WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary gross comparison

  1. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  2. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  3. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    movie modules. The comparison of the two sample group means of the examinations show that there was no difference in results between using QTVR movie modules to test gross anatomy knowledge versus using physical specimens. The results of this study are discussed to explain the benefits of using such computer based anatomy resources in gross anatomy assessments.

  4. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  5. Comparisons between the attitudes of medical and dental students toward the clinical importance of gross anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowo-Ofayoku, Anthony; Moxham, Bernard John

    2014-10-01

    Marked changes are occurring within both the medical and dental curricula and new ways of teaching the basic sciences have been devised and traditional methods (e.g., dissection for gross anatomy and of bench-based animal preparations for physiology) are increasingly no longer the norm. Although there is much anecdotal evidence that students are not in favor of such changes, there is little evidence for this based on quantitative analyses of students' attitudes. Using Thurstone and Chave attitude analyses, we assessed the attitudes of first year medical and dental students at Cardiff University toward gross anatomy and physiology in terms of their perceived clinical importance. In addition, we investigated the appropriateness ("fitness for purpose") of teaching methodologies used for anatomy and physiology. The hypotheses tested recognized the possibility that medical and dental students differed in their opinions, but that they had a preference to being taught gross anatomy through the use of dissection and had no preference for physiology teaching. It was found that both medical and dental students displayed positive attitudes toward the clinical relevance of gross anatomy and that they preferred to be taught by means of dissection. Although both medical and dental students displayed positives attitudes toward the clinical relevance of physiology, this was greater for the medical students. Both medical and dental students showed a preference for being taught physiology through didactic teaching in small groups but the medical students also appreciated being taught by means of practicals. Overall, this study highlights the expectations that students have for the basic science foundation teaching within their professional training and signals a preference for being taught experientially/practically. Differences were discerned between medical and dental students that might reflect the direct association between systems physiology and pathophysiology and the

  6. Degeneration of the long biceps tendon: comparison of MRI with gross anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Florian M; Grehn, Holger; Hilbe, Monika; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Manzanell, Silvana; Hodler, Jürg

    2009-11-01

    The objective of our study was to relate alterations in biceps tendon diameter and signal on MR images to gross anatomy and histology. T1-weighted, T2-weighted fat-saturated, and proton density-weighted fat-saturated spin-echo sequences were acquired in 15 cadaveric shoulders. Biceps tendon diameter (normal, flattened, thickened, and partially or completely torn) and signal intensity (compared with bone, fat, muscle, and joint fluid) were graded by two readers independently and in a blinded fashion. The distance of tendon abnormalities from the attachment at the glenoid were noted in millimeters. MRI findings were related to gross anatomic and histologic findings. On the basis of gross anatomy, there were six normal, five flattened, two thickened, and two partially torn tendons. Reader 1 graded nine diameter changes correctly, missed two, and incorrectly graded four. The corresponding values for reader 2 were seven, one, and five, respectively, with kappa = 0.75. Histology showed mucoid degeneration (n = 13), lipoid degeneration (n = 7), and fatty infiltration (n = 6). At least one type of abnormality was found in each single tendon. Mucoid degeneration was hyperintense compared with fatty infiltration on T2-weighted fat-saturated images and hyperintense compared with magic-angle artifacts on proton density-weighted fat-saturated images. MRI-based localization of degeneration agreed well with histologic findings. Diameter changes are specific but not sensitive in diagnosing tendinopathy of the biceps tendon. Increased tendon signal is most typical for mucoid degeneration but should be used with care as a sign of tendon degeneration.

  7. Comparison the Impact of Spark Motor Program and Basketball Techniques on Improving Gross Motor Skills in Educable Intellectually Disabled Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moghanlo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Different types of practises are known for improving motor skills in intellectually disabled boys. The purpose of this study was to compar e the impact of spark motor program and basketball on improving of gross motor skills in this people.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study , from 98 educable intellectually disabled students who studied in special school in Urmia, 30 children ( age range of 9 to 13 years and IQ mean 64.4 were selected objectively and divided in three groups (2 experimental and 1 control based on pre - test. BOTMP was used as a measurement of motor ability. Selected motor program (Spark motor program including strengthening training, games, sports and basketball techniques was performed for 24 sessions. T-tests (dependent and co-variance were used to comparison of results.   Results: In Spark group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects on balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p=0.000 and strength (p=0.001. There was no significant effect in agility and speed (p= 0.343 in basketball techniques group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects in agility and speed (p= 0.001, balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p= 0.013 and strength (p= 0.007.   Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that the Spark program and basketball techniques improve gross motor skills in educable intellectually disabled students. We also found a significant difference between the Spark program and basketball techniques efficacy on the improved skills. Furthermore, the efficacy of Spark program was significantly higher than basketball techniques (p<0.05.

  8. Pulmonary Thermal Ablation: Comparison of Radiofrequency and Microwave Devices by Using Gross Pathologic and CT Findings in a Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Christopher L.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Laeseke, Paul F.; Sampson, Lisa A.; Lee, Fred T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of equivalently sized radiofrequency and microwave ablation applicators in a normal porcine lung model. Materials and Methods: All experiments were approved by an institutional animal care and use committee. A total of 18 ablations were performed in vivo in normal porcine lungs. By using computed tomographic (CT) fluoroscopic guidance, a 17-gauge cooled triaxial microwave antenna (n = 9) and a 17-gauge cooled radiofrequency (RF) electrode (n = 9) were placed percutaneously. Ablations were performed for 10 minutes by using either 125 W of microwave power or 200 W of RF power delivered with an impedance-based pulsing algorithm. CT images were acquired every minute during ablation to monitor growth. Animals were sacrificed after the procedure. Ablation zones were then excised and sectioned transverse to the applicator in 5-mm increments. Minimum and maximum diameter, cross-sectional area, length, and circularity were measured from gross specimens and CT images. Comparisons of each measurement were performed by using a mixed-effects model; P ablation and mean cross-sectional area (8.25 cm2 ± 0.92 vs 5.45 cm2 ± 1.14, P ablation, compared with RF ablation. With microwave ablation, the zones of ablation were also significantly more circular in cross section (mean circularity, 0.90 ± 0.06 vs 0.82 ± 0.09; P ablation but stabilized without intervention. Conclusion: Microwave ablation with a 17-gauge high-power triaxial antenna creates larger and more circular zones of ablation than does a similarly sized RF applicator in a preclinical animal model. Microwave ablation may be a more effective treatment of lung tumors. © RSNA, 2009 PMID:19336667

  9. Comparison of Gross Primary Productivity Derived from GIMMS NDVI3g, GIMMS, and MODIS in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP plays an important role in the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. It is particularly important to monitor GPP in Southeast Asia because of increasing rates of tropical forest degradation and deforestation in the region in recent decades. The newly available, improved, third generation Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS group provides a long temporal dataset, from July 1981 to December 2011, for terrestrial carbon cycle and climate response research. However, GIMMS NDVI3g-based GPP estimates are not yet available. We applied the GLOPEM-CEVSA model, which integrates an ecosystem process model and a production efficiency model, to estimate GPP in Southeast Asia based on three independent results of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR from GIMMS NDVI3g (GPPNDVI3g, GIMMS NDVI1g (GPPNDVI1g, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS MOD15A2 FPAR product (GPPMOD15. The GPP results were validated using ground data from eddy flux towers located in different forest biomes, and comparisons were made among the three GPPs as well as the MOD17A2 GPP products (GPPMOD17. Based on validation with flux tower derived GPP estimates the results show that GPPNDVI3g is more accurate than GPPNDVI1g and is comparable in accuracy with GPPMOD15. In addition, GPPNDVI3g and GPPMOD15 have good spatial-temporal consistency. Our results indicate that GIMMS NDVI3g is an effective dataset for regional GPP simulation in Southeast Asia, capable of accurately tracking the variation and trends in long-term terrestrial ecosystem GPP dynamics.

  10. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, James A; Holt, David W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line.

  11. Preliminary comparison of different reduction methods of graphene oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Shang; Dong Zhang; Yanyun Liu; Chao Guo

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a promising route to bulk produce graphene-based sheets. Different reduction processes result in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with different properties. In this paper three reduction methods, chemical, thermal and electrochemical reduction, were compared on three aspects including morphology and structure, reduction degree and electrical conductivity by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and four-point probe conductivity measurement. Understanding the different characteristics of different RGO by preliminary comparison is helpful in tailoring the characteristics of graphene materials for diverse applications and developing a simple, green, and efficient method for the mass production of graphene.

  12. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  13. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  14. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  15. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL TREATMENT AND SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza SHAMSODDINI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study was planned to compare the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment and sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsyMaterials & MethodsTwenty two children with spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups. Sensory integrative therapy was given to the first group (n=11, and neurodevelopmental treatment was given to the second group (n=11. All children were evaluated with GMFM-88. Treatment was scheduled for three - one hour sessions per week for 3 months.ResultsTwenty two children with spastic CP (11 diplegia and 11 quadriplegia participated in this study. When two groups were compared, a significant difference was found in lying and rolling (P=0.003, sitting (0.009, crawling and kneeling (0.02 and standing ability (P=0.04. But there was no significant difference in walking, running, and jumping abilities between the two groups (0.417. Paired t-tests revealed a significant difference between pre and post test results, with increases in scores of lying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, standing in sensory integration therapy (SIT and neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT approaches.Conclusion Neurodevelopmental treatment and sensory integration therapy improved gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy in four dimensions (lying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, standing. However, walking, running and jumping did not significantly improve.

  17. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  18. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum disorder."…

  19. Reliability of the modified Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with both Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Krijnen, W. P.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Looijestijn, P. L.; Maathuis, C. G. B.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to adapt the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) and to determine the test-retest and interobserver reliability of the adapted version. Method: Sixteen paediatric physical therapists

  20. Comparison of analytical and predictive methods for water, protein, fat, sugar, and gross energy in marine mammal milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, O T; Eisert, R; Barrell, G K

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian milks may differ greatly in composition from cow milk, and these differences may affect the performance of analytical methods. High-fat, high-protein milks with a preponderance of oligosaccharides, such as those produced by many marine mammals, present a particular challenge. We compared the performance of several methods against reference procedures using Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) milk of highly varied composition (by reference methods: 27-63% water, 24-62% fat, 8-12% crude protein, 0.5-1.8% sugar). A microdrying step preparatory to carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen (CHN) gas analysis slightly underestimated water content and had a higher repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) than did reference oven drying at 100°C. Compared with a reference macro-Kjeldahl protein procedure, the CHN (or Dumas) combustion method had a somewhat higher RSDr (1.56 vs. 0.60%) but correlation between methods was high (0.992), means were not different (CHN: 17.2±0.46% dry matter basis; Kjeldahl 17.3±0.49% dry matter basis), there were no significant proportional or constant errors, and predictive performance was high. A carbon stoichiometric procedure based on CHN analysis failed to adequately predict fat (reference: Röse-Gottlieb method) or total sugar (reference: phenol-sulfuric acid method). Gross energy content, calculated from energetic factors and results from reference methods for fat, protein, and total sugar, accurately predicted gross energy as measured by bomb calorimetry. We conclude that the CHN (Dumas) combustion method and calculation of gross energy are acceptable analytical approaches for marine mammal milk, but fat and sugar require separate analysis by appropriate analytic methods and cannot be adequately estimated by carbon stoichiometry. Some other alternative methods-low-temperature drying for water determination; Bradford, Lowry, and biuret methods for protein; the Folch and the Bligh and Dyer methods for fat; and enzymatic and reducing

  1. Effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells on gross motor function measure scores of children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hongbin; Hua, Rongrong; Yang, Jing; Dai, Guanghui; Zhang, Zan; Wang, Renzhi; Qin, Chuan; An, Yihua

    2013-12-01

    Pre-clinical evidence indicates that autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) transplantation improves motor function in patients with central nervous system disorders. After providing informed consent, 52 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) who met the study criteria received BM-MSC transplantation. Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88 and GMFM-66 scales at baseline (before transplantation) and at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation. The participants completed the trial without visible side effects. The GMFM-66 percentile (motor growth curves) was used as the control index of motor function to exclude the interference of improvement with age. The score domains A, B, C and D and the total GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 scores in participants increased at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation compared with the baseline value (P cell transplantation. Autologous BM-MSC transplantation appears to be a feasible, safe and effective therapy for patients with CP. The treatment improved the development of children with CP with regard to motor function. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on children with cerebral palsy Gross motor function measure comparison In 60 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixiong Wu; Haibo Yu; Yongfeng Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of acupuncture has received recognition to effectively treat cerebral palsy. Moreover, music therapy can be used to modify treatment of cerebral palsy. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on gross motor function measure (GMFM) of children with cerebral palsy, compared with acupuncture treatment alone. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, clinical study. The experiment was conducted in Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine between January 2007 and September 2007. PARTICIPANTS: All children with cerebral palsy in the trial were from the outpatient department of Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The children were randomly divided into two groups: 30 children in Group B received acupuncture and music therapy, while 30 children in Group A received only acupuncture therapy. METHODS: Subjects in Groups A and B received acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation. The main acupoints were necessary for all participants. At first, flash needling was applied to the acupoints. For the remaining acupoints, the technique of transverse needling was applied to the head acupoints, and perpendicular needling was used for the other points. The inserted needles were twirled and then maintained for 30 minutes. The needle was twirled for one second every other 10 minutes, without reinforcing-reducing techniques. The therapy was performed every other day. The trial consisted of three periods each, and lasted for 84 days. Subjects in Group B received music therapy. They listened to music that they preferred while acupuncture was being performed. Following acupuncture, they were allowed to perform musical activities, such as percussion, singing, and dancing. The music therapy was scheduled for one hour, including listening to music for 30 minutes and music activities for 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The comprehensive functional evaluation scale of cerebral palsy and

  3. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  4. Numerically exact dynamics of the interacting many-body Schroedinger equation for Bose-Einstein condensates. Comparison to Bose-Hubbard and Gross-Pitaevskii theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakmann, Kaspar

    2010-07-21

    In this thesis, the physics of trapped, interacting Bose-Einstein condensates is analyzed by solving the many-body Schroedinger equation. Particular emphasis is put on coherence, fragmentation and reduced density matrices. First, the ground state of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate and its correlation functions are obtained. Then the dynamics of a bosonic Josephson junction is investigated by solving the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation numerically exactly. These are the first exact results in literature in this context. It is shown that the standard approximations of the field, Gross-Pitaevskii theory and the Bose-Hubbard model fail at weak interaction strength and within their range of expected validity. For stronger interactions the dynamics becomes strongly correlated and a new equilibration phenomenon is discovered. By comparison with exact results it is shown that a symmetry of the Bose- Hubbard model between attractive and repulsive interactions must be considered an artefact of the model. A conceptual innovation of this thesis are time-dependent Wannier functions. Equations of motion for time-dependent Wannier functions are derived from the variational principle. By comparison with exact results it is shown that lattice models can be greatly improved at little computational cost by letting the Wannier functions of a lattice model become time-dependent. (orig.)

  5. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  6. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, M; Rameckers, E A A; Waninge, A; Krijnen, W P; Steenbergen, B; van der Schans, C P

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result of a better comprehension of the instruction of the adapted version. The scores of the original and adapted GMFM-88 were compared in the same group of children (n=21 boys and n=16 girls), mean (SD) age 113 (30) months with CP and CVI, within a time span of two weeks. A paediatric physical therapist familiar with the child assessed both tests in random order. The GMFCS level, mental development and age at testing were also collected. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two different measurements (the original and adapted GMFM-88) on a single sample, (the same child with CP and CVI; pvisual problems. On the basis of these findings, we recommend using the adapted GMFM-88 to measure gross motor functioning in children with CP and CVI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of 68Ga-HBED-CC PSMA-PET/CT and multiparametric MRI for gross tumour volume detection in patients with primary prostate cancer based on slice by slice comparison with histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboglou, Constantinos; Drendel, Vanessa; Jilg, Cordula A.; Rischke, Hans C.; Beck, Teresa I.; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Krauss, Tobias; Mix, Michael; Schiller, Florian; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Werner, Martin; Langer, Mathias; Bock, Michael; Meyer, Philipp T.; Grosu, Anca L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The exact detection and delineation of the intraprostatic tumour burden is crucial for treatment planning in primary prostate cancer (PCa). We compared 68Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA PET/CT with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for diagnosis and tumour delineation in patients with primary PCa based on slice by slice correlation with histopathological reference material. Methodology: Seven patients with histopathologically proven primary PCa underwent 68Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA PET/CT and MRI followed by radical prostatectomy. Resected prostates were scanned by ex-vivo CT in a special localizer and prepared for histopathology. Invasive PCa was delineated on a HE stained histologic tissue slide and matched to ex-vivo CT to obtain gross tumor volume (GTV-)histo. Ex-vivo CT including GTV-histo and MRI data were matched to in-vivo CT(PET). Consensus contours based on MRI (GTV-MRI), PSMA PET (GTV-PET) or the combination of both (GTV-union/-intersection) were created. In each in-vivo CT slice the prostate was separated into 4 equal segments and sensitivity and specificity for PSMA PET and mpMRI were assessed by comparison with histological reference material. Furthermore, the spatial overlap between GTV-histo and GTV-PET/-MRI and the Sørensen-Dice coefficient (DSC) were calculated. In the case of multifocal PCa (4/7 patients), SUV values (PSMA PET) and ADC-values (diffusion weighted MRI) were obtained for each lesion. Results: PSMA PET and mpMRI detected PCa in all patients. GTV-histo was detected in 225 of 340 segments (66.2%). Sensitivity and specificity for GTV-PET, GTV-MRI, GTV-union and GTV-intersection were 75% and 87%, 70% and 82%, 82% and 67%, 55% and 99%, respectively. GTV-histo had on average the highest overlap with GTV-union (57±22%), which was significantly higher than overlap with GTV-MRI (p=0.016) and GTV-PET (p=0.016), respectively. The mean DSC for GTV-union, GTV-PET and GTV-MRI was 0.51 (±0.18), 0.45 (±0.17) and 0.48 (±0.19), respectively. In every patient with

  8. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  9. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  10. Preliminary comparison of monolithic and aperture optics for XRMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, G.J.; Worley, C.G.

