark candidate $a_0(980)$: technical aspects and preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Rehim, Abdou; Berlin, Joshua; Brida, Mattia Dalla; Gravina, Mario; Wagner, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We discuss technical aspects and first results of a lattice QCD study of the $a_0(980)$ state. We employ various interpolating operators of quark-antiquark, mesonic molecule, diquark-antidiquark and two-meson type. Both connected and disconnected contributions including diagrams with closed fermion loops are computed. To keep statistical errors small, it is essential to optimize the computation of these diagrams by choosing that combination of techniques most appropriate for each type of diagram from the correlation matrix of interpolating operators. We illustrate, how this can be done, by discussing certain diagrams in detail. We also present preliminary results corresponding to a $4\\times 4$ submatrix computed with 2+1 flavors of clover fermions.

  5. Preliminary investigation of the advertising and availability of PREPs, the new "safe" tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Norval; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Landrine, Hope; Kashima, Kennon; Parekh, Bina; Fernandez, Senaida; Thomas, Kamala; Brouillard, Catherine; Zolezzi, Michele; Jensen, Jennifer; Weslowski, Zorahna

    2004-08-01

    The tobacco industry recently introduced a new set of "safe" cigarettes and nicotine delivery devices that purportedly entail reduced tobacco-related disease risk due to their lower level of some carcinogens and toxins. Little is know about the biological impact of these potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and nothing is known about their advertising and availability. Hence, two pilot studies were conducted to examine the latter issues for the first time. In Study 1, we examined tobacco ads in 10 popular magazines 1998--2002 and found that only 1% of ads were for PREPs. In Study 2, we attempted to purchase PREPs in a random sample of 113 small stores and found that only 4.4% sold any PREP. These preliminary findings tentatively suggest that the industry might not yet be heavily invested in products that have the potential to increase tobacco use by decreasing its perceived harm. Studies with larger samples are recommended.

  6. Parallel Strands A Preliminary Investigation into Mining the Web for Bilingual Text

    CERN Document Server

    Resnik, P

    1998-01-01

    Parallel corpora are a valuable resource for machine translation, but at present their availability and utility is limited by genre- and domain-specificity, licensing restrictions, and the basic difficulty of locating parallel texts in all but the most dominant of the world's languages. A parallel corpus resource not yet explored is the World Wide Web, which hosts an abundance of pages in parallel translation, offering a potential solution to some of these problems and unique opportunities of its own. This paper presents the necessary first step in that exploration: a method for automatically finding parallel translated documents on the Web. The technique is conceptually simple, fully language independent, and scalable, and preliminary evaluation results indicate that the method may be accurate enough to apply without human intervention.

  7. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, Arie [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

    2015-09-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal (σL) and transverse (σT) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= σLT for nuclei (RA) and for deuterium (RD) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, RA < RD.

  8. Investigating feedback mechanisms between stress and grain-size: preliminary findings from finite-element modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, A. J.; Prior, D. J.; Ellis, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is widely accepted that changes in stress and grain size can induce a switch between grain-size insensitive (GSI) and sensitive (GSS) creep mechanisms. Under steady-state conditions, grains evolve to an equilibrium size in the boundary region between GSS and GSI, described by the paleopiezometer for a given material. Under these conditions, significant rheological weakening is not expected, as grain size reduction processes are balanced by grain growth processes. However, it has been shown that the stress field surrounding faults varies through the seismic cycle, with both rapid loading and unloading of stress possible in the co- and post-seismic stages. We propose that these changes in stress in the region of the brittle-ductile transition zone may be sufficient to force a deviation from the GSI-GSS boundary and thereby cause a change in grain size and creep mechanism prior to system re-equilibration. Here we present preliminary findings from numerical modelling of stress and grain size changes in response to loading of mechanical inhomogeneities. Our results are attained using a grain-size evolution (GSE) subroutine incorporated into the SULEC finite-element code developed by Susan Ellis and Susanne Buiter, which utilises an iterative approach of solving for spatial and temporal changes in differential stress, grain size and active creep mechanism. Preliminary models demonstrate that stress changes in response to the opening of a fracture in a flowing medium can be significant enough to cause a switch from GSI to GSS creep. These results are significant in the context of understanding spatial variations and feedback between stress, grain size and deformation mechanisms through the seismic cycle.

  9. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michele L; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Appleton, Allison A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2017-04-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiṣ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5-20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural and enzymatic investigation of the Sulfolobus solfataricus uridylate kinase shows competitive UTP inhibition and the lack of GTP stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Steen; Johansson, Eva; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2007-01-01

    The pyrH gene encoding uridylate kinase (UMPK) from the extreme thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzyme (SsUMPK) was purified. Size exclusion chromatography and sedimentation experiments showed that the oligomeric state in so...

  11. PRELIMINARY PLANKTON INVESTIGATIONS IN THE GRAVEL PIT AND WINTERPONDS NEAR JAGODNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2007-04-01

    analyses of plankton showed the presence of plankton species characteristic for ciprinid fishponds. At gravel pit locations, the saprobity value of P–B (saprobity — saprobicity? index was 1.7 (characteristic for the first class water quality. At the locations 3 and 4 (winterpond locations the P–B (saprobity — saprobicity? index was 2.0 and 1.9, respectively (characteristic for the second class water quality. Based on the obtained results, the investigated locations are suitable for ciprinid fish culture.

  12. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-01-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of −3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of −1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of −23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB. PMID:24797561

  13. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Amanlou, Arash; Ghanadian, Naghmeh; Pasalar, Parvin; Amanlou, Massoud

    2014-01-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer's disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, μg /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed.

  14. A Preliminary Investigation of the Application of Modern Crustal Deformation Data in Seismic Zonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Bengang; Zhou Qing

    2006-01-01

    Using GPS observation data for the middle segment of the Fenwei seismic zone during the time period of 1996 ~ 2001, the velocity field of crustal movement is calculated. Thus, the vectors of relative horizontal movement between measuring points in the region are also obtained.Adopting a deformation model of homogeneous elastic body, the principal strain rate parameters of deformation units are calculated. A method is introduced to calculate the rate of seismic moment accumulation due to crustal deformation. The problems of using this rate to analyze the tendency of seismicity in the zone, and to estimate the recurrence interval of large earthquakes in the potential seismic source areas (PSSA) are discussed. The results show that the rate of seismic moment accumulation in the middle segment of the Fenwei zone is 4.22 × 1017 Nm/a, which is much higher than the average release rate of seismic moment in the current activity period. This means that the belt is now in a stage of seismic strain accumulation and that the seismicity would become stronger in the future than now. The results of estimation of the recurrence interval of large earthquakes in the Dingxiang and Huozhou PSSA are close to the results obtained from studying active faults. This implies that the use of the proposed estimation method is worthy of further investigation. In particular, it is of greater practical significance for those regions that have shorter history of earthquake records or lower degree of active structure study.

  15. Preliminary Numerical Investigations of Entropy Generation in Electric Machines Based on a Canonical Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Eger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes numerically the entropy generation induced by forced convection in a canonical configuration. The configuration itself includes two well known fluid dynamic problems: (1 an external flow (flow around a cylinder, Kármán flow; and (2 an internal flow (flow between two concentric rotating cylinders, Couette flow. In many daily engineering issues (e.g., cooling of electric machines, a combination of these problems occurs and has to be investigated. Using the canonical configuration, the fields of entropy generation are analyzed in this work for a constant wall heat flux but varying two key parameters (Reynolds numbers Re∞ and Re0. The entropy generation due to conduction shows an absolute minimum around Re0 = 10,000. The same minima can be found by a detailed analysis of the temperature profile. Thus, entropy generation seems to be a suitable indicator for optimizing heat exchange processes and delivers a large amount of information concerning fluid and heat transport.

  16. Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance P (SP is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement.

  17. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Nanping; Li, Shijun

    2015-11-01

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon ((222)Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon ((222)Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m(-3) in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m(-3), exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC.

  18. Preliminary investigation of relations between young students' self-regulatory strategies and their metacognitive experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermitzaki, Irini

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated second-graders' self-regulative behav ior during task engagement and its relations to performance and to students' on-line metacognitive experiences. Participants were 25 individually examined Greek second graders (13 boys and 12 girls; M age: 7.6 yr., SD = 0.2). Students' use of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational regulatory strategies while performing a cognitive task were directly observed and recorded by two independent observers. Students' task-specific performance was also evaluated. Finally, students' feeling of satisfaction with the solution produced, their estimate of effort expenditure, and estimate of the solution's correctness were assessed. Analysis showed these second grade students' use of self-regulatory strategies and feeling of satisfaction were significantly associated with their performance. However, metacognitive experiences reported after the solution were only slightly related to the students' actual self-regulative behavior during the task, implying that the relations of students' regulatory efforts with their metacognitive processes are still developing at such a young age.

  19. Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Luca; Sacerdote, Paola; Moretti, Sarah; Panzi, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement. PMID:23737731

  20. Properties of Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks (CSEB For Low-Cost Housing Construction: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Shehu Waziri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Materials used for the construction of walls are normally required to possess adequate strength and erosion resistance. The study investigates the suitability of stabilized laterite soils for the production of compressed earth blocks for low-cost housing construction.  Soil samples for the experiment were obtained at two different locations. Sample I was obtained at a borrow pit along Gujba road in Damaturu Yobe state while Sample II was taken at a borrow pit near lake Alau in Borno sate, Nigeria. The results of the study revealed that the specific gravity, bulk density, moisture content and plasticity index of both samples showed satisfactory performance. Different cement stabilization levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% were used to prepare the specimens for testing. The blocks were moulded using hand operated CINVA-Ram machine. The maximum compressive strength of 2.48N/mm2 was obtained with stabilization level of 7.5% with sample I at 28 days curing.  The strength of the specimens increases with increasing cement content with an average value of 0.35N/mm2. For higher strength requirements different stabilization options can be considered.

  1. Revisiting shyness and sociability: A preliminary investigation of hormone-brain-behavior relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva eTang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shyness and sociability are two fundamental personality dimensions that are conceptually and empirically orthogonal and are conserved across cultures, development, and phylogeny. However, we know relatively little regarding how shyness and sociability are represented and maintained in the brain. Here we examined neural responses to the processing of different types of social threat using event-related fMRI, the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR, and sociability in young adults selected for high and low shyness. Shy adults who exhibited a relatively higher CAR displayed neural activity in putative brain regions involved in emotional conflict and awareness, and were more sociable. In contrast, shy adults who displayed a relatively lower CAR exhibited neural activity in putative brain regions linked to fear and withdrawal, and were unsociable. Results revealed no systematic brain responses to social threat processing that correlated with the CAR in nonshy adults. These preliminary results suggest that individual differences in waking morning cortisol levels may influence neural processes that facilitate either social approach or withdrawal among people who are shy. Findings are discussed in relation to their theoretical and clinical implications for moving beyond longstanding descriptive to explanatory models of shyness and sociability and for understanding individual differences in social behavior in general.

  2. Preliminary investigations of the winter ecology of Long-billed Curlews in coastal Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Edwardson, Jeremy W.; Austin, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, the distribution of the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus) has contracted dramatically in the eastern one-half of its historic range. The species has been designated as a "Bird of Conservation Concern" and focal species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, a species of concern by several states, and a "Highly Imperiled" species in the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan. The uncertain outlook for this species has contributed to a plethora of research on Long-billed Curlews, most of which have focused on breeding and nesting ecology of the species. Gaps remain in information about factors affecting population dynamics on the winter grounds and the linkages between Long-billed Curlew populations on the breeding range, migration routes, and winter range. To begin filling those gaps, a pilot study was done to evaluate (1) curlew use of nocturnal roost sites, (2) use of public outreach to locate curlews and contribute to preliminary assessment of foraging habitat use, (3) six different methods to capture curlews, and (4) movements by curlews on wintering areas. The study area includes the lower Texas coast, which harbors the eastern-most dense populations of Long-billed Curlews in North America.

  3. Predicting Improvement in Depression Across Therapies Using Indicators of Romantic Relationship Functioning: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Denton, Wayne H

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a common presenting problem, often affected by couple interactions in unique ways. However, research in the area of romantic relationship functioning and depression often replicates previous research or consists of literature reviews, limiting the clinical relevancy. The purpose of this preliminary study is to expand the research on the effects of relational processes on depression treatment outcomes. We tested whether initiator tendency, attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and marital satisfaction predicted improvement in depression for women with Major Depressive Disorder enrolled in a depression treatment clinical trial (n = 17). Women completed treatments of either pharmacotherapy or combined Emotionally Focused Therapy for couples and pharmacotherapy. We found that higher baseline levels of partner initiator tendency resulted in less change in depression (worse outcomes), regardless of treatment type and that higher baseline levels of attachment avoidance predicted better depression outcomes in treatment. Marital satisfaction, however, was not linked to change in depression. Initiator tendency is discussed as a critical romantic relationship factor for depression treatment outcomes.

  4. Anger self-management training for people with traumatic brain injury: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tessa; Vaccaro, Monica J; Hays, Christina; Maiuro, Roland D

    2012-01-01

    : To examine the feasibility and gather preliminary data on the efficacy of a fully manualized, 8-session, psychoeducational treatment for irritability and anger after traumatic brain injury (TBI), called anger self-management training (ASMT). : A total of 10 persons with moderate to severe, chronic TBI with significant cognitive impairment and elevated levels of anger and irritability participated in the study; 8 had significant others (SOs) who participated in portions of the treatment and provided pre- and posttreatment measures; 1 SO provided only data. : Two subscales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Scale-Revised and Brief Anger-Aggression Questionnaire. : Pre- to posttreatment pilot study. : There was significant improvement on all 3 measures of self-reported anger, with large effect sizes (>1.0), and on 1 of 3 SO-reported scales. Qualitative feedback from participants was positive and dropout rate was low (1 of 11). : The treatment model represented by the ASMT appears worthy of further study in persons with TBI who have both problematic anger and cognitive impairment.

  5. Brief cognitive behavior therapy in patients with social anxiety disorder: A preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikant G Pinjarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT is the treatment of choice in anxiety disorders. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness brief CBT in social anxiety. Aims: We examined the effectiveness of a brief CBT of six sessions in patients with social anxiety disorder. Settings and Design: A single case design study baseline; post and 1 month follow-up was adopted. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of social anxiety underwent 6 weekly sessions of brief CBT. Their diagnosis was confirmed using structured diagnostic interviews. They were assessed at baseline, post and 1-month follow-up on CGI- Severity, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, Social Phobia Rating Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Beck′s Depression Inventory. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using the method of clinical significance. Results: Results indicated that brief CBT was effective in reducing social anxiety in all patients. Brief CBT was also effective in reducing social avoidance and self consciousness. However, brief CBT was not effective in reducing fear of negative evaluation in all patients, suggesting the need for longer duration for cognitive changes in some dysfunctional beliefs. Conclusions: This preliminary case series indicates that brief CBT may be a promising and a cost and time effective approach to managing for social anxiety.

  6. Preliminary investigation of force-reduced superconducting magnet configurations for advanced technology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-12-01

    The feasibility of new high-field low specific weight superconducting magnet designs using force-free fields is being explored analytically and numerically. This report attempts to assess the technical viability of force-free field concepts to produce high-field, low specific weight and large bore volume magnets, which could promote the use of high temperature superconductors. Several force-free/force-reduced magnet configurations are first reviewed, then discussed and assessed. Force-free magnetic fields, fields for which the current flows parallel to the field, have well-known mathematical solutions extending upon infinite domains. These solutions, however, are no longer force-free everywhere for finite geometries. In this preliminary study, force-free solutions such as the Lundquist solutions truncated to a size where the internal field of the coil matches an externally cylindrical magnetic field (also called a Lundquist coil) are numerically modeled and explored. Significant force-reduction for such coils was calculated, which may have some importance for the design of lighter toroidal magnets used in thermonuclear fusion power generation, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and mobile MHD power generation and propulsion.

  7. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-03-04

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study.

  8. Neuropsychological presentation and adaptive skills in high-functioning adolescents with visual impairment: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, R; Pring, L; Schepers, A; Isaacs, D P; Dale, N J

    2017-01-01

    Studies in infants and young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) have indicated early developmental vulnerabilities, conversely research with older children and adults have highlighted areas of cognitive strength. A minimal amount is known, however, about the possible combination of strengths and weaknesses in adolescence, and this present study therefore aims to explore the neuropsychological presentation and adaptive behavior profile in high-functioning adolescents with congenital VI. Participants completed a battery of commonly used neuropsychological measures assessing memory, executive function, and attention. The measures utilized focused on auditory neuropsychological function, because only subtests that could be completed with auditory administration were suitable for this sample. Parents completed standardized measures of adaptive behavior, executive function, and social communication. Compared to aged-based norms for normal sight, adolescents with VI demonstrated strengths in aspects of working memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, performance across the neuropsychological battery was within or above the average range for the majority of the sample. In contrast, parent-report measures indicated areas of weakness in adaptive functioning, social communication, and behavioral executive functioning. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence that relative to fully sighted peers, high-functioning adolescents with VI present with an uneven profile of cognitive and adaptive skills, which has important implications for assessment and intervention.

  9. Brief cognitive behavior therapy in patients with social anxiety disorder: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjarkar, Ravikant G; Sudhir, Paulomi M; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice in anxiety disorders. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness brief CBT in social anxiety. We examined the effectiveness of a brief CBT of six sessions in patients with social anxiety disorder. A single case design study baseline; post and 1 month follow-up was adopted. Seven patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of social anxiety underwent 6 weekly sessions of brief CBT. Their diagnosis was confirmed using structured diagnostic interviews. They were assessed at baseline, post and 1-month follow-up on CGI- Severity, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Social Phobia Rating Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Beck's Depression Inventory. Data were analyzed using the method of clinical significance. Results indicated that brief CBT was effective in reducing social anxiety in all patients. Brief CBT was also effective in reducing social avoidance and self consciousness. However, brief CBT was not effective in reducing fear of negative evaluation in all patients, suggesting the need for longer duration for cognitive changes in some dysfunctional beliefs. This preliminary case series indicates that brief CBT may be a promising and a cost and time effective approach to managing for social anxiety.

  10. Preliminary investigation of naringenin hydroxylation with recombinant E. coli expressing plant flavonoid hydroxylation gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Ilef Limem-Ben; Salem, Nidhal; Guedon, Emmanuel; Engasser, Jean-Marc; Chekir-Ghedrira, Leila; Ghoul, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Flavonoid hydroxylation is one way to increase the biological activities of these molecules and the number of hydroxyl groups needed for polymerization, esterification, alkylation, glycosylation and acylation reactions. These reactions have been suggested as a promising route to enhance flavonoid solubility and stability. In our preliminary study we hydroxylated naringenin (the first flavonoid core synthesized in plants) with recombinant E. coli harboring flavanone 3 hydroxylase (F3H). We demonstrated that recombinant E. coli harboring the F3H from Petroselinum crispum, can convert naringenin to dihydrokaempferol. The whole cell hydroxylase activity was often influenced by the stability of the plasmid harboring the cloned gene and the biomass yield. When the composition of the growth media became richer the amount of formed product decreased about twofold; the naringenin bioconversion yield in LB media was 70% and decreased to 33% in TB. However, the enrichment of culture media increased the biomass yield nearly threefold in LB media, only 0.5 g/L of bacteria was formed, but in TB there was 1.6 g/L. Thus, LB constitutes the best medium for naringenin bioconversion using the recombinant E. coli harboring the F3H; this allows for maximum bioconversion yield and plasmid stability when compared with the fourth tested culture medium. Consequently, E. coli harboring F3H from Petroselinum crispum can be used to produce flavonoids hydroxylated in position 3 that can serve in additional reactions like polymerization, glycosylation, and acylation,

  11. An 8-week reactive balance training program in older healthy adults:A preliminary investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Max R. Paquette; Yuhua Li; Joseph Hoekstra; Joshua Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Background:This preliminary study examined the effects of an 8-week supervised reactive balance training program on reaction time (RT) and foot speed, static balance and balance confidence in healthy older adults compared to an exercise control group. Methods:Twenty-five older adults were randomly assigned to a reactive balance training group (QuickBoard;n=12;71.0 ± 8.6 years) or a stationary cycling group (control; n = 13; 70.2 ± 6.0 years). Both groups were tested for foot RT foot speed, static balance, and balance confidence at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 4-week follow-up. Results: Results indicated significant improvements in QuickBoard foot RT and speed in both groups with greater improvements in the QuickBoard group. However, no group difference was found in static balance performance. Conclusion: Although the improvements in RT and foot speed may be beneficial for fall and trip prevention, the implications of the current findings for trip avoidance and performance of daily tasks are unclear.

  12. Investigation of tunable LED lighting for general illumination employing preliminary activity recognition sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Maria; Spaulding, Jeremy; Larson, Kent; Hall, Harrison

    2011-10-01

    Digitally controlled solid state lighting systems can afford a range of different qualities of light, adjustable to users' requirements. Sensor networks allow lighting changes to be actuated in response to the location, activities, and paths of the occupants. This paper reports initial results of an ongoing research to explore strategic control of a tunable LED system, in response to a preliminary activity recognition platform, as well as the associated human factors. Tunable LED panels connected to a sensor network were installed to illuminate three distinct occupied spaces: a private office, a public office space and a corridor at MIT Media Lab. Human factors experiments were conducted to assess visual acceptability under changing lighting conditions. In the first phase variations in color rendering were applied to verify perception of subtle changes in white lighting. Results from this phase indicate that it is possible to correlate activities with sensitivity to spectral change. In the second phase the question is how colored light can be used for energy savings and as a communication medium in these commercial spaces.

  13. Preliminary investigation of flow dynamics during the start-up of a bulb turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulaud, M.; Fraser, R.; Lemay, J.; Duquesne, P.; Aeschlimann, V.; Deschênes, C.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, the electricity network undergoes more perturbations due to the market demand. Additionally, an increase of the production from alternative resources such as wind or solar also induces important variations on the grid. Hydraulic power plants are used to respond quickly to these variations to stabilize the network. Hydraulic turbines have to face more frequent start-up and stop sequences that might shorten significantly their life time. In this context, an experimental analysis of start-up sequences has been conducted on the bulb turbine model of the BulbT project at the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University. Maintaining a constant head, guide vanes are opened from 0 ° to 30 °. Three guide vanes opening speed have been chosen from 5 °/s to 20 °/s. Several repetitions were done for each guide vanes opening speed. During these sequences, synchronous time resolved measurements have been performed. Pressure signals were recorded at the runner inlet and outlet and along the draft tube. Also, 25 pressure measurements and strain measurements were obtained on the runner blades. Time resolved particle image velocimetry were used to evaluate flowrate during start-up for some repetitions. Torque fluctuations at shaft were also monitored. This paper presents the experimental set-up and start-up conditions chosen to simulate a prototype start-up. Transient flowrate methodology is explained and validation measurements are detailed. The preliminary results of global performances and runner pressure measurements are presented.

  14. A 3D-investigation shows that angiogenesis in primate cerebral cortex mainly occurs at capillary level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Laurent; Plouraboué, Franck; Cloetens, Peter; Fonta, Caroline

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the use of a new 3D high-resolution imaging technique dedicated to functional vessels for a systematic quantitative study of angiogenesis in the primate cortex. We present a new method which permits, using synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography imaging, the identification of micro-vascular components as well as their automatic numerical digitalization and extraction from very large 3D image analysis and post-treatments. This method is used to analyze various levels of micro-vascular organization and their postnatal modifications. Comparing newborn- and adult marmosets, we found an increase in vascular volume (270%), exchange surface (260%) and vessel length (290%) associated to a decrease in distances between vessel and tissue (32%). The increase in relative vascular volumes between the two ages, examined through the whole cortical depth, has been found to be mainly sustained by events occurring at the capillary level, and only marginally at the perforating vessel level. This work shows that the postnatal cortical maturation classically described in terms of synaptogenesis, gliogenesis and connectivity plasticity is accompanied by an intensive remodeling of micro-vascular patterns.

  15. Experimental oral toxicity of domoic acid in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and rats. Preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryphonas, L; Truelove, J; Todd, E; Nera, E; Iverson, F

    1990-10-01

    A recent outbreak of marine food poisoning in humans was attributed to the consumption of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) contaminated with domoic acid (DA) that was produced by the diatom Nitzschia pungens. The clinical and morphological effects of single oral doses of extracts of mussels contaminated with DA or of DA isolated from toxic mussels were investigated in small groups (one to six) of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; 0.5-10 mg DA/kg body weight) and of Sprague-Dawley rats (60 to 80 mg DA/kg body weight). Control animals were either given saline or were not treated. To test whether monosodium glutamate, present in the food consumed by some affected humans, and dimethylsulphoxide, suspected of being present in the plankton, enhanced the response, monosodium glutamate (at 0.25% of mussel extract bolus) or dimethylsulphoxide (at 1 g per bolus) were co-administered to two (one each) of the DA-treated monkeys. DA-treated monkeys developed transient excitation characterized by vomiting. DA-treated rats showed withdrawal followed by hyperexcitation and death (in one case). Mild to moderate central nervous system lesions consistent with neuroexcitation were present in both monkeys and rats. The addition of monosodium glutamate and dimethylsulphoxide had no significant effect on the appearance and severity of central nervous system clinical signs and lesions. The wide variations in the response of test animals to orally administered DA were attributed to the protective effect of vomiting, and to suspected incomplete or slow gastro-intestinal absorption of the toxic agent. The results reinforce the view that DA is an emetic and that under appropriate conditions may also inflict excitotoxic central nervous system damage.

  16. α-Tocopherol/chitosan-based nanoparticles: characterization and preliminary investigations for emulsion systems application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira

    2014-02-01

    The processes of lipids oxidation represent a great concern for the consumer health because they are one of the major causes of quality deterioration in fat-containing products. One of the most effective methods of delaying lipid oxidation consists in incorporating antioxidants. The present investigation describes the formulation of chitosan and novel glycol chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with α-Tocopherol (αToc-NPs). The obtained NPs were characterized by various techniques, such as particle size (showing mean diameters in the range 335-503 nm) and zeta potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were, then, added in the preparation of oil-in-water simple emulsion both to make the lipophilic αToc available in an aqueous medium and to prevent emulsion oxidation. For this purpose, a new highly sensitive, simple and solvent-free method based on a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of αToc in aqueous medium. All the parameters influencing SPME, including fiber coating, time and temperature extraction, pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions, have been carefully screened. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin in the αToc-NPs and its release from NPs-enriched simple emulsion formulations. SPME provided high recovery yields and the limits of detection and of quantification in emulsion were 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mg, respectively. The precision of the method has been also estimated. The delay of the lipid oxidation by the proposed formulations has been evaluated exploiting the Kreis test on αToc-NPs-enriched emulsions.

  17. Preliminary results of paleoseismic investigations of Quaternary faults on eastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Site characterization of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires detailed knowledge of the displacement histories of nearby Quaternary faults. Ongoing paleoseismic studies provide data on the amount and rates of Quaternary activity on the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, and Stagecoach Road faults along the eastern margin of the mountain over varying time spans of 0-700 ka to perhaps 0-30 ka, depending on the site. Preliminary stratigraphic interpretations of deposits and deformation at many logged trenches and natural exposures indicate that each of these faults have experienced from 3 to 8 surface-rupturing earthquakes associated with variable dip-slip displacements per event ranging from 5 to 115 cm, and commonly in the range of 20 to 85 cm. Cumulative dip-slip offsets of units with broadly assigned ages of 100-200 ka are typically less than 200 cm, although accounting for the effects of possible left normal-oblique slip could increase these displacements by factors of 1.1 to 1.7. Current age constraints indicate recurrence intervals of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} years (commonly between 30 and 80 k.y.) and slip rates of 0.001 to 0.08 mm/yr (typically 0.01-0.02 mm/yr). Based on available timing data, the ages of the most recent ruptures varies among the faults; they appear younger on the Stagecoach Road Fault ({approximately}5-20 ka) relative to the southern Paintbrush Canyon and Bow Ridge faults ({approximately}30-100 ka).

  18. Preliminary results of paleoseismic investigations of Quaternary faults on eastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A.; Whitney, J.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Thomas, A.P. [Geomatrix Consultants, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Site characterization of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires detailed knowledge of the displacement histories of nearby Quaternary faults. Ongoing paleoseismic studies provide data on the amount and rates of Quaternary activity on the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, and Stagecoach Road faults along the eastern margin of the mountain over varying time spans of 0-700 ka to perhaps 0-30 ka, depending on the site. Preliminary stratigraphic interpretations of deposits and deformation at many logged trenches and natural exposures indicate that each of these faults have experienced from 3 to 8 surface-rupturing earthquakes associated with variable dip-slip displacements per event ranging from 5 to 115 cm, and commonly in the range of 20 to 85 cm. Cumulative dip-slip offsets of units with broadly assigned ages of 100-200 ka are typically less than 200 cm, although accounting for the effects of possible left normal-oblique slip could increase these displacements by factors of 1.1 to 1.7. Current age constraints indicate recurrence intervals of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} years (commonly between 30 and 80 k.y.) and slip rates of 0.001 to 0.08 mm/yr (typically 0.01-0.02 mm/yr). Based on available timing data, the ages of the most recent ruptures among the faults; they appear younger on the Stagecoach Road Fault ({approximately} 5.20 ka) relative to the southern Paintbrush Canyon and Bow Ridge faults ({approximately} 30-100 ka).

  19. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  20. Is less more? A preliminary investigation of the number of response categories in self-reported pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karon F Cook

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Karon F Cook1, David Cella2, Erin L Boespflug1, Dagmar Amtmann11Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of the number of response options for self-reports of pain interference. Responses to interference items of the 11-category Brief Pain Inventory (BPI were obtained in a sample of 434 persons from two sites and modeled using the partial credit model. In successive calibrations, response categories were collapsed and new scores were generated. Scores based on two to three categories produced poor results. Four to five categories yielded better results. However, scoring using more than five categories did not appreciably improve the reliability, person separation, or validity of scores. These results suggest that fewer response categories—as few as five or six–may function as well as the 11 response categories that are conventionally used. The results are preliminary since the number of response categories actually presented was not manipulated in the study design. Future research should compare the reliability and validity of scores based on the BPI interference items when items are presented with the conventionally 11-response format, versus presentation with fewer response options.Keywords: psychometrics, outcomes, quality of life, measurement, pain

  1. A preliminary study investigating the factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level

  2. Preliminary investigation on the role of microorganisms in the production of phosphine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhipei; Jia Shengfen; Wang Baojun; Zhang Tao; Liu Shuangjiang

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the phosphine content and various microbial populations, activities of different enzymes were investigated firstly. The results indicated that the phosphine content of samples from various environments was positively related to total anaerobic microorganisms, organic phosphate compound-dissolving bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and the activities of alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase, with correlation coefficients (R2) up to 0.93, 0.90, 0.69, 0.79, and 0.82, respectively. Results also showed that the phosphine content was not related to total aerobic microorganisms, inorganic phosphate compound-dissolving bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and the acidic phosphatase activity. Nutrients such as yeast extract and glucose were added, at a time and individually, to normal or autoclaved soil samples. The soil samples were inoculated with sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichments (SRB) and/or denitrifying bacterial enrichment (DNB). After incubation for one month at 30℃, the phosphane content of these samples was analyzed. The results indicated that the addition of glucose or yeast extract could greatly increase the phosphane content. Moreover, it was revealed that inoculation with SRB or DNB could also promote the formation of phosphine. The DNB, however, was more efficient in this regard. The highest phosphine content, about 5 times that of the control, was detected in the sample that was added with both glucose and yeast extract and inoculated with SRB and DNB simultaneously. SRB and DNB were enriched for several generations and the phosphane content of different generations was analyzed. Furthermore, SRB and DNB enrichments were inoculated into different media, in the beginning of enriching, the phosphane content was about the same for different enrichments, and differed more significantly as the enrichment process was carried further. In forth generation, the phosphane content of DNB enrichment was about 3 times of that of SRB

  3. A preliminary investigation of materialism and impulsiveness as predictors of technological addictions among young adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, James A; Pirog, 3rd, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The primary objective of the present research is to investigate the drivers of technological addiction in college students - heavy users of Information and Communication Technology (ICT...

  4. Preliminary investigation of lithium for mood disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Matthew; Beresford, Carol A; Bunker, Madisun; Verdi, Mary; Vishnevetsky, Donna; Karlsson, Cassie; Teer, Olivia; Stedman, Amy; Smith, Kahsi A

    2014-09-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have higher rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders, than the general child population. Although children with ASD may experience irritability (aggression, self-injury, and tantrums), a portion also experience symptoms that are typical of a mood disorder, such as euphoria/elevated mood, mania, hypersexuality, paranoia, or decreased need for sleep. Despite lithium's established efficacy in controlling mood disorder symptoms in the neurotypical population, lithium has been rarely studied in children with ASD. We performed a retrospective chart review of 30 children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria who were prescribed lithium in order to assess target symptoms, safety, and tolerability. Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) ratings were performed by two board-certified child psychiatrists with expertise in ASD. CGI-I scores were dichotomized into "improved" (CGI-I score of 1 or 2) or "not improved" (CGI-I score ≥3). Forty-three percent of patients who received lithium were rated as "improved" on the CGI-I. Seventy-one percent of patients who had two or more pretreatment mood disorder symptoms were rated as "improved." The presence of mania (p=0.033) or euphoria/elevated mood (p=0.041) were the pretreatment symptoms significantly associated with an "improved" rating. The mean lithium blood level was 0.70 mEq/L (SD=0.26), and the average length of lithium treatment was 29.7 days (SD=23.9). Forty-seven percent of patients were reported to have at least one side effect, most commonly vomiting (13%), tremor (10%), fatigue (10%), irritability (7%), and enuresis (7%). This preliminary assessment of lithium in children and adolescents with ASD suggests that lithium may be a medication of interest for those who exhibit two or more mood disorder symptoms, particularly mania or euphoria

  5. Root surface strain during canal shaping and its influence on apical microcrack development: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamleh, A; Komabayashi, T; Ebihara, A; Nassar, M; Watanabe, S; Yoshioka, T; Miyara, K; Suda, H

    2015-12-01

    shaping was poorly correlated with the number of microcracks found (R(2)  = 0.093). Based on these preliminary data, canal shaping appears to cause apical microcracks regardless of the type of rotary instrument motion. Contrast-enhanced micro-CT was able to identify microcracks in roots. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Preliminary investigation of an ultrasound method for estimating pressure changes in deep-positioned vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand

    2016-01-01

    varying from -40 Pa to 15 Pa with a standard deviation of 32%, and a bias of 25% found relative to the peak simulated pressure drop. This preliminary study shows that pressure can be estimated non-invasively to a depth that enables cardiac scans, and thereby, the possibility of detecting the pressure......This paper presents a method for measuring pressure changes in deep-tissue vessels using vector velocity ultrasound data. The large penetration depth is ensured by acquiring data using a low frequency phased array transducer. Vascular pressure changes are then calculated from 2-D angle...... of angle-independent vector velocities are acquired using directional synthetic aperture vector flow imaging. The obtained results are evaluated by comparison to a 3-D numerical simulation model with equivalent geometry as the designed phantom. The study showed pressure drops across the constricted phantom...

  7. X inactivation in Rett syndrome: A preliminary study showing partial preferential inactivation of paternal X with the M27{beta} probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, P.; Abbadi, N.; Gilgenkrantz, S. [Laboratoire de Genetique, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    1994-04-15

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a severe progressive neurological disorder occurring exclusively in females. Most cases are sporadic. The few familial cases (less than 1%) cannot be explained by a simple mode of inheritance. Several hypotheses have been proposed: X-linked male lethal mutation, maternal uniparental disomy, fresh mutation on the X chromosome, involvement of mitochondrial DNA and differential inactivation with metabolic interference of X-borne alleles. The authors have examined the pattern of X inactivation in 10 affected girls who were selected according to the clinical criteria previously described and accepted by the French Rett Scientific Committee. The X inactivation pattern was studied by analysis of methylation at the hypervariable locus DXS255 with the M27{beta} probe. The results show a more-or-less skewed inactivation of paternal X in 8 Rett females, and 2 cases of symmetrical inactivation. In control girls, inactivation was symmetrical cases and the maternal X has been preferentially inactivated in the other 2 cases. In no case was a total skewed inactivation observed. Though there was clear evidence for a preferential paternal X inactivation that was statistically significant further studies are necessary to establish a relationship between X inactivation pattern and Rett syndrome.

  8. A Preliminary Genetic Investigation of Rastrelliger Kanagurta Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Mitochondrial ND2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siti Azizah Mohd Nor; Abu Talib A; Mohd Ghows M A; Samsudin B

    2008-01-01

    In a preliminary investigation, Random Amplified Polymorphie DNA (RAPD) analysis and partial mitochon-drial ND2 gene sequencing were conducted to study the genetic variation of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta along a 450 km stretch of its distribution on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 53 individuals from 6 popu-lations were analyzed using 4 RAPD primers and a sub-sample of 15 individuals was chosen for sequencing of partial ND2 gene. Comparison between the 2 markers revealed genetic structuring in the RAPD results but genetic homogeneity for ND2 gene. Based on the former there may be at least 2 genetically differentiated groups of Rastrelliger kanagurta a-long this stretch.

  9. Preliminary experimental investigation of an X-band Cerenkov-type high power microwave oscillator without guiding magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liming; Shu, Ting; Li, Zhiqiang; Ju, Jinchuan; Fang, Xiaoting

    2017-02-01

    Among high power microwave (HPM) generators without guiding magnetic field, Cerenkov-type oscillator is expected to achieve a relatively high efficiency, which has already been realized in X-band in our previous simulation work. This paper presents the preliminary experimental investigations into an X-band Cerenkov-type HPM oscillator without guiding magnetic field. Based on the previous simulation structure, some modifications regarding diode structure were made. Different cathode structures and materials were tested in the experiments. By using a ring-shaped graphite cathode, microwave of about one hundred megawatt level was generated with a pure center frequency of 9.14 GHz, and an efficiency of about 1.3%. As analyzed in the paper, some practical issues reduce the efficiency in experiments, such as real features of the electron beam, probable breakdown regions on the cathode surface which can damage the diode, and so forth.

  10. Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiranidou, Elsa; Bernikola, Eirini; Tornari, Vivi; Fankhauser, Thomas; Läuchli, Matthias; Palmbach, Cornelius; Bäschlin, Nathalie

    2011-06-01

    A preliminary investigation has taken place employing Digital Holographic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DHSPI) in order to assess the effect of handling and transportation on canvas paintings. Canvas dummies were used on a series of measurements on a transport simulator which allows reproducible simulation of any transport logs in the laboratory. A number of cycles of controlled vibrations were applied on the samples and after each cycle a measurement with DHSPI was taken to monitor the behavior of the samples while increasing the vibration loading and also to record the conditions under which the first crack appears. The transport simulations in combination with DHSPI monitoring revealed the amplitude of oscillation where the first cracks appear on new canvas paintings and also the way these cracks grow. During the tests it was also feasible to locate areas at risk of future deterioration.

  11. Preliminary investigations of magnetic modulated nanoparticles for microwave breast cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ley S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential of magnetic modulated iron oxide nanoparticles in terms of a contrast enhancement for Ultra-wideband (UWB breast imaging. The work is motivated by the low dielectric contrast between tumor and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissue. The influence of an external polarizing magnetic field on pure and coated magnetite nanoparticles is investigated in this contribution. Measurements were conducted using M-sequence UWB technology and an oil-gelatin phantom. It is shown that a coating, which is necessary for clinical use, results in a lower signal response, and thus leads to a lower detectability of magnetic modulated nanoparticles.

  12. A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Shoenberger, Deacon; Hayes, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design.…

  13. A Preliminary Investigation of Phonological Encoding Skills in Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Brady, Alison; Stein, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5) and 9 age and sex matched CNS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5). Method: Participants monitored target phonemes located at syllable onsets and offsets of bisyllabic words. Performance in…

  14. Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Althea T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

  16. Isolation of flavonoids from the heartwood and resin of Prunus avium and some preliminary biological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James; Nair, Jerald J; Bollareddy, Endreddy; Keskar, Kunal; Thorat, Amol; Crankshaw, Denis J; Holloway, Alison C; Khan, Ghaznia; Wright, Gerard D; Ejim, Linda

    2009-12-01

    An investigation of the constituents in heartwood and resin of Prunus avium is reported. A mini-library of structurally diverse flavanones and flavones was screened for human cytochrome P450 1A1, 3A4 and 19 (aromatase) inhibition, and for antifungal activity against a panel of pathogenic fungi. The defensive role of these natural plant flavonoids as antifungal phytoalexins and phytoanticipins is discussed.

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Twohig, Michael P.; Shoenberger, Deacon; Hayes, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. Self-reported marijuana use, confirmed through oral swabs, reached zero levels for all participants at posttreatment. At a 3-month follow-up, 1 partici...

  18. Preliminary investigation of biogenic gas production in Indonesian low rank coals and implications for a renewable energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilawati, Rita; Papendick, Sam L.; Gilcrease, Patrick C.; Esterle, Joan S.; Golding, Suzanne D.; Mares, Tennille E.

    2013-11-01

    Indonesia has abundant coal resources at depths suitable to contain substantial volumes of naturally occurring methane, which are currently being explored. Most Indonesian coals are thermally immature, but are composed of hydrogen-rich organic components that are presumed to make them excellent substrates for biogenic methane production. Gas isotope results from pilot wells in South Sumatra, reported in this study, are interpreted to indicate biogenic origins for the methane. Corresponding formation water samples were collected and incubated, and show the presence of indigenous microbial communities capable of producing methane from Indonesian and Australian coal. Although these results are only preliminary, they are promising and support the possibility of Indonesia developing bio renewable energy from coal seams.

