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Sample records for preliminary industry characterization

  1. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Volume II. Appendix A. Conceptual designs and preliminary equipment specifications. Appendix B. Characterization of cogeneration systems (near-term technology). Appendix C. Optimized cogeneration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This appendix to a report which evaluates the technical, economic, and institutional aspects of industrial cogeneration for conserving energy in the food, chemical, textile, paper, and petroleum industries contains data, descriptions, and diagrams on conceptual designs and preliminary equipment specifications for cogeneration facilities; characterization of cogeneration systems in terms of fuel utilization, performance, air pollution control, thermal energy storage systems, and capital equipment costs; and optimized cogeneration systems for specific industrial plants. (LCL)

  2. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: A literature review and a preliminary characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Borgers, T.; Gadgil, A.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-04-01

    Energy use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of those in the mix of industries elsewhere in the US. Many California firms operate small and medium-sized facilities, often in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services'' to provide occupant comfort and necessities (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. In this report, published or unpublished information on energy use for building services in the industrial sector have been compiled and analyzed. Seven different sources of information and data relevant to California have been identified. Most of these are studies and/or projects sponsored by the Department of Energy, the California Energy Commission, and local utilities. The objectives of these studies were diverse: most focused on industrial energy use in general, and, in one case, the objective was to analyze energy use in commercial buildings. Only one of these studies focused directly on non-process energy use in industrial buildings. Our analysis of Northern California data for five selected industries shows that the contribution of total electricity consumption for lighting ranges from 9.5% in frozen fruits to 29.1% in instruments; for air-conditioning, it ranges from nonexistent in frozen fruits to 35% in instrument manufacturing. None of the five industries selected had significant electrical space heating. Gas space heating ranges from 5% in motor vehicles facilities to more than 58% in the instrument manufacturing industry. 15 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    Current and future energy demands, end uses, and cost used to characterize typical applications and resultant services in the industrial sector of the United States and 15 selected states are examined. A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases was undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research on: (1) market suitability analysis, (2) market development, (3) end-use matching, (3) industrial applications case studies, and (4) identification of cost and performance goals for solar systems and typical information requirements for industrial energy end use. In reviewing existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use. Projections of state level energy prices to 1990 are developed using the energy intensity approach. The effects of federal and state industrial energy conservation programs on future industrial sector demands were assessed. Future end-use energy requirements were developed for each 4-digit SIC industry and were grouped as follows: (1) hot water, (2) steam (212 to 300/sup 0/F, each 100/sup 0/F interval from 300 to 1000/sup 0/F, and greater than 1000/sup 0/F), and (3) hot air (100/sup 0/F intervals). Volume I details the activities performed in this effort.

  4. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  5. Preliminary characterization of residual biomass from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    Generally, industrial juice extraction processes are designed to avoid the extraction ... determination of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content together with ...... Techno-economical study of biogas production improved by steam explosion ...

  6. Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2012-09-01

    Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

  7. Preliminary results of a proficiency testing of industrial CT scanners using small polymer items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; Cantatore, Angela; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    This work presents preliminary results concerning a proficiency testing for intercomparison of industrial CT scanners. Two audit items, similar to common industrial parts, were selected for circulation. The two items were a single polymer complex geometry part and a simple geometry item made of two...

  8. Polish cement industry cartel - preliminary examination of collusion existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Bejger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a case of a cartel in Polish cement industry. Short description of the industry and characteristics of the cartel with its fundamental illegal practices, market sharing and price fixing, have been done. We focused on examination of possibility of detection of a cartel-like behavior of players in an industry on a basis of cartel markers' evaluation, using statistical data we can actually obtain. On a basis of examination of market shares of players and price/supply processes we found distinctive, theoretically motivated patterns characteristic for collusive equilibrium in an industry.

  9. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  10. Preliminary overview of innovative industrial-materials processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eakin, D.E.; Gurwell, W.E.; Williams, T.A.; Abarcar, R.; Szekely, J.; Ashton, W.B.

    1983-09-01

    In evaluating the potential for industrial energy conservation, 45 candidate processes were identified. The chemical and the iron and steel industries presented the most well-developed candidates, whereas those processes identified in the pulp and paper and textiles industries were the most speculative. Examples of the candidate processes identified include direct steelmaking and ore-to-powder systems, which potentially require 30 to 40% less energy, respectively, than conventional steelmaking systems; membrane separations and freeze crystallization, which offer up to 90% reductions in energy use when compared with distillation; the cold processing of cement, which offers a 50% reduction in energy requirements; and the dry forming of paper, which offers a 25% reduction in the energy needed for papermaking. A review of all the industries revealed that the revolutionary alternatives often use similar concepts in avoiding current process inefficiencies. These concepts include using chemical, physical, or biological processes to replace thermally intensive processes; using specific forms of energy to minimize wasteful thermal diffusion; using chemical, biological, or ultrasonic processes to replace physical reduction; combining multiple processing steps into a single reactor; using a dry processing to eliminate energy needed for evaporation; and using sterilization or biotechnology to reduce the need for refrigeration.

  11. Quality Cost in the Construction Industry ' Preliminary Findings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Che Ali

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key areas being emphasis in ISO 9001 Quality Management System (QMS is performance measurement towards continual improvement. Among the primary measuring tools is quality cost approach. Quality cost has been well practice in manufacturing sector but slowly gain its importance in construction industry. In fact Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK has reckoned quality cost as one of the tool and technique in few of its management processes. In view of such circumstances that has prompted an effort to undertake a study to ascertain the level of knowledge and practice on quality cost in Malaysian construction landscape. The targeted group of respondents was the personnel in the project management team. Capitalizing Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB National Electronic Tendering Initiatives (NETI road shows which were held in year 2007 throughout the country, the author was able to garner 263 respondents representing the project management team. Subsequently the data gathered from the completed forms were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS software. General findings indicated that the level of knowledge and practice on quality cost among the project management team were relatively low. One of the main contributing factors was poor knowledge in the area related to quality cost. Despite of such scenario most of the respondents showed their interest in acquiring knowledge in the field of quality cost. Hence quality cost approach is at the infancy stage in Malaysian construction industry.

  12. Preliminary operational results of the industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.; Davenport, R.

    1980-04-01

    There are currently six DOE-funded solar industrial process heat (IPH) field tests which have been operational for one year or longer. These are all low temperature first generation projects which supply heat at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C - three hot water and three hot air. During the 1979 calendar year, personnel from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) visited all of these sites; the performance and cost results obtained for each project and the operational problems encountered at each site are discussed.

  13. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  14. Optical Characterization of Industrial Slurries [dagger

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marco Potenza; Tiziano Sanvito; Giuseppe Fazio

    2016-01-01

      In this work we focus on the characterization of micro- and nano-powders typically adopted for chemical mechanical polishing, extensively used whenever the global and local planarization of surfaces...

  15. Health Canada and the pharmaceutical industry: a preliminary analysis of the historical relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel

    2013-11-01

    In the past two decades, Health Canada has been accused of favouring the pharmaceutical industry over the public in areas of pharmaceutical policy. This orientation has been tied to the introduction of user fees by the industry in 1994 that help finance key aspects of drug regulation. This paper provides a preliminary examination of the history of the relationship starting in 1939 until the mid-1980s in an attempt to discern whether 1994 really represented a key turning point. Clientele pluralism, a theory that explains the relationship between the state and interest groups, is used to explain the nature of the events described. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  16. Preliminary Rock Physics Characterization of Mississippian Carbonate Reservoir in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Keehm, Y.; Kim, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Mississippian formations in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin are known to have large hydrocarbon resources. The Lodgepole formation is the most important reservoir for oil production in Daly and Virden fields. In this study, we performed preliminary reservoir characterization using rock physics modeling. We first delineated the Lodgepole formation by geological information, well-logs and core analysis data. Then, we conducted rock physics analyses such as GR-AI, DEM modeling, porosity-Vp, density-Vp, and porosity-permeability. We identified the Lodgepole formation has different porosity types, volume of shale, and the degree of fractures in difference intervals. In the upper part of the formation, we found that vuggy pores are well developed. Inter-particular porosity and fractures become significant as the depth increases. We found that the lower part can be divided into two groups by acoustic impedance. The prospective reservoir interval, one of the two groups, has higher fracture density, which can be identified by lower acoustic impedance. This result also implies that we could also use AVO analyses to delineate good reservoir intervals. In conclusion, rock physics modeling can be effectively applied to characterize the Lodgepole formation quantitatively with well-log and core analysis data. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2009201030001A).

  17. Preliminary Characterization Results from the DebriSat Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, M.; Shiotani, B.; Kleespies, J.; Toledo-Burdett, R.; Moraguez, M.; Carrasquila, M.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, M.; Huynh, T.

    2016-01-01

    The DebriSat project is a continuing effort sponsored by NASA and DoD to update existing break-up models using data obtained from two separate hypervelocity impact tests used to simulate on-orbit collisions. To protect the fragments resulting from the impact tests, "soft-catch" arenas made of polyurethane foam panels were utilized. After each impact test, the test chamber was cleaned and debris resulting from the catastrophic demise of the test article were collected and shipped to the University of Florida for post-impact processing. The post-impact processing activities include collecting, characterizing, and cataloging of the fragments. Since the impact tests, a team of students has been working to characterize the fragments in terms of their mass, size, shape, color and material content. The focus of the 20 months since the impact tests has been on the collection of 2 millimeters- and larger fragments resulting from impact test on the 56 kilogram-representative LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite referred to as DebriSat. To date we have recovered in excess of 115,000 fragments, 30,000 more than the prediction of 85,000 fragments from the existing model. We continue to collect fragments but have transitioned to the characterization phase of the post-impact activities. Since the start of the characterization phase, the focus has been to utilize automation to (i) expedite fragment characterization process and (ii) minimize human-in-the- loop. We have developed and implemented such automated processes; e.g., we have automated the data entry process to reduce operator errors during transcription of the measurement data. However, at all steps of the process, there is human oversight to ensure the integrity of the data. Additionally, we have developed and implemented repeatability and reproducibility tests to ensure that the instrumentation used in the characterization process is accurate and properly calibrated. In this paper, the implemented processes are described and

  18. Characterization of ground SBR scraps from shoe industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marinês Massarotto; Janaina da Silva Crespo; Ademir José Zattera; Mara Zeni

    2008-01-01

    Expanded poly(butadiene-co-styrene) (SBR), a residue of the shoe industry of Rio Grande do Sul, is a crosslinked material. For further utilization in recycling and reclaiming processes this residue was ground under ambient conditions. The obtained powder (SBR-r) was physically, thermally and chemically characterized and the results were analyzed as for its suitability for reuse methods. This characterization provides a better understanding of the SBR residue components, which may lead to econ...

  19. Wastewater characterization of IPEN facilities - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Goncalves, Cristina; Terazan, Wagner R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As part of IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program, wastewater sample collection and analysis was implemented on a daily basis. CQMA- Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente was responsible for the determination of total, fixed and volatile solids, pH, metals (as Al, Sb, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Ag, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, Be, Sn, Li, K, Sr, Ti and V), semimetals (As, B, Se and Si) and anions (such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride). The results were compared to the legal values established by the Sao Paulo State regulation 8,468/76, which defines the maximum permitted values for most of the studied substances in wastewater, aiming its releasing in public wastewater treatment system. The evaluation of this parameters concentration on Ipen's effluent implies that 50% of the wastewater corresponds to organic matter due to the sanitary load and inorganic macro elements, mainly as sodium, potassium, calcium. The only parameter not found in accordance with Brazilian legislation was pH in four out of the one hundred and seven samples collected throughout 2009 (2.8% of the samples analyzed). This preliminary study showed the effluents generated at Ipen's facility is characterized by the presence of organic matter and macro elements, commonly found in sanitary wastewater and it is in compliance with Sao Paulo regulations. (author)

  20. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  1. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  2. A Preliminary Review on Economies of Scale (EOS Towards Industrialized Building System (IBS Manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Ariffin Syazwana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized Building System (IBS is a potential technology to improve productivity of construction industry. Controlled production and minimum generation of construction waste are some of the benefits that can be achieved by replacing conventional construction with IBS. In business, IBS is giving a huge opportunity for manufacturer and supplier to expand their business while contributing to construction development. However, bad strategies will put the company in high risk due to higher initial capital for machines and equipment. Therefore, strategic planning for company’s growth, profit maximization, and enhancement of productivity is undeniable to ensure the success of business in construction industry. This preliminary paper is exploring associated factors that affect Economy of Scale (EOS and their relationships in catalyzing the IBS manufacturer especially precast concrete as the scope of study to continue their business in the construction industry. Thus, a framework of EOS is proposed to assist IBS manufacturers to ensure their company’s growth and stability, competitiveness in term of monopoly or an oligopoly, increasing productivity, leading constant returns to scale, and finally increasing the firm’s efficiency. The refined EOS’s conceptual framework is an important turning point to support the development of decision making tools for IBS manufacturer towards their stability and survival in this highly competitive industry.

  3. Characterization of cyclical phases in the manufacturing industry in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Sala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 120 Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize the cyclical phases of the manufacturing industry in Spain and detect which industries have more influence on the Spanish business cycle. We assume that economic growth is a priority; we are going to determine which industries have a more/less appropriate cyclical behavior according this priority. We analyze if the industries with better cyclical behavior are the ones that achieve greater co-movement with the business cycle of the Spanish economy, as this means they have a positive influence on economic activity. Design/methodology/approach: We examine the disaggregated quarterly IPI data of 16 manufacturing industries. Our methodology follows three steps. Firstly, we define cycle turning points; we follow the Harding and Pagan (2002 methodology. Secondly, we characterize the cyclical phases of the manufacturing industries in terms of duration, amplitude, deepness and steepness. We also determine the degree of inter-industrial cyclical synchronization and between industries in the cycle of the Spanish economy. This analysis is performed in two ways. On the one hand, we use the concordance index and the correlation coefficient. On the other hand, we work with indicators based on a consistency table. In the Third step, we apply a multi-objective methodology, specifically the compromise programming, to determine which industries have a more/less appropriate cyclical behavior according to the growth priority. Findings and Originality/value: The business cycle of the Spanish economy is positively influenced by high- and medium-tech industries, which have demonstrated their competitive capacity in international markets, and by medium- low-tech industries, with major strengths in R&D, and in survival and consolidation strategies. These results enable manufacturing industries to exert a positive effect on the business cycle that is weakened because many of them show a high correlation between

  4. CRIER, a relative analysis tool for preliminary screening of complex industrial waste and effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.D.; Brucher, S.; Melanson, P. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Ecotoxicology Program

    1994-12-31

    CRIER (Chemrisk, a Relative Index for Evaluating Risk), a Windows{trademark}-based program for the preliminary screening of potential risk to aquatic ecosystems, has been developed at the Center of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (CECE) in Concordia. This tool, originally designed for environmental management government bodies, was designed to screen chemical compounds found in industrial aqueous effluents, for their potential to cause harm to some selected target species such as the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This revised model will be applicable in both regulatory and industrial managements as an expert system that provides an assessment based on the most up-to-date toxicological information regarding each compound. Some major characteristics include the consideration of partitioning, plume effect, bioavailability and bioconcentration capacity in producing an evaluation of potential for harm to freshwater species. When parameters are empirically unavailable from the diverse databases, QSARs are used to produce theoretical preliminary estimates of the missing values. one aspect of the model allows consideration of the combined toxicity of organic congeners. Case studies are used in demonstrating the capacities of this model.

  5. Characterization of tannery sludge from the leather industry of Franca industrial district, SP, Brazil; Caracterizacao de um lodo de cromo proveniente da industria de couro do distrito industrial de Franca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambi, M.M.; Toffoli, S.M., E-mail: marvinchp@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2011-07-01

    The industry of leather manufacture generates large quantities of solid leather waste with characteristics of high-polluting and hazardous conditions. Among these wastes, stands out the wet blue leather (chromed leather scraps), and the tanning sludge and secondary sludge generated in the processes of effluents treatment. These wastes contain Cr(III), which, under oxidizing conditions, can turn into Cr (VI), which is highly toxic. However, these wastes are a potential source of chromium oxide (traditional industrial pigment), which could be used by the glass and ceramic enamel industries. In this study, a preliminary characterization of a chromium sludge from the industrial district of Franca-SP was conducted. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA / TG) analyses were used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of this solid waste. The potential of using this material as an available and cheap pigment for the manufacture of enamels and glass is discussed. (author)

  6. Preliminary microphysical characterization of precipitation at ground over Antarctica coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Montopoli, Mario; Baldini, Luca; Dietrich, Stefano; Porcù, Federico

    2017-04-01

    The primary mass input of the Antarctic ice sheet is snow precipitation which is one of the most direct climatic indicators. Climatic model simulations of precipitations over Antarctica is an important task to assess the variation of ice sheet over long temporal scale. The main source of precipitation information in Antarctica regions derive from satellite observations. However, satellite measurements and products need to be calibrated and validated with observations from ground sensors. In spite of their key role, precipitation measurements at ground are scarce and not appropriate to provide the specific characteristic of precipitation particles that influence the scattering and absorption properties of ice particles. Recently, different stations in Antarctica (Princess Elizabeth, McMurdo, Mario Zucchelli) are equipping observatories for cloud and precipitation observations. The setup of the observatory at the Italian Station, Mario Zucchelli (MZ) plans to integrate the current instrumentation for weather measurements with other instruments specific for precipitation observations, in particular, a 24-GHz vertical pointing radar and a laser disdrometer Parsivel. The synergetic use of the set of instruments allows for characterizing precipitation and studying properties of Antarctic precipitation such as dimension, shapes, fall behavior, density of particles, particles size distribution, particles terminal velocity, reflectivity factor and including some information on their vertical extent. Last November, the OTT Parsivel disdrometer was installed on the roof of a logistic container (at 6 m of height) of the MZ station (Latitude 74° 41' 42" S; Longitude 164° 07' 23E") in the Terranova Bay. The disdrometer measures size and fall velocity of particles, passing through a laser matrix from which the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) is obtained. In addition, some products such as reflectivity factor, snow rate and snow accumulation can be inferred by properly

  7. An overview of industrial and organisational psychology research in South Africa: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Schreuder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The generation and development of knowledge for the benefit of the discipline of industrial and organisational psychology by means of research is a core academic focus.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore general research trends in the field of industrial and organisational psychology in South Africa from 1950 to 2008.Motivation for study: Research in the field tends to be influenced by either the changing needs of business or the occupational or personal fields of interest of academics, which often lead to an overemphasis on specific subdisciplines at the expense of others. This research aims to critically review dominant trends in the research focus areas in the field, in the light of present challenges in the changing work context. Recommendations are also made for possible future research.Research design, approach and method: A broad systematic review was carried out to analyse documented published and accredited South African research in the field (n = 2501.Main findings: Although there has been a proportional decline in personnel psychology research since 1990, there has been a proportional increase in both organisational psychology and employee wellness research since 1980 and 1990, respectively. Some areas of the industrial and organisational psychology field appear to be consistently under-researched.Practical implications: The insights derived from the findings can be used by academia and researchers in the field to plan future research initiatives.Contribution/value-add: The findings provide preliminary insights that contribute to the body of knowledge concerned with the industrial and organisational psychology field in the South African context.

  8. Preliminary Assessment of Effects of Paint Industry Effluents on Local Groundwater Regime in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, groundwater constitutes a major source of water supply especially in developing countries, however wastes generated arising from industrial growth and further complication caused by its indiscriminate disposal have been a major risk to groundwater vulnerability. Hence in this study, preliminary impact assessment of wastewater discharged from paint industry on proximal groundwater regime was carried out. Representative groundwater and effluent samples were collected from locations within the study area, and analyzed in accordance to the American Public Health Association standard methods. The values of the measured concentration of the parameters were compared with regulatory standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Mn2+ , total Fe, Ca2+ , TDS, TSS, total hardness and SO4 2- were mostly higher than the permissible regulatory standards. Total alkalinity values were very low in all the groundwater samples, while the presence of E-coli across all the sampling points indicated wide spread pathogenic contamination. The results showed average lead concentration of 1.18 mg/l compared to the permissible level of 0.01 mg/l. Corresponding higher values of the physicochemical and biological parameters were observed in the discharged effluent samples. The observed high lead concentration have potential toxic consequences, and hence enforcement of localized waste minimization is recommended in order to promote waste recycling, and ensure adequate protection of public health and the environment.

  9. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  10. A preliminary characterization of the spatial variability of precipitation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States); Ambos, D.S. [Foothill Engineering Consultants, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Isohyetal maps of precipitation and numerical models for simulating precipitation are needed to characterize natural infiltration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of precipitation within the domain of the natural catchments overlying the potential repository, and to define preliminary geostatistical models based on differences in storm type for the numerical simulation of precipitation.

  11. Comprehensive chemical characterization of industrial PM2.5 from steel industry activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Alexandre; Mizzi, Aurélie; Mathiot, Sébastien; Masson, Fanny; Jaffrezo, Jean L.; Dron, Julien; Mesbah, Boualem; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Industrial sources are among the least documented PM (Particulate Matter) source in terms of chemical composition, which limits our understanding of their effective impact on ambient PM concentrations. We report 4 chemical emission profiles of PM2.5 for multiple activities located in a vast metallurgical complex. Emissions profiles were calculated as the difference of species concentrations between an upwind and a downwind site normalized by the absolute PM2.5 enrichment between both sites. We characterized the PM2.5 emissions profiles of the industrial activities related to the cast iron (complex 1) and the iron ore conversion processes (complex 2), as well as 2 storage areas: a blast furnace slag area (complex 3) and an ore terminal (complex 4). PM2.5 major fractions (Organic Carbon (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC), major ions), organic markers as well as metals/trace elements are reported for the 4 industrial complexes. Among the trace elements, iron is the most emitted for the complex 1 (146.0 mg g-1 of PM2.5), the complex 2 (70.07 mg g-1) and the complex 3 (124.4 mg g-1) followed by Al, Mn and Zn. A strong emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), representing 1.3% of the Organic Matter (OM), is observed for the iron ore transformation complex (complex 2) which merges the activities of coke and iron sinter production and the blast furnace processes. In addition to unsubstituted PAHs, sulfur containing PAHs (SPAHs) are also significantly emitted (between 0.011 and 0.068 mg g-1) by the complex 2 and could become very useful organic markers of steel industry activities. For the complexes 1 and 2 (cast iron and iron ore converters), a strong fraction of sulfate ranging from 0.284 to 0.336 g g-1) and only partially neutralized by ammonium, is observed indicating that sulfates, if not directly emitted by the industrial activity, are formed very quickly in the plume. Emission from complex 4 (Ore terminal) are characterized by high contribution of Al (125.7 mg

  12. Characterization of ground SBR scraps from shoe industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Massarotto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Expanded poly(butadiene-co-styrene (SBR, a residue of the shoe industry of Rio Grande do Sul, is a crosslinked material. For further utilization in recycling and reclaiming processes this residue was ground under ambient conditions. The obtained powder (SBR-r was physically, thermally and chemically characterized and the results were analyzed as for its suitability for reuse methods. This characterization provides a better understanding of the SBR residue components, which may lead to economic and environmental advantages. The SBR-r (3548 mesh is composed by 22.2% of SBR and 77.8% of filler. The elastomeric fraction has 71.4% of crosslinked material. The results demonstrate that SBR can be recycled for use in microcellular composites.

  13. Preliminary characterization of an Italian craft durum wheat beer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Dostálek, Pavel; Olšovská, Jana; Del Caro, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    ... (Germany and the Czech Republic). Standard beer chemical analyses, along with volatile and sensorial profiles, were used to characterize the Sardinian craft durum wheat beer. Copyright © 2014 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling

  14. Preliminary feasibility study on production of cobalt-60 source for industrial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Po Kook; Park, Kyung Bae; Ahn, Yun Soo; Lee, Jong Tai; Kim, Hark Rho

    1999-05-01

    As there is a high possible demand of industrial Co-60 source in the world market, feasibility study of a project was performed to produce and to export Co-60 sources, utilizing KEPCO's Wolsung NPP for irradiation of cobalt and KAERI's hot-cells for fabrication of cobalt sources. Main concerns of the study were to understand irradiation and fabrication (encapsulation) processes and to examine related technologies, required facilities and equipment. In particular, it was examined intensively if it would be possible to modify facilities around the reactor vessel of Wolsung NPP tp substantiate the related licensing in order to irradiate cobalt in the reactor. It is expected that once, if cooperation scheme with MDS Nordion of Canada is established, main issues such as modification of facilities, related licensing, raw material procurement and technology transfer for high quality product will be solved. In order to review overall feasibility of the project, present status and prospect of the world market was surveyed and various usages of cobalt sources were reviewed with emphasis on possible demand increase per usage. Food poisoning accidents are prevailing worldwide and food irradiation with cobalt sources is considered as a promising measure to prevent them and may bring forth high increase of cobalt sources demand in the world market. Preliminary economic feasibility was studied in conservation, evaluating roughly the investment and the operating cost based on materials from various information sources. (author)

  15. Fabrication and preliminary characterization of infrared photodetectors based on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczyński, R.; Kwietniewski, N.; Piotrowski, J.; Judek, J.; Zdrojek, M.; Szczepański, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report the technology of infrared photodetectors based on graphene layers (GLs). In the course of this work the new set of photolithography masks was especially designed to fabricate test structures. The new masks-set contains a matrix of different types of photodetector structures with varied active area dimensions, as well as additional module for characterization of electro-physical parameters of graphene and graphene-based devices. After careful optimization of consecutive technological steps, test structures were fabricated. First results of electrical characterization of obtained graphene-based photodetectors demonstrated that the developed technology was successful, however, further detailed optical characterization towards sensing parameters and potential applications in infrared detectors is necessary.

  16. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  17. Proteinases of Streptomyces fradiae. I. Preliminary characterization and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, E; Kaluzewska, T

    1989-01-01

    A keratinolytic strain of S. fradiae has been shown to synthesize a complex of extracellular proteinases degrading native keratin proteins, elastin and collagen as well as some globular proteins. These enzymes are characterized by basic optimal pH and are inactivated by pheynlmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Using preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, ion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography, 6 fractions of active protein of diversified proteolytic activity have been distinguished in the preparation studied.

  18. Preliminary statistical assessment towards characterization of biobotic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Tahmid; Meng Yang; Lobaton, Edgar; Bozkurt, Alper

    2016-08-01

    Biobotic research involving neurostimulation of instrumented insects to control their locomotion is finding potential as an alternative solution towards development of centimeter-scale distributed swarm robotics. To improve the reliability of biobotic agents, their control mechanism needs to be precisely characterized. To achieve this goal, this paper presents our initial efforts for statistical assessment of the angular response of roach biobots to the applied bioelectrical stimulus. Subsequent findings can help to understand the effect of each stimulation parameter individually or collectively and eventually reach reliable and consistent biobotic control suitable for real life scenarios.

  19. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  20. Radical university-industry innovation – research design and preliminary findings from an on-going qualitative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Frank; Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    This paper reports from an on-going pilot project investigating university-industry collaboration on the development of radical innovation. There is evidence in the literature that such collaboration increases the likelihood of radical innovation. A conceptual framework is presented and it is arg......This paper reports from an on-going pilot project investigating university-industry collaboration on the development of radical innovation. There is evidence in the literature that such collaboration increases the likelihood of radical innovation. A conceptual framework is presented....... Some preliminary findings are presented and briefly discussed, including the role of the university’s formal set-up to deal with IPR/commercialisation and the researchers’ personal networking with industry as well as challenges concerning the sharing of IPR/commercialisation outcomes....

  1. Characterization of Swallowing Sound: Preliminary Investigation of Normal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tsuyoshi; Baba, Takuro; Fujimoto, Keiko; Goto, Takaharu; Nagao, Kan; Harada, Masafumi; Honda, Eiichi; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the swallowing sound and identify the process of sound generation during swallowing in young healthy adults. Thirty-three healthy volunteers were enrolled and allocated into three experimental groups. In experiment 1, a microphone was attached to one of eight cervical sites in 20 subjects, participants swallowed 5 ml water, and the sound waveform was recorded. In experiment 2, 10 subjects swallowed either 0, 5, 10, or 15 ml water during audio recording. In addition, participants consumed the 5 ml bolus in two different cervical postures. In experiment 3, the sound waveform and videofluoroscopy were simultaneously recorded while the three participants consumed 5 ml iopamidol solution. The duration and peak intensity ratio of the waveform were analyzed in all experimental groups. The acoustic analysis of the waveforms and videofluoroscopy suggested that the swallowing sound could be divided into three periods, each associated with a stage of the swallowing movement: the oral phase comprising posterior tongue and hyoid bone movement; the pharyngeal phase comprising larynx movement, hyoid bone elevation, epiglottis closure, and passage of the bolus through the esophagus orifice; and the repositioning phase comprising the return of the hyoid bone and larynx to their resting positions, and reopening of the epiglottis. Acoustic analysis of swallowing sounds and videofluoroscopy suggests that the swallowing sound could be divided into three periods associated with each process of the swallowing movement: the oral phase comprising the posterior movement of the tongue and hyoid bone; the pharyngeal phase comprising the laryngeal movement, hyoid bone elevation, epiglottis closure, and the bolus passage to the esophagus orifice; and the repositioning phase comprising the repositioning of the hyoid bone and larynx, and reopening of the epiglottis.

  2. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  3. Preliminary molecular characterization of the human pathogen Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ai

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human angiostrongyliasis is an emerging food-borne public health problem, with the number of cases increasing worldwide, especially in mainland China. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of this severe disease. However, little is known about the genetics and basic biology of A. cantonensis. Results A cDNA library of A. cantonensis fourth-stage larvae was constructed, and ~1,200 clones were sequenced. Bioinformatic analyses revealed 378 cDNA clusters, 54.2% of which matched known genes at a cutoff expectation value of 10-20. Of these 378 unique cDNAs, 168 contained open reading frames encoding proteins containing an average of 238 amino acids. Characterization of the functions of these encoded proteins by Gene Ontology analysis showed enrichment in proteins with binding and catalytic activity. The observed pattern of enzymes involved in protein metabolism, lipid metabolism and glycolysis may reflect the central nervous system habitat of this pathogen. Four proteins were tested for their immunogenicity using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and histopathological examinations. The specificity of each of the four proteins was superior to that of crude somatic and excretory/secretory antigens of larvae, although their sensitivity was relatively low. We further showed that mice immunized with recombinant cystatin, a product of one of the four cDNA candidate genes, were partially protected from A. cantonensis infection. Conclusion The data presented here substantially expand the available genetic information about the human pathogen A. cantonensis, and should be a significant resource for angiostrongyliasis researchers. As such, this work serves as a starting point for molecular approaches for diagnosing and controlling human angiostrongyliasis.

  4. Preliminary characterization of an expanding flow of siloxane vapor MDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A.; Cozzi, F.; Cammi, G.; Zocca, M.; Gaetani, P.; Dossena, V.; Guardone, A.

    2017-03-01

    The early experimental results on the characterization of expanding flows of siloxane vapor MDM (C8H24O2Si3, octamethyltrisiloxane) are presented. The measurements were performed on the Test Rig for Organic VApors (TROVA) at the CREA Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. The TROVA test-rig was built in order to investigate the non-ideal compressible-fluid behavior of typical expanding flows occurring within organic Rankine cycles (ORC) turbine passages. The test rig implements a batch Rankine cycle where a planar converging-diverging nozzle replaces the turbine and represents a test section. Investigations related to both fields of non-ideal compressible-fluid dynamics fundamentals and turbomachinery are allowed. The nozzle can be operated with different working fluids and operating conditions aiming at measuring independently the pressure, the temperature and the velocity field and thus providing data to verify the thermo-fluid dynamic models adopted to predict the behavior of these flows. The limiting values of pressure and temperature are 50 bar and 400 °C respectively. The early measurements are performed along the nozzle axis, where an isentropic process is expected to occur. In particular, the results reported here refer to the nozzle operated in adapted conditions using the siloxane vapor MDM as working fluid in thermodynamic regions where mild to medium non-ideal compressible-fluid effects are present. Both total temperature and total pressure of the nozzle are measured upstream of the test section, while static pressure are measured along the nozzle axis. Schlieren visualizations are also carried out in order to complement the pressure measurement with information about the 2D density gradient field. The Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique is planned to be used in the future for velocity measurements. The measured flow field has also been interpreted by resorting to the quasi-one-dimensional theory and two dimensional CFD viscous calculation. In both cases

  5. Characterization of Swallowing Sound: Preliminary Investigation of Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tsuyoshi; Baba, Takuro; Fujimoto, Keiko; Goto, Takaharu; Nagao, Kan; Harada, Masafumi; Honda, Eiichi; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize the swallowing sound and identify the process of sound generation during swallowing in young healthy adults. Methods Thirty-three healthy volunteers were enrolled and allocated into three experimental groups. In experiment 1, a microphone was attached to one of eight cervical sites in 20 subjects, participants swallowed 5 ml water, and the sound waveform was recorded. In experiment 2, 10 subjects swallowed either 0, 5, 10, or 15 ml water during audio recording. In addition, participants consumed the 5 ml bolus in two different cervical postures. In experiment 3, the sound waveform and videofluoroscopy were simultaneously recorded while the three participants consumed 5 ml iopamidol solution. The duration and peak intensity ratio of the waveform were analyzed in all experimental groups. Results The acoustic analysis of the waveforms and videofluoroscopy suggested that the swallowing sound could be divided into three periods, each associated with a stage of the swallowing movement: the oral phase comprising posterior tongue and hyoid bone movement; the pharyngeal phase comprising larynx movement, hyoid bone elevation, epiglottis closure, and passage of the bolus through the esophagus orifice; and the repositioning phase comprising the return of the hyoid bone and larynx to their resting positions, and reopening of the epiglottis. Conclusion Acoustic analysis of swallowing sounds and videofluoroscopy suggests that the swallowing sound could be divided into three periods associated with each process of the swallowing movement: the oral phase comprising the posterior movement of the tongue and hyoid bone; the pharyngeal phase comprising the laryngeal movement, hyoid bone elevation, epiglottis closure, and the bolus passage to the esophagus orifice; and the repositioning phase comprising the repositioning of the hyoid bone and larynx, and reopening of the epiglottis. PMID:27959902

  6. Preliminary characterization of interlayer for Be/Cu sintered compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for plasma facing components of ITER, because of its many advantages such as low Z, high thermal conductivity, low tritium retention, low activation and so on. Among the different divertor design options, the duplex structure where the beryllium armor is bonded with heat sink structural materials (DS-copper, Cu-Cr-Zr and so on) is under consideration. And plasma facing components will be exposed to high heat load and high neutron flux generated by the plasma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the reliable bonding technologies between beryllium and heat sink structural materials in order to fabricate plasma facing components which can resist those. Then, we started the bonding technology development of beryllium and copper alloy with FGM (functional gradient material) in order to reduce thermal stress due to the difference of thermal expansion between beryllium and copper alloy. As the interlayers for FGM, eleven kinds of sintered compacts in which the mixing ratio of beryllium powder and oxygen free copper powder is different, were fabricated by the hot press/HIP method. The dimension of each compact is 8mm in diameter, 2mm in thickness. Then, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of these compacts were measured by laser flash method, and thermal conductivity was calculated from those values. From metalographical observation, it became clear that the sintered compacts of mixture of beryllium powder and copper powder contain residual beryllium, copper and two kinds of intermetallic compounds, Be{sub 2}Cu({delta}) and BeCu({gamma}). From the results of thermal characterization, thermal diffusivity of interlayers increased with increase of copper containing ratio. And, specific heat gradually decreased with increase of copper containing ratio.

  7. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic characterization of FlhF from Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bange, Gert; Petzold, Georg; Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard, E-mail: irmi.sinning@bzh.uni-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg University Biochemistry Centre (BZH), INF 328, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-05-01

    Preliminary crystallographic data are reported for the third SRP GTPase FlhF from Bacillus subtilis. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis contains three proteins belonging to the signal recognition particle (SRP) type GTPase family. The well characterized signal sequence-binding protein SRP54 and the SRP receptor protein FtsY are universally conserved components of the SRP system of protein transport. The third member, FlhF, has been implicated in the placement and assembly of polar flagella. This article describes the overexpression and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of an FlhF fragment that corresponds to the well characterized GTPase domains in SRP54 and FtsY. Three crystal forms are reported with either GDP or GMPPNP and diffract to a resolution of about 3 Å.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of zeolites prepared from industrial fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franus, Wojciech; Wdowin, Magdalena; Franus, Małgorzata

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of using fly ash to produce synthetic zeolites. The synthesis class F fly ash from the Stalowa Wola SA heat and power plant was subjected to 24 h hydrothermal reaction with sodium hydroxide. Depending on the reaction conditions, three types of synthetic zeolites were formed: Na-X (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 75 °C), Na-P1 (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 95 °C), and sodalite (20 g fly ash, 0.8 dm(3) of 5 mol · dm(-3) NaOH + 0.4 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaCl, 95 °C). As synthesized materials were characterized to obtain mineral composition (X-ray diffractometry, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry), adsorption properties (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, N2 isotherm adsorption/desorption), and ion exchange capacity. The most effective reaction for zeolite preparation was when sodalite was formed and the quantitative content of zeolite from X-ray diffractometry was 90 wt%, compared with 70 wt% for the Na-X and 75 wt% for the Na-P1. Residues from each synthesis reaction were the following: mullite, quartz, and the remains of amorphous aluminosilicate glass. The best zeolitic material as characterized by highest specific surface area was Na-X at almost 166 m(2) · g(-1), while for the Na-P1 and sodalite it was 71 and 33 m(2) · g(-1), respectively. The ion exchange capacity decreased in the following order: Na-X at 1.8 meq · g(-1), Na-P1 at 0.72 meq · g(-1), and sodalite at 0.56 meq · g(-1). The resulting zeolites are competitive for commercially available materials and are used as ion exchangers in industrial wastewater and soil decontamination.

  9. An Opportunity for Industry-Academia Partnership: Training the Next Generation of Industrial Researchers in Characterizing Higher Order Protein Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, David L; Brenowitz, Michael; Roberts, Christopher J

    2016-12-01

    Training researchers for positions in the United States biopharmaceutical industry has long been driven by academia. This commentary explores how the changing landscape of academic training will impact the industrial workforce, particularly with regard to the development of protein therapeutics in the area of biophysical and higher order structural characterization. We discuss how to balance future training and employment opportunities, how academic-industrial partnerships can help young scientists acquire the skills needed by their future employer, and how an appropriately trained workforce can facilitate the translation of new technology from academic to industrial laboratories. We also present suggestions to facilitate the coordinated development of industrial-academic educational partnerships to develop new training programs, and the ability of students to locate these programs, through the development of authoritative public resources. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radical university-industry innovation – research design and preliminary findings from an on-going qualitative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Frank; Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    and it is arguing that there is a lack of in-depth understanding of such collaborative radical innovation processes. The paper then suggests an abductive research design for an explorative in-depth case study of collaborative radical innovation involving a university and an established Danish manufacturing firm....... Some preliminary findings are presented and briefly discussed, including the role of the university’s formal set-up to deal with IPR/commercialisation and the researchers’ personal networking with industry as well as challenges concerning the sharing of IPR/commercialisation outcomes....

  11. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  12. Surface characterization of bacterial cells relevant to the mineral industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, PK; Rao, KH

    Bacteria belonging to the Acidithiobacilli group are widely used in the mineral processing industry in bioleaching and biobeneficiation operations. Paenibacillus polymyxa has also found application in biobeneficiation studies. Microbial adhesion to mineral surface is an essential step,for both

  13. Preliminary study on enhancing waste management best practice model in Malaysia construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Amril Hadri; Karim, Nurulzatushima Abdul; Noor, Raja Nor Husna Raja Mohd; Othman, Nurulhidayah; Malik, Sulaiman Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste management (CWM) is the practice of minimizing and diverting construction waste, demolition debris, and land-clearing debris from disposal and redirecting recyclable resources back into the construction process. Best practice model means best choice from the collection of other practices that was built for purpose of construction waste management. The practice model can help the contractors in minimizing waste before the construction activities will be started. The importance of minimizing wastage will have direct impact on time, cost and quality of a construction project. This paper is focusing on the preliminary study to determine the factors of waste generation in the construction sites and identify the effectiveness of existing construction waste management practice conducted in Malaysia. The paper will also include the preliminary works of planned research location, data collection method, and analysis to be done by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help in developing suitable waste management best practice model that can be used in the country.

  14. DEFINITION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POSTS FOR ENERGY INDUSTRY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COROIU N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to identify the personnel categories from energy industry, the approach in the selection, recruitment, hiring, as well as optimizing the working process, with examples from the process in a multinational company with private capital and integrated compartment in the human resources S.C. ELECTRICA S.A.

  15. Surface characterization of bacterial cells relevant to the mineral industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, PK; Rao, KH

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Acidithiobacilli group are widely used in the mineral processing industry in bioleaching and biobeneficiation operations. Paenibacillus polymyxa has also found application in biobeneficiation studies. Microbial adhesion to mineral surface is an essential step,for both biobe

  16. Preliminary studies of a new accelerator-driven minor actinide burner in industrial scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xunzhao; Zhou, Shengcheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Kunpeng [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, PO Box 8088, No. 54, Beijing 100082 (China); Wu, Hongchun [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new accelerator-driven minor actinide (MA) burner was proposed. • Comprehensive design of spallation target, fuel assembly and subcritical core was performed. • Preliminary safety analyses indicate the inherent safety of the core in the reactivity insertion (500 pcm) and beam overpower (50% increase) transients. - Abstract: Pursuing high transmutation rate of minor actinide (MA), a preliminary conceptual design of a lead-bismuth (LBE) cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS) is proposed in this study. Parametric studies are performed to optimize the neutronics and thermal–hydraulics performances. The proton energy and axial position of the proton beam impact is investigated to obtain high neutron source efficiency and spallation neutron yield. The influences of MA/Pu mixing ratio and the ratio of pin pitch to diameter (P/D) are also optimized to control the burnup reactivity swing and the minimum coolant velocity for adequate cooling. To reduce the power peak, three kinds of power flattening techniques are adopted and compared. The results show that the inert matrix ratio zone loading method seems more versatile. Based on the analyses, an optimized three zone loading pattern is proposed for the 800 MWth subcritical core. The total transmutation rate of MA is 328.8 kg per effective full power year. Preliminary safety analyses based on the balance of power method (BOP) are performed and the results show that in the reactivity insertion and beam overpower transients, the core shows inherent safety, but the scram is necessary by cutting off the beam current to protect the core from possible damages caused by the loss of flow.

  17. Transfer of energy-conservation technology to industry. A preliminary survey of existing mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colsher, C. S.; Evans, A. R.

    1978-09-01

    To ascertain the current level of interest, capabilities, and involvement in the dissemination of information on industrial energy conservation, a representative sample of trade associations, professional societies, government agencies, research institutes, utilities, equipment manufacturers, and consultants were contacted. Based upon 150 responses from major groups, it was found that although form and level of activity varied widely, the most frequently used communications channels are workshops, seminars, conferences, energy audits, energy committees, and distribution of literature. Among the areas cited as needing improvement are (1) awareness and acquisition of literature and (2) availability of industry - or process - specific technical manuals for plant managers or engineers. The most successful government/industry interfaces were felt to be workshops held cooperatively with trade associations, programs to encourage sharing of generic conservation techniques between firms, and published literature.

  18. Design and preliminary results of a fuel flexible industrial gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The design characteristics are presented of a fuel tolerant variable geometry staged air combustor using regenerative/convective cooling. The rich/quench/lean variable geometry combustor is designed to achieve low NO(x) emission from fuels containing fuel bound nitrogen. The physical size of the combustor was calculated for a can-annular combustion system with associated operating conditions for the Allison 570-K engine. Preliminary test results indicate that the concept has the potential to meet emission requirements at maximum continuous power operation. However, airflow sealing and improved fuel/air mixing are necessary to meet Department of Energy program goals.

  19. Design and preliminary results of a fuel flexible industrial gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The design characteristics are presented of a fuel tolerant variable geometry staged air combustor using regenerative/convective cooling. The rich/quench/lean variable geometry combustor is designed to achieve low NO(x) emission from fuels containing fuel bound nitrogen. The physical size of the combustor was calculated for a can-annular combustion system with associated operating conditions for the Allison 570-K engine. Preliminary test results indicate that the concept has the potential to meet emission requirements at maximum continuous power operation. However, airflow sealing and improved fuel/air mixing are necessary to meet Department of Energy program goals.

  20. Coordination in contractual relations: Some preliminary findings from the Malaysian housing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraya Ismail

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional general procurement route found in many housing projects in Malaysia is conceptualized as a governance structure following the transaction cost economics (TCE approach. This approach has been used to examine governance structures in different economic sectors in several countries but evidence of its use in the context of developing countries is limited. This lack of evidence has prompted the authors to conduct a preliminary study to ascertain whether a TCE approach can explain construction governance structures in developing countries. This research does not discuss the trade-off that governs the choice of hybrids, market or hierarchies for organizing transactions. Rather, it takes advantage of existing research to substantiate the specific properties of hybrid organizations as governance structures. The main focus is coordination. Coordination is specified at two levels. At Level 1 is the coordination of specialization (i.e. the formation of the project team members and at Level 2 is the coordination mode of the contracting parties (client and contractor and the agents involved (the lead designer and project manage r. A case survey method was adopted. Preliminary findings seem to suggest that clients have used hierarchical themes in the contracts and high powered incentives to coordinate with in the contracting parties. The research findings suggest that all participants involved in the sample studied used governance structures symptomatic of a hybrid organization.

  1. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  2. Purification, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of polysaccharides from Ostrea rivularis Gould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijie; Zhang, Danyan; Wu, Jun; Li, Xia; Zhang, Jingnian; Wan, Mianjie; Lai, Xiaoping

    2015-09-01

    In this study, purification, preliminary characterization and biological activities of water-soluble polysaccharides from Ostrea rivularis Gould (ORP) were investigated. Firstly, crude ORP was extracted by enzyme-assisted extraction and then sequentially purified by chromatography of DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100, producing one main purified fractions of ORPp. Furthermore, the preliminary characterization of ORPp was studied, and its antioxidant and spermatogenesis activities were evaluated. Experimental results showed that ORPp was mainly composed of glucose (76.3%) and galactose (23.7%). The average molecular weight of ORPp was 118 kDa. Besides, ORPp showed strong antioxidant activities in vitro. For the experiments of antioxidant activities in vivo, ORPp can significantly inhibited the formation of MDA in rats' serums, and raised the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the level of total antioxidant capacity (TAOC). Furthermore, ORPp could significantly increase the weights of male rats' sexual organs, promote sperm motility and raise epididymal sperm counts. These results suggest that ORPp could be a new source of natural antioxidants and spermatogenic agent with its potential usage in developing novel supplements and medicines.

  3. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill) starch for industrial utilization

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g), lipid (5.39 g/100g), crude fiber (2.34 g/100g) and ash (2.14 g/100g). Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and...

  4. Guest editorial: Industrial Engineering in Namibia - A personal and preliminary view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Snaddon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While Namibia is a Republic with just over two thirds the geographical area of South Africa, its population is only 2.3 million (under 5 percent of that in South Africa. Its estimated production (measured by GDP is $ 9.4billion (US as compared with $ 287billion (US for South Africa (just over 3 percent making it less wealthy per person than South Africa. As a small economy in Southern Africa many people may say that Industrial Engineering in Namibia does not exist. They are incorrect as Industrial Engineers do “the integration of resources and processes into cohesive strategies, structures and systems for the effective and efficient production of quality goods and services” (Sperotto 19941. That includes all who start and run the wealth creating organisations including those in Namibia.

  5. Technetium in alkaline, high-salt, radioactive tank waste supernate: Preliminary characterization and removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Brown, G.N.; Conradson, S.D. [and others

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the initial work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to study technetium (Tc) removal from Hanford tank waste supernates and Tc oxidation state in the supernates. Filtered supernate samples from four tanks were studied: a composite double shell slurry feed (DSSF) consisting of 70% from Tank AW-101, 20% from AP-106, and 10% from AP-102; and three complexant concentrate (CC) wastes (Tanks AN-107, SY-101, ANS SY-103) that are distinguished by having a high concentration of organic complexants. The work included batch contacts of these waste samples with Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (anion exchanger from Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (a sorbent from Eichrom Industries), materials designed to effectively remove Tc as pertechnetate from tank wastes. A short study of Tc analysis methods was completed. A preliminary identification of the oxidation state of non-pertechnetate species in the supernates was made by analyzing the technetium x-ray absorption spectra of four CC waste samples. Molybdenum (Mo) and rhenium (Re) spiked test solutions and simulants were tested with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to evaluate the feasibility of the technique for identifying Tc species in waste samples.

  6. Preliminary Study: Treatment of Food Industrial Wastewater using Two-Phase Anaerobic Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Shafendy Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Food processing industrial wastewater is well known for its high concentration of COD, BOD and suspended solid. The condition of the wastewater formed makes it illegal for the industry to release the wastewater to the open body of water without essential treatment. The study is conducted on food manufacturing company which specializes in chips export business. The quality of the wastewater produced from the manufacturing is not appropriate to be discharged directly. Thus, a two phase treatment system involving UASB and HUASB reactors as primary treatment and followed by AF reactor as secondary treatment is proposed. Basically, this research will focus on the performance of UASB-AF and HUASB-AF treatment systems and the affect of adding palm oil shell into the HUASB and AF respectively as support media. Parameters measured are pH, COD, NH3-N, oil and grease and total phosphorus. The instruments used for collecting data in this research are pH meter and HACH DR5000. In this research, the highest COD removal for the effluents from the U1 and U2 were at the 14th day with 93.6% removal and at the 62th day with 96.6% each. Meanwhile, in the R2 treatment system, the highest COD removal for the effluents from the H1 and H2 were at the 14th day with 98.3% removal and at 110th day with 97.6% removal. It is hoped that this study will generate useful findings that could be applied to alleviate the current problem at the food factory and also at other food industry in the future.

  7. Preliminary operational results of the low-temperature solar industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    Six solar industrial process heat field tests have been in operation for a year or more - three are hot water systems and three are hot air systems. All are low-temperature projects (process heat at temperatures below 212/sup 0/F). Performance results gathered by each contractor's data acquisition system are presented and project costs and problems encountered are summarized. Flat-plate, evacuated-tube, and line-focus collectors are all represented in the program, with collector array areas ranging from 2500 to 21,000 ft/sup 2/. Collector array efficiencies ranged from 12% to 36% with net system efficiencies from 8% to 33%. Low efficiencies are attributable in some cases to high thermal losses and, for the two projects using air collectors, are due in part to high parasitic power consumption. Problems have included industrial effluents on collectors, glazing and absorber surface failures, excessive thermal losses, freezing and overheating, control problems, and data acquisition system failure. With design and data acquisition costs excluded costs of the projects ranged from $25/ft/sup 2/ to $87/ft/sup 2/ and $499/(MBtu/yr) to $1537/(MBtu/yr).

  8. Characterization of airborne particles in Korea potassium chloride industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol Kyu; Lim, Ha Yan; Kim, Si Young; Park, Jae Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Internal exposure dose by particle inhalation can be estimated by Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) in Publication 66 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). According to HRTM, radiation dose by particle inhalation containing NORM depends on particle properties. ICRP provides the reference values which can be applied if it is impossible to measure the particle properties. However, when using these values, there can be a large difference with actual dose assessment. Consequently, the ICRP recommends that site-specific information on aerosol physic-chemical properties should be measured and then used in the worker dose assessment. Therefore, the actual measurement data of particle properties is required for reliable dose assessment. This study estimated the particle size distribution, particle concentration, density, shape, chemical composition and radioactivity concentrations. In this study, we evaluated the properties of the particles generated from the potassium chloride industry treating a large amount of materials containing natural radioactive nuclides in Korea. The characteristic values of the particles measured will contribute to internal exposure radiation dose assessment by particle inhalation of the workers. Furthermore, it can provide a reasonable means of radiation protection as basic data for establishing a system of natural radiation safety management.

  9. Analytical characterization of an industrial waste treated by gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, M.D.; Larsen, D.W.; Manahan, S.E. [University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1999-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that an effective general treatment for hazardous wastes is sorption of the waste onto a specially prepared, macroporous coal char followed by gasification of the mixture in reverse mode. In the present study, an industrial waste comprised of styrene manufacturing and petroleum byproducts was gasified, and the waste, coal, virgin char, and char/waste mixture (before and after gasification) were examined by various instrumental methods, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and ultimate and proximate analyses, to determine which methods give useful information. The composition of the waste was found to be 38% water, 27% inorganic, and 35% organic. NMR showed that the organic components are a mixture of aliphatic and olefinic/aromatics. About 8% of the sludge is chromatographable and GC/MS revealed the presence of aromatics and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Solid-state NMR showed that the sludge components are strongly immobilized on the char up to a 1:1 (wt:wt) ratio. SEM results showed changes in the char macroporous surface as waste is incorporated by the char and as the mixture is subsequently gasified. In addition, a portion of the elemental content of the char surface was revealed by energy dispersive (EDAX) measurements. IR photoaccoustic spectroscopy showed that peaks attributable to aqueous and organic fractions of the waste disappear upon gasification. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Characterization of new international business of traditional manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cantarero Sanz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study the characteristics of the New International Business (NIS or Born-Global in a sample of 81 SMEs belonging to the Spanish textile sector. This is descriptive analysis regarding the location, the subsector of activity, size, economic performance and internationalization strategy implemented by the NEI (2005-2009.The results identified three groups of NIS: export, import and export-import. The group of companies that makeup the largest importers and are associated with smaller companies. The exporters appear to be related more to low techsub-sectors while more internationally committed are those with a higher dimension. Regarding the location not detected any evidence of territorial pattern. Finally, among firms internationalized in the time period analyzed, it is also noteworthy that the economic performance of these is higher among importers. This study provides information on why the same country and same industry some companies decide shortly be created to assume certain levels of risk, engaging in operations engaged in foreign markets while others do not. It also participates in the debate on the competitiveness of manufacturing companies.