    1997-08-01

    Comparisons between standard aperture optics and a custom designed monolithic capillary x-ray optic for the Kevex Omicron are presented. The results demonstrate the feasibility of retrofitting an Omicron with a monolithic capillary. Increased flux is observed especially at lower energies which results in an increase in sensitivity and potentially an increase in spatial resolution. Alignment is a critical factor in achieving optimal performance of the monolithic capillary. Further improvements in flux output, spot size and overall sensitivity are expected with better alignment.

  11. Preliminary Comparison of the Response of LHC Tertiary Collimators to Proton and Ion Beam Impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider is designed to bring into collision protons as well as heavy ions. Accidents involving impacts on collimators can happen for both species. The interaction of lead ions with matter differs to that of protons, thus making this scenario a new interesting case to study as it can result in different damage aspects on the collimator. This paper will present a preliminary comparison of the response of collimators to proton and ion beam impacts.

  12. Preliminary comparisons between measurements and model calculations for the TMI venting of /sup 85/Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1980-08-01

    ARAC was on-line calculating hourly concentration values during the TMI-2 venting of /sup 85/Kr gas from June 28 to July 11, 1980. During this time hourly isopleths of normalized instantaneous concentration were calculated and transmitted to EPA in Middletown, PA. These isopleths were used to help locate the EPA and Penn State mobile air samplers and they were used for comparison to the EPA fixed 24 hr sampler measurements and the DOE helicopter measurements. This report summarizes preliminary comparisons for the EPA fixed samplers and the DOE helicopters.

  13. COMPARISON OF THE TRADITIONAL CHALK AND BOARD LECTURE SYSTEM VERSUS POWER POINT PRESENTATION AS A TEACHING TECHNIQUE FOR TEACHING GROSS ANATOMY TO THE FIRST PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally and conventionally, gross anatomy is taught by lectures and cadaveric dissection and the lectures are taken with chalk and board (C&B or chalk and talk method in, India. But there is always a debate over the most effective method of lecture delivery. AIM : The aim of this study was to compare the role and effectiveness chalk and board method versus power point presentation ( S tudent’s perception as a lecture delivering method for teaching gross anatomy. METHODS: This was a questionnaire based study where 140 out of 150 first professional MBBS students of Medical College Jammu, were asked to fill anonymously a questionnaire about their perceptions of these two lecture delivery methods. The results were analyzed to see if there was any preference of students for any particular method. RESULTS: The majority of the medical students (90.7% preferred PPT presentations, while only 9.3% of students preferred the lectures using chalkboard method. CONCLUSION: Most of the students clearly preferred and accepted the use of PPT presentations, as compared to conventional board teaching for delivery method. So teaching gross anatomy should be carefully amalgamated with use of power point in lecture hall.

  14. Comparison of imaging-based gross tumor volume and pathological volume determined by whole-mount serial sections in primary cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ying Zhang,1,* Jing Hu,1,* Jianping Li,1 Ning Wang,1 Weiwei Li,1 Yongchun Zhou,1 Junyue Liu,1 Lichun Wei,1 Mei Shi,1 Shengjun Wang,2 Jing Wang,2 Xia Li,3 Wanling Ma4 1Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi'an, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To investigate the accuracy of imaging-based gross tumor volume (GTV compared with pathological volume in cervical cancer.Methods: Ten patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I–II cervical cancer were eligible for investigation and underwent surgery in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT scans were taken the day before surgery. The GTVs under MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT (GTV-MRI, GTV-PET, GTV-CT were calculated automatically by Eclipse treatment-planning systems. Specimens of excised uterine cervix and cervical cancer were consecutively sliced and divided into whole-mount serial sections. The tumor border of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections was outlined under a microscope by an experienced pathologist. GTV through pathological image (GTV-path was calculated with Adobe Photoshop.Results: The GTVs (average ± standard deviation delineated and calculated under CT, MRI, PET, and histopathological sections were 19.41 ± 11.96 cm3, 12.66 ± 10.53 cm3, 11.07 ± 9.44 cm3, and 10.79 ± 8.71 cm3, respectively. The volume of GTV-CT or GTV-MR was bigger than GTV-path, and the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05. Spearman correlation analysis showed that GTV-CT, GTV-MRI, and GTV-PET were significantly correlated with GTV-path (P < 0.01. There was no significant difference in the lesion coverage factor among the three modalities.Conclusion: The present study showed that GTV defined under 40% of maximum standardized

  15. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  16. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  17. SciDB versus Spark: A Preliminary Comparison Based on an Earth Science Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T.; Kuo, K. S.; Doan, K.; Oloso, A.

    2015-12-01

    We compare two Big Data technologies, SciDB and Spark, for performance, usability, and extensibility, when applied to a representative Earth science use case. SciDB is a new-generation parallel distributed database management system (DBMS) based on the array data model that is capable of handling multidimensional arrays efficiently but requires lengthy data ingest prior to analysis, whereas Spark is a fast and general engine for large scale data processing that can immediately process raw data files and thereby avoid the ingest process. Once data have been ingested, SciDB is very efficient in database operations such as subsetting. Spark, on the other hand, provides greater flexibility by supporting a wide variety of high-level tools including DBMS's. For the performance aspect of this preliminary comparison, we configure Spark to operate directly on text or binary data files and thereby limit the need for additional tools. Arguably, a more appropriate comparison would involve exploring other configurations of Spark which exploit supported high-level tools, but that is beyond our current resources. To make the comparison as "fair" as possible, we export the arrays produced by SciDB into text files (or converting them to binary files) for the intake by Spark and thereby avoid any additional file processing penalties. The Earth science use case selected for this comparison is the identification and tracking of snowstorms in the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. The identification portion of the use case is to flag all grid cells of the MERRA high-resolution hourly data that satisfies our criteria for snowstorm, whereas the tracking portion connects flagged cells adjacent in time and space to form a snowstorm episode. We will report the results of our comparisons at this presentation.

  18. Employment impacts of selected solar and conventional energy systems: a framework for comparisons and preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeltzer, K.K.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary comprehensive analyses of quantitative and qualitative employment effects of selected solar and conventional energy systems are presented. It proposes a framework for analyzing the direct, indirect, induced, displacement, disposable income, and qualitative employment effects of alternative energy systems. The analyses examine current research findings on these effects for a variety of solar and conventional energy sources and compare expected employment impacts. In general, solar energy systems have higher direct and indirect employment requirements than do conventional energy systems. In addition, employment displaced from conventional sources and employment effects due to changes in consumers' disposable income are highly significant variables in net employment comparisons. Analyses of the size and location of projected energy developments suggest that dispersed solar energy systems have a more beneficial impact on host communities than do large conventional facilities, regardless of the relative magnitude of employment per unit of energy output.

  19. A Preliminary Comparison Between Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI for Geological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Papoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary comparison of multispectral data from Landsat 8 OLI to the respective data from Sentinel-2 for geological applications is performed and the results are presented in this study. The behaviour of different classical Landsat Thematic Mapper band ratios sensitive on mineral (TM5/7, TM5/4, TM3/1) or hydrothermal anomalies (TM5/7, TM3/1, TM4/3) detection were used in synergy with digital processing techniques like the Principal Component Analysis. Data fusion techniques were also applied in order to ameliorate the spatial resolution of the data. In order to assess the performance of these band ratio images different quantitative criteria are used such as, the standard deviation of the image, and the coefficient of variation of each pixel.

  20. Comparison of stroke infarction between CT perfusion and diffusion weighted imaging: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Arka, Israna Hossain; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Mukari, Shahizon Azura; Law, Zhe Kang; Sahathevan, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present preliminary results of comparison of automatic segmentations of the infarct core, between that obtained from CT perfusion (based on time to peak parameter) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). For each patient, the two imaging volumes were automatically co-registered to a common frame of reference based on an acquired CT angiography image. The accuracy of image registration is measured by the overlap of the segmented brain from both images (CT perfusion and DWI), measured within their common field of view. Due to the limitations of the study, DWI was acquired as a follow up scan up to a week after initial CT based imaging. However, we found significant overlap of the segmented brain (Jaccard indices of approximately 0.8) and the percentage of infarcted brain tissue from the two modalities were still fairly highly correlated (correlation coefficient of approximately 0.9). The results are promising with more data needed in future for clinical inference.

  1. A comparison study between gross tumor volumes defined by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, postoperative specimens, and tumor bed for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiping; Li, Jianbin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yongsheng; Mu, Dianbin; Chen, Zhaoqiu; Shao, Qian; Li, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The identification and contouring of target volume is important for breast-conserving therapy. The aim of the study was to compare preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative pathology, excised specimens’ (ES) size, and tumor bed (TB) delineation as methods for determining the gross tumor volume (GTV) for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods: Thirty-three patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MRI and radiotherapy after BCS were enrolled. The GTVs determined by MRI, pathology, and the ES were defined as GTVMRI, GTVPAT, and GTVES, respectively. GTVMRI+1 was defined as a 1.0-cm margin around the GTVMRI. The radiation oncologist delineated GTV of the TB (GTVTB) using planning computed tomography according to ≥5 surgical clips placed in the lumpectomy cavity (LC). Results: The median GTVMRI, GTVMRI+1, GTVPAT, GTVES, and GTVTB were 0.97 cm3 (range, 0.01–6.88), 12.58 cm3 (range, 3.90–34.13), 0.97 cm3 (range, 0.01–6.36), 15.46 cm3 (range, 1.15–70.69), and 19.24 cm3 (range, 4.72–54.33), respectively. There were no significant differences between GTVMRI and GTVPAT, GTVMRI+1 and GTVES, GTVES and GTVTB (P = 0.188, 0.070, and 0.264, respectively). GTVMRI is positively related with GTVPAT. However, neither GTVES nor GTVTB correlated with GTVMRI (P = 0.071 and 0.378, respectively). Furthermore, neither GTVES nor GTVTB correlated with GTVMRI+1 (P = 0.068 and 0.375, respectively). Conclusion: When ≥5 surgical clips were placed in the LC for BCS, the volume of TB was consistent with the volume of ES. Neither the volume of TB nor the volume of ES correlated significantly with the volume of tumor defined by preoperative MRI. PMID:28079816

  2. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  3. Preliminary Comparison Between Nuclear-Electric and Solar-Electric Propulsion Systems for Future Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Christophe R.; Valentian, Dominique; Latham, Paul; Fearn, David; Bruno, Claudio; Nicolini, David; Roux, Jean-Pierre; Paganucci, F.; Saverdi, Massimo

    2004-02-01

    of the perceived high Isp of ion engines or future MPD. The comparison, in fact, will show whether the two systems could have the same type of thruster or not, for automatic or for manned missions. The main drawback of SEP is due to photovoltaics and the total solar cell area required, driving spacecraft mass and orbiting costs up. In addition, the question of using superconducting coils holds also for SEP, while no space radiator is, in principle, needed. These and other factors will be considered in this comparison. The goal is to provide preliminary guidelines in evaluating SEP and NEP that may be useful to suggest closer scrutiny of promising concepts, or even potential solutions.

  4. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  5. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  6. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  7. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  8. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  9. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  10. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  11. Comparison of Brain Activity during Drawing and Clay Sculpting: A Preliminary qEEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Kerry A.; Aravich, Paul F.; Deaver, Sarah P.; deBeus, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary experimental study examined brain wave frequency patterns of female participants (N = 14) engaged in two different art making conditions: clay sculpting and drawing. After controlling for nonspecific effects of movement, quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) recordings were made of the bilateral medial frontal cortex and…

  12. Comparison of Simulations of Preliminary Breakdown to Observations from the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B. E.; Liang, C.; Bitzer, P. M.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Preliminary breakdown pulses in electric field change records are thought to be produced by sudden extensions of the lightning channel. We present detailed time domain electrodynamic simulations of extension of an existing lightning leader channel due to heating processes and compare the results to observations of a natural cloud-to-ground lightning discharge made with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA) at a variety of locations near the discharge. Varying the geometry and parameters of the simulations in an attempt to reproduce the data allows us to constrain the directionality and physical properties of the channel. We simulate a variety of leader step phenomena, including uniform heating over the entire step, connection with a space leader, and dart leader propagation onto a preconditioned channel. Results support the notion of impulsive channel extension as the mechanism for preliminary breakdown and shed light on the mechanics of the process.

  13. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  14. Monte Carlo comparison of preliminary methods for ordering multiple genetic loci.

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, J.M.; Boehnke, M

    1990-01-01

    We carried out a simulation study to compare the power of eight methods for preliminary ordering of multiple genetic loci. Using linkage groups of six loci and a simple pedigree structure, we considered the effects on method performance of locus informativity, interlocus spacing, total distance along the chromosome, and sample size. Method performance was assessed using the mean rank of the true order, the proportion of replicates in which the true order was the best order, and the number of ...

  15. Global two-channel AVHRR aerosol climatology: effects of stratospheric aerosols and preliminary comparisons with MODIS and MISR retrievals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Mishchenko, Michael I. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States)]. E-mail: crmim@giss.nasa.gov; Liu Li [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Remer, Lorraine [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 913, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2004-10-15

    We present an update on the status of the global climatology of the aerosol column optical thickness and Angstrom exponent derived from channel-1 and -2 radiances of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in the framework of the Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP). The latest version of the climatology covers the period from July 1983 to September 2001 and is based on an adjusted value of the diffuse component of the ocean reflectance as derived from extensive comparisons with ship sun-photometer data. We use the updated GACP climatology and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) data to analyze how stratospheric aerosols from major volcanic eruptions can affect the GACP aerosol product. One possible retrieval strategy based on the AVHRR channel-1 and -2 data alone is to infer both the stratospheric and the tropospheric aerosol optical thickness while assuming fixed microphysical models for both aerosol components. The second approach is to use the SAGE stratospheric aerosol data in order to constrain the AVHRR retrieval algorithm. We demonstrate that the second approach yields a consistent long-term record of the tropospheric aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent. Preliminary comparisons of the GACP aerosol product with MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer aerosol retrievals show reasonable agreement, the GACP global monthly optical thickness being lower than the MODIS one by approximately 0.03. Larger differences are observed on a regional scale. Comparisons of the GACP and MODIS Angstrom exponent records are less conclusive and require further analysis.

  16. Preliminary comparison of the Essie and PubMed search engines for answering clinical questions using MD on Tap, a PDA-based program for accessing biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Victoria R; Hauser, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    MD on Tap, a PDA application that searches and retrieves biomedical literature, is specifically designed for use by mobile healthcare professionals. With the goal of improving the usability of the application, a preliminary comparison was made of two search engines (PubMed and Essie) to determine which provided most efficient path to the desired clinically-relevant information.

  17. Monte Carlo comparison of preliminary methods for ordering multiple genetic loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J M; Boehnke, M

    1990-09-01

    We carried out a simulation study to compare the power of eight methods for preliminary ordering of multiple genetic loci. Using linkage groups of six loci and a simple pedigree structure, we considered the effects on method performance of locus informativity, interlocus spacing, total distance along the chromosome, and sample size. Method performance was assessed using the mean rank of the true order, the proportion of replicates in which the true order was the best order, and the number of orders that needed to be considered for subsequent multipoint linkage analysis in order to include the true order with high probability. A new method which maximizes the sum of adjacent two-point maximum lod scores divided by the equivalent number of informative meioses and the previously described method which minimizes the sum of adjacent recombination fraction estimates were found to be the best overall locus-ordering methods for the situations considered, although several other methods also performed well.

  18. Preliminary comparison between real-time in-vivo spectral and transverse oscillation velocity estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    angles and std were calculated { 52±18 ; 55±23 ; 60±16 }°. Spectral angles { 52 ; 56 ; 52 }° were obtained from the B-mode images. Obtained values are: PSTO { 76±15 ; 89±28 ; 77±7 } cm/s, spectral PS { 77 ; 110 ; 76 } cm/s, EDTO { 10±3 ; 14±8 ; 15±3 } cm/s, spectral ED { 18 ; 13 ; 20 } cm/s, RITO { 0.......87±0.05 ; 0.79±0.21 ; 0.79±0.06 }, and spectral RI { 0.77 ; 0.88 ; 0.73 }. Vector angles are within ±two std of the spectral angle. TO velocity estimates are within ±three std of the spectral estimates. RITO are within ±two std of the spectral estimates. Preliminary data indicates that the TO and spectral...

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY TO PRIMARY EDUCATION FACILITIES (A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Yosita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a preliminary study to condition of primary education facilities in Indonesia, and then comparing these with theories as well as various relevant cases aimed to know the problem more obviously. Basically, there is difference between primary education facilities in Indonesia with those in developed countries. Meanwhile on the other hand, the condition as well as the completion of education facility is actually as the main factor contributes to address the purpose of learning process. If building design, interior and also site plan were dynamic in form, space, colour and tools, those would be probably more stimulate activity and influence into the growth of students. However, lastly, it is still required further analysis, as an example analysis to student's behaviour in spaces of learning environment, more detail and within enough time, not only at indoor but also at outdoor.