  19. A preliminary investigation of the dynamic viscoelastic relaxation of bovine cortical bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loete T.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new experimental approach is proposed to characterize the dynamic viscoelastic relaxation behaviour of cortical bone. Theoretical models are presented to show that a linear viscoelastic material, when allowed to relax between two long elastic bars, will produce stress, strain and strain rate histories that contain characteristic features. Furthermore, typical experimental results are presented to show that these characteristic features are observed during split Hopkinson bar tests on bovine cortical bone using a Cone-in-Tube striker. The interpretation of this behaviour in the context of a standard linear viscoelastic model is discussed.

  20. A Preliminary Investigation into the Search Behaviour of Users in a Collection of Digitized Broadcast Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Skov, Mette; Larsen, Birger;

    2014-01-01

    of the search log in a radio broadcast archive. Firstly, results in relation to the identified types of search terms show that the Programme listing category was the most frequently identified category followed by categories of Person and Subject. Secondly, users rarely apply advanced search operators...

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Mendelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1, n=14 or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2, n=17. Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  2. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna; White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Schmid, Lorrie; Riggsbee, Jan; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer; Dawson, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: "long-term" (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or "short-term" (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs. PMID:27999683

  4. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF PASTA EXTRUSION PROCESS: RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SEMOLINA DOUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fabbri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheological measurements were conducted on semolina doughs. Two doughs were considered, one directly taken from an extrusion plant and another mixed in lab conditions. A rotational viscometer was used in the plate-plate configuration. Creep tests were carried on too, to verify the possibility to neglect the elastic component of strain. It was investigated the influence of the temperature on the viscous behaviour of both doughs, while only on the lab mixed dough was tested the influence of moisture content. The aim of this research is the determination of a rheological model useful for a subsequent CFD analysis of the extrusion process.

  5. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...... system - high content of heavy metals - high emissions of particulate matter and PAH This investigation deals with the problem of separation due to high shear stress in the injection system. It is shown that the viscosity of the injected fuel can be used to estimate whether the emulsion has separated...

  6. Preliminary Investigation of Surface Treatments to Enhance the Wear Resistance of 60-Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of protective surface treatments on 60-Nitinol (60wt%Ni-40wt%Ti) was studied. Various nitriding techniques as well as a (Ti, Al)N coating were evaluated visually, microscopically, and by hardness and scratch testing. The chemical composition of the surface treatments was investigated by x-ray techniques. The results indicate that very hard (greater than 1,000 HK) and adherent surface layers can be produced on 60-Nitinol. Further work is needed to determine the tribological properties of these surface treatments in relevant operating environments.

  7. Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Preparation and preliminary in-vitro investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodi, G., E-mail: gianina.dodi@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi (Romania); SCIENT — Research Centre for Instrumental Analysis, Bucharest (Romania); Pala, A. [University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Barbu, E. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Peptanariu, D. [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania); Hritcu, D.; Popa, M.I. [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi (Romania); Tamba, B.I. [“Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-06-01

    Carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) synthesized from commercially available polysaccharide was formulated into nanoparticles via ionic gelation using trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) as cross-linking agent. Characterisation using a range of analytical techniques (FTIR, NMR, GPC, TGA and DLS) confirmed the CMGG structure and revealed the effect of the CMGG and STMP concentration on the main characteristics of the obtained nanoformulations. The average nanoparticle diameter was found to be around 208 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Experiments using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour of the nanoformulations loaded with Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model drug (loading capacity in excess of 83%), as monitored by UV–Vis. While dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed, the nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at concentrations below 0.3 mg/mL. Results obtained so far suggest that carboxymethylated guar gum nanoparticles formulated with STMP warrant further investigations as polysaccharide based biocompatible drug nanocarriers. - Highlights: • Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles preparation by ionic gelation • The optimum synthesis system designed particles around 200 nm • The nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at specific concentrations • The loaded formulations evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour • The results encourage further investigations as polysaccharidic drug nanocarriers.

  8. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents' perceptions of problematic use. The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to "virtual addictions".

  9. Preliminary study to investigate the Delboeuf illusion in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta: Methodological Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Santacà

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual illusions are commonly used in animal cognition studies to compare visual perception among vertebrates. To date, researchers have focused their attention mainly on birds and mammals, especially apes and monkeys, but no study has investigated sensitivity to visual illusions in prosimians. Here we investigated whether lemurs (Lemur catta perceive the Delboeuf illusion, a well-known illusion that occurs when subjects misperceive the relative size of an item because of its surrounding context. In particular, we adopted the spontaneous preference paradigm used in chimpanzees and observed lemurs’ ability to select the larger amount of food. In control trials, we presented two different amounts of food on two identical plates. In test trials, we presented equal food portion sizes on two plates differing in size: If lemurs were sensitive to the illusion, they were expected to select the food portion presented on the smaller plate. In control trials, they exhibited poor performance compared to other mammals previously observed, being able to discriminate between the two quantities only in the presence of a 0.47 ratio. This result prevented us from drawing any conclusion regarding the subjects’ susceptibility to the Delboeuf illusion. In test trials with the illusory pattern, however, the subjects’ choices did not differ from chance. Our data suggest that the present paradigm is not optimal for testing the perception of the Delboeuf illusion in lemurs and highlight the importance of using different methodological approaches to assess the perceptual mechanisms underlying size discrimination among vertebrates.

  10. Chemical analysis of the elements in UZrNb alloy at CDTN: preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Palmieri, Helena Eugenia L.; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Souza, Adalberto Leles de, E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: reissc@cdtn.br, E-mail: amms@cdtn.br, E-mail: adalbertoleles@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The complete determination of major, minor, and impurity element contents in nuclear fuel is essential for quality assurance in the production of nuclear fuels. The control over all the stages of the development of nuclear fuel involves a combination of different analytical methods such as spectrometric methods. The goal of our investigation is to develop and evaluate procedures for the determination of main elements and carbon impurity present in some uranium alloys. In this paper the element contents in U2.5Zr7.5Nb, U3Zr9Nb alloys and U6Nb, in weight percent, were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), wavelength dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (XRF/WDS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The total carbon was determined using a carbon analyzer in which the sample is oxidized to carbon dioxide (IR absorption). It was observed a satisfactory correlation between the results obtained by employed methods. (author)

  11. Preliminary investigation to estimate soil NAPL retention using parametric pedotransfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Hilda; Makó, András

    2014-10-01

    Organic liquid retention of soils is a primary input variable for modelling the nonaqueous phase liquid transport and behaviour in the subsurface. In environmental and soil physical practice, it is mainly determined by scaling based on the water retention of soils or with charts of average empirical values of organic liquid retention or the fitting parameters of hydraulic functions. Predicting the fitting parameters of organic liquid retention curves with pedotransfer functions might be a promising alternative method, but this topic has only been researched to a limited extent. Thus we investigated the applicability of different hydraulic functions (3- and 4- parameter form of the van Genuchten equation and Brutsaert equation) for fitting organic liquid retention characteristics. Multivariate linear regression was used to build and develop pedotransfer functions, modelling relations between original and transformed values of basic soil properties and organic liquid retention. We attempted to generate parametric pedotransfer functions. According to our results, the applicability of hydraulic functions for fitting nonaqueous phase liquid retention curves to the experimental data was proven. The investigations gave promising results for the possibility to estimate soil nonaqueous phase liquid retention with parametric pedotransfer functions.

  12. A preliminary investigation of cell growth after irradiation using a modulated x-ray intensity pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, Regina [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia); Davey, Ross [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, Sydney University, NSW 2006 (Australia); Oliver, Lyn [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia); Harvie, Rozelle [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, Sydney University, NSW 2006 (Australia); Baldock, Clive [Bill Walsh Cancer Research Laboratories, Department of Medical Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)

    2006-08-07

    In this study we have investigated a spatial distribution of cell growth after their irradiation using a modulated x-ray intensity pattern. An A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line was grown in a 6-well culture. Two of the wells were the unirradiated control wells, whilst another two wells were irradiated with a modulated x-ray intensity pattern and the third two wells were uniformly irradiated. A number of plates were incubated for various times after irradiation and stained with crystal violet. The spatial distribution of the stained cells within each well was determined by measurement of the crystal violet optical density at multiple positions in the plate using a microplate photospectrometer. The crystal violet optical density for a range of cell densities was measured for the unirradiated well and this correlated with cell viability as determined by the MTT cell viability assay. An exponential dose response curve was measured for A549 cells from the average crystal violet optical density in the uniformly irradiated well up to a dose of 30 Gy. By measuring the crystal violet optical density distribution within a well the spatial distribution of cell growth after irradiation with a modulated x-ray intensity pattern can be plotted. This method can be used for in vitro investigation into the changes in radiation response associated with treatment using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of the Effect of Investigational Ebola Virus Disease Treatments on Viral Genome Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Shannon L M; Albariño, César; Shepard, Samuel S; Dudas, Gytis; Sheth, Mili; Brown, Shelley C; Cannon, Deborah; Erickson, Bobbie R; Gibbons, Aridth; Schuh, Amy; Sealy, Tara; Ervin, Elizabeth; Frace, Mike; Uyeki, Timothy M; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute

    2016-10-15

     Several patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) managed in the United States have received ZMapp monoclonal antibodies, TKM-Ebola small interfering RNA, brincidofovir, and/or convalescent plasma as investigational therapeutics.  To investigate whether treatment selected for Ebola virus (EBOV) mutations conferring resistance, viral sequencing was performed on RNA extracted from clinical blood specimens from patients with EVD following treatment, and putative viral targets were analyzed.  We observed no major or minor EBOV mutations within regions targeted by therapeutics.  This small subset of patients and clinical specimens suggests that evolution of resistance is not a direct consequence of antiviral treatment. As EVD antiviral treatments are introduced into wider use, it is essential that continuous viral full-genome surveillance is performed, to monitor for the emergence of escape mutations. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Preliminary Investigations on Uncertainty Analysis of Wind-Wave Predictions in Lake Michigan

    CERN Document Server

    Nekouee, Navid

    2015-01-01

    With all the improvement in wave and hydrodynamics numerical models, the question rises in our mind that how the accuracy of the forcing functions and their input can affect the results. In this paper, a commonly used numerical third generation wave model, SWAN is applied to predict waves in Lake Michigan. Wind data were analyzed to determine wind variation frequency over Lake Michigan. Wave predictions uncertainty due to wind local effects were compared during a period where wind had a fairly constant speed and direction over the northern and southern basins. The study shows that despite model calibration in Lake Michigan area, the model deficiency arises from ignoring wind effects in small scales. Wave prediction also emphasizes that small scale turbulence in meteorological forces can increase error in predictions up to 35%. Wave frequency and coherence analysis showed that both models are able to reveal the time scale of the wave variation with same accuracy. Insufficient number of meteorological stations ...

  15. "Mirror, mirror...." a preliminary investigation of skin tone dissatisfaction and its impact among British adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Henry, Amy; Peacock, Nicola; Roberts-Dunn, Ahkin; Porter, Alan

    2013-10-01

    This study examined skin tone dissatisfaction, measured using a skin tone chart, among a multiethnic sample of British adults. A total of 648 British White individuals, 292 British South Asians, and 260 British African Caribbean participants completed a visual task in which they were asked to indicate their actual and ideal skin tones. They also completed measures of body appreciation, self-esteem, and ethnic identity attachment. Results showed that Asians had a lighter skin tone ideal than White and African Caribbean participants. Conversely, White participants had higher skin tone dissatisfaction (preferring a darker skin tone) than Asian and African Caribbean participants, who preferred a lighter skin tone. Results also showed that skin tone dissatisfaction predicted body appreciation once the effects of participant ethnicity, age, ethnic identity attachment, and self-esteem had been accounted for. Implications of our findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Educational Attainment of Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tors, Barbara

    The total number of children affected by divorce has more than tripled since 1960, even though the total number of children has declined from the 1970s to the 1980s. In 1988 female-headed households with children and no spouse present constituted 44.7 percent of all families at or below the poverty level. The purpose of this paper is to show that…

  17. Preliminary investigation on antimicrobial and proteolytic property of the epidermal mucus secretion of marine stingrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rathinam Vennila; Kalainesan Rajesh Kumar; Shankar Kanchana; Muthuvel Arumugam; Shanmugam Vijayalakshmi; Thangavel Balasubramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the antibacterial, antifungal, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the protease activity of the stingray mucus Dasyatis sephen (D. sephen) and Himantura gerrardi (H. gerrardi). Methods: Antimicrobial activity of crude aqueous, acidic and organic mucus extract was evaluated by disc diffusion method against human pathogens, MIC of the active samples were determined by spectrophotometric method and the protease activity which is responsible for the antimicrobial activity was determined by using zymogram method. Results:The crude acidic extracts of both the species showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) and the acidic extracts of both the species exhibit antifungal activity against all the tested pathogens. Remaining extracts didn't show any inhibitory activity. The acidic extracts of H. gerrardi is significantly active against S. typhi, E. coli, V. cholerae, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Alternaria alternaria (A. alternaria), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis) at the minimum concentration of 16μg/mL, but the acidic extract of D. sephen required 32μg/mL of protein to inhibit S.typhi, E. coli, Aspergillus niger (A. niger), penicillium sp, T. mentagrophytes, A. alternaria. Both the D. sephen and H. gerrardi shows the proteolytic activity above the molecular mass of> 66 KDa. The characterization of protease class using inhibitors showed the presence of both serine and metallo protease in the the samples. Conclusions:Protease activity present in the sting ray mucus is one of the key factor responsible for the antimicrobial activity and the results proved the role of mucus in the innate immunity.

  18. Preliminary geologic investigation of the West Glendive lignite deposits, Dawson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banet, Arthur C.

    1979-01-01

    Four major lignite beds, all in the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), occur in the West Glendive area, Dawson County, Montana. The Newton Ranch and Poverty Flats beds are in the Lebo Member and the Peuse and Kolberg Ranch beds are in the Tongue River Member. Correlation of the lignite beds across the area shows that the Peuse bed is the thickest and most extensive. Field mapping and drill-hole data indicate that folding and faulting are more common than previously reported.

  19. Investigation of keratinophilic fungi from soils in western Australia a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, R

    1980-11-28

    In order to determine which species of geophilic dermatophytes were present in Western Australian soils 299 samples were investigated. These samples were collected from a range of locations, 208 towns throughout the state and 91 samples from the Perth Metropolitan area. Most samples were collected from areas frequented by people and animals, such as home gardens, parks and animal yards. Of the total 299 soils, 271 (90.6%) yielded keratinophilic fungi. A total of 181 dermatophytes were isolated, and there were 205 isolations of other keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum (30.7%) was the most prevalent dermatophyte recovered from soil followed by Microsporum cookei (21.7%) and then Trichophyton ajelloi (8.0%). No other dermatophytes were recovered. Chrysosporium indicum was the most common of all the keratinophilic fungi and was isolated from 50.1% of the samples. Mixed growth was obtained from 33.5% of the soil samples.

  20. The Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) Invades Hawaii: Preliminary Investigations on Trap Response and Alternate Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Russell H

    2012-07-11

    In August 2010 the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was first reported to have invaded the Kona coffee growing region of Hawaii, posing a severe economic challenge to the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the State. Despite its long and widespread occurrence throughout the tropics as the most serious pest of coffee, there are still discrepancies in the literature regarding several basic aspects of berry borer biology relevant to its control. In Kona coffee plantations, we investigated the beetles' response to several trap and lure formulations, and examined the occurrence of beetles in seeds of alternate host plants occurring adjacent to coffee farms. While traps were shown to capture significant numbers of beetles per day, and the occurrence of beetles in alternate hosts was quite rare, the unique situation of coffee culture in Hawaii will make this pest extremely challenging to manage in the Islands.

  1. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of pod and seed extract ofCrotalaria incana L. subsp. purpurscens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathewos Anza; Habtamu Gelaw

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate various phytochemical constituents present in pod and seed of Crotalaria incanaL. (C. incana). Methods:A number of phytochemical tests were applied to identify the class of compounds in the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract ofC. incana. Results: Phytochemical screening of the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract ofC. incanasubsp.purpurscens revealed that the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and stroids. Conclusions: The present work conducted on the CH2Cl2:CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract of C. incana identified various classes of compounds present on the pod and seed extract.

  2. Does athletic training in volleyball modulate the components of visual evoked potentials? A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierko, Teresa; Lubiński, Wojciech; Lesiakowski, Piotr; Steciuk, Hanna; Piasecki, Leszek; Krzepota, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 11 young female volleyball players who participated in extensive training for 2 years. The control group consisted of 7 age-matched female students who were not involved in any regular sports activity. Recordings of VEPs were performed twice: baseline recording (i.e., before training began) and after 2 years of systematic, volleyball-specific athletic training. The effect of athletic training on visual signal conductivity was assessed by recording the latency of N75, P100 and N135 components of the VEPs waveform. Extensive experience with volleyball training reduced signal conductivity time through visual pathway. Specifically, the latency of P100 was reduced on average by 2.2 ms during binocular viewing. Moreover, athletes had reduced N75 latency (difference of 3.3 ms) for visual stimuli that generated greater response from peripheral retina. These results indicate that sport training can affect very early sensory processing in athletes.

  3. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Petrov, Todor

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry.

  4. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  5. Sexual orientation and the sleep-wake cycle: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Q; Silber, K

    2000-04-01

    The sleep-wake cycle as a function of sexual orientation was investigated. Male and female, heterosexual and homosexual subjects completed a sexual-orientation questionnaire and four sets of recording sheets of activities for a 16-day period. Mean sleep duration was calculated from the record sheets using waking-up and going-to-sleep times. It was predicted that homosexual males and females would awake earlier, go to sleep later, and thus have shorter sleep duration compared to heterosexuals. This was supported by the results. Although a sexual orientation by sex interaction just failed to reach significance, additional analyses of the results indicated that differences in sleep duration between heterosexuals and homosexuals were markedly related to sex. The possibility that these results reflect dimorphic features of the human supra-chiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is discussed.

  6. A preliminary investigation of materialism and impulsiveness as predictors of technological addictions among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A; Pirog, Stephen F

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims The primary objective of the present research is to investigate the drivers of technological addiction in college students - heavy users of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study places cell phone and instant messaging addiction in the broader context of consumption pathologies, investigating the influence of materialism and impulsiveness on these two technologies. Clearly, cell phones serve more than just a utilitarian purpose. Cell phones are used in public and play a vital role in the lives of young adults. The accessibility of new technologies, like cell phones, which have the advantages of portability and an ever increasing array of functions, makes their over-use increasingly likely. Methods College undergraduates (N = 191) from two U.S. universities completed a paper and pencil survey instrument during class. The questionnaire took approximately 15-20 minutes to complete and contained scales that measured materialism, impulsiveness, and mobile phone and instant messaging addiction. Results Factor analysis supported the discriminant validity of Ehrenberg, Juckes, White and Walsh's (2008) Mobile Phone and Instant Messaging Addictive Tendencies Scale. The path model indicates that both materialism and impulsiveness impact the two addictive tendencies, and that materialism's direct impact on these addictions has a noticeably larger effect on cell phone use than instant messaging. Conclusions The present study finds that materialism and impulsiveness drive both a dependence on cell phones and instant messaging. As Griffiths (2012) rightly warns, however, researchers must be aware that one's addiction may not simply be to the cell phone, but to a particular activity or function of the cell phone. The emergence of multi-function smart phones requires that research must dig beneath the technology being used to the activities that draw the user to the particular technology.

  7. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D. [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pinto, Frank [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B. [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

  8. Trace evidence characteristics of DNA: A preliminary investigation of the persistence of DNA at crime scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jennifer J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Gunn, Peter R; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2009-12-01

    The successful recovery of trace or contact DNA is highly variable. It is seemingly dependent on a wide range of factors, from the characteristics of the donor, substrate and environment, to the delay between contact and recovery. There is limited research on the extent of the effect these factors have on trace DNA analysis. This study investigated the persistence of trace DNA on surfaces relevant to the investigation of burglary and robbery offences. The study aimed to limit the number of variables involved to solely determine the effect of time on DNA recovery. Given that it is difficult to control the quantity of DNA deposited during a hand contact, human buffy coat and DNA control solution were chosen as an alternative to give a more accurate measure of quantity. Set volumes of these solutions were deposited onto outdoor surfaces (window frames and vinyl material to mimic burglary and 'bag snatch' offences) and sterile glass slides stored in a closed environment in the laboratory, for use as a control. Trace DNA casework data was also scrutinised to assess the effect of time on DNA recovery from real samples. The amount of DNA recovered from buffy coat on the outdoor surfaces declined by approximately half over two weeks, to a negligible amount after six weeks. Profiles could not be obtained after two weeks. The samples stored in the laboratory were more robust, and full profiles were obtained after six weeks, the longest time period tested in these experiments. It is possible that profiles may be obtained from older samples when kept in similarly favourable conditions. The experimental results demonstrate that the ability to recover DNA from human cells on outdoor surfaces decreases significantly over two weeks. Conversely, no clear trends were identified in the casework data, indicating that many other factors are involved affecting the recovery of trace DNA. Nevertheless, to ensure that valuable trace evidence is not lost, it is recommended that crime scenes

  9. A preliminary mixed-method investigation of trust and hidden signals in medical consultations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Riva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several factors influence patients' trust, and trust influences the doctor-patient relationship. Recent literature has investigated the quality of the personal relationship and its dynamics by considering the role of communication and the elements that influence trust giving in the frame of general practitioner (GP consultations. OBJECTIVE: We analysed certain aspects of the interaction between patients and GPs to understand trust formation and maintenance by focusing on communication channels. The impact of socio-demographic variables in trust relationships was also evaluated. METHOD: A cross-sectional design using concurrent mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods was employed. One hundred adults were involved in a semi-structured interview composed of both qualitative and quantitative items for descriptive and exploratory purposes. The study was conducted in six community-based departments adjacent to primary care clinics in Trento, Italy. RESULTS: The findings revealed that patients trusted their GP to a high extent by relying on simple signals that were based on the quality of the one-to-one communication and on behavioural and relational patterns. Patients inferred the ability of their GP by adopting simple heuristics based mainly on the so-called social "honest signals" rather than on content-dependent features. Furthermore, socio-demographic variables affected trust: less literate and elderly people tended to trust more. CONCLUSIONS: This study is unique in attempting to explore the role of simple signals in trust relationships within medical consultation: people shape trust and give meaning to their relationships through a powerful channel of communication that orbits not around words but around social relations. The findings have implications for both clinicians and researchers. For doctors, these results suggest a way of thinking about encounters with patients. For researchers, the findings underline the

  10. Preliminary Results of a Microgravity Investigation to Measure Net Charge on Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hansen, Bonnie L.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the electrostatic charge on granular materials has typically been limited to materials with diameters on the order of 10 microns and below due to high settling velocities of larger particles. High settling velocities limit both the time and the acceptable uncertainty with which a measurement can be made. A prototype device has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to measure coulombic charge on individual particles of granular materials that are 50 to 500 microns in diameter. This device, a novel extension of Millikan's classic oil drop experiment, utilizes the NASA GRC 2.2 second drop tower to extend the range of electrostatic charge measurements to accommodate moderate size granular materials. A dielectric material with a nominal grain diameter between 1.06 and 250 microns was tribocharged using a dry gas jet, suspended in a 5x10x10 cm enclosure during a 2.2 second period of microgravity and exposed to a known electric field. The response was recorded on video and post processed to allow tracking of individual particles. By determining the particle trajectory and velocity, estimates of the coulombic charge were made. Over 30 drops were performed using this technique and the analysis showed that first order approximations of coulombic charge could successfully be obtained, with the mean charge of 3.4E-14 coulombs measured for F-75 Ottawa quartz sand. Additionally, the measured charge showed a near-Gaussian distribution, with a standard deviation of 2.14E -14 coulombs.

  11. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for sexual concerns of maltreated children: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    The current study examines whether an evidence-based treatment for externalizing behavior problems may reduce sexual concerns among children with maltreatment histories. An archival analysis identified 44 children between the ages of 3 and 8 exhibiting externalizing problems and co-morbid sexual concerns who were treated using Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). A second group of children receiving PCIT for externalizing behaviors without sexual concerns was included for comparison purposes (n=143). Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Tests indicated significant improvement among the group with sexual concerns, with 63.6% of children no longer displaying clinically significant sexual concerns at post-treatment. In addition, these children showed a decline in general externalizing problems comparable to that observed among the group of children receiving PCIT and not displaying sexual concerns. Lastly, logistic regression analyses showed that pre-treatment posttraumatic stress scores did not moderate improvement of sexual concerns, suggesting that posttraumatic stress-related sexual concerns may improve from PCIT treatment. These findings suggest that evidence-based parent training interventions, specifically PCIT, may successfully reduce sexual concerns among children who experienced maltreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood pressure and heart rate during ovariohysterectomy in pyometra and control dogs: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Odd Viking; Lövebrant, Johanna; Olsson, Ulf; Höglund, Katja

    2016-11-17

    Surgery causes a stress response, a physiologic response to trauma. The intraoperative surgical stress response in dogs diagnosed with pyometra has not previously been described. The aim of this study was to investigate the intraoperative surgical stress response, assessed by blood pressure and heart rate measurements, in dogs diagnosed with pyometra and healthy controls. All dogs were premedicated with acepromazine and methadone, anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane, where after the dogs were subjected to ovariohysterectomy. Eight dogs diagnosed with pyometra and eight healthy controls were used. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to assess the surgical stress response. Additionally propofol dosage at induction of anaesthesia and the end-tidal isoflurane concentration were investigated. The surgery was split into four phases. Phase 0 was the period 10 min before the skin incision, phase 1 was skin incision and opening of abdomen, phase 2 was manipulation of uterine horns, lifting of the ovary with stretching of the mesovarium, ligation and transection of mesovarium and phase 3 was ligation and transection of cervix, removal of organs and closing of the abdomen. Dosage of propofol at induction of anaesthesia was 3.6 ± 1 mg/kg in dogs with pyometra and 4.1 ± 1 in healthy controls (P = 0.37). In both groups, systolic blood pressure increased between phase 1 and 2, from 87 ± 15 to 114 ± 19 mmHg in dogs with pyometra, and from 88 ± 18 to 106 ± 20 mmHg in healthy controls, (both P blood pressure did not differ significantly between groups in any of the phases. Heart rate and end-tidal concentration of isoflurane did not differ significantly between phases or between groups. The increased blood pressure at removal of ovaries during ovariohysterectomy suggests a pronounced noxious stimulus at this part of the procedure. In principle, the study parameters and response to surgery did not differ

  13. Preliminary investigation of the potential of harnessing tidal energy for electricity generation in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.S.; Seng, L.Y. [Tunku Abdul Rahman Univ. (Malaysia). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Malaysia relies heavily on fossil fuels to meet its energy demands. However, Malaysia has started to explore the use of other forms of renewable energy such as solar energy, biofuels and tidal power. This paper focused on the potential of harnessing tidal energy in Malaysia for electricity production. There are several sites with great potential for tidal energy conversion, which could supplement the energy needs of Malaysia while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Illustrations were included to show the amplitude of the main harmonic component of the tidal range around Malaysia. The main harmonic component found in the region has a maximum amplitude of 1.4 m, confirming the potential of tidal energy in Malaysia's Ocean. Since the tidal cycle is highly predictable, it has the potential to be a very reliable renewable energy source. Two main approaches are being researched internationally to harness the energy from tides, notably the barrage approach and the tidal stream approach. For the barrage approach, a physical barrier is created within the sea, and a sluice gate controls the flow of sea water. In the tidal stream approach, horizontal axis turbines are placed in the path of tidal currents to generate electricity, similar to the operation of wind turbines. This paper described the flow velocity, power output, availability of power supply and monthly yield of turbines using both the barrage and tidal stream approaches. The study showed that for the barrage approach, there are 6 sites in Malaysia where 14,970 kWH of energy can be generated monthly with a single turbine with a 5 m long blade. The tidal stream approach showed equally promising results at 2 sites. It was concluded that tidal energy is a promising form of renewable energy because of its cyclic, reliable and predictable nature and the vast energy contained within it. According to United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry, 10 per cent of the United Kingdom's electricity needs could be

  14. Laser vibrometry characterisation of a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device: a preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fury, C.; Gélat, P. N.; Jones, P. H.; Memoli, G.

    2014-04-01

    Since their original inception as ultrasound contrast agents, potential applications of microbubbles have evolved to encompass molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery. As these areas develop, so does the need to understand the mechanisms behind the interaction of microbubbles both with biological tissue and with other microbubbles. There is therefore a metrological requirement to develop a controlled environment in which to study these processes. Presented here is the design and characterisation of such a system, which consists of a microfluidic chip, specifically developed for manipulating microbubbles using both optical and acoustic trapping. A laser vibrometer is used to observe the coupling of acoustic energy into the chip from a piezoelectric transducer bonded to the surface. Measurement of the velocity of surface waves on the chip is investigated as a potential method for inferring the nature of the acoustic fields excited within the liquid medium of the device. Comparison of measured surface wavelengths with wave types suggests the observation of anti-symmetric Lamb or Love-Kirchhoff waves. Further visual confirmation of the acoustic fields through bubble aggregation highlights differences between the model and experimental results in predicting the position of acoustic pressure nodes in relation to excitation frequency.

  15. Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Preparation and preliminary in-vitro investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodi, G; Pala, A; Barbu, E; Peptanariu, D; Hritcu, D; Popa, M I; Tamba, B I

    2016-06-01

    Carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) synthesized from commercially available polysaccharide was formulated into nanoparticles via ionic gelation using trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) as cross-linking agent. Characterisation using a range of analytical techniques (FTIR, NMR, GPC, TGA and DLS) confirmed the CMGG structure and revealed the effect of the CMGG and STMP concentration on the main characteristics of the obtained nanoformulations. The average nanoparticle diameter was found to be around 208 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Experiments using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour of the nanoformulations loaded with Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model drug (loading capacity in excess of 83%), as monitored by UV-Vis. While dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed, the nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at concentrations below 0.3 mg/mL. Results obtained so far suggest that carboxymethylated guar gum nanoparticles formulated with STMP warrant further investigations as polysaccharide based biocompatible drug nanocarriers.

  16. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena.

  17. Fractionating the role of executive control in control over worry: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallion, Lauren S; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Jha, Amishi P

    2014-03-01

    Uncontrollable anxious thought characterizes a number of emotional disorders. Little is known, however, about the cognitive mechanisms that underlie the ability to control these thoughts. The present study investigated the extent to which two well-characterized executive control processes--working memory and inhibition--are engaged when an individual attempts to control worry. Participants completed a concurrent assessment of these processes while attempting to control personally-relevant worried and neutral thoughts. To examine the specificity of these effects to attempts to control worry, versus a residual "depletion" effect of having previously engaged in worry, a subset of participants completed the assessment without instructions to control their worried or neutral thoughts. Attempts to control worry engaged working memory and inhibition to a greater extent than did attempts to control neutral thought. This increased engagement was not explained solely by anxious affect, nor was it significantly associated with trait worry. Engagement did not differ by group, suggesting that executive control depletion by worry cannot be dismissed as an alternative explanation of these findings. These results highlight working memory and inhibition as potentially valuable constructs for deepening our understanding of the nature and treatment of worry and its control.

  18. Preliminary Investigation of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Lamp in Open Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng; WANG Wei-Wei; CHANG Xi-Jiang; LIANG Rong-Qing

    2011-01-01

    @@ A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) lamp is investigated by using sinusoidal power with a 10 kHz frequency in open air at atmospheric pressure.With increasing applied voltages, the different discharge phenomena appear.At relatively low voltages, the discharge states are general stochastic filamentary discharges with weak light.However, at relatively high voltages, the walls of quartz tubes are heated sharply by plasma, and then the dazzling light is emitted very quickly to form the DBD Lamp, corresponding to the low maintaining voltage that is lower than the ignited voltage.The discharge state or mode of the DBD lamp that corresponds to the glow discharge is deduced according to the wave form of the circuit current, which is evidently different from the filamentary discharges.Under these conditions, the spectrum of the DBD lamp is continuous in the range 400-932nm, which is scanned in the range 300-932nm.It is also shown that there is another discharge state or mode that is different from the traditional filamentary discharges.Therefore, it is concluded that the discharge state or mode of the DBD lamp is a glow discharge.

  19. Voluntary emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa: A preliminary emotion-modulated startle investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; Forbush, Kelsie T; Wildes, Jennifer E; Hagan, Kelsey E; Pollack, Lauren O; May, Casey

    2016-06-01

    Emotion regulation difficulties are implicated in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). However, research has been limited by an almost exclusive reliance on self-report. This study is the first to use the emotion-modulated startle paradigm (EMSP) to investigate emotional reactivity and voluntary emotion regulation in individuals with AN. Twenty women with AN viewed negative, positive, neutral, and food images and were asked to enhance, suppress, or maintain their emotional responses mid-way through picture presentation. Startle eyeblink magnitudes in response to startle probes administered prior, and subsequent, to regulation instructions indexed emotional reactivity and regulation, respectively. On emotional reactivity trials, startle magnitudes were greater for negative, positive, and food images, compared to neutral images. Participants had difficulty suppressing startle responses to negative and food images, as indicated by non-significant suppress-maintain comparisons. In contrast, startle responses to enhance and suppress cues during presentation of pleasant images were comparable and significantly lower than maintain cues. Findings converge with self-report data to suggest that patients with AN have difficulties with voluntary emotion regulation. The EMSP may be a promising trans-diagnostic method for examining emotion regulation difficulties that underlie risk for eating disorders and other psychiatric conditions.

  20. Preliminary investigation into the pollution reduction performance of swales used in a stormwater treatment train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchu Mohamed, M A; Lucke, T; Boogaard, F

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements have been shown to be effective stormwater treatment devices that can greatly reduce surface runoff and significantly improve the quality of stormwater runoff in urban areas. However, the potential problems with sediment clogging and consequent maintenance requirements have been identified as the main barriers to more widespread adoption of permeable pavements in urban developments. This Australian study investigates the effectiveness of using grass swales as pre-treatment devices for permeable pavements in order to reduce clogging and extend the life span of these systems. The results of simulated runoff experiments demonstrated that between 50 and 75% of the total suspended sediment (TSS) was removed within the first 10 m of the swale length. This suggests swales of this length could potentially increase the effective life of permeable pavement systems by reducing clogging, and therefore maintenance. Nutrient removal was also tested in the study and the results indicated the tested swales were of limited effectiveness in the removal of these pollutants. However, in real runoff situations, reduction of TSS will have a direct influence on removing nutrients because a significant proportion of nutrients (and other pollutants) are attached to the sediments.

  1. Impact of Nanoparticles on the Microstructure and Properties of Immiscible Polymer Blends: Preliminary Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, G.; Acierno, D.

    2010-06-01

    The control of the morphology represents one of the most important aspects in designing polymer blends. A particular arrangement of the phases known as co-continuity can be promoted within a narrow range of compositions and using appropriate expedients during the mixing process. The distinguishing feature of co-continuous morphologies is the mutual interpenetration of the phases, which is often desirable as it may result in a remarkable combination of functional and structural properties of the blend constituents. Besides acting on the composition and processing conditions, adding nanoparticles in polymer systems with an existing phase-separated morphology such as polymer blends represents an innovative way to promote co-continuity in blends with low amounts of either phase. In the present work we focus on this topic, investigating the ability of nanoparticles to affect the morphology and properties of different kinds of immiscible polymer blends. In addition, the implications of the microstructural changes promoted by the filler on the high-temperature mechanical behavior of the blends are discussed.

  2. A preliminary investigation of acceptance and commitment therapy as a treatment for chronic skin picking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P; Hayes, Steven C; Masuda, Akihiko

    2006-10-01

    The effectiveness of a deliberately limited version of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for chronic skin picking was evaluated in a pair of multiple baseline across participants designs. Self-monitoring of skin picking showed that four of the five participants reached near zero levels of picking by post-treatment, but these gains were not fully maintained for three of the four participants at follow-up. The findings of the self-reported skin picking were generally corroborated by ratings of photographs of the damaged areas and by ratings on a validated measure of skin picking severity. All participants rated the intervention as socially acceptable, and reductions were found on measures of anxiety, depression, and experiential avoidance for most participants as a result of the intervention. Results support the construction of more comprehensive ACT protocols for skin picking.

  3. Preliminary Design and Investigation of Integrated Compressor with Composite Material Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jifeng; Müller, Norbert

    2012-06-01

    An integrated water vapor compressor with composite material wheel is developed and strength analysis using FEM is presented. The design of wound composite material allows for integrating all rotating parts of the drive that may simply reduce to only the rotor of the electrical motor, since no drive shaft is required anymore. This design can reduce the number of parts and mass, which is convenient for engineers to maintain the compressor. The electrical motors are brushless DC motors operating through a frequency drive and apply a torque on the wheels through the materials bonded in the wheel shrouds. This system allows a large amount of compression to be produced in a multi-stage compression setup. To determine the stress and vibration characteristics of this integrated compressor, numerical analysis is carried out using FEM. The simulation result shows that the integrated compressor with composite material wheel can be used in a chiller system where water as a refrigerant.

  4. Initial Investigation on Privacy Preferences: A Preliminary Study on User Priority, Concern, Perception and Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Asiakin Hasbullah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an initial study on the user’s preference towards their own privacy. The study is important in having user’s opinion especially when dealing with security of their privacy. It is vital to know what the most important priorities are when dealing with privacy as this could lead to the requirements that the user expected when using a website. In addition, this study tried to gather information of user perceptions on privacy and the expectations that they have when dealing with organizations through a survey by using questionnaires. Results showed that Malaysians does have privacy concerns when dealing with organizations. Therefore, this study has achieved the objective s of gathering data on user perceptions and expectations towards privacy.

  5. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Substance Use Patients and their Intimate Partners: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has documented that substance users have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may underlie their substance use and that treatment that addresses these schemas may result in improved outcomes. Research has also shown that intimate partners of substance users have a number of mental and physical health problems, although no known research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of these relationship partners. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance use treatment patients and their intimate partners (N = 80). Findings showed that both patients and intimate partners had a number of problematic early maladaptive schemas; that patients scored significantly higher than their intimate partners on a few early maladaptive schemas; and that patient and intimate partner schemas may be interrelated. Implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22745593

  6. Effects of high fluoride intake on child mental work capacity: preliminary investigation into the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Li, X.J.; Wei, S.Q. [Child & Adolescent Hygiene Teaching Research Station, Chengdu (China)

    2008-10-15

    A study was carried out on 157 children, age 12-13, from a coal-burning fluorosis endemic area together with an experiment looking into the effect of high fluoride intake in animals. The results showed that early, prolonged high fluoride intake causes a decrease in a child's mental work capacity and that prolonged high uptake of fluoride causes a child's levels of hair zinc to drop. A multifactoral correlative analysis demonstrated a direct correlation between hair zinc and mental work capacity. The decrease of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and the increase of norepinephrine in animal brains exposed to high levels of fluoride suggest a possible mechanism for mental work capacity deficits in children. However, further research is necessary.

  7. Erbium-169 labeled hydroxyapatite particulates for use in radiation synovectomy of digital joints. A preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Das, Tapas; Chirayil, Viju; Lohar, Sharad P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Div.; Sarma, Haladhar Dev [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiation Biology and Health Services Div.

    2014-07-01

    Erbium-169 [T{sub 1/2} = 9.4 d, E{sub β(max)} = 342 keV (45%) and 351 keV (55%), E{sub γ} = 110.5 KeV (0.0014%)] is the most preferred radionuclide for radiation synovectomy (RSV) of digital joints. Radiolabeled particulates of appropriate size, wherein the radionuclide is irreversibly attached to the preformed particles, offer distinct advantages as the radiopharmaceuticals for use in RSV over other radiotherapeutic agents in terms of minimal leakage of radioactivity from the joint cavity. Hyroxyapatite (HA) particles, regarded as one of the most suitable carrier moiety for radiosynoviortheses applications, have been envisaged for labeling with {sup 169}Er with an aim to developing an agent for RSV of digital joints. Erbium-169 was produced with a specific activity of 415 ± 23 MBq/mg and radionuclidic purity of 99.22 ± 0.17% (both at the end of bombardment) by thermal neutron irradiation of enriched (98.2% in {sup 168}Er) erbium target at a flux of ∝ 8 x 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}s for 21 d. HA particles (1-10 μm size), synthesized in-house, were labeled with {sup 169}Er in high yield and radiochemical purity (> 99%) using 5 mg of HA particulates at pH 7.5. The radiolabeled particulates showed excellent in vitro stability in normal saline and human serum. Biodistribution and imaging studies (using {sup 171}Er-HA) carried out in normal Wistar rats following intra-articular injection of {sup 169}Er-HA particulates in the knee joint showed near-complete retention of injected radioactivity within the synovial cavity with almost no activity leaching out to the other organs/tissue. (orig.)

  8. The aptamer DNA-templated fluorescence silver nanoclusters: ATP detection and preliminary mechanism investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaona; Wei, Chunying

    2017-01-15

    Two general and reliable fluorescence sensors were proposed in this work utilizing aptamer DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs). Both DNA-AgNCs could be used for label-free detecting of ATP with the limits of detection of 0.44 and 0.65mM. One of them was further applied to monitor the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA). In our effort to elucidate the light-up mechanism, we studied a total of six Ag NCs prepared by different DNA sequences, and found that they showed different sensitivity to ATP. Both BT3T3- and BT3T3(R)-templated Ag NCs were chose to make particular studies by UV-vis, TEM, fluorescence, and TCSPC methods. The results showed that when DNA-Ag NCs was kept for 1.5h and presented a strong fluorescence, the addition of ATP failed to cause a large change of fluorescence intensity; on the contrary, after Ag NCs was kept for 24h and emitted a weak fluorescence, adding ATP was able to result in the large fluorescence enhanced of 43 and 33 times for BT3T3- and BT3T3(R)-templated Ag NCs, respectively. The possible mechanism was also suggested that ATP binding to aptamer segment of template induced the change of the DNA secondary structure, which made the aggregated Ag nanoparticles disperse into Ag NCs with an average diameter of about 2nm that were responsible for the large fluorescence increase. Moreover, ATP could protect the fluorescence intensity of BT3T3(R)-templated Ag NCs from quenching for at least 9h.