  11. Characterizing dense suspensions: two case studies from the pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David J.; Khawaja, Nazia; Kazakevich, Irina; Bhattacharjee, Himanshu; Heslinga, Michael; Dalton, Chad

    2015-11-01

    Liquid suspensions of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient powders are present as pharmaceutical dosage forms in the form of oral suspensions and injectables. We present two case studies, both dense (~ 30-40%) suspensions, in which the physical characterization of the product, specifically, particle size & shape and rheology were key to understanding the key product attributes as pertaining to the manufacturing process and to patient administration. For the one case study, an oral suspension, identifying variations in particle morphology during the wet milling of the product was key to the product understanding necessary to modify the milling process. Rheological measurements were applied as well. For the second case study, an injectable, results from different particle size measurement techniques and rheological measurements indicated the possibility of flocculation in a formulation. Additionally, measurements were obtained to assess the ``injectability'' of the product via rheometer and texture analyzer measurements and Poiseuille flow modeling. As a result, the relevant shear rate regime for this drug product administration was identified.

  12. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S., E-mail: chris@freemantle.co.za [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd.), P.O. Box 27559, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2014-01-01

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes.

  13. Ultrafine Magnetite Nanopowder: Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Use as Filler of Polymethylmethacrylate Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Russo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis have been characterized in terms of morphological and structural features. Electron micrographs collected in both scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM modes and evaluations of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD patterns have indicated the achievement of a monodispersed crystallite structure with particles having an average size around 15–20 nm. Structural investigations by Micro-Raman spectroscopy highlighted the obtainment of magnetite nanocrystals with a partial surface oxidation to maghemite (γ-Fe3O4. Preliminary attention has been also paid to the use of these magnetite nanoparticles as filler for a commercial polymethylmethacrylate resin. Hybrid formulations containing up to 3 wt% of nanoparticles were prepared by melt blending and characterized by calorimetric and thermogravimetric tests. For sake of comparison, same formulations containing commercial Fe3O4 nanoparticles are also reported. Calorimetric characterization indicates an increase of both glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the nanocomposite systems when loaded with the synthesized magnetite nanoparticles rather then loaded with the same amount of commercial Fe3O4. This first observation represents just one aspect of the promising potentiality offered by the novel magnetic nanoparticles when mixed with PMMA.

  14. Preliminary characterization of two different crystal forms of acylphosphatase from the hyperthermophile archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccotti, Simone [Department of Physics-INFM and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16132 Genova (Italy); Rosano, Camillo [National Institute for Cancer Research (IST), X-ray Structural Biology Unit, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Bemporad, Francesco [Department of Biochemical Sciences, University of Firenze, Viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Florence (Italy); Stefani, Massimo [Department of Biochemical Sciences, University of Firenze, Viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Florence (Italy); Centro di Ricerca, Trasferimento e Alta Formazione MCIDNENT, University of Firenze, Viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Florence (Italy); Bolognesi, Martino, E-mail: bolognes@fisica.unige.it [Department of Physics-INFM and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    S. solfataricus acylphosphatase has been expressed, purified and crystallized in two different crystal forms. Preliminary characterization of a triclinic and a monoclinic crystal form is reported and data were collected to 1.27 and 1.90 Å, respectively. Acylphosphatase is a ubiquitous small enzyme that was first characterized in mammals. It is involved in the hydrolysis of carboxyl-phosphate bonds in several acylphosphate substrates, such as carbamoylphosphate and 1,3-biphosphoglycerate; however, a consensus on acylphosphatase action in vivo has not yet been reached. Recent investigations have focused on acylphosphatases from lower phyla, such as Drosophila melanogaster and Escherichia coli, in view of the application of these small proteins as models in the study of folding, misfolding and aggregation processes. An acylphosphatase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has been cloned, expressed and purified. Here, the growth and characterization of a triclinic and a monoclinic crystal form of the hyperthermophilic enzyme are reported; X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.27 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively.

  15. E-Commerce Experiences in the Real Estate Industry: a preliminary study in regional Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Van Akkeren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems have become commonplace in most SMEs and technology is increasingly becoming a part of doing business. In recent years, the Internet has become readily available to businesses; consequently there has been growing pressure on SMEs to take up e-commerce. However, e-commerce is perceived by many as being unproven in terms of business benefit. This research aims to determine what, if any, benefits are derived from assimilating e-commerce technologies into SME business processes. This paper presents three in-depth case studies from the Real Estate industry in a regional setting. Overall, findings were positive and identified the following experiences: enhanced business efficiencies, cost benefits, improved customer interactions and increased business return on investment.

  16. Photonic Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography for Quality Monitoring in the Poultry Industry: a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sabuncu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA photonic imaging method that gives the possibility to measure egg quality was applied. Since the method is non-contact and non-destructive we believe that this photonic imaging method may be successfully integrated in the automated inspection systems in the poultry industry. The method involves scanning an invisible infrared light beam over the eggshell, allowing to detect possible cracks and reveal information about the structure of the eggshell. The high resolution, high quality measurements obtained through optical coherence tomography (OCT make it feasible to be utilized as part of an automated inspection system. In this paper we present an OCT scan image of the egg tip and reconstructed volumetric images of the eggshell surface. The method enables the detection of small cracks on eggs and reveals the detailed inner structures of the cracks.

  17. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) represents the next evolutionary step in cryogenic liquid rocket engines. Deriving its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core, the NTR can generate high thrust at a specific impulse of approx. 900 seconds or more - twice that of today's best chemical rockets. In FY'11, as part of the AISP project, NASA proposed a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) effort that envisioned two key activities - "Foundational Technology Development" followed by system-level "Technology Demonstrations". Five near-term NTP activities identified for Foundational Technology Development became the basis for the NCPS project started in FY'12 and funded by NASA's AES program. During Phase 1 (FY'12-14), the NCPS project was focused on (1) Recapturing fuel processing techniques and fabricating partial length "heritage" fuel elements for the two candidate fuel forms identified by NASA and the DOE - NERVA graphite "composite" and the uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten "cermet". The Phase 1 effort also included: (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Mission Analysis and Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable and Sustainable NTP Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary plan for DDT&E was outlined by GRC, the DOE and industry for NASA HQ that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce development costs, the GTD and FTD tests use a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 or 16.5 klbf) engine. Both engines use graphite composite fuel and a "common" fuel element design that is scalable to higher thrust (approx. 25 klbf) engines by increasing the number of elements in a larger diameter core that can produce greater thermal power output. To keep the FTD mission cost down, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered along with

  18. Containerless Solidification and Characterization of Industrial Alloys (NEQUISOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbagi, A.; Henein, H.; Chen, J.; Herlach, D. M.; Lengsdorf, R.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Tourret, D.; Garcia-Escorial, A.

    2011-12-01

    Containerless solidification using electromagnetic levitator (EML), gas atomization and an instrumented drop tube, known as impulse atomization is investigated for Al-Fe and Al-Ni alloys. The effects of primary phase and eutectic undercooling on the microstructure of Al-Fe alloys are investigated using the impulse drop tube and parabolic flight. The TEM characterization on the eutectic microstructure of impulse-atomized Al-Fe powders with two compositions showed that the metastable AlmFe formed in these alloys. Also, the growth undercooling that the dendritic front experiences during the solidification of the droplet resulted in variation of dendrite growth direction from to . For Al-4 at%Fe, it was found that in reduced-gravity and in the impulse-atomized droplets the primary intermetallic forms with a flower-like morphology, whereas in the terrestrial EML sample it has a needle like morphology. For Al-Ni, the effect of primary phase undercooling on dendrite growth velocity under terrestrial and reduced-gravity condition is discussed. It is shown that under terrestrial conditions, in the Ni-rich alloys with increasing undercooling the growth velocity increases, whereas in the Al-rich alloys the growth velocity decreases. However, the Al-rich alloy that was studied in reduced-gravity showed similar behavior to that of Ni-rich alloys. Furthermore, the effect of cooling rate on the phase fractions and metastable phase formation of impulse-atomized Al-Ni alloys is compared with EML. A microsegregation model for the solidification of Al-Ni alloys is applied to impulse atomized powders. The model accounts for the occurrence of several phase transformations, including one or several peritectic reactions and one eutectic reaction.

  19. Research utilization in the building industry: decision model and preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Johnson, D.R.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1985-10-01

    The Research Utilization Program was conceived as a far-reaching means for managing the interactions of the private sector and the federal research sector as they deal with energy conservation in buildings. The program emphasizes a private-public partnership in planning a research agenda and in applying the results of ongoing and completed research. The results of this task support the hypothesis that the transfer of R and D results to the buildings industry can be accomplished more efficiently and quickly by a systematic approach to technology transfer. This systematic approach involves targeting decision makers, assessing research and information needs, properly formating information, and then transmitting the information through trusted channels. The purpose of this report is to introduce elements of a market-oriented knowledge base, which would be useful to the Building Systems Division, the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and their associated laboratories in managing a private-public research partnership on a rational systematic basis. This report presents conceptual models and data bases that can be used in formulating a technology transfer strategy and in planning technology transfer programs.

  20. Preliminary Characterization of Mus musculus–Derived Pathogenic Strains of Leptospira borgpetersenii Serogroup Ballum in a Hamster Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Éverton F.; Félix, Samuel R.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Fagundes, Michel Q.; Neto, Amilton C. P. S.; Grassmann, André A.; Amaral, Marta G.; Gallina, Tiago; Dellagostin, Odir A.

    2010-01-01

    Human and animal leptospirosis caused by Leptospira spp. belonging to serogroup Ballum has increased worldwide in the past decade. We report the isolation and serologic and molecular characterization of four L. borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum isolates obtained from Mus musculus, and preliminary virulence studies. These isolates are useful for diagnosis of leptospirosis and for epidemiologic studies of its virulence and pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:20682877

  1. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results

  2. Preliminary Studies for the Application of Irradiated-Food to Food Service Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Dong-Ho; Seo, Min-Won

    2008-04-15

    This study is to investigate ways to improve the marketability of irradiated food materials, through examining reports on toxicological safety and public acceptance of irradiated food materials. Many studies have reaffirmed the mutagenic, genotoxicological, microbiological, and nutritional safety of food irradiation, and consider it an important tool to reduce loss of food due to spoilage and pests. Although food irradiation could provide an opportunity to replace certain pesticides and food additives, there is ambivalence among consumers on whether or not the technology provides a real benefit. An easy and inexpensive tool to identify irradiation trace residue in foods, public trust building in industry through educating consumers with the benefit and uses of irradiation process are thought to be key elements for a successful market for irradiated food. Gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was applied to food materials for institutional food-service to evaluate their possible genotoxicity. The genotoxicity of 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results of bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 were negative in the 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay with and without metabolic activation. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was observed between non-irradiated and 50 kGy-irradiated food materials. These results indicate that food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions.

  3. Extraction Optimization, Preliminary Characterization and Bioactivities in Vitro of Ligularia hodgsonii Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides were investigated. Based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal array test, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: extraction time 3 h, temperature 85 °C, water/raw material ratio 36. Further Sevag deproteinization and dialysis yielded the dialyzed Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides (DLHP, 19.2 ± 1.4 mg/g crude herb. Compositional analysis, size-exclusion chromatography connected with multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy were employed for characterization of the polysaccharides. DLHP was found to have a major component with a weight-average molecular weight of 1.17 × 105 Da, mainly comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. By in vitro antioxidant activity assays, DLHP presented remarkable scavenging capacities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ions chelating ability. Moreover, it exhibited appreciable anti-hyperglycemic activity as demonstrated by differential inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that DLHP could potentially be a resource for antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents.

  4. Extraction optimization, preliminary characterization and immunological activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Elaeagnus angustifolia L. pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongtao; Chen, Juncheng; Tian, Shan; Gu, Hongling; Li, Na; Sun, Yao; Ru, Jiajia; Wang, Junru

    2016-10-20

    In this research, extraction optimization, preliminary characterization and immunological activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Elaeagnus angustifolia L. pulp were investigated. A response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction process. The maximum EAP yield was 9.82±0.38%, which is in good agreement with the predicted value (9.93±0.24%). Two homogeneous polysaccharides, EAP-1a and EAP-1b with molecular weights of 8.70kDa and 4.39kDa respectively, were prepared by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns and characterized by HPLC, HPGPC, and FT-IR. Three polysaccharides (EAP, EAP-1a and EAP-1b) could stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytic activities of RAW 264.7 cells in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there was no significant difference between crude EAP group (400μg/mL) and positive control group (LPS) in effects on macrophages. The results implied that EAP had the potential to be developed as natural medicines or health foods.

  5. Extraction Optimization, Preliminary Characterization and Bioactivities in Vitro of Ligularia hodgsonii Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Tang, Jun

    2016-05-21

    The optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides were investigated. Based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal array test, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: extraction time 3 h, temperature 85 °C, water/raw material ratio 36. Further Sevag deproteinization and dialysis yielded the dialyzed Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides (DLHP, 19.2 ± 1.4 mg/g crude herb). Compositional analysis, size-exclusion chromatography connected with multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed for characterization of the polysaccharides. DLHP was found to have a major component with a weight-average molecular weight of 1.17 × 10⁵ Da, mainly comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. By in vitro antioxidant activity assays, DLHP presented remarkable scavenging capacities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ions chelating ability. Moreover, it exhibited appreciable anti-hyperglycemic activity as demonstrated by differential inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that DLHP could potentially be a resource for antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents.

  6. The use of commercial and industrial waste in energy recovery systems - A UK preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupa, Christopher J; Ricketts, Lois J; Sweetman, Andy; Herbert, Ben M J

    2011-08-01

    With 2020 energy targets set out by the EU fast approaching, the UK is trying to source a higher proportion of its energy from renewable resources. Coupled with this, a growing population and increasing trends in consumer demand have resulted in national waste loads increasing. A possible solution to both issues is energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies. Many studies have focused on municipal solid waste (MSW) as a potential feedstock, but appear to overlook the potential benefits of commercial and industrial waste (C&IW). In this study, samples of C&IW were collected from three North West waste management companies and Lancaster University campus. The samples were tested for their gross and net calorific value, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, and also elemental composition to determine their suitability in EfW systems. Intra-sample analysis showed there to be little variation between samples with the exception two samples, from waste management site 3, which showed extensive variation with regards to net calorific value, ash content, and elemental analysis. Comparisons with known fuel types revealed similarities between the sampled C&IW, MSW, and refuse derived fuel (RDF) thereby justifying its potential for use in EfW systems. Mean net calorific value (NCV) was calculated as 9.47MJ/kg and concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine were found to be below 2%. Potential electrical output was calculated using the NCV of the sampled C&IW coupled with four differing energy generation technologies. Using a conventional incinerator with steam cycle, total electrical output was calculated as 24.9GWh, based on a plant operating at 100,000tpa. This value rose to 27.0GWh when using an integrated gasification combined cycle. A final aspect of this study was to deduce the potential total national electrical output if all suitable C&IW were to be used in EfW systems. Using incineration coupled with a steam turbine, this was determined to be 6TWh, 1.9% of

  7. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume II. Energy data on the US manufacturing subsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    In order to characterize industrial energy service, current energy demand, its end uses, and cost of typical energy applications and resultant services in the industrial sector were examined and a projection of state industrial energy demands and prices to 1990 was developed. Volume II presents in Section 2 data on the US manufacturing subsector energy demand, intensity, growth rates, and cost for 1971, 1974, and 1976. These energy data are disaggregated not only by fuel type but also by user classifications, including the 2-digit SIC industry groups, 3-digit subgroups, and 4-digit SIC individual industries. These data characterize typical energy applications and the resultant services in this subsector. The quantities of fuel and electric energy purchased by the US manufacturing subsector were converted to British thermal units and reported in billions of Btu. The conversion factors are presented in Table 4-1 of Volume I. To facilitate the descriptive analysis, all energy cost and intensity data were expressed in constant 1976 dollars. The specific US industrial energy service characteristics developed and used in the descriptive analysis are presented in Volume I. Section 3 presents the computer program used to produce the tabulated data.

  8. Evaluation of agarose gel electrophoresis for characterization of silver nanoparticles in industrial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Maria S; Luque-Alled, Jose M; Gomez, Teresa; Castillo, Juan R

    2016-05-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) has been used extensively for characterization of pure nanomaterials or mixtures of pure nanomaterials. We have evaluated the use of AGE for characterization of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in an industrial product (described as strong antiseptic). Influence of different stabilizing agents (PEG, SDS, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate), buffers (TBE and Tris Glycine), and functionalizing agents (mercaptosuccinic acid (TMA) and proteins) has been investigated for the characterization of AgNPs in the industrial product using different sizes-AgNPs standards. The use of 1% SDS, 0.1% TMA, and Tris Glycine in gel, electrophoresis buffer and loading buffer led to the different sizes-AgNPs standards moved according to their size/charge ratio (obtaining a linear relationship between apparent mobility and mean diameter). After using SDS and TMA, the behavior of the AgNPs in the industrial product (containing a casein matrix) was completely different, being not possible their size characterization. However we demonstrated that AGE with LA-ICP-MS detection is an alternative method to confirm the protein corona formation between the industrial product and two proteins (BSA and transferrin) maintaining NPs-protein binding (what is not possible using SDS-PAGE). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Preliminary stress characterization for an in-situ stimulation experiment at the Grimsel Underground Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krietsch, Hannes; Doetsch, Joseph; Gischig, Valentin; Amann, Florian; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Madonna, Claudio; Evans, Keith; Valley, Benoit; Giardini, Domenico; Wiemer, Stefan; Maurer, Hansruedi; Loew, Simon

    2016-04-01

    A decameter-scale in-situ stimulation experiment is currently being executed at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland, spanning from hydraulic fracturing to controlled fault-slip experiments. For the feasibility of this project the in-situ stress tensor is of foremost importance. Therefore a unique stress characterization campaign combining stress relief methods (overcoring of USBM and CSIRO-HI probes) with hydraulic fracturing (HF) and hydraulic testing on pre-existing fractures (HTPF) in three boreholes was conducted in a first phase of this project. During all hydraulic stress measurements, micro-seismicity was monitored and localized in real time utilizing a dense network of piezo-electric sensors. In this contribution, we present preliminary results of the stress characterization and compare the derived stress tensor with previous estimates of the stress state. The stress characterization campaign was conducted in three boreholes, one sub-vertical and two sub-horizontal boreholes, assuming that the sub-vertical and one sub-horizontal are parallel to a principal stress component. A major task in this contribution is the integration of the different stress characterization methods. Our results of the different methods (overcoring and HF) are largely consistent, but disagree with some of the previous stress orientation estimates. From the new campaign the overcoring measurements indicate a sub-horizontal sigma1 of 17.3 MPa with a strike of 145°, a sigma2 of 9.7 MPa with 241°/69° and a sigma3 of 8.3 MPa with 055°/21° using an isotropic approach for inversion calculation. Whereas the USBM-Probe measures a projection of the principal stresses in a plane normal to borehole axis, the CSIRO-HI Probe provides the real 3D stress tensor. The HF and HTPF measurements indicate a far-field minimum horizontal stress between 8.7 and 9.1 MPa, consistent with the overcoring. Principal stresses, estimated by location of micro-seismic events during HF and HTPF, suggest that

  10. Characterization of Carbonyl Compounds in the Ambient Air of an Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of carbonyl compounds in Gumi city, where a number of large electronic-industrial complexes are located. Carbonyl samples were collected at five sites in the Gumi area: three industrial, one commercial, and one residential area. Sampling was carried out throughout a year from December 2003 to November 2004. At one industrial site, samples were taken every six days, while those of the other sites were for seven consecutive days in every season. Each sample was collected for 150 minutes and at intervals of three times a day (morning, afternoon, and evening. A total of 476 samples were analyzed to determine 15 carbonyl compounds by the USEPA TO-11A (DNPH-cartridge/HPLC method. In general, acetaldehyde appeared to be the most abundant compound, followed by formaldehyde, and acetone+acrolein. Mean concentrations of acetaldehyde were two to three times higher in the industrial sites than in the other sites, with its maximum of 77.7 ppb. In contrast, ambient levels of formaldehyde did not show any significant difference between the industrial and non-industrial groups. Its concentrations peaked in summer probably due to the enhanced volatilization and photochemical reactivity. These results indicate significant emission sources of acetaldehyde in the Gumi industrial complexes. Mean concentrations of organic solvents (such as acetone+acrolein and methyl ethyl ketone were also significantly high in industrial areas. In conclusion, major sources of carbonyl compounds, including acetaldehyde, are strongly associated with industrial activities in the Gumi city area.

  11. Optimization Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Semen Juglandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyong Ren

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimization extraction process, preliminary characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Semen Juglandis (SJP were studied in this paper. Based on the Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology, the optimal extraction conditions for the SJP extraction were obtained as follows: temperature 88 °C, extraction time 125 min and ratio of liquid to solid 31 mL/g. Under these conditions, experimental extraction yield of SJP was (5.73 ± 0.014% (n = 5, similar to the predicted value of 5.78%. Furtherly, the purified SJP obtained from SJP extract by DEAE-52 and Sephacryl S-100 chromatography was analyzed to be rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose and fucose in the molar ratio of 1:6.34:1.38:3.21:1.56. And the weight-average molecular weight and radius of gyration of the purified SJP in 0.1 M NaCl were determined to be 2.76 × 104 g/mol and 122 nm by SEC-MALLS, respectively. More importantly, it exhibited appreciable antioxidant activities compared to the standard Vc, such as DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.21 mg/mL, strong reducing power, ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.29 mg/mL, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.38 mg/mL. These results indicate that SJP may be useful for developing functional health products or natural antioxidant.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Investigation of Cell Interaction of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Catechol-Containing Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kerstin; Seemann, Thomas; Wyrwa, Ralf; Clement, Joachim H.; Müller, Robert; Nietzsche, Sandor; Schnabelrauch, Matthias

    2010-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and subsequently stabilized by coating with different catechols (levodopa, dopamine, hydrocaffeic acid, dopamine-containing carboxymethyl dextran) known to act as high-affinity, bidentate ligands for Fe(III). The prepared stable magnetic fluids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition (content of iron and shell material, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) and their physical properties (size, surface charge, magnetic parameters). The nanoparticles showed no or only slight cytotoxic effects within 1 and 4 days of incubation with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Preliminary experiments were performed to study the interaction of the prepared nanoparticles with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and leukocytes. An intense interaction of the MCF-7 cells with these particles was found whereas the leukocytes showed a lower tendency of interaction. Based on these finding, the novel magnetic nanoparticles possess the potential for use in depletion of tumor cells from peripheral blood.

  13. A preliminary characterization of the tensile and fatigue behavior of tungsten-fiber/Waspaloy-matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Ralph E.; Lerch, Brad A.

    1992-01-01

    A microstructural study and a preliminary characterization of the room temperature tensile and fatigue behavior of a continuous, tungsten fiber, Waspaloy-matrix composite was conducted. A heat treatment was chosen that would allow visibility of planar slip if it occurred during deformation, but would not allow growth of the reaction zone. Tensile and fatigue tests showed that the failed specimens contained transverse cracks in the fibers. The cracks that occurred in the tensile specimen were observed at the fracture surface and up to approximately 4.0 mm below the fracture surface. The crack spacing remained constant along the entire length of the cracked fibers. Conversely, the cracks that occurred in the fatigue specimen were only observed in the vicinity of the fracture surface. In instances where two fiber cracks occurred in the same plane, the matrix often necked between the two cracked fibers. Large groups of slip bands were generated in the matrix near the fiber cracks. Slip bands in the matrix of the tensile specimen were also observed in areas where there were no fiber cracks, at distances greater than 4 mm from the fracture surface. This suggests that the matrix plastically flows before fiber cracking occurs.

  14. Extraction, preliminary characterization and antioxidant activity of Se-enriched Maitake polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guanghua; Zou, Ye; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Ting; Ye, Changwen; Zhu, Yang; Wu, Xueshan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-01-30

    A Se-enriched Grifola frondosa polysaccharide (Se-GP) was obtained from G. frondosa enriched with Se by spraying an Na2SeO3 solution during fruit body growth using a Box-Behnken design and compared to G. frondosa polysaccharide (GP) for preliminary characterization and determination of the antioxidant activity. Under optimal conditions, polysaccharide yields and both the Se-GP and GP contents do not differ; however, the Se content of Se-GP (17.52 μg/g) was 48.7 times that of GP. Three homogenous Se-GPs (Se-GP11, Se-GP22 and Se-GP33) or GPs (GP11, GP22 and GP33) were obtained via DEAE-52 and Sephacryl S-400 purification. Their molecular weight and polysaccharide content of these compounds were not obviously different, whereas the Se content of Se-GP11, Se-GP22 and Se-GP33 was 9.41, 6.59 and 16.25 times that of GP11, GP22 and GP33, respectively. The antioxidant activity of Se-GP for the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radicals was higher than that of GP and was highest for the hydroxyl radical.

  15. A review on characterization and bioremediation of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater: an Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Rajender Singh; Singh, Prashant; Kandari, Vikash; Singh, Rakesh; Dobhal, Rajendra; Gupta, Sanjay

    2017-03-01

    During the past few decades, pharmaceutical industries have registered a quantum jump contributing to high economic growth, but simultaneously it has also given rise to severe environmental pollution. Untreated or allegedly treated pharmaceutical industrial wastewater (PIWW) creates a need for time to time assessment and characterization of discharged wastewater as per the standards provided by the regulatory authorities. To control environmental pollution, pharmaceutical industries use different treatment plans to treat and reuse wastewater. The characterization of PIWW using advanced and coupled techniques has progressed to a much advanced level, but in view of new developments in drug manufacture for emerging diseases and the complexities associated with them, better sophisticated instrumentation and methods of treatment are warranted. The bioremediation process to treat PIWW has undergone more intense investigation in recent decade. This results in the complete mineralization of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater and no waste product is obtained. Moreover, high efficiency and low operation cost prove it to be an effective tool for the treatment of PIWW. The present review focuses on the characterization as well as bioremediation aspects of PIWW.

  16. A review on characterization and bioremediation of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater: an Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Rajender Singh; Singh, Prashant; Kandari, Vikash; Singh, Rakesh; Dobhal, Rajendra; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    During the past few decades, pharmaceutical industries have registered a quantum jump contributing to high economic growth, but simultaneously it has also given rise to severe environmental pollution. Untreated or allegedly treated pharmaceutical industrial wastewater (PIWW) creates a need for time to time assessment and characterization of discharged wastewater as per the standards provided by the regulatory authorities. To control environmental pollution, pharmaceutical industries use different treatment plans to treat and reuse wastewater. The characterization of PIWW using advanced and coupled techniques has progressed to a much advanced level, but in view of new developments in drug manufacture for emerging diseases and the complexities associated with them, better sophisticated instrumentation and methods of treatment are warranted. The bioremediation process to treat PIWW has undergone more intense investigation in recent decade. This results in the complete mineralization of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater and no waste product is obtained. Moreover, high efficiency and low operation cost prove it to be an effective tool for the treatment of PIWW. The present review focuses on the characterization as well as bioremediation aspects of PIWW.

  17. Dendritic iodinated contrast agents with PEG-cores for CT imaging: synthesis and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanjun; Nitecki, Danute E; Maltby, David; Simon, Gerhard H; Berejnoi, Kirill; Raatschen, Hans-Juergen; Yeh, Benjamin M; Shames, David M; Brasch, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, synthesize, and initially characterize a representative set of novel constructs for large-molecular radiographic/computed tomography (CT) contrast agents, intended for a primarily intravascular distribution. A new assembly of well-known and biocompatible components consists of paired, symmetrical dendritic polylysines initiated from both ends of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) core, yielding an array of multiple free amino groups to which were conjugated highly soluble and stable triiodophthalamide ("triiodo") moieties. An array of six dendritic contrast agents was synthesized originally, using three different PEG cores (3, 6, 12 kDa) with t-Boc lysine-generated dendrimer "amplifiers" (from three to five generations) containing 16 to 64 amino groups for conjugation with reactive triiodo moieties. A clinically used, nonionic, small molecular CT contrast agent, iobitridol, was derivatized via a hydroxyl protection/deprotection strategy, introducing a new carboxyl group available for conjugation to the lysine amino groups of dendrimers. Final products were purified by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by NMR, UV, HPLC, and elemental analysis. Preliminary evaluations were conducted for physicochemical characterization and in vivo CT contrast enhancement in a rat model. All six iodinated PEG-core dendrimer conjugates were synthesized in good yields, with a high degree of size monodispersity, large apparent molecular weight, favored physicochemical properties. A representative compound, PEG12000-carbamate-Gen4-IOB conjugate, 27% (w%) rich in iodine, demonstrated a desirable strong and persistent intravascular enhancement with a monoexponential blood half-life of approximately 35 min assayed by dynamic CT imaging and also showed high water solubility (>550 mg/mL at 25 degrees C), large apparent molecular size (comparable to a 143-kDa protein), high hydrophilicity (butanol-water partition coefficient 0.015), and

  18. Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral trapping by precipitated carbonate minerals is one of critical mechanisms for successful long-term geological sequestration (CGS) in deep saline aquifer. Aquifer acidification induced by the increase of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) as the dissolution of injected CO2 may induce the dissolution of minerals and hinder the effectiveness of cap rock causing potential risk of CO2 leakage. Numerical assessments require capabilities to simulate complicated interactions of thermal, hydrological, geochemical multiphase processes. In this study, we utilized TOUGHREACT model to demonstrate a series of CGS simulations and assessments of (1) time evolution of aquifer responses, (2) migration distance and spatial distribution of CO2 plume, (3) effects of CO2-saline-mineral interactions, and (4) CO2 trapping components at the Changhua Costal Industrial Park (CCIP) Site, Taiwan. The CCIP Site is located at the Southern Taishi Basin with sloping and layered heterogeneous formations. At this preliminary phase, detailed information of mineralogical composition of reservoir formation and chemical composition of formation water are difficult to obtain. Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and chemical compositions of formation water for CGS in deep saline aquifer from literatures (e.g. Xu et al., 2004; Marini, 2006) were adopted. CGS simulations were assumed with a constant CO2 injection rate of 1 Mt/yr at the first 50 years. Hydrogeological settings included porosities of 0.103 for shale, 0.141 for interbedding sandstone and shale, and 0.179 for sandstone; initial pore pressure distributions of 24.5 MPa to 28.7 MPa, an ambient temperature of 70°C, and 0.5 M of NaCl in aqueous solution. Mineral compositions were modified from Xu et al. (2006) to include calcite (1.9 vol. % of solid), quartz (57.9 %), kaolinite (2.0 %), illite (1.0 %), oligoclase (19.8 %), Na-smectite (3.9 %), K-feldspar (8.2 %), chlorite (4.6 %), and hematite (0.5 %) and were

  19. Future human resources development in British Columbia's offshore oil and gas industry : preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothen, K. [Human Capital Strategies, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2004-06-28

    Since 2001, three major studies have concluded that there are no apparent scientific or technological impediments to lifting a longstanding moratorium on West Coast oil and gas exploration and development. Over 300 occupations are involved in offshore oil and gas activity, and should the moratorium be lifted, labour demand is projected to reach 27,000 new employment openings. This report presents a preliminary analysis of factors that may facilitate offshore oil and gas development in British Columbia (BC), with specific reference to human resources. The report also highlights the broader planning environment of BC offshore oil and gas development and the potential impacts of economic, social, demographic and political factors. Potential gaps in regional training resources were identified within the context of a general overview of education training programs currently available elsewhere. Demand pressures on the supply of skilled labour for future development were considered. Interviews with key industry and stakeholder representatives were conducted. Additionally, a comparison of labour demand from oil and gas development on the east coast revealed a significant employment multiplier impact of offshore activities, averaging 3 jobs per 1 offshore job. An outline of previous employment growth patterns were provided for future reference. It was concluded that early planning and development of educational and training programs is essential in addressing eventual skills shortages. In addition to training measures, a range of public policy options should be considered, including retention measures to remove regulatory disincentives and innovative local agreements. Steps to rectify shortages in trades workers, technicians and experienced production workers is advisable, as these shortages are already evident in current onshore oil and gas activities elsewhere in Canada. A detailed description of offshore oil and gas occupations was provided, as well as questionnaires

  20. Characterization of Bond Strength of U-Mo Fuel Plates Using the Laser Shockwave Technique: Capabilities and Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Smith; D. L. Cottle; B. H. Rabin

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes work conducted to-date on the implementation of new laser-based capabilities for characterization of bond strength in nuclear fuel plates, and presents preliminary results obtained from fresh fuel studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Characterization involves application of two complementary experimental methods, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging, collectively referred to as the Laser Shockwave Technique (LST), that allows the integrity, physical properties and interfacial bond strength in fuel plates to be evaluated. Example characterization results are provided, including measurement of layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of generated debonds (including kissing bonds). LST provides spatially localized, non-contacting measurements with minimum specimen preparation, and is ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterizing nuclear fuel plates are described, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed, with emphasis on demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of these methods. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability to distinguish bond strength variations between different fuel plates. Although additional development work is necessary to validate and qualify the test methods, these results suggest LST is viable as a method to meet fuel qualification requirements to demonstrate acceptable bonding integrity.

  1. XAFS characterization of industrial catalysts: in situ study of phase transformation of nickel sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Jia, Z.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, S.; Xu, Z.; Yang, W.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    The online sulfiding process for nickel-contained catalyst often ends up with a nickel sulfide mixture in refinery plant. To elucidate the local environment of nickel and its corresponding sulfur species, a model catalyst (nickel sulfide) and model thermal process were employed to explore the possibilities for characterization of real catalysts in industrial conditions. The present investigation shows effectiveness of in situ XANES and EXAFS measurements for studying the phase stability and phase composition in these systems, which could be used to simulate real sulfiding process in industrial reactions, such as hydrodesulfurizations of oil.

  2. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  3. Dielectric non destructive testing for rock characterization in natural stone industry and cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; García-Baños, Beatriz; Mar Urquiola, M.; Gutiérrez, José D.; Catalá-Civera, José M.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric constant measurement has been used in rocks characterization, mainly for exploration objective in geophysics, particularly related to ground penetration radar characterization in ranges of 10 MHz to 1 GHz. However, few data have been collected for loss factor. Complex permittivity (dielectric constant and loss factor) characterization in rock provide information about mineralogical composition as well as other petrophysic parameters related to the quality, such as fabric parameters, mineralogical distribution, humidity. A study was performed in the frequency of 2,45GHz by using a portable kit for dielectric device based on an open coaxial probe. In situ measurements were made of natural stone marble and granite on selected industrial slabs and building stone. A mapping of their complex permittivity was performed and evaluated, and variations in composition and textures were identified, showing the variability with the mineral composition, metal ore minerals content and fabric. Dielectric constant was a parameter more sensible to rock forming minerals composition, particularly in granites for QAPF-composition (quartz-alkali feldspar-plagioclases-feldspathoids) and in marbles for calcite-dolomite-silicates. Loss factor shown a high sensibility to fabric and minerals of alteration. Results showed that the dielectric properties can be used as a powerful tool for petrographic characterization of building stones in two areas of application: a) in cultural heritage diagnosis to estimate the quality and alteration of the stone, an b) in industrial application for quality control and industrial microwave processing.

  4. Site characterization of the Romanian Seismic Network stations: a national initiative and its first preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Zahria, Bogdan; Manea, Elena; Neagoe, Cristian; Borleanu, Felix; Diaconescu, Mihai; Constantinescu, Eduard; Bala, Andrei

    2017-04-01

    The seismic activity in Romania is dominated by the intermediate-depth earthquakes occurring in Vrancea region, although weak to moderate crustal earthquakes are produced regularly in different areas of the country. The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) built in the last years an impressive infrastructure for monitoring this activity, known as the Romanian Seismic Network (RSN). At present, RSN consists of 122 seismic stations, of which 70 have broadband velocity sensors and 42 short period sensors. One hundred and eleven stations out of 122 have accelerometer sensors collocated with velocity sensors and only 10 stations have only accelerometers. All the stations record continuously the ground motion and the data are transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center (RoNDC), in Magurele. Last year, NIEP has started a national project that addresses the characterization of all real-time seismic stations that constitute the RSN. We present here the steps that were undertaken and the preliminary results obtained since the beginning the project. The first two activities consisted of collecting all the existent technical and geological data, with emphasize on the latter. Then, we performed station noise investigations and analyses in order to characterize the noise level and estimate the resonances of the sites. The computed H/V ratios showed clear resonant peaks at different frequencies which correlate relatively well with the thickness of the sedimentary package beneath the stations. The polarization analysis of the H/V ratios indicates for some stations a strong directivity of the resonance peak which suggests possible topographic effects at the stations. At the same time, special attention was given to the estimation of the site amplification from earthquake data. The spectral ratios obtained from the analysis of more than 50 earthquakes with magnitudes (Mw) larger than 4.1 are characterized by similar resonance peaks as those obtained from

  5. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  6. Characterization of the designer benzodiazepine diclazepam and preliminary data on its metabolism and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Bjoern; Bisel, Philippe; Auwärter, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Designer benzodiazepines, first offered in online shops selling 'research chemicals' in 2012, provide an attractive alternative to prescription-only benzodiazepines as they are readily available over the Internet at a low price. However, as data regarding pharmacokinetic parameters, metabolism, and detectability in biological fluids are limited, they present a challenge for forensic laboratories. Most recently, diclazepam (other names: 2-chlorodiazepam, Ro 5-3448 or 7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one) emerged as a new compound in this class of drugs. In this paper, this new designer benzodiazepine was characterized utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques. Furthermore, a self-experiment was performed to gain preliminary data on pharmacokinetic properties and to identify the main metabolites. For this purpose, one tablet of diclazepam (declared amount: 1 mg) was ingested by one of the authors, and serum as well as urine samples were collected for 14 and 21 days, respectively. Based on this study, diclazepam has an approximate elimination half-life of 42 h and is metabolized into the pharmacologically active benzodiazepines delorazepam, lorazepam, and lormetazepam which can be detected in urine for 6, 19, and 11 days, respectively, when applying the presented LC-MS/MS method. In serum, the consumption could be proven between 99 h post-intake targeting the parent compound and up to 10 days targeting the metabolite delorazepam. As immunochemical assays are applied for screening purposes quite often, detectability using this technique was assessed, especially since detection of low-dosed benzodiazepines can be sometimes problematic. However, only one of the utilized immunochemical assays was capable of detecting the intake of one tablet diclazepam, and the positive results were restricted to a few urine

  7. Characterization of cysts using differential correlation coefficient values from two dimensional breast elastography: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booi, Rebecca C; Carson, Paul L; O'Donnell, Matthew; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Hall, Anne L; Rubin, Jonathan M

    2008-01-01

    Although simple cysts are easily identified using sonography, description and management of nonsimple cysts remains uncertain. This study evaluated whether the correlation coefficient differences between breast tissue and lesions, obtained from 2D breast elastography, could potentially distinguish nonsimple cysts from cancers and fibroadenomas. We hypothesized that correlation coefficients in cysts would be dramatically lower than surrounding tissue because noise, imaging artifacts, and particulate matter move randomly and decorrelate quickly under compression, compared with solid tissue. For this preliminary study, 18 breast lesions (7 nonsimple cysts, 4 cancers, and 7 fibroadenomas) underwent imaging with 2D elastography at 7.5 MHz through a TPX (a polymethyl pentene copolymer) 2.5 mm mammographic paddle. Breasts were compressed similar to mammographic positioning and then further compressed for elastography by 1 to 7%. Images were correlated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking algorithms and displacement estimates were accumulated. Correlation coefficient means and standard deviations were measured in the lesion and adjacent tissue, and the differential correlation coefficient (DCC) was introduced as the difference between these values normalized to the correlation coefficient of adjacent tissue. Mean DCC values in nonsimple cysts were 24.2 +/- 11.6%, 5.7 +/- 6.3% for fibroadenomas, and 3.8 +/- 2.9 % for cancers (p < 0.05). Some of the cysts appeared smaller in DCC images than gray-scale images. These encouraging results demonstrate that characterization of nonsimple breast cysts may be improved by using DCC values from 2D elastography, which could potentially change management options of these cysts from intervention to imaging follow-up. A dedicated clinical trial to fully assess the efficacy of this technique is recommended.

  8. Characterization and genotoxicity evaluation of particulate matter collected from industrial atmosphere in Tamil Nadu state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, S; Manju, A; Muthuselvam, P; Shalini, D; Indhumathi, V; Kalaiselvi, K; Palanivel, M; Chandrasekar, P P; Rajaguru, P

    2014-06-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) collected in the vicinity of five industries (Cement, Chemical, Thermal power plant, Sponge-iron and Steel) in Tamil Nadu state, India was characterized for size distribution, metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content. Genotoxicity of PM and organic matter (OM) extracted from PM was measured in human lung cancer cell-line, A549 and in human liver carcinoma cell-line, HepG2, respectively, using the comet assay. PM values varied from 57.0 μg/m(3) of air at Cement industry upstream to 561.0 μg/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry downstream samples. Their metal content varied from 5.758 μg/m(3) of air at Chemical industry to 46.144 μg/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry and PAH concentration varied from 0.5 ng/m(3) air in upstream Thermal power plant to 3302.4 ng/m(3) air in downstream Sponge iron industry samples. While all PM samples induced DNA strand breaks at higher dose levels, downstream samples of Steel and Sponge iron industries which contained relatively higher concentrations of PAHs and metals and exhibited higher levels of pro-oxidant activity as measured by DTT activity induced significantly higher levels of DNA damage in HepG2 and A549 cells. Pretreatment of A549 cells with vitamin C or quercetin significantly reduced PM induced DNA strand breaks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection, isolation, and preliminary characterization of bacteria contaminating plant tissue cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kałużna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to limit the contamination problem in plant tissue cultures experiments on selection of media suitable for detection and isolation of bacteria contaminating plant tissue explants, and preliminary characterization of isolates were made. In the first experiment aiming at detection of bacteria in plant explants four strains representing genera most often occurring at our survey of plant tissue cultures, and earlier isolated and identified (Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas were streaked on five bacteriological media (NA, King B, K, R2A and 523 and on the medium used for plant culture initiation – ½ MS with milk albumin (IM. All strains grew on all media but on K and IM at the slowest rate and on 523 medium at the fastest. The IM medium proved to be useful for immediate bacteria detection at the initial stage of culture. In the second experiment, aiming at characterization of isolates on the basis of colony growth and morphology 14 strains (Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Flavobacterium, Lactobacillus, Methylobacterium – 2 strains Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus, Plantibacterium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Xanthomonas, and species Serratia marcescens were streaked on five microbiological media: KB, NBY, YDC, YNA and YPGA. All strains grew on all those media but at different rates. The only exception was the strain of Lactobacillus spp., which did not grow on King B medium. This medium allowed the detection of such characteristic traits as fluorescence (Pseudomonas and secretion of inclusions (Stenotrophomonas. The third experiment was focussed on assessment of the sensitivity of detection of specific bacteria in pure cultures and in plant tis- sue cultures using standard PCR and BIO-PCR techniques with genus specific primers and 2 methods of DNA isolation. Results showed that the use of Genomic Mini kit enabled an increase of the sensitivity by 100 times as compared to extraction of DNA by boiling

  10. Preliminary investigation of groundwater flow and trichloroethene transport in the Surficial Aquifer System, Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.; Davis, J. Hal

    2016-05-16

    Industrial practices at the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota, caused soil and groundwater contamination. Some volatile organic compounds from the plant might have discharged to the Mississippi River, forced by the natural hydraulic gradient in the surficial aquifer system. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency included the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1989.

  11. Construction and Characterization of Mini-ruthenium-Carbon Eutectic Cells for Industrial Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diril, A.; Bourson, F.; Parga, C.; Sadli, M.

    2015-12-01

    High-temperature eutectic fixed points have proved to be convenient tools for temperature scale dissemination and thermometer calibrations/checks at temperatures above 1100°C. In order to investigate the feasibility of metal-carbon eutectic cells in industrial applications as a means for assessing the traceability of non-contact thermometers, a batch of cells was constructed at LNE-Cnam, NPL, and TUBITAK UME. Compared to the usual dimensions of high-temperature fixed point cells (45 mm in length × 24 mm in diameter), a new cell design was created to fit with industrial applications. TUBITAK UME constructed and characterized five ruthenium-carbon (Ru-C) eutectic cells of dimensions 24 mm in length × 24 mm in diameter. One of these cells has been selected and characterized at CEA premises. Ru-C eutectic cells have been evaluated in terms of short-term repeatability, reproducibility, furnace effect, sharp temperature ramps, and the effect of cell location. Measurements at TÜBİTAK UME have been performed with a transfer standard pyrometer calibrated at the copper point and a BB3500pg high-temperature blackbody furnace was used for construction and measurement. For the measurements at CEA, a Land Standard—HIMERT S1 radiation thermometer and a VITI induction furnace were used. In this article results of the measurements at TÜBİTAK UME and CEA will be presented. The possible use of these mini-eutectic cells as industrial temperature standards will be discussed.

  12. Application of gamma-ray spectrometry in a NORM industry for its radiometrical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantero, J.; Gázquez, M. J.; Hurtado, S.; Bolívar, J. P.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2015-11-01

    Industrial activities involving Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) are found among the most important industrial sectors worldwide as oil/gas facilities, metal production, phosphate Industry, zircon treatment, etc. being really significant the radioactive characterization of the materials involved in their production processes in order to assess the potential radiological risk for workers or natural environment. High resolution gamma spectrometry is a versatile non-destructive radiometric technique that makes simultaneous determination of several radionuclides possible with little sample preparation. However NORM samples cover a wide variety of densities and composition, as opposed to the standards used in gamma efficiency calibration, which are either water-based solutions or standard/reference sources of similar composition. For that reason self-absorption correction effects (especially in the low energy range) must be considered individually in every sample. In this work an experimental and a semi-empirical methodology of self-absorption correction were applied to NORM samples, and the obtained results compared critically, in order to establish the best practice in relation to the circumstances of an individual laboratory. This methodology was applied in samples coming from a TiO2 factory (NORM industry) located in the south-west of Spain where activity concentration of several radionuclides from the Uranium and Thorium series through the production process was measured. These results will be shown in this work.

  13. Strategies to Characterize Fungal Lipases for Applications in Medicine and Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C. B. Gopinath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are water-soluble enzymes that act on insoluble substrates and catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. Lipases play a vital role in the food, detergent, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. In the past, fungal lipases gained significant attention in the industries due to their substrate specificity and stability under varied chemical and physical conditions. Fungal enzymes are extracellular in nature, and they can be extracted easily, which significantly reduces the cost and makes this source preferable over bacteria. Soil contaminated with spillage from the products of oil and dairy harbors fungal species, which have the potential to secrete lipases to degrade fats and oils. Herein, the strategies involved in the characterization of fungal lipases, capable of degrading fatty substances, are narrated with a focus on further applications.

  14. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Zatta, Alessandro; Stefanini, Ilaria; Grandi, Silvia; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Monti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THChemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions. The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms.

  15. Characterization of hybrid lighting systems of the Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, D.; Exposito, C.; Osma, G.; Amado, L.; Ordóñez, G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of hybrid lighting systems of Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander, which is a pilot of green building for warm- tropical conditions. Analysis of lighting performance of inner spaces is based on lighting curves obtained from characterization of daylighting systems of these spaces. A computation tool was made in Excel-Visual Basic to simulate the behaviour of artificial lighting system considering artificial control system, user behaviour and solar condition. Also, this tool allows to estimate the electrical energy consumption of the lighting system for a day, a month and a year.

  16. Trace metals in atmospheric particulates characterized of aerosol emitted by industrial and urban sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Borghi, A.; Solisio, C.; Zilli, M.; Del Borghi, M. [Genoa University, Genoa (Italy). Chemical and Process Engineering Institute G.B. Bonino

    1998-12-31

    The results of a year`s study in the Savona area (Italy) for dust deposition have been analyzed in order to characterize the emission sources. The contribution of the major pollutant sources has been determined by tracer metals and their enrichment factors. The selected metals were Cd, Cu, Pb, An, Cr, and Ni. The obtained results show four types of emission sources responsible for airborne trace metals; traffic, industrial plants a large oil and coal fired power station, resuspension of soil particles and residential heating. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Hydrogeological characterization of the Heletz Sands Reservoir, Heletz (Israel) as a preliminary step towards CO2 injection experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensabat, Jacob; Niemi, Auli; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Sharma, Prabhakar; Carrera, Jesus; Sauter, Martin; Tatomir, Alexandru; Ghergut, Julia; Pezard, Philippe; Edlman, Katriona; Brauchler, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeological characterization of the Heletz Sands Reservoir, Heletz (Israel) as a preliminary step towards CO2 injection experiments One the major components of the EU-FP7 funded MUSTANG project is to conduct a highly controlled series of CO2 injection experiments, aimed at determining field values of key CO2 trapping mechanisms such as dissolution and residual trapping and to establish a comprehensive and consistent dataset for model validation. Prior to injecting CO2 there is a need to achieve a sufficient degree of hydrogeological characterization of the reservoir. In what follows we present a sequence of hydrologic tests to be conducted at Heletz and their expected contribution to the understanding relevant hydrogeology. These include: 1) Chemical characterization of the formation fluid; 2) Flowing Fluid Electrical Conductivity log, aimed at determining the vertical variability of the reservoir permeability in the near well vicinity; 3) Water pulse and pumping tests, aimed at determining the reservoir scale hydraulic properties; 4) Thermal test, aimed at determining the value of the heat transfer coefficient from the reservoir to the borehole fluid, which is responsible for the heating of injected fluid in the borehole; 5) two-well injection and pumping of water and tracers test, in order to determine the impact of heterogeneity on the hydraulic parameters and to identify preferential flow paths in the reservoir. This paper presents the design and planning of the experiments, the results obtained in field and a preliminary interpretation.

  18. Preliminary experimental characterization of the ambient humidity response of Bi{sub 3}TiNbO{sub 9}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galuppo, E; Avila, R E [Departamento de Materiales Nucleares, Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear, Cas. 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Serafini, D [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dudik, L [Electronics Design Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cabrera, A L [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ravila@cchen.cl

    2008-11-01

    A preliminary electrical characterization of Bi{sub 3}TiNb0{sub 9} pellets, prepared by mechanochemical activation shows a nearly exponential conductivity increase over 4 orders of magnitude from dry ambient to dew point of 10 deg. C, at 23 deg. C ambient temperature; or 5 order of magnitude in thick films over interdigitated electrodes. Relaxation currents, following bias stress, respond also, at a lower sensitivity level. Under different DP on either electrode, the lower DP value controls the overall current, which flows through the bulk, not through the mantle of the cylindrical pellets. Repetitive cycling does not deteriorate the response to the ambient humidity.

  19. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from industrial waste cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambiraj, S.; Ravi Shankaran, D.

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to develop a simple and low-cost method for the production of high-performance cellulose nanomaterials from renewable and sustainable resources. Here, cellulose microcrystals (CMCs) were prepared by controlled acidic and basic hydrolysis of cotton from textile industry wastes. The resulted CMCs were further converted into cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with high crystallinity by acidic hydrolysis. The physicochemical characteristics and morphological feature of CMCs and CNCs were studied by various analytical techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fluorescence spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The isolated CNCs possess a needle-like morphological structure with the longitudinal and lateral dimensions of 180 ± 60 nm, 10 ± 1 nm, respectively. The AFM result reveals that the CNCs have a high aspect ratio of 40 ± 14 nm and the average thickness of 6.5 nm. The XRD and TEM analysis indicate that the synthesized CNCs possess face-centered cubic crystal structure. Preliminary experiments were carried out to fabricate CNCs incorporated poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film. The results suggest that the concept of waste to wealth could be well executed from the prepared CNCs, which have great potential for various applications including bio-sensors, food packaging and drug delivery applications.

  20. Artworks characterization at THz frequencies: preliminary results via the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    In the research field of art and archaeology, scientific observation and analysis are hugely demanded to gather as more information as possible on the materials and techniques used to create artworks as well as in previous restoration actions. In this frame, diagnostic tools exploiting electromagnetic waves deserve massive interest tanks to their ability to provide non-invasive and possibly contactless characterization of the investigated objects. Among the electromagnetic diagnostic technologies, those working at frequencies belonging to the 0.1-10 THz range are currently deserving an increased attention since THz waves are capable of penetrating into optically opaque materials (up to the preparation layers), without direct contact and by involving sufficiently low energy to be considered as perfectly non-invasive in practice [1,2]. Moreover, being THz non-ionizing radiations, a moderate exposure to them implies minor long term risks to the molecular stability of the historical artifact and humans. Finally, recent developments of THz technology have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems. One of them is the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) developed by Z-Omega, acquired by the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) in 2013. This system works in the range from 60GHz to 3THz with a waveform acquisition speed up to 500Hz, it is equipped with fiber optic coupled transmitting and receiving probes and, few months ago, has been potentiated by means of an automatic positioning system enabling to scan a 150mm x 150mm area. In the frame of the IREA research activities regarding cultural heritage, the FICO system is currently adopted to perform both spectroscopy and imaging, which are the two kind of analysis wherein THz technology can be profitably explored [3]. In particular, THz spectroscopy is used to distinguish different artists materials by exploiting their peculiar fingerprint in the absorption

  1. Characterization of Industrial Coolant Fluids and Continuous Ageing Monitoring by Wireless Node-Enabled Fiber Optic Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachat, Alexandros El; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Environmentally robust chemical sensors for monitoring industrial processes or infrastructures are lately becoming important devices in industry. Low complexity and wireless enabled characteristics can offer the required flexibility for sensor deployment in adaptable sensing networks for continuous...... of sensors allowed their integration in an autonomous wireless sensing node, thus enabling the future use of the demonstrated platform in wireless sensor networks for a variety of industrial and environmental monitoring applications.......-gel derived pH sensitive coatings. The performances of the developed sensors were characterized and compared, towards their coolants' ageing monitoring capability, proving their efficiency in such a demanding application scenario and harsh industrial environment. The operating characteristics of this type...