  20. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  1. Informal Preliminary Report on Comparisons of Prototype SPN-1 Radiometer to PARSL Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Charles N.

    2014-06-17

    The prototype SPN-1 has been taking measurements for several months collocated with our PNNL Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory (PARSL) solar tracker mounted instruments at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, USA. The PARSL radiometers used in the following comparisons consist of an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) and a shaded Eppley model 8-48 “Black and White” pyrgeometer (B&W) to measure the direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance (SW), respectively. These instruments were calibrated in mid-September by comparison to an absolute cavity radiometer directly traceable to the world standard group in Davos, Switzerland. The NIP calibration was determined by direct comparison, while the B&W was calibrated using the shade/unshade technique. All PARSL data prior to mid-September have been reprocessed using the new calibration factors. The PARSL data are logged as 1-minute averages from 1-second samples. Data used in this report span the time period from June 22 through December 1, 2006. All data have been processed through the QCRad code (Long and Shi, 2006), which itself is a more elaborately developed methodology along the lines of that applied by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Archive (Long and Dutton, 2004), for quality control. The SPN-1 data are the standard total and diffuse SW values obtained from the analog data port of the instrument. The comparisons use only times when both the PARSL and SPN-1 data passed all QC testing. The data were further processed and analyzed by application of the SW Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long and Gaustad, 2004, Long et al., 2006) to detect periods of clear skies, calculate continuous estimates of clear-sky SW irradiance and the effect of clouds on the downwelling SW, and estimate fractional sky cover.

  2. A preliminary diffusional kurtosis imaging study of Parkinson disease: comparison with conventional diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamagata, Koji; Kamiya, Kouhei; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Yoshida, Mariko; Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Taku; Motoi, Yumiko; Hattori, Nobutaka [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Osamu [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Shimoji, Keigo [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a more sensitive technique than conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessing tissue microstructure. In particular, it quantifies the microstructural integrity of white matter, even in the presence of crossing fibers. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare how DKI and DTI show white matter alterations in Parkinson disease (PD). DKI scans were obtained with a 3-T magnetic resonance imager from 12 patients with PD and 10 healthy controls matched by age and sex. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to compare the mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps of the PD patient group and the control group. In addition, a region-of-interest analysis was performed for the area of the posterior corona radiata and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber crossing. FA values in the frontal white matter were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls. Reductions in MK occurred more extensively throughout the brain: in addition to frontal white matter, MK was lower in the parietal, occipital, and right temporal white matter. The MK value of the area of the posterior corona radiata and SLF fiber crossing was also lower in the PD group. DKI detects changes in the cerebral white matter of PD patients more sensitively than conventional DTI. In addition, DKI is useful for evaluating crossing fibers. By providing a sensitive index of brain pathology in PD, DKI may enable improved monitoring of disease progression. (orig.)

  3. CT and endoscopic ultrasound in comparison to endoluminal MRI-Preliminary results in staging gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heye, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: tobias.heye@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kuntz, Christian [Department of Surgery, Hospital Wetzlar-Braunfels (Germany)], E-mail: christian.kuntz@lahn-dill-kliniken.de; Duex, Markus [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital Nordwest, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: markusduex@aol.de; Encke, Jens [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: jens.encke@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Palmowski, Moritz [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: moritz.palmowski@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Autschbach, Frank [Institute of Pathology, Ruprecht-Karls University, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: frank.autschbach@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Volke, Frank [Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering (IBMT), St. Ingbert (Germany)], E-mail: frank.volke@ibmt.fhg.de; Kauffmann, Guenter Werner [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: guenter.kauffmann@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Grenacher, Lars [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: lars.grenacher@med.uni-heidelberg.de

    2009-05-15

    Purpose: To prospectively compare diagnostic parameters of a newly developed endoluminal MRI (endo-MRI) concept with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and hydro-computer tomography (Hydro-CT) in T-staging of gastric carcinoma on one patient collective. Material and methods: 28 consecutive patients (11 females, 17 males, age range 46-87 years, median 67 years) referred for surgery due to a gastric malignancy were included. Preoperative staging by EUS was performed in 14 cases and by Hydro-CT in 14 cases within a time frame of 2 weeks. Ex vivo endo-MRI examination of gastric specimens was performed directly after gastrectomy within a time interval of 2-3 h. EUS data were acquired from the clinical setting whereas Hydro-CT and endo-MRI data were evaluated in blinded fashion by two experienced radiologists and one surgeon well experienced in EUS on gastric carcinomas. Results: Histopathology resulted in 4 pT1, 17 pT2, 3 pT3 and 2 pT4 carcinomas with 2 gastric lymphomas which were excluded. Overall accuracy for endo-MRI was 75% for T-Staging of the 26 carcinomas. EUS achieved 42.9% accuracy; endo-MRI in this subgroup was accurate in 71.4%. Hydro-CT was correct in 28.6%, accuracy for endo-MRI in this subgroup was 71.4%. Conclusion: The direct comparison of all three modalities on one patient collective shows that endo-MRI is able to achieve adequate staging results in comparison with clinically accepted methods like EUS and Hydro-CT in classifying the extent of tumor invasion into the gastric wall. However the comparison is limited as we compared in vivo routine clinical data with experimental ex vivo data. Future investigations need to show if the potential of endo-MRI can be transferred into a clinical in vivo setting.

  4. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  5. Preliminary comparison between real-time in-vivo spectral and transverse oscillation velocity estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per; Hansen, Jens Munk; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Bachmann Nielsen, Michael; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-03-01

    Spectral velocity estimation is considered the gold standard in medical ultrasound. Peak systole (PS), end diastole (ED), and resistive index (RI) are used clinically. Angle correction is performed using a flow angle set manually. With Transverse Oscillation (TO) velocity estimates the flow angle, peak systole (PSTO), end diastole (EDTO), and resistive index (RITO) are estimated. This study investigates if these clinical parameters are estimated equally good using spectral and TO data. The right common carotid arteries of three healthy volunteers were scanned longitudinally. Average TO flow angles and std were calculated { 52+/-18 ; 55+/-23 ; 60+/-16 }°. Spectral angles { 52 ; 56 ; 52 }° were obtained from the B-mode images. Obtained values are: PSTO { 76+/-15 ; 89+/-28 ; 77+/-7 } cm/s, spectral PS { 77 ; 110 ; 76 } cm/s, EDTO { 10+/-3 ; 14+/-8 ; 15+/-3 } cm/s, spectral ED { 18 ; 13 ; 20 } cm/s, RITO { 0.87+/-0.05 ; 0.79+/-0.21 ; 0.79+/-0.06 }, and spectral RI { 0.77 ; 0.88 ; 0.73 }. Vector angles are within +/-two std of the spectral angle. TO velocity estimates are within +/-three std of the spectral estimates. RITO are within +/-two std of the spectral estimates. Preliminary data indicates that the TO and spectral velocity estimates are equally good. With TO there is no manual angle setting and no flow angle limitation. TO velocity estimation can also automatically handle situations where the angle varies over the cardiac cycle. More detailed temporal and spatial vector estimates with diagnostic potential are available with the TO velocity estimation.

  6. Comparison of temperament and character profiles of anesthesiologists and surgeons : a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra S

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the high levels of stress in anesthesiologists and also their close working liaison with surgeons, it may be worthwhile to compare the personality profiles of these two groups of professionals. AIM: To compare the personality profiles of surgeons and anesthesiologists, using a well-standardized and validated instrument. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Survey (cross-sectional on surgeons and anesthesiologists working in several medical institutes in India. MATERIAL & METHODS: The self-report Temperament and Character Inventory, 125-item version (TCI-125 was mailed out to an incidental sample of surgeons and anesthesiologists working in medical institutes in India. Of the 200 questionnaires sent (100 to anesthesiologists and surgeons each, 93 completed responses were returned (46 anesthesiologists, 47 surgeons; return rate 46.5%. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student′s unpaired ′t′ test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean scores of anesthesiologists vis-a-vis surgeons on the various temperament dimensions were Novelty seeking: 8.6 vs. 9.2; Harm avoidance: 7.3 vs. 8.1; Reward dependence: 8.1 vs. 8.0; and Persistence: 3.0 vs. 3.1, respectively. Similar scores for the character dimensions were Self-directedness: 16.9 vs. 15.9; Cooperativeness: 17.5 vs. 16.5; and Self-transcendence: 7.0 vs. 6.7, respectively. There was no significant difference between the surgeons and anesthesiologists on any of the temperament and character variables of personality chosen for the study. CONCLUSION: Personality measures did not differ significantly between surgeons and anesthesiologists in this preliminary investigation. If replicated on a larger and more representative sample, the findings have clinical relevance to improve the working relationship between these two groups of closely working professionals.

  7. Preliminary interlaboratory comparison of the ex vivo dual human placental perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllynen, Päivi; Mathiesen, Line; Weimer, Marc

    2010-01-01

    As a part of EU-project ReProTect, a comparison of the dual re-circulating human placental perfusion system was carried out, by two independent research groups. The detailed placental transfer data of model compounds [antipyrine, benzo(a)pyrene, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b......)pyridine) and IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline] has been/will be published separately. For this project, a comparative re-analysis was done, by curve fitting the data and calculating two endpoints: AUC(120), defined as the area under the curve between time 0 and time 120min and as t(0.5), defined...

  8. A Preliminary Comparison of Three Dimensional Particle Tracking and Sizing using Plenoptic Imaging and Digital In-line Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert; Munz, Elise Dahnke; Farias, Paul Abraham; Thurow, Brian S [Auburn U

    2015-12-01

    Digital in-line holography and plenoptic photography are two techniques for single-shot, volumetric measurement of 3D particle fields. Here we present a preliminary comparison of the two methods by applying plenoptic imaging to experimental configurations that have been previously investigated with digital in-line holography. These experiments include the tracking of secondary droplets from the impact of a water drop on a thin film of water and tracking of pellets from a shotgun. Both plenoptic imaging and digital in-line holography successfully quantify the 3D nature of these particle fields. This includes measurement of the 3D particle position, individual particle sizes, and three-component velocity vectors. For the initial processing methods presented here, both techniques give out-of-plane positional accuracy of approximately 1-2 particle diameters. For a fixed image sensor, digital holography achieves higher effective in-plane spatial resolutions. However, collimated and coherent illumination makes holography susceptible to image distortion through index of refraction gradients, as demonstrated in the shotgun experiments. On the other hand, plenotpic imaging allows for a simpler experimental configuration. Furthermore, due to the use of diffuse, white-light illumination, plenoptic imaging is less susceptible to image distortion in the shotgun experiments. Additional work is needed to better quantify sources of uncertainty, particularly in the plenoptic experiments, as well as develop data processing methodologies optimized for the plenoptic measurement.

  9. Chaos tool implementation for non-singer and singer voice comparison (preliminary study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajer, Me; Pereira, Jc; Maciel, Cd

    2007-11-01

    Voice waveform is linked to the stretch, shorten, widen or constrict vocal tract. The articulation effects of the singer's vocal tract modify the voice acoustical characteristics and differ from the non-singer voices. In the last decades, Chaos Theory has shown the possibility to explore the dynamic nature of voice signals from a different point of view. The purpose of this paper is to apply the chaos technique of phase space reconstruction to analyze non- singers and singer voices in order to explore the signal nonlinear dynamic, and correlate them with traditional acoustic parameters. Eight voice samples of sustained vowel /i/ from non-singers and eight from singers were analyzed with "ANL" software. The samples were also acoustically analyzed with "Analise de Voz 5.0" in order to extract acoustic perturbation measures jitter and shimmer, and the coefficient of excess - (EX). The results showed different visual patterns for the two groups correlated with different jitter, shimmer, and coefficient of excess values. We conclude that these results clearly indicate the potential of phase space reconstruction technique for analysis and comparison of non-singers and singer voices. They also show a promising tool for training voices application.

  10. Research on the societal impacts of nanotechnology: a preliminary comparison of USA, Europe and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Masami; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    We initiate some comparisons between Japan, Europe and USA on how far there is governmental support for the ethical, legal, social and environmental dimensions of nanotechnology development. It is evident that in the USA and Europe nanotechnology is now firmly embedded in the consideration of ELSI. Yet Japan has not yet adequately recognized the importance of these dimensions. The history of bioethics in Japan is short. In Europe, as early as 2004, a nanotechnology report by the UK's Royal Society referred to the possibility of some nanotubes and fibres having asbestos-like toxicity. The negative history of asbestos in Europe and USA is not yet fully identified as a Japanese problem. Japan is therefore in the process of seeking how best to address societal aspects of nanotechnology. Should the precautionary principle be applied to Japan's nanotechnology initiative as in Europe? Should 5-10% of the government's nanotechnology budget be allocated to ELSI research and measures? We propose that the government and industrial sector in Japan play a much more proactive part in the regional and international growth of research into the wider risk assessment, social, health and environmental context of nanotechnologies, not simply try to borrow lessons from the West at a later date.

  11. The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: preliminary psychometrics and group comparisons in Italian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lillo, Mariangela; Cicchetti, Americo; Lo Scalzo, Alessandra; Taroni, Francesco; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2009-09-01

    To examine the psychometrics of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) among a sample of Italian physicians. The JSPE was translated into Italian using back-translation procedures to ensure the accuracy of the translation. The translated JSPE was administered to 778 physicians at three hospitals in Rome, Italy in 2002. Individual empathy scores were calculated, as well as descriptive statistics at the item and scale level. Group comparisons of empathy scores were also made among men and women, physicians practicing in medical or surgical specialties, physicians working in different hospitals, and at physicians at various levels of career rank. Results are reported for 289 participants who completed the JSPE. Item-total score correlations were all positive and statistically significant. The prominent component of "perspective taking," which is the most important underlying construct of the scale, emerged in the factor analysis of the JSPE and was similar in both Italian and American samples. However, more factors appeared among Italian physicians, indicating that the underlying construct of empathy may be more complex among Italians. Cronbach coefficient alpha was .85. None of the group differences observed among physicians classified by gender, hospital of practice, specialty, or level of career rank reached statistical significance. Findings generally provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Italian version of the JSPE. Further research is needed to determine whether the lack of statistically significant differences in empathy by gender and specialty is related to cultural peculiarities, the translation of the scale, or sampling.

  12. Chaos tool implementation for non-singer and singer voice comparison (preliminary study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dajer, Me; Pereira, Jc; Maciel, Cd [Department of Electric Engineering, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil); Av. Trabalhador Sao-Carlesnse, 400. CEP 13566-590. Sao Carlos. SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    Voice waveform is linked to the stretch, shorten, widen or constrict vocal tract. The articulation effects of the singer's vocal tract modify the voice acoustical characteristics and differ from the non-singer voices. In the last decades, Chaos Theory has shown the possibility to explore the dynamic nature of voice signals from a different point of view. The purpose of this paper is to apply the chaos technique of phase space reconstruction to analyze non- singers and singer voices in order to explore the signal nonlinear dynamic, and correlate them with traditional acoustic parameters. Eight voice samples of sustained vowel /i/ from non-singers and eight from singers were analyzed with 'ANL' software. The samples were also acoustically analyzed with 'Analise de Voz 5.0' in order to extract acoustic perturbation measures jitter and shimmer, and the coefficient of excess - (EX). The results showed different visual patterns for the two groups correlated with different jitter, shimmer, and coefficient of excess values. We conclude that these results clearly indicate the potential of phase space reconstruction technique for analysis and comparison of non-singers and singer voices. They also show a promising tool for training voices application.

  13. Comparison of the Motor Performance and Vestibular Function in Infants with a Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection or a Connexin 26 Mutation: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; De Leenheer, Els; Van Hoecke, Helen; Goderis, Julie; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    Hearing-impaired children are at risk for vestibular damage and delayed motor development. Two major causes of congenital hearing loss are cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and connexin (Cx) 26 mutations. Comparison of the motor performance and vestibular function between these specific groups is still underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of congenital (c)CMV and Cx26 on the motor performance and vestibular function in 6 months old infants. Forty children (mean age 6.7 months; range 4.8 to 8.9 months) participated in this cross-sectional design and were recruited from the Flemish CMV registry. They were divided into five age-matched groups: normal-hearing control, asymptomatic cCMV, normal-hearing symptomatic cCMV, hearing-impaired symptomatic cCMV, and hearing-impaired Cx26. Children were examined with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test. Symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV children demonstrated a significantly lower gross motor performance compared with the control group (p = 0.005), the asymptomatic cCMV group (p = 0.034), and the Cx26 group (0.016). In this symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV group, 4 out of 8 children had absent cVEMP responses that were related to the weakest gross motor performance. The Cx26 children showed no significant delay in motor development compared with the control children and none of these children had absent cVEMP responses. The weakest gross motor performance was found in symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV-infected children with absent cVEMP responses. These results suggest that abnormal saccular responses are a major factor for this delayed motor development, although more work is needed including comprehensive vestibular function testing to verify this.