  9. Preliminary results from the investigation of the Pymatuning earthquake of September 25, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, John; Barton, Henry; Bodin, Paul; Buckwalter, Theodore; Cox, Jon; Cranswick, Edward; Dewey, James; Fleeger, Gary; Hopper, Margaret; Horton, Stephen; Hoskins, Donald; Kilb, Deborah; Meremonte, Mark; Metzger, Ann; Risser, Dennis; Seeber, Leonardo; Shedlock, Kaye; Stanley, Katherine; Withers, Mitchell; Zirbes, Madeleine

    1998-01-01

    The Pymatuning earthquake occurred on Friday, September 25, 1998, at 19:52:52 Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), or 3:52:52 p.m. EDT, near Jamestown, Pa., at the southern end of the Pymatuning Reservoir, which straddles the Ohio-Pennsylvania border. The National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) determined that the event had a magnitude of 5.2 mbLg (a magnitude scale used to measure the size of earthquakes that are regional distances away [100 to 1,000 km, or 60 to 600 mi]), an epicenter of 41.5°N latitude, 80.4°W longitude, and an estimated depth of 5 km (3 mi). One person was reported injured as a result of being thrown to the ground by the earthquake, and it caused minor damage to buildings and seriously disrupted many water wells in the GreenvilleJamestown, Pa., area. The earthquake was generally felt over an area of approximately 200,000 km2 (77,230 mi2) throughout northern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and New York, and much of southern Ontario, Canada (see map on back cover). It was also felt as far west as Illinois and Wisconsin, as far east as New Jersey, Connecticut, and the District of Columbia, and as far south as Kentucky and Virginia. During the aftershock field investigation that commenced within 12 hours of the main shock, a World Wide Web site, http://groundmotion.cr.usgs.gov/pym/pym.htm>, was established from the field headquarters. The web site was used not only to transmit investigation results to the world in near real time but also to receive information from the local community as new earthquake effects were reported. As of March 1999, at least 11 aftershocks have occurred, the largest being a magnitude 2.3. The largest recent previous earthquake in the region was the northeastern Ohio (Leroy) earthquake of magnitude 5.0 that occurred on January 31, 1986, about 65 km (40 mi) west-northwest of the Pymatuning shock. This event was also felt by many of those who felt the Pymatuning earthquake. Similar to most of the seismicity east of the Rocky

  10. Wireless capsule endoscopy in the investigation of patients with chronic renal failure and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (preliminary data)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanos Karagiannis; Spyros Goulas; Georgios Kosmadakis; Petros Galanis; Dimitrios Arvanitis; John Boletis; Evangelos Georgiou; Christos Mavrogiannis

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in detection of small bowel (SB) pathology in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and obscure bleeding.METHODS: Consecutive CRF patients with obscure bleeding were prospectively studied. Patients with normal renal function and obscure bleeding, investigated during the same period with WCE, were used for the interpretation of results.RESULTS: Seventeen CRF patients (11 overt, 6 occult bleeding) and 51 patients (33 overt, 18 occult bleeding) with normal renal function were enrolled in this study.Positive SB findings were detected in 70.6% of CRF patients and in 41.2% of non-CRF patients (P < 0.05). SB angiodysplasia was identified in 47% of CRF patients and in 17.6% of non-CRF patients. Univariate logistic regression revealed CRF as a significant predictive factor for angiodysplasia (P < 0.05). Therapeutic measures were undertaken in 66% of the patients with the positive findings.CONCLUSION: According to our preliminary results, SB angiodysplasia was found in an increased prevalence among CRF patients with obscure bleeding. WCE is useful in diagnosis of gastrointestinal pathologies and in planning appropriate therapeutic intervention and, therefore, should be included in the work-up of this group of patients.

  11. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  12. Preliminary Investigation of Keyhole Phenomena during Single Layer Fabrication in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology that enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to conventionally manufactured parts. In the LAM process, parts are manufactured by melting metallic powder layer-by-layer with a laser beam. This manufacturing technology is nowadays called powder bed fusion (PBF) according to the ASTM F2792-12a standard. This strategy involves several different independent and dependent thermal cycles, all of which have an influence on the final properties of the manufactured part. The quality of PBF parts depends strongly on the characteristics of each single laser-melted track and each single layer. This study consequently concentrates on investigating the effects of process parameters such as laser power on single track and layer formation and laser-material interaction phenomena occurring during the PBF process. Experimental tests were done with two different machines: a modified research machine based on an EOS EOSINT M-series system and an EOS EOSINT M280 system. The material used was EOS stainless steel 17-4 PH. Process monitoring was done with an active illuminated high speed camera system. After microscopy analysis, it was concluded that a keyhole can form during laser additive manufacturing of stainless steel. It was noted that heat input has an important effect on the likelihood of keyhole formation. The threshold intensity value for keyhole formation of 106 W/cm2 was exceeded in all manufactured single tracks. Laser interaction time was found to have an effect on penetration depth and keyhole formation, since the penetration depth increased with increased laser interaction time. It was also concluded that active illuminated high speed camera systems are suitable for monitoring of the manufacturing process and facilitate process control.

  13. Is orientation week a gateway to persistent alcohol use in university students? A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Benjamin C; Scarf, Damian; Conner, Tamlin S

    2015-03-01

    Orientation Week is common at many universities throughout the world and is a way to introduce students to their new environment. Despite some benefits, Orientation Week is often typified by heavy alcohol use. Although typically viewed as a "one-time" event, the higher levels of drinking that students engage in during Orientation Week may persist into the academic year. We investigated this possibility in the present study. Freshman-year students (n = 143; 41% male) residing in a dormitory were surveyed about their alcohol intake before university. During Orientation Week, students were sent a daily text message asking about the number of drinks they consumed the previous night. Then, during the academic year, students were sent one text message each month to record their weekend drinking. Participants consumed a higher number of standard drinks during Orientation Week (M = 26.0, SD = 28.6) than they did either before entering university (M = 13.1, SD = 13.6) or during the academic year (M = 6.4, SD = 8.5). For male students, but not female students, higher Orientation Week drinking uniquely contributed to higher rates of drinking during the academic year when controlling for pre-university drinking (b = 0.122, p Students who drank at low levels before entering university were particularly susceptible to the negative effects of Orientation Week drinking. Orientation Week may act as a gateway for male students, as drinking during Orientation Week predicted their subsequent drinking throughout the academic year. Based on these findings, Orientation Week could be a prime period for interventions aimed at curbing academic-year drinking.

  14. A preliminary investigation to explore the cognitive resources of physicians experiencing difficulty in training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Cousans, Fran; Coyne, Iain; Jones, Jo; Macleod, Sheona; Zibarras, Lara

    2017-05-15

    Treating patients is complex, and research shows that there are differences in cognitive resources between physicians who experience difficulties, and those who do not. It is possible that differences in some cognitive resources could explain the difficulties faced by some physicians. In this study, we explore differences in cognitive resources between different groups of physicians (that is, between native (UK) physicians and International Medical Graduates (IMG); those who continue with training versus those who were subsequently removed from the training programme); and also between physicians experiencing difficulties compared with the general population. A secondary evaluation was conducted on an anonymised dataset provided by the East Midlands Professional Support Unit (PSU). One hundred and twenty one postgraduate trainee physicians took part in an Educational Psychology assessment through PSU. Referrals to the PSU were mainly on the basis of problems with exam progression and difficulties in communication skills, organisation and confidence. Cognitive resources were assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV). Physicians were categorised into three PSU outcomes: 'Continued in training', 'Removed from training' and 'Active' (currently accessing the PSU). Using a one-sample Z test, we compared the referred physician sample to a UK general population sample on the WAIS-IV and found the referred sample significantly higher in Verbal Comprehension (VCI; z = 8.78) and significantly lower in Working Memory (WMI; z = -4.59). In addition, the native sample were significantly higher in Verbal Comprehension than the UK general population sample (VCI; native physicians: z = 9.95, p < .001, d = 1.25), whilst there was a lesser effect for the difference between the IMG sample and the UK general population (z = 2.13, p = .03, d = 0.29). Findings also showed a significant difference in VCI scores between those physicians who were 'Removed

  15. Tsunami survey expedition: preliminary investigation of Maldivian coral reefs two weeks after the event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Piccinetti, Corrado; Zaccanti, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    On December 26th 2004, a earthquake west of Sumatra generated a devastating tsunami. Hundreds of thousands of people fell victim. Economic losses were greatest in those countries dependant on tourism. The impact in the Maldives on persons and things was modest. Immediately following the event and notwithstanding the lack of scientific data, the mass media gave catastrophic reports on the state of coral reefs in the area. This paper reports on the first survey on coral reefs in the Maldives after the Tsunami. Ocean walls, passes, inner reefs, and shoals in the North and South Malé atolls, were surveyed two weeks after the event. Significant damage was recorded in the passes in the South Malé atoll. Our observations showed that the damage was more or less extensive depending on latitude and topography. Sri Lanka may have broken the wave's rush, reducing the extent of the impact on northern atolls. The water's acceleration inside the passes was so intense as to cause reef collapses. The observed damage represents a minimum fraction of the entire coral reef system. Tourist perception of the area seems unchanged. These data may be used to disseminate correct information about the state of Maldives coral reefs, which would be useful in relaunching local economy.

  16. Preliminary investigation of a mice model of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae induced pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renois, Fanny; Jacques, Jérôme; Guillard, Thomas; Moret, Hélène; Pluot, Michel; Andreoletti, Laurent; de Champs, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, we comparatively assessed the pathophysiological mechanisms developed during lung infection of BALB/C female mice infected by an original wild type Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae strain (CH137) or by a referent subspecies K. pneumoniae. subsp. pneumoniae strain (ATCC10031). The mice infected with 2.10⁶ CFU K. p. subsp. pneumoniae (n = 10) showed transient signs of infection and all of them recovered. All of those infected with 1.10⁶ CFU K. p. subsp. ozaenae (n = 10) developed pneumonia within 24 h and died between 48 and 72 h. Few macrophages, numerous polymorphonuclear cells and lymphocytes were observed in their lungs in opposite to K. p. subsp. pneumoniae. In bronchoalveolar lavage, a significant increase in MIP-2, IL-6, KC and MCP-1 levels was only observed in K. p. subsp. ozaenae infected mice whereas high levels of TNF-α were evidenced with the two subspecies. Our findings indicated a lethal effect of a wild type K. p. subsp. ozaenae strain by acute pneumonia reflecting an insufficient alveolar macrophage response. This model might be of a major interest to comparatively explore the pathogenicity of K. p. subsp ozaenae strains and to further explore the physiopathological mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria induced human pneumonia.

  17. A preliminary investigation of the relationships between historical crash and naturalistic driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Anurag; Chand, Sai; Saxena, Neeraj; Dixit, Vinayak; Loy, James; Wolshon, Brian; Kent, Joshua D

    2017-02-16

    This paper describes a project that was undertaken using naturalistic driving data collected via Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to demonstrate a proof-of-concept for proactive safety assessments of crash-prone locations. The main hypothesis for the study is that the segments where drivers have to apply hard braking (higher jerks) more frequently might be the "unsafe" segments with more crashes over a long-term. The linear referencing methodology in ArcMap was used to link the GPS data with roadway characteristic data of US Highway 101 northbound (NB) and southbound (SB) in San Luis Obispo, California. The process used to merge GPS data with quarter-mile freeway segments for traditional crash frequency analysis is also discussed in the paper. A negative binomial regression analyses showed that proportion of high magnitude jerks while decelerating on freeway segments (from the driving data) was significantly related with the long-term crash frequency of those segments. A random parameter negative binomial model with uniformly distributed parameter for ADT and a fixed parameter for jerk provided a statistically significant estimate for quarter-mile segments. The results also indicated that roadway curvature and the presence of auxiliary lane are not significantly related with crash frequency for the highway segments under consideration. The results from this exploration are promising since the data used to derive the explanatory variable(s) can be collected using most off-the-shelf GPS devices, including many smartphones.

  18. Preliminary investigations on the use of uranium silicide targets for fission Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cols, H.; Cristini, P.; Marques, R.

    1997-08-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentine Republic owns and operates an installation for production of molybdenum-99 from fission products since 1985, and, since 1991, covers the whole national demand of this nuclide, carrying out a program of weekly productions, achieving an average activity of 13 terabecquerel per week. At present they are finishing an enlargement of the production plant that will allow an increase in the volume of production to about one hundred of terabecquerel. Irradiation targets are uranium/aluminium alloy with 90% enriched uranium with aluminium cladding. In view of international trends held at present for replacing high enrichment uranium (HEU) for enrichment values lower than 20 % (LEU), since 1990 the authors are in contact with the RERTR program, beginning with tests to adapt their separation process to new irradiation target conditions. Uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) was chosen as the testing material, because it has an uranium mass per volume unit, so that it allows to reduce enrichment to a value of 20%. CNEA has the technology for manufacturing miniplates of uranium silicide for their purposes. In this way, equivalent amounts of Molybdenum-99 could be obtained with no substantial changes in target parameters and irradiation conditions established for the current process with Al/U alloy. This paper shows results achieved on the use of this new target.

  19. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for the Determination of Lung Cancer Biomarkers—A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Saalberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With 1.6 million deaths per year, lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. One reason for this high number is the absence of a preventive medical examination method. Many diagnoses occur in a late cancer stage with a low survival rate. An early detection could significantly decrease the mortality. In recent decades, certain substances in human breath have been linked to certain diseases. Different studies show that it is possible to distinguish between lung cancer patients and a healthy control group by analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs in their breath. We developed a sensor based on photoacoustic spectroscopy for six of the most relevant VOCs linked to lung cancer. As a radiation source, the sensor uses an optical-parametric oscillator (OPO in a wavelength region from 3.2 µm to 3.5 µm. The limits of detection for a single substance range between 5 ppb and 142 ppb. We also measured high resolution absorption spectra of the biomarkers compared to the data currently available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST database, which is the basis of any selective spectroscopic detection. Future lung cancer screening devices could be based on the further development of this sensor.

  20. Preliminary investigations on 3D PIC simulation of DPHC structure using NEPTUNE3D code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hailong; Dong, Ye; Zhou, Haijing; Zou, Wenkang; Wang, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Cubic region (34cm × 34cm × 18cm) including the double post-hole convolute (DPHC) structure was chosen to perform a series of fully 3D PIC simulations using NEPTUNE3D codes, massive data ( 200GB) could be acquired and solved in less than 5 hours. Cold-chamber tests were performed during which only cathode electron emission was considered without temperature rise or ion emission, current loss efficiency was estimated by comparisons between output magnetic field profiles with or without electron emission. PIC simulation results showed three stages of current transforming process with election emission in DPHC structure, the maximum ( 20%) current loss was 437kA at 15ns, while only 0.46% 0.48% was lost when driving current reached its peak. DPHC structure proved valuable functions during energy transform process in PTS facility, and NEPTUNE3D provided tools to explore this sophisticated physics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant No. 11571293, 11505172.

  1. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for the Determination of Lung Cancer Biomarkers—A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalberg, Yannick; Bruhns, Henry; Wolff, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    With 1.6 million deaths per year, lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. One reason for this high number is the absence of a preventive medical examination method. Many diagnoses occur in a late cancer stage with a low survival rate. An early detection could significantly decrease the mortality. In recent decades, certain substances in human breath have been linked to certain diseases. Different studies show that it is possible to distinguish between lung cancer patients and a healthy control group by analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their breath. We developed a sensor based on photoacoustic spectroscopy for six of the most relevant VOCs linked to lung cancer. As a radiation source, the sensor uses an optical-parametric oscillator (OPO) in a wavelength region from 3.2 µm to 3.5 µm. The limits of detection for a single substance range between 5 ppb and 142 ppb. We also measured high resolution absorption spectra of the biomarkers compared to the data currently available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database, which is the basis of any selective spectroscopic detection. Future lung cancer screening devices could be based on the further development of this sensor. PMID:28117732

  2. Preliminary Results of Tectonic Geomorphology Investigation of the Northern Cyprus coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Tüysüz, Okan; Melnick, Daniel; Damla Altınbaş, Cevza; Zeynel Öztürk, Muhammed; Oruç Baykara, Mehmet; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-04-01

    Cyprus, an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean region, is a part of subduction zone that defines the plate boundary at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau. The presence of uplifted marine terraces, wave-cut notches, surface ruptures and tsunami deposits are pieces of evidence of subduction related active deformation in the northern part of the island. To understand timing, mode and rate of deformation, we conducted high-resolution geomorphic mapping of marine terraces and levelling of wave-cut notches by using drone and DGPS. Tsunami boulders and boulder trains reaching up to 5-6 meters were discovered and surface rupture of an earthquake strechting from offshore to onshore was mapped for the first time with this study. Coral fossils were collected from marine terraces and tsunami boulders for age determinations by U-Th and 14C dating techniques, respectively. U-Th dating results indicate 144±12 (2s) ka for the MIS5e terrace at 40 m above sea level and 14C ages show the late Holocene (Cyprus. This study is supported by the Istanbul Technical University Research Found (Project no: 37548).

  3. [Preliminary investigation of viruses to the wild tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri Chinese)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Jing-Xiao; Wang, Wen-Guang; Sun, Xiao-Mei; He, Chun-Yan; Dai, Jie-Jie

    2011-02-01

    Virological testing and monitoring is a fundamental part of quality control of experimental animals. However, there are few papers regarding the spectrum and status of natural infection in wild tree shrews with human and animal pathogenic viruses. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent adsorption assay (ELISA), we tested sixty wild tree shrews captured from Qinglong, an outskirt region of Kunming, Yunnan Province, China for eleven viruses, including herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus, influenza virus, HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, dengue virus, hemorrhagic fever virus and measles virus. Our results showed that, in the serum samples, 22/60 (36.7%) and 1/60 (1.67%) were antibody positive for herpes simplex virus and coxsackie virus, respectively, and 4/60 (6.7%) were antigen positive for rotavirus in the feces. The remaining species of viruses were negative in these tree shrews. Based on these results, we propose that herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus and cotavirus should be listed as top priority for routine virological monitoring of tree shrews.

  4. Preliminary investigation into the design of thermally responsive Forster resonance energy transfer colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Monte Scott

    While nuclear imaging techniques (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography) have proven effective for diagnosis and treatment of disease in the human body, fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging offers additional benefits. Fluorescent imaging provides high resolution with real-time response, persistent lifetime (hours to days), cell targeting, and transdermal penetration with minimal physical encumbrance. Malignant cells can be targeted by absorbance of exogenous fluorescent nanoprobe contrast agents. Imaging is improved by fluorescent enhancement, especially by energy transfer between attached dyes. Also for use against cancer are heat-active treatments, such as hyperthermal, photothermal, and chemothermal therapies. Helpful to these treatments is the thermal response from nanoprobes, within human cells, which provide real-time feedback. The present study investigates the design and feasibility of a nanoprobe molecular device, absorbable into malignant human cells, which provides real-time tracking and thermal response, as indicated by enhanced fluorescence by energy transfer. A poly(propargyl acrylate) colloidal suspension was synthesized. The particles were modified with a triblock copolymer, previously shown to be thermally responsive, and an end-attached fluorescent dye. A second dye was modeled for attachment in subsequent work. When two fluorescent dyes are brought within sufficiently close proximity, and excitation light is supplied, energy can be transferred between dyes to give enhanced fluorescence with a large Stokes shift (increase in wavelength between excitation and emission). The dye pair was modeled for overlap of emission and absorbance wavelengths, and energy transfer was demonstrated with 23% efficiency and a 209 nm Stokes shift. The quantum yield of the donor dye was determined at 70%, and the distance for 50% energy transfer was calculated at 2.9 nm, consistent with reports for similar compounds. When

  5. Preliminary investigation of cardiopulmonary function in stroke patients with stable heart failure and exertional dyspnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Mei-Yun; Wang, Lin-Yi; Pong, Ya-Ping; Tsai, Yu-Chin; Huang, Yu-Chi; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, perceived dyspnea, degree of fatigue, and activity of daily living with motor function and neurological status in stroke patients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF). This was a cohort study in a tertiary care medical center. Stroke patients with CHF and exertional dyspnea (New York Heart Association class I–III) were recruited. The baseline characteristics included duration of disease, Brunnstrom stage, spirometry, resting heart rate, resting oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), Borg scale, fatigue scale, and Barthel index. A total of 47 stroke patients (24 males, 23 females, mean age 65.9 ± 11.5 years) were included. The average Brunnstrom stages of affected limbs were 3.6 ± 1.3 over the proximal parts and 3.5 ± 1.4 over the distal parts of upper limbs, and 3.9 ± 0.9 over lower limbs. The average forced vital capacity (FVC) was 2.0 ± 0.8 L, with a predicted FVC% of 67.9 ± 18.8%, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) of 1.6 ± 0.7 L, predicted FEV1% of 70.6 ± 20.1%, FEV1/FVC of 84.2 ± 10.5%, and maximum mid-expiratory flow of 65.4 ± 29.5%. The average MIP and MEP were −52.9 ± 33.3 cmH2O and 60.8 ± 29.0 cmH2O, respectively. The Borg scale was 1.5 ± 0.8. MIP was negatively associated with the average Brunnstrom stage of the proximal (r = −0.318, P lower extremities (r = −0.288, P lower extremities (r = −0.311, P limbs. FVC was more strongly associated with MIP and MEP than predicted FVC%. FEV1/FVC may be used as a reference for the pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:27749577

  6. Preliminary investigation on the antibacterial activity of mango (Mangifera indica L:Anacardiaceae) seed kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasminder Kaur; Xavier Rathinam; Marimuthu Kasi; Khoo Miew Leng; Rajasekaran Ayyalu; Kathiresan S; Sreeramanan Subramaniam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of mango (Mangifera indicaL.) seed kernel.Methods: Chokanan mango seed kernel and seed kernels from assorted mango varieties were collected, cleaned, dried and powered. Crude methanolic extracts of mango seed kernel were analyzed for the phytochemical constituents. The free radical scavenging activity was determined by2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)assay. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion assay with three medically important bacterial pathogens such as methicillin resistantStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)(MRSA),Escherichia coli (E. coli) andVibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus).Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of important phytochemical compounds such as glycosides, saponins, flavanoids, tannins and alkaloids. There was no significant difference in the phytochemical content between the single and assorted mango seed kernels. However, the free radical scavenging study indicated that the assorted mango kernels showed slightly higher activity than the single species (P<0.05). The crude methanolic extract of mango seed kernel at a concentration of100 mg/mL is found to have potential antimicrobial activity againstMRSA and E. coli compared toV. vulnificus. Study on the antibacterial activity also indicated that there was no significant difference in the antibacterial activity of the single and assorted mango seed kernel extracts.Conclusions: The present study conclusively demonstrates the free radical scavenging activity and antibacterial activities of mango seed kernel. In addition, the results also indicated that there is no significant difference in the phytochemical content and biological activity of mango kernels from single and assorted mango varieties.

  7. Preliminary investigations on inducing salt tolerance in maize through inoculation with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad

    2007-10-01

    Twenty rhizobacterial strains containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase were isolated from the rhizosphere of salt-affected maize fields. They were screened for their growth-promoting activities under axenic conditions at 1, 4, 8, and 12 dS x m-1 salinity levels. Based upon the data of the axenic study, the 6 most effective strains were selected to conduct pot trials in the wire house. Besides one original salinity level (1.6 dS x m-1), 3 other salinity levels (4, 8, and 12 dS x m-1) were maintained in pots and maize seeds inoculated with selected strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, as well as uninoculated controls were sown. Results showed that the increase in salinity level decreased the growth of maize seedlings. However, inoculation with rhizobacterial strains reduced this depression effect and improved the growth and yield at all the salinity levels tested. Selected strains significantly increased plant height, root length, total biomass, cob mass, and grain yield up to 82%, 93%, 51%, 40%, and 50%, respectively, over respective uninoculated controls at the electrical conductivity of 12 dS x m-1. Among various plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strains, S5 (Pseudomonas syringae), S14 (Enterobacter aerogenes), and S20 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) were the most effective strains for promoting the growth and yield of maize, even at high salt stress. The relatively better salt tolerance of inoculated plants was associated with a high K+/Na+ ratio as well as high relative water and chlorophyll and low proline contents.

  8. Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and mineralogical investigations of metadolerites from Western Svalbard : A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    A group of 42 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples from 7 sites located in central part of the West Spitsbergen Thrust and Fault Belt has been investigated. The samples were collected from 5 distinct metadolerite sheets intruded into the Proterozoic - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic complex of Western Oscar II Land (Western Svalbard Caledonian Terrane - Harland, 1997 division). All analyzed metadolerite samples were metamorphosed under greenschist facies metamorphism. The metamorphic assemblage consist of hornblende, biotite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, stilpnomelane, titanite, albite, and quartz. Calcite, associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and covellite, that occurs as irregular intergrowths or thin veins, document high activity of H2O-CO2-rich fluids during metamorphism. Primary magmatic phases represented by clinopyroxene occur rarely, and only in thick metadolerite dykes. Accessory oxides change their mineralogical and chemical composition during metamorphism. In all examined samples primary Ti-magnetite and oxy-exsolved hematite break-down completely into titanite or have been dissolved. The ilmenite are also replaced by titanite, but in metadolerites at contact with host metapelites, slightly altered ilmenite grains with preserved hematite exsolution were documented. Basing on mineralogical observations it should be expected that metamorphic processes have almost completely reset the paleomagnetic data record from the time of dolerite crystallization. This stage can document only rare hematite oxy-exsolution preserved within ilmenite, and presumably small inclusion of magnetite still preserved within unaltered clinopyroxene. The paleomagnetic record of metamorphic stage is probably recorded by pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite, and late Ti-free magnetite that can grow during breakdown of pyrrhotite to pyrite (Ramdohr. 1980). The NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetisation) intensities of the palaeomagnetic samples exceed the minimum 10

  9. An active compression bandage based on shape memory alloys: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Hadi; Menon, Carlo

    2014-09-11

    9.06 mmHg. Comparison between analytical and experimental results showed the analytical model was suitable to predict the behaviour of the ACB.

  10. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  11. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  12. Preliminary investigation of the effect of air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration on the properties of cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Galluci, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    For preliminary assessment of the engineering properties of concrete with air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration (APC) the possible reactivity of APC and the effect of APC on cement hydration were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, chemical shrinkage (pychnometry), thermal...

  13. Development of a mobility and fuel strategy for Germany. Preliminary investigation; Entwicklung einer Mobilitaets- und Kraftstoffstrategie fuer Deutschland. Voruntersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    Mobility is a key element in our society and often synonymous with traffic. It is desirable to secure a clean and diversified energy supply, to design a more sustainable transport structure and to minimize the burden on people and environment. This requires an updating of the fuel strategy 2004 and its progress toward a comprehensive mobility strategy and fuel strategy. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration presents a preliminary investigation of the development of a mobility strategy and fuel strategy in Germany. Over the past ten years, the transport sector has reduced its energy consumption only slightly. The targets for the energy reduction now are -10 % up to 2020 and -40 % up to 2050. The transport sector challenges a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In order to advance the necessary energy political as well as climate political changes the Federal Government wants to develop a comprehensive mobility strategy and fuel strategy. For this purpose, the contribution under consideration provides nine concrete recommendations for action for this.

  14. Preliminary investigation into the use of solar PV systems for residential application in Bandar Sri Iskandar, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimas, F.A.; Gillani, S.I.; Ans, M.S. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    In the near future, Malaysia is expected to be a net importer of oil, and the nation will have to face issues related to the security of supply and economic consequences. It is also anticipated that the energy demand for the country will increase with the increase in population and GDP. Realizing the situation, it is important that further emphasis is given into the diversification of energy resources. One method is the exploitation of renewable energy to minimize the effects of global warming. Photovoltaic technology is widely used around the world in locations with scarce power generation options. It is used for various applications and Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system is one of them. However, photovoltaic is still expensive compared to conventional methods of generating electricity. So a careful design of the system is required to ensure economic viability. This study describes a preliminary investigation of a solar PV system for residential applications in Bandar Sri Iskandar. Sizing procedures based on the peak sun hour concept is described for a Malaysian typical terraced house. Current and voltage measurements of the solar panel were carried out to predict the output under actual conditions at the site.

  15. Preliminary investigation of a novel technique for the quantification of the ex vivo biomechanical properties of the vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Paulo G; Sobieraj, Michael; Tovar, Nick; Andrews, Kenneth; Paul, Benjamin; Govil, Nandini; Jeswani, Seema; Amin, Milan R; Janal, Malvin N; Branski, Ryan C

    2014-12-01

    The human vocal fold is a complex structure made up of distinct layers that vary in cellular and extracellular matrix composition. Elucidating the mechanical properties of vocal fold tissues is critical for the study of both acoustics and biomechanics of voice production, and essential in the context of vocal fold injury and repair. Both quasistatic and dynamic behavior in the 10-300 Hz range was explored in this preliminary investigation. The resultant properties of the lamina propria were compared to that of the nearby thyroarytenoid muscle. Er, quantified via quasistatic testing of the lamina propria, was 609±138 MPa and 758±142 MPa in the muscle (p=0.001). E' of the lamina propria as determined by dynamic testing was 790±526 MPa compared to 1061±928 MPa in the muscle. Differences in E' did not achieve statistical significance via linear mixed effect modeling between the tissue types (p=0.95). In addition, frequency dependence was not significant (p=0.18). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Serotonin and Dopamine Gene Variation and Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Y Zahavi

    Full Text Available Theory of mind-the ability to decode and reason about others' mental states-is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, dopamine transporter (DAT1, dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4, and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression. Ninety-six young adults (38 depressed, 58 non-depressed completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task' and a non-mentalistic control task. Genetic associations were only found for the depressed group. Specifically, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a positive valence was seen in those homozygous for the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene, 9-allele carriers of DAT1, and long-allele carriers of DRD4. In contrast, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a negative valence was seen in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and 10/10 homozygotes of DAT1. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for integrating social cognitive and neurobiological models of etiology in major depression.

  17. Synthesis and Preliminary Investigations of the siRNA Delivery Potential of Novel, Single-Chain Rigid Cationic Carotenoid Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L. Leopold

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of nucleic acid delivery requires the development of safe and efficient delivery vectors that overcome cellular barriers for effective transport. Herein we describe the synthesis of a series of novel, single-chain rigid cationic carotenoid lipids and a study of their preliminary in vitro siRNA delivery effectiveness and cellular toxicity. The efficiency of siRNA delivery by the single-chain lipid series was compared with that of known cationic lipid vectors, 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethanecarbamoyl]-cholesterol (DC-Chol and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphoethanolamine (EPC as positive controls. All cationic lipids (controls and single-chain lipids were co-formulated into liposomes with the neutral co-lipid, 1,2-dioleolyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE. Cationic lipid-siRNA complexes of varying (+/− molar charge ratios were formulated for delivery into HR5-CL11 cells. Of the five single-chain carotenoid lipids investigated, lipids 1, 2, 3 and 5 displayed significant knockdown efficiency with HR5-CL11 cells. In addition, lipid 1 exhibited the lowest levels of cytotoxicity with cell viability greater than 80% at all (+/− molar charge ratios studied. This novel, single-chain rigid carotenoid-based cationic lipid represents a new class of transfection vector with excellent cell tolerance, accompanied with encouraging siRNA delivery efficiency.

  18. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 12 landing site: Part A: Geology of the Apollo 12 Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Batson, R.M.; Bean, A.L.; Conrad, C.; Dahlem, D.H.; Goddard, E.N.; Hait, M.H.; Larson, K.B.; Schaber, G.G.; Schleicher, D.L.; Sutton, R.L.; Swann, G.A.; Waters, A.C.

    1970-01-01

    This report provides a preliminary description of the geologic setting of the lunar samples returned fromt he Apollo 12 mission. A more complete interpretation of the geology of the site will be prepared after thorough analysis of the data.

  19. Preliminary pharmacological investigation of the ischuretic property and safety of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosis (Fam: Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Koffuor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischuria is a health and social problem, having a negative impact on sufferers. This study therefore was a preliminary investigation of the ischuretic property and safety for use of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus used traditionally in managing ischuria. Methods: Phytochemical screening, thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were performed on the extract to establish fingerprints for identification. Acetylcholine, Nicotine, and the extract were applied to an isolated rat urinary bladder to ascertain contractile response. The possible receptor site(s of action was also investigated using isolated rabbit jejunum, and guinea-pig ileum preparations. In-house observation, hematological analysis, and liver and kidney function tests were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies. Results: The extract had contractile effects on the rat urinary bladder (similar to acetylcholine and nicotine and rabbit jejunum. Its contractile effect of the guinea-pig ileum was significantly inhibited by hexamethonium (77.50 ± 8.50 %; P ≤ 0.001 and to a lesser extent by mepyramine (49.2 ± 6.80 %; P ≤ 0.001 and Atropine (22.45 ± 5.22 %; P ≤ 0.01. The extract (80-800 mg kg-1 was not lethal and a 160 and 240 mg kg-1 dose had no adverse effect on blood, liver, kidney metabolic function. Conclusions: The hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus has ischuretic activity possibly mediated via nicotinic, histaminic and muscarinic receptor stimulation and is safety to use in ischuria. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 517-527

  20. Molecular characterization of dominant bacterial population in “Vastedda della Valle del Belice” cheese: preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Todaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensory characteristics of raw-milk cheeses are linked to the cheese-making process, to the environmental factors as animal feeding and to the biochemical and microbiological composition of the milk. In this report we temped to characterize the microflora in the typical Sicilian historical cheese as Vastedda della valle del Belice. Each cheese was previous subjected to microbial isolation on specific media (M17 and MRS. The colony obtained on the solid medium were subject to biochemical tests and DNA extraction. The microbial diversity occurring in the strains was evaluated by PCR, RFLP and sequencing targeted on 16S ribosomal DNA. A number of closest relatives species of lactic and contaminating bacteria were identified in a total of 18 cheeses. The more represented genus were: Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Pediococcus. Moreover it was found only one strain Lactococcus lactis for producing bacteriocines. The different bacteria species probably could play a key role in the maturation of the cheese. The preliminary obtained data show the optimized method is usefully to detect and characterize the bacteria having implications in the fermentation process as well as preservation of traditional products.

  1. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  2. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  3. Preliminary investigation of the effects of sea-level rise on groundwater levels in New Haven, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerklie, David M.; Mullaney, John R.; Stone, Janet R.; Skinner, Brian J.; Ramlow, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    New Haven area and from new information on groundwater levels collected during October 2009-June 2010. For the scenario with a 3-ft rise in sea level and no increase in recharge, simulated groundwater levels near the coast rose 3 ft; this increased water level tapered off toward a discharge area at the only nontidal stream in the study area. Simulated stream discharge increased at the nontidal stream because of the increased gradient. Although groundwater levels rose, the simulated difference between the groundwater levels in the aquifer and the increased sea level declined, indicating that the depth to the interface between freshwater and saltwater may possibly decline. Simulated water levels were affected by rise in sea level even in areas where the water table was at 17-24 ft (5.2-7.3 m) above current (2011) sea level. For the scenario with increased recharge, simulated groundwater levels were as much as an additional foot higher at some locations in the study area. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that groundwater levels in coastal areas can be expected to rise and may rise higher if groundwater recharge also increases. This finding has implications for the disposal of stormwater through infiltration, a low-impact development practice designed to improve water quality and reduce overland peak discharge. Other implications include increased risk of basement flooding and increased groundwater seepage into underground sewer pipes and utility corridors in some areas. These implications will present engineering challenges to New Haven and Yale University. The preliminary model developed for this study can be the starting point for further simulation of future alternative scenarios for sea-level rise and recharge. Further simulations could identify those areas of New Haven where infrastructure may be at greatest risk from rising levels of groundwater. The simulations described in this report have limitations due to the preliminary scope of the work

  4. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  5. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2011-12-01

    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the

  6. Comparison of effects of uncomplicated canine babesiosis and canine normovolaemic anaemia on abdominal splanchnic Doppler characteristics - a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Koma

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to compare uncomplicated canine babesiosis (CB and experimentally induced normovolaemic anaemia (EA using Doppler ultrasonography of abdominal splanchnic vessels. Fourteen dogs with uncomplicated CB were investigated together with 11 healthy Beagles during severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state as a control group. Canine babesiosis was compared with severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state using Doppler variables of the abdominal aorta, cranial mesenteric artery (CMA, coeliac, left renal and interlobar, and hilar splenic arteries, and the main portal vein. Patterns of haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were broadly similar and were characterised by elevations in velocities and reductions in resistance indices in all vessels except the renal arteries when compared with the physiological state. Aortic and CMA peak systolic velocities and CMA end diastolic and time-averaged mean velocities in CB were significantly lower (P < 0.023 than those in severe EA. Patterns of renal haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were similar. However, the renal patterns differed from those of aortic and gastrointestinal arteries, having elevations in vascular resistance indices, a reduction in end diastolic velocity and unchanged time-averaged mean velocity. The left renal artery resistive index in CB was significantly higher (P < 0.025 than those in EA and the physiological state. Renal interlobar artery resistive and pulsatility indices in CB were significantly higher (P < 0.016 than those of moderate EA and the physiological state. The similar haemodynamic patterns in CB and EA are attributable to anaemia, while significant differencesmayadditionally be attributed to pathophysiological factors peculiar to CB.

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  8. Preliminary on the isotope hydrology investigations at the Nevada test site: Hydrologic resources management program; FY 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M.L.; Kenneally, J.M.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Nimz, G.J.; Rego, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive isotope data base of the NTS groundwaters collected during FY 92-93 is presented with preliminary interpretations. Multiple samples were collected from over 30 sites on pumped wells and open-holes by wireline bailing. Field water level measurements indicate essentially a bimodal distribution separated by water levels at higher elevations (e.g. Pahute Mesa) from water levels of lower elevations (e.g. Yucca and Frenchman Flats). Down hole temperature measurements have confirmed anomalous temperature gradients in the eastern Yucca Flat area and on Pahute Mesa, where horizontal temperature gradients up to 0.33{degrees}F/100ft are found. Consistent with previous reports by others, the major ion geochemistry of the NTS groundwater are dominated by Na-K-HCO{sub 3} and Ca-Mg-HCO{sub 3} water types, where the Na-rich water appears to be related to dissolution in the volcanic tuffs and the Ca-rich water to the Paleozoic carbonates. Increases in dissolved Si also seems to be indicative of groundwater that resides in the volcanic tuffs. Processes controlling the Na/Ca ratios are complex and may include ion exchange reactions with clays, evaporative concentration in the vadose zone, and lithological heterogeneities in addition to simple differential dissolution between the volcanic tuffs and the Paleozoic carbonates. Apparent {sup 14}C ages range between 4000 and 38,000 years for groundwaters at the NTS. The uncertainty is large for exact age determinations at this time. The {sup 14}C abundance decreases with increased dissolved HCO{sub 3}, and {sup 13}C suggests dissolution of the ``dead`` Paleozoic carbonates significantly influence the ages, but more work is needed to investigate the influence of vadose zone carbonate.

  9. 当阳峪窑址群考察纪略%THE INVESTIGATION AND PRELIMINARY STUDY OF DANG YANG YU KILNSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建保

    2011-01-01

    Through the investigation and preliminary study of 19 kilnsites at Dang Yang Yu kiln , I basically master the modeling, decoration and fire craft of porcelain works with white glaze, dichroic glaze,twistable glaze, twistable color, dark brown glaze, black glaze, green glaze, Jun glaze and three-color glazed pottery, emerald glazed pottery of Dang Yang Yu kiln, and find the material about “double-firing process” .Through the investigation, I find Dang Yang Yu kiln' s first burning was in the late Tang Dynasty. During its first burning and development phases, Dang Yang Yu kiln was influenced by Gongyi kiln, Yaozhou kiln,Xing kiln, Ding kiln, Cizhou kiln, Jun kiln and other kilns nearby at different degree. The generalized Dang Yang Yu kiln is Huaiqing kiln according to the literature, and the ancient kiln at Boai county local is Henei kiln. Dang Yang Yu kiln reached its height of prosperity at Song and Jin period, it influenced and promoted the development of Zibo kiln and other kilns nearby, and went down to Qing Dynasty. Besides satisfying common market consumption, Dang Yang Yu kiln also went into the rank of tribute because of its outstanding quality.%通过对当阳峪窑19处窑址的考察与初步研究,基本掌握了当阳峪窑白釉、双色釉、绞胎、绞彩、酱釉、黑釉、青釉、钧釉瓷器和三彩、翠兰釉陶器的造型、装饰和烧造工艺,发现"二次烧成"的资料.通过研究,发现当阳峪窑始烧于唐代晚期.在其创烧与发展阶段,受到了巩义窑、耀州窑、邢窑、定窑、磁州窑及钧窑等周边窑口不同程度的影响.广义的当阳峪窑即文献记载的怀庆窑,博爱县地域的古代窑场即文献记载的河内窑.当阳峪窑在宋金时期达到鼎盛,影响、促进了淄博窑等周边窑口的发展,并延续至清代.除了满足一般性的市场消费,由于品质优秀,还跻身贡奉之列.