  2. Preliminary study to characterize plastic polymers using elemental analyser/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Daniela; Rampazzo, Federico; Gion, Claudia; Noventa, Seta; Ronchi, Francesca; Traldi, Umberto; Giorgi, Giordano; Cicero, Anna Maria; Giovanardi, Otello

    2017-06-01

    Plastic waste is a growing global environmental problem, particularly in the marine ecosystems, in consideration of its persistence. The monitoring of the plastic waste has become a global issue, as reported by several surveillance guidelines proposed by Regional Sea Conventions (OSPAR, UNEP) and appointed by the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Policy responses to plastic waste vary at many levels, ranging from beach clean-up to bans on the commercialization of plastic bags and to Regional Plans for waste management and recycling. Moreover, in recent years, the production of plant-derived biodegradable plastic polymers has assumed increasing importance. This study reports the first preliminary characterization of carbon stable isotopes (δ(13)C) of different plastic polymers (petroleum- and plant-derived) in order to increase the dataset of isotopic values as a tool for further investigation in different fields of polymers research as well as in the marine environment surveillance. The δ(13)C values determined in different packaging for food uses reflect the plant origin of "BIO" materials, whereas the recycled plastic materials displayed a δ(13)C signatures between plant- and petroleum-derived polymers source. In a preliminary estimation, the different colours of plastic did not affect the variability of δ(13)C values, whereas the abiotic and biotic degradation processes that occurred in the plastic materials collected on beaches and in seawater, showed less negative δ(13)C values. A preliminary experimental field test confirmed these results. The advantages offered by isotope ratio mass spectrometry with respect to other analytical methods used to characterize the composition of plastic polymers are: high sensitivity, small amount of material required, rapidity of analysis, low cost and no limitation in black/dark samples compared with spectroscopic analysis.

  3. Characterization methodology for re-using marble slurry in industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Graziella; Careddu, Nicola; Peretti, Roberto; Bortolussi, Augusto

    2017-04-01

    In the effort towards waste minimization and circular economy, natural stone waste is one of the foremost parameter to turn scientific community attention. At this time, calcium carbonate has a great importance in industrial fields and currently there is the necessity of appreciate the potential value of marble waste and convert it into marketable products. A large amount of residues is produced in ornamental stone sector with different dimension and particle size. The research focused on marble slurry, recovered at the end of the treatment plant in the filter-press section. The aim of this paper is to propose a defined way to characterize marble slurry, primarily composed of micronized particles, in order to obtain useful data to make a comparison with market specifications. In particular the proposed characterization methodology follows the indicated steps: Leaching test (TCLP) - Grain size distribution and bulk density - Mineralogical analyses - X-Ray diffraction - Chemical analysis - Loss on ignition - SEM determination - Colorimetric and bright analysis. Marble slurry samples, collected by different dimension stone treatment plants in Orosei marble district (Sardinia - Italy), were analyzed by physical, mineralogical and chemical determinations and the obtained data were evaluated for compatibility with the CaCO3 specifications required by a definite industrial sector, seeing as how CaCO3 product specifications vary depending on the utilization. The importance of this investigation is to characterize completely the "waste" that must apply for further uses and to identify the feasibility to substitute marketable micronized CaCO3 with marble slurry. Further goal is to enhance the environmental advantages of re-using stone waste by reducing marble waste landfills and by applying raw material substitution, in accordance with regulatory requirements, thus pursuing the objective to convert natural stone waste into by-product with a renewed environmental and economic

  4. Combining ground penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction for industrial site characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Saey, Timothy; De Smedt, Philippe; Delefortrie, Samuël; Seuntjens, Piet

    2014-05-01

    Industrial sites pose specific challenges to the conventional way of characterizing soil and groundwater properties through borehole drilling and well monitoring. The subsurface of old industrial sites typically exhibits a large heterogeneity resulting from various anthropogenic interventions, such as the dumping of construction and demolition debris and industrial waste. Also larger buried structures such as foundations, utility infrastructure and underground storage tanks are frequently present. Spills and leaks from industrial activities and leaching of buried waste may have caused additional soil and groundwater contamination. Trying to characterize such a spatially heterogeneous medium with a limited number of localized observations is often problematic. The deployment of mobile proximal soil sensors may be a useful tool to fill up the gaps in between the conventional observations, as these enable measuring soil properties in a non-destructive way. However, because the output of most soil sensors is affected by more than one soil property, the application of only one sensor is generally insufficient to discriminate between all contributing factors. To test a multi-sensor approach, we selected a study area which was part of a former manufactured gas plant site located in one of the seaport areas of Belgium. It has a surface area of 3400 m² and was the location of a phosphate production unit that was demolished at the end of the 1980s. Considering the long and complex history of the site we expected to find a typical "industrial" soil. Furthermore, the studied area was located between buildings of the present industry, entailing additional practical challenges such as the presence of active utilities and aboveground obstacles. The area was surveyed using two proximal soil sensors based on two different geophysical methods: ground penetrating radar (GPR), to image contrasts in dielectric permittivity, and electromagnetic induction (EMI), to measure the apparent

  5. Toxoplasma gondii: a rapid method for the isolation of pure tachyzoites: preliminary characterization of its genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Garberi

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple technique for the purification of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites was developed. Highly purified parasites were obtained from the peritoneal exudates of infected mice by means of two consecutive discontinous sucrose gradients run at low speed (10,000xg, 30 min. Parasites obtained by this method conserved its biological activity. Hybridizations tudies with DNA from healthy mice and from purified tachyzoites preparations demonstrated that Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites DNA could be obtained with better than 90 per cents purity. Preliminary studies with DNA endonucleases showed the presence in the tachyzoites genome of highly repetitives sequences.

  6. Frictional sliding in layered rock model: Preliminary experiments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, K.E. Jr.; Buescher, B.J.; Anderson, D.; Epstein, J.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An important aspect of determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a possible nuclear waste repository requires understanding the mechanical behavior of jointed rock-masses. To this end we have studied the frictional sliding between simulated rock joints in the laboratory using the technique of phase shifting moire interferometry. The models were made from stacks of Lexan plates and contained a central hole to induce slip between the plates when the models were loaded in compression. These preliminary results confirm the feasibility of the approach and show a clear evolution of slip as function of load.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF REUSED WABE AS FLOCCULANTS AGENT TO TREAT INDUSTRIAL PAPER MILL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD H. J. KHADIDI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research mainly to explore the performance of customize flocculants agent made by reusable waste (WABE to treat actual wastewater from different industry. The effect of mixing rate (10, 20, 30, 150, 175 and 200 rpm, sedimentation time (5, 15 and 30 min, initial pH (5, 6, 7 and original pH of initial wastewater and flocculation dosage (2, 5 and 10% v/v were investigated based on turbidity removal. WABE characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The result shows flocculants agents have high turbidity removal up to 90% at optimum condition. This study also provides strong evident WABE can be developed as flocculants agent at low cost and low maintenance.

  8. Lipids Characterization and Industrial Potentials of Pumpkin Seeds (Telfairia occidentalis and Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Eddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale has been extracted and characterized. The lipid content of the Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentalis were 58.41% and 42.15% respectively. The physicochemical parameters of Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale seeds were; boiling point; (58.90, 62.60 °C, melting point; (18.50, 21.80 °C, refractive index; (1.462, 1.498, specific gravity; (0.87, 0.69 saponification value; (91.16, 92.57 iodine value; (51.52, 47.20, acid value; (0.76, 3.74 ester value; (90.40, 88.87, % free fatty acid; (.38, 1.88 and peroxide value; (11.75, 15.23 respectively. Oils from these seeds were found to exhibit the needed potentials for utilization in paint and food industries and as biofuel.

  9. Fast field cycling NMR relaxometry characterization of biochars obtained from an industrial thermochemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pasquale, Claudio; Marsala, Valentina; Alonzo, Giuseppe; Conte, Pellegrino [Universita degli Studi di Palermo (Italy). Dipt. dei Sistemi Agro-Ambientali; Berns, Anne E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3); Valagussa, Massimo [M.A.C. Minoprio Analisi e Certificazioni S.r.l., Vertemate con Minoprio, CO (Italy); Pozzi, Alessandro [A.G.T. Advanced Gasification Technology S.r.l., Arosio, CO (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: Biochar has unique properties which make it a powerful tool to increase soil fertility and to contribute to the decrease of the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide through the mechanisms of C sequestration in soils. Chemical and physical biochar characteristics depend upon the technique used for its production and the biomass nature. For this reason, biochar characterization is very important in order to address its use either for agricultural or environmental purposes. Materials and methods: Three different biochars obtained from an industrial gasification process were selected in order to establish their chemical and physical peculiarities for a possible use in agronomical practices. They were obtained by charring residues from the wine-making industry (marc) and from poplar and conifer forests. Routine analyses such as pH measurements, elemental composition, and ash and metal contents were performed together with the evaluation of the cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) {sup 13}C NMR spectra of all the biochar samples. Finally, relaxometry properties of water-saturated biochars were retrieved in order to obtain information on pore size distribution. Results and discussion: All the biochars revealed basic pH values due to their large content of alkaline metals. The quality of CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectra, which showed the typical signal pattern for charred systems, was not affected by the presence of paramagnetic centers. Although paramagnetism was negligible for the acquisition of solid state spectra, it was effective in some of the relaxometry experiments. For this reason, no useful information could be retrieved about water dynamics in marc char. Conversely, both relaxograms and nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion profiles of poplar and conifer chars indicated that poplar char is richer in small-sized pores, while larger pores appear to be characteristic for the conifer char. Conclusions: This study showed the potential of relaxometry in

  10. A panorama of bacterial inulinases: Production, purification, characterization and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Chauhan, Kanika; Kennedy, John F

    2017-03-01

    Inulinases are important hydrolysing enzymes which specifically act on β-2, 1 linkages of inulin to produce fructose or fructooligosaccharides. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria are the potent microbial sources of inulinases. The data on bacterial inulinases is scarce as compared to other microbial sources. Inulinases yield from bacteria is very less as compared to fungal and yeast sources of inulinases. Submerged fermentation (SmF) is the method of choice for the production of inulinases from bacterial sources. Moreover, inulin is a potent substrate for the production of inulinases in SmF. Many bacterial inulinases have been reported to display magnificent environment abiding features and variability in their biophysical and biochemical properties. These properties have attracted intention of many researchers towards exploring adverse ecological niches for more distinctive inulinase producing bacterial strains. Inulinases are substantially important in current biotechnological era due to their numerous industrial applications. High fructose syrup and fructooligosaccharides are two major industrial applications of inulinases. Additionally, there are many reports on the production of various metabolites like citric acid, lactic acid, ethanol, biofuels, butanediol etc. using mixed cultures of inulinase producing organisms with other microorganisms. The present review mainly envisages inulinase producing bacterial sources, inulinase production, purification, characterization and their applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of clay from northern of Morocco for their industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Fagel, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Clays are a natural resource used for millennia. Currently applications such as industrial minerals are diversified. In this context, our goal is to estimate the potential of the many clay deposits in northern of Morocco. The choice of this region is justified by the particular abundance of clay deposits used to manufacture building materials (brick, ceramic and refractories) and pottery. This study focuses on the mineralogical, chemical and geotechnical characterization tests carried out on Tangier-Tetouan and Meknes clays from northern of Morocco. The suitability of raw clay material from those regions in order to produce ceramic and brick has not been tested yet. The results revealed that the studied samples are diversified, kaolinite and illite (Tetouan clay) and kaolinite and illite and smectite and vermiculite (Tangier and Meknes clay) based materials. There were no major differences in grain-size distribution, whereas Meknes clay was more plastic than Tetouan-Tangier clay. The cation exchange capacity show that Meknes and Tangier clay were more important than Tetouan clay. Specific surface area and thermal analaysis complete this caracterization. It was found that almost all technological properties of the Meknes clay deposit are led to the manufacture of ceramic floor tile, and Tetouan-Tangier clay provide opportunities to making brick and ceramic floor. The Tetouan-Tangier and Meknes clay are a potential ceramic raw material for growing Morrocan ceramic tile and brick industries.

  12. Preliminary Genomic Characterization of Ten Hardwood Tree Species from Multiplexed Low Coverage Whole Genome Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Staton

    Full Text Available Forest health issues are on the rise in the United States, resulting from introduction of alien pests and diseases, coupled with abiotic stresses related to climate change. Increasingly, forest scientists are finding genetic/genomic resources valuable in addressing forest health issues. For a set of ten ecologically and economically important native hardwood tree species representing a broad phylogenetic spectrum, we used low coverage whole genome sequencing from multiplex Illumina paired ends to economically profile their genomic content. For six species, the genome content was further analyzed by flow cytometry in order to determine the nuclear genome size. Sequencing yielded a depth of 0.8X to 7.5X, from which in silico analysis yielded preliminary estimates of gene and repetitive sequence content in the genome for each species. Thousands of genomic SSRs were identified, with a clear predisposition toward dinucleotide repeats and AT-rich repeat motifs. Flanking primers were designed for SSR loci for all ten species, ranging from 891 loci in sugar maple to 18,167 in redbay. In summary, we have demonstrated that useful preliminary genome information including repeat content, gene content and useful SSR markers can be obtained at low cost and time input from a single lane of Illumina multiplex sequence.

  13. A color spectrographic phonocardiography (CSP applied to the detection and characterization of heart murmurs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani Kamran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cardiac auscultation remains important to detect abnormal sounds and murmurs indicative of cardiac pathology, the application of electronic methods remains seldom used in everyday clinical practice. In this report we provide preliminary data showing how the phonocardiogram can be analyzed using color spectrographic techniques and discuss how such information may be of future value for noninvasive cardiac monitoring. Methods We digitally recorded the phonocardiogram using a high-speed USB interface and the program Gold Wave http://www.goldwave.com in 55 infants and adults with cardiac structural disease as well as from normal individuals and individuals with innocent murmurs. Color spectrographic analysis of the signal was performed using Spectrogram (Version 16 as a well as custom MATLAB code. Results Our preliminary data is presented as a series of seven cases. Conclusions We expect the application of spectrographic techniques to phonocardiography to grow substantially as ongoing research demonstrates its utility in various clinical settings. Our evaluation of a simple, low-cost phonocardiographic recording and analysis system to assist in determining the characteristic features of heart murmurs shows promise in helping distinguish innocent systolic murmurs from pathological murmurs in children and is expected to useful in other clinical settings as well.

  14. Preliminary characterization of risks in the nuclear waste management system based on information in the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Rhoads, R.E.; Van Luick, A.E.; Fecht, B.A.; Nilson, S.A.; Sevigny, N.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Armstrong, G.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hill, D.H.; Rowe, M.; Stern, E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This document presents preliminary information on the radiological and nonradiological risks in the nuclear waste management system. The objective of the study was to (1) review the literature containing information on risks in the nuclear waste management system and (2) use this information to develop preliminary estimates of the potential magnitude of these risks. Information was collected on a broad range of risk categories to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in communicating information about the risks in the waste management systems. The study examined all of the portions of the nuclear waste management system currently expected to be developed by the DOE. The scope of this document includes the potential repository, the integral MRS facility, and the transportation system that supports the potential repository and the MRS facility. Relevant literature was reviewed for several potential repository sites and geologic media. A wide range of ``risk categories`` are addressed in this report: (1) public and occupational risks from accidents that could release radiological materials, (2) public and occupational radiation exposure resulting from routine operations, (3) public and occupational risks from accidents involving hazards other than radioactive materials, and (4) public and occupational risks from exposure to nonradioactive hazardous materials during routine operations. The report is intended to provide a broad spectrum of risk-related information about the waste management system. This information is intended to be helpful for planning future studies.

  15. Drift design methodology and preliminary application for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, M.P. [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Bauer, S.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Excavation stability in an underground nuclear waste repository is required during construction, emplacement, retrieval (if required), and closure phases to ensure worker health and safety, and to prevent development of potential pathways for radionuclide migration in the post-closure period. Stable excavations are developed by appropriate excavation procedures, design of the room shape, design and installation of rock support reinforcement systems, and implementation of appropriate monitoring and maintenance programs. In addition to the loads imposed by the in situ stress field, the repository drifts will be impacted by thermal loads developed after waste emplacement and, periodically, by seismic loads from naturally occurring earthquakes and underground nuclear events. A priori evaluation of stability is required for design of the ground support system, to confirm that the thermal loads are reasonable, and to support the license application process. In this report, a design methodology for assessing drift stability is presented. This is based on site conditions, together with empirical and analytical methods. Analytical numerical methods are emphasized at this time because empirical data are unavailable for excavations in welded tuff either at elevated temperatures or under seismic loads. The analytical methodology incorporates analysis of rock masses that are systematically jointed, randomly jointed, and sparsely jointed. In situ thermal and seismic loads are considered. Methods of evaluating the analytical results and estimating ground support requirements for all the full range of expected ground conditions are outlines. The results of a preliminary application of the methodology using the limited available data are presented. 26 figs., 55 tabs.

  16. Estimation of aerosol type from airborne hyperspectral data: a new technique designed for industrial plume characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, A.; Marion, R.; Foucher, P.-Y.; Briottet, X.

    2012-11-01

    The determination of the aerosol type in a plume from remotely sensed data without any a priori knowledge is a challenging task. If several methods have already been developed to characterize the aerosols from multi or hyperspectral data, they are not suited for industrial particles, which have specific physical and optical properties, changing quickly and in a complex way with the distance from the source emission. From radiative transfer equations, we have developed an algorithm, based on a Look-Up Table approach, enabling the determination of the type of this kind of particles from hyperspectral data. It consists in the selection of pixels pairs, located at the transitions between two kinds of grounds (or between an illuminated and a shadow area), then in the comparison between normalized estimated Aerosol Optical Thicknesses (AOTs) and pre-calculated AOTs. The application of this algorithm to simulated data leads to encouraging results: the selection of only six pixels pairs allows the algorithm to differentiate aerosols emitted by a metallurgical plant from biomass burning particles, urban aerosols and particles from an oil depot explosion, regardless the size and the aerosol concentration. The algorithm performances are better for a relatively high AOT but the single scattering approximation does not enable the characterization of thick plumes (AOT above 2.0). However, the choice of transitions (type of grounds) does not seem to significantly affect the results.

  17. Characterization of novel Acidobacteria exopolysaccharides with potential industrial and ecological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielak, Anna M.; Castellane, Tereza C. L.; Campanharo, Joao C.; Colnago, Luiz A.; Costa, Ohana Y. A.; Corradi da Silva, Maria L.; van Veen, Johannes A.; Lemos, Eliana G. M.; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2017-01-01

    Acidobacteria have been described as one of the most abundant and ubiquitous bacterial phyla in soil. However, factors contributing to this ecological success are not well elucidated mainly due to difficulties in bacterial isolation. Acidobacteria may be able to survive for long periods in soil due to protection provided by secreted extracellular polymeric substances that include exopolysaccharides (EPSs). Here we present the first study to characterize EPSs derived from two strains of Acidobacteria from subdivision 1 belonging to Granulicella sp. EPS are unique heteropolysaccharides containing mannose, glucose, galactose and xylose as major components, and are modified with carboxyl and methoxyl functional groups that we characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both EPS compounds we identified can efficiently emulsify various oils (sunflower seed, diesel, and liquid paraffin) and hydrocarbons (toluene and hexane). Moreover, the emulsions are more thermostable over time than those of commercialized xanthan. Acidobacterial EPS can now be explored as a source of biopolymers that may be attractive and valuable for industrial applications due to their natural origin, sustainability, biodegradability and low toxicity. PMID:28117455

  18. Characterization of novel Acidobacteria exopolysaccharides with potential industrial and ecological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielak, Anna M; Castellane, Tereza C L; Campanharo, Joao C; Colnago, Luiz A; Costa, Ohana Y A; Corradi da Silva, Maria L; van Veen, Johannes A; Lemos, Eliana G M; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2017-01-24

    Acidobacteria have been described as one of the most abundant and ubiquitous bacterial phyla in soil. However, factors contributing to this ecological success are not well elucidated mainly due to difficulties in bacterial isolation. Acidobacteria may be able to survive for long periods in soil due to protection provided by secreted extracellular polymeric substances that include exopolysaccharides (EPSs). Here we present the first study to characterize EPSs derived from two strains of Acidobacteria from subdivision 1 belonging to Granulicella sp. EPS are unique heteropolysaccharides containing mannose, glucose, galactose and xylose as major components, and are modified with carboxyl and methoxyl functional groups that we characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both EPS compounds we identified can efficiently emulsify various oils (sunflower seed, diesel, and liquid paraffin) and hydrocarbons (toluene and hexane). Moreover, the emulsions are more thermostable over time than those of commercialized xanthan. Acidobacterial EPS can now be explored as a source of biopolymers that may be attractive and valuable for industrial applications due to their natural origin, sustainability, biodegradability and low toxicity.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the caspase-recruitment domain of human Nod1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srimathi, Thiagarajan; Robbins, Sheila L.; Dubas, Rachel L. [Basic Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States); Seo, Jang-Hoon [Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Shinheung College, Uijeongbu, Kyungki-Do 480-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Chul, E-mail: young.park@fccc.edu [Basic Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The caspase-recruitment domain of the cytosolic pathogen receptor Nod1 was crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) is known to play an important role in apoptosis and inflammation as an essential protein–protein interaction domain. The CARD of the cytosolic pathogen receptor Nod1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The purified CARD was crystallized at 277 K using the microseeding method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P3{sub 1} or P3{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.1, c = 80.9 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates that there is one dimeric CARD molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  20. ZTI: Preliminary characterization of an ignition class reversed-field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathke, C. G.; Krakowski, R. A.; Miller, R. L.; Werley, K. A.

    A preliminary cost-optimized conceptual design of an intermediate-step, ignition-class reverse-field pinch (RFP) device (ZTI) for the study of alpha-particle physics in a deuterium (DT) plasma is reported. The ZTI design reflects potentially significant cost savings relative to similar ignition-class tokamaks for device parameters that reside on the path to a viable commercial RFP reactor. Reductions in both device costs and number of steps to commercialization portend a significantly reduced development cost for fusion. The methodology and result and coupling realistic physics, engineering, and cost models through a multi-dimensional optimizer are reported for ZTI, which is a device that would follow the 2 to 4 MAzth on an approximately greater than 1996 to 98 timescale.

  1. Nutritional preliminary characterization of some indigenous raw materials used in formulation of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Selmi,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cereal grains and proteins are varied and numerous in Tunisia. The use of these local resources remains limited because of a shift towards relying on imports and state subsidies. This has caused disruption of the national economic strategy and the sustainability of farming systems. Thus, in recent years, research for alternative feed resources readily available within the country borders has accelerated. Among these indigenous resources, barley, triticale, white sorghum, and faba beans who have nutritional values potentially similar to those of corn and soybean meal were incorporated into the formulation of feed concentrate to supplement dairy sheep rations based on encouraging preliminary results on nutritive values (number and types of ciliates, total gas and on quantity and quality of produced milk in sheep

  2. Preliminary characterization of the Green Antioquian consumer: the case of the consumers from Valle de Aburra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcy Rocío Escobar Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg This research paper aims at identifying the profile of green consumers living in Valle de Aburra, in Antioquia, to identify the specific features and needs of this group as a market segment. At first, this article shows a conceptual framework about terms such as green market, green consumers and green products. Then, a research methodology is described based on a quantitative formulation of a piloting study, through which a measurement instrument having 14 questions divided into different variables product, price, distribution and communication collected key information to get to preliminary conclusions about consumers as its main object of study. Finally, a statistic descriptive analysis was made to get the profile of green consumers living in Valle de Aburra and a proposal describing key elements to set the bases for future investigations about this topic.

  3. Preliminary characterization of ST2G: Solar thermionic-thermoelectric generator for concentrating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Alessandro; Calvani, Paolo; Cappelli, Emilia; Orlando, Stefano; Sciti, Diletta; Yogev, Ronen; Kribus, Abraham; Trucchi, Daniele M.

    2015-06-01

    An innovative conversion module (CM) for concentrating solar power applications, named ST2G (Solar Thermionic-Thermoelectric Generator), has been developed and fabricated. The new technology is based on a solid-state converter that works at temperatures up to 1000 °C and exploits a double conversion stage: a thermionic stage and a thermoelectric one, connected thermally in series. Potentially, the CM could reach a combined solar energy-to-electrical efficiency larger than 30%, producing also additional thermal energy to be exploited as a co-generation. Different prototypes have been fabricated and the discussion on the technological key-points has been reported, relating them to the physical requirements necessary for an efficient conversion mechanism. The preliminary results obtained at a lab-level are here discussed, indicating low electrical power output, but also how to increase the performance by solving the identified issues.

  4. Extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Mentha piperita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Sun, Zhen-Liang; Jia, Ai-Rong; Shi, Ya-Ping; Li, Rui-Hong; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP). The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I), and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  5. Preliminary characterization of dose in personnel of interventional radiology; Caracterizacao preliminar da dose em profissionais de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godolfim, Laura Larre; Anes, Mauricio; Bacelar, Alexandre; Lykawka, Rochelle [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to X-rays of Interventional Radiology professionals (IR) impacts in the high dose rate received by these individuals, and there are reports of biological effects of this professional activity. Therefore, it is fomented greater control over the doses received by these workers. This research intends to characterize the doses received by the professionals during IR procedures. We evaluated the doses of radiologists, anesthesiologists and nursing staff of the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, through measures with dosimeters of the OSL type, distributed in up to six regions of the body of these professionals. Until now were accompanied 33 cholangiography procedures and 29 embolization procedures. As a preliminary result, it was possible to identify a wide variation between doses of the professionals of the same function in each procedure. In overview, the dose of the professionals presented in descending order as a radiologist 1> radiologist 2 > anesthetist > nursing. (author)

  6. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  7. Characterization and photocatalytic treatability of red water from Brazilian TNT industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwichk, Raquel [Department of Chemistry, Postgraduate Programme in Technology of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Helferich, Oliver Karil; Kist, Cristiane Patrícia [Academic Department of Chemistry and Biology, Post graduation in Environmental Science and Technology Federal Technological University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lopes, Aline Chitto; Cavasotto, Thiago [Department of Chemistry, Postgraduate Programme in Technology of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Silva, Davi Costa [Academic Department of Chemistry and Biology, Post graduation in Environmental Science and Technology Federal Technological University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Barreto-Rodrigues, Marcio, E-mail: marciorodrigues@utfpr.edu.br [Department of Chemistry, Postgraduate Programme in Technology of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Academic Department of Chemistry and Biology, Post graduation in Environmental Science and Technology Federal Technological University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The red water effluent has high levels of COD, color and acute toxicity. • The compounds 2-methyl-1, 3-dinitrobenzene, 1-methyl-2, 4-dinitrobenzene and 1-methyl-3, 5-dinitrobenzene were identified. • A nanostructured TiO{sub 2}-borosilicate glass was obtained and characterized. • The photocatalytic treatment removes all color 32% of the organic matter content of the effluent. • The borosilicate-glass-TiO{sub 2} system degrades all content of identified nitroaromatic compounds. - Abstract: The current study aims to characterize and evaluate the photocatalytic treatability of the “red water” effluent from a Brazilian TNT production industry. Analyses were performed using physical, chemical, spectroscopic and chromatographic assays, which demonstrated that the effluent presented a significant pollution potential, mainly due to COD, BOD, solids and to the high concentration of nitroaromatic compounds such as 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 1-methyl-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 2-methyl-1,3-dinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-3,5-dinitro-p-toluidine and 2-methyl-3,5-dinitro-benzoamine. By a modified sol-gel and a dip-coating technique, it was possible to obtain a TiO{sub 2} film on borosilicate glass substrate which functional composition and microstructure were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The evaluation of the photocatalytic treatability using borosilicate-glass-TiO{sub 2} demonstrated high degradation efficiency. In this context, a reduction of 32 and 100% for COD and nitroaromatic compounds, respectively, was observed. Although the proposed photocatalytic process has found difficulties in reducing the content of organic matter and effluent color in the red water, its potential for degrading refractory chemical compounds such as the nitroaromatic ones enables it to be used as tertiary treatment.

  8. Cassava Peels for Alternative Fibre in Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Properties and Morphology Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Without a proper waste management, the organic wastes such as cassava peels could result in increased amount of solid waste dump into landfill. This study aims to use non-wood organic wastes as pulp for paper making industries; promoting the concept of ‘from waste to wealth and recyclable material’. The objective  of this study is to determine the potential of casssava peel as alternative fibre in pulp and paper based on its chemical properties and surface morphology characteristic. Quantified parameters involved are holocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, one percent of sodium hydroxide, hot water solubility and ash content. The chemical characterization was in accordance with relevant TAPPI Test, Kurscher-Hoffner and Chlorite methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe and determine the morphological characteristic of untreated cassava peels fibre. In order to propose the suitability of the studied plant as an alternative fibre resource in pulp and paper making, the obtained results are compared to other published literatures especially from wood sources. Results indicated that the amount of holocellulose contents in cassava peels (66% is the lowest than of wood (70 - 80.5% and canola straw (77.5%; however this value is still within the limit suitability to produce paper. The lignin content (7.52% is the lowest than those of all wood species (19.9-26.22%. Finally, the SEM images showed that untreated cassava peel contains abundance fibre such as hemicellulose and cellulose that is hold by the lignin in it. In conclusion, chemical properties and morphological characteristics of cassava peel indicated that it is suitable to be used as an alternative fibre sources for pulp and paper making industry, especially in countries with limited wood resources

  9. Analytical Characterization of Rococo Paintings in Egypt: Preliminary Results from El-Gawhara Palace at Cairo

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma REFAAT; Hussein MAREY MAHMOUD; Atef A. BRANIA

    2012-01-01

    El-Gawhara palace (1813–1814 AD) is situated south of the Mosque of Muhammad Ali in the Cairo Citadel. This palace is an important example of the best early 19th century rococo decorations in Egypt. The present study reports some of the results obtained from the application of different analytical techniques to characterize some rococo paintings at El-Gawhara palace at Cairo, Egypt. The characterization of the studied paintings was carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning ele...

  10. A preliminary examination of patient loyalty: an application of the customer loyalty classification framework in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiens, R A; Pleshko, L P

    1997-01-01

    The present article applies the customer loyalty classification framework developed by Dick and Basu (1994) to the health care industry. Based on a two factor classification, consisting of repeat patronage and relative attitude, four categories of patient loyalty are proposed and examined, including true loyalty, latent loyalty, spurious loyalty, and no loyalty. Data is collected and the four patient loyalty categories are profiled and compared on the basis of perceived risk, product class importance, provider decision importance, provider awareness, provider consideration, number of providers visited, and self-reported loyalty.

  11. A soft wearable robot for the shoulder: Design, characterization, and preliminary testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ciaran T; Phipps, Nathan S; Cappello, Leonardo; Paganoni, Sabrina; Walsh, Conor J

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a soft wearable robot for the shoulder which has the potential to assist individuals suffering from a range of neuromuscular conditions affecting the shoulder to perform activities of daily living. This wearable robot combines two types of soft textile pneumatic actuators which were custom developed for this particular application to support the upper arm through shoulder abduction and horizontal flexion/extension. The advantage of a textile-based approach is that the robot can be lightweight, low-profile, comfortable and non-restrictive to the wearer, and easy to don like an item of clothing. The actuator's ability to fold flat when not in use allows the robot to be almost invisible under clothing, potentially allowing the user to avoid any stigma associated with using assistive devices in public. To abduct the arm, a textilebased pneumatic actuator was developed to fit within the axilla to push the arm upwards, while a pair of smaller actuators pivot the abduction actuator to allow for horizontal extension and flexion. The individual textile actuators were experimentally evaluated before being integrated into a wearable garment. Human subject testing was performed to evaluate the ability of the robot to assist the arm by monitoring changes in biological muscle activity when comparing the robot powered on and off. Preliminary results show large reductions in muscular effort in targeted muscles, demonstrating the feasibility and promise of such a soft wearable robot for the shoulder.

  12. A Preliminary Assessment of Dispersion Level of SO2 in Fars Industrial Region, South of Iran, by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Zarghan is located 25 km northeast of Shiraz, southern Iran. Zarghan is affected by numerous pollution sources such as oil refinery, an industrial park, and Shiraz-Tehran highway. The numerous contaminating sources around Zarghan can cause serious local air pollution. Sulfur dioxide gas is an important index of air pollution in cities. Therefore, in order to control and manage Zarghan air quality, it is important to monitor sulfur dioxide concentration in the surrounding area. It is also essential to know about the contribution level of other sources of pollution as well as dispersion radius of pollutants in the area. In this study, the concentration of sulfur dioxide was measured by passive sampling at 10 different stations. These values were interpolated in other parts of the city using ArcGIS software. The results of sampling showed that the concentration of the gas was 60 µgm−3 around oil refinery. The level was 19 µgm−3 in region located about 3 km from the oil refinery. It was also demonstrated that the gas concentration was not higher than the standard limit within residential area. On the other hand, the role of the local highway and industrial park was not significant in contaminating air in urban areas.

  13. Molecular characterization of dominant bacterial population in “Vastedda della Valle del Belice” cheese: preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Todaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensory characteristics of raw-milk cheeses are linked to the cheese-making process, to the environmental factors as animal feeding and to the biochemical and microbiological composition of the milk. In this report we temped to characterize the microflora in the typical Sicilian historical cheese as Vastedda della valle del Belice. Each cheese was previous subjected to microbial isolation on specific media (M17 and MRS. The colony obtained on the solid medium were subject to biochemical tests and DNA extraction. The microbial diversity occurring in the strains was evaluated by PCR, RFLP and sequencing targeted on 16S ribosomal DNA. A number of closest relatives species of lactic and contaminating bacteria were identified in a total of 18 cheeses. The more represented genus were: Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Pediococcus. Moreover it was found only one strain Lactococcus lactis for producing bacteriocines. The different bacteria species probably could play a key role in the maturation of the cheese. The preliminary obtained data show the optimized method is usefully to detect and characterize the bacteria having implications in the fermentation process as well as preservation of traditional products.

  14. Purification, characterization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a lactose-specific lectin from Cymbosema roseum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bruno A M; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Delatorre, Plínio; Souza, Emmanuel P; Marinho, Emmanuel S; Benevides, Raquel G; Rustiguel, Joane Kathelen Rodrigues; Souza, Luis A G; Nagano, Celso S; Debray, Henri; Sampaio, Alexandre H; de Azevedo, Walter F; Cavada, Benildo S

    2009-03-01

    The unique carbohydrate-binding property of lectins makes them invaluable tools in biomedical research. Here, we report the purification, partial primary structure, carbohydrate affinity characterization, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a lactose-specific lectin from Cymbosema roseum seeds (CRLII). Isolation and purification of CRLII was performed by a single step using a Sepharose-4B-lactose affinity chromatography column. The carbohydrate affinity characterization was carried using assays for hemagglutination activity and inhibition. CRLII showed hemagglutinating activity toward rabbit erythrocytes. O-glycoproteins from mucine mucopolysaccharides showed the most potent inhibition capacity at a minimum concentration of 1.2 microg mL(-1). Protein sequencing by mass spectrometry was obtained by the digestion of CRLII with trypsin, Glu-C, and AspN. CRLII partial protein sequence exhibits 46% similarity with the ConA-like alpha chain precursor. Suitable protein crystals were obtained with the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method with 8% ethylene glycol, 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.5, and 11% PEG 8,000. The monoclinic crystals belong to space group P2(1) with unit cell parameters a = 49.4, b = 89.6, and c = 100.8 A.

  15. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 1, Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1991-05-31

    In this study, rail and highway routes which may be used for shipments of high-level nuclear waste to a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are characterized. This characterization facilitates three types of impact analysis: comparative study, limited worst-case assessment, and more sophisticated probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Data for relative and absolute impact measures are provided to support comparisons of routes based on selected characteristics. A worst-case scenario assessment is included to determine potentially critical and most likely places for accidents or incidents to occur. The assessment facilitated by the data in this study is limited because impact measures are restricted to the identification of potential areas or persons affected. No attempt is made to quantify the magnitude of these impacts. Most likely locations for accidents to occur are determined relative to other locations within the scope of this study. Independent factors and historical trends used to identify these likely locations are only proxies for accident probability.

  16. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 1, Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1991-05-31

    In this study, rail and highway routes which may be used for shipments of high-level nuclear waste to a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are characterized. This characterization facilitates three types of impact analysis: comparative study, limited worst-case assessment, and more sophisticated probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Data for relative and absolute impact measures are provided to support comparisons of routes based on selected characteristics. A worst-case scenario assessment is included to determine potentially critical and most likely places for accidents or incidents to occur. The assessment facilitated by the data in this study is limited because impact measures are restricted to the identification of potential areas or persons affected. No attempt is made to quantify the magnitude of these impacts. Most likely locations for accidents to occur are determined relative to other locations within the scope of this study. Independent factors and historical trends used to identify these likely locations are only proxies for accident probability.

  17. Analytical Characterization of Rococo Paintings in Egypt: Preliminary Results from El-Gawhara Palace at Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma REFAAT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El-Gawhara palace (1813–1814 AD is situated south of the Mosque of Muhammad Ali in the Cairo Citadel. This palace is an important example of the best early 19th century rococo decorations in Egypt. The present study reports some of the results obtained from the application of different analytical techniques to characterize some rococo paintings at El-Gawhara palace at Cairo, Egypt. The characterization of the studied paintings was carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT−IR. The obtained results allowed the identification of the chemical composition, structure and the painting technique employed in these paintings. This methodology reveals some useful information on some rococo paintings dating back to the 19th century in Egypt.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose and Nanocellulose from Agro-industrial Waste - Cassava Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiarto, S.; Yuwono, S. D.; Rochliadi, A.; Arcana, I. M.

    2017-02-01

    Cassava peel is an agro-industrial waste which is available in huge quantities in Lampung Province of Indonesia. This work was conducted to evaluate the potential of cassava peel as a source of cellulose and nanocellulose. Cellulose was extracted from cassava peel by using different chemical treatment, and the nanocellulose was prepared by hydrolysis with the use of sulfuric acid. The best methods of cellulose extraction from cassava peels are using alkali treatment followed by a bleaching process. The cellulose yield from this methods was 17.8% of dry base cassava peel, while the yield from nitric and sulfuric methods were about 10.78% and 10.32% of dry base cassava peel respectively. The hydrolysis was performed at the temperature of 50 °C for 2 hours. The intermediate reaction product obtained after each stage of the treatments was characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the removal of non-cellulosic constituent. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity of cellulose increased after hydrolysis. Morphological investigation was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The size of particle was confirmed by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  19. Electrochemical characterization of niobium carbide reinforced composites for the production of industrial gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.S.; Scatena, H. Jr.; Martinelli, A.E.; Alves, C. Jr. [Programa de Doutorado em Engenharia e Ciencias de Materiais, UFRN, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The main goal of the present investigation is to analyze the use of Fe-NbC composites in the electrogeneration of industrial gases. The effect of the experimental parameters involved in the processing of PM composites on the performance of the resulting electrodes is also investigated. Cylindrical composite pellets were sintered varying their composition, sintering temperature and time, and compaction pressure. The resulting electrodes were characterized from the standpoint of their inherent electrical resistance, electrical resistance in NaOH 1M solution, and porosity. The electrical resistance of the composite electrode in solution was obtained from voltammetric tests carried out from -1V to 1.5V. The scan rate was set to 10mV/s. The results obtained up to this point showed that the sintering temperature has a major effect in determining the electrical resistance of the electrode in solution. Other manufacturing aspects have less important effects on that property. The onset of oxygen generation took place at approximately 0.6V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and the optimum potential at 100mA/cm{sup 2} was 0.94V. (orig.)

  20. Physico-chemical characterization of banana varieties resistant to black leaf streak disease for industrial purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Catie Bueno de Godoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cultivated bananas have very low genetic diversity making them vulnerable to diseases such as black-Sigatoka leaf spot. However, the decision to adopt a new banana variety needs to be based on a robust evaluation of agronomical and physical-chemical characteristics. Here, we characterize new banana varieties resistant to black-Sigatoka leaf spot and compare them to the most widely used traditional variety (Grand Naine. Each variety was evaluated for a range of physic-chemical attributes associated with industrial processing and flavor: pH, TTA, TSS/TTA, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, humidity, total solids and yield. The Thap Maeo variety had the highest potential as a substitute for the Grand Naine variety, having higher levels of total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars and humidity. The Caipira and FHIA 2 varieties also performed well in comparison with the Grand Naine variety. Cluster analysis indicated that the Grand Naine variety was closely associated with varieties from the Gross Michel subgroup (Bucaneiro, Ambrosia and Calipso and the Caipira variety, all of which come from the same AAA genomic group. It was concluded that several of the new resistant varieties could potentially substitute the traditional variety in areas affected by black-Sigatoka leaf spot disease.

  1. Preliminary geochemical characterization of volcanic and geothermal fluids discharged from the Ecuadorian volcanic arc.

    OpenAIRE

    Inguaggiato, S.; Hidalgo, S.; Beate, B.; Bourquin, J.

    2009-01-01

    In Ecuador, magmatism results from the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the North Western part of South America (Pennington, 1981; Kellogg and Vega, 1995; Witt et al., 2006). North of 2.5°S, the Ecuadorian Quaternary volcanic arc is characterized by about 60 volcanoes distributed in three different parallel chains. Many of these volcanoes are potentially active or currently in activity and display associated geothermal fields. South of this latitude, no active arc is present in Ecuador. ...

  2. Characterization of Industrial Coolant Fluids and Continuous Ageing Monitoring by Wireless Node-Enabled Fiber Optic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachat, Alexandros El; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Markos, Christos; Sakellariou, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Aggelos; Katsikas, Serafim; Riziotis, Christos

    2017-03-11

    Environmentally robust chemical sensors for monitoring industrial processes or infrastructures are lately becoming important devices in industry. Low complexity and wireless enabled characteristics can offer the required flexibility for sensor deployment in adaptable sensing networks for continuous monitoring and management of industrial assets. Here are presented the design, development and operation of a class of low cost photonic sensors for monitoring the ageing process and the operational characteristics of coolant fluids used in an industrial heavy machinery infrastructure. The chemical, physical and spectroscopic characteristics of specific industrial-grade coolant fluids were analyzed along their entire life cycle range, and proper parameters for their efficient monitoring were identified. Based on multimode polymer or silica optical fibers, wide range (3-11) pH sensors were developed by employing sol-gel derived pH sensitive coatings. The performances of the developed sensors were characterized and compared, towards their coolants' ageing monitoring capability, proving their efficiency in such a demanding application scenario and harsh industrial environment. The operating characteristics of this type of sensors allowed their integration in an autonomous wireless sensing node, thus enabling the future use of the demonstrated platform in wireless sensor networks for a variety of industrial and environmental monitoring applications.

  3. Characterization of Industrial Coolant Fluids and Continuous Ageing Monitoring by Wireless Node—Enabled Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sachat, Alexandros; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Markos, Christos; Sakellariou, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Aggelos; Katsikas, Serafim; Riziotis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Environmentally robust chemical sensors for monitoring industrial processes or infrastructures are lately becoming important devices in industry. Low complexity and wireless enabled characteristics can offer the required flexibility for sensor deployment in adaptable sensing networks for continuous monitoring and management of industrial assets. Here are presented the design, development and operation of a class of low cost photonic sensors for monitoring the ageing process and the operational characteristics of coolant fluids used in an industrial heavy machinery infrastructure. The chemical, physical and spectroscopic characteristics of specific industrial-grade coolant fluids were analyzed along their entire life cycle range, and proper parameters for their efficient monitoring were identified. Based on multimode polymer or silica optical fibers, wide range (3–11) pH sensors were developed by employing sol-gel derived pH sensitive coatings. The performances of the developed sensors were characterized and compared, towards their coolants’ ageing monitoring capability, proving their efficiency in such a demanding application scenario and harsh industrial environment. The operating characteristics of this type of sensors allowed their integration in an autonomous wireless sensing node, thus enabling the future use of the demonstrated platform in wireless sensor networks for a variety of industrial and environmental monitoring applications. PMID:28287488

  4. Technical Decision Making With Higher Order Structure Data: Perspectives on Higher Order Structure Characterization From the Biopharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, William F; Gabrielson, John P; Al-Azzam, Wasfi; Chen, Guodong; Davis, Darryl L; Das, Tapan K; Hayes, David B; Houde, Damian; Singh, Satish K

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of the higher order structure (HOS) of protein-based biopharmaceutical products is an important aspect of their development. Opinions vary about how best to apply biophysical methods, in which contexts to use these methods, and how to use the resulting data to make technical decisions as drug candidates are commercialized [Gabrielson JP, Weiss WF IV. J Pharm Sci. 2015;104(4):1240-1245]. The aim of this commentary is to provide guidance for the development and implementation of a robust and comprehensive HOS characterization strategy. We first consider important concepts involved in developing a strategy that is appropriately suited to a particular biologic, and then discuss ways industry can partner with academia, technology companies, government laboratories, and regulatory agencies to improve the consistency with which HOS characterization is applied across the biopharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary characterization of the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with and without gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial communities inhabiting human mouth are associated with oral health and disease. Previous studies have indicated the general prevalence of adult gingivitis in China to be high. The aim of this study was to characterize in depth the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with or without gingivitis, by defining the microbial phylogenetic diversity and community-structure using highly paralleled pyrosequencing. Methods Six non-smoking Chinese, three with and three without gingivitis (age range 21-39 years, 4 females and 2 males were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study. Gingival parameters of inflammation and bleeding on probing were characterized by a clinician using the Mazza Gingival Index (MGI. Plaque (sampled separately from four different oral sites and salivary samples were obtained from each subject. Sequences and relative abundance of the bacterial 16 S rDNA PCR-amplicons were determined via pyrosequencing that produced 400 bp-long reads. The sequence data were analyzed via a computational pipeline customized for human oral microbiome analyses. Furthermore, the relative abundances of selected microbial groups were validated using quantitative PCR. Results The oral microbiomes from gingivitis and healthy subjects could be distinguished based on the distinct community structures of plaque microbiomes, but not the salivary microbiomes. Contributions of community members to community structure divergence were statistically accessed at the phylum, genus and species-like levels. Eight predominant taxa were found associated with gingivitis: TM7, Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Lautropia, and Haemophilus. Furthermore, 98 species-level OTUs were identified to be gingivitis-associated, which provided microbial features of gingivitis at a species resolution. Finally, for the two selected genera Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, Real-Time PCR based quantification of relative bacterial

  6. A novel full scale experimental characterization of wind turbine aero-acoustic noise sources - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a novel full scale experiment on a 500 kW wind turbine with the main objective to characterize the aero-acoustic noise sources. The idea behind the instrumentation is to study the link and correlation between the surface pressure (SP) fluctuations in the boundary layer...... of the blade and the noise on the ground in a distance of about one rotor diameter. In total six surface microphones were used to measure the SP at the leading edge (LE) and trailing edge (TE) of the blade. In parallel noise was measured by eight microphones placed on plates on the ground around the turbine...

  7. Preliminary molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum isolates of wildlife rodents from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, A; Cacciò, S; Bednarska, M; Behnke, J M; Pieniazek, N J; Sinski, E

    2003-10-01

    Isolates of Cryptosporidium were collected from 3 species of woodland and field rodents (Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arvalis, and Apodemus flavicollis) and were characterized by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of fragments of the oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene and of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. Sequence analysis of these markers revealed that the animals were infected with C. parvum, and that the genotype involved was almost identical to the mouse genotype previously described from Mus musculus. Thus, small rodents should be considered as an important reservoir of C. parvum genotypes closely related to the zoonotic genotype 2 and potentially hazardous to humans.

  8. Preliminary Characterization of the Probiotic Properties of Candida Famata and Geobacillus Thermoleovorans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bakhrouf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance, producing metabolites which inhibit the colonization or growth of other microorganisms or by competing with them for resources such as nutrients or space. The aim of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of Candida famata and Geobacillus thermoleovorans.Material and Methods: In this study, yeast and bacterial strains isolated from pure oil waste were identified using Api 50 CHB and Api Candida Systems and their probiotic properties were studied through antimicrobial activity, biofilm production, adherence assay and enzymatic characterization.Results and Conclusion: According to biochemical analyses, these strains corresponded to Geobacillus thermoleovorans and Candida famata. Antagonism assay results showed that the tested strains have an inhibitory effect against tested pathogenic bacteria. The yeast Candida famata was unable to produce biofilm on Congo Red Agar (CRA, while the bacterial strain was a slime producer. Adherence assays to abiotic surfaces revealed that the investigated strains were fairly adhesive to polystyrene with values ranging from 0.18 to 0.34 at 595 nm. The enzymatic characterization revealed that the tested strains expressed enzymes such as phosphatase alkaline, esterase lipase (C8, amylase, lipase, lecitenase and caseinase. The obtained results may allow the isolated strains to be considered as having the potential to be candidate probiotics.

  9. A preliminary characterization of the spatial variability of precipitation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States); Ambos, D.S. [Foothill Eng. Consultants, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Isohyetal maps of precipitation and numerical models for simulating precipitation are needed to help characterize natural infiltration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A geostatistical analysis of measured precipitation accumulated from storm periods. Precipitation was measured during a 3.8 year period from January 1990 to October, 1993 using a network of precipitation gages. A total of 34 winter-type storms and 12 summer-type storm, categorized using synoptic weather records, were analyzed using the 1st and 2nd statistical moments and sample variograms. Average standardized variograms indicated good spatial correlation for both storm types with only slight differences in the general spatial structure. Coefficients of variation and average relative variograms indicated that summer storms are characterized by greater variability as compared to winter storms. Models were fitted to the average summer and winter standarized variograms for each storm using the mean storm depth and the coefficient of variation as scaling parameters. Isohyetal maps of 4 representative storms were created using the standarized models. Results indicate that standarized models can be used to simulate the spatial distribution of precipitation depth, provided that the 1st and 2nd moments are known or can be estimated, and that identifiable deterministic trends can be included in the models. A single, fixed model representing the spatial variability of precipitation at Yucca Mountain is not recommended.

  10. Preliminary characterization of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms isolated from refinery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Emine; Ergene, Aysun

    2010-02-01

    Some bacterial strains isolated from refinery wastewaters were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa RWI, Pseudomonas putida RWII, Pseudomonas fluorescens RWIII and Burkholderia cepacia RWIV, and the biosurfactants produced by these strains were coded as BS-I, BS-II, BS-III and BS-IV, respectively. The bacterial strains were characterized by the following biochemical methods: Gram stain, oxidase activity, indol, lactose and growth at 42 degrees C. Biosurfactant production was evaluated by: emulsification activity, surface tension measurement and critical micelle concentration. Chemical characterization of the biosurfactants was done by: FTIR and analysis of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content. The biosurfactants showed good emulsification activity against different hydrocarbon sources. The initial surface tension of culture broth was determined as 67.3 mN/m, and production of BS-I, BS-II, BS-III and BS-IV lowered this value to 35.9, 49.2, 51.6 and 45.7 mN/m, respectively. The critical micelle concentration of the biosurfactants was found to be in the range 10-50 mg/L. From the results of this study it was observed that the refinery wastewaters are a suitable source for isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria, but are not a substrate for biosurfactant production.

  11. Effect of extraction media on preliminary characterizations and antioxidant activities of Phellinus linteus polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Bin; Pei, Juan-Juan; Ma, Hai-Le; Cai, Pan-Fu; Yan, Jing-Kun

    2014-08-30

    Three partially purified polysaccharides were extracted from Phellinus linteus mycelia using hot water, 1% (NH4)2C2O4, and 1.25M NaOH/0.05% NaBH4, and the extracts were named PL-W, PL-A, and, PL-N respectively. PL-N mainly comprised xylose and arabinose with a high molecular weight (Mw) and the highest carbohydrate and uronic acid contents. PL-W and PL-A were mainly composed of glucose with high and low Mw fractions in various ratios. All three polysaccharides existed as compact coils in aqueous solutions and exhibited strong scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. The polysaccharides also had high uronic acid and carbohydrate contents and strong antioxidant activities. The Mws, monosaccharide compositions, and chemical structures of the polysaccharides also affected their antioxidant activities. PL-A and PL-N had better antioxidant activities and could thus be developed as potential natural antioxidant agents for applications in food additives and biomedical industries.

  12. Preliminary Analysis on the Regional Culture Strategy and its effects to Sustainable Development of Product Creation Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu; Danlei

    2015-01-01

    In today’s society of human civilization and highly developed science and technology,the designs full of creativity are renewing constantly just like a wave train around us.People’s requirements for product material function not only need to meet the people’s aesthetic taste,but also need to organic unity of science and technology,art,economy and the society.With the highly development of today’s science and technology,the increasingly pluralism of people’s life modality,the kinds and styles of the production relative to people’s need are increasing.As the college students of 21 new century,it is the unavoidable duty of carrying forward the Chinese regional characteristic industrial products.We need to precipitate the China’s 5thousand years national history,making our national elements to be the bright crystallization,so we need to deeply research and analyze the design thoughts and theories in developed countries,to go deeply into the realities of life,analysis their design features,so as to "learn the advanced technologies from the West ".

  13. Preliminary Analysis on the Regional Culture Strategy and its effects to Sustainable Development of Product Creation Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Danlei

    2015-01-01

    In today's society of human civilization and highly developed science and technology,the designs full of creativity are renewing constantly just like a wave train around us.People’s requirements for product material function not only need to meet the people’s aesthetic taste,but also need to organic unity of science and technology,art,economy and the society.With the highly development of today’s science and technology,the increasingly pluralism of people’s life modality,the kinds and styles of the production relative to people’s need are increasing. As the college students of 21 new century,it is the unavoidable duty of carrying forward the Chinese regional characteristic industrial products.We need to precipitate the China’s 5 thousand years national history,making our national elements to be the bright crystallization,so we need to deeply research and analyze the design thoughts and theories in developed countries,to go deeply into the realities of life,analysis their design features,so as to“learn the advanced technologies from the West”.