  14. Comparison of lip prints in two different populations of India: Reflections based on a preliminary examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Koneru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental records, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used for a person′s identification, allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques such as lip prints. The potential of lip prints to determine sex has been well exhibited and documented. However, very few studies have been conducted using lip prints for population identification. Objective: To determine the predominant lip print patterns in males and females in relation to Kerala and Manipuri population and also to compare the lip print patterns between these populations. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 60 subjects, which included 30 each from Kerala and Manipuri. Lipstick was applied evenly, and the lip print was obtained by dabbing a strip of cellophane. The classification scheme proposed by Tsuchihashi was used to classify the lip print patterns and the data were statistically analyzed using the z-test for proportions. Results: Type 4 and Type 5 lip print patterns were predominant in males, whereas in females it was Type 1 and Type 1′. Type 1 pattern was most common in both the populations, with an incidence of 28.33%. Furthermore, Type 1 pattern was found to be more in Kerala females and Manipuri males when compared to their counterparts. Type 1 was most common in upper right, upper left, and lower left quadrants whereas in lower right quadrant, Type 1′ and Type 4 were predominant in Kerala and Type 5 in Manipuri population. Conclusion: Difference between the lip print patterns in two populations exists, although subtle. However, larger sample size is necessary to derive concrete conclusions.

  15. Comparison of lip prints in two different populations of India: Reflections based on a preliminary examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Anila; Surekha, R; Nellithady, Ganesh Shreekanth; Vanishree, M; Ramesh, DNSV; Patil, Ramesh S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental records, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used for a person's identification, allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques such as lip prints. The potential of lip prints to determine sex has been well exhibited and documented. However, very few studies have been conducted using lip prints for population identification. Objective: To determine the predominant lip print patterns in males and females in relation to Kerala and Manipuri population and also to compare the lip print patterns between these populations. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 60 subjects, which included 30 each from Kerala and Manipuri. Lipstick was applied evenly, and the lip print was obtained by dabbing a strip of cellophane. The classification scheme proposed by Tsuchihashi was used to classify the lip print patterns and the data were statistically analyzed using the z-test for proportions. Results: Type 4 and Type 5 lip print patterns were predominant in males, whereas in females it was Type 1 and Type 1’. Type 1 pattern was most common in both the populations, with an incidence of 28.33%. Furthermore, Type 1 pattern was found to be more in Kerala females and Manipuri males when compared to their counterparts. Type 1 was most common in upper right, upper left, and lower left quadrants whereas in lower right quadrant, Type 1’ and Type 4 were predominant in Kerala and Type 5 in Manipuri population. Conclusion: Difference between the lip print patterns in two populations exists, although subtle. However, larger sample size is necessary to derive concrete conclusions. PMID:23960409

  16. Comparison of conventional and low dose steroid in the treatment of PFAPA syndrome: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazgan, Hamza; Gültekin, Erhan; Yazıcılar, Osman; Sagun, Ömer Faruk; Uzun, Lokman

    2012-11-01

    Steroids have been widely used to relief symptoms in the patients with PFAPA syndrome. This study was constructed to show the effectiveness of low-dose steroid therapy in patients diagnosed with PFAPA syndrome. 41 patients (86 febrile attacks) who were diagnosed using the criteria suggested by Thomas et al. were involved in the study. The cases were classified into two groups and the selection of patients in groups was made randomly. Twenty patients received prednisolone at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day (first group: 40 attacks) and 21 patients received a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day (second group: 46 attacks). The effectiveness of the treatment was especially determined by the time needed to reduce the fever and the effect on the duration between the two attacks. The patients were re-examined 24 hours later, after a steroid treatment. The patients who were in the first group received 2mg/kg/day dose of prednisolone and their fever was dramatically decreased in 6-8 hours (7.6 ± 0.9 hours). The second group received 0.5mg/kg/day dose and 19 of these patients' fever was decreased in 8-12 hours. Two patients whose temperature did not decrease, received another dose of prednisolone 24 hours after the first dose and their fever was reduced 12 hours after the second dose (11.3 ± 6.4 hours). A comparison of the rate of fever reduction and the interval between the attacks (Group I: 5.11 ± 1.01 week and Group II: 5.2 ± 1.13 week) in the two groups did not show any statistical significance (p=0.104). Low-dose steroid treatment is as effective as normal dose in PFAPA syndrome but there is need to study with a larger group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  18. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  19. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  20. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  1. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  2. Preliminary Comparison of Properties between Ni-electroplated Stainless Steel Parts Fabricated with Laser Additive Manufacturing and Conventional Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mika; Jauhiainen, Eeva; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Riihimäki, Jaakko; Ritvanen, Jussi; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology, which enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to those of conventionally machined parts. These LAM parts are manufactured via melting metallic powder layer by layer with laser beam. Aim of this study is to define preliminarily the possibilities of using electroplating to supreme surface properties. Electrodeposited nickel and chromium as well as electroless (autocatalytic) deposited nickel was used to enhance laser additive manufactured and machined parts properties, like corrosion resistance, friction and wearing. All test pieces in this study were manufactured with a modified research AM equipment, equal to commercial EOS M series. The laser system used for tests was IPG 200 W CW fiber laser. The material used in this study for additive manufacturing was commercial stainless steel powder grade named SS316L. This SS316L is not equal to AISI 316L grade, but commercial name of this kind of powder is widely known in additive manufacturing as SS316L. Material used for fabrication of comparison test pieces (i.e. conventionally manufactured) was AISI 316L stainless steel bar. Electroplating was done in matrix cell and electroless was done in plastic sink properties of plated parts were tested within acetic acid salt spray corrosion chamber (AASS, SFS-EN-ISO 9227 standard). Adhesion of coating, friction and wearing properties were tested with Pin-On-Rod machine. Results show that in these preliminary tests, LAM parts and machined parts have certain differences due to manufacturing route and surface conditions. These have an effect on electroplated and electroless parts features on adhesion, corrosion, wearing and friction. However, further and more detailed studies are needed to fully understand these phenomena.

  3. A quantitative comparison of gross tumor volumes delineated on [18F]-FDG-PET/CT scan and contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma treated with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarjuna Burela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate tumor diagnosis is important in highly conformal techniques such as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT, which aims for high therapeutic ratio. We compared Gross Tumor Volume (GTV (primary and nodal delineated on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]-FDG-PET scan to those delineated on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT scan and its impact on staging treated by IMRT. A total of 30 consecutive patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck were included in this study. FDG-PET and CECT scans were performed with dedicated positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET/CT scanner in a single session as part of radiotherapy treatment planning for IMRT. After treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, all patients were followed for one year. Three out of 30 patients were excluded from the final analysis, as there was complete remission in PET/CT after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. For remaining 27 cases, the primary sites were 17 oropharynx, 2 hypopharynx, 7 larynx and 1 unknown primary with secondary neck node. PET–CT resulted in changes of CT-based staging in 25% patients (up-staged in 3 and down-staged in 4. GTV delineated on PET vs CT scan was GTV-PET (primary of 20.15 cm3 vs GTV-CT (primary of 18.75 cm3, p = 0.803; and GTV-PET (nodes of 28.45 cm3 vs GTV-CT (nodes of 21.56 cm3, p = 0.589. The mismatch between two target volumes was statistically insignificant (p = 0.635 for GTV primary, p = 0.187 for nodes. The mean GTV-PET outside CT for primary was 5.83 cm3, and for node was 8.47 cm3. Median follow-up was 12 months. One-year loco-regional control was 92%. The target delineation of GTV can be improved with functional imaging [18F]-FDG-PET/CT.

  4. Gross changes in reconstructions of historic land cover/use for Europe between 1900 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Herold, Martin; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Eberle, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Historic land-cover/use change is important for studies on climate change, soil carbon, and biodiversity assessments. Available reconstructions focus on the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). This leads to a serious underestimation of land-cover/use dynamics with impacts on the biogeochemical and environmental assessments based on these reconstructions. In this study, we quantified to what extent land-cover/use reconstructions underestimate land-cover/use changes in Europe for the 1900-2010 period by accounting for net changes only. We empirically analyzed available historic land-change data, quantified their uncertainty, corrected for spatial-temporal effects and identified underlying processes causing differences between gross and net changes. Gross changes varied for different land classes (largest for forest and grassland) and led to two to four times the amount of net changes. We applied the empirical results of gross change quantities in a spatially explicit reconstruction of historic land change to reconstruct gross changes for the EU27 plus Switzerland at 1 km spatial resolution between 1950 and 2010. In addition, the reconstruction was extended back to 1900 to explore the effects of accounting for gross changes on longer time scales. We created a land-change reconstruction that only accounted for net changes for comparison. Our two model outputs were compared with five commonly used global reconstructions for the same period and area. In our reconstruction, gross changes led in total to a 56% area change (ca. 0.5% yr(-1)) between 1900 and 2010 and cover twice the area of net changes. All global reconstructions used for comparison estimated fewer changes than our gross change reconstruction. Main land-change processes were cropland/grassland dynamics and afforestation, and also deforestation and urbanization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  6. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  7. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  8. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  9. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  10. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 1, Third comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This volume contains an overview of WIPP performance assessment and a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B).

  11. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  12. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  13. Determination of respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in soil profile using BaPS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-tao; HUANG Yao

    2006-01-01

    A facility of BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was used to determine soil respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in a winter wheat field with depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. N2O production was determined by a gas chromatograph. Crop root mass and relevant soil parameters were measured. Results showed that soil respiration and gross nitrification decreased with the increase of soil depth, while denitrification did not change significantly. In comparison with no-plowing plot, soil respiration increased significantly in plowing plot, especially in the surface soil of 0-7 cm, while gross nitrification and denitrification rates were not affected by plowing. Cropping practice in previous season was found to affect soil gross nitrification in the following wheat-growing season. Higher gross nitrification rate occurred in the filed plot with preceding crop of rice compared with that of maize for all the three depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. A further investigation indicated that the nitrification for all the cases accounted for about 76% of the total nitrogen transformation processes of nitrification and denitrification and the N2O production correlated with nitrification significantly, suggesting that nitrification is a key process of soil N2O production in the wheat field. In addition, the variations of soil respiration and gross nitrification were exponentially dependent on root mass (P<0.001).

  14. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  15. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance urography for assessing drainage in dilated pelvicalyceal systems with moderate renal function: preliminary results and comparison with diuresis renography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, W C W; Lam, W W M; Chan, K W; Yeung, C K; Lee, K H; Sihoe, J D Y

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the use of dynamic gadolinium diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance urography (Gd-MRU) for assessing kidneys with markedly dilated pelvicalyceal systems and impaired function. Eight children (mean age 30 months, sd 25) were assessed, diagnosed as having gross unilateral hydronephrosis with a mean (sd) anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter of 36 (7) mm and reduced (30-40%) renal function. Dynamic Gd-MRU was performed after the patients were pre-loaded with intravenous fluid and diuretics, and comprised a dynamic T1-weighted sequence after Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg body weight) was administered, with a time-intensity curve of each kidney produced. Drainage was diagnosed by a clearly declining time-intensity curve and direct visualization of contrast medium within the ureter in several frames. High-grade or complete obstruction was diagnosed when drainage of contrast medium could not be detected. Gd-MRU results were compared with diuresis radionuclide (mercapto-acetyltriglycine, MAG3) renography within the same week. Unobstructive units detected by Gd-MRU were treated conservatively with a close follow-up by ultrasonography and radionuclide studies. Diuresis MAG3 renography showed drainage in three dilated units and poor washout in five; in contrast, Gd-MRU showed drainage in seven dilated systems (three showed poor washout by MAG3), and obstruction in the remaining case. The unobstructed units detected by MRU under conservative treatment thus showed no further deterioration of renal function or progressive hydronephrosis in the subsequent follow-up (mean 18 months, range 15-23). These preliminary results suggest that dynamic Gd-MRU is a useful noninvasive imaging method in distinguishing obstructive from unobstructive dilated systems, particularly in patients with hydronephrosis and reduced renal function.

  16. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  17. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  18. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  19. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  20. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf coast region. Volume I. Comparison of prospect areas on the basis of potential environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    The results of a preliminary environmental assessment of the following geopressured-geothermal prospect areas in the Louisiana Gulf coast region are presented: South Johnson's Bayou, Sweet Lake, Rockefeller Refuge, Southeast Pecan Island, Atchafalaya Bay, and Lafourche Crossing. These prospect areas have been compared to determine their relative environmental acceptability for the test program. Trade-offs among the prospects in terms of potential impacts are highlighted. This assessment was made on the basis of the nature and extent of the proposed testing activities in view of the environmental characteristics of each prospect area: land use, geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and quality, ecological systems, and natural hazards. The comparison of prospect areas includes consideration of worst case situations. However, we believe that the test program activities, because they are so small in scale, will not result in major adverse impacts.

  1. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  2. Comparison of force, power, and striking efficiency for a Kung Fu strike performed by novice and experienced practitioners: preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of force, power, and efficiency values calculated from Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strikes, when performed by 7 experienced and 6 novice men. They performed 5 palm strikes to a freestanding basketball, recorded by high-speed camera at 1000 Hz. Nonparametric comparisons and correlations showed experienced practitioners presented larger values of mean muscle force, mean impact force, mean muscle power, mean impact power, and mean striking efficiency, as is noted in evidence obtained for other martial arts. Also, an interesting result was that for experienced Kung Fu practitioners, muscle power was linearly correlated with impact power (p = .98) but not for the novice practitioners (p = .46).

  3. MCNP5 and GEANT4 comparisons for preliminary Fast Neutron Pencil Beam design at the University of Utah TRIGA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Christian Amevi

    The main objective of this thesis is twofold. The starting objective was to develop a model for meaningful benchmarking of different versions of GEANT4 against an experimental set-up and MCNP5 pertaining to photon transport and interactions. The following objective was to develop a preliminary design of a Fast Neutron Pencil Beam (FNPB) Facility to be applicable for the University of Utah research reactor (UUTR) using MCNP5 and GEANT4. The three various GEANT4 code versions, GEANT4.9.4, GEANT4.9.3, and GEANT4.9.2, were compared to MCNP5 and the experimental measurements of gamma attenuation in air. The average gamma dose rate was measured in the laboratory experiment at various distances from a shielded cesium source using a Ludlum model 19 portable NaI detector. As it was expected, the gamma dose rate decreased with distance. All three GEANT4 code versions agreed well with both the experimental data and the MCNP5 simulation. Additionally, a simple GEANT4 and MCNP5 model was developed to compare the code agreements for neutron interactions in various materials. Preliminary FNPB design was developed using MCNP5; a semi-accurate model was developed using GEANT4 (because GEANT4 does not support the reactor physics modeling, the reactor was represented as a surface neutron source, thus a semi-accurate model). Based on the MCNP5 model, the fast neutron flux in a sample holder of the FNPB is obtained to be 6.52×107 n/cm2s, which is one order of magnitude lower than gigantic fast neutron pencil beam facilities existing elsewhere. The MCNP5 model-based neutron spectrum indicates that the maximum expected fast neutron flux is at a neutron energy of ~1 MeV. In addition, the MCNP5 model provided information on gamma flux to be expected in this preliminary FNPB design; specifically, in the sample holder, the gamma flux is to be expected to be around 108 γ/cm 2s, delivering a gamma dose of 4.54×103 rem/hr. This value is one to two orders of magnitudes below the gamma

  4. Preliminary Structural Design Using Topology Optimization with a Comparison of Results from Gradient and Genetic Algorithm Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Adam O.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithm based and gradient-based topology optimization is presented in application to a real hardware design problem. Preliminary design of a planetary lander mockup structure is accomplished using these methods that prove to provide major weight savings by addressing the structural efficiency during the design cycle. This paper presents two alternative formulations of the topology optimization problem. The first is the widely-used gradient-based implementation using commercially available algorithms. The second is formulated using genetic algorithms and internally developed capabilities. These two approaches are applied to a practical design problem for hardware that has been built, tested and proven to be functional. Both formulations converged on similar solutions and therefore were proven to be equally valid implementations of the process. This paper discusses both of these formulations at a high level.

  5. Validation of Refractivity Profiles Retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Radio Occultation Soundings: Preliminary Results of Statistical Comparisons Utilizing Balloon-Borne Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Hayashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The GPS radio occultation (RO soundings by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Taiwan¡¦s Formosa Satellite Misssion #3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate satellites launched in mid-April 2006 are compared with high-resolution balloon-borne (radiosonde and ozonesonde observations. This paper presents preliminary results of validation of the COSMIC RO measurements in terms of refractivity through the troposphere and lower stratosphere. With the use of COSMIC RO soundings within 2 hours and 300 km of sonde profiles, statistical comparisons between the collocated refractivity profiles are erformed for some tropical regions (Malaysia and Western Pacific islands where moisture-rich air is expected in the lower troposphere and for both northern and southern polar areas with a very dry troposphere. The results of the comparisons show good agreement between COSMIC RO and sonde refractivity rofiles throughout the troposphere (1 - 1.5% difference at most with a positive bias generally becoming larger at progressively higher altitudes in the lower stratosphere (1 - 2% difference around 25 km, and a very small standard deviation (about 0.5% or less for a few kilometers below the tropopause level. A large standard deviation of fractional differences in the lowermost troposphere, which reaches up to as much as 3.5 - 5%at 3 km, is seen in the tropics while a much smaller standard deviation (1 - 2% at most is evident throughout the polar troposphere.