  10. Application of an aviation model of incident reporting and investigation to the neurosurgical scenario: method and preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Paolo; Caldiroli, Dario; Acerbi, Francesco; Scholtze, Maurizio; Piro, Alfonso; Schiariti, Marco; Orena, Eleonora F; Castiglione, Melina; Broggi, Morgan; Perin, Alessandro; DiMeco, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Incident reporting systems are universally recognized as important tools for quality improvement in all complex adaptive systems, including the operating room. Nevertheless, introducing a safety culture among neurosurgeons is a slow process, and few studies are available in the literature regarding the implementation of an incident reporting system within a neurosurgical department. The authors describe the institution of an aviation model of incident reporting and investigation in neurosurgery, focusing on the method they have used and presenting some preliminary results. In 2010, the Inpatient Safety On-Board project was developed through cooperation between a team of human factor and safety specialists with aviation backgrounds (DgSky team) and the general manager of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta. In 2011, after specific training in safety culture, the authors implemented an aviation-derived prototype of incident reporting within the Department of Neurosurgery. They then developed an experimental protocol to track, analyze, and categorize any near misses that happened in the operating room. This project officially started in January 2012, when a dedicated team of assessors was established. All members of the neurosurgical department were asked to report near misses on a voluntary, confidential, and protected form (Patient Incident Reporting System form, Besta Safety Management Programme). Reports were entered into an online database and analyzed by a dedicated team of assessors with the help of a facilitator, and an aviation-derived root cause analysis was performed. Since January 2012, 14 near misses were analyzed and classified. The near-miss contributing factors were mainly related to human factors (9 of 14 cases), technology (1 of 14 cases), organizational factors (3 of 14 cases), or procedural factors (1 of 14 cases). Implementing an incident reporting system is quite demanding; the process should involve all of the people who work within

  11. Magnetite nanoparticles coated with β-cyclodextrin functionalized-ionic liquid: Synthesis and its preliminary investigation as a new sensing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinniah, Subathra; Mohamad, Sharifah; Manan, Ninie S.A., E-mail: niniemanan@um.edu.my

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • A novel of β-cyclodextrin functionalized-ionic liquid coated with magnetite nanoparticles is prepared via co-precipitation method. • The architecture of the material is successfully characterized and confirmed that β-cyclodextrin-functionalized-ionic liquid, has been effectively coated onto surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles. • Vibration Sample Magnetometer analysis confirmed that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL able to attain an excellent magnetic properties. • Preliminary electrochemical study shows that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL able to recognize Biphenol A. - Abstract: In this study, a novel surface of modified magnetite nanoparticles Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was coated with β-cyclodextrin-funclionalized ionic liquid (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL) via the co-precipitation method in alkaline salt medium. β-Cyclodextrin-functionalized-ionic liquid has been effectively coated onto the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles. The instruments used to investigate the architecture are: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Powder Diffraction, Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry, Transmission Electron Microscope, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller isotherm. A Vibration Sample Magnetometer analysis verified that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL attained excellent magnetic properties. The analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope shows that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL produced monodisperse particles with minimal aggregation. Moreover, electrochemical studies have revealed that this new material showed outstanding ability to recognize Bisphenol A with lower electrochemical potential at 0.5 V than other comparative materials, as well as a higher detection current. Thus, this material has promising potential as a new electrode material in sensor applications.

  12. Preliminary efficacy investigations of oral fipronil against Anopheles arabiensis when administered to Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poché, Richard M; Githaka, Naftaly; van Gool, Frans; Kading, Rebekah C; Hartman, Daniel; Polyakova, Larisa; Abworo, Edward Okoth; Nene, Vishvanath; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul

    2017-12-01

    the treatment plot two was higher: zero females were collected after treatment. The indoor resting density of An. gambiae s.s. was not significantly different between the treatment (T1, T2) and their corresponding control plots (C1, C2). An. funestus s.s. showed an increase in density over time. The results of this preliminary study suggest that treating cattle orally with fipronil, to target exophagic and zoophagic malaria vectors, could be a valuable control strategy to supplement existing vector control interventions which target endophilic anthropophilic species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W.H.; Feder, G.L.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    work on the possible relationship between the etiology of BEN and toxic aromatic substances leached from Pliocene lignites in well water is warranted.A distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and villages where Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs has been observed, indicating a possible link between BEN and the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites. Preliminary investigations by NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and leaching experiments show a high degree of organic functionality in the Pliocene lignites, high-leachability by groundwater of organic matter from these beds, and the presence of toxic aromatic compounds.

  14. Combined MRI and 31P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Show Impaired Muscle Function and Altered Energy Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineste, Charlotte; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Troter, Arnaud; Pecchi, Emilie; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Hardeman, Edna C.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y). Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes) and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and 31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1–150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz). H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (−40%) and specific (−25%) maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40%) and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level. PMID:23613869

  15. Preliminary investigation of catalytic, antioxidant, anticancer and bactericidal activity of green synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using Actinidia deliciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Li, Yi

    2017-05-01

    Herein we report a rapid low cost one step green synthetic method using Actinidia deliciosa fruit extract for preparation of stable and multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were successfully used as green catalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and methylene blue (MB). The enhanced biological activity of the prepared nanoparticles was investigated based on its highly stable antioxidant, anticancer and bactericidal effects. TEM micrographs showed that the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formed were predominantly spherical in shape having diameters ranging from 25 to 40nm, while gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) shown particle size ranges from 7 to 20nm. EDAX (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) results confirmed the presence of elemental silver and gold. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of face-centered cubic structure for AgNPs and AuNPs. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum indicated the presence of possible functional groups in the biomolecule responsible for capping the nanoparticles. The AgNPs treated HCT116 cells showed 78% viability at highest concentration (350μg/mL), while AuNPs showed 71% viability at highest concentration (350μg/mL) using MTT assay, which provides promising approach for alternative nano-drug development. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoparticles was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.aeruginosa) in which damaging the cell membrane was observed by TEM images. Our results revealed that the green synthesis method is easy, rapid, inexpensive, eco-friendly and efficient in developing multifunctional nanoparticles in near future in the field of biomedicine, water treatment and nanobiotechnology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Compositional Variation and Bioactivity of the Leaf Essential Oil of Montanoa guatemalensis from Monteverde, Costa Rica: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria D. Flatt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Montanoa guatemalensis is a small to medium-sized tree in the Asteraceae that grows in Central America from Mexico south through Costa Rica. There have been no previous investigations on the essential oil of this tree. Methods: The leaf essential oils of M. guatemalensis were obtained from different individual trees growing in Monteverde, Costa Rica, in two different years, and were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. Results: The leaf oils from 2008 were rich in sesquiterpenoids, dominated by α-selinene, β-selinene, and cyclocolorenone, with lesser amounts of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene. In contrast, the samples from 2009 showed no α- or β-selinene, but large concentrations of trans-muurola-4(14,5-diene, β-cadinene, and cyclocolorenone, along with greater concentrations of α-pinene and limonene. The leaf oils were screened for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities and did show selective cytotoxic activity on MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells. Conclusion: M. guatemalensis leaf oil, rich in cyclocolorenone, α-selinene, and β-selinene, showed selective in vitro cytotoxic activity to MDA-MB-231 cells. The plant may be a good source of cyclocolorenone.

  17. The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonance imaging environment: a preliminary investigation of tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Williams, Tim M; Sessa, Ben; Tyacke, Robin J; Rich, Ann S; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2011-11-01

    This study sought to assess the tolerability of intravenously administered psilocybin in healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-magnetic resonance imaging environment as a preliminary stage to a controlled investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of psilocybin on cerebral blood flow and activity. The present pilot study demonstrated that up to 2 mg of psilocybin delivered as a slow intravenous injection produces short-lived but typical drug effects that are psychologically and physiologically well tolerated. With appropriate care, this study supports the viability of functional magnetic resonance imaging work with psilocybin.

  18. A preliminary investigation into the impact of a pesticide combination on human neuronal and glial cell lines in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Coleman

    Full Text Available Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health.

  19. Preliminary investigations of Monte Carlo Simulations of neutron energy and LET spectra for fast neutron therapy facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kroc, T K

    2012-01-01

    No fast neutron therapy facility has been built with optimized beam quality based on a thorough understanding of the neutron spectrum and its resulting biological effectiveness. A study has been initiated to provide the information necessary for such an optimization. Monte Carlo studies will be used to simulate neutron energy spectra and LET spectra. These studies will be bench-marked with data taken at existing fast neutron therapy facilities. Results will also be compared with radiobiological studies to further support beam quality optimization. These simulations, anchored by this data, will then be used to determine what parameters might be optimized to take full advantage of the unique LET properties of fast neutron beams. This paper will present preliminary work in generating energy and LET spectra for the Fermilab fast neutron therapy facility.

  20. Preliminary investigations of hydrogen peroxide treatment of selected ornamental fishes and efficacy against external bacteria and parasites in green swordtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Riccardo; Curtis, Eric W; Yanong, Roy P E

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus, and green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii) were exposed to H2O2 for 1 h at concentrations between 6 and 34 mg/L or for 24 h at concentrations between 1 and 6 mg/L. The results were species specific: green swordtails tolerated all of the treatments, serpae tetras and tiger barbs were sensitive only to the highest concentration, and mortalities of suckermouth catfish and blue gourami were recorded in every treatment. In the second part of the study, clinically healthy green swordtails and fish infested with external motile rod-shaped bacteria (i.e., Ichthyobodo spp., Trichodina spp., and Gyrodactylus spp.) were treated with several concentrations of H2O2. A single H2O2 treatment of 3.1 mg/L or more for 1 h effectively eliminated external bacteria, concentrations of 6.5 mg/L or more appeared to effectively kill Ichthyobodo spp., and none of the treatments tested was effective against Trichodina spp. or Gyrodactylus spp. These preliminary findings suggest that H2O2 is effective for treating certain external bacterial infections and flagellate infestations in some species of ornamental fish at the dosages tested. Other treatment regimens may need to be tested for effectiveness against Trichodina spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

  1. An elasto-plastic approach to estimate lifetime of notched components under variable amplitude fatigue loading: a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zuhair Faruq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the formulation of an elasto-plastic strain based approach suitable for assessing fatigue strength of notched components subjected to in-service variable amplitude cyclic loading. The hypothesis is formed that the crack initiation plane is closely aligned with the plane of maximum shear strain amplitude, its orientation and the associated stress/strain quantities being determined using the Maximum Variance Method. Fatigue damage is estimated by applying the Modified Manson-Coffin Curve Method (MMCCM along with the Point Method (PM. In the proposed approach, the required critical distance is treated as a material property whose value is not affected either by the sharpness of the notch being assessed or by the profile of the load spectrum being applied. The detrimental effect of non-zero mean stresses and degree of multiaxiality of the local stress/strain histories is also considered. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed design methodology was checked against several experimental data taken from the literature and generated under different uniaxial variable amplitude load histories. In order to determine the required local stress/strain states, refined elasto-plastic finite element models were solved using commercial software ANSYS®. This preliminary validation exercise allowed us to prove that the proposed approach is capable of estimates laying within an error factor of about 2. These preliminary results are certainly promising, strongly supporting the idea that the proposed design strategy can successfully be used to assess the fatigue lifetime of notched metallic components subjected to in-service multiaxial variable amplitude loading sequences.

  2. Experimental application of pulsed laser-induced water jet for endoscopic submucosal dissection: mechanical investigation and preliminary experiment in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chiaki; Nakano, Toru; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Yamada, Masato; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Kamei, Takashi; Miyata, Go; Sato, Akira; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Nakai, Masaaki; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tominaga, Teiji; Satomi, Susumu

    2013-05-01

    A current drawback of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early-stage gastrointestinal tumors is the lack of instruments that can safely assist with this procedure. We have developed a pulsed jet device that can be incorporated into a gastrointestinal endoscope. Here, we investigated the mechanical profile of the pulsed jet device and demonstrated the usefulness of this instrument in esophageal ESD in swine. The device comprises a 5-Fr catheter, a 14-mm long stainless steel tube for generating the pulsed water jet, a nozzle and an optical quartz fiber. The pulsed water jet was generated at pulse rates of 3 Hz by irradiating the physiological saline (4°C) within the stainless steel tube with an holmium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser at 1.1 J/pulse. Mechanical characteristics were evaluated using a force meter. The device was used only for the part of submucosal dissection in the swine ESD model. Tissues removed using the pulsed jet device and a conventional electrocautery device, and the esophagus, were histologically examined to assess thermal damage. The peak impact force was observed at a stand-off distance of 40 mm (1.1 J/pulse). ESD using the pulsed jet device was successful, as the tissue specimens showed precise dissection of the submucosal layer. The extent of thermal injury was significantly lower in the dissected bed using the pulsed jet device. The results showed that the present endoscopic pulsed jet system is a useful alternative for a safe ESD with minimum tissue injury. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  3. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  4. Ultrasonic synthetic technique to manufacture a pHEMA nanopolymeric-based vaccine against the H6N2 avian influenza virus: a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poinern GEJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern1, Xuan Thi Le1, Songhua Shan2, Trevor Ellis3, Stan Fenwick3, John Edwards3, Derek Fawcett11Murdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia; 2Australian Animal Health Laboratories, CSIRO, VIC, Australia; 3Veterinary School, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, AustraliaAbstract: This preliminary study investigated the use of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA nanoparticles for the delivery of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA vaccine pCAG-HAk, which expresses the full length hemagglutinin (HA gene of the avian influenza A/Eurasian coot/Western Australian/2727/1979 (H6N2 virus with a Kozak sequence which is in the form of a pCAGGS vector. The loaded and unloaded nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Further characterizations of the nanoparticles were made using atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering, which was used to investigate particle size distributions. This preliminary study suggests that using 100 µg of pHEMA nanoparticles as a nanocarrier/adjuvant produced a reduction in virus shedding and improved the immune response to the DNA vaccine pCAG-HAk.Keywords: nanoparticles, ultrasound, deoxyribonucleic acid, plasmid, bird flu, pandemic

  5. A new biomarker of hedonic eating? A preliminary investigation of cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lustig, Robert H; Hecht, Frederick M; Kristeller, Jean; Woolley, Josh; Adam, Tanja; Dallman, Mary; Epel, Elissa

    2014-03-01

    Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI=31.1±4.8) prior to the start of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindfulness intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those with little or no nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs.

  6. Preoperative characteristics of auditory brainstem response in acoustic neuroma with useful hearing: importance as a preliminary investigation for intraoperative monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Noritaka; Murakami, Shingo; Takahashi, Mariko; Yamada, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We classified the results of preoperative auditory brainstem response (ABR) in 121 patients with useful hearing and considered the utility of preoperative ABR as a preliminary assessment for intraoperative monitoring. Wave V was confirmed in 113 patients and was not confirmed in 8 patients. Intraoperative ABR could not detect wave V in these 8 patients. The 8 patients without wave V were classified into two groups (flat and wave I only), and the reason why wave V could not be detected may have differed between the groups. Because high-frequency hearing was impaired in flat patients, an alternative to click stimulation may be more effective. Monitoring cochlear nerve action potential (CNAP) may be useful because CNAP could be detected in 4 of 5 wave I only patients. Useful hearing was preserved after surgery in 1 patient in the flat group and 2 patients in wave I only group. Among patients with wave V, the mean interaural latency difference of wave V was 0.88 ms in Class A (n = 57) and 1.26 ms in Class B (n = 56). Because the latency of wave V is already prolonged before surgery, to estimate delay in wave V latency during surgery probably underestimates cochlear nerve damage. Recording intraoperative ABR is indispensable to avoid cochlear nerve damage and to provide information for surgical decisions. Confirming the condition of ABR before surgery helps to solve certain problems, such as choosing to monitor the interaural latency difference of wave V, CNAP, or alternative sound-evoked ABR.

  7. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  8. Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module for Depressed Mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L; Siegle, Greg J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Positive affective functioning (PAF) is critical to the development, course and treatment of depressive symptoms. Targeting key features of PAF during treatment may provide a new angle through which to improve affective functioning and reduce symptoms. The current study was a treatment development trial for the Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module. PASS is conceptualized as a means of capitalizing on positive events (e.g. planned through behavioral activation) by enhancing and sustaining positive affective states through savoring, and establishing positive attributions and expectancies. Participants were 27 female college students with dysphoric symptoms. There was a moderate effect of PASS on depressive symptoms. There was also a significant within session increase in positive affect from pre to post session among the PASS group, relative to active control; and a significant decrease in positive affect from pre (baseline) to post (follow-up) treatment among the control group, relative to PASS. Results provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the treatment module among young adults with depressed mood, and lay the foundation for future research.

  9. Preliminary investigation into the pressing process of sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum biomass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, M.; Khelifi, M.; Vanasse, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science and Agri-Food Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Corn is the main source for biofuel production in North America. However, both sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum crops represent an interesting alternative to corn for ethanol production because of their high biomass yield under a wide range of environmental conditions and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. Coproducts such as pressing residues can be also be utilized so that nothing is lost in the process. However, in order to improve the extraction of juice for ethanol production, the pressing process of this biomass must be optimized. Preliminary experiments were therefore conducted to optimize the juice extraction from sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum using 2 different presses, notably a screw press and a manually operated hydraulic press. Both types of biomass were either chopped finely or coarsely and were exposed to various pressures with the hydraulic press. The volume of juice extracted from both crops increased linearly with increasing pressure. Sweet sorghum appeared to be a better feedstock for ethanol production because it produced about 0.03 to 0.06 litre of juice per kg of biomass more than sweet pearl millet. Juice extraction was more effective with the screw press, but only a small difference was noted between the 2 chopping modes.

  10. A preliminary investigation into the design of pressure cushions and their potential applications for forearm robotic orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, N; Zampierin, S; Komeili, M; Cocuzza, S; Debei, S; Menon, C

    2017-05-08

    Load cells are often used in rehabilitation robotics to monitor human-robot interaction. While load cells are accurate and suitable for the stationary end-point robots used in rehabilitation hospitals, their cost and inability to conform to the shape of the body hinder their application in developing affordable and wearable robotic orthoses for assisting individuals in the activities of daily living. This exploratory work investigates the possibility of using an alternative technology, namely compliant polymeric air cushions, to measure interaction forces between the user and a wearable rigid structure. A polymeric air cushion was designed, analyzed using a finite element model (FEM), and tested using a bench-top characterization system. The cushions underwent repeatability testing, and signal delay testing from a step response while increasing the length of the cushion's tubes. Subsequently, a 3D printed wrist brace prototype was integrated with six polymeric air cushions and tested in static conditions where a volunteer exerted isometric pronation/supination torque and forces in vertical and horizontal directions. The load measured by integrating data recorded by the six sensors was compared with force data measured by a high quality load cell and torque sensor. The FEM and experimental data comparison was within the error bounds of the external differential pressure sensor used to monitor the pressure inside the cushion. The ratio obtained experimentally between the pressure inside the pressure cushion and the 8 N applied load deviated by only 1.28% from the FEM. A drift smaller than 1% was observed over 10 cycles. The rise times of the cushion under an 8 N step response for a 0.46, 1.03, and 2.02 m length tube was 0.45, 0.39, and 0.37 s. Tests with the wrist brace showed a moderate root mean square error (RMSE) between the force estimated by the pressure cushions and the external load cells. Specifically, the RMSE was 13 mNm, 500 mN, and 1.24 N for

  11. Environmental pollen trapped by tobacco leaf as indicators of the provenance of counterfeit cigarette products: a preliminary investigation and test of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Margaret P; Stephens, William E

    2010-05-01

    The global trade in counterfeit tobacco products is increasingly taking market share from legal brands in many parts of the developed world, with attendant adverse economic, health, criminal, and other societal impacts. Knowing the geographical source is central to developing new strategies for curbing this illicit trade, and here, the potential of environmental pollen extracted from manufactured cigarettes is examined. Two samples representing U.S. and Chinese brands were investigated for their pollen content. Results indicate that tobacco leaf very efficiently captures environmental pollen (about 1800 and 12,600 grains per cigarette, respectively) with no detectable self-contamination by the tobacco plant. In both cases, the flora is typical of open space environments, but pollen type counts indicate very different distributions of species. This preliminary investigation indicates that palynology has the potential to constrain geographical source(s) of tobacco, particularly if regionally localized species can be recognized among the pollen.

  12. Preliminary Investigation of Myo-Inositol Phosphates Produced by ASUIA279 Phytase on MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohd. Yusoff

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytate or myo-inositol hexakisphosphates (IP6 is widely distributed in plants like rice brans. The production of myo-inositol phosphate intermediates has received much attention due to the remarkable potential health benefits offered by the compounds. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the partially purified myo-inositol phosphate fractions and commercial IP1 and IP6 were investigated against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The study showed that the commercial standard IP1 and IP6 showed good inhibition towards the MCF-7 cell line. The MCF-7 cells growth was inhibited in minimum concentration of myo-inositol phosphates (<1000 µg/ml. However, no inhibition observed on the MCF-7 cell line by the myo-inositol phosphates fractions partially purified from rice bran at concentration <1000 ?g/ml. The inhibition of MCF-7 was only observed at concentration more than 30 mg/ml with more than 40% cells were inhibited. This indicates that the partially purified rice bran myo-inositol phosphates degraded by ASUIA279 phytase on MCF-7 breast cancer cells exhibit positive results towards the inhibition of cancer cells growth at relatively high concentration..KEYWORDS: myo-inositol phosphates, phytase, MCF-7,  cancerABSTRAK: Fitat atau myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 dikenali umum teragih di dalam tumbuhan seperti dedak padi. Penghasilan perantaraan fosfat myo-inositol mendapat perhatian memandangkan ia berpotensi tinggi dalam kesihatan. Dalam kajian ini, kesitotoksikan sebahagian daripada fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen, IP1 komersil dan IP6 komersil dikaji terhadap produk yang berupa sel kekal (cell lines kanser payu dara MCF-7. Tumbesaran sel MCF-7 direncatkan dalam pekatan minima fosfat myo-inositol (<1000 μg/ml. Tetapi, tidak ada perencatan dilihat terhadap sel kekal MCF-7 oleh sebahagian fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen daripada dedak padi pada kepekatan <1000 mg/ml. Perencatan MCF-7 hanya dilihat pada kepekatan lebih daripada 30 mg/ml dengan lebih

  13. Frequency-Amplitude Ratio of Ocular Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials for Detecting Meniere's Disease: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Barman, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    Several parameters of ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) have been used to identify Meniere's disease. Nonetheless frequency-amplitude ratio (FAR), which is the ratio of amplitude between two frequencies, is one among the parameters that has failed to attract researchers' attention despite proving its worth in diagnosis of Meniere's disease when used in conjunction with cervical VEMP. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating the utility of FAR of oVEMP in identifying Meniere's disease and finding out an optimum frequency pair for its diagnosis. Using a case-control design, oVEMPs were recorded for tone bursts of 500, 750, 1000, and 1500 Hz from 36 individuals with unilateral definite Meniere's disease in the age range of 15 to 50 years. For comparison purposes, oVEMP at the above frequencies were also obtained from an equal number of age- and gender-matched healthy individuals. The amplitudes of 750, 1000, 1500 Hz and tuned frequency, which was the frequency with the largest peak to peak amplitude among the above-mentioned frequencies, were divided by the amplitude of 500 Hz to obtain FARs for 750/500, 1000/500, 1500/500, and tuned frequency/500 frequency pairs. The results revealed significantly higher FAR in the Meniere's disease group than the healthy controls for all the frequency pairs (p < 0.05). The sensitivity of almost 90% and the specificity 100% was obtained for 1000/500 and 750/500, whereas the other frequency pairs produced a sensitivity of about 56% while still showing a specificity of 100%. High sensitivity and specificity, coupled with considerably lowered test duration when using only two frequencies, makes the use of FAR a more attractive prerogative, with 1000/500 as the frequency pair of choice.

  14. A Preliminary Teleseismic Investigation of the Crust and Mantle Lithosphere Obtained from BISN in the Western Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Snyder, D. B.; Cairns, S.; Elliot, B.; Audet, P.; Esteve, C.; Murray-Bergquist, L.; Falck, H.

    2016-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Beaufort Sea continental margin has contributed to the maturation of these rocks into a major petroleum reservoir. Recent shallow offshore seismic reflection data suggest that Banks Island represents thin crust along a rifted margin established during the opening of the Arctic Ocean. In this case, rifting of the margin caused Banks Island to subside and accumulate sediments rich in petroleum source material. The cooling history and further subsidence of these sediments is important for understanding the thermal maturation of petroleum products. Recently published surface-wave velocity models of North America indicate seismic velocities at 100-150 km depths similar to those beneath Canada's diamond mines in the central Slave craton north of Yellowknife. These results imply that Banks Island is part of the Canadian Shield and that any kimberlites found thereon might contain diamonds. However, the fast velocities are inconsistent with this being a tectonically disrupted and thinned lithosphere along the Arctic margin of the Canada Basin. The problem is therefore to reconcile mantle structure typical of the Canadian Shield with crust typical of a rifted passive margin. Possibly related seismicity beneath the Mackenize River Delta and offshore in the Beaufort Sea has been observed for decades but its origin remains unknown, although has been suggested as due to incipient subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath the North American craton. Resolving these questions requires high-resolution 3-D seismic models obtained from an array of broadband seismograph stations. Here we present preliminary results on the structure of the crust and uppermost mantle underlying the western Canadian Arctic. These results are generated using new data from the Banks Island Seismograph Network (BISN), three stations installed over the summer of 2014 and 2015; augmented with several USArray Transportable Array stations and older POLARIS and CNSN stations on

  15. Preliminary investigations on picoplankton-related precipitation of alkaline-earth metal carbonates in meso-oligotrophic lake Geneva (Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Jaquet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a routine water-quality survey in meso-oligotrophic lake Geneva (Switzerland, suspended matter was collected by filtration on 0.2 μm membranes in July and August 2012 at the depth of maximal chlorophyll a (Chl a concentration (2 mg m–3. Examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous dark and gelatinous patches occluding the pores of the membranes, containing high numbers of picoplanktonic cells and, in places, clusters of high-reflectance smooth microspheres (1-2 μm in diameter. Their chemical composition, determined by semi-quantitative, energy-dispersive X ray spectroscopy (EDS showed magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca, strontium (Sr and barium (Ba (alkaline earth metals to be the dominant cations. Among the anions, phosphorus (P and carbon (C were present, but only the latter is considered here (as carbonate. The microspheres were subdivided into four types represented in a Ca-Sr-Ba ternary space. All types are confined within a domain bound by Ca>45, Sr<10 and Ba<50 (in mole %. Type I, the most frequent, displays a broad variability in Ba/Ca, even within a given cluster. Types II and III are devoid of Ba, but may incorporate P. Type IV contains only Ca. The Type I composition resembles that of benstonite, a Group IIA carbonate that was recently found as intracellular granules in a cyanobacterium from alkaline lake Alchichica (Mexico.Lake Geneva microspheres are solid, featureless and embedded in a mucilage-looking substance in the vicinity of, but seemingly not inside, picoplanktonic cells morphologically similar to Chlorella and Synechococcus. In summer 2012, the macroscopic physico-chemical conditions in lake Geneva epilimnion were such as to allow precipitation of Ca but not of Sr and Ba carbonates. Favourable conditions did exist, though, in the micro-environment provided by the combination of active picoplankton and a mucilaginous envelope. Further studies are ongoing to investigate the

  16. Hemocyte responses of Dreissena polymorpha following a short-term in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Preliminary investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couleau, Nicolas; Techer, Didier [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France); Pagnout, Christophe [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, Metz, F-57070 (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, iCEINT, http://www.i-ceint.org (France); Jomini, Stephane [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, Metz, F-57070 (France); Foucaud, Laurent; Laval-Gilly, Philippe; Falla, Jairo [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France); Bennasroune, Amar, E-mail: amar.bennasroune@univ-metz.fr [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France)

    2012-11-01

    The widespread use of titanium-based nanoparticles and their environmental release may pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms within freshwater ecosystems. Suspension-feeder invertebrates like bivalve molluscs represent a unique target group for nanoparticle toxicology. The aim of this work was to investigate the short-term responses of Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes after in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NP). For this purpose, freshwater mussels were exposed to P25 TiO{sub 2} NP at the concentrations of 0.1, 1, 5 and 25 mg/L during 24 h. Viability, phagocytosis activity and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation level of ERK 1/2 and p38 in hemocytes extracted from exposed mussels were compared to those from control specimens. Results demonstrated an inhibition of the phagocytosis activity after exposure to TiO{sub 2} NP at 0.1 and 1 mg/L. Similar trends, albeit less pronounced, were reported for higher concentrations of NP. Transmission electron microscopy showed for the first time the internalization of TiO{sub 2} NP into Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes. Besides, exposure to NP increased the ERK 1/2 phosphorylation levels in all treatments. Concerning the phosphorylation level of p38, only exposures to 5 and 25 mg/L of NP induced significant p38 activation in comparison to that of the control. Finally, these short-term effects observed at environmentally relevant concentrations highlighted the need for further studies concerning ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticle release into an aquatic environment. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phagocytosis inhibition at TiO{sub 2} NP exposure concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Internalization of TiO{sub 2} NP in freshwater mussel hemocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased phosphorylation level of p38 and ERK 1/2 after in vivo exposure to TiO{sub 2} NP.

  17. Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Karsch, Leonhard [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, Jörg [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    dose profiles are in agreement with reference measurements. An inherent drawback of the scintillator is the nonlinear light output for high stopping-power radiation due to the quenching effect. It impacts the depth dose curves measured with the dosimeter. For single Bragg peak distributions this leads to a peak to plateau ratio of 2.8 instead of 4.5 for the reference ionization chamber measurement. Furthermore, the transmission of the clinical bremsstrahlung beams through the scintillator leads to the saturation of one camera, making dose reconstructions in that case presently not feasible.Conclusions: It is shown that distributions of scintillation light generated by proton or electron beams can be reconstructed by the dosimetry system within minutes. The quenching apparent for proton irradiation, and the yet not precisely determined position dependency of the imaging scale, require further investigation and corrections. Upgrading the prototype with larger or inorganic scintillators would increase the detectable proton and electron energy range. The presented results show that the determination of 3D dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography is a promising dosimetry method.

  18. Investigating the possibility of a syntactic impairment in the semantic variant of PPA using a constrained production task: Preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cupit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, syntactic skills are generally thought to be preserved, while in the non-fluent variant (nfvPPA syntactic impairment is a core diagnostic feature (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011. There are, however, some indications in the literature that syntactic processing may not be entirely normal in svPPA. Most studies of syntactic production in svPPA have used unconstrained tasks and have found no syntactic impairment (e.g., Bird et al., 2000; Kave et al., 2007. In the two published studies that have found a syntactic impairment in svPPA, one used a constrained task (Benedet et al., 2006, and the other (Meteyard & Patterson, 2009 did not. However, the authors of the latter article suggested that the observed syntactic errors were subtle. They also suggested that a syntactic impairment in svPPA might not be observed in spontaneous language samples due to an overreliance on simpler structures. In the current study, we used a constrained sentence production task to compare the syntactic abilities of individuals with nfvPPA, svPPA and healthy controls longitudinally, to investigate the existence of a syntactic impairment in the different PPA variants. We predicted that by using a constrained task we would observe a syntactic impairment in both variants of PPA. We tested 18 participants with nfvPPA, 13 with svPPA and 23 control participants. They were tested up to three separate times, with approximately one year between sessions. Groups were matched on age and years of education. The patient groups were matched on Mini Mental State Examination score (Folstein, Folstein & McHugh, 1975 and estimated time post onset of initial symptoms, but the nfvPPA group scored higher than the svPPA group on the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001. We used the sentence production task from Caplan and Hanna (1998 to elicit active, passive, dative and dative-passive sentences. A mixed ANOVA (Group X

  19. Geothermal Potential of the Siǧacik Gulf (Seferihisar) and Preliminary investigations with Seismic and Magnetic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakak, Özde; Özel, Erdeniz; Ergün, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean region, including both W. Turkey and Central Greece, is one of the world's most rapidly-deforming regions of continental crust and has a seismic rate is exceptional on a world scale. SW Turkey is one of the most rapidly extending regions in the world where the extension appears to have commenced in middle or late Miocene time. Paleomagnetic work in W Turkey and Aegean islands has revealed the horizontal rotation of some crustal blocks. In W Turkey clockwise rotation on Karaburun peninsula west of Izmir by 44° in the last few Ma is detected, and anticlockwise rotation of 37° for the Seferihisar region. The area of W Turkey and the Aegean islands has very strong geothermal gradient in the world scale. Sığacık Gulf is located on south of Karaburun Peninsula, and it is restricted by two important ridges as Karaburun and Seferihisar Ridges. Recent geological and geophysical studies suggested that this area is both E-W trending normal and NE-SW trending strike-slip faulting caused deformation. The Seferihisar earthquake series were occurred here during 17-20 October 2005. For investigation of geothermal potential and hot water outlets on the seafloor, shallow seismic and magnetic surveys are preferred, which were carried out onboard Dokuz Eylül-1 vessel belongs to Dokuz Eylül University, in 2011. Approximately 250km seismic reflection data was collected along 27 lines. During seismic method used Sparker system which has 1 channel and 12 hydrophone with 17 m long streamer, as a seismic source used SIG Seismic Marine ELC 80 (4 kV & 3.2 KV DC). Seismic data processing (band pass filter, bottom mute, top mute, true amplitude recovery, time migration) was made using Promax program in the Seismic Laboratory in the Institute of Marine Science and Technology. The basement topography map was prepared using Kingdom Suite program drawing seabed line on these sections. Sea floor topography changes between 30-120 m, and this increases towards Ikaria Basin

  20. Dance for PD: a preliminary investigation of effects on motor function and quality of life among persons with Parkinson's disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, Olie; McRae, Cynthia; Henchcliffe, Claire; Fesharaki, Arman; Glazman, Sofya; Ene, Heather; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    In 2001, Dance for Parkinson's disease (DfPD(®)) classes for persons with Parkinson's disease and care partners were developed by Brooklyn Parkinson Group and Mark Morris Dance Group. A previous assessment suggested that individuals experience positive benefits from DfPD(®). The current preliminary uncontrolled study investigated the effects of a dance intervention on several motor and quality of life aspects of PD following 16 sessions (8 weeks; 20 h) taught by professional dancers/teachers. A mixed methods design was used to determine the effects of the class. Assessment instruments administered at baseline and post-intervention included the Hoehn and Yahr, UPDRS (part III), Berg Balance Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and PDQ-39 and individual interviews after the last class. Hoehn and Yahr scores ranged from 1 to 4. UPDRS III total scores and sub scores of gait and tremor improved following the intervention (P dance with PD.

  1. An investigation of the feasibility of building a harbor on the West coast of South America using explosive power of nuclear weapons, a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodtner, H. H.

    1971-12-31

    There is an interest in discovering the various peace time uses of nuclear explosives. One of the proposals is the building of harbors. There are several ports along the west coast of South America where lighterage is necessary. This implies a need for expanded harbor facilities. The problem is to find a good location for creating a harbor, and the feasibility of accomplishing this with the use of nuclear force. Feasibility includes blast effects, radiation hazards, the number of weapons needed, and economic considerations. Economic considerations include the cost of treating a harbor of sufficient depth and area, the building of harbor facilities, and the estimated savings and advantages of the new harbor. Several meetings were held with naval personnel of the Military Liaison group at UCRL to discuss the general problems of harbors. Thirty-three different ports were given a preliminary investigation.

  2. The Design and Investigation of Nanocomposites Containing Dimeric Nematogens and Liquid Crystal Gold Nanoparticles with Plasmonic Properties Showing a Nematic-Nematic Phase Transition (Nu-Nx/Ntb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamba, Maria-Gabriela; Yu, Chih Hao; Tang, Bai Jia; Welch, Christopher; Kohlmeier, Alexandra; Schubert, Christopher P; Mehl, Georg H

    2014-04-30

    The construction of liquid crystal compositions consisting of the dimeric liquid crystal, CB_C9_CB (cyanobiphenyl dimer = 1'',9''-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yl)nonane), and the range of nematic systems is explored. The materials include a laterally functionalized monomer, which was used to construct a phase diagram with CB_C9_CB, as well as one laterally linked dimer liquid crystal material and two liquid crystal gold nanoparticle (LC-Au-NPs) systems. For the Au-NP-LCs, the NP diameters were varied between ~3.3 nm and 10 nm. Stable mixtures that exhibit a nematic-nematic phase transition are reported and were investigated by POM (polarizing optical microscopy), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and X-ray diffraction studies.

  3. Articular cartilage surface roughness as an imaging-based morphological indicator of osteoarthritis: A preliminary investigation of osteoarthritis initiative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Michael D; Osborne, Jeffrey; Gawronski, Karissa; Baker, Kevin C; Maerz, Tristan

    2017-04-29

    Current imaging-based morphometric indicators of osteoarthritis (OA) using whole-compartment mean cartilage thickness (MCT) and volume changes can be insensitive to mild degenerative changes of articular cartilage (AC) due to areas of adjacent thickening and thinning. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate cartilage thickness-based surface roughness as a morphometric indicator of OA. 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets were collected from osteoarthritis initiative (OAI) subjects with Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) OA grades of 0, 2, and 4 (n = 10/group). Femoral and tibial AC volumes were converted to two-dimensional thickness maps, and MCT, arithmetic surface roughness (Sa ), and anatomically normalized Sa (normSa ) were calculated. Thickness maps enabled visualization of degenerative changes with increasing KL grade, including adjacent thinning and thickening on the femoral condyles. No significant differences were observed in MCT between KL grades. Sa was significantly higher in KL4 compared to KL0 and KL2 in the whole femur (KL0: 0.55 ± 0.10 mm, KL2: 0.53 ± 0.09 mm, KL4: 0.79 ± 0.18 mm), medial femoral condyle (KL0: 0.42 ± 0.07 mm, KL2: 0.48 ± 0.07 mm, KL4: 0.76 ± 0.22 mm), and medial tibial plateau (KL0: 0.42 ± 0.07 mm, KL2: 0.43 ± 0.09 mm, KL4: 0.68 ± 0.27 mm). normSa was significantly higher in KL4 compared to KL0 and KL2 in the whole femur (KL0: 0.22 ± 0.02, KL2: 0.22 ± 0.02, KL4: 0.30 ± 0.03), medial condyle (KL0: 0.17 ± 0.02, KL2: 0.20 ± 0.03, KL4: 0.29 ± 0.06), whole tibia (KL0: 0.34 ± 0.04, KL2: 0.33 ± 0.05, KL4: 0.48 ± 0.11) and medial plateau (KL0: 0.23 ± 0.03, KL2: 0.24 ± 0.04, KL4: 0.40 ± 0.10), and significantly higher in KL2 compared to KL0 in the medial femoral condyle. Surface roughness metrics were sensitive to degenerative morphologic changes, and may be useful in OA characterization and early diagnosis

  4. Preliminary investigation of the nature and origin of the Sierra Mojada Non-sulfide Zn deposits, Coahuila, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H.; Kyle, J.; Gilg, H.; Kolvoord, R.

    2009-05-01

    . Euhedral hemimorphite is present in both mantos, although it is most abundant in the Iron Oxide Manto. Hemimorphite occurs in the Smithsonite Manto as layers with smithsonite suggesting that they may have precipitated together, although locally hemimorphite cross-cuts smithsonite bands. Locally, hemimorphite and smithsonite have been altered to sauconite and hydrozincite. Associated minerals include barite and calcite that seem to have formed later than the major Zn mineral formation. Preliminary isotope studies reveal that smithsonites from Sierra Mojada have δ18OVSMOW values ranging from 19.1 to 22.1 ‰ and δ13CVPDB values of -7.0 to +1.0 ‰. While the range of carbon isotope values is typical for supergene smithsonites, the oxygen isotope values are much lower than those recorded in most supergene deposits. The unusually low oxygen isotope values in smithsonite require either highly 18O- depleted waters of less than -12 ‰ if oxidation occurred at temperatures of less than 20C° or elevated temperatures (>40C°) during oxidation if waters had isotope compositions similar to present- day ground waters in the area. Studies are in progress to further constrain the paragenesis, mineralizing fluid character, and timing of mineralization in the Sierra Mojada district.

  5. Finger Forecasting: A Pointer to Athletic Prowess in Women--A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latourelle, Sandra M.; Elwess, Nancy L.; Elwess, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    With all the technology today, the authors were surprised to read a recent British study that found a connection between the length of a woman's index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers to her athletic ability. Upon further investigation they found that many studies have examined the relationship between the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring…

  6. Preliminary results on Appendicularians from the Cicar (Cooperative Investigations in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions) cruises 1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de R.F.

    1974-01-01

    The Cicar-project (Cooperative Investigations in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions project) offered an opportunity to collect epiplanktonic animals in the Southern part of the Caribbean Sea and in water north of Guyana in the Atlantic, to study the precise distribution of some groups in the area. A

  7. A preliminary investigation of the growth of an aneurysm with a multiscale monolithic Fluid-Structure interaction solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerroni, D.; Manservisi, S.; Pozzetti, G.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate the potentialities of multi-scale engineering techniques to approach complex problems related to biomedical and biological fields. In particular we study the interaction between blood and blood vessel focusing on the presence of an aneurysm. The study of each component of the cardiovascular system is very difficult due to the fact that the movement of the fluid and solid is determined by the rest of system through dynamical boundary conditions. The use of multi-scale techniques allows us to investigate the effect of the whole loop on the aneurysm dynamic. A three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction model for the aneurysm is developed and coupled to a mono-dimensional one for the remaining part of the cardiovascular system, where a point zero-dimensional model for the heart is provided. In this manner it is possible to achieve rigorous and quantitative investigations of the cardiovascular disease without loosing the system dynamic. In order to study this biomedical problem we use a monolithic fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model where the fluid and solid equations are solved together. The use of a monolithic solver allows us to handle the convergence issues caused by large deformations. By using this monolithic approach different solid and fluid regions are treated as a single continuum and the interface conditions are automatically taken into account. In this way the iterative process characteristic of the commonly used segregated approach, it is not needed any more.