  14. Wastewater canal Vojlovica, industrial complex Pančevo, Serbia – preliminary ecotoxicological assessment of contaminated sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA PLANOJEVIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effluents collected from the industrial complex of Pančevo, Serbia (oil refinery, petrochemical plant, and fertilizer factory, are discharged into a wastewater canal entering the Danube River. In this study, which was focused on sediment assessment, a complex triad approach consisting of chemical analysis, sediment toxicity tests and macrozoobenthos community analysis was applied. In toxicity tests on sediment elutriates, the following responses were registered – stimulatory effect in algal bioassay, no effect in acute test with Daphnia magna, and low to moderate toxicity in the conventional Vibrio fischeri test. Moderate to high toxicities were recorded in solid phase tests on Myriophyllum aquaticum and V. fischeri. High content of Hg, certain PAHs and non-characterised sediment contaminants accumulated over years contribute not only to the registered toxicity, but also to the complete absence of macrozoobenthos. The obtained results proved that regularly measured conventional and priority pollutants are hardly ever the only toxic contaminants present in sediments. Toxicity tests, in particular the contact test, might guide towards a better selection of parameters to be regularly or occasionally monitored. In addition, complete sediment toxicity tests proved to be an appropriate method for assessing the bioavailability of the chemically detected contaminants. The analysis of the macrozoobenthos composition and structure as inevitable part of sediment risk assessment procedures integrates the effects of multiple stressors and gives a realistic insight into not only sediment contamination by toxic pollutants, but also the sediment status in general.

  15. 數位內容產業人才培育政策之研究及其階段性結論 The Study of Talent Development Policy for the Digital Content Industry: Its Research Structure and Preliminary Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyun Chaucer Liang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available 無The digital content is one of the most promising industries in the 21 century. In addition to introducing the various international experiences, this paper presents the status of the industry and the promotion strategies carried out by the domestic government. The author proposes a research structure for inquiring the talent development policy as well as brings out a set of preliminary conclusions for this issue based upon the lengthy industrial consulting experience. At the end of this paper, the author forecasts the next wave of convergence of related fields for developing the digital content industry, by which the industry is expected to have a further development and even come to prospering.

  16. Coastal California's Fog as a Unique Habitable Niche: Design for Autonomous Sampling and Preliminary Aerobiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Diana; Cynthia Ouandji; Arismendi, Dillon; Guarro, Marcello; Demachkie, Isabella; Crosbie, Ewan; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alex B.; Wang, Zhen; Sorooshian, Armin; hide

    2017-01-01

    , then with sterile DI water, between sampling regions. Collected volumes ranged from 100 L to 12 mL. All samples were diluted serially and plated on two different types of agar, nutrient-dense (PCA) and sparse (R-2A). Plates were incubated at room temperature and counted when colonies first appeared and again at 2 weeks.Preliminary results from seven flights are consistent with generally reported colony-forming unit (CFU) values for terrestrial fog water (e.g., [4]). The PCA assay ranged from 400 to 125,000 CFU/mL, R-2A from 700 to 130,000 CFU/mL. PCA and R-2A counts were not significantly different from each other at I^ plus or minus +/- 0.05, although observationally, the R2A plates had more pigmented colonies. CFU counts from the majority of flights were not different from each other in mean at the same level of significance, but about half differed in median, indicating differences in underlying distribution. These results validate the presence of viable microorganisms in coastal California fog at levels that should be easily detectable by our sampling system. The indicated distribution differences underscore the need for small-scale, long-term sampling surveys. Future planned work includes ion chromatography for limiting nutrients, ATP quantification, and qPCR for several microbial classes of interest.

  17. Isolation, preliminary characterization and hepatoprotective activity of polysaccharides from Tamarindus indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Predeep Kumar; Dangi, Jawahar Singh

    2014-02-15

    Polysaccharide was isolated from Tamarindus indica L. (TIP) and was characterized in terms of moisture and ash content, pH, water holding capacity, particle size, tapped density, bulk density, carr's index, Hausners ratio, angle of repose, content of glucose, uronic acid and sulfate. Morphological, spectral (UV-vis, FTIR) and DSC thermal analysis reveals polysaccharide nature of the isolated starch. DPPH radical scavenging activity of TIP shows RSA comparable to that of silymarin. Hepatoprotective potential of TIP in terms of biochemical parameters, SGOT, SGPT, ALP and BRN were significantly increased (P<0.05) and reduction of serum Total protein in the group of rats given thioacetamide (100mg/kg s.c.). Histopathology reveals that TIP under antagonize the effect of thioacetamide by acting, either as membrane stabilizer, thereby preventing the distortion of the cellular ionic environment associated with thioacetamide intoxication, or by preventing interaction of thioacetamide with the transcriptional machinery of the cells.

  18. Materials Characterization of Feraheme/Ferumoxytol and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Potential for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dobson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feraheme, is a recently FDA-cleared superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION-based MRI contrast agent that is also employed in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Feraheme nanoparticles have a hydrodynamic diameter of 30 nm and consist of iron oxide crystallites complexed with a low molecular weight, semi-synthetic carbohydrate. These features are attractive for other potential biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH, since the carboxylated polymer coating affords functionalization of the particle surface and the size allows for accumulation in highly vascularized tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. This work presents morphological and magnetic characterization of Feraheme by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry. Additionally, the results of an initial evaluation of the suitability of Feraheme for MFH applications are described, and the data indicate the particles possess promising properties for this application.

  19. Preliminary fabrication and characterization of electron beam melted Ti–6Al–4V customized dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar Ramakrishnaiah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study was aimed to fabricate customized root form dental implant using additive manufacturing technique for the replacement of missing teeth. The root form dental implant was designed using Geomagic™ and Magics™, the designed implant was directly manufactured by layering technique using ARCAM A2™ electron beam melting system by employing medical grade Ti–6Al–4V alloy powder. Furthermore, the fabricated implant was characterized in terms of certain clinically important parameters such as surface microstructure, surface topography, chemical purity and internal porosity. Results confirmed that, fabrication of customized dental implants using additive rapid manufacturing technology offers an attractive method to produce extremely pure form of customized titanium dental implants, the rough and porous surface texture obtained is expected to provide better initial implant stabilization and superior osseointegration.

  20. Preliminary fabrication and characterization of electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V customized dental implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Mohammad, Ashfaq; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Kotha, Sunil Babu; Celur, Sree Lalita; Hashem, Mohamed I; Vallittu, Pekka K; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2017-05-01

    The current study was aimed to fabricate customized root form dental implant using additive manufacturing technique for the replacement of missing teeth. The root form dental implant was designed using Geomagic™ and Magics™, the designed implant was directly manufactured by layering technique using ARCAM A2™ electron beam melting system by employing medical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder. Furthermore, the fabricated implant was characterized in terms of certain clinically important parameters such as surface microstructure, surface topography, chemical purity and internal porosity. Results confirmed that, fabrication of customized dental implants using additive rapid manufacturing technology offers an attractive method to produce extremely pure form of customized titanium dental implants, the rough and porous surface texture obtained is expected to provide better initial implant stabilization and superior osseointegration.

  1. Characterization of the bacterial metagenome in an industrial algae bioenergy production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shi [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fulbright, Scott P [Colorado State University; Zeng, Xiaowei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yates, Tracy [Solix Biofuels; Wardle, Greg [Solix Biofuels; Chisholm, Stephen T [Colorado State University; Xu, Jian [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Lammers, Peter [New Mexico State University

    2011-03-16

    Cultivation of oleaginous microalgae for fuel generally requires growth of the intended species to the maximum extent supported by available light. The presence of undesired competitors, pathogens and grazers in cultivation systems will create competition for nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, iron and other micronutrients in the growth medium and potentially decrease microalgal triglyceride production by limiting microalgal health or cell density. Pathogenic bacteria may also directly impact the metabolism or survival of individual microalgal cells. Conversely, symbiotic bacteria that enhance microalgal growth may also be present in the system. Finally, the use of agricultural and municipal wastes as nutrient inputs for microalgal production systems may lead to the introduction and proliferation of human pathogens or interfere with the growth of bacteria with beneficial effects on system performance. These considerations underscore the need to understand bacterial community dynamics in microalgal production systems in order to assess microbiome effects on microalgal productivity and pathogen risks. Here we focus on the bacterial component of microalgal production systems and describe a pipeline for metagenomic characterization of bacterial diversity in industrial cultures of an oleaginous alga, Nannochloropsis salina. Environmental DNA was isolated from 12 marine algal cultures grown at Solix Biofuels, a region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, and 16S amplicons were sequenced using a 454 automated pyrosequencer. The approximately 70,000 sequences that passed quality control clustered into 53,950 unique sequences. The majority of sequences belonged to thirteen phyla. At the genus level, sequences from all samples represented 169 different genera. About 52.94% of all sequences could not be identified at the genus level and were classified at the next highest possible resolution level. Of all sequences, 79.92% corresponded to 169 genera and 70 other taxa. We

  2. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, S.M., E-mail: smarta@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lage, J. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernández, B. [Global R& D, ArcelorMittal, Avilés (Spain); Garcia, S. [Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, Av. Prof. Dr. Cavaco Silva, 33, 2740-120 Porto Salvo (Portugal); Reis, M.A.; Chaves, P.C. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    The objective of this work was to provide a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry and to identify the sources that affect PM{sub 10} levels. A total of 94 PM samples were collected in two sampling campaigns that occurred in February and June/July of 2011. PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5–10} were analyzed for a total of 22 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM{sub 10} were measured by Ion Chromatography and Indophenol-Blue Spectrophotometry. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model was used to identify sources of particulate matter and to determine their mass contribution to PM{sub 10}. Seven main groups of sources were identified: marine aerosol identified by Na and Cl (22%), steelmaking and sinter plant represented by As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn (11%), sinter plant stack identified by NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K and Pb (12%), an unidentified Br source (1.8%), secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace (19%), fugitive emissions from the handling of raw material, sinter plant and vehicles dust resuspension identified by Al, Ca, La, Si, Ti and V (14%) and sinter plant and blast furnace associated essentially with Fe and Mn (21%). - Highlights: • Emissions from steelworks are very complex. • The larger steelworks contribution to PM{sub 10} was from blast furnace and sinter plant. • Sinter plant stack emissions contributed for 12% of the PM{sub 10} mass. • Secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace contributed for 19% of the PM{sub 10}. • Fugitive dust emissions highly contribute to PM{sub 10} mass.

  3. PRELIMINARY RESEARCHES REGARDING THE GENETIC AND MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEYBEES (A. MELLIFERA L. FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA CAUIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The international investigations regarding the honeybees’ diversity carried out until now have revealed a certain degree of genetic pollution in different countries from Europe, because of the import of more productive honeybees’ races or of some interracial honeybees’ hybrids. This fact might have a negative impact on the success adaptability of honeybees at the ecosystem. Although, the Romanian honeybees (Apis mellifera carpathica are well adapted to the local conditions and express a good resistance to diseases, the introgression (genetic pollution of different honeybees’ races could be an imminent event. So that, starting from 2007, by a cooperation between the Institute for Beekeeping Research and Development from Bucharest and the Institute of Genetics of the University of Bucharest, we have initiated different investigations in order to obtain a more accurate state of the Romanian honeybees’ diversity. We have performed specific molecular analyses, using mtDNA (the COI-COII test extracted from 32 different honeybees samples collected from several regions from Romania. For a better and detailed characterization of the collected honeybee’s samples we have also carried out some morphometric measurements of their wings. Our data have shown that the Romanian population of honeybees is almost homogenous from the genetic and the morphometric points of views. These types of investigations represent a premiere for Romania.

  4. Preparation and Preliminary Characterization of Crystallizing Fluorescent Derivatives of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, John; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence is one of the most versatile and powerful tools for the study of macromolecules. While most proteins are intrinsically fluorescent, working at crystallization concentrations require the use of covalently prepared derivatives added as tracers. This approach requires derivatives that do not markedly affect the crystal packing. We have prepared fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme with probes bound to one of two different sites on the protein molecule. Lucifer yellow and 5-(2-aminoethyl)aminonapthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS) have been attached to the side chain carboxyl of Asp(sup 101) using a carbodiimide coupling procedure. Asp(sup 101) lies within the active site cleft, and it is believed that the probes are "buried" within that cleft. Lucifer yellow and MANS probes with iodoacetamide reactive groups have been bound to His(sup 15), located on the "back side" of the molecule relative to the active site. All the derivatives fluoresce in the solution and the crystalline states. Fluorescence characterization has focused on determination of binding effects on the probe quantum yield, lifetime, absorption and emission spectra, and quenching by added solutes. Quenching studies show that, as postulated, the Asp(sup 101)-bound probes are partially sheltered from the bulk solution by their location within the active site cleft. Probes bound to His(sup 15) have quenching constants about equal to those for the free probes, indicating that this site is highly exposed to the bulk solution.

  5. Preliminary studies on the chemical characterization and antioxidant properties of acidic polysaccharides from Sargassum fusiforme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing ZHOU; Nan HU; Ya-lin WU; Yuan-jiang PAN; Cui-rong SUN

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the antioxidant properties of the polysaccharides from the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme, the crude polysaccharides from S.fusiforme (SFPS) were extracted in hot water, and the lipid peroxidation inhibition assay exhibited that SFPS possessed a potential antioxidant activity. Hence, two purely polymeric fractions, SFPS-1 and SFPS-2 were isolated by the column of DEAE (2-diethylaminoethanol)-Sepharose Fast Flow, with their molecular weights of 51.4 and 30.3 kDa determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). They were preliminarily characterized using chemical analysis in combination of infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies and found to contain large amounts of uronic acids and β-glycosidical linkages. The antioxidant activities of these two SFPS fractions were evaluated using superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The results show that the antioxidant ability of SFPS-2 was higher than that of SFPS-1, probably correlating with the molecular weight and uronic acid content.

  6. Ultrasound characterization of the mastoid for detecting middle ear effusion: A preliminary clinical validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Kuo; Fang, Jui; Wan, Yung-Liang; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound detection of middle ear effusion (MEE) is an emerging technique in otolaryngology. This study proposed using ultrasound characterization of the mastoid to noninvasively measure MEE-induced mastoid effusion (ME) as a new strategy for determining the presence of MEE. In total, 53 patients were enrolled (Group I: normal, n = 20 Group II: proven MEE through both otoscopy and tympanometry, n = 15 Group III: patients with MEE having effusions observed during grommet surgery, n = 18). A 2.25-MHz delay-line transducer was used to measure backscattered signals from the mastoid. The Nakagami parameter was estimated using the acquired signals to model the echo amplitude distribution for quantifying changes in the acoustic structures of mastoid air cells. The median Nakagami parameter and interquartile range were 0.35 (0.34–0.37) for Group I, 0.39 (0.37–0.41) for Group II, and 0.43 (0.39–0.51) for Group III. The echo amplitude distribution observed for patients with MEE was closer to Rayleigh distribution than that without MEE. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis further revealed that the area under the ROC was 0.88, sensitivity was 72.73%, specificity was 95%, and accuracy was 81.13%. The proposed method has considerable potential for noninvasive and comfortable evaluation of MEE.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a lectin from Cicer arietinum (chickpea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katre, Uma V.; Gaikwad, S. M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Bhagyawant, S. S.; Deshpande, U. D. [School of Life Sciences, S. R. T. M. University, Nanded 431606 (India); Khan, M. I.; Suresh, C. G., E-mail: suresh@ems.ncl.res.in [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization and characterization of a lectin isolated and purified from C. arietinum and possessing complex sugar specificity is reported. The lectin isolated from mature seeds of Cicer arietinum (CAL) agglutinates pronase-treated rabbit and human erythrocytes and its haemagglutination activity is inhibited by fetuin and desialated fetuin but not by simple monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. The purified lectin is a dimer of molecular weight 43 000 Da composed of two identical subunits (MW 21 500), as confirmed by SDS–PAGE. The lectin has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K over a well solution containing 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.5 and 14%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000. The triangular prism-shaped crystals belong to space group R3 and have unit-cell parameters a = b = 81.2, c = 69.4 Å. The diffraction data are 93.8% complete to 2.3 Å Bragg spacing with an R{sub merge} of 0.103.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of production and characterization of wood vinegar from rubberwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraivan Ratanapisit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a slow pyrolysis of rubberwood in a furnace at an atmospheric pressure to produce pyroligneous liquid or wood vinegar. Pyroligneous liquids produced were separated into two fractions based on temperatures in a furnace. The yields of wood vinegar were quantified. Also pH, SG and boiling ranges were determined. The optimum condition of pyrolysis was obtained at the heating rate of 1.4oC/min to the final temperature at 550oC/min with a yield of 27.45%. The pH and specific gravity were attained at about 2.9-3.83 and 1.009-1.027, respectively, depend on process conditions. Also the boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar approximately were 96-108oC based on the ASTM-D86 method. However, no significantlychanges were seen in the pH, specific gravity and boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar regarding to hearting rates. For characterization, wood vinegar was fractionated by a distillation into three fractions. Both crude and distilled wood vinegars were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Results showed that the wood vinegar is mainly composed of acetic acid. Also the rubberwood pyrolysis yields high methanol content compared to other woods.

  9. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Imaging Spectropolarimeter for the Multi-Application Solar Telescope at Udaipur Solar Observatory: Characterization of Polarimeter and Preliminary Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Alok Ranjan; Mathew, Shibu K.; Bayanna, A. Raja; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Yadav, Rahul

    2017-04-01

    The Multi-Application Solar Telescope (MAST) is a 50 cm off-axis Gregorian telescope that has recently become operational at the Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO). An imaging spectropolarimeter is being developed as one of the back-end instruments of MAST to gain a better understanding of the evolution and dynamics of solar magnetic and velocity fields. This system consists of a narrow-band filter and a polarimeter. The polarimeter includes a linear polarizer and two sets of liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVRs). The instrument is intended for simultaneous observations in the spectral lines 6173 Å and 8542 Å, which are formed in the photosphere and chromosphere, respectively. In this article, we present results from the characterization of the LCVRs for the spectral lines of interest and the response matrix of the polarimeter. We also present preliminary observations of an active region obtained using the spectropolarimeter. For verification purposes, we compare the Stokes observations of the active region obtained from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with that of MAST observations in the spectral line 6173 Å. We find good agreement between the two observations, considering the fact that MAST observations are limited by seeing.

  11. Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and Evaluation of in Vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Mentha piperita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP. The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I, and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  12. α-Tocopherol/chitosan-based nanoparticles: characterization and preliminary investigations for emulsion systems application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira

    2014-02-01

    The processes of lipids oxidation represent a great concern for the consumer health because they are one of the major causes of quality deterioration in fat-containing products. One of the most effective methods of delaying lipid oxidation consists in incorporating antioxidants. The present investigation describes the formulation of chitosan and novel glycol chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with α-Tocopherol (αToc-NPs). The obtained NPs were characterized by various techniques, such as particle size (showing mean diameters in the range 335-503 nm) and zeta potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were, then, added in the preparation of oil-in-water simple emulsion both to make the lipophilic αToc available in an aqueous medium and to prevent emulsion oxidation. For this purpose, a new highly sensitive, simple and solvent-free method based on a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of αToc in aqueous medium. All the parameters influencing SPME, including fiber coating, time and temperature extraction, pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions, have been carefully screened. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin in the αToc-NPs and its release from NPs-enriched simple emulsion formulations. SPME provided high recovery yields and the limits of detection and of quantification in emulsion were 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mg, respectively. The precision of the method has been also estimated. The delay of the lipid oxidation by the proposed formulations has been evaluated exploiting the Kreis test on αToc-NPs-enriched emulsions.

  13. AS30D Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Tumorigenicity and Preliminary Characterization by Imaging, Histopathology, and Immunohistochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Scott M. [Mayo Clinic, Medical Scientist Training Program (United States); Callstrom, Matthew R. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Knudsen, Bruce [Mayo Clinic, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (United States); Anderson, Jill L. [Mayo Clinic, Division of Physiology and Bioengineering (United States); Butters, Kim A.; Grande, Joseph P. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (United States); Roberts, Lewis R. [Mayo Clinic, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (United States); Woodrum, David A., E-mail: woodrum.david@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-02-15

    This study was designed to determine the tumorigenicity of the AS30D HCC cell line following orthotopic injection into rat liver and preliminarily characterize the tumor model by both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) as well as histopathology and immunohistochemistry.MaterialsAS30D cell line in vitro proliferation was assessed by using MTT assay. Female rats (N = 5) underwent injection of the AS30D cell line into one site in the liver. Rats subsequently underwent MR imaging at days 7 and 14 to assess tumor establishment and volume. One rat underwent US of the liver at day 7. Rats were euthanized at day 7 or 14 and livers were subjected to gross, histopathologic (H and E), and immunohistochemical (CD31) analysis to assess for tumor growth and neovascularization. AS30D cell line demonstrated an in vitro doubling time of 33.2 {+-} 5.3 h. MR imaging demonstrated hyperintense T2-weighted and hypointense T1-weighted lesions with tumor induction in five of five and three of three sites at days 7 and 14, respectively. The mean (SD) tumor volume was 126.1 {+-} 36.2 mm{sup 3} at day 7 (N = 5). US of the liver demonstrated a well-circumscribed, hypoechoic mass and comparison of tumor dimensions agreed well with MRI. Analysis of H and E- and CD31-stained sections demonstrated moderate-high grade epithelial tumors with minimal tumor necrosis and evidence of diffuse intratumoral and peritumoral neovascularization by day 7. AS30D HCC cell line is tumorigenic following orthotopic injection into rat liver and can be used to generate an early vascularizing, slower-growing rat HCC tumor model.

  14. Glutamine-Loaded Liposomes: Preliminary Investigation, Characterization, and Evaluation of Neutrophil Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Larissa Chaves; Souza, Bárbara Nayane Rosário Fernandes; Almeida, Fábio Fidélis; Lagranha, Cláudia Jacques; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Lira-Nogueira, Mariane Cajubá de Britto

    2016-04-01

    Glutamine has received attention due to its ability to ameliorate the immune system response. Once conventional liposomes are readily recognized and captured by immune system cells, the encapsulation of glutamine into those nanosystems could be an alternative to reduce glutamine dosage and target then to neutrophils. Our goals were to nanoencapsulate glutamine into conventional liposomes (Gln-L), develop an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for its quantification, and evaluate the viability of neutrophils treated with Gln-L. Liposomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration technique followed by sonication and characterized according to pH, mean size, zeta potential, and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE%). We also aimed to study the effect of liposomal constituent concentrations on liposomal characteristics. The viability of neutrophils was assessed using flow cytometry after intraperitoneal administration of free glutamine (Gln), Gln-L, unloaded-liposome (UL), and saline solution as control (C) in healthy Wistar rats. The selected liposomal formulation had a mean vesicle size of 114.65 ± 1.82 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.30 ± 0.00, a positive surface charge of 36.30 ± 1.38 mV, and an EE% of 39.49 ± 0.74%. The developed chromatographic method was efficient for the quantification of encapsulated glutamine, with a retention time at 3.8 min. A greater viability was observed in the group treated with glutamine encapsulated compared to the control group (17%), although neutrophils remain viable in all groups. Thus, glutamine encapsulated into liposomes was able to increase the number of viable neutrophils at low doses, thereby representing a promising strategy for the treatment of immunodeficiency conditions.

  15. Palm Olein as Renewable Raw Materials for Industrial and Pharmaceutical Products Applications: Chemical Characterization and Physicochemical Properties Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darfizzi Derawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm olein (POo is widely produced as edible oil in tropical countries. POo is considered as renewable raw material for the new industrial and pharmaceutical products synthesis based on its characterization. Palm olein was good on its viscosity index, oxidative stability, and flash and fire point. POo contained unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs: POO (33.3%; POP (29.6% which plays an important role in chemical modification process to produce new industrial products. The double bond was detected on 1H-NMR (5.3 ppm and 13C-NMR (130 ppm spectra. The chemical compositions of POo were tested by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography (GC techniques. This unsaturated oil is potentially to be used as renewable raw materials in chemical modification process to synthesise polyols, polyurethane, and biolubricant for industrial and pharmaceutical products application.

  16. MODFLOW 2000 and MT3DMS models of potentiometric head and trichloroethene concentration at the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This model is a preliminary characterization of trichloroethene transport in the surficial and Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer systems at the Naval Industrial Reserve...

  17. Characterization of Industrial Wastewater Sludge in Oman from Three Different Regions and Recommendations for Alternate Re¬use Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahad S. BAAWAIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Domestic and industrial wastewaters are mostly treated by biological process such as activated sludge, aerobic pond, and anaerobic treatment. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of sewage sludge in the Sultanate of Oman chosen from three industrial sewage treatment plants (STPs: Rusayl Industrial Estate (RSL.IE; Sohar Industrial Estate (SIE; and Raysut Industrial Estate (RIE.Methods: Samples of recycled activated sludge (RAS and wasted activated sludge (WAS were collected over a period of 12 months across above mentioned STPs. Parameters analyzed are electrical conductivity (EC, potential of hydrogen (pH, cations, anions and volatile content (VC.Results: The obtained values for pH and EC were low for both RAS and WAS samples, except EC values of RIE that was more than 1000 µS/cm. The range of VC percentages in RAS and WAS samples were 44 to 86% and 41 to 77%, respectively. The measured values for chloride, sulfate, nitrate and phosphate were higher than the other anions.Conclusion: The average values of the cations in RAS and WAS samples were within the Omani Standards, suitable for the re-use of sludge in agriculture except for Cd in RSL.IE. The study recommends that a regular maintenance should be performed at the studied STPs to prevent any accumulation of some harmful substances, which may affect the sludge quality, and the sludge drying beds should be large enough to handle the produced sludge for better management. Keywords: Industrial Wastewater sludge, Characterization, Analysis, physicochemical, Heavy metals, Sultanate of Oman

  18. Preliminary formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles containing chloroquine and a P-glycoprotein inhibitor: Influences of lipid-surfactant ratios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nzekwe, IT

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(2): 932-939 Preliminary formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles containing chloroquine and a P-glycoprotein inhibitor: Influences of lipid-surfactant ratios Ifeanyi T. Nzekwea...*, Valentine I. Azodoa , Chukwuma O. Agubatab , Brendon Naickerc , Vincent Okored and Charles O. Esimonee aDepartment of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria bDepartment of Pharmaceutical...

  19. Prevalence and Characterization of Listeria Species in Domestic and Industrial Cheeses of Isfahan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani-Zadeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Listeria monocytogenes is of major concern to the food industry in general and the dairy industry in particular. Little is known about incidence of this pathogenic bacterium in dairy products in Iran.Methods: A survey was made from 23 September 2006 to 22 June 2007 for Listeria species in ninety samples of tradi­tional and industrial cheeses, in milk and surface where the cheeses were manufactured from unpasteurized raw milk in the province of Isfahan (Iran.Results: Listeria murrayi, L. grayi and L. ivanovii, were detected in nine traditional cheeses and one raw milk sample. None of the different Listeria species were isolated from the industrial cheeses and their environment.Conclusion: There are almost good hygienic conditions in domestic cheese manufacturing farmhouses in Isfahan area, but we should try to improve hygienic levels until we have none of the Listeria spp. in our samples.

  20. Preliminary characterization in the development of the nano composite low density polyethylene with attapulgite clay; Caracterizacao preliminar no desenvolvimento de nanocompositos polietileno de baixa densidade/argila atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Luanda G.; Rego, Jose K.M.A. do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, PPGCEM/UFRN, Natal, RN (Brazil); Ito, Edson N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Depto de Engenharia de Materiais, DEMat/UFRN, Natal, RN(Brazil); Acchar, Wilson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Depto de Fisica, DF/UFRN, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was a preliminary study of the physical, thermal and rheological properties of the materials to be used in the development of nano composite low density polyethylene (LDPE) with Brazilian attapulgite clay (ATP), with and without the use of a compatibilizing agent interfacial, polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and torque rheometry. The materials were characterized and potentially could be developed polymeric nano composites with technological applications using attapulgite fibers in the nanometer scale. (author)

  1. Electricity Production and Characterization of High-Strength Industrial Wastewaters in Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Afsin Y; Ozdemir, Oguz Kaan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestami

    2016-11-23

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert electrochemical energy into electrical energy immediately and have a big potential usage for the same time wastewater treatment and energy recovery via electro-active microorganisms. However, MFCs must be efficiently optimized due to its limitations such as high cost and low power production. Finding new materials to increase the cell performance and reduce cost for MFC anodes is mandatory. In the first step of this study, different inoculation sludges such as anaerobic gum industry wastewater, anaerobic brewery wastewater and anaerobic phosphate were tested, and MFC that was set up with anaerobic gum industry wastewater inoculation sludge exhibited the highest performance. In the second step of this study, various wastewaters such as chocolate industry, gum industry and slaughterhouse industry were investigated for anode bacteria sources. Several electrochemical techniques have been employed to elucidate how wastewaters affect the MFCs' performance. Among all the mentioned wastewaters, the best performance was achieved by the MFCs fed with slaughterhouse wastewater; this device produced a maximum power density of 267 mW·m(-2).

  2. Optical characterization method for very small microlenses (sub-50 micron) for industrial mass-production applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myun-Sik; Sunarjo, Jonathan; Weible, Kenneth J.; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    We present several characterization techniques, which are suitable for small-size microlenses of lens diameters down to 5 μm. For an individual microlens, we apply full characterization for optical performance and surface characteristics. First, the optical performance is characterized by using a high-resolution interference microscope (HRIM). Second, a confocal microscope is applied to investigate the surface parameters. Third, the HRIM allows scanning the microlens array along the optical axis by using a piezo actuator. This leads to a measurement of the 3D intensity distribution near the focus of the lens. Such 3D intensity maps allow us to characterize the focal properties of each lens in an array. By studying those characterization techniques, we develop a new method to characterize a large number of microlenses, for instance, over one million lenses, which is already applied to wafer-based manufacturing in a cleanroom fab.

  3. Oxygen-limited cellobiose fermentation and the characterization of the cellobiase of an industrial Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Alexandre Libanio Silva; de Fátima Rodrigues de Souza, Raquel; Baptista Torres, Rochane Regina Neves; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Vidal, Esteban Espinosa; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of a novel yeast with a natural capacity to produce ethanol from lignocellulosic substrates (second-generation ethanol) is of great significance for bioethanol technology. While there are some yeast strains capable of assimilating cellobiose in aerobic laboratory conditions, the predominant sugar in the treatment of lignocellulosic material, little is known about this ability in real industrial conditions. Fermentations designed to simulate industrial conditions were conducted in synthetic medium with glucose, sucrose, cellobiose and hydrolyzed pre-treated cane bagasse as a different carbon source, with the aim of further characterizing the fermentation capacity of a promising Dekkera bruxellensis yeast strain, isolated from the bioethanol process in Brazil. As a result, it was found (for the first time in oxygen-limiting conditions) that the strain Dekkera bruxellensis GDB 248 could produce ethanol from cellobiose. Moreover, it was corroborated that the cellobiase activity characterizes the enzyme candidate in semi-purified extracts (β-glucosidase). In addition, it was demonstrated that GDB 248 strain had the capacity to produce a higher acetic acid concentration than ethanol and glycerol, which confirms the absence of the Custer effect with this strain in oxygen-limiting conditions. Moreover, it is also being suggested that D. bruxellensis could benefit Saccharomyces cerevisiae and outcompete it in the industrial environment. In this way, it was confirmed that D. bruxellensis GDB 248 has the potential to produce ethanol from cellobiose, and is a promising strain for the fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates.

  4. Engineering industrial oil biosynthesis: cloning and characterization of Kennedy pathway acyltransferases from novel oilseed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    For more than twenty years, various industrial, governmental, and academic laboratories have developed and refined genetic engineering strategies aimed at manipulating lipid metabolism in plants and microbes. The goal of these projects is to produce renewable specialized oils that can effectively c...

  5. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume. The material (Eucalyptus grandis wood and industrial residues - recycled pallets and sawdust was supplied by Eucatex S. A. Ind. e Com. located in Botucatu - Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where the panels had been manufactured in Eucatex plant. Physical tests were carried out at the Process Laboratories of Eucatex and in the Materials Testing Laboratory, Rural Engineering Department of the College of Agronomic Sciences - Sao Paulo State University - UNESP. Results revealed that panels had very good physical performance, attending, in general, to all the technical specifications established by the product standards, even in the treatments with higher addition of residues. The final moisture content of the panel presented effect in the properties studied with general trend of reduction in water absorption and swelling in thickness when the moisture content increased from 9% for 12,5%.

  6. Verification of a characterization method of the laser-induced selective activation based on industrial lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser-induced selective activation (LISA) for subsequent autocatalytic copper plating is performed by several types of industrial scale lasers, including a Nd:YAG laser, a UV laser, a fiber laser, a green laser, and a short pulsed laser. Based on analysis of all the laser-machine...

  7. Impact to groundwater resources by landfill foundry industries waste in Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. A preliminary study; Impacto al recurso hidrico subterraneo por vertedero de residuos de industrias de fundicion en Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Un estudio preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R. E.; Ruiz de Galarreta, V. A.; Banda Noriega, R. B.

    2009-07-01

    In Tandil city, in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, the foundry industry is one of the most important production lines. The waste generated by these industries has historically been disposed as fill material in pit quarries and brick works of the likelihood that some of his constituents leach contacting the underground water resources. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminaries results hydrochemical and hydrodynamic study conducted in a landfill of waste foundry industries. The work is around developing a disposal site with the measurement of groundwater levels and taking water samples along an annual hydrological cycle (November 2007 - November 2008). The hydrodynamic analysis shows that the groundwater flow is from the west from a rocky area where high variance across the study area. Hydrochemistry in relation to concentrations of nitrate and electrical conductivity vary significantly upstream and downstream of the landfill. (Author) 9 refs.

  8. Final report for the Iowa Livestock Industry Waste Characterization and Methane Recovery Information Dissemination Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, M.V.; Richard, Thomas L

    2001-11-13

    This report summarizes analytical methods, characterizes Iowa livestock wastes, determines fossil fuel displacement by methane use, assesses the market potential, and offers recommendations for the implementation of methane recovery technologies.

  9. Characterization of membrane foulants at ambient temperature anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating low-strength industrial wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarebska, Agata; Kjerstadius, Hamse; Petrinic, Irena

    2016-01-01

    with anaerobic biological treatment at low temperature could not only reduce the operational cost of AD, but also alleviate environmental problems. However, at low temperature the AnMBR may suffer more fouling due to the increased extracellular polymeric substances production excreted by bacteria hampering......The large volume of industrial low-strength wastewaters has a potential for biogas production through conventional anaerobic digestion (AD), limited though by the need of heating and concentrating of the wastewaters. The use of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) combining membrane filtration...... the application of the process for the industrial wastewater treatment. In order to solve or reduce the fouling problem it is necessary to have a good insight into the processes that take place both on and in the membrane pores during filtration. Therefore, the objective of this study is to contribute to a better...

  10. Characterization of the chromium retention potential of non polluted aquifer solids in an industrial site

    OpenAIRE

    Reynal, Caroline; Kedziorek, Monika A.M.; Rollin, Claire; Bourg, Alain.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    National audience; A hydrogeochemical study of an industrial site where sulfuric acid and copper sulfate ("bouillie bordelaise") are manufactured showed that the phreatic aquifer is contaminated by copper, sulfate, chromium, arsenic and has an acid pH Field observations and laboratory experiments, both necessary if we are to understand the processes controlling tranfers at the solid-liquid interface, were used to investigate the behaviour of chromium. In the field, monitoring the mixing of po...

  11. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd), P.O. Box 27420, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co–Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10–15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC–Co materials.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ECO-FRIENDLY CONCRETE USING INDUSTRIAL WASTE – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present in India, about 960 million metric tons of solid was te is being generated annually as byproducts during industrial, mining, municipal, agricultural and other processes. Advances in solid waste management resulted in alter native construction materials as a substitute to traditional materials like bricks, blocks, tiles, aggregates, ceramics, cement, lime, soil, timber and paint. To safeguard th e environment, efforts are being made for recycling different wastes and to utilize th em in value added applications. The cement industries have been making significan t progress in reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 emissions through improvements in process technology and enhancements in process efficiency, but further improvements ar e limited because CO 2 production is inherent to the basic process of calcinations of limestone. In the past two decades, various investigations have been conducted on industri al wastes like flyash, blast furnace slag, Silica fume, rice husks and other industria l waste materials to act as cement replacements .This paper consist of a review extensively conducted on publications related to utilization of waste materials as cemen t replacement with an intention to develop a process so as to produce an eco-friendly concrete having similar or higher strength and thus simultaneously providing a remedy t o environmental hazards resulting from waste material disposal.

  13. New insides in the characterization of HDS industrial catalysts by HAADF-STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Angel, Paz; Ponce, Arturo; Arellano, Josefina; Yacaman, Miguel J.; Hernandez-Pichardo, Martha; Montoya, J. Ascencion; Escobar, Jose

    2015-03-01

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts are of great importance in the petroleum industry. Transition metal sulphides catalysts of Ni(Co)Mo(W)/Al2O3 are widely used for hydrotreating reactions, like hydrodenitrogenation and HDS. One of the main issue in these catalysts is to understand the mechanism of the reaction, where MoS2 plays the most important role in the catalytic activity. We studied an industrial NiMo/Alumina sulfide catalyst highly active by using aberration-corrected HAADF-STEM techniques. The used catalysts was a state-of- the art commercial nickel-molybdenum alumina-supported formulation, including organic agent modifier. This type of material belongs to a novel family of catalysts specially designed for ultra-low sulfur production from straight-run gas oil (SRGO), cycle oil, coker gas oil, or their combinations at operating conditions of commercial interest in hydrotreating units at industrial scale. Aberration corrected HAADF-STEM allowed to observe the nanostructure and location of MoS2 and his interaction with the alumina. The results indicate that the MoS2 is highly dispersed on the alumina, however the location of Ni is one of the task of this kind of catalyst.

  14. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemantle, C. S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co-Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10-15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC-Co materials.

  15. 三角帆蚌蛋白多糖基本特征%Preliminary Characterization of Proteoglycan from Hyriopsis cumingii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔德亮; 王琳; 刘俊; 孙怡; 叶红; 曾晓雄

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究三角帆蚌蛋白多糖的基本特征.方法:运用分光光度比色法测量多糖和蛋白质含量,傅立叶变换红外光谱分析官能基团,高效液相色谱法测量相对分子质量和氨基酸组成,气相色谱测量单糖组成,β-消除反应测量糖肽键连接方式.结果:三角帆蚌蛋白多糖中,多糖和蛋白质的含量分别是80.06%和9.42%,傅立叶变换红外光谱显示多糖和蛋白质的特征吸收峰,蛋白多糖的相对分子质量为503.1 kDa,多糖由鼠李糖、岩藻糖、甘露糖、葡萄糖和半乳糖(分子摩尔比为13.80∶4.51∶7.70∶ 64.92∶9.07)组成,蛋白质部分检测出14种氨基酸(13种已知和1种未知),肽链与多糖链的连接方式为O-型糖肽键.结论:三角帆蚌蛋白多糖的基本特征已初步了解.%Objective:To study the preliminary characterizations of Hyriopsis cumingii proteoglycan (HCPG).Methods:The content of carbohydrate and protein were measured by spectrophotometry.FTIR spectrum was used to analyze the functional groups.Relative molecular mass and amino acid composition were detected by HPLC.GC was utilized to determine the monosaccharide composition.The glycopeptide linkage-bond was detected by using the method ofβ-elimination reaction.Results:In HCPG,the content of carbohydrate and protein was 80.06% and 9.42%,respectively.FTIR spectrum showed the characteristic absorptions of polysaccharides and protein.Relative molecular mass of HCPG,determined by size-exclusive HPLC,was 503.1 kDa.GC spectra demonstrated that polysaccharide of HCPG was composed of rhamnose,fucose,mannose,glucose and galactose with a molar ratio of 13.80∶ 4.51∶ 7.70∶ 64.92∶ 9.07.Fourteen amino acids (13 known and one unknown) have been detected by pre-column derivation HPLC.From β-elimination reaction,peptide chain was attached to the carbohydrate chain by O-glycosidic bond.Conclusion:Basic characterizations of HCPG have been determined preliminarily.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisacchi, Davide [Bioinformatics and Structural Proteomics, IST-National Cancer Research Institute, Genova (Italy); Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Bordo, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.bordo@istge.it [Bioinformatics and Structural Proteomics, IST-National Cancer Research Institute, Genova (Italy)

    2006-10-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3{sub 1}21/P3{sub 2}21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å.

  17. Extracellular synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide nanoparticles from Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 towards bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyavathi, S; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a nickel resistant bacterium MRS-1 was isolated from nickel electroplating industrial effluent, capable of converting soluble NiSO4 into insoluble NiO nanoparticles and identified as Microbacterium sp. The formation of NiO nanoparticles in the form of pale green powder was observed on the bottom of the flask upon prolonged incubation of liquid nutrient medium containing high concentration of 2000ppm NiSO4. The properties of the produced NiO nanoparticles were characterized. NiO nanoparticles exhibited a maximum absorbance at 400nm. The NiO nanoparticles were 100-500nm in size with unique flower like structure. The elemental composition of the NiO nanoparticles was 44:39. The cells of MRS-1 were utilized for the treatment of nickel electroplating industrial effluent and showed nickel removal efficiency of 95%. Application of Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 would be a potential bacterium for bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial waste water and simultaneous synthesis of NiO nanoparticles.

  18. Characterization of mono-ethylene-glycol based industrial polyurethanes samples by fast-neutron radiography and neutron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogante, Massimo; Söllradl, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    A complicated structural organization of polyurethanes may have a strong influence on the materials functional properties. Under particular conditions such as mechanical and thermal loading and aging, it leads to the material degradation, even in fresh-prepared bulk polymers and especially if defects are present in the material. Unwanted bubbles can be observed, which form during the expansion of the mixture during its chemical reaction and remain present in the final product. These macro-, micro- and nano-bubbles influence the material's performance. In this work, neutron radiography and tomography have been adopted to characterize at a macro-scale level the bulk of commercially available polyurethane samples, obtained from dissimilar- mixture ratios with different densities and branching levels as well as from different zones of the production mould. The characterisation allowed an estimation of the different dense materials - as they are used, e.g., in soles of shoes - as well as the invisible defects like pores and cracks, responsible for the materials fracture by mechanical loading. The obtained information are expected to be useful for various industrial sectors such as automotive and footwear industry. It will be completed by applying SANS, which has already proved to characterize the microstructure of the bulk-polymer with respect to nano-pores, micro-cracks and their arrangement in the polymer matrix.

  19. Characterization by Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Peruvian Obsidians for Provenance Studies: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, A.; Montoya, J.; Delgado, M.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Rossi, A. M.; Poupeau, G.

    2003-06-01

    The identification of geological sources of obsidians collected in archaeological sites provides important information about circulation routes and sociocultural relationships during prehistoric periods. This paper presents the preliminary results obtained by MS and EPR on geological obsidians from Ayacucho and Arequipa, in Peru and on archaeological obsidian artifacts from Cerrillos, an early Paracas site of the upper Ica valley, south of Lima (Peru).

  20. Characterization by Moessbauer Spectroscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Peruvian Obsidians for Provenance Studies: A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, A.; Montoya, J. [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Delgado, M. [QALLTA (Peru); Scorzelli, R. B.; Rossi, A. M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (Brazil); Poupeau, G. [Institut de Recherche sur les Archeomateriaux, UMR 5060, CNRS/Universite Bordeaux 3, Maison de l' Archeologie, Esplanade des Antilles (France)

    2003-06-15

    The identification of geological sources of obsidians collected in archaeological sites provides important information about circulation routes and sociocultural relationships during prehistoric periods. This paper presents the preliminary results obtained by MS and EPR on geological obsidians from Ayacucho and Arequipa, in Peru and on archaeological obsidian artifacts from Cerrillos, an early Paracas site of the upper Ica valley, south of Lima (Peru).

  1. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 2, Figures [and] Volume 3, Technical Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1991-05-31

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history.

  2. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 2, Figures [and] Volume 3, Technical Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1991-05-31

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history.

  3. Design, development and metrological characterization of a low capacity precision industrial force transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harish; Sharma, Chitra; Kumar, Anil; Arora, P K; Kumar, S

    2015-09-01

    The paper discusses the development of the ring shaped force transducers for measurement of force in lower capacity to meet the industrial requirements with the increasing technological developments. A 50 N ring shaped force transducer for tension mode has been developed by studying the analytical and computational methods. The force transducer developed has been metrologically studied according to the calibration procedure based on the standard ISO 376 and uncertainty of measurement of the force transducer is found to be±0.10% (k=2), while taking into account the relative uncertainty contribution due to necessary factors like repeatability, reproducibility, zero offset, interpolation, resolution and reversibility. The force transducer developed may further be studied for improvement of metrological performance and may suitably be developed for other lower capacities like 10 N, 20 N etc. The force transducer developed offers very economical alternative of complex shaped force transducers with simple design and manufacturing features. The force transducer developed may be proved very helpful in providing traceability to the user industries and calibration laboratories in the lower range of force measurement and serve as force transfer standard.

  4. Characterization of the contaminant bacterial communities in sugarcane first-generation industrial ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatelli, Maria L; Quecine, Maria C; Silva, Mariana S; Labate, Carlos A

    2017-09-15

    The industrial ethanolic fermentation process is operated in distilleries, either in fed-batch or continuous mode. A consequence of the large industrial ethanol production is bacterial contamination in the fermentation tanks, which is responsible for significant economic losses. To investigate this community, we accessed the profile of bacterial contaminant from two distilleries in Brazil, each operating a different fermentation mode, throughout sugarcane harvest of 2013-2014. Bacterial communities were accessed through Illumina culture-independent 16S rDNA gene sequencing, and qPCR was used to quantify total bacteria abundance. Both ethanol production modes showed similar bacterial abundance, around 105 gene copies/mL. 16S rDNA sequencing showed that 92%-99% of the sequences affiliated to Lactobacillus genus. Operational taxonomic units differently represented belonged mainly to Lactobacillus, but also to Weissella, Pediococcus, Acetobacter and Anaeosporobacter, although in lower abundance. Alpha-diversity only showed a correlation through the fermentation tanks in continuous mode, where it was always higher in the second and third tanks. Beta-diversity clearly separated the two distilleries and metagenome prediction reinforces clusterization within distilleries. Despite certain variations between bacterial community in the distilleries throughout harvest season, Lactobacillus were the main genera reported in both distilleries and bacterial community seemed to persist along time, suggesting bacterial reinfestation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Characterization and thermal behaviour of textile waste from the industrial city of Aleppo in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majanny, Abdulkader; Nassour, Abdallah; Gose, Sven; Scholz, Reinhard; Nelles, Michael

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the present waste management practices in the industrial city Alsheikh Najjar of Aleppo, mainly with regard to textile waste materials, and provides some insights into future prospects. As a first exploration for energy recovery from textile waste materials, the thermal behaviour of seven different types of textile waste were studied by thermogravimetry. There were assorted differential thermogravimetry peaks found over a particular range of temperatures. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out to identify the pyrolysis products such as gas, liquid, and solid residues known as char. In a subsequent analysis, the combustion behaviour of textile waste was determined and analysed. Typical parameters - reaction front velocity, ignition rate - were considered for the evaluation of the combustion behaviour and the results were compared with values observed for waste wood.

  6. Industrial-hygiene characterization of ethylene oxide exposures of hospital and nursing-home workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringenburg, V.L.; Elliott, L.J.; Morelli-Schroth, P.; Molina, D.

    1986-12-01

    Industrial-hygiene surveys were conducted at 12 hospitals and one nursing home to determine possible employee exposure to ethylene oxide (EtO). Different types of exposure situations existed at each of the facilities as a result of various engineering controls, administrative controls and work practices. Sampling indicated that the time-weighted averages (TWAs) of exposure over periods of 36 to 724 minutes ranged from below the limit of detection to 6.7 parts per million (ppm). Personal short-term exposure levels covering 2 to 30 minutes ranged from less than the limit of detection to 103.2ppm. Factors found to be responsible for these higher-than-permissible levels of EtO exposure included improper installation or lack of engineering controls (such as improper placement of the sterilizing operations), unbalanced ventilation systems, and lack of administrative controls resulting in inappropriate work practices.

  7. Molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from industrially fermented Greek table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Doulgeraki, Agapi; Pramateftaki, Paraskevi; Argyri, Anthoula; Nychas, George John; Tassou, Chrysoula; Panagou, Efstathios

    2012-01-01

    A total of 145 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates have been recovered from fermented table olives and brine and characterized at strain level with molecular tools. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) of ApaI macrorestriction fragments was applied for strain differentiation. Species differentiation was based either on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) (black olives) or on restriction analysis of the amplified 16S rRNA gene (PCR-ARDRA) (brine and green olives). Species ide...

  8. Characterization and transformation of an industrial by-product (coated paper sludge into a pozzolanic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San José, J. T.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effective re-use of industrial by-products calls for an understanding of their chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics. The by-product used in this study was coated paper industry sludge from a plant whose sole prime material is recycled paper. Due to its high organic and calcium carbonate content and the presence of several clayey materials such as talc and kaolinite, incineration conditions had a significant effect on the mineralogy of such sludge. The present study examined the impact of such conditions on the pozzolanic properties of coated paper sludge. Several temperature intervals ranging from 600 to 750 ºC were studied to determine the conditions yielding the most promising pozzolanic properties.La necesidad de dar un correcto uso a los subproductos industriales requiere del conocimiento de sus características, tanto desde un punto de vista químico como mineralógico y físico. El subproducto utilizado para esta investigación es un lodo de papel estucado procedente de la industria papelera, la cual usa como materias primas un 100% de material reciclado. Debido al alto contenido de materia orgánica y carbonato cálcico y a la presencia de diferentes materiales arcillosos, como el talco y la caolinita, las condiciones de calcinación presentan un papel principal en la mineralogía de este lodo. En el actual trabajo se considera el papel que juegan estas condiciones, tiempo y permanencia en horno, en las propiedades puzolánicas del lodo de papel estucado como material cementante. Por esta razón, se estudiaron diferentes intervalos de temperatura, entre 600 y 750 ºC y 2 horas de permanencia en horno con el objetivo de obtener las mejores propiedades puzolánicas.

  9. Characterization of endo-β-mannanase from Enterobacter ludwigii MY271 and application in pulp industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miao; Cai, Jun; Wang, Changgao; Du, Xin; Lin, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    β-Mannanases are the second most important enzymes for the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. An endo-β-mannanase from Enterobacter ludwigii MY271 was purified at 11.7 ± 0.2-fold to homogeneity with a final recovery of 15.2 ± 0.2 %. Using purified β-mannanase protein and SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass was found to be 43.16 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme was found to be 7.0 and 55 °C, respectively. The β-mannanase activity was stable over a broad pH range of pH 2.0-10.0. In addition, the purified enzyme was highly activated by several metal ions and chemical reagents, such as Mg(2+), L-cysteine, glutathione (GSH) and β-mercaptoethanol. Whereas the enzyme was strongly inhibited by Hg(2+), Cu(2+), N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-amino-propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC), phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The β-mannanase was highly active towards glucomannan, and showed endo-activity by producing a mixture of oligosaccharides. Moreover, the enzyme displayed a classical endo-type mode on mannooligosaccharides. The β-mannanase coupled with xylanase significantly improved the brightness of kraft pulp, whereas it has no remarkable effect on the tensile strength of the pulp. Our functional studies of the purified β-mannanase indicate that the enzyme is beneficial to industrial applications, in particular, biotechnological processes, such as food, feed and pulp industry.

  10. Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2009-05-15

    To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process.

  12. Preliminary mapping of surficial geology of Midway Valley Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Swan, F.H.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The tectonics program for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada must evaluate the potential for surface faulting beneath the prospective surface facilities. To help meet this goal, Quaternary surficial mapping studies and photolineament analyses were conducted to provide data for evaluating the location, recency, and style of faulting with Midway Valley at the eastern base of Yucca Mountain, the preferred location of these surface facilities. This interim report presents the preliminary results of this work.

  13. Developmemt, characterization, production, and demonstration of nanofluids for industrial cooling applications. Quarterly report #7.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routbort, J.; Singh, D.; Timofeeva, E.; Yu, W.; France, D.

    2010-07-30

    Pumping power measurements have been made on a series of 40-nm boehmite (AlOOH) alumina ''bricks'' (2 - 8 vol. percent in water). The alumina nanoparticles were obtained from Sasol and are designated as ''Catapal-200''. The pH of all compositions was adjusted to 3.2{+-}0.5. A complete characterization of the particles and their nanofluid thermal properties has been published in Journal of Applied Physics 106, 014304 (2009). While the nanofluid doesn't show large enhancements, it nevertheless serves as good comparisons between the experimental results and calculated results.

  14. Modeling and preliminary characterization of passive, wireless temperature sensors for harsh environment applications based on periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfin Manriquez, Diego I.

    completed, the optimal configuration for the GMRF sensor was found to be the with an alumina slab with a thickness of 1.524 mm, two titanium screens with a thickness of 0.508, the use of metallic side reflectors and a side length of 49.525 mm. For the metamaterial, the process aforementioned resulted in a sensor design composed of a BTO/BN ceramic substrate and copper washers with 3.5 mm in OD and 1.6 mm in ID; the sensor side length was of 101.7 mm and design thickness was chosen to be 3.175 mm. The performed simulations resulted in several peaks in a 6 -- 18 GHz frequency range for both the reflection and transmission spectra. The limitation of the periodicity had a detrimental effect on the response of the sensor; however, a final sensor design was achieved with visible response in both the reflection and transmission regions. Fabrication was carried over using water-jet cutting and traditional machining methods for the GMRF sensor, while a traditional powder compression method was employed for the metamaterial sensor. For the former, titanium screens were used, while aluminum and steel plates were employed on the second one. Commercially available alumina ceramic was employed for both fabrication methods. As for the metamaterial sensor, the fabrication was done by utilizing a mixture of 70% boron nitride/30% barium titanate with an added 7.5% wt. PVA for structural rigidity. Final dimensions of 50.8 mm in side length and a thickness of 3.175 mm were achieved. Samples fabricated showed good structural integrity and manageability. Preliminary free space measurements were performed using a Programmable Network Analyzer (PNA) and a set of X-band horn antennas and Gaussian beam antennas to characterize the response of both the GMRF and the metamaterial sensors, respectively. No visible peak was observed for the GMRF sensor in the frequency region. The lack of response might be attributed to fabrication errors. For the metamaterial sensor, a strong response at 14.47 GHz mark

  15. Nonlinear characterization of a bolted, industrial structure using a modal framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettgen, Daniel R.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2017-02-01

    This article presents measurements from a sub assembly of an off-the-shelf automotive exhaust system containing a bolted-flange connection and uses a recently proposed modal framework to develop a nonlinear dynamic model for the structure. The nonlinear identification and characterization methods used are reviewed to highlight the strengths of the current approach and the areas where further development is needed. This marks the first use of these new testing and nonlinear identification tools, and the associated modal framework, on production hardware with a realistic joint and realistic torque levels. To screen the measurements for nonlinearities, we make use of a time frequency analysis routine designed for transient responses called the zeroed early-time fast Fourier transform (ZEFFT). This tool typically reveals the small frequency shifts and distortions that tend to occur near each mode that is affected by the nonlinearity. The damping in this structure is found to be significantly nonlinear and a Hilbert transform is used to characterize the damping versus amplitude behavior. A model is presented that captures these effects for each mode individually (e.g. assuming negligible nonlinear coupling between modes), treating each mode as a single degree-of-freedom oscillator with a spring and viscous damping element in parallel with a four parameter Iwan model. The parameters of this model are identified for each of the structure's modes that exhibited nonlinearity and the resulting nonlinear model is shown to capture the stiffness and damping accurately over a large range of response amplitudes.