  6. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  7. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  8. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of human EEG: preliminary investigation and comparison with the wavelet transform modulus maxima technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Zorick

    Full Text Available Recently, many lines of investigation in neuroscience and statistical physics have converged to raise the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG signals is nonlinear, with self-affine dynamics, while scalp-recorded EEG signals themselves are nonstationary. Therefore, traditional methods of EEG analysis may miss many properties inherent in such signals. Similarly, fractal analysis of EEG signals has shown scaling behaviors that may not be consistent with pure monofractal processes. In this study, we hypothesized that scalp-recorded human EEG signals may be better modeled as an underlying multifractal process. We utilized the Physionet online database, a publicly available database of human EEG signals as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis on human EEG signals derived from waking and different sleep stages, and show evidence that supports the use of multifractal methods. Next, we compare multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to a previously published multifractal technique, wavelet transform modulus maxima, using EEG signals from waking and sleep, and demonstrate that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis has lower indices of variability. Finally, we report a preliminary investigation into the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis as a pattern classification technique on human EEG signals from waking and different sleep stages, and demonstrate its potential utility for automatic classification of different states of consciousness. Therefore, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis may be a useful pattern classification technique to distinguish among different states of brain function.

  9. ACAMPROSATE AND BACLOFEN WERE NOT EFFECTIVE IN THE TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING: PRELIMINARY BLIND RATER COMPARISON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinhas N Dannon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pathological gambling (PG is a highly prevalent and disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychopharmacological options are available for the treatment of PG, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, opioid receptor antagonists, anti-addiction drugs and mood stabilizers. In our preliminary study, we examined the efficacy of two anti-addiction drugs, Baclofen and Acamprosate, in the treatment of PG. Materials & Methods: 17 male gamblers were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received one of the two drugs without being blind to treatment. All patients underwent a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation and completed a series of semi-structured interviews. During the six months of study, monthly evaluations were carried out to assess improvement and relapses. Relapse was defined as recurrent gambling behavior. Results: None of the 17 patients reached the six months abstinence. One patient receiving Baclofen sustained abstinence for 4 months. 14 patients succeeded in sustaining abstinence for 1-3 months. 2 patients stopped attending monthly evaluations. Conclusion: Baclofen and Acamprosate did not prove efficient in treating pathological gamblers.

  10. A preliminary comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar zonal winds during quiet and sub-storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandhi, Kishore Kumar; Nesse Tyssøy, Hilde; Williams, Bifford P.; Stober, Gunter

    2017-04-01

    It is speculated that sufficiently large electric fields during geomagnetic disturbed conditions may decouple the meteor trail electron motions from the background neutral winds and leads to erroneous neutral wind estimation. As per our knowledge, the potential errors have never been reported. In the present case study, we have been using co-located meteor radar and sodium resonance lidar zonal wind measurements over Andenes (69.27oN,16.04oE) during intense sub storms in the declining phase of Jan 2005 solar proton event (21-22 Jan 2005). In total 14 hours of continuous measurements are available for the comparison, which covers both quiet and disturbed conditions. For comparison, the lidar zonal winds are averaged in meteor radar time and height bins. High cross correlations (˜0.8) are found in all height regions. The discrepancies can be explained in the light of differences in the observational volumes of the two instruments. Further, we extended the comparison to address the ionization impact on the meteor radar winds. For quiet hours, the observed meteor radar winds are quite consistent with lidar winds. While during the disturbed hours comparatively large differences are noticed at higher most altitudes. This might be due to ionization impact on meteor radar winds. At the present one event is not sufficient to make any consolidate conclusion. However, at least from this study we found some effect on the neutral wind measurements for the meteor radar. Further study with more co-located measurements are needed to test statistical significance of the result.

  11. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  12. Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R. [and others

    1999-03-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques.

  13. Preliminary Comparison of Reaction Rate theory and Object Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Defect Cluster Dynamics under Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL; Becquart, C. S. [Universite de Lille; Domain, C. [EDF R& D, Clamart, France

    2006-09-01

    The multiscale modeling scheme encompasses models from the atomistic to the continuum scale. Phenomena at the mesoscale are typically simulated using reaction rate theory (RT), Monte Carlo (MC), or phase field models. These mesoscale models are appropriate for application to problems that involve intermediate length scales ( m to >mm), and timescales from diffusion (~ s) to long-term microstructural evolution (~years). Phenomena at this scale have the most direct impact on mechanical properties in structural materials of interest to nuclear energy systems, and are also the most accessible to direct comparison between the results of simulations and experiments. Recent advances in computational power have substantially expanded the range of application for MC models. Although the RT and MC models can be used simulate the same phenomena, many of the details are handled quite differently in the two approaches. A direct comparison of the RT and MC descriptions has been made in the domain of point defect cluster dynamics modeling, which is relevant to both the nucleation and evolution of radiation-induced defect structures. The relative merits and limitations of the two approaches are discussed, and the predictions of the two approaches are compared for specific irradiation conditions.

  14. Jung's twin brother. Otto Gross and Carl Gustav Jung. With an hitherto unpublished letter by C. G. Jung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, G

    2001-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary communication of several years of research into the life and work of the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross (1877-1920). Although he played a pivotal role in the birth of modernity, acting as a significant influence upon psychiatry, psychoanalysis, ethics, sociology and literature, he has remained virtually unknown to this day. Following a biographical sketch and an overview of his main theoretical contributions, the impact of Gross' life and work on the development of analytical theory and practice is described. His relationship with some of the key figures in psychoanalysis is presented, with particular emphasis on his connections to Jung. The paper concludes with an account of relevant contemporary interest in his work: the founding of the International Otto Gross Society, the first edition of The Collected Works of Otto Gross on the Internet, and the 1st and 2nd International Otto Gross Congresses which took place in Berlin in 1999 and at the Burghölzli Clinic, Zürich, in October 2000.

  15. Effectiveness comparison between Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture for myofascial back pain in Thai military personnel: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumnerddee, Wipoo

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this randomized comparative study was to provide preliminary data of comparative effectiveness of Thai traditional massage (TTM) and Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young military personnel. Eighteen Thai military personnel, aged ranging from 20-40 years were randomly divided into TTM and acupuncture groups. Each group received 5 sessions of massage or acupuncture during a 10-day period. The Thai version McGill Pain Questionnaire, 100-mm, visual analog scale (VAS) and summation of pain threshold in each trigger point measured by pressure algometer were assessed at day 0, 3, 8 and 10. At the end of treatment protocols, McGill scores decreased significantly in TTM and acupuncture groups (p = 0.024 and 0.002, respectively). VAS also decreased significantly (p = 0.029 and 0.003, respectively). However, the pain pressure threshold increased significantly in the acupuncture group but not in the TTM group (p = 0.006 and 0.08, respectively). When outcomes were compared between the two groups, no significant difference was found in the VAS (p = 0.115) and pain pressure threshold (p = 0.116), whereas the acupuncture group showed significantly lower McGill scores than the TTM group (p = 0.039). In conclusion, five sessions of Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture were effective for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young Thai military personnel. Significant effects in both groups begin after the first session. Acupuncture is more effective than Thai traditional massage when affective aspect is also evaluated.

  16. Comparison of image quality between mammography dedicated monitor and UHD 4K monitor, using standard mammographic phantom: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, You Sung; Kim, Jeong A [Dept. of Radiology, Inje Unveristy Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Using standard mammographic phantom images, we compared the image quality obtained between a mammography dedicated 5 megapixel monitor (5M) and a UHD 4K (4K) monitor with digital imaging and communications in medicine display, to investigate the possibility of clinical application of 4K monitors. Three different exposures (autoexposure, overexposure and underexposure) images of mammographic phantom were obtained, and six radiologists independently evaluated the images in 5M and 4K without image modulation, by scoring of fibers, groups of specks and masses within the phantom image. The mean score of each object on both monitors was independently analyzed, using t-test and interobserver reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of SPSS. The overall mean scores of fiber, group of specks, and mass in 5M were 4.25, 3.92, and 3.28 respectively, and scores obtained in 4K monitor were 3.81, 3.58, and 3.14, respectively. No statistical difference was seen in scores of fiber and mass between the two monitors at all exposure conditions, but the score of group of specks in 4K was statistically lower in the overall (p = 0.0492) and in underexposure conditions (p = 0.012). The ICC for interobserver reliability was excellent (0.874). Our study suggests that since the mammographic phantom images are appropriate with no significant difference in image quality observed between the two monitors, the 4K monitor could be used for clinical studies. Since this is a small preliminary study using phantom images, the result may differ in actual mammographic images, and subsequent investigation with clinical mammographic images is required.

  17. Comparison of effects of uncomplicated canine babesiosis and canine normovolaemic anaemia on abdominal splanchnic Doppler characteristics - a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Koma

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to compare uncomplicated canine babesiosis (CB and experimentally induced normovolaemic anaemia (EA using Doppler ultrasonography of abdominal splanchnic vessels. Fourteen dogs with uncomplicated CB were investigated together with 11 healthy Beagles during severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state as a control group. Canine babesiosis was compared with severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state using Doppler variables of the abdominal aorta, cranial mesenteric artery (CMA, coeliac, left renal and interlobar, and hilar splenic arteries, and the main portal vein. Patterns of haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were broadly similar and were characterised by elevations in velocities and reductions in resistance indices in all vessels except the renal arteries when compared with the physiological state. Aortic and CMA peak systolic velocities and CMA end diastolic and time-averaged mean velocities in CB were significantly lower (P < 0.023 than those in severe EA. Patterns of renal haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were similar. However, the renal patterns differed from those of aortic and gastrointestinal arteries, having elevations in vascular resistance indices, a reduction in end diastolic velocity and unchanged time-averaged mean velocity. The left renal artery resistive index in CB was significantly higher (P < 0.025 than those in EA and the physiological state. Renal interlobar artery resistive and pulsatility indices in CB were significantly higher (P < 0.016 than those of moderate EA and the physiological state. The similar haemodynamic patterns in CB and EA are attributable to anaemia, while significant differencesmayadditionally be attributed to pathophysiological factors peculiar to CB.

  18. A comparison of preliminary oncologic outcome and postoperative complications between patients undergoing either open or robotic radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cusano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare complications and outcomes in patients undergoing either open radical cystectomy (ORC or robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RRC. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified patients that underwent ORC or RRC between 2003- 2013. We statistically compared preliminary oncologic outcomes of patients for each surgical modality. Results: 92 (43.2% and 121 (56.8% patients underwent ORC and RRC, respectively. While operative time was shorter for ORC patients (403 vs. 508 min; p<0.001, surgical blood loss and transfusion rates were significantly lower in RRC patients (p<0.001 and 0.006. Length of stay was not different between groups (p=0.221. There was no difference in the proportion of lymph node-positive patients between groups. However, RRC patients had a greater number of lymph nodes removed during surgery (18 vs. 11.5; p<0.001. There was no significant difference in the incidence of pre-existing comorbidities or in the Clavien distribution of complications between groups. ORC and RRC patients were followed for a median of 1.38 (0.55-2.7 and 1.40 (0.582.59 years, respectively (p=0.850. During this period, a lower proportion (22.3% of RRC patients experienced disease recurrence vs. ORC patients (34.8%. However, there was no significant difference in time to recurrence between groups. While ORC was associated with a higher all-cause mortality rate (p=0.049, there was no significant difference in disease-free survival time between groups. Conclusions: ORC and RRC patients experience postoperative complications of similar rates and severity. However, RRC may offer indirect benefits via reduced surgical blood loss and need for transfusion.

  19. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  20. TU-CD-304-03: Dosimetric Verification and Preliminary Comparison of Dynamic Wave Arc for SBRT Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burghelea, M [UZ BRUSSEL, Brussels (Belgium); BRAINLAB AG, Munich (Germany); Babes Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Poels, K; Gevaert, T; Tournel, K; Dhont, J; De Ridder, M; Verellen, D [UZ BRUSSEL, Brussels (Belgium); Hung, C [BRAINLAB AG, Munich (Germany); Eriksson, K [RAYSEARCH LABORATORIES AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Simon, V [Babes Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential dosimetric benefits and verify the delivery accuracy of Dynamic Wave Arc, a novel treatment delivery approach for the Vero SBRT system. Methods: Dynamic Wave Arc (DWA) combines simultaneous movement of gantry/ring with inverse planning optimization, resulting in an uninterrupted non-coplanar arc delivery technique. Thirteen SBRT complex cases previously treated with 8–10 conformal static beams (CRT) were evaluated in this study. Eight primary centrally-located NSCLC (prescription dose 4×12Gy or 8×7.5Gy) and five oligometastatic cases (2×2 lesions, 10×5Gy) were selected. DWA and coplanar VMAT plans, partially with dual arcs, were generated for each patient using identical objective functions for target volumes and OARs on the same TPS (RayStation, RaySearch Laboratories). Dosimetric differences and delivery time among these three planning schemes were evaluated. The DWA delivery accuracy was assessed using the Delta4 diode array phantom (ScandiDos AB). The gamma analysis was performed with the 3%/3mm dose and distance-to-agreement criteria. Results: The target conformity for CRT, VMAT and DWA were 0.95±0.07, 0.96±0.04 and 0.97±0.04, while the low dose spillage gradient were 5.52±1.36, 5.44±1.11, and 5.09±0.98 respectively. Overall, the bronchus, esophagus and spinal cord maximum doses were similar between VMAT and DWA, but highly reduced compared with CRT. For the lung cases, the mean dose and V20Gy were lower for the arc techniques compares with CRT, while for the liver cases, the mean dose and the V30Gy presented slightly higher values. The average delivery time of VMAT and DWA were 2.46±1.10 min and 4.25±1.67 min, VMAT presenting shorter treatment time in all cases. The DWA dosimetric verification presented an average gamma index passing rate of 95.73±1.54% (range 94.2%–99.8%). Conclusion: Our preliminary data indicated that the DWA is deliverable with clinically acceptable accuracy and has the potential to

  1. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  2. Preliminary comparison of the conventional and quasi-snowflake divertor configurations with the 2D code EDGE2D/EIRENE in the FAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, B.; Maddaluno, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V. [EURATOM-ENEA Association, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Corrigan, G.; Harting, D. [Culham Centre of Fusion Energy, EURATOM-Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Mattia, M. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Universita di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico, 00133 Roma (Italy); Zagorski, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion-EURATOM Association, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-15

    The new magnetic configurations for tokamak divertors, snowflake and super-X, proposed to mitigate the problem of the power exhaust in reactors have clearly evidenced the need for an accurate and reliable modeling of the physics governing the interaction with the plates. The initial effort undertaken jointly by ENEA and IPPLM has been focused to exploit a simple and versatile modeling tool, namely the 2D TECXY code, to obtain preliminary comparison between the conventional and snowflake configurations for the proposed new device FAST that should realize an edge plasma with properties quite close to those of a reactor. The very interesting features found for the snowflake, namely a power load mitigation much larger than expected directly from the change of the magnetic topology, has further pushed us to check these results with the more sophisticated computational tool EDGE2D coupled with the neutral code module EIRENE. After a preparatory work that has been carried out in order to adapt this code combination to deal with non-conventional, single null equilibria and in particular with second order nulls in the poloidal field generated in the snowflake configuration, in this paper we describe the first activity to compare these codes and discuss the first results obtained for FAST. The outcome of these EDGE2D runs is in qualitative agreement with those of TECXY, confirming the potential benefit obtainable from a snowflake configuration. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  4. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  5. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  6. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  7. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  8. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%, talipes equinovarus (17.02% and meningomyelocele (10.63%. Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07% in-comparison to booked (1.01% mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]; gravida status of at least 3 (2.69% followed by 1 (1.43% and 2 (1.0% respectively; pre-term (5.13% vs. term (0.66%; cesarean section (4.36% versus vaginal delivery (0.62%. Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35% than normal (0.34% newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid that needs appropriate attention and management.

  9. The potent microtubule-stabilizing agent (+)-discodermolide induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma cells--preliminary comparisons to paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, R; ter Haar, E; Welsh, M J; Grant, S G; Day, B W

    1998-01-01

    (+)-Discodermolide, a sponge-derived natural product, stabilizes microtubules more potently than paclitaxel despite the lack of any obvious structural similarities between the drugs. It competitively inhibits the binding of paclitaxel to tubulin polymers, hypernucleates microtubule assembly more potently than paclitaxel, and inhibits the growth of paclitaxel-resistant ovarian and colon carcinoma cells. Because paclitaxel shows clinical promise for breast cancer treatment, its effects in a series of human breast cancer cells were compared to those of (+)-discodermolide. Growth inhibition, cell and nuclear morphological, and electrophoretic and flow cytometric analyses were performed on (+)-discodermolide-treated MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells. (+)-Discodermolide potently inhibited the growth of both cell types (IC50 Discodermolide-treated cells exhibited condensed and highly fragmented nuclei. Flow cytometric comparison of cells treated with either drug at 10 nM, a concentration well below that achieved clinically with paclitaxel, showed both caused cell cycle perturbation and induction of a hypodiploid cell population. (+)-Discodermolide caused these effects more extensively and at earlier time points. The timing and type of high molecular weight DNA fragmentation induced by the two agents was consistent with induction of apoptosis. The results suggest that (+)-discodermolide has promise as a new chemotherapeutic agent against breast and other cancers.