  8. Investigation of VLF and HF waves showing seismo-ionospheric anomalies induced by the 29 September 2009 Samoa earthquake (Mw=8.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrot

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In Samoa Islands, a powerful earthquake took place at 17:48:10.99 UTC (06:48:10.99 LT on 29 September 2009 with a magnitude Mw=8.1. Using ICE (Instrument Champ Electrique and IMSC (Instrument Magnetic Search Coil experiments onboard the DEMETER (Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions satellite we have surveyed possible variations in electromagnetic signals transmitted by the ground-based VLF transmitter NPM in Hawaii and in HF plasma waves close to the Samoa earthquake during the seismic activity. The indices Dst and Kp were used to distinguish pre-earthquake anomalies from the other anomalies related to the geomagnetic activities. In a previous study we have shown that anomalies in IAP (plasma analyzer and ISL (Langmuir probe experiments onboard the DEMETER and also TEC (Total Electron Content data appear 1 to 5 days before the Samoa earthquake. In this paper we show that the anomalies in the VLF transmitter signal and in the HF range appear with the same time scale. The lack of significant geomagnetic activities indicates that these anomalous behaviors could be regarded as seismo-ionospheric precursors. It is also shown that comparative analysis is more effective in seismo-ionospheric studies.

  9. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  10. Effectiveness of Interactive Multimedia Module with Pedagogical Agent (IMMPA) in the Learning of Electrochemistry: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Tien; Osman, Kamisah

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemistry is found to be a difficult topic to learn due to its abstract concepts that involve the macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic representation levels. Research showed that animation and simulation using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can help students to visualize and hence enhance students' understanding in learning…

  11. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  12. A Preliminary Investigation of the Utility of the "Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II" for Use in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Lynne S.; McVilly, Keith R.; Fester, Tarryn; Zazelis, Telly

    2011-01-01

    Background: The quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) can be an important influence on the quality of the support provided to people with disability who show challenging behaviours. The Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II (BSP-QE II) is one tool that may be useful in assessing the quality of behaviour support plans. It has…

  13. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm: Preliminary note of analysis of data from spring 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    In February 1998, the Ministry of the Environment gave Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.a. approval to erect a wind farm, capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk off the west coast of Jutland. Construction activities at Horns Rev started in September 2001 and were finished in summer 2002. The entire project has been organised as a demonstration project to assess the technical, economic and environmental constraints on the future development of electric power production in Danish offshore environments. Within the framework of the environmental programme, bird investigations have been carried out in relation to the risk of collision between birds and wind turbines since 2002. To provide the latest update on the results from the bird investigations, this note presents results compiled during spring 2004 and deals with a preliminary analysis of effects on birds present at Horns Rev during commercial operation of the Horns Rev wind farm. Due to the remoteness of the area it has not been possible to obtain base-line investigation of bird occurrence and behaviour at the wind farm site. (au)

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Approaching and Receding Footstep Sounds in a Virtual Reality Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Nilsson, Niels Christian; Nordahl, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The emotional impact of approaching and receding sounds sources studies has previously been studied in seated laboratory experiments in with and without accompanying visual stimulus. This paper investigates the emotional responses to approaching and receding footstep sounds in an interactive...... virtual reality using a head-mounted display, 24-channel surround audio and a novel walking-in-place device utilizing acoustic detection of the user's input. Based on self-reports using the Self-Assessment Manikin, the subjects gave post-experiment evaluations of 7 seconds long footstep sequence...

  15. Preliminary Investigation of Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Approaching and Receding Footstep Sounds in a Virtual Reality Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Nilsson, Niels Christian; Nordahl, Rolf;

    2013-01-01

    The emotional impact of approaching and receding sounds sources studies has previously been studied in seated laboratory experiments in with and without accompanying visual stimulus. This paper investigates the emotional responses to approaching and receding footstep sounds in an interactive...... virtual reality using a head-mounted display, 24-channel surround audio and a novel walking-in-place device utilizing acoustic detection of the user's input. Based on self-reports using the Self-Assessment Manikin, the subjects gave post-experiment evaluations of 7 seconds long footstep sequence...

  16. Preliminary investigation of microbiological effect for radioactive waste disposal system. 1. Experimental investigation of tolerance of some bacterias under alkaline and reducing condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yui, Mikazu; Mihara, Morihiro [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Fukunaga, Sakae; Asano, Hidekazu

    1995-05-01

    Activities and tolerance of some bacteria were investigated under alkaline and reducing conditions for geological disposal. A fermenter was used to control pH and Eh with a liquid culture inoculated with sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-producing bacteria (MPB) and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). Growth of SRB was obtained at maximum pH 8.6 (Eh -340 mV) or maximum Eh -100 mV (pH 7). Ranges of Eh for the growth of MPB and SOB were estimated to be less than -210 mV at pH8, and more than +240 mV at pH 7.5, respectively. Activity for SOB was not observed in the pH range more than 8. (author)

  17. Effect of personal music system use on sacculocollic reflex assessed by cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Sasidharan, Chithra Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Listening to music through a portable personal music system (PMS) is a growing trend, especially among the youth. The preferred listening level in such kinds of PMS has been reported to cross the safe levels and its impact on the auditory system was demonstrated in several previous investigations. Owing to the commonality in several aspects between the auditory and the vestibular systems, it appears likely that the deleterious effects of PMS use could also be impinging on the vestibular system, which has never been investigated. The present study therefore, aimed at evaluating the effects of PMS use on the sacculocollic reflex assessed by the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) technique. Thirty-two regular PMS users and 32 nonregular PMS users underwent cVEMP testing using alternating polarity 500 Hz tone bursts. The results revealed no significant group difference in latencies and interaural asymmetry ratio. However, the cVEMP was significantly reduced in the group of individuals in whom the diffused field equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were above the damage risk criteria (DRC) compared to those with diffused field equivalent SPLs below it (P< 0.01). Therefore, the use of PMS at high levels of volume controls could be deleterious to the vestibular well-being of an individual.

  18. Effect of personal music system use on sacculocollic reflex assessed by cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential: A preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Listening to music through a portable personal music system (PMS is a growing trend, especially among the youth. The preferred listening level in such kinds of PMS has been reported to cross the safe levels and its impact on the auditory system was demonstrated in several previous investigations. Owing to the commonality in several aspects between the auditory and the vestibular systems, it appears likely that the deleterious effects of PMS use could also be impinging on the vestibular system, which has never been investigated. The present study therefore, aimed at evaluating the effects of PMS use on the sacculocollic reflex assessed by the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP technique. Thirty-two regular PMS users and 32 nonregular PMS users underwent cVEMP testing using alternating polarity 500 Hz tone bursts. The results revealed no significant group difference in latencies and interaural asymmetry ratio. However, the cVEMP was significantly reduced in the group of individuals in whom the diffused field equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs were above the damage risk criteria (DRC compared to those with diffused field equivalent SPLs below it (P< 0.01. Therefore, the use of PMS at high levels of volume controls could be deleterious to the vestibular well-being of an individual.

  19. The Helpfulness of Spiritually Influenced Group Work in Developing Self-Awareness and Self-Esteem: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Coholic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an exploratory study that investigated the helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work with eight adult women who shared a history of substance abuse. The overall purpose of the group was to help participants develop their self-awareness and self-esteem. The group, which was contextualized in transpersonal theory, was organized around the following themes and experiential exercises: meditation, mindfulness practice, dream work, stream of consciousness writing, the shadow self, and other arts-based processes. Grounded-theory analysis of group sessions and individual interviews with the participants found that the participants perceived the group to be helpful in developing their self-awareness and self-esteem. While the participants identified different aspects of the group as spiritual, making-meaning was one practice that was consistently described as a spiritually sensitive process. The results of this study in this emergent field are promising and suggestions are provided for future research.

  20. Preliminary investigation of transfer between single-word decoding ability and contextual reading comprehension by poor readers in grade six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, J S

    1980-12-01

    The study sought to investigate transfer between single-word decoding skill and contextual reading comprehension using 60 sixth grade pupils classified as 30 poor and 30 very poor readers. There were two training groups, content-specific and non-content-specific. One group received single-word decoding training, which led to decoding mastery of all words to be read in narrative prose passages and the accompanying literal and inferential comprehension questions. The other group learned to identify and pronounce words, equal in difficulty and number to those of the content-specific group but never a part of the passages and questions for the study. Pupils given content-specific training answered significantly more literal and inferential questions correctly than did those given non-content-specific training. It is suggested that there is transfer between single-word decoding skill and contextual, literal and inferential comprehension.

  1. Technology-Based Communication and the Development of Interpersonal Competencies Within Adolescent Romantic Relationships: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated longitudinal associations between adolescents' technology-based communication and the development of interpersonal competencies within romantic relationships. A school-based sample of 487 adolescents (58% girls; Mage  = 14.1) participated at two time points, one year apart. Participants reported (1) proportions of daily communication with romantic partners via traditional modes (in person, on the phone) versus technological modes (text messaging, social networking sites) and (2) competence in the romantic relationship skill domains of negative assertion and conflict management. Results of cross-lagged panel models indicated that adolescents who engaged in greater proportions of technology-based communication with romantic partners reported lower levels of interpersonal competencies one year later, but not vice versa; associations were particularly strong for boys. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  2. A preliminary investigation on the occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in the Beijiang River, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhao Ling; Ying Yang; Yuanli Huang; Shichun Zou; Tiangang Luan

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was investigated and quantified in 20 water samples collected in the Beijiang River,South China.Sulfonamide-and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were present in 17 and 14 of the collected 20 samples.For sulfonamide ARGs,sulⅠ and sulⅡ were frequently observed in the Beijiang River.The levels of sulⅠ were higher than sulⅡ (p < 0.05),with the mean values of (1.41 ± 1.12) × 10-2 and (1.58 ± 1.71) × 10-3 copies/16S rDNA,respectively.For tetracycline ARGs,tetG had the highest frequency,100%,followed by tetA (85%),tetO (85%),tetC (70%),tetX (60%),tetM (40%) and tetQ (20%),while tetE and tetS were not detected in all the samples from the Beijiang River.On the other hand,tetC had the highest concentration,ranging from 8.30 × 10-2 to 13.20 copies/16S rDNA.The poor correlation between ARGs and antibiotic concentrations revealed that the self-amplification and persistence of ARGs were the reasons that made ARGs exist in the water environment even though the antibiotic selecting pressure was absent.Because so few field measurements have been conducted for investigating the levels of ARGs in rivers in South China,this study provides an important insight on better understanding the occurrence and spread of ARGs in such an ecosystem.

  3. Preliminary investigation of the elemental variation and diagenesis of a tabular uranium deposit, La Sal Mine, San Juan County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robert A.; Campbell, John A.

    1976-01-01

    Ore in the La Sal mine, San Juan County, Utah, occurs as a typical tabular-type uranium deposit of the-Colorado Plateau. Uranium-vanadium occurs in the Salt Wash Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Chemical and petrographic analyses were used to determine elemental variation and diagenetic aspects across the orebody. Vanadium is concentrated in the dark clay matrix, which constitutes visible ore. Uranium content is greater above the vanadium zone. Calcium, carbonate carbon, and lead show greater than fifty-fold increase across the ore zone, whereas copper and organic carbon show only a several-fold increase. Large molybdenum concentrations are present in and above the tabular layer, and large selenium concentrations occur below the uranium zone within the richest vanadium zone. Iron is enriched in the vanadium horizon. Chromium is depleted from above the ore and strongly enriched below. Elements that vary directly with the vanadium content include magnesium, iron, selenium, zirconium, strontium, titanium, lead, boron, yttrium, and scandium. The diagenetic sequence is as follows: (1) formation of secondary quartz overgrowths as cement; (2) infilling and lining of remaining pores with amber opaline material; (3) formation of vanadium-rich clay matrix, which has replaced overgrowths as well as quartz grains; (4) replacement of overgrowths and detrital grains by calcite; (5) infilling of pores with barite and the introduction of pyrite and marcasite.

  4. Weighted Phase Lag Index and Graph Analysis: Preliminary Investigation of Functional Connectivity during Resting State in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Erick; Stingl, Krunoslav; Münßinger, Jana; Braun, Christoph; Preissl, Hubert; Belardinelli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Resting state functional connectivity of MEG data was studied in 29 children (9-10 years old). The weighted phase lag index (WPLI) was employed for estimating connectivity and compared to coherence. To further evaluate the network structure, a graph analysis based on WPLI was used to determine clustering coefficient (C) and betweenness centrality (BC) as local coefficients as well as the characteristic path length (L) as a parameter for global interconnectedness. The network's modular structure was also calculated to estimate functional segregation. A seed region was identified in the central occipital area based on the power distribution at the sensor level in the alpha band. WPLI reveals a specific connectivity map different from power and coherence. BC and modularity show a strong level of connectedness in the occipital area between lateral and central sensors. C shows different isolated areas of occipital sensors. Globally, a network with the shortest L is detected in the alpha band, consistently with the local results. Our results are in agreement with findings in adults, indicating a similar functional network in children at this age in the alpha band. The integrated use of WPLI and graph analysis can help to gain a better description of resting state networks. PMID:23049617

  5. Alterations in autonomic tone during trauma exposure using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)--results of a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Martin; Lempa, Wolfgang; Steinmetz, Adrian; Lamprecht, Friedhelm; Hofmann, Arne

    2008-10-01

    EMDR combines stimuli that evoke divided attention--e.g. eye movements--with exposure to traumatic memories. Our objective was to investigate psycho-physiological correlates of EMDR during treatment sessions. A total of 55 treatment sessions from 10 patients with PTSD was monitored applying impedance cardiography. Onset of every stimulation/exposure period (n=811) was marked and effects within and across stimulation sets on heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiration rate were examined. At stimulation onsets a sharp increase of HRV and a significant decrease of HR was noticed indicating de-arousal. During ongoing stimulation, PEP and HRV decreased significantly while respiration rate significantly increased, indicating stress-related arousal. However, across entire sessions a significant decrease of psycho-physiological activity was noticed, evidenced by progressively decreasing HR and increasing HRV. These findings suggest that EMDR is associated with patterns of autonomic activity associated with substantial psycho-physiological de-arousal over time.

  6. A preliminary investigation of unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation at industrial scrap metal recycling parks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Lv, Pu; Zhang, Bing; Su, Guijin; Gao, Lirong; Xiao, Ke

    2012-05-15

    Thermal wire reclamation is considered to be a potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). In this study, unintentional POP concentrations, including PCDD/Fs, dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were quantified in flue gas and residual ash emissions from thermal wire reclamation at scrap metal dismantling parks in Zhejiang Province, China. The total average TEQ emissions of the investigated unintentional POPs from flue gas and residual ash in two typical scrap metal recycling plants ranged from 13.1 to 48.3ngTEQNm(-3) and 0.08 to 2.8ngTEQg(-1), respectively. The dominant PCDD/F congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 were the main contributors to the toxicity of the dl-PCBs. There were clear differences in the distribution dl-PCBs congeners contributing to the TEQ concentrations in the flue gas samples from the two plants. The PCN TEQs were dominated by PCN-66/67 and PCN-73. Although thermal wire reclamation in incinerators has been proposed as an alternative to open burning, there are still considerable environmental risks associated with regulated incinerators, and unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation sites need to be controlled by local government agencies.

  7. Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to AZT: a preliminary investigation with the D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerosi, Aldina; Valanzano, Angelina; Puopolo, Maria; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2005-01-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) is the main therapeutic agent against HIV vertical transmission and is routinely administered to seropositive pregnant women and their newborns. Toxicity after chronic administration as well as citogenetic effects following developmental AZT exposure has been reported. Furthermore, recent animal data indicate alterations of several behavioral endpoints during the entire lifespan of mice and rats after developmental AZT exposure. In this study, we investigated specific central nervous system (CNS) effects of AZT administration during pregnancy on the offspring. CD-1 mouse females were administered twice daily from day 10 of pregnancy until delivery with either AZT (160 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl). On PND, 60 male offsprings received an intraperitoneal injection of the D1 receptor agonist 2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-7,8-diol-1-phenyl-(1H)-3-benzazepine (SKF 38393) (0, 3, and 10 mg/kg), and spontaneous behavior was assessed in an automated activity chamber for 40 min. At variance from what observed in control mice that displayed excessive grooming when administered the higher dose of the D1 agonist, SKF 38393 failed to increase duration of grooming in AZT-treated mice. These data suggest that the D1 receptorial dopaminergic subsystem might be hyporesponsive in mice prenatally exposed to AZT.

  8. Preliminary Experimental Results using a Steady State ICP Flow Reactor to Investigate Condensation Chemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Batikan; Armstrong, Mike; Cappelli, Mark; Chernov, Alex; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Mehl, Marco; Radousky, Harry; Rose, Timothy; Zaug, Joe

    2016-10-01

    The high temperature chemistry of rapidly condensing matter is under investigation using a steady state inductively coupled plasma (ICP) flow reactor. The objective is to study chemical processes on cooling time scales similar to that of a low yield nuclear fireball. The reactor has a nested set of gas flow rings that provide flexibility in the control of hydrodynamic conditions and mixing of chemical components. Initial tests were run using two different aqueous solutions (ferric nitrate and uranyl nitrate). Chemical reactants passing through the plasma torch undergo non-linear cooling from 10,000K to 1,000K on time scales of <0.1 to 0.5s depending on flow conditions. Optical spectroscopy measurements were taken at different positions along the flow axis to observe the in situ spatial and temporal evolution of chemical species at different temperatures. The current data offer insights into the changes in oxide chemistry as a function of oxygen fugacity. The time resolved measurements will also serve as a validation target for the development of kinetic models that will be used to describe chemical fractionation during nuclear fireball condensation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Preliminary Investigations of the Anti-asthmatic Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Justicia pectoralis (Fresh Cut).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C; Jacob, A S; Thomas, E A; Levy, A S

    2015-09-01

    Justicia pectoralis (fresh cut plant), family Acantheceae, is a herb that is native to central America and the Caribbean. A crude extract prepared from the leaves of Justicia pectoralis is commonly used in Jamaican ethnotraditional medicine to reduce difficulty in breathing and suppress wheezing in asthmatic individuals. To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antihistamine activity of an aqueous extract of Justicia pectoralis. In in vivo experiments, guinea pigs were sensitized by the method of Weinrich and Undem (1987). The effect of water on the wheals was assessed in the control group, n = 4. The effect of 3.3 mg of the crude extract was noted in histamine-induced wheals over a period of three hours. The extract was injected via intraperitoneal injections. In in vitro experiments, 3.3 mg of crude sample was tested for its effectiveness against histamine-induced tracheal contraction caused by cumulative dosing of histamine. The crude extract was efficacious in reducing the formation of histamine-induced wheals (p Justicia pectoralis reduced the formation of histamine-induced wheals in sensitized guinea pigs (p < 0.05) and also reduced histamine-induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions (p < 0.05). It blocked the effect of contraction produced by histamine in the airways; this property supports folklore claims for its use as an antihistamine.

  10. Preliminary Investigations of Creep Strain of Neogene Clay from Warsaw in Drained Triaxial Tests Assisted by Computed Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Łukasz Dominik; Dobak, Paweł Józef; Kiełbasiński, Kamil

    2017-06-01

    The study concerns soil creep deformation in multistage triaxial stress tests under drained conditions. High resolution X-ray computed microtomography (XμCT) was involved in structure recognition before and after triaxial tests. Undisturbed Neogene clay samples, which are widespread in central Poland, were used in this study. XμCT was used to identify representative sample series and informed the detection and rejection of unreliable ones. Maximum deviatoric stress for in situ stress confining condition was equal 95.1 kPa. This result helped in the design of further multistage investigations. The study identified the rheological strain course, which can be broken down into three characterizations: decreasing creep strain rate, transitional constant creep velocity, and accelerating creep deformation. The study found that due to multistage creep loading, the samples were strengthened. Furthermore, there is a visibly "brittle" character of failure, which may be the consequence of the microstructure transformation as a function of time as well as collapse of voids. Due to the glacial tectonic history of the analyzed samples, the reactivation of microcracks might also serve as an explanation. The number of the various sizes of shear planes after failure is confirmed by XμCT overexposure.

  11. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3. [remotely sensed distribution and abundance of gamefish in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, K. J. (Principal Investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of fisheries significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature, and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data. Cloud cover and delayed receipt have inhibited the use of Skylab data. The first step toward establishing the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data to assess amd monitor the distribution of ocean gamefish has been taken with the successful identification of fisheries significant oceanographic parameters and the demonstration of the capability of measuring most of these parameters remotely.

  12. A preliminary investigation into diet adequacy in senior residents of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Liu, Lin; Roebothan, Barbara; Ryan, Ann; Chen, Zhi; Yi, Yanqing; Wang, Peizhong

    2014-04-02

    Adequate dietary intake is essential to maintain good health. This is particularly true for the elderly. This study investigated the dietary intakes of seniors residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and assessed the adequacy of nutrients which they consumed as food. Between November 2012 and January 2013, we recruited senior residents in NL, aged 65 years or older Participants were required to complete two questionnaires, one food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one general health questionnaire (GHQ). Macro- and micro- nutrients in foods consumed were estimated using the Elizabeth Stewart Hands and Associations (ESHA) nutrient analysis software. The nutrient intakes were compared with appropriate components of the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) adopted by Health Canada to determine adequacy. Various descriptive statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. One hundred-and-eleven participants (69 females and 42 males) completed the surveys and were included in the analysis. A considerable portion of subjects were overweight (41.7%) or obese (25%), and had at least one chronic illness (86.5%). Many seniors studied did not meet the daily recommendations for dietary intakes of nutrients supported by Health Canada, notably vitamin E (84.7%) and vitamin D (68.5%). Our study also suggests that about 40% of participants consumed more dietary energy as fat than is recommended. The present study revealed an inadequate consumption of essential nutrients from foods in a noninstitutionalized senior population of NL.

  13. Fabrication of silk mesh with enhanced cytocompatibility: preliminary in vitro investigation toward cell-based therapy for hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, O; Park, J; Monforte, X; Gruber-Blum, S; Redl, H; Petter-Puchner, A; Teuschl, A H

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that combining cells with meshes prior to implantation successfully enhanced hernia repair. The idea is to create a biologic coating surrounding the mesh with autologous cells, before transplantation into the patient. However, due to the lack of a prompt and robust cell adhesion to the meshes, extensive in vitro cultivation is required to obtain a homogenous cell layer covering the mesh. In this context, the objective of this publication is to manufacture meshes made of silk fibres and to enhance the cytoadhesion and cytocompatibility of the biomaterial by surface immobilization of a pro-adhesive wheat germ agglutinin (lectin WGA). We first investigated the affinity between the glycoprotein WGA and cells, in solution and then after covalent immobilization of WGA on silk films. Then, we manufactured meshes made of silk fibres, tailored them with WGA grafting and finally evaluated the cytocompatibility and the inflammatory response of silk and silk-lectin meshes compared to common polypropylene mesh, using fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. The in vitro experiments revealed that the cytocompatibility of silk can be enhanced by surface immobilization with lectin WGA without exhibiting negative response in terms of pro-inflammatory reaction. Grafting lectin to silk meshes could bring advantages to facilitate cell-coating of meshes prior to implantation, which is an imperative prerequisite for abdominal wall tissue regeneration using cell-based therapy.

  14. Investigation on raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres and its preliminary application for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao, E-mail: yanjuntaonihao@163.com [Wuhan Polytechnic University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China); Li, Zhanfeng; Wang, Hongyan; Cui, Xuejun [Jilin University, College of Chemistry (China)

    2013-09-15

    A series of raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel process, which was based on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} particles as the outer shell were compactly assembled on the surface of PS, and then magnetic-hollow nanospheres were obtained by calcination. Different synthesis conditions including the amount of NH{sub 4}OH, TEOS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and the adding time of PS were systematically investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions on the morphology and structure. The prepared magnetic-hollow nanospheres were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM images exhibited that the obtained samples with the perfect spherical profile and large cavities structure were well monodisperse and uniform under the optimized condition. Zeta-potential analysis was employed to make clear the formation mechanism of raspberry-like PS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} composite nanosphere. Moreover, the drug release of ibuprofen experiment results demonstrated that the magnetic-hollow nanospheres could be used as a drug carrier to slowly release and deliver drugs.

  15. Technical Note: Preliminary investigations into the use of a functionalised polymer to reduce diffusion in Fricke gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. T., E-mail: s164.smith@qut.edu.au; Masters, K.-S.; Hosokawa, K.; Blinco, J. P.; Trapp, J. V. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000 (Australia); Crowe, S. B. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, Australia and Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane 4006 (Australia); Kairn, T. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, Australia and Genesis Cancer Care Queensland, Brisbane 4066 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: A modification of the existing PVA-FX hydrogel has been made to investigate the use of a functionalised polymer in a Fricke gel dosimetry system to decrease Fe{sup 3+} diffusion. Methods: The chelating agent, xylenol orange, was chemically bonded to the gelling agent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to create xylenol orange functionalised PVA (XO-PVA). A gel was created from the XO-PVA (20% w/v) with ferrous sulfate (0.4 mM) and sulfuric acid (50 mM). Results: This resulted in an optical density dose sensitivity of 0.014 Gy{sup −1}, an auto-oxidation rate of 0.0005 h{sup −1}, and a diffusion rate of 0.129 mm{sup 2} h{sup −1}; an 8% reduction compared to the original PVA-FX gel, which in practical terms adds approximately 1 h to the time span between irradiation and accurate read-out. Conclusions: Because this initial method of chemically bonding xylenol orange to polyvinyl alcohol has inherently low conversion, the improvement on existing gel systems is minimal when compared to the drawbacks. More efficient methods of functionalising polyvinyl alcohol with xylenol orange must be developed for this system to gain clinical relevance.

  16. Preliminary investigation of commercially available pluronics as UV curable 3D printing inks for tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A'Lester Cordell

    Three-dimensional printing (3DP) emerged from simple beginnings in the field of additive manufacturing (AM) over 31 years ago as an economical technique for rapid prototyping. Now 3DP has become the premier method for fabricating materials from unique consumer products to lifesaving customized human organs. Current challenges in bioprinting center around balancing material properties such as stiffness, yield strength, and surface chemistry with non-Newtonian fluid flow to construct interconnected, porous scaffolding geometries that simulate the complex vasculature found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human body needed to promote cell growth and regeneration. In this study, several copolymers of poly(ethlyene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) with a triblock structure were characterized using oscillatory shear measurements and thermogravimetric instruments to investigate the relationship between storage and loss moduli (G' and G") and printing behavior. The relationship between complex viscosity (eta*), yield stress (tauy), and fluid flow through a syringe yields some indirect correlations that depend on testing procedure. The overall relationship was more complex than originally understood. In the end, several self-supporting complex geometries were successfully printed using a photocurable formulations waxy (Pluronic P85, Jeffamine ED 2003) and liquid (Pluronic L121) triblock copolymers.

  17. Self-compassion and fear of self-compassion interact to predict response to eating disorders treatment: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zuroff, David C; Borairi, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    Gilbert (2005) proposed that the capacity for self-compassion is integral to overcoming shame and psychopathology. We tested this model among 74 individuals with an eating disorder admitted to specialized treatment. Participants completed measures assessing self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, shame, and eating disorder symptoms at admission and every 3 weeks during treatment. At baseline, lower self-compassion and higher fear of self-compassion were associated with more shame and eating disorder pathology. Multilevel modeling also revealed that patients with combinations of low self-compassion and high fear of self-compassion at baseline had significantly poorer treatment responses, showing no significant change in shame or eating disorder symptoms over 12 weeks. Results highlight a new subset of treatment-resistant eating disorder patients.

  18. Preliminary investigation of sequence-independent DNA binding proteins in rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum and their function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文; 姜志胜; 倪菊华; 陈光慧; 刘乃奎; 汤健; 贾弘褆; 唐朝枢

    2000-01-01

    To observe the binding of plasmid DNA to non-nuclear DNA binding proteins in sar-coplasmic reticulum (SR) and the effects of this binding on SR function, sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins in rat skeletal muscle were isolated by differential centrifuge and sucrose density-gradient centrifuge. The results showed that there are two sequence-independent DNA binding proteins in SR proteins, the molecular weights of which are 83 and 58 ku, respectively. Ca2+ uptake and release of SR were remarkably promoted by the binding of plasmid DNA to DNA binding proteins in SR, the mechanism is probably through increasing of Ca2+-ATPase activity in SR and changing of character of Ca2+ release channel ryanodine receptors induced by the binding. These results suggest that there exist DNA binding proteins in SR and its binding to DNA may affect Ca2+ transport of SR.

  19. Preliminary investigation of sequence-independent DNA binding proteins in rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum and their function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To observe the binding of plasmid DNA to non-nuclear DNA binding proteins in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the effects of this binding on SR function, sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins in rat skeletal muscle were isolated by differential centrifuge and sucrose density-gradient centrifuge. The results showed that there are two sequence-independent DNA binding proteins in SR proteins, the molecular weights of which are 83 and 58 ku, respectively. Ca2+ uptake and release of SR were remarkably promoted by the binding of plasmid DNA to DNA binding proteins in SR, the mechanism is probably through increasing of Ca2+-ATPase activity in SR and changing of character of Ca2+ release channel ryanodine receptors induced by the binding. These results suggest that there exist DNA binding proteins in SR and its binding to DNA may affect Ca2+ transport of SR.

  20. Gambling and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Male Alcohol Users: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-12-01

    Gambling problems are overrepresented among men seeking treatment for substance use problems, including alcohol dependence. Early maladaptive schemas are overrepresented among substance users, although no known study has examined the early maladaptive schemas of men with potential gambling problems. The current study examined the relations among potential gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas among a sample of alcohol dependent men seeking treatment at a residential substance use facility (N = 628). Using pre-existing patient records of self-report measures for early maladaptive schemas and potential gambling problems, results showed that a number of early maladaptive schemas were associated with gambling. Men with potential gambling problems scored significantly higher than non-problem gamblers on a number of early maladaptive schemas. These results suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be an important underlying characteristic for gambling problems, and that substance use treatment programs should considering screening for and targeting gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas.

  1. Willingness to pursue live-donor kidney transplantation among waitlisted patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Paek, Matthew J; Egbuna, Ogo; Waterman, Amy D; Pavlakis, Martha; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2013-03-27

    We show that HIV-infected waitlisted patients (n=33) had significantly lower knowledge (P<0.001), more concerns (P=0.01), and lower willingness to pursue live-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT; P=0.02) than matched noninfected patients. The majority (78%) of patients felt that their HIV status reduced their chance of LDKT. Although limited to a single center and a small sample, our data suggest that HIV-infected patients who are waitlisted for kidney transplantation may need more education about the potential benefits of LDKT and may benefit from patient-centered decision support to facilitate a risk-benefit assessment consistent with their preferences and values.

  2. Portable XRF as a valuable device for preliminary in situ pigment investigation of wooden inventory in the Trski Vrh Church in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desnica, V. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Academy of Fine Arts, Laboratory for Science and Technology in Art, Department for Conservation and Restoration, Zagreb (Croatia); Skaric, K.; Mudronja, D.; Pavlicic, M.; Peranic, I. [Croatian Conservation Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Jembrih-Simbuerger, D.; Schreiner, M. [Academy of Fine Arts, Institute of Science and Technology in Art, Vienna (Austria); Fazinic, S.; Jaksic, M. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this work was the investigation of pigments from the painted wooden inventory of the pilgrimage church of Saint Mary of Jerusalem in Trski Vrh - one of the most beautiful late-baroque sacral ensembles in Croatia. Being an object of high relevance for the national cultural heritage, an extensive research on the wooden polychromy was undertaken in order to work out a proposal for a conservation treatment. It consists mainly of two painted and gilded layers (the original one from the 18th century and a later one from 1903), partly overpainted during periodic conservation treatments in the past. The approach was to carry out extensive preliminary in situ pigment investigations using a portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) device, and only the problems not resolved by this method on site were further analyzed using sophisticated laboratory equipment. Therefore, the XRF results acted as a valuable guideline for subsequent targeted sampling actions, thus minimizing the sampling damage. Important questions not answered by XRF (identification of organic pigments, ultramarine, etc.) were subsequently resolved using additional ex situ laboratory methods, primarily {mu}-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) at the nuclear microprobe of the Rudjer Boskovic accelerator facility as well as {mu}-Raman spectroscopy at the Institute of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. It is shown that by the combination of these often complementary methods a thorough characterization of each pigment can be obtained, allowing for a proper strategy of the conservation treatment. (orig.)

  3. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach.

  4. Preliminary Findings from an Investigation of Zika Virus Infection in a Patient with No Known Risk Factors - Utah, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Carolyn; Dunn, Angela; Savage, Harry; Faraji, Ary; Rubin, Mike; Risk, Ilene; Garcia, Wendy; Cortese, Margaret; Novosad, Shannon; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth Raquel; Crain, Jacqueline; Hill, Mary; Atkinson, Annette; Peterson, Dallin; Christensen, Kimberly; Dimond, Melissa; Staples, J Erin; Nakashima, Allyn

    2016-09-16

    On July 12, 2016, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) was notified by a clinician caring for an adult (patient A) who was evaluated for fever, rash, and conjunctivitis that began on July 1. Patient A had not traveled to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission; had not had sexual contact with a person who recently traveled; and had not received a blood transfusion, organ transplant, or mosquito bites (1). Patient A provided care over several days to an elderly male family contact (the index patient) who contracted Zika virus abroad. The index patient developed septic shock with multiple organ failure and died in the hospital on June 25, 2016. The index patient's blood specimen obtained 2 days before his death had a level of viremia approximately 100,000 times higher than the average level reported in persons infected with Zika virus (2). Zika virus infection was diagnosed in patient A by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing on a urine specimen collected 7 days after symptom onset. In addition, a serum specimen collected 11 days after symptom onset, after patient A's symptoms had resolved, was positive for antibodies to Zika virus by Zika immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) and had neutralizing antibodies detected by plaque-reduction neutralization testing (PRNT). Working with Salt Lake and Davis County Health Departments, UDOH requested assistance from CDC with an investigation to determine patient A's exposures and determine a probable source of infection.

  5. Preliminary investigation on the effects of biological and synthetic insecticides on large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L. larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of cabbage pests is oriented towards the use of efficient but high-risk insecticides, some of them being endocrine disruptors. Biopesticides are more environment-friendly, operator-and consumers-safe, but they have low initial toxicity, low efficacy to advanced larval stages, and they require certain knowledge of pest and host biology. In our laboratory experiments we have investigated the effects of formulated synthetic pyrethroid cypermethrin (0.3 l/ha and biological products - formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (2 and 3/ha and Spinosad (0.1 l/ha - on large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L. larvae-instars 2, 3, 4 and 5. The effect of insecticides was inversely proportional to larval instars. Btk effect could be improved if tank-mixed with cypermethrin. The mixing of ready-made products allows a reduction 3 and 6 times compared with the recommended dose, still obtaining satisfactory results. Rate of leaf damage was reduced when tank mixtures were used. Use of two products in mixture would be of significance especially for control of advanced late instars late in season, when Btk action alone is insufficient. Spinosad was effective in inducing mortality and reducing leaf damage by all larval instars, therefore we assume that the dose could be reduced. Feeding rate and mortality are equally important parameters when assessing biopesticide efficacy. This strategy should also reduce the possibility of inducing resistance in pest population. It also tends to reduce the residues in commodities and is good solution in production of hygienic and health safe food.

  6. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  7. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  8. Preliminary investigation on the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot District, Tak Province of Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siwalee; Rattanapunya; Wanna; Chaijaroenkul; Jiraporn; Kuesap; Ronnatrai; Ruengweerayut; Kesara; Na-Bangchang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily investigate the prevalence of HIV co-infection in patients with malaria in Mae Sot District, Tak Province of Thailand.Methods: The study was a retrospective study on blood samples collected from a total of 256 patients with malaria(all species and severity) who attended Mae Tao clinic for migrant workers, Tak Province during 2005-2007(148 samples) and 2010-2012(108 samples). Malaria diagnosis was performed based on microscopic examination of patients’ blood smears. Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and gel particle passive agglutination were employed for the detection of HIV antigen in patients’ plasma. Results: Plasmodium falciparum(P. falciparum) and Plasmodium vivax(P. vivax) are the two predominant malaria species with the ratio of about 1: 1 to 1.5:1. Most of the P. falciparum cases were presented with acute uncomplicated signs and symptoms with highest parasitemia of 1 045 000 asexual parasites/μL bloods. The prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection during 2005-2007 was 1.35%(2/148 cases, 1 each for P. falciparum and P. vivax co-infection), but was increased to 2.78%(3/108 cases, 2 and 1 for P. falciparum and P. vivax co-infection, respectively) during 2010-2012.Conclusions: The increasing trend of prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot, Tak province was of a great concern on either pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics aspect. The study in a larger numbers of malaria patients in different endemic areas throughout the country with different time periods is underway.

  9. Building a virtual simulation platform for quasistatic breast ultrasound elastography using open source software: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Helminen, Emily; Jiang, Jingfeng

    2015-09-01

    . Representative examples were used to demonstrate capabilities of this virtual simulation platform. In the first set of three ultrasound simulation examples, three heterogeneous volumes of interest were selected from a virtual breast ultrasound phantom to perform sophisticated ultrasound simulations. These resultant B-mode images realistically represented the underlying complex but known media. In the second set of three QUE examples, advanced applications in QUE were simulated. The first QUE example was to show breast tumors with complex shapes and/or compositions. The resultant strain images showed complex patterns that were normally seen in freehand clinical ultrasound data. The second and third QUE examples demonstrated (deformation-dependent) nonlinear strain imaging and time-dependent strain imaging, respectively. The proposed virtual QUE platform was implemented and successfully tested in this study. Through show-case examples, the proposed work has demonstrated its capabilities of creating sophisticated QUE data in a way that cannot be done through the manufacture of physical tissue-mimicking phantoms and other software. This open software architecture will soon be made available in the public domain and can be readily adapted to meet specific needs of different research groups to drive innovations in QUE.

  10. Influence of turnout on foot posture and its relationship to overuse musculoskeletal injury in professional contemporary dancers: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimelli, Sonja N; Curran, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    The angle of turnout is thought to predispose professional dancers to overuse musculoskeletal injuries of the lower limb; yet, the influence of angle of turnout on foot posture is currently unknown. Twelve professional contemporary dancers (five women and seven men; mean age, 26.8 years) were recruited. The angle of gait and angle of turnout were measured using a quasi-static clinical tracing method. Foot posture was assessed in the base of gait and angle of turnout using the Foot Posture Index. Each dancer completed a dance history and injury questionnaire. The results show a tendency toward a pronated foot posture (mean, 9°) in the angle of turnout position. A significant relationship was noted between the Foot Posture Index and angle of turnout (ρ = 0.933-0.968, P history of injury to the spine or lower limb, and 9 of the 12 reported an injury within the previous 12 months. Turnout is one of the most fundamental aspects of dance technique. This study suggests a trend toward pronation in angle of turnout and a link to lower-limb musculoskeletal injury.

  11. A preliminary investigation on genetic diversity of Sousa chinensis in the Pearl River Estuary and Xiamen of Chinese waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) samples from the Pearl River Estuary and Xiamen waters were sequenced and analyzed. The result of mtDNA control region revealed 34 variable sites and four unique haplotypes (named as A, B, C and D) identified among the total samples from these two water areas, and the most common haplotype (A) was shared by 75% of the dolphins sampled from the two water areas. The haplotypic diversity (h) was 0.455 and the nucleotide diversity (π) was 0.0088. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the haplotype A, C, and D were closely related, but the haplotype B (unique for XM01 from Xiamen) was far from the other three. By scanning cytochrome b fragments, two haplotypes (A and B) were identified in these two water areas, and the most common haplotype (A) was shared by 91.67% individuals, while XM01 from Xiamen as the only exception. The date suggest that there is a possibility of gene exchange between the two populations in the Pearl River Estuary and Xiamen waters, and there possibly exists a unique maternal lineage in Xiamen waters.

  12. Preliminary Investigation on the Toxicity of Different Formulations on Some Groups of Beneficial Arthropods in Emilia-Romagna Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Civolani

    Full Text Available Control of the most relevant phytophagous of apple and pear trees in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy is achieved by insecticides but it is improved also by defence techniques allowing protection of useful insects. It is therefore relevant to understand in detail the effects of the most common insecticides employed in integrated defence of the two above mentioned cultures on the main auxiliary insects, both predators and parasitoids. With this aim we performed open field tests to evaluate the acute toxicity (48 hours after the treatment, according to the method suggested by IOBC Working Group “Integrated Protection in Orchards” to test three recently developed active ingredient: Spinosad, Indoxacarb and Methoxyfenozide. These three principles were compared to Azinphos methyl, presently one of the most widely employed insecticides with a broad action spectrum. Spinosad is a natural insecticide compound, whose active principle is a toxin produced by Saccharopolispora spinosa, Indoxacarb and Methoxyfenozide are synthetic molecules, respectively belonging to the family of oxadiazines and moult accelerators, while Azinphos methyl is an organophosphate compound. The results show that Azinphos methyl is characterized by a lower selectivity towards generic Coccinellidae, while mortality towards Antochoris nemoralis is rather limited for all active principles tested, on the contrary to what observed for parasitoid Hymenoptera.