  16. Air Pollutant Characterization in Tula Industrial Corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS and Tepeji (TEP was 75.1 and 36.8 μg/m3, respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μg/m3. JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm−1, while aerosol scattering (76 Mm−1 was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ13C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  17. Air pollutant characterization in Tula industrial corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G; Vega, E; González-Avalos, E; Mora, V; López-Veneroni, D

    2013-01-01

    Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS) and Tepeji (TEP) was 75.1 and 36.8 μ g/m(3), respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μ g/m(3). JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm(-1), while aerosol scattering (76 Mm(-1)) was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ(13)C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  20. Preparation and characterization of masonry units, lightweight concrete based and agro-industrial wastes: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Fuentes, C. X.

    2013-11-01

    Discussion about the new composite materials that integrate agro industrial residues for the masonry unit's production, which are directed towards its implementation in projects of affordable housing, is a subject of interest to the public and productive sector of the country. For this reason, it presents a descriptive review of primary and secondary sources, which support the project under study. The methodology consisted in finding research articles in databases supported by the scientific community, which are ordered, integrated and prioritized, creating a matrix synthesis, which condensed the objectives, type of material, studied properties and main results found. It was found that the composite materials for masonry use mainly clay or cement as matrix and as reinforcement, agro waste like paper fibers, bamboo, rice husks, among others are used. Moreover, the properties that determine its potential use are low density, stress resistance and low thermal conductivity. Comparing the results with traditional specimens as the block of clay, concrete, adobe vs. experimental models made of the compounds analyzed, favorable results were obtained in the case of integrating waste materials into its composition, optimized their properties. Thus, science and architecture converge through recognition of the properties of materials that expand the alternatives of building spaces, economic and environmentally sustainable.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructure Transition Metal Oxides Extracted from Industrial Waste (EOFD) by Hydrothermal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girisun, T. C. Sabari; Babeela, C.; Vidhya, V.

    2011-10-01

    Electric oil furnace dust (EOFD) is a solid waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process in electric and oil furnaces. Over 7 million metric tons dust produced per annum in worldwide creates deep impacts like soil, ground water and ecology pollutions. This article reports the simple one step process for the extraction of nanostructured metal oxides from the industrial waste (EOFD) for the realization of low cost solar applications. By hydrothermal technique valuable metals were obtained in the form of metal oxides. Initially the presence of metals was identified by ICP analysis. XRD analysis confirms the formation of nano structured titanium oxide (TiO) along with traces of iron oxide (Fe2O3). The surface morphology and the particle size were analyzed by SEM analysis. Thus the metal oxides derived could be helpful to reduce the burden on the environment, increase the development of the source nano material and reduce the cost of raw materials for solar cell applications.

  3. Review of tribological sinks in six major industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Hane, G.J.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Erickson, R.; Merriman, T.; Gruber, T.; Barber, S.

    1985-09-01

    Friction and material wear occur throughout all industries and are involved in many processes within each industry. These conditions make assessing tribological activity overall in industry very complex and expensive. Therefore, a research strategy to obtain preliminary information on only the most significant industrial tribological sinks was defined. The industries examined were selected according to both the magnitude of overall energy consumption (particularly machine drive) and the known presence of significant tribological sinks. The six industries chosen are as follows: mining, agriculture, primary metals, chemicals/refining, food, and pulp and paper. They were reviewed to identify and characterize the major tribology sinks. It was concluded that wear losses are greater than friction losses, and that reducing wear rates would improve industrial productivity.

  4. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  5. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information......Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...

  6. Characterization of natural fiber from agricultural-industrial residues; Caracterizacao de fibras naturais provenientes de residuos agroindustriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Karen S.; Spinace, Marcia A.S., E-mail: marcia.spinace@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC - UFABC, Campus de Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Natural fibers show great potential for application in polymer composites. However, instead of the production of inputs for this purpose, an alternative that can also minimize solid waste generation is the use of agro-industrial waste for this purpose, such as waste-fiber textiles, rice husks residues and pineapple crowns. In this work the characterization of these three residues and evaluate their properties in order to direct the application of polymer composites. Was analyzed the moisture, density, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis of the fibers. The results show that the use of these wastes is feasible both from an environmental standpoint and because its properties suitable for this application. (author)

  7. Automatic Characterization of the Visual Appearance of Industrial Materials through Colour and Texture Analysis: An Overview of Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of methods and applications of automatic characterization of the appearance of materials through colour and texture analysis. We propose a taxonomy based on three classes of methods (spectral, spatial, and hybrid and discuss their general advantages and disadvantages. For each class we present a set of methods that are computationally cheap and easy to implement and that was proved to be reliable in many applications. We put these methods in the context of typical industrial environments and provide examples of their application in the following tasks: surface grading, surface inspection, and content-based image retrieval. We emphasize the potential benefits that would come from a wide implementation of these methods, such as better product quality, new services, and higher customer satisfaction.

  8. Characterization and application of dried plants to remove heavy metals, nitrate, and phosphate ions from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiban, Mohamed; Soudani, Amina; Sinan, Fouad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Agadir (Morocco); Tahrouch, Saida [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Agadir (Morocco); Persin, Michel [European Membrane Institute, CRNS, Montpellier (France)

    2011-04-15

    Low cost adsorbents were prepared from dried plants for the removal of heavy metals, nitrate, and phosphate ions from industrial wastewaters. The efficiency of these adsorbents was investigated using batch adsorption technique at room temperature. The dried plant particles were characterized by N{sub 2} at 77 K adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and phytochemical screening. The adsorption experiments showed that the microparticles of the dried plants presented a good adsorption of heavy metals, phosphate, and nitrate ions from real wastewaters. This adsorption increased with increasing contact time. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 min for heavy metals and nitrate ions and 240 min for phosphate ions. After the adsorption process, the Pb(II) concentrations, as well as those of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) were below the European drinking water norms concentrations. The percentage removal of heavy metals, nitrates, and phosphates from industrial wastewaters by dried plants was {proportional_to}94% for Cd{sup 2+}, {proportional_to}92% for Cu{sup 2+}, {proportional_to}99% for Pb{sup 2+}, {proportional_to}97% for Zn{sup 2+}, {proportional_to}100% for NO{sub 3}{sup -} and {proportional_to}77% for PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions. It is proved that dried plants can be one alternative source for low cost absorbents to remove heavy metals, nitrate, and phosphate ions from municipal and industrial wastewaters. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Software User’s Manual for the RAILCAR4.1 Toxic Industrial Chemical Source Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    characterize the source for the TSA for potential  chlorine   and  ethylene  oxide railcar attacks in urban areas and as part of a Navy shipboard threat study...release of a toxic industrial chemical from a transport or storage tank, such as  chlorine  released from a rupture in a 90‐ton railcar.  The RAILCAR4.1...toxic  industrial chemical from a transport tank, such as  chlorine  released from a rupture in a  90‐ton railcar.  The RAILCAR4.1 program addresses a

  10. Quantitative Characterization of Aqueous Byproducts from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Municipal Wastes, Food Industry Wastes, and Biomass Grown on Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, Balakrishna; Panisko, Ellen; Wietsma, Thomas; Lemmon, Teresa; Swita, Marie; Albrecht, Karl; Howe, Daniel

    2017-01-27

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a viable thermochemical process for converting wet solid wastes into biocrude which can be hydroprocessed to liquid transportation fuel blendstocks and specialty chemicals. The aqueous byproduct from HTL contains significant amounts (20 to 50%) of the feed carbon, which must be used to enhance economic sustainability of the process on an industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from HTL of industrial and municipal waste were characterized using a wide variety of analytical approaches. Organic chemical compounds present in these aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were employed to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species, in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of these aqueous byproducts, also were quantified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported, and the significance of these results is discussed in detail.

  11. Characterization of effluent from food processing industries and stillage treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. and Panicum maximum (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Noukeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd+ concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052–0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2−, high levels of nitrates (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+ and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN. Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.

  12. Techno-economic assessment and comparison of CO2 capture technologies for industrial processes: Preliminary results for the iron and steel sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, T.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and the preliminary results of a techno-economic assessment of CCS implementation on the iron and steel sector. The results show that for the short-mid term, a CO2 avoidance cost of less than 50 €/tonne at a CO2 avoidance rate of around 50% are possible by convert

  13. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Sing Ho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The major problem plaguing propane dehydrogenation process is the coke formation on the Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst which leads to catalyst deactivation. Due to information paucity, the physicochemical characteristics of the commercially obtained regenerated Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst (operated in moving bed reactor and coke formation at different temperatures of reaction were discussed. The physicochemical characterization of regenerated catalyst gave a BET surface area of 104.0 m2/g with graphitic carbon content of 8.0% indicative of incomplete carbon gasification during the industrial propylene production. Effect of temperatures on coke formation was identified by studying the product yield via temperature-programmed reaction carried out at 500oC, 600oC and 700oC. It was found that ethylene was precursor to carbon laydown while propylene tends to crack into methane. Post reaction, the spent catalyst possessed relatively lower surface area and pore radius whilst exhibited higher carbon content (31.80% at 700oC compared to the regenerated catalyst. Significantly, current studies also found that higher reaction temperatures favoured the coke formation. Consequently, the propylene yield has decreased with reaction temperature. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th March 2013; Revised: 28th April 2013; Accepted: 6th May 2013[How to Cite: Kah, S.H., Joanna Jo, E.C., Sim, Y.C., Chin, K.C. (2013. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 77-82. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4569.77-82][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4569.77-82] | View in  |

  14. Characterization of leaf-level particulate matter for an industrial city using electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgrigna, G., E-mail: gregorio.sgrigna@ibaf.cnr.it [University of Molise (UniMol), Department of Biosciences and Territory, Contrada Fonte Lappone Pesche (Italy); Institute of Agro Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council (IBAF–CNR), Via Marconi, 2 Porano & Via Castellino 111, Napoli (Italy); Baldacchini, C., E-mail: chiara.baldacchini@ibaf.cnr.it [Institute of Agro Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council (IBAF–CNR), Via Marconi, 2 Porano & Via Castellino 111, Napoli (Italy); Esposito, R., E-mail: raffaela.esposito@ibaf.cnr.it [Institute of Agro Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council (IBAF–CNR), Via Marconi, 2 Porano & Via Castellino 111, Napoli (Italy); Calandrelli, R., E-mail: roberto.calandrelli@ibaf.cnr.it [Institute of Agro Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council (IBAF–CNR), Via Marconi, 2 Porano & Via Castellino 111, Napoli (Italy); Tiwary, A., E-mail: a.tiwary@soton.ac.uk [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Calfapietra, C., E-mail: carlo.calfapietra@ibaf.cnr.it [Institute of Agro Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council (IBAF–CNR), Via Marconi, 2 Porano & Via Castellino 111, Napoli (Italy); Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-01

    This study reports application of monitoring and characterization protocol for particulate matter (PM) deposited on tree leaves, using Quercus ilex as a case study species. The study area is located in the industrial city of Terni in central Italy, with high PM concentrations. Four trees were selected as representative of distinct pollution environments based on their proximity to a steel factory and a street. Wash off from leaves onto cellulose filters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inferring the associations between particle sizes, chemical composition, and sampling location. Modeling of particle size distributions showed a tri-modal fingerprint, with the three modes centered at 0.6 (factory related), 1.2 (urban background), and 2.6 μm (traffic related). Chemical detection identified 23 elements abundant in the PM samples. Principal component analysis recognized iron and copper as source-specific PM markers, attributed mainly to industrial and heavy traffic pollution respectively. Upscaling these results on leaf area basis provided a useful indicator for strategic evaluation of harmful PM pollutants using tree leaves. - Highlights: • Urban tree leaves were used for passive PM{sub 10} monitoring combining SEM and EDX analyses. • Particle mean diameter distributions were modeled by multimode lognormal functions. • Site-specific PM{sub 10} elemental composition was evaluated by principal component analysis. • PM profile (size and composition) was used to distinguish site-specific urban sources. • PM size and relative content of Cu and Fe emerged as possible pollutant source markers.

  15. Valorization of an agro-industrial waste, mango seed, by the extraction and characterization of its cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Mariana Alves; Silvério, Hudson Alves; Flauzino Neto, Wilson Pires; Pasquini, Daniel

    2013-05-30

    Mango seeds are lignocellulosic agro-industrial residues available in large quantities in tropical countries and are simply discarded or used as animal feed. They are a natural and renewable resource, and were used to generate new polymeric materials in this work. This new materials can be used as alternatives to fossil resources such as petroleum. This work aimed to extract and characterize cellulose nanocrystals (CN) from mango seed by acid hydrolysis to obtain a material suitable as a reinforcing agent in the manufacturing of nanocomposites. The fibers of mango seeds were ground in mills and purified mainly to remove lignin. The raw mango seed (MS) and the purified mango seed (PMS) were analyzed for chemical composition and characterized by infrared and X-rays. Cellulose nanocrystals from the mango seed (CNM) were isolated by acid hydrolysis at 40 °C for 10 min, with 20 ml of H2SO4 (11.21 M) used for every gram of cellulose. The yield at this step was 22.8%. CNM were needle-shaped, with high crystallinity (90.6%), good thermal stability (around 248 °C), a medium length (L) of 123.4 ± 22.1 nm and a diameter (D) of 4.59 ± 2.22 nm, giving an aspect ratio (L/D) of about 34.1 ± 18.6. The diameter measurements of CNM were also confirmed by Scherrer's equation. This work also aimed to reuse mango seed produced as industrial waste, giving it a useful application and preventing its role as an environmental pollutant.

  16. Characterization of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in Oil and Gas Industry Equipment and Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.; White, G.J.

    1999-10-07

    This Sampling and Analysis (S and A) Plan was developed for the NORM Characterization Program, and describes the information to be gained through the program, how the required information is to be collected, and the anticipated form and content of the final data. The S and A Plan provides detailed procedures describing the work to be performed, how and why the work will be performed, and who will be responsible for conducting the various aspects of the work. The S and A Plan has been prepared with input from all parties involved with the program. Where appropriate, portions of the procedures described in the S and A Plan will be field tested by personnel of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Grand Junction Project Office (GJPO), as well as representatives of the cosponsor organizations prior to their use in the field.

  17. Engineering and characterization of mesoporous silica-coated magnetic particles for mercury removal from industrial effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Xu, Zhenghe; Wang, Feng

    2008-03-01

    Mesoporous silica coatings were synthesized on dense liquid silica-coated magnetite particles using cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (CTAC) as molecular templates, followed by sol-gel process. A specific surface area of the synthesized particles as high as 150 m 2/g was obtained. After functionalization with mercapto-propyl-trimethoxy-silane (MPTS) through silanation reaction, the particles exhibited high affinity of mercury in aqueous solutions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential measurement, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) were used to characterize the synthesis processes, surface functionalization, and mercury adsorption on the synthesized magnetite particles. The loading capacity of the particles for mercury was determined to be as high as 14 mg/g at pH 2. A unique feature of strong magnetism of the synthesized nanocomposite particles makes the subsequent separation of the magnetic sorbents from complex multiphase suspensions convenient and effective.

  18. Characterization of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Cooling Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya Okutsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, N-(3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL, and N-(3-oxooctanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL. AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL and N-(3-oxodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL. This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system.

  19. Preparation and characterization of (10)B boric acid with high purity for nuclear industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijiang; Liu, Tianyu; Xu, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid is often added into coolant as neutron capture agent for pressurized water reactor, whose amount is influenced by its abundance and purity. Therefore, the preparation of enriched (10)B boric acid with high purity is beneficial to nuclear industry. (10)B is also used in developing tumor-specific boronated drugs in boron neutron capture therapy. The boronated drug can be administered to patient intravenously, intratumorally, or deposited at tumor site in surgical excision. Thus, enriched (10)B boric acid is of practical significance in the field of medicine. Self-made boron trifluoride-methanol-complex solution was selected as one of the experimental reagents, and the preparation of (10)B acid was realized by one-step reaction for the complexes with water and calcium chloride. The determination of electrical conductivity in reaction process proves that the optimum reaction time was 16-20 h. Furthermore, the effect of reaction time, ratio of calcium chloride to complex as well as the amount of water on the purity and yield of boric acid was investigated. Finally, the optimum reaction time was 20 h, the optimal solid-liquid ratio (molar ratio) was 3:1, and the amount of water was 1 L of deionized water for each mol of the complex. H2O2 was added in the reaction process to remove Fe(2+). After recrystallization, IR spectra of (10)B boric acid was measured and compared with standard to verify the product of boric acid. The feasibility of the preparation method was determined by the detection of XRD of boric acid. To observe the morphology by polarizing microscope, crystal structure was obtained. The purity of the final product is 99.95 %, and the yield is 96.47 %. The ion concentration of boric acid accords with the national standard of high purity, which was determined by ICP.

  20. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  1. Characterization of aerobic spore-forming bacteria associated with industrial dairy processing environments and product spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücking, Genia; Stoeckel, Marina; Atamer, Zeynep; Hinrichs, Jörg; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2013-09-02

    Due to changes in the design of industrial food processing and increasing international trade, highly thermoresistant spore-forming bacteria are an emerging problem in food production. Minimally processed foods and products with extended shelf life, such as milk products, are at special risk for contamination and subsequent product damages, but information about origin and food quality related properties of highly heat-resistant spore-formers is still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the biodiversity, heat resistance, and food quality and safety affecting characteristics of aerobic spore-formers in the dairy sector. Thus, a comprehensive panel of strains (n=467), which originated from dairy processing environments, raw materials and processed foods, was compiled. The set included isolates associated with recent food spoilage cases and product damages as well as isolates not linked to product spoilage. Identification of the isolates by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular methods revealed a large biodiversity of spore-formers, especially among the spoilage associated isolates. These could be assigned to 43 species, representing 11 genera, with Bacillus cereus s.l. and Bacillus licheniformis being predominant. A screening for isolates forming thermoresistant spores (TRS, surviving 100°C, 20 min) showed that about one third of the tested spore-formers was heat-resistant, with Bacillus subtilis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus being the prevalent species. Strains producing highly thermoresistant spores (HTRS, surviving 125°C, 30 min) were found among mesophilic as well as among thermophilic species. B. subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were dominating the group of mesophilic HTRS, while Bacillus smithii and Geobacillus pallidus were dominating the group of thermophilic HTRS. Analysis of spoilage-related enzymes of the TRS isolates showed that mesophilic strains, belonging to the B. subtilis and B. cereus

  2. Geochemical Characterization of Concentrated Gas Hydrate Deposits on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand: Preliminary Geochemical Cruise Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-29

    cb1 , db1, cb2 , db2: coring, dredging, priorities 1, 2. cp-1 – cp-2: 3.5 kHz transect for paleoceanographic core, cp-3: preliminary location for...Transit from Waypoint cb1 to db2, 11.32 nm at 10 knots 1.1 Dredge at Waypoint db2 ~600 m water depth 3 Transit to Waypoint cb2 , 2.3 nm at 10 knots...tight Study Area B, Objective 8, Priority 1 Dredge at Waypoint db1 ~600 m water depth 3 Transit to core location cb1 , 7.8 nm at 10 knots 0.8

  3. Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, U.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

  4. CHEMICAL AND THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE INDUSTRIAL LIGNINS AND THEIR CORRESPONDING LIGNIN ESTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carter Fox

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn stover and rice straw lignin samples received from ethanol pilot plants, along with softwood kraft lignin samples, were characterized using pyrolysis GC-MS, 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy, and permanganate oxidation degradation. The lignins were then esterified using 1-methylimidazole as a catalyst in a pyridine-free reaction, and the thermal properties of the products were evaluated. Solid state NMR showed the rice straw lignin contained 18% residual polysaccharides. Pyrolysis GC-MS showed the softwood kraft, corn stover, and rice straw lignins to be G – type, H/G/S – type, and G/S – type, respectively. However, some discrepancy was apparent between the pyrolysis and permanganate oxidation studies as to the ratios of the monomeric make-up of the lignins. The kraft and rice straw lignins were determined to have high degrees of condensation, while the corn stover lignin was uncondensed. Little to no increase in solubility was noticed for corn stover or rice straw lignin esters in organic solvents. Glass transition temperatures (Tg of the lignin derivatives were determined by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and parallel plate rheometry.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of hematite pigment obtained from a steel waste industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prim, S R; Folgueras, M V; de Lima, M A; Hotza, D

    2011-09-15

    Pigments that meet environmental and technology requirements are the focus of the research in the ceramic sector. This study focuses on the synthesis of ceramic pigment by encapsulation of hematite in crystalline and amorphous silica matrix. Iron oxide from a metal sheet rolling process was used as chromophore. A different content of hematite and silica was homogenized by conventional and high energy milling. The powders obtained after calcinations between 1050 and 1200 °C for 2h were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. The pigments were applied to ceramic enamel and porcelain body. The effect of pigment was measured by comparing L*a*b* values of the heated samples. Results showed that the color developed is influenced by variables such as oxide content employed, conditions of milling and processing temperature. The results showed that the use of pigment developed does not interfere in microstructural characteristics of pigmented material. The best hue was obtained from samples with 15 wt% of chromophore, heated at 1200 °C in amorphous silica matrix.

  6. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production.

  7. Industrial development of long chain paraffin (n-C10-C13) dehydrogenation catalysts and the deactivation characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Songbo; Wang, Bin; Dai, Xihai; Sun, Chenglin; Bai, Ziwu; Wang, Xiao; Guo, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Pt–Sn–K–Mg/Al2O3 catalysts for the dehydrogenation of long chain paraffins (n-C100–C130) were successfully developed and applied in the industry. The catalysts were tested on both the industrial side fixed bed reactor and the industrial PACOL dehydrogenation plant. The industrially deactivated Pt–Sn

  8. CESAR5.3: An Industrial Tool for Nuclear Fuel and Waste Characterization with Associated Qualification - 12067

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Jean-Marc; Eschbach, Romain [CEA, DEN, DER, SPRC, LECy, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Launay, Agnes; Binet, Christophe [AREVA-NC La Hague, F-50444 Beaumont-Hague (France); THRO, Jean-Francois [AREVA-NC BU Recyclage, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-La-Defense (France)

    2012-07-01

    CEA and AREVA-NC have developed and used a depletion code named CESAR for 30 years. This user-friendly industrial tool provides fast characterizations for all types of nuclear fuel (PWR / UOX or MOX or reprocess Uranium, BWR / UOX or MOX, MTR and SFR) and the wastes associated. CESAR can evaluate 100 heavy nuclides, 200 fission products and 150 activation products (with Helium and Tritium formation). It can also characterize the structural material of the fuel (Zircalloy, stainless steel, M5 alloy). CESAR provides depletion calculations for any reactor irradiation history and from 3 months to 1 million years of cooling time. CESAR5.3 is based on the latest calculation schemes recommended by the CEA and on an international nuclear data base (JEFF-3.1.1). It is constantly checked against the CEA referenced and qualified depletion code DARWIN. CESAR incorporates the CEA qualification based on the dissolution analyses of fuel rod samples and the 'La Hague' reprocessing plant feedback experience. AREVA-NC uses CESAR intensively at 'La Hague' plant, not only for prospective studies but also for characterizations at different industrial facilities all along the reprocessing process and waste conditioning (near 150 000 calculations per year). CESAR is the reference code for AREVA-NC. CESAR is used directly or indirectly with other software, data bank or special equipment in many parts of the La Hague plants. The great flexibility of CESAR has rapidly interested other projects. CESAR became a 'tool' directly integrated in some other softwares. Finally, coupled with a Graphical User Interface, it can be easily used independently, responding to many needs for prospective studies as a support for nuclear facilities or transport. An English version is available. For the principal isotopes of U and Pu, CESAR5 benefits from the CEA experimental validation for the PWR UOX fuels, up to a burnup of 60 GWd/t and for PWR MOX fuels, up to 45 GWd/t. CESAR

  9. Combustion characterization of coals for industrial applications. Final technical report, January 1, 1981-May 29, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala, N.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1985-03-01

    In-depth fundamental information was obtained from a two-inch inner diameter laminar flow reactor referred to as the Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). This information consists of the following: (1) pyrolysis kinetic characteristics of four coals of various rank (Texas lignite, Montana subbituminous, Alabama high volatile bituminous, and Pennsylvania anthracite); and (2) combustion kinetic studies of chars produced from the foregoing parent coals. A number of standard ASTM and special in-house bench scale tests were also performed on the coals and chars prepared therefrom to characterize their physicochemical properties. The pilot scale (500,000 Btu/hr) Controlled Mixing History Furnace (CMHF) was used to determine the effect of staged combustion on NO/sub x/ emissions control from an overall combustion performance of the Alabama high volatile bituminous coal. The quantitative fundamental data developed from this study indicate significant differences in coal/char chemical, physical, and reactivity characteristics, which should be useful to those interested in modeling coal combustion and pyrolysis processes. These results underscore the fact that coal selection is one of the keys governing a successful coal conversion/utilization process. The combustion kinetic information obtained on the high volatile bituminous coal has been used in conjunction with combustion engineering's proprietary mathematical models to predict the combustion performance of this coal in the Controlled Mixing History Furnace. Comparison of the predicted data with the experimental results shows a virtually one-to-one scale-up from the DTFS to the CMHF. These data should provide vital information to designers in the area of carbon burnout and NO/sub x/ reduction for large scale coal utilization applications. 31 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. The potential for solar heat for industrial processes - A preliminary study of Swedish possibilities; Solenergi i industriell processvaerme. En foerstudie av svenska moejligheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Peter; Quicklund, Henrik; Pettersson, Ulrik

    2003-06-01

    This report starts with a short introduction to solar thermal energy applications in Sweden and to the utilization of energy in general in the Swedish industry. The investigation is focusing on options for industrial solar heating applications. As waste heat recovery in many cases is competing with, or might be supplemented by solar heat, this field is also given some attention in the study. The conclusions are that possible applications are numerous, mainly within food- and mechanical industries, but that low prices on energy, unused potentials for heat recovery and low awareness about the possibilities for solar heat makes the situation tough today. Increasing prices on electricity and oil and decreasing costs for solar energy combined with a continuously growing awareness about environmental issues are key factors that speak for solar heating in a longer perspective. The large potential for industrial solar heat will be in countries further south and this may offer opportunities for Swedish industry to export products and knowledge. Some companies offers large scale solutions for solar heating and research competence within material science and optics will be needed in the development of new collector types. Swedish technology for district heating- and cooling and heat storage in boreholes could also be applied in large scale industrial applications. The literature study on waste heat recovery shows that 90 % of the waste heat comes from the large energy consumers in industry: Pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum and steel and metal industries. Almost everything is used for district heating. The potential for waste heat recovery in Sweden has been largely underestimated by several studies during the nineties and the development has been quite remarkable.

  11. Characterization of the CTS 12 and 14 GHz communications links - Preliminary measurements and evaluation. [Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Communications Link Characterization Experiment is designed to characterize the radio frequency links of the Communications Technology Satellite. The experiment is twofold: (1) it will study the natural characteristics in the CTS frequency bands (14 GHz uplink, and 12 GHz downlink) including attenuation and signal degradation due primarily to absorption and scattering induced by precipitation, and (2) it will perform environmental measurements for the characterization of man-made, earth-based signals which could interfere with the uplink frequency bands of the satellite.

  12. Production and preliminary characterization of ferritic-martensitic steel T91 cladding tubes for LBE or Pb cooled nuclear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bosch, J.; Almazouzi, A.; Mueller, G.; Rusanov, A.

    2011-08-01

    Thin wall tubes with suitable dimensions for possible future use as nuclear fuel cladding based on ferritic-martensitic steel T91 have been produced. Several rolling routes for thin wall tube rolling have been successfully explored to produce T91 tubes of 8.5 mm OD and 0.5 mm wall thickness as well as 6.5 mm OD and 0.5 mm wall thickness. The results show that the cold rolled Т91 steel thin walled tubes remain ductile and the material easily carries fractional strains. Finally the microstructure of the resulting tubes was examined and preliminary burst and tensile tests were performed showing properties comparable to those of T91 plate material.

  13. First Preliminary Report on Isolation and Characterization of Novel Acinetobacter spp. in Casing Soil Used for Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evaluation of large number of agroindustrial wastes for their use as casing material for Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach cultivation, scant attention has been given to the importance of biological properties of casing materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to characterize the bacterial flora in casing layer, namely, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and Spent Mushroom Substrate/spent compost (SMS/SC (FYM+SC, 3 : 1 and FYM and Vermi Compost (VC (FYM+VC, 3 : 1, employing partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Available data showed a significant variety of organisms that included Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas of the γ-proteobacteria, that were the most frequently encountered genera. This is the first preliminary report on the microbial diversity of casing soils and demonstrates the presence of Acinetobacter spp. that has not been previously described in casing material.

  14. Field Test Report: Preliminary Aquifer Test Characterization Results for Well 299-W15-225: Supporting Phase I of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2009-09-23

    This report examines the hydrologic test results for both local vertical profile characterization and large-scale hydrologic tests associated with a new extraction well (well 299-W15-225) that was constructed during FY2009 for inclusion within the future 200-West Area Groundwater Treatment System that is scheduled to go on-line at the end of FY2011. To facilitate the analysis of the large-scale hydrologic test performed at newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225 (C7017; also referred to as EW-1 in some planning documents), the existing 200-ZP-1 interim pump-and-treat system was completely shut-down ~1 month before the performance of the large-scale hydrologic test. Specifically, this report 1) applies recently developed methods for removing barometric pressure fluctuations from well water-level measurements to enhance the detection of hydrologic test and pump-and-treat system effects at selected monitor wells, 2) analyzes the barometric-corrected well water-level responses for a preliminary determination of large-scale hydraulic properties, and 3) provides an assessment of the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225. The hydrologic characterization approach presented in this report is expected to have universal application for meeting the characterization needs at other remedial action sites located within unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  15. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography; Resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del metodo de matrices de riesgo para evaluaciones de seguridad en radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Truppa, W. [Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aravena, M. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Tamayo, B., E-mail: alopezg@cnsns.gob.mx [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  16. Thermal degradation of paper industry wastes from a recovered paper mill using TGA. Characterization and gasification test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenales Rivera, Jorge; Pérez López, Virginia; Ramos Casado, Raquel; Sánchez Hervás, José-María

    2016-01-01

    In this survey, a refuse derived fuel (RDF) was produced from paper industry wastes through a mechanical treatment (MT). The two main wastes generated from a recovered paper mill were rejects and de-inking sludge, which were produced principally in the pulping and de-inking processes, respectively. This work presents raw wastes characterization, fuel preparation and gasification tests performed in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier pilot plant. The characterization was carried out by proximate and ultimate analysis. Several blends of pre-conditioned rejects and de-inking sludge were densified by means of pelletizing, studying the energy consumption and its quality properties. Besides, thermal degradation of blends was studied under thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental runs were made from 30 to 900°C in nitrogen atmosphere at three heating ranges, β=5, 10 and 20°C/min. Two thermal stages were identified during the thermal degradation, which are linked to cellulose and plastic degradation. In addition, kinetics parameters were estimated by the application of non-isothermal methods: Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Flynn-Ozawa-Wall (FOW) and Coats and Redfern. The activation energy values were about 140-160 kJ/mol and 60-80 kJ/mol for plastic and cellulosic materials, respectively. Regarding waste valorisation, a blend composed of 95% of rejects and 5% of de-inking sludge was selected for gasification tests. The energy consumption during the preparation was recorded and a gasification tests were done to prove the usability of these pellets in a CFB gasifier. The main results were a net calorific value (NCV) of 5 MJ/Nm(3) and a total tar content of 11.44 g/Nm(3) at an equivalence ratio (ER) of 0.3.

  17. Characterization of effects of thermal property of aggregate on the carbon footprint of asphalt industries in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jamshidi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of the thermal properties of asphalt binders and aggregate materials were characterized in terms of the specific heat capacity (C for energy consumption and environmental footprints of hot mix asphalt (HMA and warm mix asphalt (WMA. Asphalt mixes produced using low-C aggregate are found to be more energy-efficient and environmental friendly, irrespective of the binder type and construction technology. Therefore, different fractions of aggregate blends were replaced with the aggregate provided from a low-C source or sustainable source. Analysis of energy consumption clearly indicated that the specific energy and environmental footprints decrease linearly as the low-C aggregate content increases. The amount of energy saving realized in the asphalt industries by the use of low-C aggregate is significant on a national scale in China. In this regard, China was chosen as a case study. Analysis of fuel requirement clearly indicated that the production of WMA using high thermal sensitivity aggregate can yield significant energy saving sufficient to fuel 44,007 to 664,880 Chinese households per year. Therefore, use of low C aggregate in asphalt mix production can be adopted as a strategy to produce WMA and HMA.

  18. Synthesis and Preliminary Characterization of a PPE-Type Polymer Containing Substituted Fullerenes and Transition Metal Ligation Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne A. Basinger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A substituted fullerene was incorporated into a PPE-conjugated polymer repeat unit. This subunit was then polymerized via Sonogashira coupling with other repeat units to create polymeric systems approaching 50 repeat units (based on GPC characterization. Bipyridine ligands were incorporated into some of these repeat units to provide sites for transition metal coordination. Photophysical characterization of the absorption and emission properties of these systems shows excited states located on both the fullerene and aromatic backbone of the polymers that exist in a thermally controlled equilibrium. Future work will explore other substituted polyaromatic systems using similar methodologies.

  19. Preliminary hazard assessment and site characterization of Meşelik campus area, Eskişehir-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited knowledge of ground conditions, such as geotechnical parameters, is one of the main causes of foundation failure. Unknown ground conditions can also cause additional burden costs. Due to lack of geotechnical parameters in foundation soil, some problems can be observed during and after the construction.

    In this study, a comprehensive field study was conducted to make a preliminary hazard assessment on the Meşelik campus area, Eskişehir, Turkey. In this context, the experimental studies were performed in two stages. In the first stage, boreholes were drilled in the field; a standard penetration test (SPT was performed and disturbed/undisturbed samples were collected from certain levels. In the second stage, laboratory tests were performed in order to identify and classify the samples. Unconfined compression strength and triaxial compression tests were conducted on undisturbed samples for determining the engineering characteristics. XRD (X-ray diffraction tests were performed and the swelling potential of the samples were evaluated. The liquefaction potential of the area was also assessed on a SPT-based method. Thus, the geotechnical parameters and the liquefaction potential of the sub-surface in the study area were thoroughly analyzed and presented to be used for further studies.

  20. Characterization of postmortem biochemical changes in rabbit plasma using ATR-FTIR combined with chemometrics: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Li, Bing; Wang, Qi; Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Yinming; Lin, Hancheng; Wang, Zhenyuan

    2017-02-01

    Postmortem interval (PMI) determination is one of the most challenging tasks in forensic medicine due to a lack of accurate and reliable methods. It is especially difficult for late PMI determination. Although many attempts with various types of body fluids based on chemical methods have been made to solve this problem, few investigations are focused on blood samples. In this study, we employed an attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique coupled with principle component analysis (PCA) to monitor biochemical changes in rabbit plasma with increasing PMI. Partial least square (PLS) model was used based on the spectral data for PMI prediction in an independent sample set. Our results revealed that postmortem chemical changes in compositions of the plasma were time-dependent, and various components including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids contributed to the discrimination of the samples at different time points. A satisfactory prediction within 48 h postmortem was performed by the combined PLS model with a good fitting between actual and predicted PMI of 0.984 and with an error of ± 1.92 h. In consideration of the simplicity and portability of ATR-FTIR, our preliminary study provides an experimental and theoretical basis for application of this technique in forensic practice.

  1. Preliminary results from two intensive campaigns characterizing urban aerosols at two high altitude cities in the Tropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M. F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Velarde, F.; Moreno, I.; Weinhold, K.; Avila, F.

    2013-05-01

    Preliminary results from a short campaign carried out between September and December of 2012 at the cities of El Alto (16°30'36.09"S; 68°11'55.31"W; 4040 masl) and La Paz (16°30'13.83"S; 68° 7'45.56"W; 3580 masl), Bolivia are presented on this work. Particle size distribution was measured using a Mobility Particle Size Spectrometer (Reference of the World Calibration Center for Aerosol Physics) whereas concentration of black carbon was measured using a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). In addition meteorological parameters as well as CO concentration were collected on both locations. In the case of El Alto, the instruments were located within the International Airport of the city at approximately 300 m from the main and only landing strip and at least 1.5 km away from the main roads. On the other hand, in the case of La Paz, the instruments were set up at the Planetarium of University Mayor de San Andres. The building is located besides a road with heavy traffic. Because the two cities are part of the same metropolitan area (the sites were located 7.5 km apart), the cars and trucks produce a similar signature and therefore both background and non-background urban aerosols were sampled during the campaign. In addition, an interesting case was registered at La Paz where a day with practically no vehicular traffic was studied.

  2. Preliminary report on the stable isotope imaging and characterization of surface and ground water resources in the southern Sacramento Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Criss, R.E.; Campbell, K.R. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1993-11-01

    This document contains information about the water resources in Sacramento. The project considers isotopic characterization of groundwater and the environmental effects of the misuse of water resources. In particular, the study looks at the effects extensive agriculture and the overdrafting of groundwater.

  3. Characterization and evaluation of residue 'grits' of the cellulose industry; Caracterizacao e avaliacao do resisduo 'grits' da industria de celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destefani, A.Z.; Santos, M.M.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2010-07-01

    The cellulose industry generates huge amounts of solid waste residue called 'grits'. These wastes have been willing over time in landfills near the mills. However, this type of disposal is not environmentally friendly and can cause degradation and environmental pollution. In addition, environmental legislation increasingly severe and the high costs of landfill have led the search for new alternatives for final disposition of this abundant waste. In this context, this study is to characterize waste grits, generated by the cellulose industry in the region of Aracruz-ES. The residue samples were characterized in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal analysis (DTA and TGA). The characterization of the residual 'grits' demonstrated its potential as a feedstock for production of soil-cement bricks. (author)

  4. Preliminary evaluation of a fully automated quantitative framework for characterizing general breast tissue histology via color histogram and color texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Batiste, Rebecca C.; Kontos, Despina; Feldman, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    Visual characterization of histologic specimens is known to suffer from intra- and inter-observer variability. To help address this, we developed an automated framework for characterizing digitized histology specimens based on a novel application of color histogram and color texture analysis. We perform a preliminary evaluation of this framework using a set of 73 trichrome-stained, digitized slides of normal breast tissue which were visually assessed by an expert pathologist in terms of the percentage of collagenous stroma, stromal collagen density, duct-lobular unit density and the presence of elastosis. For each slide, our algorithm automatically segments the tissue region based on the lightness channel in CIELAB colorspace. Within each tissue region, a color histogram feature vector is extracted using a common color palette for trichrome images generated with a previously described method. Then, using a whole-slide, lattice-based methodology, color texture maps are generated using a set of color co-occurrence matrix statistics: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. The extracted features sets are compared to the visually assessed tissue characteristics. Overall, the extracted texture features have high correlations to both the percentage of collagenous stroma (r=0.95, phistological processes in digitized histology specimens.

  5. Preliminary biochemical characterization of the novel, non-AT1, non-AT2 angiotensin binding site from the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamyan, Vardan T.; Arsenault, Jason; Escher, Emanuel; Speth, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    A novel binding site for angiotensins II and III was recently discovered in brain membranes in the presence of the sulfhydryl reactive angiotensinase inhibitor parachloromercuribenzoate. This binding site is distinctly different from the other known receptors for angiotensins: AT1, AT2, AT4, and mas oncogene protein (Ang 1-7 receptor). Preliminary biochemical characterization studies have been done on this protein by crosslinking it with 125I-labeled photoaffinity probes and solubilizing the radiolabeled binding site. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies and isoelectric focusing indicate that this membrane bound binding site is a protein with a molecular weight of 70–85 kDa and an isoelectric point of ~7. Cyanogen bromide hydrolysis of the protein yielded two radiolabeled fragments of 12.5 and 25 kDa. The protein does not appear to be N-glycosylated based upon the failure of PNGaseF to alter its migration rate on a 7.5% polyacrylamide gel. The binding of angiotensin II to this protein is not affected by GTPγS or Gpp(NH)p, suggesting that it is not a G protein-coupled receptor. Further characterization studies are directed to identify this protein either as a novel angiotensin receptor, an angiotensin scavenger (clearance receptor) or an angiotensinase. PMID:20960166

  6. On Techniques to Characterize and Correlate Grain Size, Grain Boundary Orientation and the Strength of the SiC Layer of TRISO Coated Particles: A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I.J.van Rooyen; J.L. Dunzik Gougar; T. Trowbridge; Philip M van Rooyen

    2012-10-01

    The mechanical properties of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer of the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated particle (CP) for high temperature gas reactors (HTGR) are performance parameters that have not yet been standardized by the international HTR community. Presented in this paper are the results of characterizing coated particles to reveal the effect of annealing temperature (1000 to 2100°C) on the strength and grain size of unirradiated coated particles. This work was further expanded to include possible relationships between the grain size and strength values. The comparative results of two strength measurement techniques and grain size measured by the Lineal intercept method are included. Preliminary grain boundary characterization results determined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) are included. These results are also important for future fission product transport studies, as grain boundary diffusion is identified as a possible mechanism by which 110mAg, one of the fission activation products, might be released through intact SiC layers. Temperature is a parameter known to influence the grain size of SiC and therefore it is important to investigate the effect of high temperature annealing on the SiC grain size. Recommendations and future work will also be briefly discussed.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of graphene hydrogel via hydrothermal approach as a scaffold for preliminary study of cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim HN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available HN Lim1, NM Huang2, SS Lim3, I Harrison3, CH Chia41Centre for Ionics University of Malaya, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 2Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 3School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih, Selangor, 4School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: Three-dimensional assembly of graphene hydrogel is rapidly attracting the interest of researchers because of its wide range of applications in energy storage, electronics, electrochemistry, and waste water treatment. Information on the use of graphene hydrogel for biological purposes is lacking, so we conducted a preliminary study to determine the suitability of graphene hydrogel as a substrate for cell growth, which could potentially be used as building blocks for biomolecules and tissue engineering applications.Methods: A three-dimensional structure of graphene hydrogel was prepared via a simple hydrothermal method using two-dimensional large-area graphene oxide nanosheets as a precursor.Results: The concentration and lateral size of the graphene oxide nanosheets influenced the structure of the hydrogel. With larger-area graphene oxide nanosheets, the graphene hydrogel could be formed at a lower concentration. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the oxide functional groups on the graphene oxide nanosheets were reduced after hydrothermal treatment. The three-dimensional graphene hydrogel matrix was used as a scaffold for proliferation of a MG63 cell line.Conclusion: Guided filopodia protrusions of MG63 on the hydrogel were observed on the third day of cell culture, demonstrating compatibility of the graphene hydrogel structure for bioapplications.Keywords: cell culture, graphene

  8. Preliminary Source Characterization and Tsunami Modeling of Submarine Landslides along the Yucatan Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, J. D.; Geist, E. L.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Fucugauchi, J. U.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.

    2014-12-01

    Using high-resolution multibeam bathymetry recently collected by the R/V Falkor, we evaluated the morphology, size, and tsunami-generating potential of a number of large, previously unknown, submarine landslides that excavated sections of the submerged Yucatan Shelf/carbonate platform above the Campeche Escarpment. Landslide evacuations appear to be primarily restricted to the later Cenozoic sections of the margin, removing pelagic sediments deposited above the Cretaceous shallow water carbonates exposed along the face of the escarpment. The largest landslides have evacuated areas of the shelf between 130 and 1,100 km2, possibly removing as much as 70 km3 of material in a single event. Based on the morphology of the evacuated areas, the primary mode of failure appears to be translational and retrogressive, with slide thickness primarily stratigraphically controlled. Displaced material appears to be present within some of the evacuation zones, but because sediments from the Mississippi Fan onlap the base of the Campeche Escarpment, mass-transport deposits from individual landslides have not been identified and therefore run-outs are poorly constrained. The evacuation zones are used to specify the initial conditions for tsunami modeling. Both regional, Gulf of Mexico and near-field simulations are performed to determine the severity and wave-height distribution for six slide scenarios. Preliminary results indicate that the location of maximum wave heights associated with the slide scenarios depend on the direction on down-slope slide movement, although there are significant refraction effects during basin-wide propagation. There is also significant energy dissipation during cross-shelf propagation, with wider shelves lessening the severity of tsunami runup compared to runup at coastal locations adjacent to narrower shelves. Future tsunami hazard assessments in the Gulf of Mexico should account for these large, newly discovered submarine landslides.

  9. Purification, partial characterization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a mannose-specific lectin from Cymbosema roseum seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavada, Benildo S., E-mail: bscavada@ufc.br; Marinho, Emmanuel S.; Souza, Emmanuel P.; Benevides, Raquel G.; Delatorre, Plínio [BioMol-Lab - Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Ceará (Brazil); Souza, Luis A. G. [INPA, Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Nascimento, Kyria S. [BioMol-Lab - Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Ceará (Brazil); Sampaio, Alexandre H. [Biomol-Mar-Fishing Engineering Faculty, Federal University of Ceará (Brazil); Moreno, Frederico B. M. B.; Rustiguel, Joane K. R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofísica Molecular, Departamento de Física, UNESP, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Canduri, Fernanda [Departamento de Morfofisiologia - CCBS - UFMS, Campo Grande-MS, 79070-900 (Brazil); Azevedo, Walter F. Jr de, E-mail: bscavada@ufc.br [Faculdade de Biociências - PUCRS - Porto Alegre-RS, 90619-900 (Brazil); Debray, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie Biologique et Unité Mixte de Recherche No. 8576 du CNRS, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille (France); BioMol-Lab - Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Ceará (Brazil)

    2006-03-01

    A lectin from C. roseum seeds (CRL) has been purified, characterized and crystallized. A lectin from Cymbosema roseum seeds (CRL) was purified, characterized and crystallized. The best crystals grew in a month and were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method using a precipitant solution consisting of 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 7.8, 8%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.2 M proline at a constant temperature of 293 K. A data set was collected to 1.77 Å resolution at a synchrotron-radiation source. CRL crystals are orthorhombic, belonging to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Crystallographic refinement and full amino-acid sequence determination are in progress.

  10. Industrial wastes from the boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy): a parametric and chemical-physical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carchesio, M; Tatàno, F; Tosi, G; Trivellone, C H

    2013-01-01

    Using the renowned leisure boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy) as a case-study, this paper addresses the characterization of (1) the industrial waste generation from the building of composite material-based boats and (2) some chemical-physical properties of representative types of boat-building residues (plastic foam, hardened resin, fibre-reinforced composite residues, and sanding dust). A parametric evaluation based on the number of employees gave a representative unit generation rate per employee (UGRpE) of 1.47 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) for the entire Marche regional boatbuilding district, whereas evaluations carried out separately for three case-study companies provided values of 1.56, 3.07, and 1.12 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) as representative for a mass-produced motor boat builder (case-study company '1'), a customized sailing boat builder (case-study company '2'), and a mould and structural component builder (case-study company '3'), respectively. The original proposal and evaluation of two additional generation rates based on physical characteristics intrinsic to the manufactured product, i.e. the unit generation rate per boat area (UGRpA) and per boat weight (UGRpW), confirmed the higher waste generation for the sailing boat builder(representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.35 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 2. 71 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively) compared with the motor boat builder (representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.06 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 0.49 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively). The chemical-physical property characterization of the selected residues revealed the following aspects: a general condition of low moisture contents; significant ash contents in the glass- and carbon-fibre composite residues and the correlated sanding dust; and relatively high energy content values in the overall range 14,144-32,479 kJ kg(-1), expressed as the lower heating value.

  11. Characterization of corn landraces planted grown in the campos gerais region (Paraná, Brazil for industrial utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Teixeira Barbosa Pinto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has the objective of characterizing twenty corn landraces grown in the Campos Gerais region (Paraná State in relation to its chemical composition (moisture, ash, protein, ether extract, dietary fiber and starch and physical properties (weight of 1000 grains, real density, flotation index, granulometry and color. In addition, also the lab scale processing of the kernels from the varieties was carried out for producing starch; starch purity was evaluated by measuring its protein contamination. Amylose contents and viscoamylograph profile were also evaluated. The results showed that the evaluated landraces have differences in chemical composition as well as in pericarp/endosperm/germ proportions and consequently it should have different industrial applications and interest for plant breeding.Esse trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar vinte variedades de milho crioulo cultivadas na região dos Campos Gerais (Estado do Paraná em relação a sua composição química (umidade, cinzas, proteína, extrato etéreo, fibra alimentar e amido e propriedades físicas (peso de 1000 grãos, densidade real, índice de flotação, granulometria e cor Além disso, foi feito o processamento dos grãos em escala de laboratório para a extração do amido, sendo mensurado o teor de proteína. Foram avaliados os conteúdos de amilose e o perfil viscoamilográfico. Os resultados mostraram que os milhos apresentaram diferentes composições químicas e proporções pericarpo/endosperma/ gérmen e consequentemente podem ter diferentes aplicações industriais e interesse ao melhoramento de plantas.

  12. Characterization of stormwater runoff from the Naval Air Station and Naval Wepons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas, 1994-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, T.H.; Baldys, Stanley; Lizarraga, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    The characterization of stormwater runoff from the Naval Air Station (NAS) and the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant (NWIRP), Dallas, Texas, is necessary to determine if runoff from the facilities is contributing to off-site contamination of surface waters, A network of five fixed sites and four grab sites was established to collect stormwater-runoff samples from a substantial part of the drainage area of each facility. Fixed sites were instrumented to measure and store precipitation, stage, discharge, and runoff-volume data and to collect flow-weighted composite samples during a storm. Grab and composite samples were collected for six storms at each of the five fixed sites from October 1994 to March 1996. The grab samples were analyzed for about 100 properties and constituents including specific conductance, pH, water temperature, bacteria, trace elements, oil and grease, total phenols, and volatile organic compounds. The composite samples were analyzed for about 220 properties and constituents including specific conductance, pH, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, major ions, suspended and dissolved solids, nutrients, trace elements, total organic carbon, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. Grab samples were collected for two storms (September 18,1995, and October 2,1995) at each of the four grab sites. The grab samples were analyzed for about 80 constituents including specific conductance, pH, water temperature, trace elements, and volatile organic compounds. Composite samples were collected for two of the six storms sampled at the fixed sites and analyzed for aquatic toxicity. Fathead minnow growth and survival toxicity tests and water flea reproduction and survival toxicity tests were done.

  13. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume III. Energy data on 15 selected states' manufacturing subsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the current and future energy demands, and uses, and cost to characterize typical applications and resulting services in the US and industrial sectors of 15 selected states. Volume III presents tables containing data on selected states' manufacturing subsector energy consumption, functional uses, and cost in 1974 and 1976. Alabama, California, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, and Wisconsin were chosen as having the greatest potential for replacing conventional fuel with solar energy. Basic data on the quantities, cost, and types of fuel and electric energy purchased by industr for heat and power were obtained from the 1974 and 1976 Annual Survey of Manufacturers. The specific indutrial energy servic cracteristics developed for each selected state include. 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electricity consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuel consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector average cost of purchsed fuels and electricity per million Btu by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electric energy intensity by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); manufacturing subsector average annual growth rates of (1) fuels and electricity consumption, (2) fuels and electric energy intensity, and (3) average cost of purchased fuels and electricity (1974 to 1976). Data are compiled on purchased fuels, distillate fuel oil, residual ful oil, coal, coal, and breeze, and natural gas. (MCW)

  14. Use of pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) to characterize forest soil carbon: method and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, K A; Evans, R J; Hoover, C M; Elam, C C; Davis, M F

    2002-01-01

    The components of soil organic matter (SOM) and their degradation dynamics in forest soils are difficult to study and thus poorly understood, due to time-consuming sample collection, preparation, and difficulty of analyzing and identifying major components. As a result, changes in soil organic matter chemical composition as a function of age, forest type, or disturbance have not been examined. We applied pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS), which provides rapid characterization of SOM of whole soil samples. to the Tionesta soil samples described by Hoover, C.M., Magrini, K.A., Evans, R.J., 2002. Soil carbon content and character in an old growth forest in northwestern Pennsylvania: a case study introducing molecular beam mass spectrometry (PY-MBMS). Environmental Pollution 116 (Supp. 1), S269-S278. Our goals in this work were to: (1) develop and demonstrate an advanced, rapid analytical method for characterizing SOM components in whole soils, and (2) provide data-based models to predict soil carbon content and residence time from py-MBMS analysis. Using py-MBMS and pattern recognition techniques we were able to statistically distinguish among four Tionesta sites and show an increase in pyrolysis products of more highly decomposed plant materials at increasing sample depth. For example, all four sites showed increasing amounts of older carbon (phenolic and aromatic species) at deeper depths and higher amounts of more recent carbon (carbohydrates and lignin products) at shallower depths. These results indicate that this type of analysis could be used to rapidly characterize SOM for the purpose of developing a model, which could be used in monitoring the effect of forest management practices on carbon uptake and storage.