  10. Assessing the influence of historic net and gross land changes on the carbon fluxes of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Schulp, Catharina J E; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Herold, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Legacy effects of land cover/use on carbon fluxes require considering both present and past land cover/use change dynamics. To assess past land use dynamics, model-based reconstructions of historic land cover/use are needed. Most historic reconstructions consider only the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). Studies about the impact of gross and net land change accounting methods on the carbon balance are still lacking. In this study, we assessed historic changes in carbon in soils for five land cover/use types and of carbon in above-ground biomass of forests. The assessment focused on Europe for the period 1950 to 2010 with decadal time steps at 1-km spatial resolution using a bookkeeping approach. To assess the implications of gross land change data, we also used net land changes for comparison. Main contributors to carbon sequestration between 1950 and 2010 were afforestation and cropland abandonment leading to 14.6 PgC sequestered carbon (of which 7.6 PgC was in forest biomass). Sequestration was highest for old-growth forest areas. A sequestration dip was reached during the 1970s due to changes in forest management practices. Main contributors to carbon emissions were deforestation (1.7 PgC) and stable cropland areas on peaty soils (0.8 PgC). In total, net fluxes summed up to 203 TgC yr(-1) (98 TgC yr(-1) in forest biomass and 105 TgC yr(-1) in soils). For areas that were subject to land changes in both reconstructions (35% of total area), the differences in carbon fluxes were about 68%. Overall for Europe the difference between accounting for either gross or net land changes led to 7% difference (up to 11% per decade) in carbon fluxes with systematically higher fluxes for gross land change data.

  11. Is macroporosity absolutely required for preliminary in vitro bone biomaterial study? A comparison between porous materials and flat materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juliana T Y; Chow, King L; Wang, Kefeng; Tsang, Wai-Hung

    2011-11-08

    Porous materials are highly preferred for bone tissue engineering due to space for blood vessel ingrowth, but this may introduce extra experimental variations because of the difficulty in precise control of porosity. In order to decide whether it is absolutely necessary to use porous materials in in vitro comparative osteogenesis study of materials with different chemistries, we carried out osteoinductivity study using C3H/10T1/2 cells, pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), on seven material types: hydroxyapatite (HA), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and b-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in both porous and dense forms and tissue culture plastic. For all materials under test, dense materials give higher alkaline phosphatase gene (Alp) expression compared with porous materials. In addition, the cell density effects on the 10T1/2 cells were assessed through alkaline phosphatase protein (ALP) enzymatic assay. The ALP expression was higher for higher initial cell plating density and this explains the greater osteoinductivity of dense materials compared with porous materials for in vitro study as porous materials would have higher surface area. On the other hand, the same trend of Alp mRNA level (HA > β-TCP > α-TCP) was observed for both porous and dense materials, validating the use of dense flat materials for comparative study of materials with different chemistries for more reliable comparison when well-defined porous materials are not available. The avoidance of porosity variation would probably facilitate more reproducible results. This study does not suggest porosity is not required for experiments related to bone regeneration application, but emphasizes that there is often a tradeoff between higher clinical relevance, and less variation in a less complex set up, which facilitates a statistically significant conclusion. Technically, we also show that the base of normalization for ALP activity may influence the conclusion and there may be ALP activity from

  12. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  13. Comparison of characteristics between patients with H7N9 living in rural and urban areas of Zhejiang Province, China: a preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Sun

    Full Text Available A total of 134 cases of H7N9 influenza infection were identified in 12 provinces of China between March 25 and September 31, 2013. Of these, 46 cases occurred in Zhejiang Province. We carried out a preliminary comparison of characteristics between rural and urban H7N9 cases from Zhejiang Province, China. Field investigations were conducted for each confirmed H7N9 case. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information about demographics, exposure history, clinical signs and symptoms, timelines of medical visits and care after onset of illness. Of the 46 H7N9 cases in Zhejiang Province identified between March 25 and September 31, 2013, there were 16 rural cases and 30 urban cases. Compared to urban cases, there was a higher proportion of females among the rural cases [11/16 (69% vs. 6/30 (20%, P = 0.001]. Among the rural cases, 14/15 (93% with available data had a history of recent poultry exposure, which was significantly higher than that among urban cases (64%, P = 0.038. More patients from the rural group had a history of breeding poultry compared with those from the urban group [38% (6/16 vs. 10% (3/30, respectively; P = 0.025]. Interestingly, the median number of medical visits of patients from rural areas was higher than that of patients from urban areas (P = 0.046. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of age distribution, fatality rate, incubation period, symptoms, and underlying medical conditions. In conclusion, compared to patients from urban areas, more patients from rural areas were female, had an exposure history, had a history of breeding poultry, and had a higher number of medical visits. These findings indicate that there are different exposure patterns between patients living in rural and urban areas and that more rural cases were infected through backyard poultry breeding.

  14. Comparison of {sup 18}F-FACBC and {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in patients with radically treated prostate cancer and biochemical relapse: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina; Boschi, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Martorana, Giuseppe; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Urology, Bologna (Italy); Pettinato, Cinzia [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Medical Physics, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    We assessed the rate of detection rate of recurrent prostate cancer by PET/CT using anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC, a new synthetic amino acid, in comparison to that using {sup 11}C-choline as part of an ongoing prospective single-centre study. Included in the study were 15 patients with biochemical relapse after initial radical treatment of prostate cancer. All the patients underwent anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT and {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT within a 7-day period. The detection rates using the two compounds were determined and the target-to-background ratios (TBR) of each lesion are reported. No adverse reactions to anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT were noted. On a patient basis, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was positive in 3 patients and negative in 12 (detection rate 20 %), and anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT was positive in 6 patients and negative in 9 (detection rate 40 %). On a lesion basis, {sup 11}C-choline detected 6 lesions (4 bone, 1 lymph node, 1 local relapse), and anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC detected 11 lesions (5 bone, 5 lymph node, 1 local relapse). All {sup 11}C-choline-positive lesions were also identified by anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT. The TBR of anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC was greater than that of {sup 11}C-choline in 8/11 lesions, as were image quality and contrast. Our preliminary results indicate that anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC may be superior to {sup 11}C-choline for the identification of disease recurrence in the setting of biochemical failure. Further studies are required to assess efficacy of anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC in a larger series of prostate cancer patients. (orig.)

  15. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  16. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  18. The clinical effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function of children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Litlle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of physical disability affecting gross motor function (GMF in early childhood. Hippotherapy is a treatment approach aimed at improving GMF in children with CP. Several systematic reviews have been published showing an improvement in Dimension E of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM after hippotherapy. However, these reviews failed to evaluate the clinical effect of hippotherapy in improving GMF in children with CP.Objective: To critically appraise the evidence of hippotherapy to ascertain whether it is a clinically meaningful approach for children with CP.Methodology: Five computerised bibliographic databases were searched. Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were set. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. A revised JBI Data extraction tool was used to extract data from the selected articles. Revman© Review Manager Software was used to create forest plots for comparisons of results.Results: All studies used the GMFM as an outcome measure for gross motor function. The added benefit of hippotherapy is a minimum 1% and a maximum 7% increase on the GMFM scores. However, all 95% confidence intervals (CI around all the mean differences were insignificant.Conclusion: The clinical effect of hippotherapy on the GMF of children with CP is small. Larger studies are required to provide evidence of the effect of hippotherapy within this population.

  19. The impact of winter 2012 cold outbreak over the Northern Adriatic Sea dynamics: preliminary comparison among data and high resolution operational atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolio, Silvio; Miglietta, Mario M.; Carniel, Sandro; Benetazzo, Alvise; Buzzi, Andrea; Drofa, Oxana; Falco, Pierpaolo; Fantini, Maurizio; Malguzzi, Piero; Ricchi, Antonio; Russo, Aniello; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Sclavo, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    exceptionally dense water formation, registered during the 2012 winter in the northern Adriatic region. During late January and early February, indeed, the basin was characterized by a persistent and exceptional cold anomaly responsible for large energy losses due to cold and extremely strong winds. Sea waters temperatures dropped to about 6°C and the Venice lagoon got partially covered by ice. In the period of interest, available measurements in the northern Adriatic Sea (temperature, salinity, density, wind speed, direction and inferred heat fluxes) were used, together with satellite measurements, to carry out a first semi-quantitative comparison among existing meteorological models implemented over the region. Namely, the work presents an intercomparison among three state-of-the-art, non-hydrostatic NWP models: COSMO-I7, WRF and MOLOCH. All models are run in operational mode, and their results are used by several Regional authorities and institutions for weather forecasting and support to civil protection decision. Therefore, this evaluation is a useful assessment preliminary to a full coupling of the above mentioned atmospheric models with existing ocean models already implemented in the region (e.g. ROMS in the COAWST system). Preliminary results show also some uncommon mesoscale structures reproduced by the models in the proximity of the central-south Italian coast, and highlight their possible influence on the local surface sea circulation. These effects will be soon explored by means of fully-coupled ocean-atmosphere models within on-going projects.

  20. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  1. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  2. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  3. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  4. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  5. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  6. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  8. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  9. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  10. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  11. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  12. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  13. A Design Study Investigating Augmented Reality and Photograph Annotation in a Digitalized Grossing Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Joyce A; Törnros, Martin E; Waltersson, Marie; Richard, Helen; Kusoffsky, Madeleine; Lundström, Claes F; Kurti, Arianit

    2017-01-01

    Within digital pathology, digitalization of the grossing procedure has been relatively underexplored in comparison to digitalization of pathology slides. Our investigation focuses on the interaction design of an augmented reality gross pathology workstation and refining the interface so that information and visualizations are easily recorded and displayed in a thoughtful view. The work in this project occurred in two phases: the first phase focused on implementation of an augmented reality grossing workstation prototype while the second phase focused on the implementation of an incremental prototype in parallel with a deeper design study. Our research institute focused on an experimental and "designerly" approach to create a digital gross pathology prototype as opposed to focusing on developing a system for immediate clinical deployment. Evaluation has not been limited to user tests and interviews, but rather key insights were uncovered through design methods such as "rapid ethnography" and "conversation with materials". We developed an augmented reality enhanced digital grossing station prototype to assist pathology technicians in capturing data during examination. The prototype uses a magnetically tracked scalpel to annotate planned cuts and dimensions onto photographs taken of the work surface. This article focuses on the use of qualitative design methods to evaluate and refine the prototype. Our aims were to build on the strengths of the prototype's technology, improve the ergonomics of the digital/physical workstation by considering numerous alternative design directions, and to consider the effects of digitalization on personnel and the pathology diagnostics information flow from a wider perspective. A proposed interface design allows the pathology technician to place images in relation to its orientation, annotate directly on the image, and create linked information. The augmented reality magnetically tracked scalpel reduces tool switching though limitations

  14. Techno-economic assessment and comparison of CO2 capture technologies for industrial processes: Preliminary results for the iron and steel sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, T.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and the preliminary results of a techno-economic assessment of CCS implementation on the iron and steel sector. The results show that for the short-mid term, a CO2 avoidance cost of less than 50 €/tonne at a CO2 avoidance rate of around 50% are possible by convert

  15. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  16. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  17. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  18. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  19. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  20. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  1. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  2. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  3. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  4. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  5. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  6. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  7. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  8. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  9. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  10. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  11. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  12. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  13. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  14. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  15. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  16. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  17. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  18. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  19. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  20. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  1. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  2. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  3. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  4. Gross-fragmentation of meteoroids and bulk density of Geminids from photographic fireball records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceplecha, Zdenek; Mccrosky, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    meteoroid by allowing for one or more points, where sudden gross fragmentation can occur. Using this generalized solution, the distances along the meteoroid trajectory can be computed for any choice of input parameters and compared with the observed distances flown by the meteoroid. For the most precise and long fireball trajectories, the least-squares solution can, thus, yield the initial velocities, the ablation coefficients, the dynamical masses, the positions of gross-fragmentation points, and the terminal mass. At a gross-fragmentation point, the ratio of the main mass to all the remaining fragments can be compared with the dynamic mass determined from our gross-fragmentation model and, thus, the meteoroid bulk density can be evaluated. We applied the gross-fragmentation model to sever PN fireballs showing time changes of residuals, and we recognized that, in all these cases, the new computed bulk densities of meteoroids resulted higher in comparison with the meteoroid densities determined with the non-gross-fragmentation model. Other aspects of the study are discussed.

  5. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method: Data aggre

  6. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method: Data

  7. HOLISTIC APPROACH OF TEACHING OF GROSS PATHOLOGICAL SPECIMEN FOR 2ND PROFESSIONAL MBBS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Study of pathological specimen is necessary for the students towards their practical (including viva as well as theoretical examinations. Past experiences show that most of the students of 2nd Professional MBBS cannot answer properly the questions related to the pathological specimen, especially the histopathological portion when asked by the examiners. This is due to the conventional method of teaching where students are given only didactic lectures on histopathological features, which is not convenient for students to understand the histopathology and related questions. AIMS To assess the impact of new teaching method of gross pathological specimen using visual aids (PowerPoint to show histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total 41 students present in 2nd Prof. MBBS were divided into 4 groups under the leadership of class assistants or demonstrators. 20 practical classes were arranged for 4 months of study period. In the first one hour, each group was shown power-point presentation of histopathological features, related questions and answers of the gross specimen to be studied. All the aspects were discussed simultaneously. In the next one hour, there was a joint teaching session consisting of all four groups, moderated by the concerned professor with PowerPoint projection. Assessment was done by three mock tests comprising of Viva, Multiple Choice Questions and Short Assay type Questions and a routine internal assessment in the last week of the study period. Then a comparison was made with regards to presence of students and results of successive three mock tests. Result of internal assessment was compared with that of previous two batches in which students were taught with only routine lectures on the same gross pathological specimen. RESULTS The use of new method increased the average attendance of students significantly. The percentage of passing students in the mock tests was very good. There was notable increase of passing

  8. Rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in milk using liquid scintilation counter technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta emitters in milk by liquid scintillation counter is discussed. This method is based on direct addition of different types of milk into scintillation cocktail and therefore it is very promising for fast determination of alpha/beta activity due to direct alpha and beta separation, measurement in close 4p geometry and without sample treatment. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with the respect to military significance, radio-toxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. As model radionuclides 241Am, 239Pu, and 90Sr were selected. The Liquid Scintilation Counter Hidex 300 SL equipped with triple-double-coincidence-ratio technique was used for sample measurement. The aim of the work was focused on comparison of different cocktails produced by Hidex and Perkin Elmer, choosing the best cocktail based on our measurement results and adjustment of its appropriate volume. Furthermore, the optimization of ratio between the volume of scintillation cocktail and the volume of urine was investigated with the respect to the model radionuclides. According to the obtained results, the efficiency for alpha emitters was greater than 85% and for beta, greater than 95%. The obtained results allowed this method to be used for rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in cases where time is an essence, such as first responders or mass-scale samples, where ordinary means suffer from lack of capacity or simply collapse under the onslaught.

  9. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  10. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  11. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  12. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  13. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  14. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  15. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  16. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  17. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  18. Kinetic relaxation of a non-Maxwellian monatomic gas in a state of gross rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baganoff, D.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetic relaxation of a monatomic gas in a state of gross rest is studied by use of Maxwell's second-order moment equation. The molecular models considered range from the hard sphere to the Maxwell molecule. The development is exact for an ellipsoidal distribution and becomes a good approximation for more general distributions. The results show that the relaxation of second-order moments is nearly exponential for power-law molecules and that the characteristic time mu/p appears as the principal controlling parameter while the power-law constant plays a secondary role. Comparisons between results of numerical simulations using Bird's direct simulation Monte Carlo method and theory show excellent agreement for both hard-sphere and Maxwell molecules.

  19. Evaluation of the level of difficulty of patient cases for veterinary problem-solving examination: a preliminary comparison of three taxonomies of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Heli

    2007-01-01

    An important issue that has received insufficient attention in the use of problem-based learning in the medical curriculum is the mode of assessing the level of difficulty of patient cases. In the present study, the level of difficulty of case-based questions in a veterinary degree final examination in reproduction was evaluated. First, cognitive taxonomies were evaluated to clarify whether qualitative methods such as Bloom's taxonomy, the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy, and the Amsterdam Clinical Challenge Scale (ACCS) differed from each other as evaluation tools for problem-based cases. Using these taxonomies, 30 case-based questions from the final examination in reproduction in the Helsinki veterinary program were initially evaluated to determine which one was best suited to the evaluation of the difficulty of cases. In follow-up, the same cases were also evaluated by an experienced veterinary instructor in reproduction, with the aim of gaining insight into using these approaches to evaluating difficulty. It would appear, from this preliminary assessment, that the SOLO taxonomy may be the most suitable for evaluating the difficulty of patient cases, since the instructor's quality rating resembled more closely the SOLO than the Bloom taxonomy or the ACCS. It is to be emphasized that the purpose of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of possible approaches that might be used to assess patient-case difficulty. Resolving all issues will require a greater number of evaluations of all components.

  20. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  1. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  2. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  3. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  4. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  5. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  6. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  7. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  8. Can a six-week exercise intervention improve gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy? A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth; Pountney, Terry; Williams, Heather; Edelman, Natalie

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effect of a six-week exercise intervention on gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy. A parallel arm randomized controlled trial. Four special schools. Thirty-five children aged 8-17 with bilateral cerebral palsy; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV-V. Participants were randomly allocated to a static bike group, a treadmill group or control group. Participants in the bike and treadmill groups received exercise training sessions, three times weekly for six weeks. The control group received their usual care. Blinded assessments were performed at baseline and six weeks and followed up at 12 and 18 weeks. Gross Motor Function Measures GMFM-66, GMFM-88D and GMFM-88E. At six weeks significant differences were found in GMFM-88D scores between the bike group and the control group, and the treadmill group and the control group (P exercise groups. The improvements observed declined during the follow-up period. This study provides preliminary evidence that exercising on a bike or treadmill may provide short-term improvements in gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy. This needs to be tested in a large-scale randomized trial.

  9. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  10. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  11. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  12. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  13. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  14. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  15. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  16. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  17. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  18. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  19. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  20. X-ray and visible light transmission as two-dimensional, full-field moisture-sensing techniques: A preliminary comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.