  13. Radioactive pegmatites of the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. Preliminary investigation on radiominerals and radioactive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/DINOR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Serra da Borborema, in Northeast Brazil, along the border of the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba, is known for comprising thousands of pegmatitic bodies and it is called Borborema Pegmatite Province. The pegmatites are exploited for gems and non-metallic ores and also for metallic by-products. Many of these bodies are mined for radiominerals and radioactive minerals in so-called garimpos, illegal mines, with dangerous and insalubrious working conditions. In order to locate the sources of commercial batches of columbite-tantalite (coltan) ores, exported between 2000 and 2004, were made radiometric surveys in these mines in the region of the city of Parelhas and radioactive samples collected from the batches were analyzed for uranium, thorium, niobium, and tantalum. The gamma radiation was measured in the pegmatites, also from their enclosing rocks and from the surrounding soil. The results indicate that uraninite has been mixed with coltan ores, but these minerals themselves show considerable contents of uranium and thorium. Chemical analyses indicate four distinct trends for uranium, possibly correlated with previously and already observed four structural features which control the pegmatites, and also evidencing four magmatic-metasomatic events of their emplacement. Regarding the working conditions in the mines, the sparsely presence of uranium minerals does not necessarily represent a hazard for the workers. Laboring risks are much higher than any kind of radioactive risk. (author)

  14. Investigation of Regenerated Cellulose/Poly(acrylic acid Composite Films for Potential Wound Healing Applications: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Bajpai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerated cellulose/poly(acrylic acid composite films have been synthesized for wound dressing applications. The water absorbency of these films was studied as a function of amount of cross-linker N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide and cellulose contents in the feed mixture. The samples, having different compositions, showed tensile strength and percent elongation in the range of 9.98×105 to 13.40×105 N/m2 and 110 to 265, respectively. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR for various films was found to be in the range of 2.03 to 7.18 mg/cm2/h. These films were loaded with antibacterial drug miconazole nitrate and their release was studied in the physiological pH at 37°C. The release data was found to fit well the diffusion controlled Higuchi model. Finally the films demonstrated fair antibacterial and antifungal action, thus establishing their strong candidature as wound dressing materials.

  15. 4D flow preliminary investigation of a direct carotid cavernous fistula due to a ruptured intracavernous aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Murai, Yasuo; Wada, Takeshi; Tateyama, Kojiro

    2015-01-22

    Inadequate information is available about the cerebral blood flow and surgical strategies of a direct aneurysmal carotid cavernous fistula (daCCF). We report a quantitative analysis of flow velocity and volume using preoperative time-resolved phase-contrast MRI (four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI) in a daCCF. This is the first report of 4D flow findings with a daCCF. A 55-year-old woman developed a sudden headache and bruit of the right orbit, and MRI suggested the presence of a daCCF. Quantitative analysis using preoperative 4D flow MRI revealed the flow volume of the right internal carotid artery. The daCCF was successfully treated by high-flow bypass using a radial artery graft and internal carotid artery trapping. Postoperative angiography showed a complete obliteration of the daCCF. Studies to collect data from additional cases are required so that 4D flow findings can be further used in the management of daCCFs. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons as non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL): Preliminary investigation on effects of cement doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Si-Hyun, E-mail: sihyun2@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Batchelor, Bill [Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The reactivities of various types of iron mixtures to degrade chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCE, TCE and 1,1,1-TCA) in the form of non-aqueous phase liquids were investigated. The iron mixtures included a mixture of Fe(II) and Portland cement (Fe(II)-C), a mixture of Fe(II), Fe(III) and Ca(OH){sub 2} (Fe(II/III)-L), and a mixture of Fe(II), Fe(III), Ca(OH){sub 2}, and Portland cement (Fe(II/III)-C). When the same amount of Fe(II) was used, Fe(II)-C was more reactive with chlorinated ethylenes (i.e. PCE and TCE) than Fe(II/III)-L. The reductive pathway for high concentrations of total PCE (i.e. above solubility) with Fe(II)-C was determined to be a combination of two-electron transfer, {beta}-elimination and hydrogenolysis. Increasing the cement dose from 5% to 10% in Fe(II)-C did not affect PCE dechlorination rates, but it did favor the {beta}-elimination pathway. In addition, when Fe(II/III)-C with 5%C was used, PCE dechlorination was similar to that by Fe(II)-C, but this mixture did not effectively degrade TCE. A modified second-order kinetic model was developed and shown to appropriately describe degradation of TCE at high concentrations. Fe(II/III)-L effectively degraded high concentrations of 1,1,1-TCA at rates that were similar to those obtained with Fe(II)-C using 10% C. Moreover, both increasing cement doses and the presence of Fe(III) increased dechlorination rates of 1,1,1-TCA, which was mainly through the hydrogenolysis pathway. The reactivity of Fe(II/III)-L was strongly dependent on the target compound (i.e. less reactivity with TCE, more with 1,1,1-TCA). Therefore, Fe(II/III)-L could be a potential mixture for degrading 1,1,1-TCA, but it should be modified to degrade TCE more effectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCE yield indicated that PCE dechlorination was through hydrogenolysis and {beta}-elimination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-elimination, especially PCE to dichloroacetylene, was favored with the higher cement doses. Black

  17. Preliminary geochemical, microbiological, and epidemiological investigations into possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and kidney disease in northwestern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Gifford, Amie M.; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E.; Shi, Runhua; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C.; Kolak, Jonathan; Warwick, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    detected in 4/8 (50 percent) of the surface water sites sampled. These initial results suggest that additional investigation into these relationships is warranted.

  18. A preliminary investigation of the dynamic characteristics of dried soil layers on the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqiang; Shao, Ming'an; Shao, Hongbo

    2010-02-01

    SummarySerious soil desiccation, resulting from climatic conditions and poor land management, may lead to the formation of a dried soil layer (DSL), which can negatively affect ecological and hydrological processes. To mitigate these effects through management, it is necessary to understand property interactions within DSLs, compared with those in the whole soil profile, and DSL formation processes under different land uses. We investigated the relationships between soil water content (SWC) and plant root indices, and other soil properties, under various land uses in the Liudaogou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. We also studied the development of DSLs as a function of the growth age of two vegetation types. Rate of formation and thickness of DSLs were dependent on vegetation type: DSLs formed after 2 years of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) growth and 3 years of Caragana korshinskii growth; after 4 years of growth, DSLs under alfalfa were thicker than those under C. korshinskii, but after 31 years the DSL thickness under C. korshinskii (4.4 m) exceeded that formed under alfalfa (3 m). The more persistent DSLs occurred below a 100 cm thick upper soil layer that was seasonally dried and replenished by rainfall under both vegetation types. The degree of soil desiccation under natural vegetation was generally less than that under non-indigenous plant species, and was similarly less over a period of about 30 years for a natural plant succession sequence than for an artificial one. Thus, the use of natural vegetation succession management principles would possibly reduce soil desiccation during vegetative restoration. Densities of root length, weight, and surface area, and the average root diameter of soybean ( Glycine max), alfalfa, Stipa bubgeana, and C. korshinskii all decreased with increases in soil depths below 20 cm. Correlations between SWC and root indices, and various soil physical and chemical properties, were generally weaker within the DSL layers than

  19. Quality of life of people living with HIV, preliminary results from IANUA (Investigation on Antiretroviral Therapy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Venturini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The introduction of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART has reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, and changed the patients’ perspective of life. As a result, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL has become a crucial clinical issue. Objective: Assessment of HRQOL in a sample of Italian patients from IANUA study. Investigate correlation between CD4 cell counts, viral load and changes in HRQOL. Materials and Methods: EQ-5D-3L self-reported questionnaire has been used in the evaluation of HRQOL. It assesses five dimensions: “mobility,” “self care,” “usual activities,” “pain/discomfort” and “anxiety/depression.” Each dimension has three levels: no problems, some problems and extreme problems. In addition, it includes a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS where one's own health “today” is rated from 0 “worst imaginable health” to 100 “best imaginable health.” The respondents provide information on marital status, education, employment/unemployment, other treatments used in addition to HAART (1,2,3,4,5 or more and number of hospitalizations due to HIV/AIDS. Results: 684 patients completed the questionnaire: 231 females and 453 males. The mean age of the sample was 51 years (range 21–78. The mean VAS score was 69.9. 558 patients (81.5% reported no problems in mobility. 642 patients (93.5% had no problems in self care. 423 patients (61.8% had no pain/discomfort while 219 had some problems. 326 patients (46.1% had some problems in anxiety/depression. Conclusions: The analysis of self-reported questionnaires indicates that HRQOL in our sample group is not deeply affected by HIV/AIDS. The dimensions that are affected in the least are “mobility” and “self care” while the major problem is “anxiety/depression” with half of the sample reporting moderate or high level.

  20. Lexical decisions in adults with low and high susceptibility to pattern-related visual stress: a preliminary investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Gilchrist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pattern-related visual stress (PRVS is a form of sensory hypersensitivity that some people experience when viewing high contrast repeating patterns, notably alternating dark and light stripes. Those susceptible to PRVS typically have a strong aversion to such stimuli, and this is often accompanied by experiences of visual discomfort and disturbance. The patterns most likely to elicit symptoms of PRVS have a square-wave grating configuration of spatial frequency ~ 3 cycles/degree. Such stimuli are characteristic of printed text in which lines of words and the spaces between them present a high contrast grating-like stimulus. Consequently, much printed reading material has the potential to elicit PRVS that may impair reading performance, and this problem is now thought to be common in individuals with reading difficulties including dyslexia. However, the manner in which PRVS affects reading ability is unknown. One possibility is that the early sensory visual stress may interfere with the later cognitive word recognition stage of the reading process, resulting in reading performance that is slower and/or less accurate.To explore the association of PRVS with word recognition ability, lexical decision performance (speed and accuracy to words and pronounceable non-words was measured in two groups of adults, having low and high susceptibility to PRVS. Results showed that lexical decisions were generally faster but less accurate in high-PRVS, and also that high-PRVS participants made decisions significantly faster for words than for non-words, revealing a strong lexicality effect that was not present in low-PRVS. These findings are novel and, as yet, unconfirmed by other studies. We consider possible interpretation in terms of cortical activity and perceptual mechanisms.

  1. Validation of aspirin response-related transcripts in patients with coronary artery disease and preliminary investigation on CMTM5 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J W; Liu, T F; Chen, X H; Liang, W Y; Feng, X R; Wang, L; Fu, Sidney W; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Liu, M L

    2017-08-15

    Aspirin is widely used in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, but the antiplatelet responses vary from one patient to another. To validate aspirin response related transcripts and illustrate their roles in predicting cardiovascular events, we have quantified the relative expression of 14 transcripts previously identified as related to high on-aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) in 223 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) on regular aspirin treatment. All patients were followed up regularly for cardiovascular events (CVE). The mean age of our enrolled population was 75.80±8.57years. HAPR patients showed no significant differences in terms of co-morbidities and combined drugs. Besides, the relative expression of HLA-DQA1 was significantly lower in low on-aspirin platelet reactivity (LAPR) patients, when compared with HAPR and high normal (HN) group (p=0.028). What's more, the number of arteries involved, HAPR status and the relative expression of CLU, CMTM5 and SPARC were independent risk factors for CVE during follow up (p<0.05). In addition, overexpression of CMTM5 attenuated endothelial cells (ECs) migration and proliferation, with significantly decreased phosphorylated-Akt levels, while its inhibition promoted these processes in vitro (p<0.05).Our study provides evidence that circulating transcripts might be potential biomarkers in predicting cardiovascular events. CMTM5 might exert anti-atherosclerotic effects via suppressing migration and proliferation in the vessel wall. Nevertheless, larger-scale and long-term studies are still needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Preliminary Investigation into the Effect of Standards-Based Grading on the Academic Performance of African-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Bailey, Mary

    With the implementation of No Child Left Behind came a wave of educational reform intended for those working with student populations whose academic performance seemed to indicate an alienation from the educational process. Central to these reforms was the implementation of standards-based instruction and their accompanying standardized assessments; however, in one area reform seemed nonexistent---the teacher's gradebook. (Erickson, 2010, Marzano, 2006; Scriffiny, 2008). Given the link between the grading process and achievement motivation, Ames (1992) suggested the use of practices that promote mastery goal orientation. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of standards-based grading system as a factor contributing to mastery goal orientation on the academic performance of urban African American students. To determine the degree of impact, this study first compared the course content averages and End-of-Course-Test (EOCT) scores for science classes using a traditional grading system to those using a standards-based grading system by employing an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). While there was an increase in all grading areas, two showed a significant difference---the Physical Science course content average (p = 0.024) and ix the Biology EOCT scores (p = 0.0876). These gains suggest that standards-based grading can have a positive impact on the academic performance of African American students. Secondly, this study examined the correlation between the course content averages and the EOCT scores for both the traditional and standards-based grading system; for both Physical Science and Biology, there was a stronger correlation between these two scores for the standards-based grading system.

  3. Lexical decisions in adults with low and high susceptibility to pattern-related visual stress: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James M; Allen, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Pattern-related visual stress (PRVS) is a form of sensory hypersensitivity that some people experience when viewing high contrast repeating patterns, notably alternating dark and light stripes. Those susceptible to PRVS typically have a strong aversion to such stimuli, and this is often accompanied by experiences of visual discomfort and disturbance. The patterns most likely to elicit symptoms of PRVS have a square-wave grating configuration of spatial frequency ~3 cycles/degree. Such stimuli are characteristic of printed text in which lines of words and the spaces between them present a high contrast grating-like stimulus. Consequently, much printed reading material has the potential to elicit PRVS that may impair reading performance, and this problem appears to be common in individuals with reading difficulties including dyslexia. However, the manner in which PRVS affects reading ability is unknown. One possibility is that the early sensory visual stress may interfere with the later cognitive word recognition stage of the reading process, resulting in reading performance that is slower and/or less accurate. To explore the association of PRVS with word recognition ability, lexical decision performance (speed and accuracy) to words and pronounceable non-words was measured in two groups of adults, having low and high susceptibility to PRVS. Results showed that lexical decisions were generally faster but less accurate in high-PRVS, and also that high-PRVS participants made decisions significantly faster for words than for non-words, revealing a strong lexicality effect that was not present in low-PRVS. These findings are novel and, as yet, unconfirmed by other studies.

  4. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO/sub 4/ values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a

  5. Preliminary investigation of contractile activity of Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum extracts on isolated rabbit uterine strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluwa Kaingu, Catherine; Oduma, Jemimah Achieng; Kanui, Titus

    2012-07-13

    Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum of the family Euphorbiaceae and Ebenaceae, respectively, are traditionally used by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in Machakos district of Kenya to induce or augment labor, manage protracted labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained after birth. Ethno-pharmacological relevance of the study will be the provision of scientific evidence and justification for the ethnic use of both plants as oxytocic agents in the initiation of labor, treatment of prolonged labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained placenta. The plants were harvested in the wild, identified and voucher specimens preserved. The root bark was processed to powder form, from which aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained. Each of the extracts was separately tested on isolated uterine muscle tissue from non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits. The effect on contraction frequency (number of contractions per second) in the absence or presence of oxytocin was evaluated statistically using ANOVA. P values <0.05 were considered significant. All uteri exhibited a strong initial contraction following exposure to the aqueous and ethanol root bark extracts of both plants. After recovery, the resumed contraction frequencies varied with the plant extract and exogenous hormone. The results show that the extracts of both plants were able to stimulate uterine tissue contractility directly and to augment the tissue's response to oxytocin. The increase in uterine contractions as a percentage relative to negative controls was particularly significant in pregnant rabbit tissues in the presence of oxytocin, where increments of up to 245% were observed. Further pharmacological studies are however required to determine the active principles, possible mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety margins of the plant extracts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mindfulness meditation, well-being, and heart rate variability: a preliminary investigation into the impact of intensive Vipassana meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygier, Jonathan R; Heathers, James A J; Shahrestani, Sara; Abbott, Maree; Gross, James J; Kemp, Andrew H

    2013-09-01

    Mindfulness meditation has beneficial effects on brain and body, yet the impact of Vipassana, a type of mindfulness meditation, on heart rate variability (HRV) - a psychophysiological marker of mental and physical health - is unknown. We hypothesised increases in measures of well-being and HRV, and decreases in ill-being after training in Vipassana compared to before (time effects), during the meditation task compared to resting baseline (task effects), and a time by task interaction with more pronounced differences between tasks after Vipassana training. HRV (5-minute resting baseline vs. 5-minute meditation) was collected from 36 participants before and after they completed a 10-day intensive Vipassana retreat. Changes in three frequency-domain measures of HRV were analysed using 2 (Time; pre- vs. post-Vipassana)× 2 (Task; resting baseline vs. meditation) within subjects ANOVA. These measures were: normalised high-frequency power (HF n.u.), a widely used biomarker of parasympathetic activity; log-transformed high frequency power (ln HF), a measure of RSA and required to interpret normalised HF; and Traube-Hering-Mayer waves (THM), a component of the low frequency spectrum linked to baroreflex outflow. As expected, participants showed significantly increased well-being, and decreased ill-being. ln HF increased overall during meditation compared to resting baseline, while there was a time∗task interaction for THM. Further testing revealed that pre-Vipassana only ln HF increased during meditation (vs. resting baseline), consistent with a change in respiration. Post-Vipassana, the meditation task increased HF n.u. and decreased THM compared to resting baseline, suggesting post-Vipassana task-related changes are characterised by a decrease in absolute LF power, not parasympathetic-mediated increases in HF power. Such baroreflex changes are classically associated with attentional load, and our results are interpreted in light of the concept of 'flow' - a state of

  7. Exploring racial/ethnic differences in substance use: a preliminary theory-based investigation with juvenile justice-involved youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mead Hilary K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial/ethnic differences in representation, substance use, and its correlates may be linked to differential long-term health outcomes for justice-involved youth. Determining the nature of these differences is critical to informing more efficacious health prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we employed a theory-based approach to evaluate the nature of these potential differences. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1 racial/ethnic minority youth would be comparatively overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, (2 the rates of substance use would be different across racial/ethnic groups, and (3 individual-level risk factors would be better predictors of substance use for Caucasian youth than for youth of other racial/ethnic groups. Methods To evaluate these hypotheses, we recruited a large, diverse sample of justice-involved youth in the southwest (N = 651; M age = 15.7, SD = 1.05, range = 14-18 years; 66% male; 41% Hispanic, 24% African American, 15% Caucasian, 11% American Indian/Alaska Native. All youth were queried about their substance use behavior (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, illicit hard drug use and individual-level risk factors (school involvement, employment, self-esteem, level of externalizing behaviors. Results As predicted, racial/ethnic minority youth were significantly overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. Additionally, Caucasian youth reported the greatest rates of substance use and substance-related individual-level risk factors. In contrast, African American youth showed the lowest rates for substance use and individual risk factors. Contrary to predictions, a racial/ethnic group by risk factor finding emerged for only one risk factor and one substance use category. Conclusions This research highlights the importance of more closely examining racial/ethnic differences in justice populations, as there are likely to be differing health needs, and subsequent treatment approaches

  8. Exploring racial/ethnic differences in substance use: a preliminary theory-based investigation with juvenile justice-involved youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Racial/ethnic differences in representation, substance use, and its correlates may be linked to differential long-term health outcomes for justice-involved youth. Determining the nature of these differences is critical to informing more efficacious health prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we employed a theory-based approach to evaluate the nature of these potential differences. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1) racial/ethnic minority youth would be comparatively overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, (2) the rates of substance use would be different across racial/ethnic groups, and (3) individual-level risk factors would be better predictors of substance use for Caucasian youth than for youth of other racial/ethnic groups. Methods To evaluate these hypotheses, we recruited a large, diverse sample of justice-involved youth in the southwest (N = 651; M age = 15.7, SD = 1.05, range = 14-18 years); 66% male; 41% Hispanic, 24% African American, 15% Caucasian, 11% American Indian/Alaska Native). All youth were queried about their substance use behavior (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, illicit hard drug use) and individual-level risk factors (school involvement, employment, self-esteem, level of externalizing behaviors). Results As predicted, racial/ethnic minority youth were significantly overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. Additionally, Caucasian youth reported the greatest rates of substance use and substance-related individual-level risk factors. In contrast, African American youth showed the lowest rates for substance use and individual risk factors. Contrary to predictions, a racial/ethnic group by risk factor finding emerged for only one risk factor and one substance use category. Conclusions This research highlights the importance of more closely examining racial/ethnic differences in justice populations, as there are likely to be differing health needs, and subsequent treatment approaches, by racial/ethnic group

  9. Evaluation of the state of stress at the Forsmark site. Preliminary site investigation Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Jonny; Lindfors, Ulf; Perman, Fredrik; Ask, Daniel [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-15

    This report presents an evaluation of the state of stress at the Forsmark site, based on all conducted stress measurements to date at the site, indirect stress estimates, geological and tectonic description of the site, and regional stress data from nearby locations. The work included (i) compilation of measurement results from Forsmark, as well as from nearby (regional) sites/locations, (ii) analysis of confidence intervals for each group of measurement, (iii) assessment of the stress state for the Forsmark site accounting for geological/tectonic evolution at the site, (iv) assessment of stress state for selected nearby (regional) sites/locations, and (v) comparison and combined interpretation of similarities and/or differences in stress state from a regional perspective. The combined assessment of the local (site-scale) and regional stress data for Forsmark showed that the major stress is orientated sub-horizontally and trending NW-SE; however, with significant local variation. A thrust faulting ({sigma}H > {sigma}h > {sigma}v) or possibly strike-slip faulting ({sigma}H > {sigma}v > {sigma}h) stress regime is evident at the Forsmark site. The maximum horizontal stress tends to be higher at the site compared to nearby sites and regional conditions. The site and regional data indicate that the vertical stress seems to be solely due to the overburden pressure. The lack of solid core discing for large portions of the boreholes at Forsmark was used to estimate an upper limit of the maximum horizontal stress magnitude. However, such an estimation is highly uncertain due to e.g. partly unknown mechanism for core discing failure, and unknown effects of the simplifying assumptions made in the analysis. The possible effects of shallow-dipping deformation zones on the stress state, could not be verified from the currently available data. However, the possibility of different stress regimes above and below deformation zones must be considered in future work. Slightly lower

  10. A preliminary investigation comparing one and eight channels at fast and slow rates on music appraisal in adults with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, R S; Gfeller, K; Mehr, M A

    2000-09-01

    Music perception is important to cochlear implant patients, but little effort has been devoted to improving signal processing for music. In this preliminary investigation, we probed the importance of number of channels and stimulus rate. We asked eight users of the Clarion cochlear implant to rate music quality on a scale from 0 to 100 on three different types of music (country and western, pop and classical). Patients rated eight- and one-channel processors running at a fast and slow rate. The stimulus rate was 200 pps for the slow rate. For the eight-channel condition, the fast rate varied from 394 to 765 pps. For the one-channel condition, the fast rate varied from 2601 to 4335 pps. Results indicated that the eight-channel condition was uniformly rated higher than the one-channel condition. However, the results for stimulus rate were less clear. No patients assigned higher ratings with the slow rate, but only three subjects assigned higher ratings with the fast rate. We conclude that music perception can be influenced and probably improved by signal processing. The number of channels, or perhaps spectral representation, is critical for music appreciation by cochlear implant recipients.

  11. A preliminary investigation into the use of Red Pine (Pinus Resinosa) tree cores as historic passive samplers of POPs in outdoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The suitability of Red Pine trees (Pinus Resinosa) to act as passive samplers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in outdoor air and to provide historic information on air concentration trends was demonstrated in this preliminary investigation. Red Pine tree cores from Toronto, Canada, were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), alkylated-PAHs, nitro and oxy-PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (novel BFRs). The PBDEs and novel BFRs demonstrated a similar relative contribution in cores representing 30 years of tree growth, to that reported in contemporary air samples. Analysis of tree ring segments of 5-15 years resulted in detectable concentrations of some PAHs and alk-PAHs and demonstrated a transition from petrogenic sources to pyrogenic sources over the period 1960-2015. A simple uptake model was developed that treats the tree rings as linear-phase passive air samplers. The bark infiltration factor, IFBARK, is a key parameter of the model that reflects the permeability of the bark to allow chemicals to be transferred from ambient air to the outer tree layer (cambium). An IFBARK of about 2% was derived for the Red Pine trees based on tree core and air monitoring data.

  12. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  13. Preliminary Investigation of Supersonic Diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-05-01

    No. L5D20 This pressure was measured with a large mercury manometer . The total ’head after diffusion can be assumed equal to the static pressure at...of the entering kinetic energy. A mercury manometer was used to measure the difference between the total heads before and after diffusion. ‘J!hesetwo

  14. Visual-spatial memory may be enhanced with theta burst deep brain stimulation of the fornix: a preliminary investigation with four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan P; Sweet, Jennifer A; Bailey, Christopher M; Munyon, Charles N; Luders, Hans O; Fastenau, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    Memory loss after brain injury can be a source of considerable morbidity, but there are presently few therapeutic options for restoring memory function. We have previously demonstrated that burst stimulation of the fornix is able to significantly improve memory in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The present study is a preliminary investigation with a small group of cases to explore whether theta burst stimulation of the fornix might improve memory in humans. Four individuals undergoing stereo-electroencephalography evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy were enrolled. All participants were implanted with an electrode into the proximal fornix and dorsal hippocampal commissure on the language dominant (n = 3) or language non-dominant (n = 1) side, and stimulation of this electrode reliably produced a diffuse evoked potential in the head and body of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Each participant underwent testing of verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test), visual-spatial memory (Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test), and visual confrontational naming (Boston Naming Test Short Form) once per day over at least two consecutive days using novel test forms each day. For 50% of the trials, the fornix electrode was continuously stimulated using a burst pattern (200 Hz in 100 ms trains, five trains per second, 100 µs, 7 mA) and was compared with sham stimulation. Participants and examiners were blinded to whether stimulation was active or not, and the order of stimulation was randomized. The small sample size precluded use of inferential statistics; therefore, data were analysed using descriptive statistics and graphic analysis. Burst stimulation of the fornix was not perceived by any of the participants but was associated with a robust reversible improvement in immediate and delayed performance on the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test. There were no apparent differences on either Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test or Boston Naming

  15. The 1911 Chon-Kemin (M 8.3) earthquake in the Tien-Shan region*: preliminary investigation results by means of historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, G.; Krüger, F.

    2012-04-01

    For many years the Tien-Shan region* attracts attention of geophysicists and geologists due to complexity and uniqueness of its tectonics. At the turn of the XIX. to the XX. century several destructive earthquakes have occurred in the region with estimated magnitudes between 7 and 8 and two of them even exceeding the magnitude of 8. Our main goal is to investigate the deformation processes responsible for this significant earthquake sequence and the possible interrelation between the single events. Here we present preliminary results of the Chon-Kemin earthquake as an example. On 3rd January 1911 the M 8.3 Chon-Kemin earthquake hit the Tien-Shan region. It is the strongest event in the history of Tien-Shan region for which instrumental recordings are available and one of the strongest intracontinental earthquakes in XX. century. Historical analog data were collected from different seismic archives in European and non-European countries. The data from 20 seismic station were collected, mostly stations at that time had only horizontal components although there are some vertical recordings as well. Preprocessing the analog data brings several difficulties, e.g. limited information on instrument characteristics. Digitization is the most time-consuming part among preprocessing. The quality of seismograms is not always good enough this is why it was necessary to combine different methods of data processing. Since at that time localizations have been done on the base of intensity distributions, the epicenter is poorly determined. Several localizations, differed in the value of up to 80 km, are available. The surface rupture was also estimated in previous studies (about 200 km) and the deformation on the surface can be still observed nowadays, which gives opportunity to calibrate new localization comparing it to the geological data. Thus, we located the earthquake epicenter and determined the magnitude again based on the digitized seismograms. From first motion body wave

  16. Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

  17. The PIRLA project (Paleoecological investigation of recent lake acidification). Preliminary results for the Adirondacks, New England, N. Great Lakes States, and N. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, D.F.; Whitehead, D.R.; Anderson, D.S.; Bienert, R.; Camburn, K.E.; Cook, R.B.; Crisman, T.L.; Davis, R.B.; Ford, J.; Fry, B.D.

    1986-09-01

    The PIRLA project is an interdisciplinary paleoecological study designed to provide reconstructions of the recent acidification histories of a representative set of lakes in four acid-sensitive regions in North America. We are trying to determime if lakes in the study regions have acidified, and if so, to what extent, over what time period and why. Sediment cores from 5 to 15 lakes in each region are being analyzed for several characteristics. Diatoms and chrysophytes are being used to reconstruct lakewater pH. Results for three Adirondack lakes with current pH of 4.8 to 5.0 indicate a decrease in pH beginning in the 1930's-1950's. Increased atmospheric deposition of strong acids appears to be the primary factor responsible for the pH decline. Two lakes (pH 4.4 and 4.7) in New England show clear evidence of acidification probably due to acidic deposition. Preliminary reconstructions for two lakes in Michigan (pH 4.4 and 5.6), one in Wisconsin (pH 5.3), and one in Minnesota (pH 6.8) suggest no recent pH decrease. For the one Florida lake (pH 4.4) analyzed, inferred pH decreases by about 0.5 unit, beginning in the 1950's; the cause has not been determined. 26 refs.

  18. Pirla Project (paleoecological investigation of recent lake acidification): preliminary results for the Adirondacks, New England, Great Lakes States, and N. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, D.F.; Whitehead, D.R.; Anderson, D.S.; Bienert, R.; Camburn, K.E.; Cook, R.B.; Crisman, T.L.; Davis, R.B.; Ford, J.; Fry, B.D.; Hites, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The PIRLA project is an interdisciplinary paleoecological study designed to provide reconstructions of the recent acidification histories of a representative set of lakes in four acid-sensitive regions in North America. We are trying to determine if lakes in the study regions have acidified, and if so, to what extent, over what time period and why. Sediment cores from 5 to 15 lakes in each region are being analyzed for several characteristics. Diatoms and chrysophytes are being used to reconstruct lake water pH. Results for three Adirondack lakes with current pH of 4.8 to 5.0 indicate a decrease in pH beginning in the 1930's-1950's. Increased atmospheric deposition of strong acids appears to be the primary factor responsible for the pH decline. Two lakes (pH 4.4 and 4.7) in New England show clear evidence of acidification probably due to acidic deposition. Preliminary reconstruction for two lakes in Michigan (pH 4.4 and 5.6), one in Wisconsin (pH 5.3), and one in Minnesota (pH 6.8) suggest no recent pH decrease. For the one Florida lake (pH 4.4) analyzed, inferred pH decreases by about 0.5 unit, beginning in the 1950s; the cause has not been determined.

  19. 能源互联网环境下的信息经济学初探%A Preliminary Investigation on Information Economics in Energy Internet Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪琳娜; 文福拴; 尚金成; 何洋

    2016-01-01

    信息系统是能源互联网的重要组成部分,能源互联网环境下的信息经济学是相关的一个有待研究的重要问题。在此背景下,展望了信息经济学在能源互联网信息经济研究中的应用前景,并试图建立相关的研究框架。首先总结了国内外现有的对能源互联网比较典型的定义,在此基础上展望了能源互联网环境下信息系统的基本架构、功能和运行机制。之后,概述了信息经济学的一些主流理论与方法。最后,从信息价值增值、信息价值评估、信息增值服务模式、基于信息的博弈分析和机制设计等几个方面,探讨了能源互联网环境下信息经济学需要研究的问题。%Information system represents important part of energy internet, and related information economics in energy internet environment is an important topic to systematically investigate. Given this background, a preliminary investigation on information economics in energy internet environment is carried out with attempt of establishing a research framework. First, existing energy internet definitions are summarized, and on this basis a prospect on infrastructure, function and operation condition of information system in energy internet is presented. Subsequently, some well-established theories and methods of information economics are briefly clarified. Finally, some issues to be investigated are addressed, including information value-addition and evaluation, information value-addition service mode, information based game analysis and mechanism design.

  20. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  1. A preliminary investigation into the morphology of oral papillae and denticles of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) with inferences about its functional significance across life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Bianca de S; Wosnick, Natascha; Hammerschlag, Neil; Ciena, Adriano P; Kfoury Junior, José Roberto; Rici, Rose E G

    2017-03-01

    Sensory organs in elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, rays) detect and respond to a different set of biotic and/or abiotic stimuli, through sight, smell, taste, hearing, mechanoreception and electroreception. Although gustation is crucial for survival and essential for growth, mobility, and maintenance of neural activity and the proper functioning of the immune system, comparatively little is known about this sensory system in elasmobranchs. Here we present a preliminary investigation into the structural and dimensional characteristics of the oral papillae and denticles found in the oropharyngeal cavity of the blue shark (Prionace glauca) during embryonic development through adulthood. Samples were obtained from the dorsal and ventral surface of the oropharyngeal cavity collected from embryos at different development stages as well as from adults. Our results suggest that development of papillae occurs early in ontogeny, before the formation of the oral denticles. The diameter of oral papillae gradually increases during development, starting from 25 μm in stage I embryos, to 110 μm in stage IV embryos and 272-300 μm in adults. Embryos exhibit papillae at early developmental stages, suggesting that these structures may be important during early in life. The highest density of papillae was observed in the maxillary and mandibular valve regions, possibly related to the ability to identify, capture and process prey. The oral denticles were observed only in the final embryonic stage as well as in adults. Accordingly, we suggest that oral denticles likely aid in ram ventilation (through reducing the hydrodynamic drag), to protect papillae from injury during prey consumption and assist in the retention and consumption of prey (through adhesion), since these processes are only necessary after birth. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  2. Clinical audit of posterior three-unit fixed-movable resin-bonded fixed partial dentures - A retrospective, preliminary clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Michael G; Dyson, John E; Mui, Thomas H F; Lam, Walter Y H

    2017-02-01

    Two-unit cantilevered resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (RBFPDs) have higher retention rates over longer span fixed-fixed RBFPDs. It has been hypothesized that interabutment stresses associated with fixed-fixed designs cause prosthesis debonds therefore for the replacement of molar-sized and longer spans, non-rigid connectors have been used to allow independent movement between two abutment teeth. This preliminary study evaluates the clinical longevity and subjects' satisfaction of three-unit fixed-movable (FM3) RBFPDs provided at a dental teaching hospital. Subjects who had received FM3 RBFPD(s) in the posterior region were clinically reviewed for complications. History of any debonds and subjects' satisfaction to the prosthesis was recorded. Time-to-debond (retention rate) and time-to-loss (survival rate) of these prostheses were presented in life tables. Ninety-eight prostheses in 84 subjects were examined. Their mean service life was 31.8 months (SD 11.5, range 3-67 months). Twenty-two prostheses had a history of debond, resulting in a retention proportion of 77.6%; seventeen of these were rebonded and still present at the time of review. One prosthesis was lost after extraction of a periodontally-involved abutment tooth, giving a survival proportion of 93.9%. High subject satisfaction and no adverse outcome were reported. Three-unit fixed-movable RBFPDs have a shorter success than two-unit cantilevered RBFPDs. However, non-rigid connectors allow the possibility of rebonding giving satisfactory short-term survival rate. Further research is needed to investigate their long-term efficacy. Three-unit fixed-movable RBFPDs incorporating non-rigid connectors may be a feasible option for replacement of molar-size pontic in the posterior region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis, photophysical and preliminary investigation of the dye-sensitized solar cells properties of functionalized anthracenyl-based bipyridyl and phenanthrolyl Ru(II) complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adewale O Adeloye; Peter A Ajibade; Frances R Cummings; Lukas J Le Roux; Sampson N Mamphweli; Edson L Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Four new amphiphilic ligands: 4-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-2,2'-bipyridine (L1), 4-(9-anthracenyl-10-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-2,2'-bipyridine (L2), 5-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-1,10-phenanthroline (L3) and 5-(9-anthracenyl-10-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-1,10-phenanthroline (L4), with their corresponding homonuclear ruthenium(II) complexes formulated as cis-[Ru-(L1)3(PF6)2] (C1), cis-[Ru-(L2)3(PF6)2] (C2), cis-[Ru-(L3)3(PF6)2] (C3) and cis-[Ru-(L4)3(PF6)2] (C4), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H- and 13C- NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The complexes exhibit broad and intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition bands in the visible region (400-700 nm), and red light emitting properties at room temperature. By comparison however, complexes C1 and C2 bipyridine moiety gave lower molar absorptivity coefficient at relatively similar wavelength characteristics (410-520 nm) when compared to C3 and C4 with phenanthroline based molecules. Cyclic voltammograms of the complexes revealed complex C4 with most reduction potential which might be due to increase in the conjugation of the anthracene functionalized units. Preliminary investigation of the solar cell efficiency of the complexes on TiO2 nanocrystalline films gave the best result with efficiency of 0.103% for C1 under illumination at 1000 W/m2 AM 1.5. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique however, revealed the charge transfer resistances (Rct) of the electrons on the TiO2 semiconductor.

  4. Preliminary investigation of the pests of Magnolia of ficinalis%厚朴病虫害种类的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柏泉; 艾训儒; 彭琼; 卢宗荣; 王维

    2011-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the diseases and insect pests of Magnolia officinalis Rehd.et Wils was conducted in Enshi.The major pests included 13 species, 9 of which were leaf pests, 2 of which branch pests, and 2 of which root pests.Five major M.officinalis diseases were recorded.Asterococcus muratae Kuwana and Neocalaphis magnolicolens were reported in Hubei Province for the first time; Empoasca flavescens was a newly recorded species hosted by M.officinalis.Six natural enemies of A.muratae were also recorded, 2 of which were chalcid parasitoids and 4 ladybugs; 8 natural enemy insects of N.magnolicolens were recorded.Furthermore, a preliminary investigation into the occurrence of important diseases and pests of A.muratae and Cladiucha magnoliae Xiao and the root rot disease of Magnoliae officinalis was also carried out and the corresponding control measures were proposed.%采用标准地法和线路调查法,对湖北恩施市新塘乡双河厚朴基地的厚朴病虫害进行了系统调查,记录主要虫害13种,其中叶部害虫9种,枝干害虫2种,根部害虫2种.厚朴主要病害5种.藤壶蚧、厚朴枝角叶蜂和厚朴新丽斑蚜为湖北省首次报道,小绿叶蝉为厚朴新寄主记录种.同时记录了藤壶蚧的天敌6种,其中寄生小蜂2种,瓢虫4种;厚朴新丽斑蚜的天敌昆虫8种.对藤壶蚧、厚朴枝角叶蜂和厚朴苗木根腐病等重要病虫害的发生规律进行了初步调查,同时提出了防治建议.

  5. Computer-Based Reading Programs: A Preliminary Investigation of Two Parent Implemented Programs with Students At-Risk for Reading Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.; Forbush, David

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, National Reading Panelists (NRP) reported that computer delivered reading instruction has potential for promoting the reading skills of students at-risk for reading failure. However, panelists also noted a scarcity of data present in the literature on the effects of computer-based reading instruction. This preliminary investigation…

  6. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial investigations on Melia Dubia Bark: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, Rocklands, P.B. No.20, Ootacamund - 643 001, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The various parts of Melia dubia (Meliaceae) plant was observed to be used by the local tribes of Nilgiris for various infections. There was no report on antimicrobial activity of Melia dubia. Therefore, a preliminary phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial investigations were carried out on different extracts of Melia dubia bark. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the bark were found to posses significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. A preliminary investigation of the IQs of 7-13 year-old children from an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.C.; Wang, R.Y.; Cheng, C.F.; Wei, W.S.; Tang, L.M.; Wang, Q.S.; Tang, D.X.; Liu, G.W.; He, G.D.; Li, S.L.

    2008-04-15

    The Chinese Binet IQ Test was used to investigate the IQs of 7-13 year old children suffering from dental fluorosis, living and attending school in an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning. The average IQ of these children was found to be markedly lower than in the control area, and the number of children classified as having low intelligence was significantly higher. For both groups, IQ and serum fluoride show a negative correlation (r = -0.205).

  8. A preliminary investigation of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (EC/LSS) for the space construction base manufacturing modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H. B.

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary data of the environmental control and life support subsystem for a space construction base manufacturing module was reported. A space processing module, which is capable of performing production biological experiments, was chosen as a baseline configuration. The primary assemblies and components considered for use were humidity and temperature control, ventilation fan, cabin fan, water separator, condensate storage, overboard dumping, distribution system, contaminant monitoring, cabin sensors, and fire and smoke detection.

  9. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) increases frontal-midline theta activity in the human EEG: a preliminary investigation of non-invasive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe; Berger, Barbara; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-02-19

    Rhythmical brain activity in the range between four and eight Hz acquired over frontal-midline EEG recording sites - so called frontal-midline theta activity - is regarded as one of the most prominent neural signatures of sustained attention. It is reported to parametrically increase with cognitive load and is thought to be generated in medial prefrontal cortex. Here we explored the possibility of using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over frontal sites to enhance frontal-midline theta activity and to increase sustained attention performance. We used a small preliminary sample to test a novel direct current stimulation electrode configuration by which we were able to significantly increase frontal-midline theta amplitude in a resting condition after the end of the stimulation period. Using standardised low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis the effect in the surface EEG was localised to right prefrontal and left medial prefrontal brain areas. Transcranial direct current stimulation did, however, not have any impact on behavioural performance during a sustained attention task. This most likely was due to a very fast washout of the stimulation's after effect on theta activity. Although these are only preliminary results from a rather small sample, this study demonstrates that transcranial direct current stimulation can be used to rather selectively enhance frontal-midline theta amplitude.

  10. Preliminary investigation of mercury in bone tissues of skua and penguin in Antarctica using AFS and Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence (SR-XRF)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Zhouqing; Cheng Bangbo; Sun Liguang; Huang Yuying; He Wei

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) was investigated in bone tissues of skua ( Catharacta maccormick) and penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) collected in the maritime Antarctic using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) method. The total levels of mercury in bone tissues of penguin and skua are much lower than those in other organs ( e. g. , kidney, liver). The toxic effects of mercury in bone tissues of seabirds in polar region are not known. We have used SR-XRF method to map the distribution of trace levels of mercury in bones. The levels of mercury are found to be enriched somewhere near the periosteal surface and/or endosteal surface. The distribution of mercury shows strongly correlation with that of some essential elements and probably poses negative effect on the bone metabolism inferring from the relationship of mercury with the other elements. These studies represent a first step toward understanding the toxic effects of mercury on bone of polar animals by suggesting the possible microscopic investigation.