  15. Bacterial expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic characterization of the invertase inhibitor Nt-CIF from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothorn, Michael; Bonneau, Fabien; Stier, Gunter; Greiner, Steffen; Scheffzek, Klaus

    2003-12-01

    Acid invertases catalyzing the breakdown of sucrose are regulated at the post-translational level by extracellular inhibitory proteins of 16-20 kDa molecular weight in a pH-dependent manner. Little is known about the characteristics of the underlying protein-protein interaction. Here, the expression, purification, characterization, crystallization and initial X-ray analysis of a biologically active invertase inhibitor Nt-CIF from tobacco is reported. Four crystal forms covering a wide pH range have been obtained and data sets at resolutions higher than 2.5 A have been collected.

  16. Preliminary functional characterization, cloning and primary sequence of Fastuosain, a cysteine peptidase isolated from fruits of Bromelia fastuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Hamilton; Leopoldino, Andréia M; Tajara, Eloiza H; Greene, Lewis J; Faça, Vitor M; Mateus, Rogério P; Ceron, Carlos R; de Souza Judice, Wagner A; Julianod, Luiz; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of Fastuosain, a novel cysteine protease of 25kDa, purified from the unripe fruits of Bromelia fastuosa, a wild South American Bromeliaceae. Proteolytic activity, measured using casein and synthetic substrates, was dependent on the presence of thiol reagents, having maximum activity at pH 7.0. The present work reports cDNA cloning of Fastuosain; cDNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers. The product was 1096pb long. Mature fastuosain has 217 residues, and with the proregion has a total length of 324 residues. Its primary sequence showed high homology with ananain(74%), stem bromelain (66%) and papain (44%).

  17. The isolation and preliminary characterization of native cyanobacterial and microalgal strains from lagoons contaminated with petroleum oil in Khark Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Noroozi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Algae has many applications in terms of ecology, biodiversity, agriculture, medicine, biotechnology, industry, etc. They are potent organisms in bio-active compound production, bioremediation and primary producer. Therefore, it is important to discover local strains with biotechnological and ecological applications. Materials and methods: Soil and water samples were collected from different sites of Khark Island (Persian Gulf. The samples were cultivated and purified using different techniques. Seven different antibiotics together with other physical methods used to purify the isolates. Results: Throughout the project 7 strains including 2 eukaryotic algae and 5 cyanobacteria have been isolated. Imipenem and cycloheximide were the best antibiotics for purification of cultures. Three of isolates were morphologically similar to Arthronema africanum, Pseudanabaena teremula, Anabaenopsis sp. However, they have some different characteristics which according to the present identification keys it is not possible to identify their identity (they have nominated Kh.C.d2, Kh.T.1 and Kh.T.2. Discussion and conclusion: According to the results, isolated strains were identified at the genus level based on morphology characters; therefore the complementary examinations such as molecular identification, ITS, 18s rRNA, 16s rRNA and sequencing can help to approve the strains identity. Upon approval of the new strains account for morphological traits are necessary for their easy identification. The Imipenem antibiotic is the best for eukaryotic algae purification and Cycloheximide is suitable for prokaryotic algae (cyanobacteria purification.

  18. Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

  19. Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes; Caracterizacion y extraccion de oro contenido en matrices de desechos industriales de fundicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.; Carreno de Leon, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Depto. de Estudios del Ambiente, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

  20. 半导体工业废水污染特征因子初探%Preliminary Research of Characteristic Pollution Factor of Semiconductor Industry Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云

    2014-01-01

    指出了集成电路和印制电路板是半导体工业的主要组成部分,而在生产过程中会大量使用氢氟酸,使得虽经过处理后的生产废水中氟离子浓度仍较高,达到7 mg/L左右;通过将半导体企业排放废水与生活污水、地下水及地表水中氟离子浓度进行比较,提出了以氟离子浓度作为半导体工业废水的污染特征因子,并结合不同雨污混接类型污染特征因子,依据物料和水量守恒得出不同混接类型的近似混接水量比例计算公式,以期为后续的雨污混接溯源和雨污改造工程提供借鉴。%Integrated circuits and printed circuit boards are major components of the semiconductor industry ,and a great deal of hydrofluoric acid is used in the production process ,so that the fluorine ion concentration reaches 7 mg/L or so which is high in the production wastewater though it has been treated .Based on the comparison of the fluorine ion concentration of sewage discharge ,groundwater and surface water in the semiconductor industry ,this article takes the fluorine ion concentration as the pollution factor of production wastewater of the semiconductor industry ,and by combining with other tracer parameters of different types of non -stormwater entries into storm drainage systems ,it draws the formulas of illicit discharged water quantity according to the materials and quantity conservation ,which can describe the mixed ratios of different types of illegal discharge sources .The result will be much useful for the subsequent work of determing what types of mixed discharge sources and so does the renovation project .

  1. 工业大麻高效再生体系的初步研究%Preliminary Study on Efficient Regeneration System of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜颖; 夏尊民; 韩承伟; 李秋芝; 赵越; 曹洪勋

    2015-01-01

    选用工业大麻新品种龙麻一号的下胚轴作为外植体进行组织培养,对无菌苗的获得、植物生长调节剂的选择及浓度等影响工业大麻组织培养的关键因素进行研究,愈伤组织诱导的最适植物生长调节剂组合为1.0mg/L 6-BA 和0.5mg/L NAA,不定芽分化的最适激素组合为1.0mg/L KT 和0.5mg/L NAA,以1/2MS +0.05mg/L IBA +0.05mg/L NAA 激素组合生根效果较好。初步建立工业大麻高效再生体系,愈伤组织诱导率达到91.67%,不定芽分化率达到76.67%,生根率达到75%。%The Hypocotyls of a new industrial hemp cultivar Long -ma No.1 were used as explants for tissue culture.The paper studied the key factors of industrial hemp tissue culture such as the physio-logical state of aseptic seedlings,the selection and concentration of plant growth regulators and so on. The best combination of plant growth regulators was 1.0 mg/L 6 -BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA for the induc-tion of callus.The best combination of hormones was 1.0 mg/L KT and 0.5 mg/L NAA for the differen-tiation rate of adventitious bud.The best combination was 1 /2 MS +0.05 mg/L IBA +0.05 mg/L NAA for rooting.The efficient regeneration system for industrial hemp was built preliminarily.The induction rate of callus was 91.67%,the differentiation rate of adventitious bud was 76.67%,the induction rate of root was 75%.

  2. Preliminary characterization of nitrogen and phosphorus in groundwater discharging to Lake Spokane, northeastern Washington, using stable nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Cox, Stephen E.; Spanjer, Andrew R.

    2016-02-29

    Lake Spokane, locally referred to as Long Lake, is a 24-mile-long section of the Spokane River impounded by Long Lake Dam that has, in recent decades, experienced water-quality problems associated with eutrophication. Consumption of oxygen by the decomposition of aquatic plants that have proliferated because of high nutrient concentrations has led to seasonally low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the lake. Of nitrogen and phosphorus, the two primary nutrients necessary for aquatic vegetation growth, phosphorus was previously identified as the limiting nutrient that regulates the growth of aquatic plants and, thus, dissolved oxygen concentrations in Lake Spokane. Phosphorus is delivered to Lake Spokane from municipal and industrial point-source inputs to the Spokane River upstream of Lake Spokane, but is also conveyed by groundwater and surface water from nonpoint-sources including septic tanks, agricultural fields, and wildlife. In response, the Washington State Department of Ecology listed Lake Spokane on the 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for low dissolved oxygen concentrations and developed a Total Maximum Daily Load for phosphorus in 1992, which was revised in 2010 because of continuing algal blooms and water-quality concerns.This report evaluates the concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in shallow groundwater discharging to Lake Spokane to determine if a difference exists between nutrient concentrations in groundwater discharging to the lake downgradient of residential development with on-site septic systems and downgradient of undeveloped land without on-site septic systems. Elevated nitrogen isotope values (δ15N) within the roots of aquatic vegetation were used as an indicator of septic-system derived nitrogen. δ15N values were measured in August and September 2014 downgradient of residential development near the lakeshore, of residential development on 300-ft-high terraces above the lake, and of undeveloped land in the eastern (upper) and

  3. Characterization of genome-wide microsatellites of Saccharina japonica based on a preliminary assembly of Illumina sequencing reads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linan; Peng, Jie; Li, Xiaojie; Cui, Cuiju; Sun, Juan; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-06-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) function widely and locate dependently in genome. However, their characteristics are often ignored due to the lack of genomic sequences of most species. Kelp ( Saccharina japonica), a brown macroalga, is extensively cultured in China. In this study, the genome of S. japonica was surveyed using an Illumina sequencing platform, and its microsatellites were characterized. The preliminarily assembled genome was 469.4 Mb in size, with a scaffold N50 of 20529 bp. Among the 128370 identified microsatellites, 90671, 25726 and 11973 were found in intergenic regions, introns and exons, averaging 339.3, 178.8 and 205.4 microsatellites per Mb, respectively. These microsatellites distributed unevenly in S. japonica genome. Mononucleotide motifs were the most abundant in the genome, while trinucleotide ones were the most prevalent in exons. The microsatellite abundance decreased significantly with the increase of motif repeat numbers, and the microsatellites with a small number of repeats accounted for a higher proportion of the exons than those of the intergenic regions and introns. C/G-rich motifs were more common in exons than in intergenic regions and introns. These characteristics of microsatellites in S. japonica genome may associate with their functions, and ultimately their adaptation and evolution. Among the 120140 pairs of designed microsatellite primers, approximately 75% were predicted to be able to amplify S. japonica DNA. These microsatellite markers will be extremely useful for the genetic breeding and population evolution studies of kelp.

  4. Recombinant expression, purification and preliminary characterization of the mRNA export factor MEX67 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Gaurav; Pandey, Tripti; Kumar, Bijay; Akhtar, Md Sohail; Tripathi, Timir

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear export of macromolecules is facilitated by the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), embedded in the nuclear envelope and consists of multi-protein complexes. MEX67 is one of the nuclear export factor responsible for the transport of the majority of cellular mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The mechanism of mRNA transport through NPCs is unclear due to the unavailability of structures and the known interacting partners of MEX67. The mex67 gene was cloned in pQE30A and was expressed in Escherichia coli. A strategy has been developed to purify the insoluble MEX67 using a nickel affinity column with chelating Sepharose fast flow media, after solubilizing with sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (Sarkosyl). The IMAC purified recombinant MEX67 was further purified using SEC to apparent homogeneity (∼8 mg/L). Following SEC, MEX67 was stable and observed to be a 67 kDa monomeric protein as determined by PAGE and the size exclusion chromatography. The availability of large quantities of the protein will help in its biochemical and biophysical characterization, which may lead to the identification of new interaction partners of MEX67 or MEX67 complex.

  5. The membrane skeleton in Paramecium: Molecular characterization of a novel epiplasmin family and preliminary GFP expression results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomel, Sébastien; Diogon, Marie; Bouchard, Philippe; Pradel, Lydie; Ravet, Viviane; Coffe, Gérard; Viguès, Bernard

    2006-02-01

    Previous attempts to identify the membrane skeleton of Paramecium cells have revealed a protein pattern that is both complex and specific. The most prominent structural elements, epiplasmic scales, are centered around ciliary units and are closely apposed to the cytoplasmic side of the inner alveolar membrane. We sought to characterize epiplasmic scale proteins (epiplasmins) at the molecular level. PCR approaches enabled the cloning and sequencing of two closely related genes by amplifications of sequences from a macronuclear genomic library. Using these two genes (EPI-1 and EPI-2), we have contributed to the annotation of the Paramecium tetraurelia macronuclear genome and identified 39 additional (paralogous) sequences. Two orthologous sequences were found in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome. Structural analysis of the 43 sequences indicates that the hallmark of this new multigenic family is a 79 aa domain flanked by two Q-, P- and V-rich stretches of sequence that are much more variable in amino-acid composition. Such features clearly distinguish members of the multigenic family from epiplasmic proteins previously sequenced in other ciliates. The expression of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-tagged epiplasmin showed significant labeling of epiplasmic scales as well as oral structures. We expect that the GFP construct described herein will prove to be a useful tool for comparative subcellular localization of different putative epiplasmins in Paramecium.

  6. Isolation and preliminary characterization of a respiratory nitrate reductase from hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Gordonia alkanivorans S7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowska, Irena; Kwapisz, Ewa; Mitka, Magdalena; Bielecki, Stanisław

    2010-06-01

    Gordonia alkanivorans S7 is an efficient degrader of fuel oil hydrocarbons that can simultaneously utilize oxygen and nitrate as electron acceptors. The respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) from this organism has been isolated using ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration, and then preliminarily characterized. PAGE, SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography revealed that Nar consisted of three subunits of 103, 53 and 25 kDa. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.9 and 40 degrees C. K(m) values for NO(3)(-) (110 microM) and for ClO(3)(-) (138 microM) were determined for a reduced viologen as an electron donor. The purified Nar did not use NADH as the electron donor to reduce nitrate or chlorate. Azide was a strong inhibitor of its activity. Our results imply that enzyme isolated from G. alkanivorans S7 is a respiratory membrane-bound nitrate reductase. This is the first report of purification of a nitrate reductase from Gordonia species.

  7. Preliminary results of the in vivo and in vitro characterization of a tentacle venom fraction from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2013-12-06

    The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC(50) values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors.

  8. Detection and preliminary characterization of antibacterial protein(s in the serum of mud crab, Scylla serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Meiyalagan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Serum of mud crab, Scylla serrata has been found to possess significant antibacterial activity against some of the resident specific bacteria including Bacillus sp. N1, Bacillus flexus N3, Escherichia coli as well as crustacean pathogenic bacteria viz., Vibrio harveyi, V. alginolyticus and V. vulnificus. The physico-chemical characterization reveals the molecule responsible for antibacterial activity in the serum over 14 kDa, stable in the pH range of 6 to 8 and between the temperatures 20 to 40 ºC. Precipitation of respective molecule(s with 75 % ammonium sulphate or the supernatant obtained after precipitating the protein with 10 % TCA indicated that the molecule(s responsible for serum antibacterial activity appear to be proteinaceous in nature. Further studies demonstrated that antibacterial molecule(s against E. coli and V. harveyi appeared to be trypsin and pronase resistant and the molecule(s or domain responsible for antibacterial activity against Bacillus sp. N1 and B. flexus N3 appeared to be protease sensitive, thereby implicating possible involvement of multiple antibacterial factors in the serum of mud crab, S. serrata.

  9. Construction and Preliminary Characterization Analysis of Wuzhishan Miniature Pig Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 8-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries have been invaluable tools for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. Here, we report the construction and characterization of a high-redundancy BAC library from a very valuable pig breed in China, Wuzhishan miniature pig (Sus scrofa, using its blood cells and fibroblasts, respectively. The library contains approximately 153,600 clones ordered in 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 152.3 kb, representing approximately 7.68 genome equivalents of the porcine haploid genome and a 99.93% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence in the library. 19 pairs of microsatellite marker primers covering porcine chromosomes were used for screening the BAC library, which showed that each of these markers was positive in the library; the positive clone number was 2 to 9, and the average number was 7.89, which was consistent with 7.68-fold coverage of the porcine genome. And there were no significant differences of genomic BAC library from blood cells and fibroblast cells. Therefore, we identified 19 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. As a result, this BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for gene identification, physical mapping, and comparative genomics and large-scale genome sequencing in the porcine.

  10. Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors. PMID:24322597

  11. Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Ponce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors.

  12. Native bitumens in surficial soils of the Athabasca oil sands region : preliminary characterization and assessment of contaminant mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, M.; Fleming, I. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering; Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). National Hydrology Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted on bitumen tarballs located in surficial soils in Alberta's Athabasca region. The tarballs occur in every soil type in the region, and pose a challenge to oil sands operators who hope to use the soils for reclamation activities. Chromatographic analyses have shown that the tarballs contain variable petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and possess a characteristic chromatographic footprint. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment has characterized the hydrocarbons according to various fractions. A soil-column leaching study is also being conducted by the University of Saskatchewan on heavily-impacted tarball soil under unsaturated conditions. Results of the study have indicated that the soil has low levels of contaminant mobility and degradation. Hydrocarbon concentrations in leachate water are less than 20 per cent of ground water guidelines for Alberta. It was concluded that after respiration over 9 months, the most active soil column in the study degraded only 2.7 g of an estimated 650 g.

  13. Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of Proteinaceous Toxins with Insecticidal and Antibacterial Activities from Black Widow Spider (L. tredecimguttatus Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The eggs of black widow spider (L. tredecimguttatus have been demonstrated to be rich in toxic proteinaceous components. The study on such active components is of theoretical and practical importance. In the present work, using a combination of multiple biochemical and biological strategies, we isolated and characterized the proteinaceous components from the aqueous extract of the black widow spider eggs. After gel filtration of the egg extract, the resulting main protein and peptide peaks were further fractionated by ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Two proteinaceous components, named latroeggtoxin-III and latroeggtoxin-IV, respectively, were purified to homogeneity. Latroeggtoxin-III was demonstrated to have a molecular weight of about 36 kDa. Activity analysis indicated that latroeggtoxin-III exhibited neurotoxicity against cockroaches but had no obvious effect on mice, suggesting that it is an insect-specific toxin. Latroeggtoxin-IV, with a molecular weight of 3.6 kDa, was shown to be a broad-spectrum antibacterial peptide, showing inhibitory activity against all five species of bacteria tested, with the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, the implications of the proteinaceous toxins in egg protection and their potential applications were analyzed and discussed.

  14. Preliminary Characterization of Crude Lectin Fraction of the Red Alga, Acrocystis nana from Wediombo Beach of the Southern Coast of Java Island, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anam, C.; Praseptiangga, D.; Nugraheni, M. A.; Nurhayati, T.; Fajarningsih, N. D.; Zilda, D. S.; Chasanah, E.; Yunus, A.

    2017-04-01

    Lectins, bioactive compounds that found in algae, are bind to sugars or glycoproteins reversibly with high specificity, but are devoid of catalytic activity, and in contrast to antibodies, are not products of an immune response. Acrocystis nana is a species of red alga that is collected from the Wediombo beach, coastal region of Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta. Hemaglutination activity of a crude lectin fraction from Acrocystis nana was examined using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes and its chemical properties, including its protein content, stability on pH, temperature, and divalent cations were determined as a preliminary characterization phase. Crude lectin of Acrocystis nana showed a titer of 212 on hemagglutination activity assay and the protein content was 6225.44 µg/ml. Hemagglutination activity of this crude lectin was stable after treatment at various pH from 3 to 10 and its activity was lost by heating at 50°C until 100°C. Moreover, the hemagglutination activity was slightly affected by divalent cations treatment, indicating that the presence of divalent cations may require for its activity, however, further studies are still needed for a more comprehensive understanding about its properties.

  15. Preliminary Studies on the Tissue Culture of Cannabis sativa L. (Industrial hemp)%汉麻组织培养的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜颖; 夏尊民; 唐艳; 韩强; 韩承伟

    2015-01-01

    The internodes of the new cultivar Long-ma No.1 of Cannabis sativa L. (In-dustrial hemp) were used as explants for tissue culture. The paper studied the key factors of industrial hemp tissue culture, such as the physiological state of aseptic seedlings, the selection and concentration of plant growth regulators and so on. Hemp seed disinfection used 75% alcohol for 2 min and sterilized in 1‰ HgCl2 for 5 min. The best combinations of plant growth regulators were 1.0 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA for the induction of cal us, and the best combinations of hormones were 1.0 mg/L KT and 0.5 mg/L NAA for differentiation rate of adventitious bud.%以汉麻新品种“龙麻一号”的茎节为初始材料,研究了汉麻组织培养中的关键因素如无菌苗的获得及其生理状态、植物生长调节剂的选择及其浓度等。选用 MS作为基本培养基;种子消毒用75%乙醇浸泡2 min后,再用1‰的升汞溶液(HgCl2)浸泡处理5 min;愈伤组织诱导的最适植物生长调节剂组合为1.0 mg/L 6-BA和0.5mg/L NAA;不定芽分化的最适激素组合为1.0 mg/L KT和0.5 mg/L NAA。

  16. Fine and coarse particulate matter chemical characterization in a heavily industrialized city in central Mexico during Winter 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Hugo; Martínez-Villa, Gerardo; Sosa, Gustavo; González-Avalos, Eugenio; Reyes, Elizabeth; García, José

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the first reported study on fine particulate matter (PM) chemical composition at Salamanca, a highly industrialized urban area of Central Mexico. Samples were collected at six sites within the urban area during February and March 2003. Several trace elements, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and six ions were analyzed to characterize aerosols. Average concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM10) and fine PM with aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) ranged from 32.2 to 76.6 [g m(-3) and 11.1 to 23.7 microg m(-3), respectively. OC (34%), SO4= (25.1%), EC (12.9%), and geological material (12.5%) were the major components of PM2.5. For PM10 geological material (57.9%), OC (17.3%), and SO4= (9.7%) were the major components. Coarse fraction (PM,, -PM2.5), geological material (81.7%), and OC (8.6%) were the dominant species, which amounted to 90.4%. Correlation analysis showed that sulfate in PM2.5 was present as ammonium sulfate. Sulfate showed a significant spatial variation with higher concentrations to the north resulting from predominantly southwesterly winds above the surface layer and by major SO2 sources that include a power plant and refinery. At the urban site of Cruz Roja it was observed that PM2.5 mass concentrations were similar to the submicron fraction concentrations. Furthermore, the correlation between EC in PM2.5 and EC measured from an aethalometer was r(2) = 0.710. Temporal variations of SO2 and nitrogen oxide were observed during a day when the maximum concentration of PM2.5 was measured, which was associated with emissions from the nearby refinery and power plant. From cascade impactor measurements, the three measured modes of airborne particles corresponded with diameters of 0.32, 1.8, and 5.6 microm.

  17. Bone marrow depletion with haemorrhagic diathesis in calves in Germany: characterization of the disease and preliminary investigations on its aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappe, Eva C; Halami, Mohammad Yahya; Schade, Benjamin; Alex, Michaela; Hoffmann, Doris; Gangl, Armin; Meyer, Karsten; Dekant, Wolfgang; Schwarz, Bernd-Andreas; Johne, Reimar; Buitkamp, Johannes; Böttcher, Jens; Müller, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Since 2007 a new fatal haemorrhagic diathesis in calves has been observed in all areas of Germany. Analysis of 56 cases submitted for necropsy allowed its characterization. Calves fell ill within the first month of life independent of breed and sex. Only single or a few animals per herd were affected. Petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages in many organs and tissues, particularly in skin, subcutis and gastrointestinal tract, were major findings in all animals. Microscopically a severe depletion of bone marrow cells was always observed. Lymphocytic depletion (43%) and inflammatory lesions (46%) were less frequently observed. Blood analysis of five animals indicated an aplastic pancytopenia. The resulting thrombocytopenia is regarded as major pathomechanism of this Haemorrhagic Disease Syndrome (HDS). Pedigree analysis gave no indication of hereditary disease. Tests for specific toxins such as S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), furazolidone, or mycotoxins resulting in bone marrow depletion were negative. Bacterial infections, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, and Bluetongue Virus were ruled out as cause of the disease. HDS shares similarities with a circoviral infection in chickens (chicken infectious anaemia). A broad-spectrum PCR allowed detection of circoviral DNA in 5 of 25 HDS cases and in 1 of 8 non-HDS cases submitted for necropsy. Sequencing of the whole viral genome revealed a high similarity (up to 99%) with Porcine Circovirus type 2b. Single bone marrow cells stained weakly positive for PCV2 antigen by immunohistochemistry in 1 of 8 tested HDS animals. This is the first report of circovirus detection in cattle in Germany. The exact cause of HDS still remains unknown. A multifactorial aetiology involving infection, poisoning, immunopathy, or a genetic predisposition is conceivable. Additional research is necessary to clarify the pathogenesis and the potential role of PCV2 in HDS.

  18. Characterization of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostates using transrectal 31phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, P.; Jajodia, P.; Kurhanewicz, J.; Thomas, A.; MacDonald, J.; Hubesch, B.; Hedgcock, M.; Anderson, C.M.; James, T.L.; Tanagho, E.A. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco (USA))

    1991-07-01

    We assessed the ability of 31phosphorus (31P) transrectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize normal human prostates as well as prostates with benign and malignant neoplasms. With a transrectal probe that we devised for surface coil spectroscopy we studied 15 individuals with normal (5), benign hyperplastic (4) and malignant (6) prostates. Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to aid in accurate positioning of the transrectal probe against the region of interest within the prostate. The major findings of the in vivo studies were that normal prostates had phosphocreatine-to-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratios of 1.2 +/- 0.2, phosphomonoester-to-beta-ATP ratios of 1.1 +/- 0.1 and phosphomonoester-to-phosphocreatine ratios of 0.9 +/- 0.1. Malignant prostates had phosphocreatine-to-beta-ATP ratios that were lower (0.7 +/- 0.1) than those of normal prostates (p less than 0.02) or prostates with benign hyperplasia. Malignant prostates had phosphomonoester-to-beta-ATP ratios (1.8 +/- 0.2) that were higher than that of normal prostates (p less than 0.02). Using the phosphomonoester-to-phosphocreatine ratio, it was possible to differentiate metabolically malignant (2.7 +/- 0.3) from normal prostates (p less than 0.001), with no overlap of individual ratios. The mean phosphomonoester-to-phosphocreatine ratio (1.5 +/- 0.5) of prostates with benign hyperplasia was midway between the normal and malignant ratios, and there was overlap between individual phosphomonoester-to-phosphocreatine ratios of benign prostatic hyperplasia glands with that of normal and malignant glands. To verify the in vivo results, we performed high resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy on perchloric acid extracts of benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue obtained at operation and on a human prostatic cancer cell line DU145.

  19. Characterization of co-digestion of industrial sludges for biogas production by artificial neural network and statistical regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Biswanath; Zafar, Mohd; Park, Hung-Suck

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics and impact of industrial sludges of paper, chemical, petrochemical, automobile, and food industries situated in the Ulsan Industrial Complex, Ulsan, Republic of Korea in co-digestion for biogas production were assessed by artificial neural network (ANN) and statistical regression models. The regression model was based on a simplex-centroid mixture design and the ANN was based on a resilient back-propagation algorithm (topology 5-7-1). Using connection weights and bias of the trained ANN model, the impact of each sludge of co-digestion was assessed using Garsons' algorithm. Results suggested that the modelling and predictability of ANN were superior to the regression model with accuracy (A(f)) 1.01, bias (B(f)) 1.00, root mean square error 3.56, and standard error of prediction 2.51%. Sludge from the chemical industry showed the highest impact on specific methane yield (SMY(VS)) with a relative importance of 28.59% followed by sludges from paper (20.07%), food (19.59%), petrochemical (15.92%), and automobile (15.82%) industries. The interactions between diverse industrial sludges were successfully modelled and partitioned into various synergistic and antagonistic effects on SMY(VS). Synergistic interactions between the chemical industry sludge and either petrochemical or food industry sludges on SMY(VS) were detected. However, strong negative interaction between automobile sludge and other sludges was observed. This study indicates that though the ANN model performed better in prediction and impact assessments, the regression model reveals the synergistic and antagonistic interactions among sludges.

  20. Surface modified solid lipid microparticles based on homolipids and Softisan® 142:preliminary characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnamani PO; Ibezim EC; Attama AA; Adikwu MU

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To preliminarily investigate three different lipid matrices consisting of two natural homolipids fromCapra hircus (goat fat) andBovine Spp.(tallow fat) and one semi-synthetic lipid (Softisan® 142) separately structured with Phospholipon® 90G (P90G) as potential delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs.Methods:The structured lipid matrices were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and employed to prepare solid lipid microparticles(SLMs) by the melt homogenization method using gradient concentrations of polysorbate 80 and at different emulsification times of 2, 5 and 10 min using a Silverson mixer. TheSLMs were analyzed for morphology and particle size, thermal properties, stability studies and determination of injectability.Results: The results showed that SLM production was optimum at 5 % of lipid matrices, 1.5 % of polysorbate 80 and emulsification time of 5 min. Increase in polysorbate 80 concentrations decreased the particle size of the SLMs. TheSLMs were well formed, spherical, smooth and non-porous with particle sizes in the ranges of (13.90± 2.10) μm– (0.09 ± 0.01) μm for SLMs produced from the structured - tallow fat; (13.40± 1.30)μm– (0.10 ± 0.01) μm for the structured– goat fat and (13.40±2.00) μm– (2.10± 1.00)μm for the structured Softisan® 142 lipid matrices. DSC traces showed that Softisan® 142 was the most crystalline of all three bulk matrices due to its high enthalpy (-7.962 mW/mg) while tallow fat was the least (-5.067 mW/mg) but addition of P90G to the matrices lowered their enthalpies mostly in the structured goat fat matrices. The SLMs when stored at 4-6 ℃ were most stable and syringeable with 27 G needle.Conclusions:This suggests that structured goat fat matrices with the enthalpy of -2.813 mW/mg will mostly favour drug loading of some poorly soluble drugs more than tallow fat (-4.892 mW/mg) and Softisan® 142 (-5.501 mW/mg).

  1. Characterize Behaviour of Emerging Pollutants in Artificial Recharge: Column Experiments - Experiment Design and Results of Preliminary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Carrera, J.; Ayora, C.; Licha, T.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging pollutants (EPs) have been detected in water resources as a result of human activities in recent years. They include pharmaceuticals, personal care products, dioxins, flame retardants, etc. They are a source of concern because many of them are resistant to conventional water treatment, and they are harmful to human health, even in low concentrations. Generally, this study aims to characterize the behaviour of emerging pollutants in reclaimed water in column experiments which simulates artificial recharge. One column set includes three parts: influent, reactive layer column (RLC) and aquifer column (AC). The main influent is decided to be Secondary Effluent (SE) of El Prat Wastewater Treatment Plant, Barcelona. The flow rate of the column experiment is 0.9-1.5 mL/min. the residence time of RLC is designed to be about 1 day and 30-40 days for AC. Both columns are made of stainless steel. Reactive layer column (DI 10cm * L55cm) is named after the filling material which is a mixture of organic substrate, clay and goethite. One purpose of the application of the mixture is to increase dissolve organic carbon (DOC). Leaching test in batchs and columns has been done to select proper organic substrate. As a result, compost was selected due to its long lasting of releasing organic matter (OM). The other purpose of the application of the mixture is to enhance adsorption of EPs. Partition coefficients (Kow) of EPs indicate the ability of adsorption to OM. EPs with logKow>2 could be adsorbed to OM, like Ibuprofen, Bezafibrate and Diclofenac. Moreover, some of EPs are charged in the solution with pH=7, according to its acid dissociation constant (Ka). Positively charged EPs, for example Atenolol, could adsorb to clay. In the opposite, negatively charged EPs, for example Gemfibrozil, could adsorb to goethite. Aquifer column (DI 35cm * L1.5m) is to simulate the processes taking place in aquifer in artificial recharge. The filling of AC has two parts: silica sand and

  2. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Crislene; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: crislene@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m{sup -3} to 55 ± 4 kBq.m{sup -3}. For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m{sup -3} and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m{sup -3}, diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  3. The greenhouse gas balance of the oil palm industry in Colombia: a preliminary analysis. II. Greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian E Henson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the preceding paper we examined carbon sequestration in oil palm plantations and in mill products and by-products as part of a study of the greenhouse gas balance of palm oil production in Colombia, showing how this has changed over time. Here, we look at the opposing processes of greenhouse gas (GHG emission and calculate the resulting net carbon budget for the industry. The main emission sources, in decreasing order of magnitude, assessed using "default" or "most probable" options, were found to be land use change (40.9% of total, mill methane production (21.4%, direct use of fossil fuel (18.5%, indirect use of fossil fuel (11.9% and nitrous oxide production (7.3%. The total (gross emissions, expressed in carbon equivalents (Ceq., were less than the amount of sequestered carbon, resulting in a positive net Ceq. balance. All oil palm growing regions showed a net gain with the exception of the western zone, where emissions due to land-use change were judged to be substantial. Of the 11 alternative scenarios tested, only three resulted in Ceq. balances lower than the default and only two gave a negative balance

  4. Characterization of industrial waste from a natural gas distribution company and management strategies: a case study of the East Azerbaijan Gas Company (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Aslhashemi, Ahmad; Assadi, Mohammad; Khodaei, Firoz; Mardangahi, Baharak; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Roshani, Babak

    2012-10-01

    Although a fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation of any waste management plan is the availability of sufficient and accurate data, there are few available studies regarding the characterization and management of gas distribution company waste (GDCW). This study aimed to characterize the industrial waste generated by the East Azerbaijan Gas Distribution Company (EAGDC) and to present environmental management strategies. The EAGDC serves 57 cities and 821 villages with a total population of more than 2.5 million as well as numerous industrial units. The methodology of this study was based on a checklist of data collected from each zone of the company, site visits (observation), and quantity and quality analysis according to the formal data available from different zones. The results indicate that more than 35 different kinds of industrial solid waste are generated in different industrial installations. The most important types of generated waste include empty barrels (including mercaptans, diesel fuel, deionized waters and oil), faulty gas meters and regulators, a variety of industrial oils, sleeves, filter elements and faulty pipes, valves and fittings. The results indicated that, currently, GDCW is generally handled and disposed of with domestic waste, deposited in companies' installation yards and stores or, sometimes, recycled through non-scientific approaches that can create health risks to the public and the environment, even though most of the GDCW was determined to be recyclable or reusable materials. This study concludes that gas distribution companies must pay more attention to source reduction, recycling and reusing of waste to preserve natural resources, landfill space and the environment.

  5. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 μg/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 μg/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the

  6. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  7. Selection and characterization of Euglena anabaena var. minor as a new candidate Euglena species for industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kengo; Mitra, Sharbanee; Iwata, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Kato, Sueo; Yamada, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Euglena gracilis is a microalgae used as a model organism. Recently, mass cultivation of this species has been achieved for industrial applications. The genus Euglena includes more than 200 species that share common useful features, but the potential industrial applications of other Euglena species have not been evaluated. Thus, we conducted a pilot screening study to identify other species that proliferate at a sufficiently rapid rate to be used for mass cultivation; we found that Euglena anabaena var. minor had a rapid growth rate. In addition, its cells accumulated more than 40% weight of carbohydrate, most of which is considered to be a euglenoid specific type of beta-1-3-glucan, paramylon. Carbohydrate is stored in E. anabaena var. minor cells during normal culture, whereas E. gracilis requires nitrogen limitation to facilitate paramylon accumulation. These results suggest the potential industrial application of E. anabaena var. minor.

  8. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina F. R. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate; copper; and sulfates.

  9. Characterization of Wet and Dry Deposition in the Downwind of Industrial Sources in a Dry Tropical Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Singh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An atmospheric deposition study was conducted in the downwind of Shaktinagar Thermal Power Plant (STPP, Renusagar Thermal Power Plant (RTPP, and Anpara Thermal Power Plant (ATPP, at Singrauli region, Uttar Pradesh (UP, India to characterize dry and wet deposition in relation to different pollution loading. During the study period, dry and wet depositions and levels of gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2 were estimated across the sites. Dry deposition was collected on a monthly basis and wet deposition on an event basis. Depositions were analyzed for pH, nitrate (NO3�, ammonium (NH4+, and sulphate (SO42� contents. Dry deposition rate both collected as clearfall and throughfall varied between 0.15 to 2.28 and 0.33 to 3.48 g m�2 day�1, respectively, at control and maximally polluted sites. The pH of dry deposition varied from 5.81 to 6.89 during winter and 6.09 to 7.02 during summer across the sites. During the rainy season, the mean pH of clear wet deposition varied from 6.56 to 7.04 and throughfall varied from 6.81 to 7.22. The concentrations of NO2 and SO2 pollutants were highest during the winter season. Mean SO2 concentrations varied from 18 to 75 �g m�3 at control and differently polluted sites during the winter season. The variation in NO2 concentrations did not show a pattern similar to that of SO2. The highest NO2 concentration during the winter season was 50 �g m�3, observed near RTPP. NO2 concentration did not show much variation among different sites, suggesting that the sources of NO2 emission are evenly distributed along the sites. The concentrations of NH4+, NO3�, and SO42� ions in dry deposition were found to be higher in summer as compared to the winter season. In dry deposition (clearfall the concentrations of NH4+, NO3�, and SO42� varied from 0.13 to 1.0, 0.81 to 1.95, and 0.82 to 3.27 mg l�1, respectively, during winter. In wet deposition (clearfall, the above varied from 0.14 to 0.74, 0.81 to 1.82, and 0

  10. CHARACTERIZATION AND USES OF THE “QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES" FOR HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio V. Ibarra-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines and studies, analyzes and elaborates and classifies and categorizes the main qualitative techniques for hazards identification and assessment in chemical industrial processes. It specifies that these techniques base their effectiveness both, on analytical estimation processes and on the safety managers-engineers ability. It enumerates also those that present a bigger use frequency as well as the dangers that identify and the results that they give. Their use is linked, in function of the complexity level of the analysis technique, with the different stages of the life of industrial projects / processes.

  11. Preliminary study of potential energy savings within business and industry by reducing over-harmonies; Forundersoegelse af muligheder for energibesparelser i erhvervslivet ved reduktion af overharmoniske stroemme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Kehr, J.M. (ABB A/S, Skovlunde (Denmark)); Hoejte Hansen, H. (Balslev A/S (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    provide reduced pulsating motor torques), reduced costs for reactive power and a longer lifetime for production equipment. On the basis of the extent of harmonic distortions in Danish business and industry, our experience with electricity savings with active filters and the electricity consumption in directly supplied motors of approx 7,000 GWh/year, the potential electricity savings by installing active filters are estimated at 30 to 60 GWh/year.

  12. Relationship of atmospheric pollution characterized by gas (NO2) and particles (PM10) to microbial communities living in bryophytes at three differently polluted sites (rural, urban, and industrial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caroline; Gilbert, Daniel; Gaudry, André; Franchi, Marielle; Nguyen, Hung Viet; Fabure, Juliette; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a major problem for modern societies owing to its fatal effects on both human health and ecosystems. We studied the relationships of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric pollution and metal trace elements contained in atmospheric particles which were accumulated in bryophytes to microbial communities of bryophytes at three differently polluted sites in France (rural, urban, and industrial) over an 8-month period. The analysis of bryophytes showed an accumulation of Cr and Fe at the rural site; Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, and Pb at the urban site; and Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Sr, Cu, and Zn at the industrial site. During this study, the structure of the microbial communities which is characterized by biomasses of microbial groups evolved differently according to the site. Microalgae, bacteria, rotifers, and testate amoebae biomasses were significantly higher in the rural site. Cyanobacteria biomass was significantly higher at the industrial site. Fungal and ciliate biomasses were significantly higher at the urban and industrial sites for the winter period and higher at the rural site for the spring period. The redundancy analysis showed that the physico-chemical variables ([NO(2)], relative humidity, temperature, and site) and the trace elements which were accumulated in bryophytes ([Cu], [Sr], [Pb]) explained 69.3% of the variance in the microbial community data. Moreover, our results suggest that microbial communities are potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Further research is needed to understand the causal relationship underlined by the observed patterns.

  13. Preliminary Characterization Tests of Detectors of on-Line Monitor Systems of the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-Therapy (CNAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hadron-therapy is an effective technique used to treat tumors that are located between or nearby vital organs. The Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO has been realized as the first facility in Italy to treat very difficult tumors with protons and Carbon ions. The on-line monitor system for CNAO has been developed by the Department of Physics of the University of Torino and Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN. The monitoring system performs the on-line checking of the beam intensity, dimension, and beam position. Materials and Methods The monitor system is based on parallel plate ionization chambers and is composed of five ionization chambers with the anodes fully integrated or segmented in pixels or strips that are placed in two boxes. A series of measurements were performed that involve the background current and the detectors have been characterized by means of a series of preliminary testes in order to verify reproducibility and uniformity of the chambers using an X-ray source. Results The measured background currents for StripX, StripY and Pixel chambers are five orders of magnitude smaller than the nominal treatment current. The reproducibility error of chambers is less than 1%. The analysis of the uniformity showed that the monitor devices have a spread in gain that varies, but only about 2%. Conclusion The reproducibility and the uniformity values are considered as a good result, taking into account that the X-ray energy range is several orders of magnitude smaller than the particle energies used at CNAO.

  14. Industrial Scale Isolation, Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of Epiisopiloturine from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf Leaves: A Promising Alkaloid against Schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiz M C Véras

    Full Text Available This paper presents an industrial scale process for extraction, purification, and isolation of epiisopiloturine (EPI (2(3H-Furanone,dihydro-3-(hydroxyphenylmethyl-4-[(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl]-, [3S-[3a(R*,4b

  15. Characterization of clays used in the red ceramics industry at Itabaianinha-SE (Brazil); Caracterizacao das argilas utilizadas na industria de ceramica vermelha em Itabaianinha-SE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, T.F.; Andrade, C.E.C. de; Santos, C.R. dos; Barreto, L.S., E-mail: thiago_figueiredo91@yahoo.com.br [Nucleo de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Local Cluster of red ceramic industry in the state of Sergipe comprises Itabaianinha-SE, Itabaiana and Baixo Sao Francisco municipalities (Propria and Santana do Sao Francisco). The city of Itabaianinha concentrates a large number of ceramics and potteries producing ceramic bricks and tiles. The study was conducted in a red ceramic industry of the region. The focus of this work was an incremental innovation in the process and product. It was analyzed three types of clays used for manufacturing of ceramic bricks (barro preto, diamante and jardim). The samples were prepared by pressing and heat treated between 600 ° C - 1100 C °. The samples characterization was by thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and physical tests (water absorption, linear retraction and three points flection). The clays are composed mainly of kaolinite, illite-muscovite and quartz. The results showed that the Barro Preto clay showed better results in retraction, absorption and mechanical strain. (author)

  16. Preliminary site characterization - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.; Smith, L.B.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the ecological unit reconnaissance conducted at the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pit(s) RCRA/CERCLA Unit (F-Area BRP) on August 30 and 31, 1993 as part of the RFI/RI baseline risk assessment for the waste unit The baseline risk assessment will assess the potential endangerment to human health and the environment associated with the unit and will be used to evaluate remediation criteria, if needed. The information presented in this report will be used in subsequent stages of the ecological risk assessment to refine the conceptual site model, assist in the selection of contaminants of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and evaluate trophic relationships and other exposure pathways. The unit reconnaissance survey was conducted in accordance with Specification No. E-18272, Rev. 1 dated August 5, 1993, and the Draft {open_quotes}Ecological Risk Assessment Program Plan for Evaluation of Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site{close_quotes}. The objectives of the site reconnaissance were to: Assess the general characteristics of on-unit biological communities including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and any aquatic communities present. Determine the location, extent, and characteristics of on-unit ecological resources, such as forested areas and wetlands, that could serve as important wildlife habitat or provide other ecological functions. Identify any overt effects of contamination on biological communities. The field investigations included mapping and describing all wetland and terrestrial habitats; recording wildlife observations of birds, mammals, and reptiles; and investigating ecological resources in nearby downgradient and downstream areas which could be affected by mobile contaminants or future remedial actions. In preparation for the field investigation, existing unit information including aerial photographs and reports were reviewed to help identify and describe ecological resources at the waste unit.

  17. Ethics for Industrial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Balamuralikrishna, Radha

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes aim at one specific, as well as basic, need in teamwork and interdisciplinary projects--ethics and its implications for professional practice. A preliminary study suggests that students majoring in industrial technology degree programs may not have adequate opportunity to formally study and engage in ethical aspects of technology…

  18. Industrial heat pump assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Wilfert, G. L.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes preliminary studies that assess the potential of industrial heat pumps for reduction of process heating requirements in industries receiving power from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This project was initiated at the request of BPA to determine the potential of industrial heat pumps in BPA's service area. Working from known heat pump principles and from a list of BPA's industrial customers, the authors estimated the fuel savings potential for six industries. Findings indicate that the pulp and paper industry would yield the greatest fuel savings and increased electrical consumption. Assessments presented in this report represent a cooperative effort between The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Battelle-Northwest Laboratories.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of 1-Methyl-3-Methoxysilyl Propyl Imidazolium Chloride - mesoporous silica composite as adsorbent for dehydration in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lievano, Javier F. Plata; Diaz, Luz A. Carreno, E-mail: lcarreno@uis.edu.co [Universidad Industrial de Santander (Colombia)

    2016-07-15

    Ionic liquid - mesoporous silica composite was synthesized as a new adsorbent for dehydration in industrial processes. An ionic liquid (IL) with proved dehydration properties has been covalently anchored to mesoporous silica. The parameters of the synthesis were studied to produce a solid and stable composite. The material was then characterized by SEM, BET, FTIR, NMR, Raman, XRD, XRF, MALDI and LDI confirming the presence of a covalent bond between the ionic liquid and the solid matrix. Evaluations have shown that the material kept the IL dehydration property. (author)

  20. Phenanthrene removal from aqueous solutions using well-characterized, raw, chemically treated, and charred malt spent rootlets, a food industry by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valili, Styliani; Siavalas, George; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Manariotis, Ioannis D; Christanis, Kimon

    2013-10-15

    Malt spent rootlets (MSR) are biomaterials produced in big quantities by beer industry as by-products. A sustainable solution is required for their management. In the present study, MSR are examined as sorbents of a hydrophobic organic compound, phenanthrene, from aqueous solutions. Raw MSR sorb phenanthrene but their sorptive properties are not competitive with the respective properties of commercial sorbents (e.g., activated carbons). Organic petrography is used as a tool to characterize MSR after treatment in order to produce an effective sorbent for phenanthrene. Chemical and thermal (at low temperature under nitrogen atmosphere) treatments of MSR did not result in highly effective sorbents. Based on organic petrography characterization, the pores of the treated materials were filled with humic colloids. When pyrolysis at 800 °C was used to treat MSR, a sorbent with new and empty pores was produced. Phenanthrene sorption capacity was 2 orders of magnitude higher for the pyrolized MSR than for raw MSR.

  1. Better U-Pb Zircon Standards for SIMS and LA-ICPMS? Preliminary Results of Detailed Characterization and Pre-treatment using CA-TIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinson, J. M.; Hourigan, J.; Wooden, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    U-Pb zircon dating using SIMS and LA-ICPMS requires calibrations against natural zircons of known age. Ideally, such zircons should be perfectly concordant -- free from Pb-loss, inheritance, or any other complications, and also accurately dated. In practice this can be problematic. Complexities can be difficult to detect by SIMS and LA-ICPMS analysis if they are at or below the level of precision of an individual analysis. In addition, conventional TIMS dating, used to date the standards, can be limited by residual minor Pb loss that has not been removed by conventional "pretreatments" such as air abrasion. CA-TIMS (Mattinson, 2005, Chem Geol 220, 47-66) utilizes high-T annealing of natural radiation damage, followed by partial dissolution in HF, and has proven highly successful at complete removal of zircon domains that have experienced Pb loss, both from the outer rims and also from the deep interiors of zircon grains. Thus, it is useful for detailed characterization of existing and potential zircon standards. Here, we also investigate the potential of CA-TIMS for pre-treating zircon standards prior to SIMS and LA-ICPMS analysis. Multi-step CA-TIMS analyses of Temora-2, R-33, and a possible new standard from the Klamath Mountains reveal minor Pb loss in the first few partial dissolution steps, then yield excellent 206Pb*/238 plateau ages, and concordant 207Pb*/206Pb* ages for the remaining steps. Additional aliquots of these zircons were then "pretreated" by CA-TIMS, with sufficient partial dissolution to remove all vestiges of Pb loss, based on the earlier experiments. A sample of AS-57 was pre-treated "blind" because it was received just prior to a scheduled SHRIMP session. All samples were then prepared in a single mount for SHRIMP analysis. Our preliminary results from a round-robin Stanford SHRIMP-RG session using Temora-2, R-33, AS-57, and the Klamath sample are very promising. The Temora-2 and Klamath zircons in particular yielded excellent reproducibility

  2. Valorization of an industrial organosolv-sugarcane bagasse lignin: Characterization and use as a matrix in biobased composites reinforced with sisal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, Elaine C; Megiatto, Jackson D; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain; Frollini, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, the main focus was the characterization and application of the by-product lignin isolated through an industrial organosolv acid hydrolysis process from sugarcane bagasse, aiming at the production of bioethanol. The sugarcane lignin was characterized and used to prepare phenolic-type resins. The analysis confirmed that the industrial sugarcane lignin is of HGS type, with a high proportion of the less substituted aromatic ring p-hydroxyphenyl units, which favors further reaction with formaldehyde. The lignin-formaldehyde resins were used to produce biobased composites reinforced with different proportions of randomly distributed sisal fibers. The presence of lignin moieties in both the fiber and matrix increases their mutual affinity, as confirmed by SEM images, which showed good adhesion at the biocomposite fiber/matrix interface. This in turn allowed good load transference from the matrix to the fiber, leading to biobased composites with good impact strength (near 500 J m(-1) for a 40 wt% sisal fiber-reinforced composite). The study demonstrates that sugarcane bagasse lignin obtained from a bioethanol plant can be used without excessive purification in the preparation of lignocellulosic fiber-reinforced biobased composites displaying high mechanical properties.

  3. Isolation and characterization of dimethyl sulfide (DMS)-degrading bacteria from soil and biofilter treating waste gas containing DMS from the laboratory and pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Balendu Shekher; Juwarkar, Asha A; Satpute, D B; Mudliar, S N; Pandey, R A

    2012-07-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the sulfurous pollutants present in the waste gas generated from the pulp and paper industry. DMS has environmental health implications; therefore, it is necessary to treat the waste gas containing DMS prior to discharge into the environment. A bench-scale biofilter was operated in the laboratory as well as in a pulp and paper industry for the treatment of DMS. Both the biofilters were packed with pre-sterilized wood chips and cow dung/compost of the same origin seeded with biomass developed from garden soil enriched with DMS. The biofilters were operated for the generation of process parameters, and the potential microorganisms isolated from both the biofilters have been purified and characterized for degradation of DMS. Further, these cultures were purified on a basal medium using DMS as a sole carbon source for the growth. Further, the purified cultures were characterized through standard fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)-gas chromatography method, and the isolates were found to be mesophilic, aerobic microbes. These microbes were identified as Bacillus sphaericus-GC subgroup F, Paenibacillus polymyxa, B. sphaericus-GC subgroup F, B. sphaericus-GC subgroup F, and Bacillus megaterium-GC subgroup A, respectively. The potential culture for degradation of DMS was identified as B. sphaericus by 16s rRNA molecular analysis.

  4. Characterization of the Industrial Residues of Seven Fruits and Prospection of Their Potential Application as Food Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya de Oliveira Sancho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven residues from tropical fruit (acerola, cashew apple, guava, mango, papaya, pineapple, and sapota processing were prospected for physicochemical parameters (pH, total soluble solids, water activity, reducing sugar, acidity, protein, moisture, ash, and lipids, functional compounds (total phenolic content, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and free radical scavenging activity—DPPH, fatty acid profile, and mineral content. Prospection of these industrial residues aimed its use as potential sources for food supplementation. Acerola residue was found to be a valuable source of anthocyanins, phenolics, and vitamin C; cashew apple residue could be a source of unsaturated fatty acids; pineapple and papaya residues could be used, respectively, as manganese and phosphorous source.

  5. Final work plan: Expedited Site Characterization of the IES Industries, Inc., Site at Marshalltown, Iowa. Ames Expedited Site Characterization Project, Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-04

    The overall goal of the Ames Laboratory Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative and state-of-the-practice site characterization and/or monitoring technologies. This will be accomplished by fielding both types of technologies together in the context of an expedited site characterization. The first site will be at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) in Marshalltown, Iowa. The project will field three areas of technology: geophysical, analytical, and data fusion. Geophysical technologies are designed to understand the subsurface geology to help predict fate and transport of the target contaminants. Analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. Data fusion technology consists of software systems designed to rapidly integrate or fuse all site information into a conceptual site model that then becomes the decision making tool for the site team to plan subsequent sampling activity. Not all of the contaminants present can be located at the action level. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the signature organics associated with the coal tar activities that took place at the site. As a result, PAHs were selected as the target compounds. Screening analytical instruments and nonintrusive geophysical techniques will be fielded to qualitatively map the spatial contaminant distribution. Soil gas surveys, immunoassay testing (IMA), innovative optical techniques, and passive organic sorbent sensors will be deployed along with the geophysical methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instruments and a cone penetrometer system equipped with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) probe will quantitatively map the action level edges of the PAH plume(s). Samples will be taken both by the cone penetrometer test system (CPT) and the Geoprobe {reg_sign} sampler system.

  6. Proteome analysis of the penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum: characterization of protein changes during the industrial strain improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Mohammad-Saeid; Barreiro, Carlos; García-Estrada, Carlos; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Proteomics is a powerful tool to understand the molecular mechanisms causing the production of high penicillin titers by industrial strains of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum as the result of strain improvement programs. Penicillin biosynthesis is an excellent model system for many other bioactive microbial metabolites. The recent publication of the P. chrysogenum genome has established the basis to understand the molecular processes underlying penicillin overproduction. We report here the proteome reference map of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 (the genome project reference strain) together with an in-depth study of the changes produced in three different strains of this filamentous fungus during industrial strain improvement. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, peptide mass fingerprinting, and tandem mass spectrometry were used for protein identification. Around 1000 spots were visualized by "blue silver" colloidal Coomassie staining in a non-linear pI range from 3 to 10 with high resolution, which allowed the identification of 950 proteins (549 different proteins and isoforms). Comparison among the cytosolic proteomes of the wild-type NRRL 1951, Wisconsin 54-1255 (an improved, moderate penicillin producer), and AS-P-78 (a penicillin high producer) strains indicated that global metabolic reorganizations occurred during the strain improvement program. The main changes observed in the high producer strains were increases of cysteine biosynthesis (a penicillin precursor), enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, and stress response proteins together with a reduction in virulence and in the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites different from penicillin (pigments and isoflavonoids). In the wild-type strain, we identified enzymes to utilize cellulose, sorbitol, and other carbon sources that have been lost in the high penicillin producer strains. Changes in the levels of a few specific proteins correlated well with the improved penicillin

  7. Network structure of inter-industry flows

    CERN Document Server

    McNerney, James; Silverberg, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    We study the structure of inter-industry relationships using networks of money flows between industries in 20 national economies. We find these networks vary around a typical structure characterized by a Weibull link weight distribution, exponential industry size distribution, and a common community structure. The community structure is hierarchical, with the top level of the hierarchy comprising five industry communities: food industries, chemical industries, manufacturing industries, service industries, and extraction industries.