    1992-01-21

    Two independent high-resolution moisture-sensing techniques, x-ray absorption and light transmission, have been developed for use in two-dimensional, thin-slab experimental systems. The techniques yield full-field measurement capabilities with exceptional resolution of moisture content in time and space. These techniques represent powerful tools for the experimentalist to investigate processes governing unsaturated flow and transport through fractured and nonfractured porous media. Evaluation of these techniques has been accomplished by direct comparison of data obtained by means of the x-ray and light techniques as well as comparison with data collected by gravimetric and gamma-ray densitometry techniques. Results show excellent agreement between data collected by the four moisture-content measurement techniques. This program was established to support the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  1. A measurement of $\\alpha_{s}$ (M$_{Z}^{2}$) from the Gross Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, D A; Auchincloss, P S; De Barbaro, P; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, A; Bolton, T; Budd, H; Conrad, J; Drucker, R B; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Koizumi, G; Koutsoliotas, S; Lamm, M J; Lefmann, W C; Marsh, W; McFarland, K S; McNulty, C; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Nussbaum, M; Oreglia, M J; Perera, L; Quintas, P Z; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schumm, B A; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Steiner, R; Stern, E G; Vakili, M; Yang, U K

    1995-01-01

    The Gross Llewellyn Smith sum rule has been measured at different values of four-momentum transfer squared (Q^{2}) by combining the precise CCFR neutrino data with data from other deep-inelastic scattering experiments at lower values of Q^{2}. A comparison with the {\\cal O}(\\alpha^{3}_{s}) predictions of perturbative QCD yields a determination of \\alpha_{s} and its dependence on Q^{2} in the range 1\\,GeV^2 < Q^{2} < 20 \\,GeV^{2}. Low \\qsq\\ tests have greater sensitivity to \\alfs(\\mztwo) than high \\qsq\\ tests, since at low Q^2, \\alpha_s is large and changing rapidly.

  2. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  3. Comparison between two different modes of non-invasive ventilatory support in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome mild to moderate: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as a better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. HFNC may be effective in the treatment of some neonatal respiratory conditions while being more user-friendly for care-givers than conventional NCPAP. Limited evidence is available to support the specific role, efficacy and safety of HFNC in newborns and to demonstrate efficacy compared with NCPAP; some studies suggest a potential role for HFNC in respiratory care of the neonate as a distinct non invasive ventilatory support. We present the preliminary data of a randomized clinical trial; the aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of HFNC compared to NCPAP in preterm newborns with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.

  4. Preliminary clinical experience with a dedicated interventional robotic system for CT-guided biopsies of lung lesions: a comparison with the conventional manual technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzidei, Michele; Argiro, Renato; Porfiri, Andrea; Boni, Fabrizio; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Napoli, Alessandro; Leonardi, Andrea; Bezzi, Mario; Catalano, Carlo [University of Rome, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences - Radiology - Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Anile, Marco; Venuta, Federico [University of Rome, Department of Thoracic Surgery - Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Vitolo, Domenico [University of Rome, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences - Pathology - Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Saba, Luca [Department of Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), di Cagliari-Polo di Monserrato, Monserrato (Italy); Longo, Flavia [University of Rome, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences - Oncology - Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Evaluate the performance of a robotic system for CT-guided lung biopsy in comparison to the conventional manual technique. One hundred patients referred for CT-guided lung biopsy were randomly assigned to group A (robot-assisted procedure) or group B (conventional procedure). Size, distance from entry point and position in lung of target lesions were evaluated to assess homogeneity differences between the two groups. Procedure duration, dose length product (DLP), precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were evaluated to assess the clinical performance of the robotic system as compared to the conventional technique. All biopsies were successfully performed. The size (p = 0.41), distance from entry point (p = 0.86) and position in lung (p = 0.32) of target lesions were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Procedure duration and radiation dose were significantly reduced in group A as compared to group B (p = 0.001). Precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Robot-assisted CT-guided lung biopsy can be performed safely and with high diagnostic accuracy, reducing procedure duration and radiation dose in comparison to the conventional manual technique. (orig.)

  5. A-Train Aerosol Observations Preliminary Comparisons with AeroCom Models and Pathways to Observationally Based All-Sky Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Russell, P.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Rogers, R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) retrievals for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Use of the recently released MODIS Collection 6 data for aerosol optical depths derived with the dark target and deep blue algorithms has extended the coverage of the multi-sensor estimates towards higher latitudes. We compare the spatio-temporal distribution of our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals and calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on the aerosol retrievals to values derived from four models that participated in the latest AeroCom model intercomparison initiative. We find significant inter-model differences, in particular for the aerosol single scattering albedo, which can be evaluated using the multi-sensor A-Train retrievals. We discuss the major challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed.

  6. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermüller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  8. Gross National Happiness: Ideology versus practices in Bhutanese Seconday Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Giri, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced......, the influence of the concept of GNH in school life generally and specifically and the effects on teachers and students of mindfull training in the class, how does it work? The investigation is based on empirical data from eight selected secondary schools spread all over Bhutan. Principals, teachers, students...... and parents were interviewed in 2012/2013 individually and in groups. Further more classroom observations took place. Finally the investigation is based on literature review and readings of documents, which describe and analyse policies, principles, strategies and philosophies related to the implementation...

  9. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  10. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  11. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  12. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  13. Full Phase Diagram of the Massive Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The scalar potential is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. It contains three parameters which are determined by transcendental equations. Self-consistency of the scalar potential is proved. The phase diagram for non-zero bare quark mass is found to contain a kink-antikink crystal phase as well as a massive fermion gas phase featuring a cross-over from light to heavy effective fermion mass. For zero bare quark mass we recover the three known phases kink-antikink crystal, massless fermion gas, and massive fermion gas. All phase transitions are shown to be of second order. Equations for the phase boundaries are given and solved numerically. Implications on condensed matter physics are indicated where our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  14. Preliminary clinical experience with a dedicated interventional robotic system for CT-guided biopsies of lung lesions: a comparison with the conventional manual technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzidei, Michele; Argirò, Renato; Porfiri, Andrea; Boni, Fabrizio; Anile, Marco; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Vitolo, Domenico; Saba, Luca; Napoli, Alessandro; Leonardi, Andrea; Longo, Flavia; Venuta, Federico; Bezzi, Mario; Catalano, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Evaluate the performance of a robotic system for CT-guided lung biopsy in comparison to the conventional manual technique. One hundred patients referred for CT-guided lung biopsy were randomly assigned to group A (robot-assisted procedure) or group B (conventional procedure). Size, distance from entry point and position in lung of target lesions were evaluated to assess homogeneity differences between the two groups. Procedure duration, dose length product (DLP), precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were evaluated to assess the clinical performance of the robotic system as compared to the conventional technique. All biopsies were successfully performed. The size (p = 0.41), distance from entry point (p = 0.86) and position in lung (p = 0.32) of target lesions were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Procedure duration and radiation dose were significantly reduced in group A as compared to group B (p = 0.001). Precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Robot-assisted CT-guided lung biopsy can be performed safely and with high diagnostic accuracy, reducing procedure duration and radiation dose in comparison to the conventional manual technique. • CT-guided biopsy is the main procedure to obtain diagnosis in lung tumours. • The robotic device facilitates percutaneous needle placement under CT guidance. • Robot-assisted CT-guided lung biopsy reduces procedure duration and radiation dose.

  15. Time course of cyclosporine and ist motabolites in blood, liver and spleen of naive Lewis rats: comparison with preliminary data obtained in transplanted animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacher, V J; Liu, T; Roberts, J P; Ascher, N L; Benet, L Z

    1995-05-01

    the time course of intravenously administered cyclosporine (1 mg kg-1) and its metabolite AM1, AM9, and AM1c were examined in the blood, liver, and spleen of naive Lewis rats. Cyclosporine concentration versus time data for all three tissues were qualitatively similar, following a biexponential model C = Ae-gamma 1t + Be-gamma 2t with maximum cyclosporine concentrations reached at 1 h. Whole-blood cyclosporine clearance, terminal half-life, mean residence time, steady state volume of distribution, and hepatic extraction ratio (calculated from blood data) were similar to previously reported results. Cyclosporine in the liver showed the largest area under the concentration-time curve, mean residence time, and disposition and terminal half-lives. Spleen cyclosporine mean residence time and and terminal half-life were not significantly different from blood parameters. Metabolites AM1, AM9, and AM1c showed almost parallel time courses in all three tissues. The hydroxylated derivative AM9 was the major metabolite found in all tissues, with twofold greater levels in the liver compared to the blood and spleen. Slightly less AM1 was found in the liver relative to blood and spleen, where it was present in equal amounts. AM1c levels in the liver were not different from those in the spleen and were greater than observed for blood. The results obtained above were reflected in preliminary studies using liver transplanted rats treated with multiple doses of cyclosporine. Both blood and liver biopsy levels of CyA, AM1, and AM9 post-transplant showed twofold to fourfold decreases from day 3 ( samples taken 4 h post-CyA-dose) and concentrations were not significantly different from similarly sampled naive controls. More importantly, the metabolite/CyA ratios did not vary significantly between liver and blood in the two groups. For naive rats, and liver transplanted animals not undergoing rejection, changes in blood cyclosporine levels seem to predict variations in tissue

  16. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  17. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa GAJEWSKA*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Gajewska E, Sobieska M, Samborski W. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:45-52.ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate gross motor function and hand function in children with cerebral palsy to explore their association with epilepsy and mental capacity. Material & MethodsThe research investigating the association between gross and fine motor function and the presence of epilepsy and/or mental impairment was conducted on a group of 83 children (45 girls, 38 boys. Among them, 41 were diagnosedwith quadriplegia, 14 hemiplegia, 18 diplegia, 7 mixed form, and 3 athetosis.A neurologist assessed each child in terms of possible epilepsy and confirmed diagnosis in 35 children. A psychologist assessed the mental level (according toWechsler and found 13 children within intellectual norm, 3 children with mild mental impairment, 18 with moderate, 27 with severe, and 22 with profound.Children were then classified based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale.ResultsThe gross motor function and manual performance were analysed in relation to mental impairment and the presence of epilepsy. Epilepsy was found to disturb conscious motor functions, but also higher degree of mental impairment wasobserved in children with epilepsy.ConclusionThe occurrence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy is associated with worse manual function. The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with limitations in conscious motor functions. There is an association between epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and the degree of mental impairment.The occurrence of epilepsy, mainly in children with hemiplegia and diplegia is associated with worse mental capacities.ReferencesRichards CL, Malouin F. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation. Handb Clin Neurol

  18. Chest radiographic image quality: comparison of asymmetric screen-film, digital storage phosphor, and digital selenium drum systems--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beute, G H; Flynn, M J; Eyler, W R; Samei, E; Spizarny, D L; Zylak, C J

    1998-01-01

    Conventional screen-film radiography does not display all regions of the thorax satisfactorily. Three chest radiographic techniques display both the lung and the mediastinum with good contrast. These techniques are asymmetric screen-film (ASF), digital storage phosphor (DSP), and digital selenium drum (DSD) imaging. ASF systems use two asymmetric screen-film combinations to produce a wide-latitude image of the thorax with good contrast in the lungs. In DSP systems, image data are acquired digitally with a wide dynamic range by using the optical output of a photostimulable phosphor plate; in DSD systems, the wide-range digital image data are acquired by using the electronic charge generated on a drum coated with a thin layer of amorphous selenium. The appearance of a DSP or DSD radiograph is then determined by user-selected image processing operations: tone scaling, spatial frequency processing, and dynamic range compensation. Digital chest radiographs processed with strong regional equalization provide both excellent contrast in the lungs and effective display of the mediastinum and chest wall. At visual comparison, the high lung contrast and good mediastinal, retrocardiac, and subdiaphragmatic detail provided by the DSD method distinguish it from the other two methods.

  19. Comparison between {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG Mapping for Identifying Dystonic Superficial Muscles in Primary Cervical Dystonia: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Su Jin [Seoul National University School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Young; Sung, Duk Hyun; Park, Kwang Hong; Lee, Ji Young; Cho, Sook Kyung; Yu, Jang; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Sungkyunkawn University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was conducted to compare {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and electromyography (EMG) mapping in patients with primary cervical dystonia (PCD) to find dystonic superficial cervical muscles. Ten consecutive patients with PCD (M:F=5:5, age 44{+-}13 years) whose dystonic posture was not relieved with conventional muscle relaxant therapy were included. Target cervical muscles for the comparison between {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping were four representative superficial bilateral cervical muscles: splenius capitis muscle, sternocleidomstoid muscle, upper trapeziums muscle, and levitator scapulae muscle. The diagnostic efficacy was compared between {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping using physical exam and measurement of rotation angle as the gold standard. Among 80 muscles evaluated, there were 21 (26%) dystonic superficial cervical muscles assessed with physical exam and motion analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for localizing dystonic muscles were 76, 92, and 88% for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and 95, 66, and 74% for EMG mapping, respectively. The sensitivity of EMG mapping was significantly higher than that of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. In contrast, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is more specific and accurate than EMG mapping for finding superficial dystonic cervical muscles. The high sensitivity of EMG mapping suggests that {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping are complementary for finding dystonic superficial cervical muscles.

  20. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  1. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  2. Texture-based seismic damage assessment on radar data: a preliminary comparison between COSMO/SkyMed and TerraSAR-X datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Mostapha; Dell'Acqua, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on remote sensing technology as a disaster monitoring tool. It emphasizes on Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) applications to extract geo-information relevant to damage assessment on the block level from single post disaster imagery. The procedure undertaken was previously developed by our group, based on discovered correlations between texture measures on radar images and the extent of seismic damage in any given urban block. Ground truthing was based on a "Damaged Area Ratio" (DAR) damage indicator, computed as the area ratio of the damaged buildings to the block area. The damaged buildings were detected using data from high-resolution airborne sensors, thus only high levels of damage, mainly with ceiling partial or complete collapse, were considered due to the limitation of the space borne technology in detecting slight to moderate damages as well as the sandwich damages. The urban areas in the studied cities were allocated into a number of blocks, where DAR was calculated for each block. After that, damage categorization was applied using thresholds on the DAR values of the selected blocks. This work continues the investigation on the linear correlation between the textural features and the calculated damage indicator DAR. For that purpose, data acquisitions were analysed from two different SAR satellite sensors, TerraSAR-X and COSMO/Sky-Med. As test cases, damages from two earthquakes were analysed with different geometric resolutions: L'Aquila 2009 using High Resolution Spotlight images and Haiti 2010 using Strip Map images. The data were analysed with similar techniques for the sake of an objective comparison on the variations on the linear correlations. The funding and support of the Italian Department of Civil Protection through the "Progetto Esecutivo 2012-13", as well as the support from the German Aerospace Agency through the LAN 1240 project are gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Evaluation of biventricular ejection fraction with ECG-gated 16-slice CT: preliminary findings in acute pulmonary embolism in comparison with radionuclide ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coche, Emmanuel; Goncette, Louis; Maldague, Baudouin [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Vlassenbroek, Alain [Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH (United States); Roelants, Veronique [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); D' Hoore, William [Catholic University of Louvain, Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Verschuren, Franck [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Emergency Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility of cardiac global function evaluation during a whole-chest multi-slice CT (MSCT) acquisition in patients referred for suspicion of pulmonary embolism (PE), and to compare the results with planar equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNA). Ten consecutive haemodynamically stable patients (six female, four male; mean age 69.7 years; heart rate 65-99 bpm) with suspicion of PE underwent an MSCT and ERNA within a 6 h period. CT acquisition was performed after contrast medium injection by using 16 x 1.5 mm collimation and retrospective ECG gating. Left ventricular (LVEF) and right ventricular (RVEF) ejection fractions were calculated using dedicated three-dimensional software. Relationships between measurements obtained with MSCT and ERNA were assessed using linear regression analysis and reliability of MSCT was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to calculate limits of agreement between MSCT and ERNA. MSCT was performed successfully in ten patients with a mean acquisition time of 16.5{+-}2.8 s. Functional cardiac evaluation was possible on CT for all patients except for one due to poor opacification of right ventricle. Linear regression analysis showed a good correlation between MSCT and ERNA for the LVEF (R=0.91) and the RVEF (R=0.89) measurements. Intra-class correlation was superior for LVEF (0.92) than for the RVEF (0.68). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that MSCT substantially overestimated the ERNA RVEF. Morphological CT data demonstrated PE in four of ten of patients and alternative diagnoses in five of ten patients. Our study reveals that MSCT with retrospective ECG gating may provide in one modality a morphological and a functional cardiopulmonary evaluation. Comparison with ERNA demonstrated a good correlation for both ventricular ejection fractions. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of biventricular ejection fraction with ECG-gated 16-slice CT: preliminary findings in acute pulmonary embolism in comparison with radionuclide ventriculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, Emmanuel; Vlassenbroek, Alain; Roelants, Véronique; D'Hoore, William; Verschuren, Franck; Goncette, Louis; Maldague, Baudouin

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility of cardiac global function evaluation during a whole-chest multi-slice CT (MSCT) acquisition in patients referred for suspicion of pulmonary embolism (PE), and to compare the results with planar equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNA). Ten consecutive haemodynamically stable patients (six female, four male; mean age 69.7 years; heart rate 65-99 bpm) with suspicion of PE underwent an MSCT and ERNA within a 6 h period. CT acquisition was performed after contrast medium injection by using 16x1.5 mm collimation and retrospective ECG gating. Left ventricular (LVEF) and right ventricular (RVEF) ejection fractions were calculated using dedicated three-dimensional software. Relationships between measurements obtained with MSCT and ERNA were assessed using linear regression analysis and reliability of MSCT was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to calculate limits of agreement between MSCT and ERNA. MSCT was performed successfully in ten patients with a mean acquisition time of 16.5+/-2.8 s. Functional cardiac evaluation was possible on CT for all patients except for one due to poor opacification of right ventricle. Linear regression analysis showed a good correlation between MSCT and ERNA for the LVEF (R=0.91) and the RVEF (R=0.89) measurements. Intra-class correlation was superior for LVEF (0.92) than for the RVEF (0.68). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that MSCT substantially overestimated the ERNA RVEF. Morphological CT data demonstrated PE in four of ten of patients and alternative diagnoses in five of ten patients. Our study reveals that MSCT with retrospective ECG gating may provide in one modality a morphological and a functional cardiopulmonary evaluation. Comparison with ERNA demonstrated a good correlation for both ventricular ejection fractions.