  11. Preliminary Investigation on the Pathogeny, Diagnosis and Treatment of Chondromalacia Patella%髌骨软化症的病因、诊断和治疗探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶启彬; 吴志宏; 王以朋; 林进; 邱贵兴

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary investigation on chondromalacia patella at our department in recent years. A random cluster sampling survey covering 2743 normal persons was carried out. The prevalence rate is 36.2%. It was found that, applying transmission electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods on to cartilage tissues of the abnormal region, articular cartilage necrosis was in direct proportion with the abnormal pressure, while the restoration capability of local chondrocytes was in inverse proportion with pathological changes and the pressure. The chondromalacia patella was produced by repeated abnormal stress acting on the carilage. The stress derived from the uncongruency and the decreasing in the contact area of patellofemoral joint when the subluxation or tilt of patellae was caused by the abnormal anatomical and biomechanical relationship. The initial lesion was at the matrix of cartilage,the collagen network was disrupted, then proteoglycan was lost. The microenvironment of chondrocytes was changed with degradation of matrix. So the chon drocytes became degenerative and necrosis from superficial to deep layer, then feed back the matrix again. Finally, the total cartilage layer might disappear, and the bone under cartilage might proliferate. At late stage, the cartilage was completely destroyed and had no self-restorative ability. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. It is highly suggested axis radiograph of the knee with the tibiae tuberositas localization are helpful to early diagnosis. Furthermore, JKY-Muscle Rehabilitation Instrument is invented for non-operative therapy. It enhances muscle power by selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator to relieve pain and correct subluxation of patella with 90% efficiency (63% of excellent-effective rate) . In late stage, patellofemoral replacement is recommended. The excellent-effective rate is 86.3%.%总结近年来我科对髌骨软化症研

  12. 商標侵權案件定暫時狀態處分審酌因素之釋明──以eBay案後美國法發展與我國判決實務為中心 The Preliminary Showing on the Factors of Preliminary Injunction in Trademark Infringement Cases─Focusing on American Law after the eBay Case and Taiwan Court Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    范智達 Jr-Da Fan

    2015-12-01

    要求原告花費額外資源去釋明本案勝訴可能性以外之其他因素事實。 In eBay v. MercExchange (2006, the U.S. Supreme Court held that courts must apply the traditional four-factor test for injunctive relief in every case. These “principles of equity” required courts to employ the traditional four-factor test under which the plaintiff must demonstrate (1 a likelihood of success of the merits; (2 the existence of irreparable harm; (3 that the balance of hardships tilts in favor of injunctive relief; and (4 that granting an injunction would not harm the public interest. But when assessing whether a particular instance of trademark infringement resulted in “irreparable harm” U.S. federal courts almost uniformly presumed such irreparable harm upon a finding of likelihood of confusion. In fact, the eBay rules should not be used to eviscerate the normal presumption of irreparable harm that attaches upon a showing of liability in trademark cases. In our country when granting or denying preliminary injunction of trademark infringement cases, the plaintiff often provides a preliminary showing with regard to the existence of legal relation and trademark infringement documentary evidence, not actively providing the existence of irreparable harm, that the balance of hardships tilts in favor of injunctive relief and that an injunction is in the public interest. The court reviewing an application for preliminary injunction deliberates on the likelihood of success on the merits as the most important consideration. Compared with patent and copyright cases of the discretion of the preliminary injunction, the court mainly deliberates on the likelihood of success and the existence of irreparable harm as the most important factor. It is clear intellectual property cases, especially trademark cases on the set of preliminary injunction claim, do not require the plaintiff to take the burden of all factors of trial discretion in Taiwan. Because these harms to

  13. Preliminary investigations of the colonisation of upper respiratory tract tissues of infants using a paediatric formulation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, D A; Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Dawes, P J; Tagg, J R

    2008-12-01

    A powder preparation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been given to 19 young otitis media-prone children following a 3-day course of amoxicillin administered as a preliminary to ventilation tube placement. In two subjects, the use of strain K12 appeared to effect the expansion of an indigenous population of inhibitory S. salivarius. In other children, strain K12 colonisation extended beyond the oral cavity to also include the nasopharynx or adenoid tissue. The relatively low proportion (33%) of subjects that colonised was attributed to failure of the amoxicillin pre-treatment to sufficiently reduce the indigenous S. salivarius populations prior to dosing with strain K12 powder.

  14. Combined MRI and ³¹P-MRS investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y mouse model of nemaline myopathy show impaired muscle function and altered energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gineste

    Full Text Available Nemaline myopathy (NM is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1 account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y. Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and (31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1-150 Hz and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz. H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (-40% and specific (-25% maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40% and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level.

  15. Combined MRI and ³¹P-MRS investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y) mouse model of nemaline myopathy show impaired muscle function and altered energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineste, Charlotte; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Troter, Arnaud; Pecchi, Emilie; Cozzone, Patrick J; Hardeman, Edna C; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y). Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes) and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and (31)Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1-150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz). H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (-40%) and specific (-25%) maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40%) and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level.

  16. Preliminary investigation of the potential of four tropical emergent macrophytes for treatment of pre-treated pulp and papermill wastewater in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abira, M A; Ngirigacha, H W; van Bruggen, J J A

    2003-01-01

    The potential of four aquatic macrophytes for treatment of wastewater in constructed wetlands was investigated in bucket mesocosms at Pan African Paper Mills (E.A) Limited. The buckets were operated as semi-continuous batch reactors with reversed vertical flow for a period of 3 months. Four treatments were applied involving two hydraulic retention times (HRT) and two wastewater concentrations. Plants appear healthier and greener in treatments at HRT5 than at HRT10. Cyperus immensus and Typha domingensis had higher biomass gain compared to the other two species. Plant nitrogen and phosphorus content, based on dry weight, was lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning in all treatments for all species The removal efficiency achieved for COD ranged from 10 to 55% for planted buckets at HRT5 and 15 to 65% at HRT10 for similar buckets. The mean percentage COD removal in unplanted buckets was significantly lower than in planted ones. TSS removal efficiency ranged from 44-86%. Buckets planted with Typha exhibited the highest removal efficiency in all treatments. Those at HRT5 showed significantly higher removal efficiencies than those at HRT10 for all species. The results indicate that the plants are suitable for use in constructed wetlands for treatment of the wastewater provided the appropriate treatment is applied.

  17. The Health Show

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, David

    2011-01-01

    Dr David Swann interviewed on The Health Show, Series 1, Episode 5, 2011 for BBC World about the award-winning 21st Century Nursing Bag. BBC World News reaches 241million people every week, available in 296 million homes, 1.8 million hotel rooms and has the highest average viewership on a weekday of any international news channel. The Health Show is a new 26-part series for BBC World News covering the most important news stories from around the world.

  18. Preliminary X-ray investigations of several crystal forms of the ferripyoverdine FpvA outer membrane receptor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Christophe; Hoegy, Françoise; Pattus, Franc; Cobessi, David, E-mail: cobessi@esbs.u-strasbg.fr [Institut Gilbert-Laustriat UMR 7175 CNRS/Université Strasbourg I, Département Récepteurs et Protéines Membranaires, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Boulevard Sébastien Brandt, BP 10413, F-67412 Illkirch (France)

    2006-05-01

    The crystallization and X-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of the outer membrane pyoverdine transducer FpvA from P. aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine are described. The resolution of the crystals ranges from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form; all were obtained in the presence of C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent. Ferripyoverdine transport across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the pyoverdine receptor FpvA and the transcriptional regulation of FpvA involve interactions of the FpvA N-terminal TonB box and signalling domain with proteins from the inner membrane. Several crystallization conditions of FpvA–Pvd-Fe solubilized in C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent were obtained and X-ray data were collected from three crystal forms. The resolution limits range from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form. From preliminary analysis of the electron-density maps, the first full-length structure of an outer membrane receptor including a signalling domain should be determined.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan, E-mail: sankar@ccmb.res.in [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)

    2006-03-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AIM1g1, a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma (AIM1) protein from H. sapiens, is reported. AIM1g1 is a single βγ-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 Å and were found to belong to space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 Å. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  20. Win, Place, or Show?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Kappen, Philip; Zander, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the sources of technological growth of the multinational corporation. We conceptualize and shed empirical light on whether foreign investment strategies based on advanced greenfield subsidiaries, acquired subsidiaries, or a combination of both increase the likelihood...... strategies based on foreign acquisitions, as opposed to investment strategies based on greenfield establishments only. To the extent that MNC managers seek to enhance technological and strategic renewal through the expansion of foreign operations, the findings suggest that foreign investment strategies...

  1. A Fashion Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Story: The yearly fashion show day.The children take turns to walk on the stage and show the class their favorite clothes.Now it’s Joe’s and Phoebe’s turn.Joe walks on the stage and says,“My shorts are blue.Do you like my blue shorts?”On the other side of the stage, Phoebe is wearing her favorite pink skirt.“My skirt is pink.Do you like my pink skirt?”asks

  2. 大数据时代职务犯罪初查工作转型探索%The Transformation of Preliminary Investigation of Duty Crime under the Big Data Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊

    2016-01-01

    职务犯罪初查工作是一项综合性工作,靠检察机关传统初查模式获取基础信息和情报线索的数据量较为有限.在大数据、信息互联网时代,检察机关应抓住变革机会,通过构建与政府各部门的协作关系,建立适合自侦工作需要的各类数据信息库.在此基础上,设计符合侦查实战需求的侦查信息系统,通过运用话单、账单等智能化数据分析系统,实现对相关数据信息的动态查询和关联分析.并根据案件类型不同,实施标准化与个性化相结合的精细化初查策略.%As a comprehensive work, the preliminary investigation of duty crime is difficult to commit for the limit basic information and intelligence clues collected by traditional mode. In the era of Big Data and Internet, procuratorial organs should seize the chance to change by building collaborative relationships with government departments to establish all kinds of data base suitable for self investigation. The investigation information system is to be designed on this basis. Digitized data analysis system is applied to realize the dynamic query and analysis of related data information like bills. According to different types of cases, meticulous preliminary investigation strategies of standardization and individuation is to be formulated.

  3. On not showing scalps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    proposed by Janet Marstine, the editor of the Routledge Companion to Museum Ethics, I show how the museum succeeded in engaging users in questions of museum ethics. However, this specific debate on human remains in museums developed into an encounter between a global, museological discourse...

  4. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  5. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  6. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  7. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  8. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  9. Preliminary clinical and pharmacologic investigation of photodynamic therapy with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 for primary or metastatic cutaneous cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy James Kinsella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT for cutaneous malignancies has been found to be an effective treatment with a range of photosensitizers. The phthalocyanine Pc 4 was developed initially for PDT of primary or metastatic cancers in the skin. A Phase I trial was initiated to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of systemically administered Pc 4 followed by red light (Pc 4-PDT in cutaneous malignancies. A dose-escalation study of Pc 4 (starting dose 0.135 mg/m2 at a fixed light fluence (135 J/cm2 of 675-nm light was initiated in patients with primary or metastatic cutaneous malignancies with the aim of establishing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD. Blood samples were taken at intervals over the first 60 hours post-PDT for pharmacokinetic analysis, and patients were evaluated for toxicity and tumor response. A total of 3 patients (2 females with breast cancer and 1 male with cutaneous lymphoma were enrolled and treated over the dose range of 0.135 mg/m2 (first dose level to 0.54 mg/m2 (third dose level. Grade 3 erythema within the photoirradiated area was induced in patient 2, and transient tumor regression in patient 3, in spite of the low photosensitizer doses. Pharmacokinetic observations fit a 3-compartment exponential elimination model with an initial rapid distribution phase (~0.2 hrs and relatively long terminal elimination phase (~28 hrs, Because of restrictive exclusion criteria and resultant poor accrual, the trial was closed before MTD could be reached. While the limited accrual to this initial Phase I study did not establish the MTD nor establish a complete pharmacokinetic and safety profile of intravenous Pc 4-PDT, these preliminary data support further Phase I testing of this new photosensitizer.

  10. Additive manufacturing technology (direct metal laser sintering) as a novel approach to fabricate functionally graded titanium implants: preliminary investigation of fabrication parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Starr, Thomas L; Harris, Bryan T; Zandinejad, Amirali; Morton, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preliminary findings of the mechanical properties of functionally graded titanium with controlled distribution of porosity and a reduced Young's modulus on the basis of a computeraided design (CAD) file, using the rapid-prototyping, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. Sixty specimens of Ti-6Al-4V were created using a DMLS machine (M270) following the standard for tensile testing of metals. One group was fabricated with only 170 W of laser energy to create fully dense specimens (control group). The remaining specimens all featured an outer fully dense "skin" layer and a partially sintered porous inner "core" region. The outer "skin" of each specimen was scanned at 170 W and set at a thickness of 0.35, 1.00, or 1.50 mm for different specimen groups. The inner "core" of each specimen was scanned at a lower laser power (43 or 85 W). The partially sintered core was clearly visible in all specimens, with somewhat greater porosity with the lower laser power. However, the amount of porosity in the core region was not related to the laser power alone; thinner skin layers resulted in higher porosity for the same power values in the core structure. The lowest Young's modulus achieved, 35 GPa, is close to that of bone and was achieved with a laser power of 43 W and a skin thickness of 0.35 mm, producing a core that comprised 74% of the total volume. Additive manufacturing technology may provide an efficient alternative way to fabricate customized dental implants based on a CAD file with a functionally graded structure that may minimize stress shielding and improve the long-term performance of dental implants.

  11. Preliminary clinical and pharmacologic investigation of photodynamic therapy with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer pc 4 for primary or metastatic cutaneous cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Timothy James; Baron, Elma D; Colussi, Valdir C; Cooper, Kevin D; Hoppel, Charles L; Ingalls, Stephen T; Kenney, Malcolm E; Li, Xiaolin; Oleinick, Nancy L; Stevens, Seth R; Remick, Scot C

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cutaneous malignancies has been found to be an effective treatment with a range of photosensitizers. The phthalocyanine Pc 4 was developed initially for PDT of primary or metastatic cancers in the skin. A Phase I trial was initiated to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of systemically administered Pc 4 followed by red light (Pc 4-PDT) in cutaneous malignancies. A dose-escalation study of Pc 4 (starting dose 0.135 mg/m(2)) at a fixed light fluence (135 J/cm(2) of 675-nm light) was initiated in patients with primary or metastatic cutaneous malignancies with the aim of establishing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Blood samples were taken at intervals over the first 60 h post-PDT for pharmacokinetic analysis, and patients were evaluated for toxicity and tumor response. A total of three patients (two females with breast cancer and one male with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) were enrolled and treated over the dose range of 0.135 mg/m(2) (first dose level) to 0.54 mg/m(2) (third dose level). Grade 3 erythema within the photoirradiated area was induced in patient 2, and transient tumor regression in patient 3, in spite of the low photosensitizer doses. Pharmacokinetic observations fit a three-compartment exponential elimination model with an initial rapid distribution phase (∼0.2 h) and relatively long terminal elimination phase (∼28 h), Because of restrictive exclusion criteria and resultant poor accrual, the trial was closed before MTD could be reached. While the limited accrual to this initial Phase I study did not establish the MTD nor establish a complete pharmacokinetic and safety profile of intravenous Pc 4-PDT, these preliminary data support further Phase I testing of this new photosensitizer.

  12. Prospective Preliminary In Vitro Investigation of a Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Conjugated with Ligand CD80 and VEGF Antibody As a Targeted Drug Delivery System for the Induction of Cell Death in Rodent Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, AnneMarie Kay; Gambino, Jen M; Nguyen, Vina; Nelson, Zach; Szasz, Taylor; Liao, Jun; Williams, Lakiesha; Bulla, Sandra; Prabhu, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Target drug deliveries using nanotechnology are a novel consideration in the treatment of cancer. We present herein an in vitro mouse model for the preliminary investigation of the efficacy of an iron oxide nanoparticle complex conjugated to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody and ligand cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80) for the purpose of eventual translational applications in the treatment of human osteosarcoma (OSA). The 35 nm diameter iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are functionalized with an n-hydroxysuccinimide biocompatible coating and are conjugated on the surface to proteins VEGF antibody and ligand CD80. Combined, these proteins have the ability to target OSA cells and induce apoptosis. The proposed system was tested on a cancerous rodent osteoblast cell line (ATCCTM(NPO) CRL-2836) at four different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 μg/mL) of ligand CD80 alone, VEGF antibody alone, and a combination thereof (CD80+VEGF). Systems were implemented every 24 h over different sequential treatment timelines: 24, 48, and 72 h, to find the optimal protein concentration required for a reduction in cell proliferation. Results demonstrated that a combination of ligand CD80 and VEGF antibody was consistently most effective at reducing aberrant osteoblastic proliferation for both the 24- and 72-h timelines. At 48 h, however, an increase in cell proliferation was documented for the 0.1 and 1 μg/mL groups. For the 24- and 72-h tests, concentrations of 1.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF and 0.1 μg/mL of VEGF antibody were most effective. Concentrations of 10.0 and 100.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF reduced cell proliferation, but not as remarkably as the 1.0 μg/mL concentration. In addition, cell proliferation data showed that multiple treatments (72-h test) induced cell death in the osteoblasts better than a single treatment. Future targeted drug delivery system research includes trials in OSA cell lines from greater phylum species having

  13. Prospective Preliminary In Vitro Investigation of a Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Conjugated with Ligand CD80 and VEGF Antibody As a Targeted Drug Delivery System for the Induction of Cell Death in Rodent Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Kay Kovach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Target drug deliveries using nanotechnology are a novel consideration in the treatment of cancer. We present herein an in vitro mouse model for the preliminary investigation of the efficacy of an iron oxide nanoparticle complex conjugated to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibody and ligand cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80 for the purpose of eventual translational applications in the treatment of human osteosarcoma (OSA. The 35 nm diameter iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are functionalized with an n-hydroxysuccinimide biocompatible coating and are conjugated on the surface to proteins VEGF antibody and ligand CD80. Combined, these proteins have the ability to target OSA cells and induce apoptosis. The proposed system was tested on a cancerous rodent osteoblast cell line (ATCCTMNPO CRL-2836 at four different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 μg/mL of ligand CD80 alone, VEGF antibody alone, and a combination thereof (CD80+VEGF. Systems were implemented every 24 h over different sequential treatment timelines: 24, 48, and 72 h, to find the optimal protein concentration required for a reduction in cell proliferation. Results demonstrated that a combination of ligand CD80 and VEGF antibody was consistently most effective at reducing aberrant osteoblastic proliferation for both the 24- and 72-h timelines. At 48 h, however, an increase in cell proliferation was documented for the 0.1 and 1 μg/mL groups. For the 24- and 72-h tests, concentrations of 1.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF and 0.1 μg/mL of VEGF antibody were most effective. Concentrations of 10.0 and 100.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF reduced cell proliferation, but not as remarkably as the 1.0 μg/mL concentration. In addition, cell proliferation data showed that multiple treatments (72-h test induced cell death in the osteoblasts better than a single treatment. Future targeted drug delivery system research includes trials in OSA cell lines from greater phylum

  14. RADIOECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE SEA OF JAPAN AND THE NORTH-WEST PART OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN AFTER THE ACCIDENT AT THE NPP “FUKUSHIMA-1” IN JAPAN: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Nikitin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from April 22 until May 20, 2011, an expedition aboard the research vessel “Pavel Gordienko” (Russian Federation was carried out to the Sea of Japan and the Kuril-Kamchatka region of the Pacific Ocean. The main aim of the expedition was to study radioactive contamination of the atmospheric air and sea water after the accident at the NPP “Fukushima-1” in Japan. This paper provides preliminary results on the activity concentration of 137Cs and 134Cs in twenty four samples of sea water. The activity concentrations of 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs, and 7Be for twenty nine samples of atmospheric aerosols, which were sampled during the expedition, are also given. Despite the preliminary character of the results of this study, a generic conclusion on a negligible radiological impact of the anthropogenic gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides for the Far-Eastern sea areas of Russia can be reached. The investigations have been supported by a grant from the Russian Geographical Society.

  15. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  16. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  17. Investigation of a hydrological system related to the stability of slope sediments off the Nice Aiport, Ligurian Sea - preliminary data and a sketch for a MSP drilling proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P.; Stegmann, S.; Sultan, N.; Sage, F.; Migeon, S.; Kopf, A.

    2009-04-01

    The sedimentary instability of submarine slopes poses a major geohazard and threatens coastal infrastructure both on- and offshore. The Ligurian Margin, Southern France, represents such a potentially unstable slope where factors favouring instability include seismicity, groundwater charging, presence of weak minerals, high sediment accumulation rates, anthropogenic impact by construction, and slope oversteepening. On the 16th of October 1979 a major submarine landslide (~8.7 km2) affected the coastal system offshore Nice and resulted in destruction of an embankment at the Nice airport, a debris flow cutting two submarine cables tens of kilometres away from the sliding area, and a tsunami wave of 2-3 m at the nearby coast. It was proposed several years ago that overpressuring linked to the hydrogeological condition could have been the trigger mechanism of the Nice Airport failure, and seawater composition in this area further suggested that fresh ground water is released offshore by coastal aquifers. The hydrogeological triggering model is also supported by sedimentary and seismic data indicating that gently seaward-dipping permeable layers of sediment may provide aquifer pathways down to a maximum depth of 150 m. An investigation of the superficial sediments (max. 30 mbsf) was recently performed in close collaboration between France (e.g. PRISME cruise with RV L'Atalante, 2007) and Germany (e.g. M73 cruise with RV Meteor, 2007). The study included geophysical acquisition, in situ pore pressure and shear strength measurements (CPTU devices, Penfeld penetrometer) as well as gravity coring. For long- and mid-term measurements, piezometers, which acquire the pore pressure at five different depth levels within the sediment, were installed by IFREMER Brest, France. Short-term measurements were carried out with the marine shallow-water FF-CPTU probe by the MARUM Bremen, Germany, while geochemical analysis was performed on pore water extracted from the cores. The main

  18. Public medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  19. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  20. On Preliminary Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  1. Preliminary investigation into the simulation of a laser-induced plasma by means of a floating object in a spark gap

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    West, NJ

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an orthogonally laser-triggered spark gap is investigated. The laser beam is directed in the region of a 30mm spark gap at 90 degrees to the gap and focused on the axis. The influence of plasma position within the spark gap...

  2. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  3. Preliminary Investigation of Seasonal Flow Patterns in the Somali Current and Arabian Sea Using a Synthesis of Surface Drifter and Satellite Altimeter D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    largely governed by Ekman pumping over the equatorial gyre to the south of the equator. The mean surface velocity of the SECC from this 18-year time...of easterly wind stress south of the equator (Shenoi et al. 1999; Schott and McCreary 2001) (Fig. 2). In fact, southward Ekman currents at the surface...a) Ekman and (b) geostrophic velocities. The top panels show the principal component time series and the bottom panels show the spatial am- plitudes

  4. Tactile thresholds are preserved yet complex sensory function is impaired over the lumbar spine of chronic non-specific low back pain patients. A preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wand, BM; Di Pietro, FS; George, PJ; O'Connell, NE

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate impairments in sensory function in chronic non-specific low back pain patients and the relationship between any impairment and the clinical features of the condition. Design: A cross-sectional case-control study. Setting: Laboratory based study. Participants: Nineteen chronic non-specific low back pain patients and nineteen healthy controls. Main Outcome measures: Tactile threshold, two point discrimination distance and accuracy at a task involving recognizing lett...

  5. [A preliminary evaluation of mental status and an investigation of occupational health knowledge demand in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S Q; Zhang, Q; Zhu, X H; Sun, K; Chen, S Z; Liu, A G; Luo, G L; Huang, W

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the mental status, level of occupational health knowledge, health behaviors, and occupational health knowledge demand in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants, and to provide a basis for formulating protective measures of occupational health for operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants. Methods: A cluster sampling was performed in regionally representative wind power plants in the wind power industry from May 2014 to June 2015, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and a self-made evaluation questionnaire were used to investigate the general status, mental health, and occupational health knowledge demand in 160 operating and maintenance workers. Results: Of all respondents, 26.9% had mental health issues. The awareness rate of infectious disease knowledge and preventive measures was 11.9%. Of all workers, 96.5% wanted to know the occupational hazard factors in the workplace, and 96.3% wanted to get the knowledge of the prevention of related diseases. Conclusion: Mental health issues in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants cannot be neglected and there is a high demand for occupational health services and related knowledge. Comprehensive intervention measures for health promotion in the workplace should be adopted to improve working environment, enhance individual mental health education, increase the level of occupational health management, and protect the health of workers.

  6. Stigma, discrimination, empowerment and social networks: a preliminary investigation of their influence on subjective quality of life in a Swedish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Bertil; Hansson, Lars; Wentz, Elisabet; Björkman, Tommy

    2008-01-01

    Studies investigating the importance of social network, empowerment and experiences of stigma on subjective quality of life among persons with mental illness are rare. This study aimed to investigate beliefs of devaluation/discrimination, actual rejection experiences, empowerment, social network and the relationship of these factors to subjective quality of life among subjects with mental illness. A cross-sectional study assessing beliefs of devaluation/discrimination, actual rejection experiences, empowerment, social network and subjective quality of life was performed on 150 subjects with mental illness. The factors most prominently related to subjective quality of life were overall empowerment and overall social network. For a subgroup of subjects suffering from psychotic disorders there was a significant negative relationship between subjective quality of life and rejection experiences. This group also reported more frequent rejection experiences. The findings indicate that persons with mental illness are a heterogeneous group with regard to the influence of social network, stigma and empowerment on subjective quality of life. The negative impact of actual rejection experiences might express that, in order to increase subjective quality of life, stigma must be addressed as a separate and important factor in its own right.

  7. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 4; Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Saari, Martin J.

    1947-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the performance and operational characteristics of the TG-100A gas turbine-propeller engine, conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel, the performance characteristics of the compressor and the turbine were obtained. The data presented were obtained at a compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio of 1.00 for altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm, and turbine-inlet temperatures from 1400 to 2100R. The highest compressor pressure ratio was 6.15 at a corrected air flow of 23.7 pounds per second and a corrected turbine-inlet temperature of 2475R. Peak adiabatic compressor efficiencies of about 77 percent were obtained near the value of corrected air flow corresponding to a corrected engine speed of 13,000 rpm. This maximum efficiency may be somewhat low, however, because of dirt accumulations on the compressor blades. A maximum adiabatic turbine efficiency of 81.5 percent was obtained at rated engine speed for all altitudes and turbine-inlet temperatures investigated.

  8. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 4; Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Saari, Martin J.

    1948-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the performance and operational characteristics of the axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine, conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel, the performance characteristics of the compressor and the turbine were obtained. The data presented were obtained at a compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio of 1.00 for altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm, and turbine-inlet temperatures from 1400 to 2100 R. The highest compressor pressure ratio obtained was 6.15 at a corrected air flow of 23.7 pounds per second and a corrected turbine-inlet temperature of 2475 R. Peak adiabatic compressor efficiencies of about 77 percent were obtained near the value of corrected air flow corresponding to a corrected engine speed of 13,000 rpm. This maximum efficiency may be somewhat low, however, because of dirt accumulations on the compressor blades. A maximum adiabatic turbine efficiency of 81.5 percent was obtained at rated engine speed for all altitudes and turbine-inlet temperatures investigated.

  9. A preliminary investigation of microcracks in the overcored borehole 210-020-RST1, 240 level of the Underground Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, R.G.

    1992-05-01

    A section of borehole 210-020-RST1 was sampled and thin sections were cut in order to investigate the occurrence of microcracks within the borehole. The petrology of the sample was described and the presence of microcracks was noted. In total, 1894 microcracks were recorded during the investigation. Microcrack sets were defined on the basis of filling type (or lack of filling) and three-dimensional orientations attributed to the microcrack sets based on structural observations. Many microcrack sets are shown to have similar orientations to mesoscopic fractures observed within the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) lease area and within the URL subsurface. The relative age of observed microcracks, in terms of fillings, is from oldest to youngest: fluid-inclusion-filled fractures; unknown filled fractures; chlorite-filled fractures; and coeval in formation, chlorite-, hematite- and sericite-filled fractures. Fractures without filling are considered the youngest. Plates documenting some observed fractures are included. Biases in the generation and interpretation of the data are discussed and alternatives are mentioned. (auth)

  10. Survey of preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: a retrospective preliminary investigation of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Tsuruwa, Miho; Ueki, Yuzuru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The 2011, magnitude (M) 9, Great East Japan Earthquake and massive tsunami caused widespread devastation and left approximately 18,500 people dead or missing. The incidence of preventable disaster death (PDD) during the Great East Japan Earthquake remains to be clarified; the present study investigated PDD at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to improve disaster medical systems. A total of 25 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) that were disaster base hospitals (DBHs), or had at least 20 patient deaths between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, were selected to participate based on the results of a previous study. A database was created using the medical records of all patient deaths (n=868), and PDD was determined from discussion with 10 disaster health care professionals. A total of 102 cases of PDD were identified at the participating hospitals. The rate of PDD was higher at coastal hospitals compared to inland hospitals (62/327, 19.0% vs 40/541, 7.4%; Pcause of PDD, the PDD rate was higher at GHs compared to DBHs (24/316, 7.6% vs 21/552, 3.8%; Pcauses of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, disrupted lifelines, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters at coastal hospitals, and delayed medical intervention at inland hospitals. Meanwhile, investigation of PDD causes based on type of medical institution demonstrated that, while delayed medical intervention and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters were the most common causes at DBHs, insufficient medical resources and disrupted lifelines were prevalent causes at GHs. Preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at coastal hospitals. Insufficient resources (at GHs), environmental factors (at coastal hospitals), and delayed medical intervention (at all hospitals) constituted the major potential

  11. Preliminary Investigation on the Useful Chemicals obtained from High-Temperature and High-Pressure Water Treatment of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis Obutus Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Daimon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of utilizing residual forest biomass to produce valuable chemicals was investigated. An outer layer of a bark of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obutusa tree, a Japanese cypress, was used as a sample material. Experiments were carried out in a semibatch reactor apparatus that allows the study of the effect of reaction temperatures in a single run. Analysis of the products by GC-MS reveals formation of useful compounds such as furfural, some aromatic compounds (1,3-di-tert-butyl benzene and 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol, and fatty acids (myristic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid. Keywords: fatty acids, furfural, high temperature water treatment, hinoki, residual biomass

  12. Radiolabeling of new generation magnetic poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanoparticles with (131) I and preliminary investigation of its radiopharmaceutical potential using albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcıbaşı, Uğur; Demiroğlu, Hasan; Ediz, Melis; Akalın, Hilmi Arkut; Özçalışkan, Emir; Şenay, Hilal; Türkcan, Ceren; Özcan, Yeşim; Akgöl, Sinan; Avcıbaşı, Nesibe

    2013-12-01

    In this study, N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine (MAPA) containing poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (HEMA)-based magnetic poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanobeads [mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)] were radiolabeled with (131) I [(131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)], and the radiopharmaceutical potential of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was investigated. Quality control studies were carried out by radiochromatographic method to be sure that (131) I binded to mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) efficiently. In this sense, binding yield of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was found to be about 95-100%. In addition to this, optimum radiodination conditions for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were determined by thin-layer radiochromatography studies. In addition to thin-layer radiochromatography studies, lipophilicity (partition coefficient) and stability studies for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were realized. It was determined that lipophilicities of mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) and (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were 0.12 ± 0.01 and 1.79 ± 0.76 according to ACD/logP algorithm program, respectively. Stability of the radiolabeled compound was investigated in time intervals given as 0, 30, 60, 180, and 1440 min. It was found that (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) existed as a stable complex in rat serum within 60 min. After that, biodistribution and scintigraphy studies were carried out by using albino Wistar rats. It was determined that the most important (131) I activity uptake was observed in the breast, the ovary, and the pancreas. Scintigraphy studies well supported biodistribution results.

  13. Preliminary investigation of human serum albumin-Vβ inhibition on toxic shock syndrome induced by staphylococcus enterotoxin B in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qifeng; Li, Lin; Pian, Yaya; Hao, Huaijie; Zheng, Yuling; Zang, Yating; Jiang, Hua; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) is a superantigen that can induce massive activation of T cells with specific Vβ and inflammatory cytokine cascades, which mediate shock. To date, no SEB vaccine has been developed for preventing toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of a fusion protein human serum albumin-Vβ (HSA-Vβ) on TSS induced by SEB. Compared with Vβ, the preparation of HSA-Vβ was much easier to handle owing to its solubility. Affinity testing showed that HSA-Vβ had high affinity for SEB. In vitro results showed that HSA-Vβ could effectively inhibit interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, in vivo, HSA-Vβ reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in the serum and protected mice from SEB lethal challenge when administered simultaneously with SEB or 30 min after SEB. In summary, we simplified the preparation of Vβ by fusion with HSA, creating the HSA-Vβ protein, which effectively inhibited cytokine production and protected mice from lethal challenge with SEB. These data indicated that HSA-Vβ may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SEB-induced TSS.

  14. MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors with endoluminal, intraluminal and interstitial catheter-based ultrasound devices: preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena J.; Jones, Peter; Hensley, Daniel; Holbrook, Andrew; Plata, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris J.

    2013-02-01

    Image-guided thermal interventions have been proposed for potential palliative and curative treatments of pancreatic tumors. Catheter-based ultrasound devices offer the potential for temporal and 3D spatial control of the energy deposition profile. The objective of this study was to apply theoretical and experimental techniques to investigate the feasibility of endogastric, intraluminal and transgastric catheter-based ultrasound for MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. The transgastric approach involves insertion of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator (array of 1.5 mm OD x 10 mm transducers, 360° or sectored 180°, ~7 MHz frequency, 13-14G cooling catheter) directly into the pancreas, either endoscopically or via image-guided percutaneous placement. An intraluminal applicator, of a more flexible but similar construct, was considered for endoscopic insertion directly into the pancreatic or biliary duct. An endoluminal approach was devised based on an ultrasound transducer assembly (tubular, planar, curvilinear) enclosed in a cooling balloon which is endoscopically positioned within the stomach or duodenum, adjacent to pancreatic targets from within the GI tract. A 3D acoustic bio-thermal model was implemented to calculate acoustic energy distributions and used a FEM solver to determine the transient temperature and thermal dose profiles in tissue during heating. These models were used to determine transducer parameters and delivery strategies and to study the feasibility of ablating 1-3 cm diameter tumors located 2-10 mm deep in the pancreas, while thermally sparing the stomach wall. Heterogeneous acoustic and thermal properties were incorporated, including approximations for tumor desmoplasia and dynamic changes during heating. A series of anatomic models based on imaging scans of representative patients were used to investigate the three approaches. Proof of concept (POC) endogastric and transgastric applicators were fabricated and experimentally

  15. Preliminary investigation of the effects of topical mixture of Lawsonia inermis L. and Ricinus communis L. leaves extract in treatment of osteoarthritis using MIA model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Atousa; Sahranavard, Shamim; Gharagozlou, Mohammad Javad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-05-03

    Many plants have been introduced in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of different joint problems including knee pain. Topical application of the mixture of Lawsonia inermis L. leaves (Henna) with aqueous extract of Ricinus communis L. leaves have been mentioned to have significant effects on reducing knee pain. The present study was designed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the mixture of these two herbs in male rats. We induced knee osteoarthritis as a model of chronic pain by intra-articular injection of mono sodium iodoacetate (MIA). Mechanical allodynia, hotplate latency test, spontaneous movements and gait analysis were used for the evaluation of analgesic activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by measuring the diameter and the volume of the injected paw compared to contralateral paw. These tests were monitored at days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of MIA administration. Histopathological evaluations were also used to assess the efficacy of the treatment on inflammation and lesions in knee tissue. In all tests, diclofenac topical gel was used as a positive control. The herbal extracts, their mixture, and vehicle or diclofenac gel were administered daily for 14 days by topical route. The mixture of these two extracts significantly reduced the knee joint width and volume of the injected paws and also improved foot prints in gait analysis after 3 days of MIA injection. Analysis of mechanical allodynia (after 21 days), hotplate latency test (after 10 days), spontaneous movements (after 7 days) and in positive control group (after 3 days in all tests and in mechanical allodynia after 14 days) compared to the vehicle group, showed significant effects. Topical usage of the selected formulation made significant histopathological changes on the knee of the rats. Compared to the vehicle group, the tests and diclofenac groups showed less reactions characterized by negligible edema and a few scattered inflammatory lymphoid

  16. Preliminary results of the investigation “Women and Men Entrepreneurs in Science and Technology in Costa Rica: a contrast of gender realities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ferreto-Gutiérrez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The project is an investigation that seeks to demons­trate the contrasts of gender entrepreneurship on companies focused in Science and Technology in Costa Rica. By consulting secondary sources and experts on the topic, and deepen the field of Science and Technology. We have found a lack of documented information to take appropriate actions to guide the various actors involved at the level of Government, private sector and academia. In 2010, the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Commerce (MEIC launches two public policy of promoting SMEs and other enterprises to which state the issue of gender as a crosscutting issue. In addition, the Institute Tecnolológico Costa Rica (ITCR has defined support for SMEs and entre­preneurship as an institutional policy and transverse axis of its academic work (Institutional III Congress, which motivates venture into this line of research. Based on the above, this research proposal pretend at laying the foundations to make a gender contrast in entrepreneurs and their initiatives in science and technology and determine whether the differences or similarities impact on the performance of their companies.

  17. Geochemical investigation of Sasa tailings dam material and its influence on the Lake Kalimanci surficial sediments (Republic of Macedonia – preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vrhovnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at investigating the mineralogical characteristics of the tailings material and heavy metal contents of the tailings material deposited close to the Sasa Pb-Zn Mine in the Osogovo Mountains (eastern Macedonia and on its possible impact on Lake Kalimanci. The mineral composition of Sasa Mine tailings materialis dominated by quartz, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, magnetite and others. Geochemical analysis was performed in a certified commercial laboratory for the following elements: Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Cd, Sb, Bi, Ag, Al, Fe, Mn, S.Analysis revealed very high concentrations of toxic metals in the tailing material – with average values [ mg kg-1]:Mo 2.9, Cu 279, Pb 3975, Zn 5320, Ni 30, As 69, Cd 84, Sb 4.2, Bi 9.4 and Ag 4.1. The multi-element contamination of Sasa Mine tailings material was assigned a pollution index greater of 15, indicating that the tailings material from Sasa Mine contains very high amounts of toxic metals and represents a high environmental risk for surrounding ecosystems. For this reason the influence of discharged tailings dam material into Lake Kalimanci which liesapproximately 12 km lower than Sasa Mine, was also established. Calculated pollution index values for Lake Kalimancisediments vary from 21 to 65 and for Sasa mine surficial tailings dam material from 15 to 60.

  18. Preliminary investigation of polystyrene/MoS{sub 2}-Oleylamine polymer composite for potential application as low-dielectric material in microelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Giovanni, E-mail: glandi@unisa.it [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB-CNR), P. Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via G. Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Altavilla, Claudia; Iannace, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.sorrentino@cnr.it [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB-CNR), P. Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Ciambelli, Paolo [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via G. Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Centre NANO-MATES, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Via G. Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Neitzert, Heinrich C. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via G. Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Insulating materials play a vital role in the design and performance of electrical systems for both steady and transient state conditions. Among the other properties, also in this field, polymer nanocomposites promise to offer exciting improvements. Many studies in the last decade has witnessed significant developments in the area of nano-dielectric materials and significant effects of nano-scale fillers on electric, thermal and mechanical properties of polymeric materials have been observed. However, the developments of new and advanced materials to be used the miniaturization of electronic devices fabrication require extensive studies on electrical insulation characteristics of these materials before they can be used in commercial systems. In this work, Polystyrene (PS) composites were prepared by the blend solution method using MoS{sub 2}@Oleylamine nanosheets as filler. The dielectric properties of the resulting comoposite have been investigated at 300K and in the frequency range between 1000 Hz and 1 MHz. The addition of the MoS{sub 2}@Oleylamine nanosheets leads to a decreasing of the relative dielectric constant and of the electrical conductivity measured in the voltage range between ±500V. Thanks to a possibility to tune the electrical permittivity with the control of MoS{sub 2} concentration, these materials could be used as a low-dielectric material in the microelectronics applications.

  19. Preliminary investigation on the thermal conversion of automotive shredder residue into value-added products: Graphitic carbon and nano-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyas, Mohannad; Pahlevani, Farshid; Handoko, Wilson; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2016-04-01

    Large increasing production volumes of automotive shredder residue (ASR) and its hazardous content have raised concerns worldwide. ASR has a desirable calorific value, making its pyrolysis a possible, environmentally friendly and economically viable solution. The present work focuses on the pyrolysis of ASR at temperatures between 950 and 1550°C. Despite the high temperatures, the energy consumption can be minimized as the decomposition of ASR can be completed within a short time. In this study, the composition of ASR was investigated. ASR was found to contain about 3% Ti and plastics of high calorific value such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polycarbonate and polyurethane. Based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of ASR, the non-isothermal degradation kinetic parameters were determined using Coats-Redfern's and Freeman and Carroll methods. The evolved gas analysis indicated that the CH4 was consumed by the reduction of some oxides in ASR. The reduction reactions and the presence of Ti, silicates, C and N in ASR at 1550°C favor the formation of specific ceramics such as TiN and SiC. The presence of nano-ceramics along with a highly-crystalline graphitic carbon in the pyrolysis residues obtained at 1550°C was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Raman imaging microscope (RIM) analyses.