  8. New Technological Shape of Basic Branches of RF Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article emphasizes the increasing importance of industry in the economic development of both developing and developed countries. It highlights the decisive role of basic industries of the RF industrial regions in ensuring the level of their socio-economic development. The work substantiates the possibility to develop basic industries of some industrial regions as the ones that are knowledge-intensive, high-tech and can meet the requirements of new industrialization. The authors propose their understanding of new industrialization in terms of inclusive development. The article introduces a term “repositioning of the regional industrial complex” as a gradual process of interdependent technological, economic, socialinstitutional, environmental and organizational change based on innovation. It proves that this complex should be viewed as a network of competitive and structurally balanced productions, satisfying individualized needs of the high-tech sector in knowledge-intensive goods and services and increased quality needs of traditional industries. The study offers a methodological approach to single out the priority directions for technological development of basic sectors in the industrial regions. Its unique feature is to carry out bibliometric modeling as a preliminary framework disclosing key areas of basic industries development at the first stage; to conduct research in the regional patent activity in the selected development directions at the second stage; to single out the agreed priorities to upgrade basic industries on the basis of the Foresight methodology at the third stage. The case study of the Urals helps substantiate the prerequisites for the formation of a new technological shape of the regional metallurgical complex. The authors develop scenarios for repositioning of metallurgy of the region and describe corresponding stages, characterized by the system of proposed indicators

  9. Stormwater run-off from an industrial log yard: characterization, contaminant correlation and first-flush phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczala, Fabio; Marques, Marcia; Vinrot, Eva; Hogland, William

    2012-01-01

    The stormwater run-off generated in an industrial log yard during eight run-off events was studied with the main focus on the transport of toxic metals. Associations between water quality constituents and potential surrogates were evaluated by correlation analysis. The first-flush phenomenon was verified by normalized M(V) curves. The results have shown that, whereas some metals such as Zn, Ba, Cd, As and Fe were always detected in these waters, others (Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, V, Co) were not. Large variations in the water constituents' concentrations were observed, with Fe, Pb and V being the most variable ones. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in the run-off waters exceeded the values established by the Swedish environmental authorities in 100% and 97% of samples, respectively. The correlation analyses indicated TSS as a potential surrogate of Pb, V, Co, Ni, As, Ba, Cr and COD (0.949 > R > 0.808), making it reasonable to state that a treatment system with focus on TSS removal would also reduce toxic metals from these waters. The first-flush phenomenon was evident for most of the constituents. Significant differences (p yard were mainly composed ofZn, Cu and Ba. Knowledge of the physicochemical characteristics, discharge dynamics and the storm variables involved in the process is a crucial step for the proposal and implementation of a stormwater management programme.

  10. Preparation and characterization of high-strength calcium silicate boards from coal-fired industrial solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Cao; Yong-dan Cao; Jin-shan Zhang; Chun-bao Sun; Xian-long Li

    2015-01-01

    To realize the comprehensive utilization of coal-fired industrial solid wastes, a novel high-strength board was prepared from cal-cium silicate slag, fly ash, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum. The changes in mineral phases, chemical structure, and morphology during hydration were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM). A traditional board made from quartz and lime was prepared as a reference. The novel board not only consumes a lot of solid wastes, but also meets the strength requirement of the class-five calcium silicate board according to the Chinese Standard JC/T 564.2—2008. Microanalysis showed that hydrated calcium silicate gel (C−S−H(I)), ettringite, tobermorite, and xonotlite were successivelygenerated in the novel board by synergistic hydration of the mixed solid wastes. The board strength was improved by the formation of tobermorite and xonotlite but decreased by unhydrated quartz. It was demonstrated that quartz was not completely hydrated in the traditional board. As a re-sult, the flexural strength of the traditional board was much lower than that of the novel board.

  11. Characterization of ceramics used in mass ceramic industry Goianinha/RN; Caracterizacao de massa ceramica utilizada em industria ceramica de Goianinha/RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales Junior, J.C.C.; Nascimento, R.M. do; Andrade, J.C.S.; Saldanha, K.M., E-mail: jccalado@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Dutra, R.P.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos

    2011-07-01

    The preparation of the the ceramic mass is one of the most important steps in the manufacture of ceramic products, since the characteristics of the raw materials used, and the proportions that they are added, directly influence the final properties of ceramic products and the operational conditions of processing. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the characterization of a ceramic mass used in the manufacture of sealing blocks by a red ceramic industry of the city of Goianinha / RN. We analyzed the chemical and mineralogical composition; thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis; granulometric analysis; evaluation of plasticity; and determining the technological properties of specimens used in test firing at 700, 900 and 1100 ° C. The results show that the ceramic body studied has characteristics that allow use in the manufacture of sealing blocks when burned at a temperature of 900 ° C. (author)

  12. Characterization of sulfur deposition over the period of industrialization in Japan using sulfur isotope ratio in Japanese cedar tree rings taken from stumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takuya; Tayasu, Ichiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-07-01

    We characterized the sulfur deposition history over the period of industrialization in Japan based on the sulfur isotope ratio (δ(34)S) in tree rings of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) stumps. We analyzed and compared δ(34)S values in the rings from two types of disk samples from 170-year-old stumps that had been cut 5 years earlier (older forest stand) and from 40-year-old living trees (younger forest stand) in order to confirm the validity of using stump disks for δ(34)S analysis. No differences in δ(34)S values by age were found between the sample types, indicating that stump disks can be used for δ(34)S analysis. The δ(34)S profile in tree rings was significantly correlated with anthropogenic SO2 emissions in Japan (r = -0.76, p tree rings serve as a record of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. In addition, the values did not change largely from pre-industrialization to the 1940s (+4.2 to +6.1‰). The values before the 1940s are expected to reflect the background sulfur conditions in Japan and, thus, disks containing rings formed before the 1940s contain information about the natural environmental sulfur, which is useful for biogeochemical studies.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Applications in the Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuolian Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the applicability of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles for the selective removal of toxic heavy metals from electroplating wastewater. The maghemite nanoparticles of 60 nm were synthesized using a coprecipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Batch experiments were carried out for the removal of Pb2+ ions from aqueous solutions by maghemite nanoparticles. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of Pb2+ ions, solution pH, and salinity on the amount of Pb2+ removed were investigated. The adsorption process was found to be highly pH dependent, which made the nanoparticles selectively adsorb this metal from wastewater. The adsorption of Pb2+ reached equilibrium rapidly within 15 min and the adsorption data were well fitted with the Langmuir isotherm.

  14. Morphometric characterization in basins affected by the mining industry; Caracterizacion morfometrica en cuencas hidrologicas afectadas por la mineria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Bortons, J.; Alonso Sarria, F.; Romero Diaz, A.; Belmonte Serrato, F.

    2009-07-01

    The intensive exploitation in the mining district of Cartagena la Union during recent centuries has generated a huge amount of waste scattered throughout the Sierra Minera. These debris act a dangerous pollution agent in the drainage network because the generated runoff erodes and disperse these wastes that are highly contaminated by heavy metals. In this way, the drainage networks of the study area been characterized to assess the production of runoff in basins which are sterile deposits, using the method of the Geomorphologic Unit Hydrography (GUH). The peak flows that have been obtained, taking into account the erodibility of soils, are capable of carrying large amounts of pollutants into the two main outlet areas (Mar Menor and Mediterranean Sea), meaning an important source of pollution int two sites of high ecological value. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Lignin Graft Copolymer as a Filtrate Loss Control Agent for the Hydrocarbon Drilling Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin graft copolymer (LGC was prepared using an addition polymerization technique that involved grafting a 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS monomer onto soda lignin (SL. The optimal polymerization conditions were found to be as follows: soda lignin, 2.0 g; initiator, 3% (w/w potassium persulphate of SL; mass ratio of AMPS to SL, 1:2; reaction time, 7 h; and reaction temperature, 60 °C. The LGC was characterized using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The filtrate loss controlling ability of the LGC was evaluated using the American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 13-B 1 standard procedures. The results showed that the LGC has remarkable rheological and filtration controlling properties at both room temperature and high aging temperatures (190 °C.

  16. Comprehensive characterization of ambient nanoparticles collected near an industrial science park: Particle size distributions and relationships with environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhjeen Huang; Lingyen Hsu; Yunghsun Chang

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ambient particles and their relationships with various environmental factors,including gaseous pollutants (CH4,non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC),total hydrocarbons (THC),NOx,CO,SO2),meteorological parameters (humidity,temperature),and time (day/night,workday/weekend).We used an electrical low-pressure cascade impactor to measure the number and size distributions of ambient particles (0.007-10 μm) that were collected approximately 1 km northwest of Hsinchu Science Park in Talwan between February and May 2007.The number concentrations of particles were enhanced through photochemical reactions during the day.In addition,high traffic flow during workdays increased the formation of particulates.Except for SO2,all of the gaseous pollutants we studied (CH4,NMHC,THC,NOx,CO) correlated positively with the total number concentrations of ambient particles during daytime,indicating that they might contribute to the particulate burden.The poorer relationship between the SO2 level and the total number concentration of particles suggests that SO2 might participate indirectly in the nucleation process during particle formation,The high enrichment factors for Zn,Pb,Cu,and Mn,which mostly comprised the ultrafine particles (diameter:< 0.1 μm) and fine particles (diameter:0.1-1 μm),presumably arose from emissions from traffic and high technology factories.Heterogeneous reactions on solid particles might play a role in the removal of SOx and NOx from the atmosphere.Sulfides and nitrides can further react with these local pollutants,forming specific Cu-containing compounds:CuO (39%),CuSO4 (34%),and Cu(NO3)2 (27%),within the ambient particles in this industrial area.

  17. Kinetic characterization of steroid 1,2-dehydrogenase from a new Mycobacterium sp mutant of industrial interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Falero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio cinético de la enzima esteroide 1,2-deshidrogenasa con células enteras de la cepa 6323, la cual fue aislada por mutagénesis-UV a partir de Ex4, mutante derivada de Mycobacterium NRRL-B3683, obtenida previamente por mutagénesis-UV a partir de un aislado del suelo. La esteroide 1,2-deshidrogenasa es una enzima clave para la biotransformación del sistema de anillos de estos compuestos, la cual es esencial en el metabolismo microbiano de los esteroides. Con anterioridad se ha demostrado que esta enzima es inducible y necesita de un aceptor electrónico externo para la transferencia de electrones desde la enzima hasta el oxígeno molecular, el aceptor final de los electrones liberados en la 1,2 deshidrogenación. Se determinaron las constantes cinéticas de Michaelis-Menten (Kmapa y Vmax.apa. Los valores obtenidos fueron 6,92 · 10-4 mol/L y 2,3 U/mg de biomasa seca, respectivamente. Se estableció el efecto de la concentración de biomasa y la concentración del azul de metileno empleado como aceptor electrónico externo en la reacción enzimática. La actividad máxima se observó entre 5-10 mg/mLde biomasa seca y 1,34 ·10-4 mol/L de azul de metileno. Los resultados obtenidos con azul de metileno, claramente indican la necesidad del uso del aceptor en la 1,2 deshidrogenación de esteroides, como ha sido reportado anteriormente por otros autores. Además se estudió el efecto del pH sobre la velocidad inicial de reacción, obteniéndose la actividad máxima en el intervalo de 8,4-8,6. Los resultados del estudio confirman que esta nueva cepa posee una actividad esteroide 1,2-deshidrogenasa superior con relación a sus parentales. Esto se hace evidente de acuerdo con los parámetros cinéticos obtenidos, los cuales son de gran interés desde el punto de vista industrial.

  18. Prototype study of characterization of the impact that produces the diffuser of an industrial discharge into the sea water; Estudio prototipo de caracterizacion del impacto que produce el difusor de una descarga industrial sobre el medio marino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Gallarza, S. M.; Gil Zurita, A.; Garcia Hernandez, R.; Vergara Mendez, S.; Garcia Leal, M. L. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    To establish maximum permissible limits of pollutants discharged into the sea from industrial wastewater, the authorities involved in the environmental protection and regulation had established particular characteristic for their discharges in each enterprise. In addition to taking care of the conservation of those limits, the effect of these substances on the environment needs to be evaluated. Along this line, integral multidisciplinary studies of impact characterization on the marine environment induced by the industry have been carried out. One of the industrial enterprises that discharges into the northwestern coastline of the Gulf of Mexico through a submarine diffuser, requested the execution of the first study of this kind. This prototype study included physical, chemical, biological and geological determinations in a network of 49 sampling sites along six transects positioned from a boat, and with theodolites from the coast; covering five depth levels (surface, 4, 8, 12 and 16 m) during rainy, dry and northern winds seasons. Heavy metals in the water, sediments, and organisms and in combined samples of the industrial discharge were determined. Continuous measurements of marine currents, salinity and temperature in the nozzles of the diffuser were performed by means of two S4 Inter Ocean current meters. Helicopters flights were made to observe the displacement variations of the pollutants plume under various climatic conditions. LANDSAT TM satellite images were acquired to obtain information on diverse regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and to verify observations on the behavior of the discharge plume. Besides the conventional methods of plotting and information processing, tri-dimensional visualization was applied with the purpose of interpreting seasonal and diffusion patterns. Because of the excellent results obtained with this methodology, this study is made available to specialists as a prototype for determining the coastal marine environmental

  19. Non Destructive Application of Radioactive Tracer Technique for Characterization of Industrial Grade Anion Exchange Resins Indio GS-300 and Indion-860

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singare, P. U. [Bhavan' s College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-02-15

    The paper deals with the application of radio isotopic non-destructive technique in the characterization of two industrial grade anion exchange resins Indion GS-300 and Indion-860. For the characterization of the two resins, {sup 131}I and {sup 82}Br were used as tracer isotopes to trace the kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions. It was observed that the values of specific reaction rate (min{sup -1}), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K{sub d} were calculated as 0.328, 0.577, 0.189 and 19.7 respectively for Indion GS-300 resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.180, 0.386, 0.070 and 17.0 calculated for Indion-860 resins when measured under identical experimental conditions. Also at a constant temperature of 40.0 .deg. C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases 0.001 M to 0.004 M, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 75.16 % to 78.36 % for Indion GS-300 resins, which was higher than the increases from 49.65 % to 52.36 % compared to that obtained for Indion-860 resins. The overall results indicate that under identical experimental conditions, Indion GS-300 resins show superior performance over Indion-860 resins.

  20. Quantification and characterization of the production of biogas from blends of agro-industrial wastes in a large-scale demonstration plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odorico Konrad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of energy contained in biogas is an interesting alternative to reconcile renewable electric power generation to environmental sanitation. Among the technologies used for recovering energy from biomass, the anaerobic digestion demonstrates ability to treat solid waste and effluents. This research work aims to analyze the influence of physical and chemical factors on the performance of anaerobic digestion reactors and to perform the characterization of biogas in order to assess their quality. The substrate evaluated is the mixture of liquid waste coming from different industrial processes and poultry manure. The characterization of CH4, CO2, H2S and O2 was performed daily in two reactors, R1 and R2, for a period of three months, and the physical and chemical parameters were analyzed biweekly. The parameters analyzed are carbon (C, nitrogen (N, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, pH, total (TS, volatiles (VS and fixed solids (FS. Among the results, stands out an average removal of 76% in relation to BOD and H2S concentration of 156.01 for R1, and of 91.64 ppm for R2, and the CH4:CO2 inverse relationship of 3.15 for R1 and 2.98 for R2, during the monitoring period.

  1. Industrial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  2. Assessment of airborne microorganism contamination in an industrial area characterized by an open composting facility and a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisoli, Pietro; Rodolfi, Marinella; Villani, Simona; Grignani, Elena; Cottica, Danilo; Berri, Angelo; Picco, Anna Maria; Dacarro, Cesare

    2009-02-01

    In order to assess the potential exposure hazard to workers and people living in the immediate surroundings of an area characterized by an open composting facility and a wastewater treatment plant, a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of airborne microorganisms were carried out. Air sampling was performed once a week for four consecutive weeks in summer and winter. Six sites were selected as air sampling sites: one was upwind at approximately 40 m from the facilities; the other five were downwind at increasing distances from the facilities, with the furthest at 100 m away. Monitoring permitted us to verify the influence that the composting activities and wastewater treatment had on the bacterial and fungal contamination of the air. The results obtained have been expressed by means of contamination indexes that have already been used in previous works: a major microbiological contamination near the plants was evidenced. Near the facilities, mesophilic bacteria, psychrophilic bacteria and microfungi showed the highest median concentrations, respectively, of 307.5, 327.5 and 257.5 CFU/m(3). Moreover, the season generally influenced the concentration of the bacteria as well as of the fungi; higher in summer than in winter. The contamination index global index of microbial contamination (GIMC/m(3)) showed mean values of 4058.9 in summer and 439.7 in winter and the contamination index-amplification index (AI) showed values of 4.5 and 1.1 in the same seasons, respectively. Controlling the seasonal effect, mesophilic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae showed a significant decline in concentration with respect to upwind air samples and with increasing distance. Both GIMC and AI showed a significant decline with respect to upwind air samples by increasing the distance from facilities after adjusting for the seasonal effect. In conclusion, even if these plants do not represent a potential risk for nearby populations, they may pose a potential health risk

  3. Uranium industry annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  4. Uranium industry annual 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. The preliminary studies on preparation and characterization of bulk nanoporous zinc as a laser target candidate to generate soft x-ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Lutfi Ahmad Shahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulk nanoporous metal has become a reliable source to replace liquid as source to generate EUV lithography which have debris problem to tackle. A solid yet low density porous material promised a low melting point and low plasma density. The plasma density of bulk nanoporous Sn and SnO2 profile plays a key role in the generation of 13.5 nm light for an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL source from laser produced plasma (LPP. The success of this preparation method might solve problems related to EUV lithography, or even soft Xray (XUV lithography. In this paper, we present the preliminary result of preparing such ideal low density target in form of bulk metal porous.

  6. Characterization of materials and alteration-degradation products of the Blessed Virgin Rosary altar in the Saint Dominic church in Ravenna: preliminary study for the restoration interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Fiori

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the Blessed Virgin Rosary altar in the Saint Dominic church (13th century in Ravenna occurred between 1723 and 1770. All the portions of the church are interested by intense degradation phenomena and, in particular, the altar preservation condition is worrying. The whole surface is covered by spots and deposits of various nature, efflorescences, swellings, detachments and lacunae. The main cause of damage is the humidity capillary climb. In a preliminary investigation, surveys and observations have been made in order to describe the materials and to evaluate the preservation condition. Then, the areas for sampling have been chosen for analyses and stratigraphies. The present work concerns the altar materials characterisation and the alteration – degradation products analyses: this is essential to plan the restoration interventions.

  7. Characterization of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition-Physical Vapor Deposition transparent deposits on textiles to trigger various antimicrobial properties to food industry textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunon, Celine [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques (LSA), CNRS, UMR 5180, Bat. J. Raulin 5eme etage, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Chadeau, Elise; Oulahal, Nadia [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Recherche en Genie Industriel Alimentaire (LRGIA, E.A. 3733), Rue Henri de Boissieu, F-01000 Bourg en Bresse (France); Grossiord, Carol [Science et Surface, 64, Chemin des Mouilles, F-69130 Ecully (France); Dubost, Laurent [HEF, ZI SUD, Rue Benoit Fourneyron, F-42166 Andrezieux Boutheon (France); Bessueille, Francois [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques (LSA), CNRS, UMR 5180, Bat. J. Raulin 5eme etage, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Simon, Farida [TDV Industrie, 43 Rue du Bas des Bois, BP 121, F-53012 Laval Cedex (France); Degraeve, Pascal [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Recherche en Genie Industriel Alimentaire (LRGIA, E.A. 3733), Rue Henri de Boissieu, F-01000 Bourg en Bresse (France); Leonard, Didier, E-mail: didier.leonard@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques (LSA), CNRS, UMR 5180, Bat. J. Raulin 5eme etage, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2011-07-01

    Textiles for the food industry were treated with an original deposition technique based on a combination of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition and Physical Vapor Deposition to obtain nanometer size silver clusters incorporated into a SiOCH matrix. The optimization of plasma deposition parameters (gas mixture, pressure, and power) was focused on textile transparency and antimicrobial properties and was based on the study of both surface and depth composition (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, SIMS depth profiling and XPS depth profiling on treated glass slides). Deposition conditions were identified in order to obtain a variable and controlled quantity of {approx} 10 nm size silver particles at the surface and inside of coatings exhibiting acceptable transparency properties. Microbiological characterization indicated that the surface variable silver content as calculated from XPS and ToF-SIMS data directly influences the level of antimicrobial activity.

  8. Industry outreach a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, D.; Sen, R. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Outreach Project was initiated in October 1994 with the objective of developing a multi-year plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for targeted outreach activities for stakeholders in industry and the general public. This status report summarizes the work on industry outreach that has been completed since the inception of the project in October 1994. A three-pronged approach was taken to ascertain issues related to industry outreach. First, there was a review of on-going and past industry outreach activities at DOE and NHA. Next, a series of meetings with industry decision makers was arranged to get a better understanding of industry interests and concerns, and to discuss how DOE and industry could work collaboratively to develop hydrogen energy systems. Third, a workshop is scheduled where representatives from industry, DOE and other federal agencies can identify issues that would enhance partnering between the federal government and industry in the development of hydrogen energy systems. At this tiny, the review of on-going and past activities has been completed. Industry interviews are in progress and a majority of meetings have been held. Analysis of the information gained is in progress. The preliminary analysis of this information indicates that for appropriate near-term demonstration-type projects, the level of interest for collaboration between DOE and industry is high. The data also identifies issues industry is concerned with which impact the commercialization of hydrogen energy systems.

  9. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  10. Geothermal industry employment: Survey results & analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-09-01

    The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) is ofteh asked about the socioeconomic and employment impact of the industry. Since available literature dealing with employment involved in the geothermal sector appeared relatively outdated, unduly focused on certain activities of the industry (e.g. operation and maintenance of geothermal power plants) or poorly reliable, GEA, in consultation with the DOE, decided to conduct a new employment survey to provide better answers to these questions. The main objective of this survey is to assess and characterize the current workforce involved in geothermal activities in the US. Several initiatives have therefore been undertaken to reach as many organizations involved in geothermal activities as possible and assess their current workforce. The first section of this document describes the methodology used to contact the companies involved in the geothermal sector. The second section presents the survey results and analyzes them. This analysis includes two major parts. The first part analyzes the survey responses, presents employment numbers that were captured and describes the major characteristics of the industry that have been identified. The second part of the analysis estimates the number of workers involved in companies that are active in the geothermal business but did not respond to the survey or could not be reached. Preliminary conclusions and the study limits and restrictions are then presented. The third section addresses the potential employment impact related to manufacturing and construction of new geothermal power facilities. Indirect and induced economic impacts related with such investment are also investigated.

  11. The Cryogenic AntiCoincidence Detector for the ATHENA X-IFU: Design Aspects by Geant4 Simulation and Preliminary Characterization of the New Single Pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macculi, C.; Argan, A.; D'Andrea, M.; Lotti, S.; Piro, L.; Biasotti, M.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Orlando, A.; Torrioli, G.

    2016-08-01

    The ATHENA observatory is the second large-class ESA mission, in the context of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, scheduled to be launched on 2028 at L2 orbit. One of the two planned focal plane instruments is the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), which will be able to perform simultaneous high-grade energy spectroscopy and imaging over the 5 arcmin FoV by means of a kilo-pixel array of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters, coupled to a high-quality X-ray optics. The X-IFU sensitivity is degraded by the particle background, induced by primary protons of both solar and cosmic rays' origin and secondary electrons. A Cryogenic AntiCoincidence (CryoAC) TES-based detector, located sensed by Iridium TESs. We currently achieve a TRL = 3-4 at the single-pixel level. We have designed and developed two further prototypes in order to reach TRL = 4. The design of the CryoAC has been also optimized using the Geant4 simulation tool. Here we will describe some results from the Geant4 simulations performed to optimize the design and preliminary test results from the first of the two detectors, 1 cm2 area, made of 65 Ir TESs.

  12. Direct Synthesis and Morphological Characterization of Gold-Dendrimer Nanocomposites Prepared Using PAMAM Succinamic Acid Dendrimers: Preliminary Study of the Calcification Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vasile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold-dendrimer nanocomposites were obtained for the first time by a simple colloidal approach based on the use of polyamidoamine dendrimers with succinamic acid terminal groups and dodecanediamine core. Spherical and highly crystalline nanoparticles with dimensions between 3 nm and 60 nm, and size-polydispersity depending on the synthesis conditions, have been generated. The influence of the stoichiometric ratio and the structural and architectural features of the dendrimers on the properties of the nanocomposites has been described. The self-assembling behaviour of these materials produces gold-dendrimer nanostructured porous networks with variable density, porosity, and composition. The investigations of the reaction systems, by TEM, at two postsynthesis moments, allowed to preliminary establish the control over the properties of the nanocomposite products. Furthermore, this study allowed better understanding of the mechanism of nanocomposite generation. Impressively, in the early stages of the synthesis, the organization of gold inside the dendrimer molecules has been evidenced by micrographs. Growth and ripening mechanisms further lead to nanoparticles with typical characteristics. The potential of such nanocomposite particles to induce calcification when coating a polymer substrate was also investigated.

  13. Polylactide-based paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles fabricated by dispersion polymerization: characterization, evaluation in cancer cell lines, and preliminary biodistribution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Simeon K; Holly, Alesia; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Capala, Jacek; Akala, Emmanuel O

    2014-08-01

    The macromonomer method was used to prepare cross-linked, paclitaxel-loaded polylactide (PLA)-polyethylene glycol (stealth) nanoparticles using free-radical dispersion polymerization. The method can facilitate the attachment of other molecules to the nanoparticle surface to make it multifunctional. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectra confirm the synthesis of PLA macromonomer and cross-linking agent. The formation of stealth nanoparticles was confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The drug release isotherm of paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles shows that the encapsulated drug is released over 7 days. In vitro cytotoxicity assay in selected breast and ovarian cancer cell lines reveal that the blank nanoparticle is biocompatible compared with medium-only treated controls. In addition, the paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles exhibit similar cytotoxicity compared with paclitaxel in solution. Confocal microscopy reveals that the nanoparticles are internalized by MCF-7 breast cancer cells within 1 h. Preliminary biodistribution studies also show nanoparticle accumulation in tumor xenograft model. The nanoparticles are suitable for the controlled delivery of bioactive agents. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Preliminary site characterization summary and engineering evaluation/cost analysis for Site 2, New Fuel Farm, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlosser, R.M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1991-09-01

    This report addresses subsurface contamination associated with Site 2, the New Fuel Farm at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada and is an integral part of Phase 2 of the Installation Restoration Program (IR Program) currently underway at the facility. This report: (1) reviews and assesses environmental information characterizing Site 2; (2) determine if site-characterization information is sufficient to design and evaluate removal actions; and, (3) investigates, develops, and describes any removal actions deemed feasible. Previous environmental investigations at Site 2 indicate the presence of floating product (primarily JP-5, jet fuel) on the water table underlying the facility. While the extent of floating-produce plumes has been characterized, the degree of associated soil and groundwater contamination remains uncertain. A comprehensive characterization of soil and groundwater contamination will be completed as the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study progresses. Corrective actions are recommended at this time to remove free-phase floating product. Implementing these removal actions will also provide additional information which will be used to direct further investigations of the extent, mobility, and potential environmental threat from soil and groundwater contaminants at this side.

  15. Industrial Chain: Industrial Vertical Definition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YifeiDu; GuojunJiang; ShimingLi

    2004-01-01

    Like value chain and supply chain, “industrial chain” becomes the focus of attention. The implication of “industrial chain” has gained a large range of extension. It not only expresses the industrial “chain” structure and relationship of “back and forward”in order or “up and down” in direction, but also it represents a cluster of large scale of firms in an area or colony. It is a network, or a community. Consequently, we conclude that “industrial chain” is a synthesis of industrial chain, industrial cluster, or industrial network.In this article, firstly we will distinguish industry chain from industry. An industry is the collection of firms that have the same attribute, so an industry can be defined by firm collection of certain attribute. We indicate that industrial chain is a kind of vertical and orderly industrial link. It is defined according to a series of specific product or service created. Secondly we analyze the vertical orderly defiinition process from the aspects of social division of labor and requirement division, self-organization system, and value analysis.Non-symmetry and depending on system or community of large scale of industrial units lead to entire industry to “orderly” structure. On the other hand, the draught of diversity and complexity of requirement simultaneously lead to entire industry to be more “orderly”. Along with processes of self-organization, industrial will appi'oach the state of more orderly and steady, and constantly make industrial chain upgrade. Each firm or unit, who will gain the value, has to establish channels of value, which we called “industrial value chain”. Lastly,we discuss the consequence of vertical and orderly definition, which is exhibited by a certain relationship body. The typical forms of industrial chain include industrial cluster, strategy alliance and vertical integration etc.

  16. Wind turbine transformer admittance characterization based on online time-domain measurements and preliminary results from measurements done in two transformers using a SFRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of online time-domain measurements on the primary and secondary side of a wind turbine transformer in an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF), during one switching operation realized in the collection grid. The frequency characteristics up to 10 kHz of the current and voltage...... signals of each phase were compared and the transformers admittance characteristic was estimated based on these measurements. Based on the results from the previous analysis, it was decided to acquire a Sweep Frequency Response Analyzer (SFRA) to realize detailed transformer measurements. First...... the results from the measurements in a small dry-type transformer under laboratory conditions are presented, and finally the results from a large transformer measured in a in an industrial setting are shown....

  17. Preparation and Preliminary Dielectric Characterization of Structured C60-Thiol-Ene Polymer Nanocomposites Assembled Using the Thiol-Ene Click Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-containing materials have the ability to store and release electrical energy. Therefore, fullerenes may ultimately find use in high-voltage equipment devices or as super capacitors for high electric energy storage due to this ease of manipulating their excellent dielectric properties and their high volume resistivity. A series of structured fullerene (C60 polymer nanocomposites were assembled using the thiol-ene click reaction, between alkyl thiols and allyl functionalized C60 derivatives. The resulting high-density C60-urethane-thiol-ene (C60-Thiol-Ene networks possessed excellent mechanical properties. These novel networks were characterized using standard techniques, including infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The dielectric spectra for the prepared samples were determined over a broad frequency range at room temperature using a broadband dielectric spectrometer and a semiconductor characterization system. The changes in thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of these novel fullerene-thiol-ene composite films were measured as a function of the C60 content, and samples characterized by high dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss were produced. In this process, variations in chemical composition of the networks were correlated to performance characteristics.

  18. Preparation and Preliminary Dielectric Characterization of Structured C60-Thiol-Ene Polymer Nanocomposites Assembled Using the Thiol-Ene Click Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa M; Windham, Amber D; Al-Ejji, Maryam M; Al-Qahtani, Noora H; Hassan, Mohammad K; Mauritz, Kenneth A; Buchanan, Randy K; Buchanan, J Paige

    2015-11-18

    Fullerene-containing materials have the ability to store and release electrical energy. Therefore, fullerenes may ultimately find use in high-voltage equipment devices or as super capacitors for high electric energy storage due to this ease of manipulating their excellent dielectric properties and their high volume resistivity. A series of structured fullerene (C60) polymer nanocomposites were assembled using the thiol-ene click reaction, between alkyl thiols and allyl functionalized C60 derivatives. The resulting high-density C60-urethane-thiol-ene (C60-Thiol-Ene) networks possessed excellent mechanical properties. These novel networks were characterized using standard techniques, including infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The dielectric spectra for the prepared samples were determined over a broad frequency range at room temperature using a broadband dielectric spectrometer and a semiconductor characterization system. The changes in thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of these novel fullerene-thiol-ene composite films were measured as a function of the C60 content, and samples characterized by high dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss were produced. In this process, variations in chemical composition of the networks were correlated to performance characteristics.

  19. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  20. Preliminary Study on the Application of SERVQUAL Model In Study-abroad Service Industry%SERVQUAL模型在留学服务业中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金仁旻; 陈艳

    2011-01-01

    结合留学服务业特点,对SERVQUAL原模型进行修正;利用SPSS验证修正后模型的适用性;通过新模型测评目前留学服务业的服务质量。%Based on SERVQUAL model, revise it with the consideration of characteristics of study-abroad service industry and test the adaptability of the revised model and the quality of study-abroad service industry is assessed as well.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of 1-(3-aminophenyl)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiourea and preliminary study towards binding with metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngah, Fatimatul Akma Awang; Heng, Lee Yook; Hassan, Nurul Izzaty; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah

    2016-11-01

    New mono-thiourea derivative, 1-(3-aminophenyl)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiourea (3) has been synthesized from the reaction of 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate (1) and 1,3-phenylenediamine (2) using conventional method. The percentage yield of compound 3 was 82%. The compound 3 was characterized using FT-Infrared (FT-IR), 1H and 1C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies and Mass Spectrometry. An application of chemical sensor on this compound was prepared and examined by UV-vis spectrometer to study the binding interaction between metal ions and compound 3.

  2. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  3. Synthesis and Preliminary Characterization of Manganese 3,4-(methylenedioxicinnamate Compound: A Simple Approach to Improve Electroanalytical Application After Incorporation to the Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique de Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The manganese 3,4-(methylenedioxicinnamate (MnMCA compound was synthesized and characterized using thermal analysis technique to determine purity as well as stoichiometry and infrared spectroscopic data to suggest the metal-ligand coordination. The feasibility of the MnMCA compound as modifier of carbon paste electrodes was studied via electrochemical techniques such as cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry. The modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE presented a satisfactory electrocatalytic activity for propyl gallate (PG oxidation. The study of the instrumental and experimental parameters as well as of the voltammetric behavior showed that the MCPE exhibits better analytical performance in the detection of the PG than the glassy carbon electrode and the unmodified carbon paste electrodes. The results obtained were satisfactory concerning the use of the target MCPE-MnMCA in electroanalytical applications and detection of PG antioxidant in biodiesel sample after a simple and fast step.

  4. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  5. Identification and preliminary characterization of non-polyene antibiotics secreted by new strain of actinomycete isolated from sebkha of Kenadsa, Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar; Messaoudi; Mourad; Bendahou; Ibrahim; Benamar; Djamal-Elddine; Abdelwouhid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolated from sabkha of Kenadsa and identification of the isolate interesting. Methods: Eighteen strains were isolated, using four culture media from sebkha of Kenadsa(Bechar, Southwestern Algeria). Screening of antimicrobial activity consisted of two steps: in primary screening, antibacterial activity was determined by using the agar plug method against test strains; in secondary screening, better isolate which showed a good activity in the first screening was selected to extract antimicrobial substances. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Partial characterization of antimicrobial products was performed on the basis of chemical revelations, UV-vis spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The identification of isolate interesting was performed through morphological, chemical, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Results: All isolates showed antimicrobial activity against at least one microorganism test. One isolate, LAM143 cG 3, was selected for its broad spectrum and high antimicrobial activity. The isolate LAM143 c G3 was identified as Spirillospora sp. The comparison between the species of this genus(Spirillospora rubra and Spirillospora albida) and our isolate indicated the existence of several physiological and biochemical differences which led us to suppose that this was a new member of this genus. Primary characterization of antimicrobial substances produced by the isolate LAM143 c G3 indicated the presence of amines and phenols. The UV–vis spectrum suggested a non-polyenic nature of substances secreted by our isolate, while infrared confirmed the presence of amine groups.Conclusions: The result of the present study revealed that sebkha of Kenadsa was rich in rare actinomycetes, that secreted interesting antimicrobial substance.

  6. Radioactive characterization of leachates and efflorescences in the neighbouring areas of a phosphogypsum disposal site as a preliminary step before its restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gázquez, M J; Mantero, J; Mosqueda, F; Bolívar, J P; García-Tenorio, R

    2014-11-01

    After the recent closure of certain phosphoric acid plants located in the South-West of Spain, it has been decided to restore a big extension (more than six hundred hectares) of salt-marshes, where some million tonnes of phosphogypsum (PG), the main by-product generated by these plants, had been disposed of. This PG is characterized by its content of high activity concentrations of several radionuclides from the uranium series, mainly (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po and, to a lesser extent, U-isotopes. The PG disposal area can be considered as a potential source of radionuclides into their nearby environment, through the waters which percolate from them and through the efflorescences formed in their surroundings. For this reason, a detailed radioactive characterization of the mentioned waters and efflorescences has been considered essential for a proper planning of the restoration tasks to be applied in the near future in the zone. To this end, U-isotopes, (234)Th, (230)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations have been determined by applying both alpha-particle and gamma-ray spectrometric techniques to selected water and efflorescence aliquots collected in the area. The analysis of the obtained results has enabled to obtain information about the geochemical behaviour in the area of the different radionuclides analyzed; and the conclusion to be drawn that, in the restoration plan under preparation, both the prohibition of outflowing waters from the disposal area to the neighbouring salt-marshes, and the removal of all the efflorescences now disseminated in their surroundings are essential.

  7. Women in the Hotel and Catering Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Training Board, Wembley (England).

    A study of the employment of women in the hotel and catering industry indicated that the industry employs nearly 17 percent of the entire paid female work force in the United Kingdom. Women constitute 75 percent of the industry's work force, and 47 percent of its managers are women. Women's position in the industry is characterized by their…

  8. Women in the Hotel and Catering Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Training Board, Wembley (England).

    A study of the employment of women in the hotel and catering industry indicated that the industry employs nearly 17 percent of the entire paid female work force in the United Kingdom. Women constitute 75 percent of the industry's work force, and 47 percent of its managers are women. Women's position in the industry is characterized by their…

  9. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen (IIT); (US-FDA)

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  10. Preliminary characterization of carbon dioxide transfer in a hollow fiber membrane module as a possible solution for gas-liquid transfer in microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Bérangère; Duchez, David; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Cornet, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    In microgravity, one of the major challenge encountered in biological life support systems (BLSS) is the gas-liquid transfer with, for instance, the necessity to provide CO2 (carbon source, pH control) and to recover the evolved O2 in photobioreactors used as atmosphere bioregenerative systems.This paper describes first the development of a system enabling the accurate characterization of the mass transfer limiting step for a PTFE membrane module used as a possible efficient solution to the microgravity gas-liquid transfer. This original technical apparatus, together with a technical assessment of membrane permeability to different gases, is associated with a balance model, determining thus completely the CO2 mass transfer problem between phases. First results are given and discussed for the CO2 mass transfer coefficient kLCO obtained in case of absorption experiments at pH 8 using the hollow fiber membrane module. The consistency of the proposed method, based on a gas and liquid phase balances verifying carbon conservation enables a very accurate determination of the kLCO value as a main limiting step of the whole process. Nevertheless, further experiments are still needed to demonstrate that the proposed method could serve in the future as reference method for mass transfer coefficient determination if using membrane modules for BLSS in reduced or microgravity conditions.

  11. Identification and preliminary characterization of global water resource issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cohen, M.L.; Currie, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives were to: (1) identify, characterize, and define existing or projected regional and global water resource management issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate changes; and (2) develop research priorities for acquiring additional information about the potential effects of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on the availability and allocation of freshwater supplies. The research was broken into four work elements: (1) identification of water resource management issues on a global and regional basis; (2) identification of a subset of generic CO/sub 2/-related water resource management issues believed to have the highest probability of being affected, beneficially or adversely, by a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change; (3) selection of specific sites for examining the potential effect of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on these issues; and (4) conducting detailed case studies at these sites, the results from which will be used to identify future research and data needs in the area of water resources. This report summarizes the research related to the first three work elements. 6 figures, 9 tables.

  12. Detection and preliminary characterization of a narrow spectrum bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus pentosus K2N7 from Thai traditional fermented shrimp (Kung-Som

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisit Watthanasakphuban

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 48 lactic acid bacteria (LAB exhibited antagonistic activity against Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei JCM 1157 or Staphylococcus aureus DMST 8840. Only strain K2N7 was selected for characterization of bacteriocin activity. It was identified as Lactobacillus pentosus based on 16S rDNA analysis. The maximum bacteriocin production was detected in early stationary phase of growth. It was found to be sensitive to proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, proteinase K, pronase E and -chymotrypsin. The bacteriocin K2N7 was heat stable (2 h at 100ºC and retained activity over a wide pH range (2.0-12.0. Bacteriocin K2N7 has a narrow inhibitory spectrum restricted to genus Lactobacillus including Lactobacillus plantarum D6SM3, a bacterial strain known to cause overfermentation in Kung-Som. The peptide was purified by 60% ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by sequential cation exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction characteristic. The molecular mass of bacteriocin K2N7 (2.017 kDa was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-offlight mass spectrometry analysis (MALDI-TOF MS.

  13. A preliminary characterization of the mutagenicity of atmospheric particulate matter collected during sugar cane harvesting using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Franco, Alexandre; Magalhães, Dulce; de Castro, Francisco José Viana; Kummrow, Fábio; Rech, Célia Maria; Rothschild Franco de Carvalho, Lilian; de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola

    2008-05-01

    During sugar cane harvesting season, which occurs from May to November of each year, the crops are burnt, cut, and transported to the mills. There are reports showing that mutagenic activity and PAH content increase during harvesting season in some areas of São Paulo State in comparison with nonharvesting periods. The objective of this work was to preliminarily characterize the mutagenic activity of the total organic extracts as well as corresponding organic fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected twice from two cities, Araraquara (ARQ) and Piracicaba (PRB), during sugar cane harvesting season using the Salmonella/microsome microssuspension assay. One sample collected in São Paulo metropolitan area was also included. The mutagenicity of the total extracts ranged from 55 to 320 revertants per cubic meter without the addition of S9 and from not detected to 57 revertants per cubic meter in the presence of S9 in areas with sugar cane plantations. Of the three fractions analyzed, the most polar ones (nitro and oxy) were the most potent. A comparison of the response of TA98 with YG1041 and the increased potencies without S9 indicated that nitro compounds are causing the observed effect. More studies are necessary to verify the sources of the mutagenic activity such as burning of vegetal biomass and combustion of heavy duty vehicles used to transport the sugar cane to the mills. The Salmonella/microsome assay can be an important tool to monitor the atmosphere for mutagenicity during sugar cane harvesting season.

  14. 陕西茶业战略地位及策略初探%A Preliminary Study on the Strategic Position of Shaanxi Tea Industry and Approaches to Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凯明; 张安; 肖斌

    2012-01-01

    本文从“我国茶业近况和陕西茶业的发展”开始,运用“竞争分析和竞争性定位及市场竞争策略”理论方法,分析确定了陕西茶业的市场战略地位属“利基”战略地位;进而探讨了陕西茶业处“利基”地位的策略,对产品专业化、市场专业化等方面,提出了相应措施。供在制定陕西宏观茶业政策和陕西茶企业在选择企业方略时参考。%This essay begins with a presentation of the present situation of tea industries in China and the developing trend of Shaanxi tea industry. Analyzed by the theory and methods of 'competitive analysis, competitive positioning and strategies for marketing competitions', it defined Shaanxi tea industries as the role of a small business on the whole, and put forward some strategies and approaches to better specialization of both tea products and markets as well, which would be a constructive reference for Shaanxi tea businesses to make greater plans and macroscopic policies for prosperity.

  15. Longshoring Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    a)(1). (5) ANSI Z-89.1-1986, Personnel Protection-Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements; IBR approved for 1917.93(b). (6) ANSI Z-41... Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements.” (c) Protective hats previously worn shall be cleaned and disinfected before issuance by the employer to... Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements; IBR approved for §1918.103(b). (6) ANSI Z-41-1991, American National Standard for Personal Protection

  16. Biotechnology Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Countries Growing GMO , 2007). Herbicide and insect resistance traits will continue to be pursued since 25% of food crops are lost each year to insect...daily lives from the clothing we wear, the fuel we use, the food we eat, and the medicines we take. From the earliest days, humans have used the...industry is very broad and includes health care, food , agriculture, industrial, and environmental industries. It is one of the fastest growing sciences

  17. Preliminary characterization of Psidium germplasm in different Brazilian ecogeographic regions Caracterização preliminar de germoplasma de Psidium em diferentes ecorregiões brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize 119 accessions of guava and 40 accessions of "araçá" sampled in 35 Brazilian ecoregions, according to the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV descriptors. The majority of "araçá" accessions presented wide spacing of leaf veins, while guava accessions presented medium to close spacing. Most fruits of "araçá" accessions were classified as small, contrasting with medium to large fruits of guava accessions. Most of "araçá" accessions (91% presented white flesh fruit color, while 58% of guava accessions presented pale pink, pink and dark pink colors. Fruit differences among wild and cultivated Psidium species indicate fruit as the most altered trait under artificial selection.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar 119 acessos de goiabeira e 40 acessos de araçazeiro identificados em 35 ecorregiões brasileiras, de acordo com descritores da International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV. A maioria dos acessos de araçazeiro apresentou grandes espaços entre as nervuras da folha, enquanto os de goiabeira apresentaram espaços pequenos. Os frutos de araçazeiro foram classificados como pequenos, enquanto os de goiabeira apresentaram tamanho de médio a grande. A maioria dos acessos de araçazeiro (91% apresentou cor branca para a polpa do fruto, enquanto 58% dos de goiabeira apresentaram cor de rosa-claro a rosa-escuro. As diferenças nos frutos entre Psidium selvagens e domesticados indicam que os frutos foram os mais alterados pela seleção artificial.

  18. The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region eastern area of Inner Mongolia the revitalization of old industrial bases in environmental protection the next phase of preliminary work thinking%内蒙古自治区蒙东地区老工业基地振兴战略环境保护下一阶段初步工作思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李现华; 刘文静

    2013-01-01

    Through summing up the the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region eastern area of Inner Mongolia old industrial base revitali -zing the strategic planning for ten years (2003~2012 years) results and experience gained since the eastern area of Inner Mongolia , the re-vitalization of old industrial bases in environmental protection the next phase of preliminary work thinking this paper solve outstanding envi -ronmental problems from the environmental protection system , policy ideas , and optimize the economic development , to promote sound and rapid development of the eastern area of Inner Mongolia , promote the overall revitalization of northeast area has important significance .%通过认真总结内蒙古自治区蒙东地区老工业基地实施振兴战略规划十周年(2003~2012年)以来取得的成效和经验,本文从环境保护机制体制、政策思路、解决突出环境问题及优化经济发展方面提出蒙东地区老工业基地振兴战略环境保护下一阶段初步工作思路,对推进蒙东地区又好又快发展、促进东北地区全面振兴具有重要意义。

  19. Uranium industry annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  20. Screening and isolation of halophilic bacteria producing industrially important enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Halophiles are excellent sources of enzymes that are not only salt stable but also can withstand and carry out reactions efficiently under extreme conditions. The aim of the study was to isolate and study the diversity among halophilic bacteria producing enzymes of industrial value. Screening of halophiles from various saline habitats of India led to isolation of 108 halophilic bacteria producing industrially important hydrolases (amylases, lipases and proteases. Characterization of 21 potential isolates by morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene analysis found them related to Marinobacter, Virgibacillus, Halobacillus, Geomicrobium, Chromohalobacter, Oceanobacillus, Bacillus, Halomonas and Staphylococcus genera. They belonged to moderately halophilic group of bacteria exhibiting salt requirement in the range of 3-20%. There is significant diversity among halophiles from saline habitats of India. Preliminary characterization of crude hydrolases established them to be active and stable under more than one extreme condition of high salt, pH, temperature and presence of organic solvents. It is concluded that these halophilic isolates are not only diverse in phylogeny but also in their enzyme characteristics. Their enzymes may be potentially useful for catalysis under harsh operational conditions encountered in industrial processes. The solvent stability among halophilic enzymes seems a generic novel feature making them potentially useful in non-aqueous enzymology.

  1. Preliminary probiotic and technological characterization of Pediococcus pentosaceus strain KID7 and in vivo assessment of its cholesterol-lowering activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthiyaini eDamodharan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to characterize the probiotic properties of a Pediococcus pentosaceus strain, KID7, by in vitro and in vivo studies. The strain possessed tolerance to oro-gastrointestinal transit, adherence to the Caco-2 cell line, and antimicrobial activity. KID7 exhibited bile salt hydrolase activity and cholesterol-lowering activity, in vitro. In vivo cholesterol-lowering activity of KID7 was studied using atherogenic diet-fed hypercholesterolemic mice. The experimental animals (C57BL/6J mice were divided into 4 groups viz., normal diet-fed group (NCD, atherogenic diet-fed group (HCD, atherogenic diet- and KID7-fed group (HCD-KID7, and atherogenic diet- and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121-fed group (HCD-L.ac as positive control. Serum total cholesterol (T-CHO level was significantly decreased by 19.8% in the HCD-KID7 group (P<0.05, but not in the HCD-L.ac group compared with the HCD group. LDL cholesterol levels in both HCD-KID7 and HCD-L.ac groups were decreased by 35.5% and 38.7%, respectively, compared with HCD group (both, P<0.05. Glutamyl pyruvic transaminase (GPT level was significantly lower in the HCD-KID7 and HCD-L.ac groups compared to HCD group and was equivalent to that of the NCD group. Liver T-CHO levels in the HCD-KID7 group were reduced significantly compared with the HCD group (P<0.05 but not in the HCD-L.ac group. Analysis of expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism in liver showed that low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR, cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE mRNA expression was significantly increase in the HCD-KID7 group compared to the HCD group. Furthermore, KID7 exhibited desired viability under freeze-drying and subsequent storage conditions with a combination of skim milk and galactomannan. P. pentosaceus KID7 could be a potential probiotic strain, which can be used to develop cholesterol-lowering functional food after appropriate human clinical trials.

  2. Software development for a orifice plate characterization used in the oil and gas industry; Desenvolvimento de um 'software' para caracterizacao de placas de orificio utilizadas na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, N. Andreas [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The petroleum industry is an economic area that has a strong impact, because this, the information precision is one of the most important facts and it is able to be defined with software simulation. The knowledge of the exactly quantify of petroleum is fundamental, and then the instrumentation is essential for this measurement. There are many mechanisms to measure the volume flow, and one of the most used is the Orifice Plates, which has been more common in the Natural Gas Industry. The software development goal is the characterization of these Orifice Plates, allowing that the constant, which characterizes certain Plate, to be determined without Labor instruments, for that the software has an actualized database. But, the software needs some variables, that are responsible for the environment characteristics and the used material, to calculate the constant of the Orifice Plate, for example, fluid viscosity, environment temperature and kind of the Orifice Plate. The utilized equations in this software are based on the Stolz II equations. This tool is able to facilitate the work in petroleum industry, besides it is done for mobile applications, allowing analyses in real time. (author)

  3. Technological Proposals for Recycling Industrial Wastes for Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Romero-Hermida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-fold objective is proposed for this research: removing hazardous and unpleasant wastes and mitigating the emissions of green house gasses in the atmosphere. Thus, the first aim of this work is to identify, characterize and recycle industrial wastes with high contents of calcium or sodium. This involves synthesizing materials with the ability for CO2 sequestration as preliminary work for designing industrial processes, which involve a reduction of CO2 emissions. In this regard, phosphogypsum from the fertilizer industry and liquid wastes from the green olive and bauxite industries have been considered as precursors. Following a very simple procedure, Ca-bearing phosphogypsum wastes are mixed with Na-bearing liquid wastes in order to obtain a harmless liquid phase and an active solid phase, which may act as a carbon sequestration agent. In this way, wastes, which are unable to fix CO2 by themselves, can be successfully turned into effective CO2 sinks. The CO2 sequestration efficiency and the CO2 fixation power of the procedure based on these wastes are assessed.

  4. Industrial Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Dan

    Intended for seniors planning a career in industry as skilled laborers, this specialized course in Industrial Communications offers the student basic communications skills which he will need in his work and in his daily life. Since class activities center around short, factual oral reports, class size will be limited to 20, providing a maximum of…

  5. Are new industry policies precautionary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; McDaniels, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    industry characterized by risks, uncertainties, exponential growth, economic significance and environmental controversy, the outcomes of such reactive policies are generally reflected in siting criteria that yield implicit environmental and socio-economic disadvantages and trade-offs. This paper proposes...

  6. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  7. Characterization of nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on an industrial waste-stream by application of the deceleration-stat technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan; Pape, Mathias Leon; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    in batch and continuous cultures. The aim was to evaluate the rates of nutrient removal and biomass production possible at various dilution rates. The results demonstrate that the industrial wastewater served as a highly effective microalgae culture medium and that dilution rate strongly influenced algae...

  8. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  9. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  10. Seasonal variations and chemical characterization of ambient PM 10 at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata (Calcutta), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karar, Kakoli; Gupta, A. K.

    2006-07-01

    Monitoring of ambient PM 10 (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) has been done at residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003 to November 2004. The measurements have been performed once a week during the study period. PM 10 mass concentrations ranged from 68.2 to 280.6 μg/m 3 at a residential site and 62.4 to 401.2 μg/m 3 at an industrial site. Metal constituents of ambient PM 10 deposited on quartz microfibre filter papers were identified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the seven toxic trace metals quantified from the measured PM 10 concentrations. Results identified zinc with maximum contribution of PM 10 among measured metals having concentrations of 0.49 μg/m 3 at the residential site, and 0.53 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. The PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) compounds namely, fluoranthene (Fl), pyrene (Py), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) have been analyzed using gas chromatography. The major PAH compound at the monitoring sites was BbF with 0.03 μg/m 3 at the residential site and 0.02 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. Total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC) and organic carbon (OC) of PM 10 were analyzed using a carbon analyzer. Exposed quartz microfibre filter papers were also analyzed for water-soluble anions of fluoride (F -), chloride (Cl -), nitrate (NO 3-), phosphate (PO 43-) and sulfate (SO 42-) using ion chromatography. Sulfate was found in maximum concentration among anionic species with a value of 1.2 μg/m 3 at the residential site, and 1.7 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. Meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were collected

  11. 中国与葡萄牙风电行业状况对比刍议%A Preliminary Comparative Analysis on Wind Power Industry of Portugal and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常思哲; 陈宁

    2014-01-01

    以葡萄牙与中国风电行业状况的差异为切入点,提出了目前两国风电发展的3类差异,论述了造成上述差异的8种原因,综合各种原因,结合国外行业发展的经验以及中国国情实际,提出中国风电行业发展的建议。%The present status and three major differences of wind power development between Portugal and China are in -troduced .Detail analysis is given form eight different aspects .Considering the experiences from foreign countries and the practical conditions of China , suggestions are provided for the development of wind power industry in China .

  12. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  13. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  14. Glutamate-354 of the CP43 polypeptide interacts with the oxygen-evolving Mn4Ca cluster of photosystem II: a preliminary characterization of the Glu354Gln mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Melodie A; Hwang, Hong Jin; Burnap, Robert L; Yano, Junko; Walker, Lee M; Service, Rachel J; Britt, R David; Hillier, Warwick; Debus, Richard J

    2008-03-27

    In the recent X-ray crystallographic structural models of photosystem II, Glu354 of the CP43 polypeptide is assigned as a ligand of the O2-evolving Mn4Ca cluster. In this communication, a preliminary characterization of the CP43-Glu354Gln mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is presented. The steady-state rate of O2 evolution in the mutant cells is only approximately 20% compared with the wild-type, but the kinetics of O2 release are essentially unchanged and the O2-flash yields show normal period-four oscillations, albeit with lower overall intensity. Purified PSII particles exhibit an essentially normal S2 state multiline electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal, but exhibit a substantially altered S2-minus-S1 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectrum. The intensities of the mutant EPR and FTIR difference spectra (above 75% compared with wild-type) are much greater than the O2 signals and suggest that CP43-Glu354Gln PSII reaction centres are heterogeneous, with a minority fraction able to evolve O2 with normal O2 release kinetics and a majority fraction unable to advance beyond the S2 or S3 states. The S2-minus-S1 FTIR difference spectrum of CP43-Glu354Gln PSII particles is altered in both the symmetric and asymmetric carboxylate stretching regions, implying either that CP43-Glu354 is exquisitely sensitive to the increased charge that develops on the Mn4Ca cluster during the S1-->S2 transition or that the CP43-Glu354Gln mutation changes the distribution of Mn(III) and Mn(IV) oxidation states within the Mn4Ca cluster in the S1 and/or S2 states.

  15. Dual-fuel, dual-throat engine preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of the dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle applications was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data were obtained to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined.

  16. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned.

  17. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.

  18. Industrial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumprecht, Donald L.; Thrasher, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a course designed to better prepare students for employment in chemical industries. A course schedule for this interim course and a list of sources of speakers and speaker credentials is provided. (CW)

  19. Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    companies to begin listing stock options as expenses on financial reports (Chappell, 2005). The industry had used stock options extensively to help... stock options (Chappell, 2005). Industry representatives interviewed by the group argued against the requirement since they predict U.S. companies...may be less inclined now to offer stock options , and subsequently talent may be lost to aggressive foreign competition (Anonymous interviews, 2006

  20. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes; Caracterizacao de residuos solidos da industria de celulose tipo kraft visando sua aplicacao no desenvolvimento de materiais ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  1. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  2. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPAQ

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran .... standard Gram‟s procedure (Somasegaran and Hoben, 1994). Cell ..... nodulation observed with rhizobial isolates, clearly.

  3. Preliminary characterization of Rhizobium strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... about the efficiency of crop inoculation (Graham, 1981;. Hardarson, 1993 ... Strains of Rhizobium sp. were obtained from root nodules of field grown chickpea plants .... 3.0 and 9.0 (Table 1), as observed for other R. ciceri.

  4. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus...... the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had...

  5. Preliminary crystallographic characterization of ricin agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, E C; Tonevitsky, A G; Temiakov, D E; Agapov, I I; Saward, S; Palmer, R A

    1997-08-01

    The quaternary structure of ricin agglutinin (RCA) has been determined by x-ray crystallography. The refined structure of ricin proved to be a successful search model using the molecular replacement method of phase determination. RCA forms an elongated molecule of dimensions 120 A x 60 A x 40 A with two A chains at the center and a B chain at each end. The A chains are covalently associated via a disulfide bridge between Cys 156 of both chains. Additional contacts at residues 114-5 stabilize the dimer interface. The covalent association of RCAA chains was confirmed by gel filtration under reducing and nonreducing conditions.

  6. Preliminary spectroscopic characterization of PEGylated mucin, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frank

    2013-11-20

    Nov 20, 2013 ... system with principal FT-IR peaks quite different from those of non-PEGylated mucin and non- mucinated PEG, and .... drug delivery systems, PEGylated polymeric bioadhesive microparticles ..... adhesive protein. Int. J. Pharm.

  7. 淡化海水产业化的投融资模式初探%Preliminary Discussion on Investment and Financing of Industrialization of Seawater Desalination Projects:Using Beijing as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家沂

    2008-01-01

    海水淡化是解决我国沿海地区淡水资源短缺的重要途径.中国高度重视海水淡化工作,海水淡化作为重要内容已被列入国家规划中.目前,我国海水淡化技术已经取得重大突破,并日趋完善,且随着装置规模的扩大和技术进步,及水价机制的改革,利用淡化海水已具备大力发展的经济条件.本文从投融资模式的角度分析海水淡化进入市场的可行性.%Seawater desalination is an important means to solve the shortage of freshwater resources along the coastal areas of China,and it has already been included in the national planning.Currently,the seawater desalination technology in China has made a major breakthrough.With the expansion of the scale of these desalination projects,and the reform in the water pricing mechanism,utilization of desalinated seawater has already met the necessary economic conditions for large scale development and industrialization.This article analyzes the feasibility of seawater desalination market from the point of capitals investment and financing.

  8. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  9. Development and characterization of a novel immobilized microbial membrane for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand load in industrial waste-waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shikha; Kumar, Anil; Mehra, N K; Makhijani, S D; Manoharan, A; Gangal, V; Kumar, Rita

    2003-01-01

    The rapid determination of waste-water quality of waste-water treatment plants in terms of pollutional strength, i.e. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is difficult or even impossible using the chemical determination method. The present study reports the determination of BOD within minutes using microbial BOD sensors, as compared to the 5-day determination using the conventional method. Multiple criteria establish the basis for the development of a BOD biosensor useful for rapid and reliable BOD estimation in industrial waste-waters. Of these, preparation of a suitable novel immobilized microbial membrane used in conjunction with an apt transducer is discussed. As a result, a microbial biosensor based on a formulated, synergistic, pre-tested microbial consortium has been developed for the measurement of BOD load of various industrial waste-waters. The sensor showed maximum response in terms of current difference, when a cell concentration of 2.25 x 10(10) CFU, harvested in their log phase of growth were utilized for microbial membrane construction. The sensor showed a stability of 180 days when the prepared membranes were stored at a temperature of 4 degrees C in 50 mM phosphate buffer of pH 6.8. The reusability of the immobilized membranes was up to 200 cycles without appreciable loss of their response characteristics. A linear relationship between the current change and a glucose-glutamic acid (GAA) concentration up to 60 mg l(-1) was observed (r=0.999). The lower detection limit was 1.0 mg l(-1) BOD. The sensor response was reproducible within +/-5% of the mean in a series of ten samples having 44 mg l(-1) BOD using standard a GGA solution. When used for the BOD estimation of industrial waste-waters, a relatively good agreement was found between the two methods, i.e. 5-day BOD and that measured by the developed microbial sensor.

  10. Industrial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  11. Resultados preliminares sôbre o estudo do quenafe como matéria-prima para papel Preliminary results on the study of kenaf as a raw-material for the pulp and paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Ciaramello

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Variedades de quenafe, plantadas em diferentes espaçamentos, foram estudadas em ensaio instalado em 1968 no Centro Experimental de Campinas, do Instituto Agronômico, visando à produção de matéria-prima para celulose e papel. Produções da ordem de 29,4 t/ha de massa verde renderam 6,7 t/ha de caules secos, que foram estudados, sob diversos processos de cozimento, na produção de pasta para papel. Os processos sulfato e sulfito neutro de sódio revelaram-se apropriados para a obtenção de pasta celulósica de quenafe, dando papéis com boas características físico-mecânicas.The production of pulping raw material for the paper industry of four varieties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. sown at three spacings (30, 40 and 50 cm was compared in a field trial made at the Experimental Center, Campinas, SP. The analysis of variance of obtained data showed no differences between production of varieties or/and spacings. As an average, the yield was 29.4 metric ton of green stems which corresponded to 6.7 ton of dried weight per hectare. Determinations of physical properties indicated that basic density of stems is only 0.13 g/cm³ and that bast fibers are identical to those of softwood. Wood fibers, however, are shorter and with a larger lumen. Coockings by the sodium sulfate and neutral sodium sulfite processes gave pulp of reasonable quality in bursting, folding and tensile strengths but weak in the tearing and with low porosity.

  12. Characterization of nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on an industrial waste-stream by application of the deceleration-stat technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, Jon; Pape, Mathias Leon; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-05-15

    Industrial wastewaters can serve as a nutrient and water source for microalgal production. In this study the effluent of an internal circulation (IC) reactor anaerobically treating the wastes of a biotechnology production facility were chosen as the cultivation medium for Chlorella sorokiniana in batch and continuous cultures. The aim was to evaluate the rates of nutrient removal and biomass production possible at various dilution rates. The results demonstrate that the industrial wastewater served as a highly effective microalgae culture medium and that dilution rate strongly influenced algae productivity in a short light-path photobioreactor. Batch culture on undiluted wastewater showed biomass productivity of 1.33 g L(-1)day(-1), while removing over 99% of the ammonia and phosphate from the wastewater. Deceleration-stat (D-stat) experiments performed at high and low intensities of 2100 and 200 (μmol photon m(2)s(-1)) established the optimal dilution rates to reach volumetric productivity of 5.87 and 1.67 g L(-1)day(-1) respectively. The corresponding removal rates of nitrogen were 238 and 93 mg L(-1)day(-1) and 40 and 19 mg L(-1)day(-1) for phosphorous. The yield on photons at low light intensity was as high as had been observed in any previous report indicating that the waste stream allowed the algae to grow at its full potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ionel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of accommodation, as basic services offered to tourists, led to the creation of a genuine hospitality industry. Currently, the hospitality industry is no longer just the accommodation service itself but also requires an atmosphere that ensures leisure tourists in the hotel. Thus, hospitable unit manager offers its service in addition to accommodation and catering services, leisure services, treatment services, business services required.. The existence of factors such as revenue growth, increasing leisure time, the development of transport services, the emergence of new tourist attractions have caused increasing international flows of tourists, with consequent development of units hospitable, and therefore a strong hospitality industry. In Romania, after 1990, the tourism sector experienced a true expansion, both through the development of the hotel sector, but also by developing rural hospitality units.

  14. Fiabilidad industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Griful Ponsati, Eulàlia

    2001-01-01

    El presente libro ha sido escrito y editado para los estudios de segundo ciclo de Ingeniería de Organización Industrial que se imparten en la ETSEIT de la UPC. La materia de fiabilidad que se imparte en este texto es una introducción a las técnicas estadísticas para resolver cuestiones de fiabilidad industrial. Se estudian distintos modelos probabilísticos del tiempo de vida y se presentan distintas formas de recabar información y de estimar, en cada caso, la fiabilidad de los componentes y s...

  15. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  16. Contribution to the study of cellulases excreted by trichoderma reesei: characterization of the CL847 phylum cellulolytic complex with a view to industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbre, E.

    1990-04-01

    An efficient purification technic for the cellulasic complex characterization is developed: chromatofocusing. The spectrum peaks are well separated and it allows the follow-up of the enzymatic production fermentation and the study of the hydrolysis transformations. The activity modes of the cellobiohydrolases (enzymes that represent 65pc of the proteins from the T. reesei cellulasic complex) are studied in details, with a view to the development of an enzyme specific quantitative analysis and dosage.

  17. Caracterização mecânica de polipropileno reciclado para a indústria automotiva Mechanical characterization of recycled polypropylene for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz L. Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A indústria automotiva responde, atualmente, por uma grande parte do mercado de consumo de plásticos, por isso existe um crescente interesse no investimento em processos de reciclagem, inclusive devido à vinculação às atividades relacionadas à proteção ambiental. Dentre as peças automotivas, os pára-choques são relativamente fáceis de serem reciclados devido às suas dimensões e por constituírem, geralmente, de um único material, o polipropileno (PP. Neste trabalho, analisaram-se as propriedades mecânicas de misturas de PP virgem e reciclado, em três porcentagens diferentes, a fim de detectar as alterações das mesmas, relacionando-as à qualidade do produto. Concluiu-se que porcentagens de reciclado acima de 30% causam deterioração das propriedades mecânicas do produto. Este estudo visa a fornecer uma contribuição para o aumento na utilização de plásticos reciclados na indústria automotiva.The automotive industry is now responsible for a large share of plastic consumption, which prompted increasing investments in recycling processes, also due to the need of ambient protection. Among the automotives parts, bumpers are relatively easy to be recycled due to their dimensions and because they are made of a single material, polypropylene (PP. In this work, the mechanical properties of mixtures of virgin and recycled PP, in three different percentages, were analyzed in order to detect alterations and associate them with the product quality. It was concluded that percentages of recycled material above 30% deteriorate the mechanical properties of the product. This study aims to provide a contribution to the increase in the recycled plastic use in the automotive industry.

  18. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Shifting Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Coastal city Beihai aspires to revive its economy by developing its electronic information industry Against a clear sky,the blue sea hums along a shining beach,with villas in the distance.This beautiful scene is in Beihai,in south China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  1. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  2. Geno- and phenotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. strains isolated from African indigenous fermented food products and their applications in the food and feed industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adimpong, David Bichala

    biotechnological and food bio-processing applications especially as live culture is the responsibility of the producer. This requires careful safety evaluations such as sensitivity to antimicrobial agents and production of virulence factors. The aim of this PhD Thesis was to characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB......-decomposition analyses. In order to be able to accommodate strain ZN7a-9 within the L. delbrueckii subsp. taxon and to additionally distinguish it from the recognised members of this taxon, it was proposed as a new L. delbrueckii subspecies; Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. jakobsenii subsp. nov. (Appendix II...

  3. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierker, S.

    2007-11-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES&H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility

  4. Behaviour mechanisms and correlation between lead (Pb) and its isotope (210)Pb in industrial residue as an indicator for waste characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Bityukova, Liidia; Kiisk, Madis; Özden, Banu; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2016-12-01

    Total lead and (210)Pb concentrations were determined in various ash fractions (collected from two of the world's largest oil shale-fired power plants) by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma spectrometry. Results show a clear increase in total lead (values up to 193 ppm in filter ashes) and (210)Pb (values up to 148 Bq kg(-1) in filter ashes) concentrations in the ash fractions from the furnace towards the filter ashes. A strong positive linear correlation (Pearson's bivariate correlation remained between 0.86 and 0.99) was determined between total lead concentration (ppm) and (210)Pb activity concentration (Bq kg(-1)) within all the boilers under observation. The constant concentration ratio between total lead and (210)Pb remained around one (with minor exceptions), independent of the sampling location and the used combustion technology. The determined concentration ratio can be applicable as an indicative tool in waste material characterization. It also provides multiple additions to the general material characterization approach, by integrating radiological and elemental studies and providing an option to rapidly obtain initial indicative information about the residues. This in turn helps to generate the initial information to work out the next steps in waste material management.

  5. A highly thermostable alkaline cellulase-free xylanase from thermoalkalophilic Bacillus sp. JB 99 suitable for paper and pulp industry: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinivas, Dengeti; Savitha, Gunashekaran; Raviranjan, Kumar; Naik, Gajanan Ramchandra

    2010-11-01

    A highly thermostable alkaline xylanase was purified to homogeneity from culture supernatant of Bacillus sp. JB 99 using DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration with 25.7-fold increase in activity and 43.5% recovery. The molecular weight of the purified xylanase was found to be 20 kDA by SDS-PAGE and zymogram analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 70 °C, pH 8.0 and stable over pH range of 6.0-10.0.The relative activity at 9.0 and 10.0 were 90% and 85% of that of pH 8.0, respectively. The enzyme showed high thermal stability at 60 °C with 95% of its activity after 5 h. The K (m) and V (max) of enzyme for oat spelt xylan were 4.8 mg/ml and 218.6 µM min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Analysis of N-terminal amino acid sequence revealed that the xylanase belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 11 from thermoalkalophilic Bacillus sp. with basic pI. Substrate specificity showed a high activity on xylan-containing substrate and cellulase-free nature. The hydrolyzed product pattern of oat spelt xylan on thin-layer chromatography suggested xylanase as an endoxylanase. Due to these properties, xylanase from Bacillus sp. JB 99 was found to be highly compatible for paper and pulp industry.

  6. Agro-industrial waste-mediated synthesis and characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles and their catalytic activity for 4-nitroaniline hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi [S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat (India)

    2015-05-15

    The biosynthesis of gold (Au-NPs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using agro-industrial waste Citrus aurantifolia peel extract as a bio-reducing agent is reported. Catalytic activity of nanoparticles (NPs) was evaluated for hydrogenation of anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitroaniline (4-NA). Both synthesized NPs were nearly spherical and distributed in size range of 6-46 and 10-32 nm for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively. XRD analysis revealed face centered cubic (fcc) structure of both NPs. ζ potential value obtained from colloidal solution of Au-NPs and Ag-NPs was −28.0 and −26.1mV, respectively, indicating the stability of the NPs in colloidal solution. FTIR spectra supported the role of citric and ascorbic acids of peel extract for biosynthesis and stabilization of NPs. The biosynthesized NPs exhibited excellent catalytic activity for hydrogenation of 4-NA in the presence of NaBH{sub 4}.

  7. Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idiri, Z., E-mail: zmidiri@yahoo.f [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P399, Alger-Gare (Algeria); Mazrou, H. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P399, Alger-Gare (Algeria); Amokrane, A. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Alger (Algeria); Bedek, S. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P399, Alger-Gare (Algeria)

    2010-01-15

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

  8. Isolation and characterization of xanthan-degrading Enterobacter sp. nov. LB37 for reducing the viscosity of xanthan in petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Wang, Mi; Yang, Fan; Tang, Wenzhu; Li, Xianzhen

    2014-05-01

    A Gram-negative, straight rod and facultative anaerobic bacterium was isolated from soil sample. It exhibits the phenotypic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Enterobacter. The isolate ferment glucose to acid and gas. Arginine dihydrolase, ornithin decarboxylase and gelatinase but not deoxyribonuclease was produced by this isolate. There was no hydrogen sulfide production. On the basis of the phenotypic data, together with phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA gene sequences, this strain should represent a novel species of the genus Enterobacter and was designated as LB37. The strain LB37 could degrade xanthan molecules resulting in the rapid decrease of the viscosity of xanthan solution used in oil drilling process. Endoxanthanase activity was also detected in the culture supernatant. To our knowledge, it is the first report on the microbes being involved in the xanthan degradation for oil industry. The isolate LB37 would be useful for potential application in enhanced oil recovery and oil drilling field.

  9. Characterization of sorption sites and differential stress response of microalgae isolates against tannery effluents from ranipet industrial area-An application towards phycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Sushma, B; Pillai, C Varneetha; Shalini, M; Rajasekaran, C

    2016-08-02

    Phycoremediation ability of microalgae namely Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum were validated against the heavy metals from tannery effluent of Ranipet industrial area. The microalgae species were cultured in media containing tannery effluent in two different volumes and the parameters like specific growth rate, protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities were estimated. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out to know the sorption sites interaction. The antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased in microalgae species indicating the free radical scavenging mechanism under heavy metal stress. SOD activity was 0.502 and 0.378 units/gram fresh weight, CAT activity was 1.36 and 0.256 units/gram fresh weight, GSH activity was 1.286 and 1.232 units/gram fresh weight respectively in the effluent treated microalgae species. Bio sorption efficiency for Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum was 90% and 80% respectively. FTIR analysis revealed the interaction of microalgae species with chemical groups present in the tannery effluent. From the results, the microalgae Oscillatoria acuminate possess high antioxidant activity and bio sorption efficiency when compared to Phormidium irrigum and hence considered useful in treating heavy metals contaminated effluents.

  10. Expression and characterization of Pantoea CO dehydrogenase to utilize CO-containing industrial waste gas for expanding the versatility of CO dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Sil; Min, Kyoungseon; Kim, Geun-Joong; Kwon, Inchan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2017-03-01

    Although aerobic CO dehydrogenases (CODHs) might be applicable in various fields, their practical applications have been hampered by low activity and no heterologous expression. We, for the first time, could functionally express recombinant PsCODH in E. coli and obtained a highly concentrated recombinant enzyme using an easy and convenient method. Its electron acceptor spectra, optimum conditions (pH 6.5 and 30 °C), and kinetic parameters (kcat of 12.97 s-1, Km of 0.065 mM, and specific activity of 0.86 Umg-1) were examined. Blast furnace gas (BFG) containing 20% CO, which is a waste gas from the steel-making process, was tested as a substrate for PsCODH. Even with BFG, the recombinant PsCODH retained 88.2% and 108.4% activity compared with those of pure CO and 20% CO, respectively. The results provide not only a promising strategy to utilize CO-containing industrial waste gases as cheap, abundant, and renewable resources but also significant information for further studies about cascade reactions producing value-added chemicals via CO2 as an intermediate produced by a CODH-based CO-utilization system, which would ultimately expand the versatility of CODH.

  11. Production and partial characterization of lipase from Penicillium verrucosum obtained by submerged fermentation of conventional and industrial media Produção e caracterização parcial de lipase obtida por fermentação submersa de Penicillium verrucosum utilizando meio convencional e industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís da Luz Fontoura Pinheiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in lipase production is related to the potential biotechnological applications that these enzymes present. Current studies on lipase production by submerged fermentation involve the use of agro-industrial residues aiming at increasing economic attractiveness. Based on these aspects, the objective of this work was to investigate lipase production by Penicillium verrucosum in submerged fermentation using a conventional medium based on peptone, yeast extract, NaCl and olive oil, and an industrial medium based on corn steep liquor, Prodex Lac (yeast hydrolysate, NaCl and olive oil, as well as to characterize the crude enzymatic extracts obtained. Kinetics of lipase production was evaluated and the highest enzymatic activities, of 3.15 and 2.22 U.mL-1, were observed when conventional and industrial media were used, respectively. The enzymatic extract showed optimal activity in the range from 30 to 40 °C and at pH 7.0. Although the industrial medium presents economical advantages over the conventional medium, the presence of agro-industrial residues rich in nitrogen and other important nutrients seemed to contribute to a reduction in lipase activity.O grande interesse atual na produção de lipases está relacionado às potenciais aplicações biotecnológicas que estas enzimas apresentam. Estudos relevantes referentes à produção de lipases por fermentação submersa envolvem o uso de resíduos agroindustriais objetivando diminuir o custo de produção do biocatalisador. Com base nestes aspectos, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a produção de lipases por Penicillium verrucosum em fermentação submersa utilizando meio convencional (peptona, extrato de levedura, NaCl e óleo de oliva e industrial (água de maceração de milho, Prodex Lac (hidrolisado de levedura, NaCl e óleo de oliva, bem como caracterizar parcialmente o extrato enzimático bruto obtido. A cinética de produção de lipases foi avaliada e as

  12. Synthesis and characterization of pigments of hematite, obtained through a by-product of the siderurgy industry; Sintese e caracterizacao de pigmento de hematita, obtido atraves de um subproduto da industria siderurgica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prim, S.R.; Folgueiras, M.V.; Lima, M.A. de, E-mail: dem6srp@joinville.udesc.b [Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina (PGCEM/UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    In the ceramic industry of tooting, whose selection is strongly influenced by the visual aspect of the decorated surface, the color becomes one of the most important characteristic for the too tings. With the purpose of seeking new pigments that replace or optimize the already known, news method to synthesis are being researched, such as new pigments system and also the incorporation of new raw materials. In this form, in the present work search to study the possibility of use of a by-product deriving from of the siderurgical industry, that introduces high grades of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For that different contests of the residue were added in one matrix of silica in the hape of quartz, and homogenized using conventional milling and high energy milling. The material obtained after heating treatment in temperature that varied between 1050 and 1300 deg C was characterization by x-ray diffractometry, differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results shown the feasibility of the process depend of the control of the variables temperature and condition of milling in the quality of material obtained. (author)

  13. Technological characterization of new clay deposits in the south region of Amapa, Brazil aiming applications in the ceramic industry; Caracterizacao tecnologica de novos depositos de argilas da regiao sul do Amapa visando aplicacoes na industriav ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Lima da; Luna, Carlos Bruno Barreto; Chaves, Alexsandra Cristina; Neves, Gelmires de Araujo, E-mail: adrianolimadasilva@hotmail.com, E-mail: brunobarretodemaufcg@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-01-15

    The objective of the present work was to characterize two new Clay deposits (A and B) from the south region of Amapa state, aiming to establish their adequate uses as ceramic raw materials and to promote the potential of the ceramic industry in the region. Were prepared specimens by uniaxial pressing, being applied a two phase pressing of 13,4 MPa and 20 MPa, respectively. The samples were dried in an oven at 110 deg C, and submitted to burning at 850, 1000 and 1200 deg C. Were determined linear firing shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity and modulus of flexural modulus of rupture, as well as mineralogical evolution after burning. Finishing, the microstructure of the sintered clay at 1200 deg C was evaluated in a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the clay A presented a better mechanical development, having a red coloration and, therefore, potential to the red ceramic industry. On the other hand, the clay B presented a light color, due to a low content of iron oxide and, therefore, having potential as refractory raw material. In general, one clay is suitable to be used in white ceramic and the other in red ceramic. (author)

  14. Strategies for Industrial Multivariable Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangstrup, M.

    Multivariable control strategies well-suited for industrial applications are suggested. The strategies combine the practical advantages of conventional SISO control schemes and -technology with the potential of multivariable controllers. Special emphasis is put on parameter-varying systems whose...... dynamics and gains strongly depend upon one or more physical parameters characterizing the operating point. This class covers many industrial systems such as airplanes, ships, robots and process control systems. Power plant boilers are representatives for process control systems in general. The dynamics...

  15. Geno- and phenotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. strains isolated from African indigenous fermented food products and their applications in the food and feed industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adimpong, David Bichala

    African indigenous fermented food products are characterized by complex and diverse groups of microorganisms and therefore offer a rich source for selection of microbial strains for various applications in the biotechnology and food bio-processing sectors. There is however, a global public health......) and Bacillus spp. strains isolated from selected African indigenous fermented food products in order to gain an in-depth knowledge on their physiology, safety and genomics in consideration for different biotechnological applications. The study was categorised into the 3 major research areas; microbial......).By the broth microdilution technique, the LAB strains and 85 Bacillus spp. strains representing 38 B. licheniformis, 29 B. subtilis subsp. subtilis and 18 B. sonorensis strains were characterised for susceptibility to antimicrobial compounds of clinical and veterinary importance. The LAB strains were...

  16. Purification, gene cloning and characterization of an acidic β-1,4-glucanase from Phialophora sp. G5 with potential applications in the brewing and feed industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junqi; Shi, Pengjun; Yuan, Tiezheng; Huang, Huoqing; Li, Zhongyuan; Meng, Kun; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2012-10-01

    An extracellular β-1,4-glucanase (CelG5, ∼55.0 kDa) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Phialophora sp. G5, and its encoding gene was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of CelG5 was at most 73.6% and 44.0%, respectively, identical with a hypothetical protein from Sordaria macrospora and an experimentally verified GH 7 endo-β-1,4-glucanase of Neurospora tetrasperma FGSC 2508. Native CelG5 had pH and temperature optima of pH 4.5-5.0 and 55-60°C. The enzyme showed some properties superior than most fungal β-1,4-glucanases, such as high activity over a wide pH range (exhibiting >50% of the maximum activity at pH 2.0-7.0), excellent stability in extreme acidic to alkaline conditions (pH 2.0-9.0), and strong resistance against pepsin and trypsin (retaining 89% and 94% activity, respectively). Recombinant CelG5 produced in Pichia pastoris had a molecular mass and a pH optimum similar to native CelG5, but with maximal activity at 65°C. Application tests showed that native CelG5 was stable under simulated gastric conditions (retaining >70% activity), and had capacity to decrease the viscosity of barley-bean feed (8.9% by 200 U CelG5) and mash (6.1% by 50 U CelG5) and increase the filtration rate of mash (18.4% by 50 U CelG5). These properties make CelG5 a good candidate for utilization in the animal feed and brewing industries.

  17. Industrial cogeneration optimization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

  18. Physical, chemical and radioactive characterization of co-products from titanium dioxide industry for valorization in the cement industry; Caracterizacion fisico-quimica y radiactiva de los sub-productos provenientes de la industria de dioxido de titanio para su valorizacion en la industria del cemento: implicaciones radiologicas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazquez, M.J.; Mantero, J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vaca, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the raw materials (ilmenite and slag), waste (red gypsum) and several co-products (sulphate monohydrate and sulphate heptahydrated) form the titanium dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology, physical composition and radioactive content in order to apply this knowledge in the valorization of the co-products in the fields such a as construction, civil engineering, etc. In particular, the main properties of cements produced with different proportions of red gypsum were studied, and the obtained improvements, in relation to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC) were evaluated. It was also demonstrated that the levels of pollutants and the radioactive content in the produced RG cements, remain within the regulated safety limits. (Author). 38 refs.

  19. Physical, chemical and radioactive characterization of co-products from titanum dioxide industry for valorization in the cement industry; Caracterizacion fisico-quimica y radiactiva de los sub-productos provenientes de la industria de dioxido de titanio para su valorizacion en la industria del cemento: implicaciones radiologicas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazquez, M.J.; Mantero, J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vaca, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the raw materials (ilmenite and slag), waste (red gypsum) and several co-products (sulphate monohydrate and sulphate heptahydrated) form the titanum dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology, physical composition and radioactive content in order to apply this knowledge in the valorization of the co-products in the fields sucha as construction, civil engineering, etc. In particular, the main properties of cements produced with different proportions of red gypsum were studied, and the obtained improvements, in relation to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC) were evaluated. It was also demonstrated that the levels of pollutants and the radioactive content in the produced RG cements, remain within the regulated safety limits. (Author). 38 refs.

  20. Characterization of bacterial diversity in an atrazine degrading enrichment culture and degradation of atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret in industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Vasudevan, Venugopal; Nain, Lata; Singh, Neera

    2016-01-01

    An enrichment culture was used to study atrazine degradation in mineral salt medium (MSM) (T1), MSM+soil extract (1:1, v/v) (T2) and soil extract (T3). Results suggested that enrichment culture required soil extract to degrade atrazine, as after second sequential transfer only partial atrazine degradation was observed in T1 treatment while atrazine was completely degraded in T2 and T3 treatments even after fourth transfer. Culture independent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique confirmed selective enrichment of genus Bacillus along with Pseudomonas and Burkholderia. Degradation of atrazine/metabolites in the industrial wastewater was studied at different initial concentrations of the contaminants [wastewater-water (v/v) ratio: T1, 1:9; T2, 2:8; T3, 3:7; T4, 5:5 and T5, undiluted effluent]. The initial concentrations of atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret ranged between 5.32 and 53.92 µg mL(-1), 265.6 and 1805.2 µg mL(-1) and 1.85 and 16.12 µg mL(-1), respectively. The enrichment culture was able to completely degrade atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret up to T4 treatment, while no appreciable degradation of contaminants was observed in the undiluted effluent (T5). Inability of enrichment culture to degrade atrazine/metabolites might be due to high concentrations of cyanuric acid. Therefore, a separate study on cyanuric acid degradation suggested: (i) no appreciable cyanuric acid degradation with accumulation of an unidentified metabolite in the medium where cyanuric acid was supplemented as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen; (ii) partial cyanuric acid degradation with accumulation of unidentified metabolite in the medium containing additional nitrogen source; and (iii) complete cyanuric acid degradation in the medium supplemented with an additional carbon source. This unidentified metabolite observed during cyanuric acid degradation and also detected in the enrichment culture inoculated wastewater samples

  1. Evaluación y selección preliminar por rendimiento de tubérculo y potencial industrial de 36 clones de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Preliminary evaluation and selection of yield and industrial potential of 36 potato clones (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perilla C. Alexánder

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 36 clones de papa por calidad para la industria, rendimiento, respuesta a gota y precocidad, utilizando como testigos las variedades cultivadas para procesamiento industrial, Diacol Capiro, Diacol Monserrate e lCA Unica. Las variables evaluadas fueron porcentaje de tiras y hojuelas no quemadas, gravedad específica, rendimiento procesable, peso tamaño 2, área bajo la curva de la severidad de gota y días después de la siembra a maduración. El experimento se realizó en la Estación Experimental San Jorge, municipio de Soacha (Cundinamarca, se analizó bajo una metodología estadística propuesta en el Programa de Fitomejoramiento de
    Papa de la Universidad Nacional, que utiliza la suma de rangos en el análisis de diseños incrementados bajo bloques
    completos al azar para seleccionar clones por varias variables y no por una como el análisis tradicional. Se seleccionaron 19 clones, de los cuales 7 son superiores para el conjunto de las variables: los clones 6.5 y 12.59 recomendables para procesamiento en forma de tiras; 2.14,6.8, 11.35, 12.62 y 12.71 para hojuelas. Entre los 7 clones se destacan el 6.8 y 2.14 por presentar menor susceptibilidad a gota y, el clon 6.5 por tener menor tiempo a maduración de tubérculo (15 días menos que Capiro.
    36 clones ofpotato were evaluated for industrial quality, yield, late blight response and early ripen, using the varieties grew for industrial processing, Diacol Capiro, Diacol Monserrate and lCA Unica. Data consisted of the percentage of french fries and chips than did not burn, specific gravity, useful yield, weight of second tubers, area under the curve for the severity of late blight and days to ripen. The experiment was carried out at San Jorge Experiment Station, at Soacha municipality (Cundinamarca - Colombia, it was analyzed under a new statistic methodology proposed in the Breeding Program of
    the Universidad Nacional of Colombia that uses ranks sum on the

  2. 马颊河与徒骇浮游植物群落特征及水质初步评价%Phytoplankton community characterization and preliminary evaluation on water quality of Majia and Tuhai River in Haihe River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋芬; 王卫民; 单保庆; 阎里清; 黎洁; 周洁

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of phytoplankton community characterization including species composition,population size, dominant species and saprobic indicators was conducted in order to evaluate the water quality of Majia and Tuhai River in Haihe River basin. The results revealed that 126 species of phytoplankton belonging to 7 phyla and 67 genera existed in Majia River, while 114 species of phytoplankton belonging to 7 phyla and 63 genera were found in Tuhai River. Chlorophyta was the richest algae in both rivers, followed by Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta. Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were found in all the sampling sites (the frequency was 100%). Cyanophyta was absolute the majority in Majia River in population, which accounted for 53.59% ,while the Chlorophyta was predominant in Tuhai River,which accounted for 35. 73%. The average density of phytoplankton in Majia and Tuhai River were 22. 424 × 106 ind./L and 13. 950× 106 ind./L, respectively. The Shannon-Weaver index, Margalef index and Pielou index varied among 2. 48-4. 64,3. 62-9. 91 and 0. 47-0. 84 in Majia River, while 3.04-4.57,2. 94-10. 15 and 0. 63-0.82 in Tuhai River,respectively. The water quality of both rivers was preliminary evaluated based on above results. In conclusion water quality was good, can be labeled as mesotrophic, but had the potential to turn to eutrophication. So we should pay attention to protect the water quality and enhance the management of the both rivers.%对海河流域马颊河与徒骇河的浮游植物种类组成、种群数量、优势种、污染指示种等进行调查研究,结果表明马颊河浮游植物为126种,隶属7门67属;徒骇河浮游植物为114种,隶属7门63属.2条河流浮游植物种类组成均以绿藻为最多,其次是硅藻和蓝藻;各采样点蓝藻、绿藻和硅藻出现的频度均为100%.在种群数量上,马颊河蓝藻占绝对优势(占藻类数量的53.59%),而徒骇河绿藻占优势(占藻类数量的35.73%),马颊河

  3. Characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas cepacia CCT6659 in the presence of industrial wastes and its application in the biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elias J; Rocha e Silva, Nathália Maria P; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Silva, Ricardo O; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2014-05-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas cepacia CCT6659 cultivated with 2% soybean waste frying oil and 2% corn steep liquor as substrates produced a biosurfactant with potential application in the bioremediation of soils. The biosurfactant was classified as an anionic biomolecule composed of 75% lipids and 25% carbohydrates. Characterization by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) revealed the presence of carbonyl, olefinic and aliphatic groups, with typical spectra of lipids. Four sets of biodegradation experiments were carried out with soil contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds amended with molasses in the presence of an indigenous consortium, as follows: Set 1-soil+bacterial cells; Set 2-soil+biosurfactant; Set 3-soil+bacterial cells+biosurfactant; and Set 4-soil without bacterial cells or biosurfactant (control). Significant oil biodegradation activity (83%) occurred in the first 10 days of the experiments when the biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used together (Set 3), while maximum degradation of the organic compounds (above 95%) was found in Sets 1-3 between 35 and 60 days. It is evident from the results that the biosurfactant alone and its producer species are both capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Metalworking industry management evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattucci, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the evolution drivers of the management systems in the metalworking industry, mainly characterized as "automotive", starting with the "mass production" model, followed for the development of Italian industry in the '50. Through the socio-economic changes of the '90/10, the metalworking plants were deeply restructured with the introduction of computers in the production systems, and then with the first global benchmarks such as the "lean production", towards the needed operational flexibility to respond to the market dynamics. Plants change radically, company networks become real, ICT services are fundamental elements for the integration. These trends help visualizing a new "Factory of the Future" for the years 2020/30, where the competition will be based on the socio-economical, technological and environmental factors included in the "Competitive Sustainable Manufacturing" paradigm.

  5. Caracterização preliminar de amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV isoladas no Brasil Preliminary characterization of brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Botton

    1998-04-01

    ção contra o vírus.This article reports the preliminary characterization of 19 Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV isolates, regarding the biological, antigenic and molecular properties. Eleven viruses were isolated from bovine fetuses, six were obtained from blood of animals from herds with reproductive problems, and two were isolated from clinical cases of gastroenteric disease. The clinical cases affected young animals and were characterized by diarrhea, oronasal and digestive erosions and ulceration, and occasional digestive bleeding and vulvar petechial hemorrhage. Sixteen isolates (84.2%, including those obtained from fetuses and clinical cases, were of the non-cytopathic (ncp biotype. Replication of three isolates (15.8% in tissue culture was characterized by appearance of cellular vacuolation and progressive destruction of the monolayers. Analysis of these isolates after cloning revealed a mixed population of cytopathic (cp and non-cytopathic viruses. Analysis of viral polypeptides by SDS-PAGE followed by "Western immunoblot" revealed the production of the non-structural protein NS3/p80 in cells infected with the cp viruses. In contrast, generation of NS3/p80 was not observed in cells infected with the ncp isolates, which only expressed the precursor polypeptide NS23/p125. Analysis of reactivity with a panel of 15 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs revealed a marked antigenic variability among the isolates, mainly in the envelope glycoprotein E2/gp53. Although one MAb to this glycoprotein recognized 18 isolates (94.7%, the other nine E2/gp53 MAbs recognized zero to 57.9% of the isolates. The marked antigenic diversity observed among the brazilian BVDV isolates may have important implications on diagnosis and immunization strategies.

  6. Industrial chemistry engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-15

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  7. Characterization of a β-glucanase produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus, and its potential for application in the brewing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carlos R

    2006-12-01

    -glucanase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus. was determined to be consistently lower. Conclusion The zygomycete microfungus R. microsporus var. microsporus produced a 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucan 4-glucanhydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73 which is able to hydrolyze β-D-glucan that contains both the 1,3- and 1,4-bonds (barley β-glucans. Its molecular mass was 33.7 kDa. Maximum activity was detected at pH values in the range of 4–5, and temperatures in the range of 50–60°C. The enzyme was able to reduce both the viscosity of the brewer mash and the filtration time, indicating its potential value for the brewing industry.

  8. Characterization of a β-glucanase produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus, and its potential for application in the brewing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, Klecius R Silveira; Cunha, Ricardo B; Felix, Carlos R

    2006-01-01

    . microsporus. was determined to be consistently lower. Conclusion The zygomycete microfungus R. microsporus var. microsporus produced a 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucan 4-glucanhydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73) which is able to hydrolyze β-D-glucan that contains both the 1,3- and 1,4-bonds (barley β-glucans). Its molecular mass was 33.7 kDa. Maximum activity was detected at pH values in the range of 4–5, and temperatures in the range of 50–60°C. The enzyme was able to reduce both the viscosity of the brewer mash and the filtration time, indicating its potential value for the brewing industry. PMID:17147821

  9. Characterization, optimization, and scale-up of cellulases production by trichoderma reesei cbs 836.91 in solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gastón E; Guitart, María E; Cavalitto, Sebastián F; Albertó, Edgardo O; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo; Blasco, Martín

    2015-11-01

    The application of cellulases in saccharification processes is restricted by its production cost. Consequently, new fungal strains able to elaborate higher cellulases titers and with special activity profiles are required to make the process economical. The aim of this investigation was to find a promising wild-type Trichoderma strain for cellulases production. The Trichoderma reesei strain 938 (CBS 836.91) was selected among twenty strains on the basis of cellulase-agar-plate screening. Evaluation of the selected strain on six solid substrates indicated the highest activities to be obtained from wheat bran. Statistical analyses of the experimental design indicated a significant effect of pH and moisture on the generation of endoglucanase (EGA) and filter-paper (FPA) activity. Furthermore, a central-composite design-based optimization revealed that pH values between 6.4 and 6.6 and moisture from 74 to 94% were optimal for cellulases production. Under these conditions, 8-10 IU gds(-1) of FPA and 15.6-17.8 IU gds(-1) of EGA were obtained. In addition, cultivation in a rotating-drum reactor under optimal conditions gave 8.2 IU gds(-1) FPA and 13.5 IU gds(-1) EGA. Biochemical characterization of T. reesei 938 cellulases indicated a substantially higher resistance to 4 mM Fe(+2) and a slightly greater tolerance to alkaline pH in comparison to Celluclast(®). These results suggest that T. reesei 938 could be a promising candidate for improved cellulases production through direct-evolution strategies.

  10. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  11. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. Natural resources emerge as feats of particular political and historical landscape configurations, rather than fixed dormant sediments waiting to be exploited. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness...... such as Søby both natural resources and historical developments are made through particular ad hoc perspectives, somehow providing their own argument on the basis of the ends they are seen to meet.. This view of natural resources and development processes as perspectival accomplishments calls for a detailed...

  12. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  13. [Analysis on layout of traditional Chinese medicine industry based on location quotient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Yu, Yuanyuan; Hu, Yuanjia; Wang, Yitao

    2012-03-01

    To observe the layout and evolution of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) medical industry, classify the industry by region and conduct a preliminary study on its professional advantages, competitiveness and possible cause by using the theory of location quotient in regional economics, in order to provide suggestions for the layout of the TCM medical industry.

  14. Caracterização de artefatos elastoméricos obtidos por revulcanização de resíduo industrial de SBR (copolímero de butadieno e estireno Characterization of elastomeric artifacts obtained by revulcanization of SBR industrial waste (Styrene-butadiene Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Weber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A reciclagem de resíduos de borracha é de extrema importância nos dias de hoje, tanto em relação aos impactos ambientais quanto à conservação de energia. Considerando que a maioria dos trabalhos publicados atualmente se refere à reciclagem de pneus, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e caracterizar formulações contendo um tipo de resíduo industrial, proveniente da fabricação de perfis automotivos, à base de copolímero de butadieno e estireno (SBR para possível aplicação na própria empresa. As composições foram preparadas e caracterizadas pela determinação das propriedades térmicas (calorimetria diferencial de varredura, reológicas (analisador de processamento de borracha, reométricas (reômetria de disco oscilatório, mecânicas (resistência à tração e ao rasgamento, químicas (densidade de ligações cruzadas e morfológicas (microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados obtidos para as composições foram comparados aos de uma amostra controle, de mesma composição, que foi fornecida pela empresa geradora do resíduo de SBR. Os resultados mecânicos indicaram que o processo de revulcanização proposto foi efetivo. Os valores dos parâmetros de tensão na ruptura e resistência ao rasgamento foram de 70 e 50%, respectivamente, em relação aos valores encontrados para a amostra controle, indicando a possibilidade do uso desse resíduo em artefatos de menor exigência técnica.The recycling of waste rubber has very important significances, such as protection of the environment and conservation of energy. Considering that most of published works concerning this subject are about tire recycling, the objective of this work was to develop and characterize formulations containing a type of industrial waste, from the manufacture of automotive profiles, based on styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR for possible application in the industry. The compositions were formulated and characterized by thermal (differential

  15. Icons of Industrial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Lušin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An icon of industrial design is a product characterized by its usability and good permanent design and that simultaneously functions as a bearer of a cultural meaning. These meanings do not originate from the product itself, or its aesthetics, shape, or function, but are formed in the context of wider social and cultural processes. Stuart Hall’s “Circuit of Culture” concept is a model for explaining the cultural processes that form a product’s meaning. These processes are representation, identity, production, consumption, and regulation. Design discourses—for example, discourse about the design profession and good design discourse—need to be taken into consideration in order to understand some of the icons of industrial design. A product can have a special meaning merely because it is signed by a famous designer or because it is declared to be an example of good design. This is also a reason why an item can be included in a museum collection. This is a framework to research and to understand icons of industrial design, such as the Thonet chair no. 14, Savoy vase, Vespa, Rex chair, Braun SK 4, Juicy Salif, and design artifacts in general.

  16. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  17. INTERNET COMMERCE IN MARITIME INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szyda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet commerce in Poland is growing rapidly, entering into new industries and of-fering a wider and wider range of goods and services. For electronic commerce is open maritime industry, as evidenced by the maritime e-commerce. This aspect of e-commerce is not a popular topic of publications and research. In this article the author presents the genesis of electronic commerce in the maritime industry taking into account the particular business relationship business-to-business (B2B. Then attempt to characterize maritime e-commerce in business-to-customer (B2C relationship. The purpose of this article is to identify the attributes of internet commerce in the maritime industry, having particular re-gard to Polish online market, especially retail.

  18. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 https://edms.cern.ch/file/346848/LAST_RELEASED/PRP30.pdf The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address: http://cern.ch/rp-radio

  19. Caracterização dos óleos de algumas sementes de frutas como aproveitamento de resíduos industriais Characterization of some seed oils of fruits for utilization of industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Nanci Kobori

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste estudo foi caracterizar os óleos extraídos das sementes de laranja, maracujá, tomate e goiaba, como aproveitamento de resíduos industriais. Os óleos foram extraídos das sementes em um extrator Soxhlet, utilizando como solvente o éter de petróleo e a caracterização dos mesmos foi realizada por meio de métodos analíticos padrões para óleos e gorduras (ácidos graxos livres, índices de peróxidos, refração, iodo, saponificação, matéria insaponificável e estabilidade oxidativa. As análises realizadas indicaram que esses óleos possuem características físico-químicas semelhantes a alguns óleos comestíveis, podendo ser uma nova fonte de óleos para o consumo humano.The purpose of this study was to characterize the extracted oils of the seeds of tomato, orange, passion fruit and guava with the objective of using industrial residues. The oils were extracted from the seeds with a Soxhlet extractor, using petroleum ether as solvent, and were characterized by standard methods for oil and fat analysis (free fatty acids, peroxide value, refractive index, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and oxidative stability. The analyses accomplished indicate that these oils possess similar physicochemical characteristics as some edible oils, them they can be a new source of oils for human consumption.

  20. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  1. World industry in post-industrial society: tendencies and regional shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionova Irina A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the territorial organization of the manufacturing industry during its transformation from an industrial to a post-industrial phase of development - as one of the most urgent issues of economic geography at the turn of the 21st century. This period was characterized by the acceleration of human output beyond the industrial system and by the regrouping of its driving forces. Post-industrial development of developed countries in many respects determined the changes in the sectorial, institutional and spatial structures of the global industry. At the same time, industrialization acceleration occurred in developing countries, including at the expense of the “transfer” of productions in a number of industries from more developed countries. This article analyses the changes in the distribution of the manufacturing industry on a global and regional level.

  2. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  3. Geostatistical characterization of soil pollution at industrial sites Case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at former coking plants; Caracterisation geostatistique de pollutions industrielles de sols cas des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques sur d'anciens sites de cokeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N.

    2001-05-15

    Estimating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in soil at former industrial sites poses several practical problems on account of the properties of the contaminants and the history of site: 1)collection and preparation of samples from highly heterogeneous material, 2) high short scale variability, particularly in presence of backfill, 3) highly contrasted grades making the vario-gram inference complicated. The sampling strategy generally adopted for contaminated sites is based on the historical information. Systematic sampling recommended for geostatistical estimation is often considered to be excessive and unnecessary. Two former coking plants are used as test cases for comparing several geostatistical methods for estimating (i) in situ concentrations and (ii) the probability that they are above a pollution threshold. Several practical and methodological questions are considered: 1) the properties of various estimators of the experimental vario-gram and the validity of the results; 2) the use of soft data, such as historical information, organoleptic observations and semi-quantitative methods, with a view to improve the precision of the estimates; 3) the comparison of standard sampling strategies, taking into account vertical repartition of grades and the history of the site. Multiple analyses of the same sample give an approximation of the sampling error. Short scale sampling shows the difficulty of selecting soils in the absence of a spatial structure. Sensitivity studies are carried out to assess how densely sampled soft data can improve estimates. By using mainly existing models, this work aims at giving practical recommendations for the characterization of soil pollution. (author)

  4. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronne, Antonio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Calabria, Raffaela [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Califano, Valeria, E-mail: v.califano@im.cnr.it [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Fanelli, Esther [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Massoli, Patrizio [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Vicari, Luciano R.M. [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Lipase from Candida Rugosa was deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) on KBr pellets, mica and glass substrate. • The deposited film was characterized morphologically and structurally by optical microscopy, SEM and FTIR analysis. • Results of characterization underlined a phenomenon of aggregation taking place. • The aggregation phenomenon was reversible since lipase showed activity in the transesterification reaction between soybean oil and isopropyl alcohol once detached from the substrate. - Abstract: Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  5. The Publishing Industry as a Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coser, Lewis A.

    1984-01-01

    Characterizes publishing industry as a hybrid because it has some features usually found in bureaucratic enterprises and others characteristic of industries based on craftlike enterprises. It is concluded that, although this makes for a great deal of inefficiency, it does permit the coexistence of concern for commerce and culture. (EJS)

  6. On Preliminary Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  7. Organization of the News Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the two canonical theories of the firm - transaction costs economics and theknowledge-based view of the firm - predictions on `make-or-buy' are tested on the newsindustry. The news industry provides an interesting case on which to test the two theories sinceit is characterized...... by a high degree of urgency. Urgency refers to the need to catch and processinputs fast. A tendency that is becoming more widespread in other industries where theproduction cycle tends to be reduced. The test is don on original data on the newspaper industrycollected by the author. The conclusions drawn...

  8. Natural photonics for industrial inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew R

    2009-05-13

    There are two considerations for optical biomimetics: the diversity of submicrometre architectures found in the natural world, and the industrial manufacture of these. A review exists on the latter subject, where current engineering methods are considered along with those of the natural cells. Here, on the other hand, I will provide a modern review of the different categories of reflectors and antireflectors found in animals, including their optical characterization. The purpose of this is to inspire designers within the $2 billion annual optics industry.

  9. Chapter F: Preliminary Bibliography of Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits in the Western United States and Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolm, Karen S.; Wallace, Alan R.; Moyle, Phillip R.; Bliss, James D.; Orris, Greta J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction As part of the assessment of lacustrine diatomite resources in the Western United States (fig. 1), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project members conducted a review of literature relating to the formation, location, and nature of deposits in the study area. This preliminary bibliography consists of selected publications to identify, locate, and describe the deposits to be studied, to characterize common geologic factors about the deposits, and to better understand the factors that control their formation, preservation, or destruction. The bibliography also serves as a resource for other workers to research the topic. References included in the preliminary bibliography were gathered by searching existing bibliographic data bases and library collections. Project researchers also contributed references that they found during the course of their work. This bibliography should be considered a working document that will grow as research and literature searches continue. Clearly, many significant publications may be missing from this preliminary list; therefore, USGS staff members intend to issue a revised bibliography as project work progresses. To assure completeness, input from other researchers and industry is welcome. Although the focus of this bibliography is lacustrine diatomite deposits of the Western United States, additional references that provide a foundation of knowledge for the study of diatomites, diatoms, and diatom-related processes (ecology, geology, geochemistry) and for the uses and behavior of diatomite have also been included. An index of keywords has been added to this bibliography, designed to help the user locate reports by topic or by geographic location. The letter 'A' following a number indicates that the report referenced is an abstract.

  10. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  11. Boosting Cultural Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ On July 22 of 2009, the State Council released the Revitalization Plan of Cultural Industry, which is the 11th revitalization plan for an industry following plans for steel, auto, textile, equipment manufacturing, ship-making, IT and other industries.

  12. Trajectory for Industrial Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) ordered the closure of outdated production lines in 18 industries as part of the country's plan to upgrade its industrial structure and move up the value chain.

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  14. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  15. Geochemical and technological characterization of clays of Corumbataí Formation, Paraná Basin, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil for the application in the ceramic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofoletti, Sergio Ricardo; Torres Moreno, Maria Margarita; Batezelli, Alessandro; Zanardo, Antenor

    2014-05-01

    The Corumbataí Formation is a geological unit of the Paraná Basin comprises a range of predominantly argillaceous facies. These clays are important from an economic point of view, because they represent important mineral deposits suppliers of raw materials for the ceramic industry in the production of ceramic tiles.The study presents preliminary results of a research that aims to study the clays municipalities Tambaú, Ferreira and Santa Rosa of Viterbo in the State of São Paulo for their application and diversification of ceramic products. The methodology used was based on a detailed description of facies using the methodology in principles of analysis of Basin Miall (1984), followed by mineralogical identification by X-ray Diffraction, chemical analysis of major elemen