  20. Preliminary investigation of methylation status of microRNA-124a in spinal cords of rat fetuses with congenital spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Pan; Li, Lin; Zhang, Da; Liu, Qiu-Liang; Chen, Xin-Rang; Yang, He-Ying; Fan, Yingzhong; Wang, Jia-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the expression of microRNA-124a and its methylation status in the spinal cords of rats with congenital spina bifida versus rats with normal fetuses. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to compare the expression of microRNA-124a in the spinal cords of 42 rats with all-trans retinoic acid induced congenital spina bifida and 42 rats with normal fetuses. The DNA methylation status in the promoter region of miRNA-124a was detected using methylation specific-PCR. Compared with rats with normal fetuses, expression of microRNA-124a was significantly decreased in rats with congenital spina bifida fetuses. The percentages of spinal cords with DNA hypermethylation in the microRNA-124a promoter were 81% and 14% in the congenital spina bifida and normal control groups, respectively. The difference was statistically significant. Further apoptosis testing revealed increased apoptosis cell numbers in the congenital spina bifida samples. Meanwhile, the phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase protein expression level dramatically decreased in the congenital spina bifida samples. Aberrant DNA methylation was responsible for down-regulation of microRNA-124a by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, suggesting that microRNA-124a is a potential diagnostic biomarker in congenital spina bifida.

  1. A preliminary investigation regarding the effect of tennis grunting: does white noise during a tennis shot have a negative impact on shot perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Sinnett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a growing chorus of critics who complain that many of the top-ranked professional tennis players who grunt when they hit the ball gain an unfair advantage because the sound of the grunt interferes with their opponent's game. However, there is no scientific evidence to support this claim. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored this potential detrimental effect of grunting by presenting videos of a tennis player hitting a ball to either side of a tennis court; the shot either did, or did not, contain a brief sound that occurred at the same time as contact. The participants' task was to respond as quickly as possible, indicating whether the ball was being hit to the left- or right-side of the court. The results were unequivocal: The presence of an extraneous sound interfered with a participants' performance, making their responses both slower and less accurate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that a grunting player has a competitive edge on the professional tennis tour. The mechanism that underlies this effect is a topic for future investigation. Viable alternatives are discussed. For example, the possibility that the interfering auditory stimulus masks the sound of the ball being struck by the racket or it distracts an opponent's attention away from the sound of the ball.

  2. Photothermal response of CVD synthesized carbon (nano)spheres/aqueous nanofluids for potential application in direct solar absorption collectors: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Brundavanam, Sridevi; Shah, Monaliben; Laava, Iafeta; Fawcett, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Direct-absorption solar collectors have the potential to offer an unlimited source of renewable energy with minimal environmental impact. Unfortunately, their performance is limited by the absorption efficiency of the working fluid. Nanoparticles of functionalized carbon nanospheres (CNS) have the potential to improve the photothermal properties of the working fluid. CNS are produced by the pyrolysis of acetylene gas in a tube-based electric furnace/chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The reaction takes place at 1000°C in the presence of nitrogen gas without the use of a catalyst. The synthesized CNS were examined and characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet-visible analysis. The CNS powders with a mean particle size of 210 nm were then functionalized using tetraethylammonium hydroxide ([C2H5]4 N[OH]) and used to produce a series of aqueous nanofluids with varying mass content. The photothermal response of both the nanofluids and films composed of CNS were investigated under 1000 W/m(2) solar irradiation.

  3. Report of Investigation and Preliminary Study on Control of Rodents%落叶松鼠害调查与防治研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中兵

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, with the development of artificial forest area, Forest rodent is becoming more and more serious. They bite the tree and sapling, and damage the roots, so serious affect the effect of afforestation and forest ecological function. Rodents, forest fires and deforestation are known as the three evils of forest. Through the investigation of rodent in larch forest of state-owned forest station, Kai county, Chongqing City, the author strived to find out the law of harm, and find effective control measures of rodents.%近年来,随着人工林面积不断扩大,森林鼠害日趋严重,其啃咬成树、幼树苗,伤害苗木的根系,严重影响造林成效以及森林的生态功能。与森林火灾、乱砍滥伐并称为“森林三害”,通过对重庆市开县国有马云林场落叶松林种鼠害调查,力求摸清其鼠害规律,并通过不同的方法进行防治,力求找到鼠害防治的有效办法。

  4. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Henke, K.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Engle, M.A.; Blake, D.R.; Stracher, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO2 peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO2 and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg0, in excess of 500 and 2100 ??g/m3, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 ??g/m3). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 ??C during the January visit to the fire versus vent gases. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Construction and preliminary investigation of a novel dengue serotype 4 chimeric virus using Japanese encephalitis vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as the backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhushi; Yang, Huiqiang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Hua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lina; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Li; Zeng, Xianwu; Yu, Yongxin; Li, Yuhua

    2014-10-13

    For the purpose of developing a novel dengue vaccine candidate, recombinant plasmids were constructed which contained the full length cDNA clone of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine strain SA14-14-2 with its premembrane (PreM) and envelope (E) genes replaced by the counterparts of dengue virus type 4 (DENV4). By transfecting the in vitro transcription products of the recombinant plasmids into BHK-21 cells, a chimeric virus JEV/DENV4 was successfully recovered. The chimeric virus was identified by complete genome sequencing, Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Growth characteristics revealed it was well adapted to primary hamster kidney (PHK) cells. Its genetic stability was investigated and only one unintentional mutation in 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) was found after 20 passages in PHK cells. Neurotropism, neurovirulence and immunogenicity of the chimeric virus were tested in mice. Besides, the influence of JE vaccine pre-immunization on the neutralizing antibody level induced by the chimeric virus was illuminated. To our knowledge, this is the first chimeric virus incorporating the JE vaccine stain SA14-14-2 and DENV4. It is probably a potential candidate to compose a tetravalent dengue chimeric vaccine.

  6. Photothermal response of CVD synthesized carbon (nanospheres/aqueous nanofluids for potential application in direct solar absorption collectors: a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poinern GE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern,1 Sridevi Brundavanam,1 Monaliben Shah,1 Iafeta Laava,2 Derek Fawcett11Murdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, 2Department of Physics, Energy Studies and Nanotechnology, Murdoch University, Perth, AustraliaAbstract: Direct-absorption solar collectors have the potential to offer an unlimited source of renewable energy with minimal environmental impact. Unfortunately, their performance is limited by the absorption efficiency of the working fluid. Nanoparticles of functionalized carbon nanospheres (CNS have the potential to improve the photothermal properties of the working fluid. CNS are produced by the pyrolysis of acetylene gas in a tube-based electric furnace/chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The reaction takes place at 1000°C in the presence of nitrogen gas without the use of a catalyst. The synthesized CNS were examined and characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet-visible analysis. The CNS powders with a mean particle size of 210 nm were then functionalized using tetraethylammonium hydroxide ([C2H5]4 N[OH] and used to produce a series of aqueous nanofluids with varying mass content. The photothermal response of both the nanofluids and films composed of CNS were investigated under 1000 W/m2 solar irradiation.Keywords: solar absorption, carbon nanospheres, nanofluids, photothermal

  7. Preliminary Investigation on the Use of Allyi Isothiocyanate to Increase the Shelf-Life of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus Aurata) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Crinò, Chiara; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against fish spoilage bacteria (specific spoilage organisms; SSOs) as well as its possible use in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets to extend their shelf-life. In this regard, in vitro tests are carried out in order to evaluate the inhibitory activity of AITC and its vapours on several strains of SSOs. The AITC effect on the shelf-life of sea bream fillets was made by putting them in plastic trays hermetically closed with the addition AITC. Microbiological and sensorial evaluations were made on fish fillets during storage. Treated fillets maintained microbial populations at a significantly lower level compared with the control samples during storage, showing better sensorial characteristics. Therefore, the use of AITC's vapours seems to be a new and interesting alternative way to increase fish product shelf-life.

  8. Preliminary investigation on the use of allyl isothiocyanate to increase the shelf-life of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giarratana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC against fish spoilage bacteria (specific spoilage organisms; SSOs as well as its possible use in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata fillets to extend their shelf-life. In this regard, in vitro tests are carried out in order to evaluate the inhibitory activity of AITC and its vapours on several strains of SSOs. The AITC effect on the shelflife of sea bream fillets was made by putting them in plastic trays hermetically closed with the addition AITC. Microbiological and sensorial evaluations were made on fish fillets during storage. Treated fillets maintained microbial populations at a significantly lower level compared with the control samples during storage, showing better sensorial characteristics. Therefore, the use of AITC’s vapours seems to be a new and interesting alternative way to increase fish product shelf-life.

  9. 广西甘蔗主要真菌病害调查初报%Preliminary report on investigating major sugarcane fungal diseases in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦金菊; 邓展云; 黄诚华; 黄伟华; 颜梅新; 刘海斌; 唐红琴

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The purpose of the present study was to determine the species and the occurrence status of major sugarcane fugal diseases in sugarcane plantation areas of Guangxi in order to provide scientific references for controlling sugarcane diseases. [Method]In 2009-2011, species and occurrence degrees of major sugarcane fugal diseases in sugarcane plantation areas of Guangxi were investigated through randomized surveys, fanner interviews, literature references, and location investigations; diseased sugarcane samples were collected and their species were identified through pathogen isolated culture and other relevant methods. [Result]Thirteen species of fungal diseases were identified, which were Thielaviopsis paradoxa (de Seynes) V. Hohnel, Ustilago scitaminea Sydow, Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, Puccinia melanocephala H.&P. Syd., Stagonospora sacchari Lo et Ling, Colletotrichum falcatum Went, Phyllosticta saccharicola P. Henn., Pellicularia sasakii (Shirai) Ito, Elsinoe sacchari L., Helminthosporium sacchari (Breda de Haan) Butler, My-covellosiella koepkei (kruger) Deighton, Bipolaris stenospilum (Drechs.) Shoem., and Cercospora longipes Butler. Out of all of the fungal disease characteristics, smut, rust, tip rot, and pineapple disease were the most rampantly detrimental to sugarcane quality and yield. [ Conclusion ] Ustilago scitaminea Sydow turned out to be the most serious sugarcane disease; it is urgent to begin breeding highly-disease-resistant sugarcane varieties with elite field and environment adaptations to replace the current susceptible-to-diseases sugarcane varieties in order to increase production.%[目的]明确广西蔗区主要真菌病害的发生情况和种类,为甘蔗病害综合防治提供科学依据.[方法]2009~2011年采用随机踏查、种植户随访、资料查询和定点调查等方法对广西蔗区甘蔗真菌病害种类及发生程度进行调查,并采集病害样本,通过病原分离培养鉴定等方法确定真菌病

  10. 贡嘎山东坡大型真菌资源初步调查和开发利用价值分析%Preliminary Investigation and Exploitation and Utilization Value of Macrofungi on Eastern Slope of Gongga Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾雪丹; 刘婧盈; 沙菁洲; 曹洋; 李同阳; 张丹

    2011-01-01

    To deeply understand macrofungi resources in Congga Mountain,more than 60 species of macrofungi were collected in this investigation , which belonged to 6 orders, 17 families and 48 genera, including 10 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi, 18species of lignicolous fungi and 20 species of geophilous fungi. Among them 33 species were edible, 22 species were officinal or anticancer, and 7 species were poisonous. Some of them were rare edible mushrooms and officinal mushrooms with high economic value. This preliminary investigation of macro-fungi on eastern slope of Congga Mountain provided theoretical basis for protection and exploitation of local macrofungi, and was of important significance for improving local economic development.%为了对贡嘎山大型真菌资源作深入了解,本研究从贡嘎山东坡采集了60多种蘑菇,隶属6目、17科、48属.包括10属外生菌根菌,18属木生菌和20属土生菌,其中33属为食用菌,22属为药用菌或具有抗癌作用的真菌,7属为毒菌.这些大型真菌中还有一些是珍稀的食用菌和药用菌,具有较高的经济价值.

  11. Will urban expansion lead to an increase in future water pollution loads?--a preliminary investigation of the Haihe River Basin in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

    2014-01-01

    Urban expansion is a major driving force changing regional hydrology and nonpoint source pollution. The Haihe River Basin, the political, economic, and cultural center of northeastern China, has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. To investigate the consequences of future urban sprawl on nonpoint source water pollutant emissions in the river basin, the urban sprawl in 2030 was estimated, and the annual runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the Haihe River basin were simulated. The Integrated Model of Non-Point Sources Pollution Processes (IMPULSE) was used to simulate the effects of urban sprawl on nonpoint source pollution emissions. The outcomes indicated that the urban expansion through 2030 increased the nonpoint source total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions by 8.08, 0.14, and 149.57 kg/km(2), respectively. Compared to 2008, the total nonpoint emissions rose by 15.33, 0.57, and 12.39 %, respectively. Twelve percent of the 25 cities in the basin would increase by more than 50 % in nonpoint source TN and COD emissions in 2030. In particular, the nonpoint source TN emissions in Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, and Puyang would rise by 73.31, 67.25, and 58.61 %, and the nonpoint source COD emissions in these cities would rise by 74.02, 51.99, and 53.27 %, respectively. The point source pollution emissions in 2008 and 2030 were also estimated to explore the effects of urban sprawl on total water pollution loads. Urban sprawl through 2030 would bring significant structural changes of total TN, TP, and COD emissions for each city in the area. The results of this study could provide insights into the effects of urbanization in the study area and the methods could help to recognize the role that future urban sprawl plays in the total water pollution loads in the water quality management process.

  12. Lifelong exercise, but not short-term high-intensity interval training, increases GDF11, a marker of successful aging: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bradley T; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Stratton, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence D

    2017-07-01

    Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64 [6] years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62 [6] years) older males. SED follistatin was moderately greater than LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.66), and was largely greater post-HIIT (Cohen's d = 1.22). The HIIT-induced increase in follistatin was large in SED (Cohen's d = 0.82) and absent in LEX (Cohen's d = 0.03). GDF11 was higher in LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.49) and post-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.63) compared to SED HIIT resulted in no change to GDF11 in LEX or SED (Cohen's d = 0.00-0.03). Peak power output and GDF11 were correlated (r = 0.603), independent of grouping. Differences in GDF11 with lifelong exercise training, paired with the correlation between GDF11 and peak power output, suggested that GDF11 may be a relevant myostatin-interacting peptide to successful aging in humans, and strategies to maintain this need to be further explored. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seretse Moyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  14. Accuracy of both virtual and printed 3-dimensional models for volumetric measurement of alveolar clefts before grafting with alveolar bone compared with a validated algorithm: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaven, C P; McIntyre, G T; Mossey, P A

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the accuracy of virtual and printed 3-dimensional models derived from cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scans to measure the volume of alveolar clefts before bone grafting. Fifteen subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate had i-CAT cone-beam CT scans recorded at 0.2mm voxel and sectioned transversely into slices 0.2mm thick using i-CAT Vision. Volumes of alveolar clefts were calculated using first a validated algorithm; secondly, commercially-available virtual 3-dimensional model software; and finally 3-dimensional printed models, which were scanned with microCT and analysed using 3-dimensional software. For inter-observer reliability, a two-way mixed model intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the reproducibility of identification of the cranial and caudal limits of the clefts among three observers. We used a Friedman test to assess the significance of differences among the methods, and probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. Inter-observer reliability was almost perfect (ICC=0.987). There were no significant differences among the three methods. Virtual and printed 3-dimensional models were as precise as the validated computer algorithm in the calculation of volumes of the alveolar cleft before bone grafting, but virtual 3-dimensional models were the most accurate with the smallest 95% CI and, subject to further investigation, could be a useful adjunct in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary investigation into sport and exercise psychology consultants' views and experiences of an interprofessional care team approach to sport injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Sport injury rehabilitation has moved from predominately physical treatment to a more holistic care. However, limited research has explored the views and experiences of those involved in such an approach. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily investigate sport psychology consultants' (SPCs') views and experiences of an interprofessional team approach to sport injury rehabilitation. A cross-sectional online survey previously used with athletic trainers was distributed via a US-based sport/exercise psychology list-serve (N = 1245). A total of 62 (27 men, 35 women, M age 38.2 years, age range: 22-73 years) participants with 10.6 (SD = 9.8) years of experience as an SPC were included in the final analyses. On average, SPCs felt that it was very important (M = 6.6; SD = 0.6) for athletes to have access to an interprofessional care team. Of the sample, 64.5% (n = 40) typically worked as part of an interprofessional care team 44.7% of the time. The SPCs (n = 28; 45.2%) also indicated that the primary treatment providers (e.g., athletic trainer, physical therapist) were typically serving as the primary point person for such teams. Since gaining entry to sport medicine can be an area SPCs struggle with, building effective working relationships with treatment providers can help promote and increase SPCs involvement in providing holistic, interprofessional care to athletes with injuries. To ensure athletes' successful biopsychosocial return to sport, different individuals and professionals should work together for the benefit of the athlete by adopting holistic care during sports injury rehabilitation.

  16. Coaching to vision versus coaching to improvement needs: a preliminary investigation on the differential impacts of fostering positive and negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anita R

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on intentional change theory (ICT; Boyatzis, 2006), this study examined the differential impact of inducing coaching recipients' vision/positive emotion versus improvement needs/negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions. A core aim of the study was to empirically test two central ICT propositions on the effects of using the coached person's Positive Emotional Attractor (vision/PEA) versus Negative Emotional Attractor (improvement needs/NEA) as the anchoring framework of a onetime, one-on-one coaching session on appraisal of 360° feedback and discussion of possible change goals. Eighteen coaching recipients were randomly assigned to two coaching conditions, the coaching to vision/PEA condition and the coaching to improvement needs/NEA condition. Two main hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis1 predicted that participants in the vision/PEA condition would show higher levels of expressed positive emotion during appraisal of 360° feedback results and discussion of change goals than recipients in the improvement needs/NEA condition. Hypothesis2 predicted that vision/PEA participants would show lower levels of stress immediately after the coaching session than improvement needs/NEA participants. Findings showed that coaching to vision/the PEA fostered significantly lower levels of expressed negative emotion and anger during appraisal of 360° feedback results as compared to coaching to improvements needs/the NEA. Vision-focused coaching also fostered significantly greater exploration of personal passions and future desires, and more positive engagement during 360° feedback appraisal. No significant differences between the two conditions were found in emotional processing during discussion of change goals or levels of stress immediately after the coaching session. Current findings suggest that vision/PEA arousal versus improvement needs/NEA arousal impact the coaching process in quite different ways; that the coach's initial framing of the

  17. Investigation of Peak Pressure Index Parameters for People with Spinal Cord Injury Using Wheelchair Tilt-in-Space and Recline: Methodology and Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wen Lung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the sensel window’s location and size when calculating the peak pressure index (PPI of pressure mapping with varying degrees of wheelchair tilt-in-space (tilt and recline in people with spinal cord injury (SCI. Thirteen power wheelchair users were recruited into this study. Six combinations of wheelchair tilt (15°, 25°, and 35° and recline (10° and 30° were used by the participants in random order. Displacements of peak pressure and center of pressure were extracted from the left side of the mapping system. Normalized PPI was computed for three sensel window dimensions (3 sensels × 3 sensels, 5 × 5, and 7 × 7. At least 3.33 cm of Euclidean displacement of peak pressures was observed in the tilt and recline. For every tilt angle, peak pressure displacement was not significantly different between 10° and 30° recline, while center of pressure displacement was significantly different (P<.05. For each recline angle, peak pressure displacement was not significantly different between pairs of 15°, 25°, and 35° tilt, while center of pressure displacement was significantly different between 15° versus 35° and 25° versus 35°. Our study showed that peak pressure displacement occurs in response to wheelchair tilt and recline, suggesting that the selected sensel window locations used to calculate PPI should be adjusted during changes in wheelchair configuration.

  18. Beliefs about emotions as a metacognitive construct: initial development of a self-report questionnaire measure and preliminary investigation in relation to emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Rachel; Cooper, Myra; Trefusis, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Metacognitive theory, amongst other theories, gives an important role to beliefs about mental states, including beliefs about emotions, in the maintenance of distress. Mentalization theory as well as the dialectical behaviour therapy and emotion-focused therapy literature specifies particular beliefs thought to be related to emotion dysregulation and therefore to a label of borderline personality disorder. The current study aimed to develop a questionnaire to measure the beliefs about emotions as specified by this literature and to test the relationship of this new measure to various aspects of emotion regulation in a non-clinical sample of 289 participants. A factor analysis extracted six factors, which described beliefs about emotions as (a) overwhelming and uncontrollable; (b) shameful and irrational; (c) invalid and meaningless; (d) useless; (e) damaging; and (f) contagious. The final measure showed some promising psychometric properties. All of the questionnaire subscales were related to aspects of emotion dysregulation including distress, borderline personality disorder symptoms and behaviours associated with dysregulation of emotion, suggesting that beliefs about emotions could be an important metacognitive construct involved in the ability to regulate emotions. Beliefs about emotions may be a useful direct or indirect target for treatment of difficulties regulating emotions, and this could be achieved through the use of various therapeutic modalities.

  19. Extending the Reach of Early Intervention Training for Practitioners: A Preliminary Investigation of an Online Curriculum for Teaching Behavioral Intervention Knowledge in Autism to Families and Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Charles D; Serna, Richard W; Morrison, Leslie; Fleming, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Early behavioral intervention, based on the methods of applied behavior analysis, has the strongest and most consistent scientific support as a means of teaching skills to young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and reducing their restricted and maladaptive behavior. Though individual ABA-based treatment plans are usually developed, designed and supervised by a senior-level clinician, they are most often implemented by a practitioner, such as a parent, direct service provider, aide, or an early childhood professional from a related discipline. Unfortunately, few practitioner-orientated training programs are available to geographically disparate persons. Online distance-learning education offers a potential solution to this problem. Fifty-one individuals participated in an initial study of a short, three-module online course. The results showed a highly statistically significant difference between the mean pre-test and post-test score. The outcomes suggest the feasibility and user satisfaction of teaching BI knowledge acquisition online, and thus bolster confidence that future, larger-scale curricula aimed at teaching BI in a distance-learning format is warranted.

  20. Preliminary lead isotope investigations of brine from the Red Sea, Galena from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and galena from United Arab Republic (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevaux, M.H.; Doe, B.R.; Brown, G.F.

    1967-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead in Red Sea chloride brine containing 0.5 ppm Pb is found to be similar to that of some Cenozoic ore leads such as galena at Rabigh in Saudi Arabia that may have formed during mineralization accompanying Tertiary rifting. Bir Ranga galena in Miocene sediments from United Arab Republic (Egypt) is also isotopically similar to lead in Red Sea brine. The chlorine brine must be considered a possible mineralizing fluid. Lead isotopes show promise for use in mineral prospect evaluation in that galena from Samrah is isotopically similar to that from Mahd adh Dhahab, which has been the only ore producer in Saudi Arabia since 1945. Drilling at Samrah does indicate a possible economic mineralization. The lead isotope data coupled with available geologic knowledge and geochronometry are used to tentatively divide the ore prospects of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia into relative categories of mineralization age. Two Mesozoic and Cenozoic mineralizations are distinguished on the basis of a 207Pb/204Pb difference; an early Paleozoic mineralization grouping is outlined; and a late Precambrian mineralization period is suggested. ?? 1967.

  1. Bridging the Gap of Practice and Research: A Preliminary Investigation of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳寂絹 Chi-Chuan Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gap between practice and research is commonly found in disciplines with both ofprofessional practitioners and academic researchers. How to bridge the gap is also acontinuing concern in the field of Library and Information Studies. This article describes therecent development of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information ScienceResearch (EBLIP, and provides analysis of the journal EBLIP including its authors’backgrounds, methods, and topics. The results show that the United States and Canadaare the two major nations of contributors; more than 70% of first authors are librarians; 76%of the articles were contributed by one single institute, co-authorship by cross-nationinstitutes were rarely seen, and demonstrates local research interests; type of co-authoredagency is primarily among libraries; 60% methods employed include questionnaires,interviews and content analysis; the coverage of topics is rather broad, and the top threecategories of research topics include Information Literacy & Instruction, Information Needs& Seeking Behavior, and Reference Services / Digital Reference Services (15%, 10%, and8%; many datasets were obtained from real library practice, and 72% of articles provide specific implications for applications which highlight the value of implementation. Manylibrarians have the research capability, and this article serves as a purpose to introduce theevidence-based research and encourage more such research done in Taiwan. Hopefully itmay benefit and further enhance the quality of library decision-making and their professionalimage.

  2. A preliminary investigation of lithogenic and anthropogenic influence over fluoride ion chemistry in the groundwater of the southern coastal city, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, S

    2015-03-01

    A total of 72 groundwater samples were collected from open wells and boreholes during pre- and post-monsoon periods in Tuticorin. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties, major cations, and anions in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association. The fluoride concentration was analyzed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatography. The geographic information system-based spatial distribution map of different major elements has been prepared using ArcGIS 9.3. The fluoride concentration ranges between 0.16 mg/l and 4.8 mg/l during pre-monsoon and 0.2-3.2 mg/l during post-monsoon. Alkaline pH, low calcium concentrations, high groundwater temperatures, and semiarid climatic conditions of the study area may cause elevated fluoride concentrations in groundwater, by increasing the solubility of fluoride-bearing formations (fluoride). Linear trend analysis on seasonal and annual basis clearly depicted that fluoride pollution in the study area is increasing significantly. Fluoride concentrations showed positive correlations with those of Na(+) and HCO3 (-) and negative correlations with Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The alkaline waters were saturated with calcite in spite of the low Ca(2+) concentrations. Northwestern parts of the study area are inherently enriched with fluorides threatening several ecosystems. The saturation index indicates that dissolution and precipitation contribute fluoride dissolution along with mixing apart from anthropogenic activities.

  3. Preliminary investigation of in vitro antioxidant activities for red bayberry fruit vinegar%杨梅果醋体外抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢思芸; 钟瑞敏; 肖仔君; 邓泽元

    2012-01-01

    探讨固定化发酵杨梅果醋的体外抗氧化能力.采用羟自由基清除、DPPH自由基清除和还原力测定等3种方法对杨梅的果醋、果汁和果酒,以及苹果醋和高粱醋进行初步比较研究.结果表明:杨梅汁、杨梅果酒和杨梅果醋抗氧化能力依次降低,尤其在低浓度受试水平尤为显著;但当试验体积分数达到30%时,杨梅果醋的羟自由基清除率达到88.3%,DPPH自由基清除率达到63%,接近杨梅汁的水平;杨梅果醋抗氧化活性低于高梁醋,但显著优于苹果醋.原醋浓度达到一定水平的杨梅果醋饮料可拥有良好的抗氧化活性,具有开发应用价值.%To investigate in vitro antioxidant activities of red bayberry fruit vinegar fermented by immobilized acetic acid bacteria cells. The antioxidant activities of red bayberry fruit vinegar, juice and wine, as well as apple vinegar and sorghum vinegar, were comparatively researched using three different methods: the hydroxyl radical scavenging, the 1, l-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger, and the reducing capacity assay. The antioxidant activities of red bayberry samples decreased systematically from juice,wine to vinegar especially in low concentration testing level. However, the antioxidant power of the vinegar enhanced with 88. 3 % of hydroxyl radical scavenging rate and 63% of DPPH radical scavenging rate as testing concentration increasing, which were close to those of fruit juice in 30% testing concentration. The antioxidant capacity of red bayberry vinegar was less than that of sorghum vinegar, however, significantly higher than that of apple vinegar. Strategically, red bayberry vinegar beverage with a higher original concentration has potential application because of its favorable antioxidant power.

  4. 血根碱酊剂体外抗真菌初步研究%Preliminary Investigation in the Antifungal Function of Sanguinarine Tincture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 范家佑; 郁建平; 李佳宝; 胡小娟

    2011-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of the sanguinarine tincture and total alkaloids, which were extracted from Macleaya cordata, on several psoriasis fungi including Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rosaceum, Trichophyton schoenleini and Trichophyton rubrum were preliminarily investigated in the present work. The results indicated that the MIC of sanguinarine tincture for Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleini, and Trichophyton rosaceum, were 16 μg/mL, 128 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL, respectively. With same concentration , effectiveness of sanguinarine tincture was better than that of total alkaloids. Therefore, the sanguinarine demonstrated significant effects on antimycotic, and may be used to treat dermatophytosis on foot.%通过分析博落回(Macleaya cordata (wild)R.Br.)提取物—血根碱(制成血根碱酊剂)、总生物碱对须癣毛癣菌(Trichophyton mentagrophytes)、玫瑰色毛癣菌(Trichophyton rosaceum)、许兰黄癣菌(Trichophyton schoenleini)、红色毛癣菌(Trichophyton rubrum)几种皮癣真菌的抑菌试验,以探讨血根碱酊剂和总生物碱对皮癣致病真菌的抑制作用.结果表明:血根碱酊剂对须癣毛癣菌、许兰黄癣菌的最小抑菌浓度为16μg/nL,对玫瑰色毛癣菌的最小抑菌浓度为128μg/mL,对红色毛癣菌的最小抑菌浓度为64μg/mL;在含等量血根碱的条件下,血根碱酊剂的抗皮癣真菌效果比博落回总生物碱好.血根碱酊剂具有良好的抗真菌效果,可用于治疗脚癣.

  5. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  6. Characterisation of the bacterial community in expressed prostatic secretions from patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and infertile men: a preliminary investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Sheng Hou; Wen-Min Long; Jian Shen; Li-Ping Zhao; Xiao-Yan Pang; Chen XU

    2012-01-01

    The expressed prostatic secretions (EPSs) of men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS),infertile men and normal men were subjected to microbiological study.EPSs were collected from the subjects,which included 26 normal men,11 infertile patients and 51 CP/CPPS patients.DNA was extracted from each specimen,and the V3 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified using universal bacterial primers.The results showed that the EPS 16S rRNA gene-positive rate in the CP/CPPS and infertile patients was much higher than in the normal men,but without any difference among the three patient groups.The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was used to characterize the EPS bacterial community structure of the prostate fluid from patients with CP/CPPS or infertility issues.Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) analyses of PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that the EPS bacterial community structure differed among the three groups.Three bands were identified as the key factors responsible for the discrepancy between CP/CPPS patients and infertile patients (P<0.05).Two bands were identified as priority factors in the discrepancy of category ⅢA and category ⅢB prostatitis patients (P<0.05).According to this research,the ecological balance of the prostate and low urethra tract,when considered as a microenvironment,might play an important role in the maintenance of a healthy male reproductive tract.

  7. A preliminary investigation of phoshodiesterase 7 inhibitor VP3.15 as therapeutic agent for the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Álvarez, R; Paúl-Fernández, N; Palomo, V; Gil, C; Martínez, A; Mengod, G

    2017-03-01

    cAMP plays a significant role in signal transduction pathways controlling multiple cellular processes such as inflammation and immune regulation. cAMP levels are regulated by a family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). We have studied the effects of a novel PDE7 inhibitor (PDE7i) treatment on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) and compared it with another PDE7i. EAE was induced by immunizing C57BL/6J mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) peptide. Mice were treated daily either from disease onset or from disease peak with each PDE7i and with fingolimod (used in therapy for MS patients) and disease evolution was followed by clinical symptoms. We examined neuropathology of spinal cord, ex vivo lymphocyte proliferation by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, TNFα by ELISA and cAMP-PDE mRNAs expression by in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) in spinal cord of EAE mice treated with both PDE7 inhibitors. Treatment of EAE mice with the novel PDE7i, VP3.15 showed more efficacy in reducing clinical signs at 10mgkg(-1) than the other PDE7i, BRL50481 and similar to fingolimod. VP3.15 acts on peripheral lymphocytes inhibiting their proliferation and TNFα secretion in a dose-dependent manner. PDE7i treatment alters the levels of PDE4B and PDE7 mRNA expression in EAE mice spinal cord. Given the interest in the development of new drugs for MS, including PDE7i as anti-inflammatory drugs, it is important to study the role played by PDE7 in neurodegenerative diseases with inflammatory component to better understand the beneficial and detrimental effects of a future therapy.

  8. 慢性咳嗽病因分布的初步调查%Preliminary investigation on etiological diagnosis of chronic cough in Shanghai region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳萍; 包婺平; 周新

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解上海地区慢性咳嗽病因分布的特点.方法 以中华医学会制定的(2009版)中慢性咳嗽诊断流程为指导,对98例咳嗽时间≥8周的患者进行病因分析、咳嗽症状积分、视觉模拟评分及Leicester咳嗽问卷调查.结果 98例患者中明确咳嗽病因诊断94例(95.92%),病因未明者4例(4.08%).94例患者中,单一病因82例(87.23%),双重病因12例(12.77%).咳嗽病因包括咳嗽变异性哮喘(CVA)44例(40.00%),上气道咳嗽综合征(UACS)28例(25.45%),嗜酸粒细胞性支气管炎(EB)21例(19.08%),变应性咳嗽5例(4.55%),胃食管反流性咳嗽4例(3.64%),感染后咳嗽3例(2.73%).治疗前后咳嗽积分、视觉模拟评分及Leicester咳嗽积分比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 CVA、UACS和EB是上海地区慢性咳嗽的常见原因.%Objective To investigate the causes of chronic cough in Shanghai region. Methods All the cases were diagnosed using a diagnostic protocol designed by Chinese Medical Association. All patients completed cough scores,visual analogue scales and Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Results The causes of chronic cough were confirmed in 94 patients (95.92%). Four patients had not been definitely diagnosed (4.08%). Cough due to single cause was found in 82 patients (87.23 % ), and due to double causes in 12 patients (12.77%). The causes included cough variant asthma (CVA) in 44 patients (40.00 % ), upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) in 28 patients ( 25.45 % ), eosinophilic bronchitis (EB)in 21 patients( 19.08% ) ,atopic cough in 5 patients (4.55%) ,gastro-esophageal reflux cough in 4 patients (3.64%), post infection cough in 3 patients (2.73%), chronic bronchitis in 1 patient (0.91%),respectively. There were significant differences in cough scores,visual analogue scales and LCQ between prior-treatment and post-treatment. Conclusions CVA, UACS and EB are the main causes of chronic cough in shanghai region.

  9. A preliminary investigation of ankylosing spondylitis misdiagnosed cases%强直性脊柱炎误诊情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骁; 阎小萍; 王建明; 黄小杰; 王萍; 陶庆文

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the misdiagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis ( AS) and analyze the causes of mis-diagnosis. Method Carries on the questionnaire survey to the China-Japan Friendship Hospital TCM rheumatology clinic of AS patients,using SPSS13. 0 software for statistical analysis. Result 300 cases of AS patients in the first rate of misdiagnosis rate was 82%,the diagnosis rate was 17. 67% in 1 year. Easy top five diseases misdiagnosed as lumbar disc herniation, waist muscle strain, rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica, rheumatic arthritis and so on. Peripheral joint pain was the first symptom,no AS family history, and no specialist medical treatment is affecting the rate of misdiagnosis of AS. Conclusion Ankylosing spondylitis of insidious onset, clinical misdiagnosis rate is high, the main reason is that the patients were lack of medical knowledgecan not be the correct choice of college, third-class hospital and second-class hospital lack of Professional medical personnel of Rheumatology rheumatology,juvenile on-set and peripheral joint onset of AS patients with atypical clinical features are easily the doctor is ignored. The ma-jority of patients with rheumatic diseases should be strengthened to guide the medical popular science education, to improve the non rheumatologists to master the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis, clini-cal follow-up in patients with juvenile onset emphasis and peripheral joints were observed, in order to improve the rate of early diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis.%目的 调查强直性脊柱炎( AS)误诊情况,分析误诊发生的原因. 方法 对中日友好医院中医风湿病科就诊的AS患者进行问卷调查,采用SPSS13. 0软件进行统计学分析. 结果 300例AS患者中首诊误诊率高达82. 00%,1年内确诊率仅为17. 67%. 易误诊的前5种疾病为腰椎间盘突出、腰肌劳损、类风湿关节炎、坐骨神经痛、风湿性关节炎. 外周关节发病、幼年发病、

  10. A preliminary investigation and feature analysis of non-alcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in employees in an IT company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiuchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the incidence rates and features of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and to provide a theoretical basis for health management and development of intervention and preventive measures in the health management department. MethodsPhysical examination reports in 2016 were obtained from a large IT company to analyze the incidence rates of NAFL and NASH in different age and sex groups, as well as the correlation with the indices including overweight (or obesity, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, blood uric acid, and blood pressure. The chi-square test was used for comparison of rates. Results In all employees, the incidence rates of NAFL and NASH were 4.51% and 17.64%, respectively, and the overall incidence rate of these two diseases was 22.15%. The NAFL-NASH group had significantly higher incidence rates of overweight (or obesity (91.20% vs 12.68%, χ2=7571.9, P<0.001, hyperlipidemia (95.06% vs 9.27%, χ2=9373.8, P<0.001, and hyperuricemia (40.02% vs 10.51%, χ2=1591.90, P<0.001 than the non-NAFL-NASH group. Compared with female employees, male employees had significantly higher incidence rates of NAFL (6.78% vs 1.81%, χ2=190.35, P<0.001 and NASH (25.04% vs 5.06%, χ2=991.90, P<0.001, as well as significantly higher incidence rates of overweight (or obesity (40.90% vs 12.97%, χ2=1319.10, P<0.001, hyperlipidemia (36.00% vs 16.07%, χ2=696.22, P<0.001, hyperglycemia (2.17% vs 0.64%, χ2=53.82, P<0.01, hyperuricemia (2676% vs 1.69%, χ2=1581.10, P<0.001, and hypertension (6.21% vs 1.22%, χ2=170.94, P<0.001. Compared with those aged <35 years, the employees aged ≥35 years had significantly higher incidence rates of NAFL (8.13% vs 4.47%, χ2=41.56, P<0.001 and NASH (21.73% vs 16.76%, χ2=24.72, P<0.001, as well as significantly higher incidence rates of hyperglycemia (2.79% vs 143%, χ2=17.26, P<0.001 and hypertension (6.33% vs 4.03%, χ2=18.56, P<0

  11. A Preliminary Investigation on Species Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Rosary%玫瑰园AM真菌物种多样性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董磊; 李敏; 郭绍霞

    2012-01-01

    isolated from soil samples collected using wet - sieving techniques. The relative abundance of the genus Glomus was the highest, followed by Acaulospora . Soil samples from ' Zizhi' and Rosa davurica showed the highest spore density, while R. multiflora was the lowest. Species richness in soil samples from ' Fenghua' was significantly higher than that in other varieties. G. fulvum was the dominant species of ' Fenghua', G. constrictum was the dominant species of 'Zizhi', G. reticulatum was the dominant species of ' Fenghua', R. damascene and R. davurica, Acaulospora bireticulata was the dominant species of R. multiflora . It is suggested that the species diversity in the root zone soil of rose plant be rich. The present research results provide a basis and foundation for further studying AM fungal diversity of flower plants.

  12. Preliminary Investigation of Astronomical Sites in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    PreliminaryInvestigationofAstronomicalSitesinTibet¥byChenHongqingTheTibetanPlateau,knownastheRoofoftheWorldandtheEarth'sThird...

  13. Middle Mississippi River Sturgeon Preliminary Contaminants Investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We examined the health of forty-one wild caught sturgeon from a reach of the Mississippi River with an organochlorine consumption advisory and a reference site. The...

  14. A preliminary investigation on materials informatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Qinggong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of materials informatics is presented and expounded for the first time. Main tasks and research areas of materials informatics are listed and stated. The significance of developing materials informatics is discussed. Suggestions for developing this new discipline are put forward.

  15. Biofeedback and dance performance: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Joshua; Sajid, Imran; Parkinson, Lesley A; Gruzelier, John H

    2005-03-01

    Alpha-theta neurofeedback has been shown to produce professionally significant performance improvements in music students. The present study aimed to extend this work to a different performing art and compare alpha-theta neurofeedback with another form of biofeedback: heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback. Twenty-four ballroom and Latin dancers were randomly allocated to three groups, one receiving neurofeedback, one HRV biofeedback and one no intervention. Dance was assessed before and after training. Performance improvements were found in the biofeedback groups but not in the control group. Neurofeedback and HRV biofeedback benefited performance in different ways. A replication with larger sample sizes is required.

  16. Psychache and Suicide: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Leenaars, Antoon A.; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Shneidman's Psychological Pain Assessment Scale (PPAS; 1999) was administered to 88 psychiatric patients. Both current and worst-ever psychache were significantly higher in those patients judged by a psychiatrist, on the basis of a structured clinical interview, to be at risk of suicide. However, current and worst-ever psychache were not…

  17. GC/MS profiling of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and precursors in various animal tissues using automatic solid-phase extraction. Preliminary investigations of its potential interest in postmortem interval determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Damien; Ling, Bing; Authier, Nicolas; Faict, Thierry W; Eschalier, Alain; Coudoré, François

    2005-03-01

    To quantify gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its physiological metabolites, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in various animal tissues (kidney, muscle, heart, liver, blood, brain cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, or pons), an original gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method with a automated solid-phase extraction by Oasis MCX cartridges on a Gilson Aspec Xli was developed. Using such apparatus allowed the limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds to be significantly lowered (LOD: 0.027, 0.025, and 5.7 microg/mL for GHB, 1,4-BD, and GABA, respectively, in 200 microL or microg of sample). After validation of each analytical step, the satisfactory performances of the apparatus in conjunction with the rapidity and ease of the extraction step make it suitable for simultaneous assay of GHB, 1,4-BD, GBL, and GABA. The method was used to test the correlation between GHB levels in tissues obtained at different times after death of male Sprague-Dawley rats and the postmortem interval. Preliminary results show a linear increase of GHB levels in relation to time of death in thoracic blood and central nervous system of animals kept at 15 and 20 degrees C.

  18. 14 CFR 314.14 - Show-cause order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show-cause order. 314.14 Section 314.14... REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.14 Show-cause order. When the Department makes a preliminary determination of whether the major cause of the bankruptcy...

  19. Preliminary investigation on professionalism assessment of the students of clinical medical majors%临床医学专业学生职业素养评估的初步探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    续岩; 王维民; 辛兵

    2008-01-01

    随着现代医学和医学教育的发展,对医学生的综合素质提出了更高的要求.为此,北京大学医学部对临床医学专业学生进行了职业素养评估的初步探索.结果 表明,在职业价值、人际交流技能、群体健康和批判性思维与研究