  5. Comparison of 2 Zero-Profile Implants in the Treatment of Single-Level Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Preliminary Clinical Study of Cervical Disc Arthroplasty versus Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Shi

    Full Text Available Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA with Discover prosthesis or anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF with Zero-P cage has been widely used in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM. However, little is known about the comparison of the 2 zero-profile implants in the treatment of single-level CSM. The aim was to compare the clinical outcomes and radiographic parameters of CDA with Discover prosthesis and ACDF with Zero-P cage for the treatment of single-level CSM.A total of 128 consecutive patients who underwent 1-level CDA with Discover prosthesis or ACDF with Zero-P cage for single-level CSM between September 2009 and December 2012 were included in this study. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score and Neck Disability Index (NDI. For radiographic assessment, the overall sagittal alignment (OSA, functional spinal unit (FSU angle, and range of motion (ROM at the index and adjacent levels were measured before and after surgery. Additionally, the complications were also recorded.Both treatments significantly improved all clinical parameters (P 0.05. Besides, no significant differences existed in dysphagia, subsidence, or adjacent disc degeneration between the 2 groups (P > 0.05. However, significant differences occurred in prosthesis migration in CDA group.The results of this study showed that clinical outcomes and radiographic parameters were satisfactory and comparable with the 2 techniques. However, more attention to prosthesis migration of artificial cervical disc should be paid in the postoperative early-term follow-up.

  6. Thermogelling Bioadhesive Scaffolds for Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering: Preliminary In Vitro Comparison of Aldehyde-Based Versus Alginate Microparticle-Mediated Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltsey, C.; Christiani, T.; Williams, J.; Scaramazza, J.; Van Sciver, C.; Toomer, K.; Sheehan, J.; Branda, A.; Nitzl, A.; England, E.; Kadlowec, J.; Iftode, C.; Vernengo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of certain load-bearing parts of the body can be dependent on scaffold adhesion or integration with the surrounding tissue to prevent dislocation. One such area is the regeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). In this work, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was grafted with chondroitin sulfate (CS) (PNIPAAm-g-CS) and blended with aldehyde-modified CS to generate an injectable polymer that can form covalent bonds with tissue upon contact. However, the presence of the reactive aldehyde groups can compromise the viability of encapsulated cells. Thus, liposomes were encapsulated in the blend, designed to deliver the ECM derivative, gelatin, after the polymer has adhered to tissue and reached physiological temperature. This work is based on the hypothesis that the discharge of gelatin will enhance the biocompatibility of the material by covalently reacting with, or “end-capping”, the aldehyde functionalities within the gel that did not participate in bonding with tissue upon contact. As a comparison, formulations were also created without CS aldehyde and with an alternative adhesion mediator, mucoadhesive calcium alginate particles. Gels formed from blends of PNIPAAm-g-CS and CS aldehyde exhibited increased adhesive strength compared to PNIPAAm-g-CS alone (p<0.05). However, the addition of gelatin-loaded liposomes to the blend significantly decreased the adhesive strength (p<0.05). The encapsulation of alginate microparticles within PNIPAAm-g-CS gels caused the tensile strength to increase two-fold over that of PNIPAAm-g-CS blends with CS aldehyde (p<0.05). Cytocompatibility studies indicate that formulations containing alginate particles exhibit reduced cytotoxicity over those containing CS aldehyde. Overall, the results indicated that the adhesives composed of alginate microparticles encapsulated in PNIPAAm-g-CS have the potential to serve as a scaffold for IVD regeneration. PMID:25641647

  7. Thermogelling bioadhesive scaffolds for intervertebral disk tissue engineering: preliminary in vitro comparison of aldehyde-based versus alginate microparticle-mediated adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltsey, C; Christiani, T; Williams, J; Scaramazza, J; Van Sciver, C; Toomer, K; Sheehan, J; Branda, A; Nitzl, A; England, E; Kadlowec, J; Iftode, C; Vernengo, J

    2015-04-01

    Tissue engineering of certain load-bearing parts of the body can be dependent on scaffold adhesion or integration with the surrounding tissue to prevent dislocation. One such area is the regeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). In this work, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was grafted with chondroitin sulfate (CS) (PNIPAAm-g-CS) and blended with aldehyde-modified CS to generate an injectable polymer that can form covalent bonds with tissue upon contact. However, the presence of the reactive aldehyde groups can compromise the viability of encapsulated cells. Thus, liposomes were encapsulated in the blend, designed to deliver the ECM derivative, gelatin, after the polymer has adhered to tissue and reached physiological temperature. This work is based on the hypothesis that the discharge of gelatin will enhance the biocompatibility of the material by covalently reacting with, or "end-capping", the aldehyde functionalities within the gel that did not participate in bonding with tissue upon contact. As a comparison, formulations were also created without CS aldehyde and with an alternative adhesion mediator, mucoadhesive calcium alginate particles. Gels formed from blends of PNIPAAm-g-CS and CS aldehyde exhibited increased adhesive strength compared to PNIPAAm-g-CS alone (p<0.05). However, the addition of gelatin-loaded liposomes to the blend significantly decreased the adhesive strength (p<0.05). The encapsulation of alginate microparticles within PNIPAAm-g-CS gels caused the tensile strength to increase twofold over that of PNIPAAm-g-CS blends with CS aldehyde (p<0.05). Cytocompatibility studies indicate that formulations containing alginate particles exhibit reduced cytotoxicity over those containing CS aldehyde. Overall, the results indicated that the adhesives composed of alginate microparticles encapsulated in PNIPAAm-g-CS have the potential to serve as a scaffold for IVD regeneration.

  8. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  9. Comparison of the performance of {sup 18}F-FP-CIT brain PET/MR and simultaneous PET/CT: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sang Don; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    {sup 18}F-FP-CIT [{sup 1'}8F-fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane] has been well established and used for the differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian disorders. Recently, combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) was proposed as a viable alternative to PET/computed tomography (CT). The aim of this study was to compare the performances of conventional {sup 18}F-FP-CIT brain PET/CT and simultaneous PET/MR by visual inspection and quantitative analysis. Fifteen consecutive patients clinically suspected of having Parkinson's disease were recruited for the study.{sup 18}F-FP-CIT PET was performed during PET/CT and PET/MR. PET/CT image acquisition was started 90 min after intravenous injection of {sup 18}F-FP-CIT and then PET/MR images were acquired. Dopamine transporter (DAT) density in bilateral striatal subregions was assessed visually. Quantitative analyses were performed on bilateral striatal volumes of interest (VOIs) using average standardized uptake values (SUVmeans). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed to compare PET/CT and PET/MR data. Bland-Altman plots were drawn to perform method-comparisons. All subjects showed a preferential decrease in DAT binding in the posterior putamen (PP), with relative sparing of the ventral putamen (VP). Bilateral striatal subregional binding ratio (BR) determined PET/CT and PET/MR demonstrated close interequipment correspondence (BRright caudate - ICC, 0.944; 95 % CI, 0.835-0.981, BRleft caudate - ICC, 0.917; 95 % CI, 0.753-0.972, BRright putamen - ICC, 0.976; 95 % CI, 0.929-0.992 and BRleft putamen - ICC, 0.970; 95 % CI, 0.911-0.990, respectively), and Bland-Altman plots showed interequipment agreement between the two modalities. It is known that MR provides more information about anatomical changes associated with brain diseases and to enable the anatomical allocations of

  10. Feasibility and preliminary results of SPECT/CT arthrography of the wrist in comparison with MR arthrography in patients with suspected ulnocarpal impaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, Klaus [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Kantonsspital Luzern, Roentgeninstitut/Nuklearmedizin, Luzern (Switzerland); Steurer-Dober, Isabelle; Huellner, Martin W.; Sol Perez Lago, Maria del; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Tornquist, Katharina [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Silva, Angela J. da [Advanced Molecular Imaging, Philips Healthcare, San Jose, CA (United States); Bodmer, Elvira; Wartburg, Urs von; Hug, Urs [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Division of Hand and Plastic Surgery, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and performance of SPECT/CT arthrography of the wrist in comparison with MR arthrography in patients with suspected ulnocarpal impaction. This prospective study included 28 wrists of 27 patients evaluated with SPECT/CT arthrography and MR arthrography. Iodine contrast medium and gadolinium were injected into the distal radioulnar and midcarpal joints. Late-phase SPECT/CT was performed 3.5 h after intravenous injection of approximately 650 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-DPD. MR and SPECT/CT images were separately reviewed in relation to bone marrow oedema, radionuclide uptake, and tears in the scapholunate (SL) and lunotriquetral (LT) ligaments and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), and an overall diagnosis of ulnar impaction. MR, CT and SPECT/CT imaging findings were compared with each other, with the surgical findings in 12 patients and with clinical follow-up. The quality of MR arthrography and SPECT/CT arthrography images was fully diagnostic in 23 of 28 wrists (82 %) and 25 of 28 wrists (89 %), respectively. SPECT/CT arthrography was not diagnostic for ligament lesions due to insufficient intraarticular contrast in one wrist. MR and SPECT/CT images showed concordant findings regarding TFCC lesions in 22 of 27 wrists (81 %), SL ligament in 22 of 27 wrists (81 %) and LT ligament in 23 of 27 wrists (85 %). Bone marrow oedema on MR images and scintigraphic uptake were concordant in 21 of 28 wrists (75 %). MR images showed partial TFCC defects in four patients with normal SPECT/CT images. MR images showed bone marrow oedema in 4 of 28 wrists (14 %) without scintigraphic uptake, and scintigraphic uptake was present without MR bone marrow oedema in three wrists (11 %). Regarding diagnosis of ulnar impaction the concordance rate between CT and SPECT/CT was 100 % and reached 96 % (27 of 28) between MR and SPECT/CT arthrography. The sensitivity and specificity of MR, CT and SPECT/CT arthrography were 93 %, 100 % and 100 %, and 93 %, 93 % and 93

  11. Dissolved oxygen analysis, TMDL model comparison, and particulate matter shunting—Preliminary results from three model scenarios for the Klamath River upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    Efforts are underway to identify actions that would improve water quality in the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Upper Klamath River in south-central Oregon. To provide further insight into water-quality improvement options, three scenarios were developed, run, and analyzed using previously calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic and water-quality models. Additional scenarios are under development as part of this ongoing study. Most of these scenarios evaluate changes relative to a "current conditions" model, but in some cases a "natural conditions" model was used that simulated the reach without the effect of point and nonpoint sources and set Upper Klamath Lake at its Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) targets. These scenarios were simulated using a model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Watercourse Engineering, Inc. for the years 2006–09, referred to here as the "USGS model." Another model of the reach was developed by Tetra Tech, Inc. for years 2000 and 2002 to support the Klamath River TMDL process; that model is referred to here as the "TMDL model." The three scenarios described in this report included (1) an analysis of whether this reach of the Upper Klamath River would be in compliance with dissolved oxygen standards if sources met TMDL allocations, (2) an application of more recent datasets to the TMDL model with comparison to results from the USGS model, and (3) an examination of the effect on dissolved oxygen in the Klamath River if particulate material were stopped from entering Klamath Project diversion canals. Updates and modifications to the USGS model are in progress, so in the future these scenarios will be reanalyzed with the updated model and the interim results presented here will be superseded. Significant findings from this phase of the investigation include: * The TMDL analysis used depth-averaged dissolved oxygen concentrations from model output for comparison with dissolved oxygen standards. The Oregon dissolved oxygen

  12. World distribution of gross domestic product per-capita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the world distribution of gross domestic products per capita (GDPpc) is well described by a trade-investment model that combines yard-sale (YS) exchange and random multiplicative noise (RMN). We first derive analytically the typical value w(r, t) of the ranked wealths for a system evolving under YS exchange and RMN. The resulting analytical expressions are fitted to data for the GDPpc of up to 200 countries, in the period 1960-2013. Our model fits the data significantly better than previously proposed approaches that consider either Noise or Trade alone. Analysis of the resulting values for the fitting parameters, and of their time dependence, suggests that: (a) International trade conditions have (from 1960 to 2008) a statistical bias towards favoring richer countries. (b) Biased international commerce is the main cause for the observed divergence of GDPpc values from 1960 to 2008. (c) After 2008, the distribution of GDPpc starts to converge, and the world product per capita stops growing.

  13. Progestogen-related gross and microscopic changes in female Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L W; Kelly, W A

    1976-01-01

    Long-term studies of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate in 100 female dogs are in progress. Doses of zero, one, 10 and 25 times the expected human dose of megestrol acetate and 25 times the expected human dose of chlormadinone acetate (on a milligram per kilogram body weight basis) are being given daily. During the first 4 years, eight dogs from each of the five groups were killed. The principal gross findings included enlarged uteri with mucoid material in the lumina, mammary development in dogs given middle and high doses of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate, and thickened gallbladder walls in dogs given high doses of each. Histologic evaluation showed inhibition of ovulation for progestogen-treated dogs and suppression of ovarian follicular development with the high doses. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia was slight in the low-dose dogs and moderate to severe in most of the high-dose dogs; a few also had ulcerative endometritis and pyometra. The mammary glands of dogs given the middle and high doses produced lobules, acini, and secretion exceeding natural metestrus. Slight to marked cystic mucinous hyperplasia occurred in the gallbladders of most dogs given the high doses. Tow high-dose megestrol dogs had clinical signs and microscopic pancreatic, renal, and ocular changes indicative of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  15. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr−1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0 scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem. During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m−2 (11 %. The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr−1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  16. Horava-Lifshitz-like Gross-Neveu model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M.; Mariz, T.; Martinez, R.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Ribeiro, R. F.

    2017-03-01

    We describe a Horava-Lifshitz-like reformulated four-fermion Gross-Neveu model describing the dynamics of two-component spinors in (2 +1 )-dimensional space-time. Within our study, we introduce the Lagrange multiplier, study the gap equation (including the finite temperature case) which turns out to display essentially distinct behaviors for even and odd values of the critical exponent z , and show that the dynamical parity breaking occurs only for the odd z . We demonstrate that for any odd z , there exists a critical temperature at which the dynamical parity breaking disappears. Besides of this, we obtain the effective propagator and show that the resulting effective theory is renormalizable within the framework of the 1/N expansion for all values of z . As one more application of the dynamical parity breaking, we consider coupling of the vector field to the fermions in the case of a simplified spinor-vector coupling and discuss the generation of the Chern-Simons term.

  17. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-01

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)—the amount of carbon dioxide that is ‘fixed’ into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants—may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks—including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.

  18. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  19. A boy with fever, cough and gross haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Maschio, Massimo; Poillucci, Gabriele; Pennesi, Marco; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-08-28

    A 5 year-old boy presented with 2-days of fever and cough. On examination, he had mild dyspnoea and chest pain, with crackles and hypoventilation at the right lung base. Blood tests showed: WBC 39.1×10(9)/L; N 28.9×10(9)/L; Hb 11.3gr/dL; PLT 375×10(9)/L; CRP 28.7mg/dL; ESR 41mm/h. Chest x-ray confirmed a pulmonary consolidation in the right lower lobe (figure 1), with an associated pleural effusion. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed and intravenous ceftriaxone 100mg/kg/die was started. The following day, he developed palpebral oedema and his urine became tea coloured. His blood pressure was 126/82mmHg (>99th percentile).(1) Serum creatinine rose from 0.45mg/dl to 1.09mg/dl (39.8µmol/L - 93.4µmol/L) and C3 was 9mg/dl (n.r. 90-180mg/dl). Urinalysis revealed gross hematuria and 3+ proteinuria, with microscopicy showing dysmorphic red blood cells with casts. Ultrasounds showed enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Peer-Assisted Learning in a Gross Anatomy Dissection Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning encourages students to participate more actively in the dissection process and promotes thoughtful dissection. We implemented peer-assisted dissection in 2012 and compared its effects on students' self-assessments of learning and their academic achievement with those of faculty-led dissection. All subjects performed dissections after a lecture about upper-limb gross anatomy. Experimental group (n = 134) dissected a cadaver while guided by peer tutors who had prepared for the dissection in advance, and control group (n = 71) dissected a cadaver after the introduction by a faculty via prosection. Self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives related to upper limbs were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group. Additionally, experimental group received significantly higher academic scores than did control group. The students in peer-assisted learning perceived themselves as having a better understanding of course content and achieved better academic results compared with those who participated in faculty-led dissection. Peer-assisted dissection contributed to self-perception and to the ability to retain and explain anatomical knowledge.

  1. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  2. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gross income range amounts by any percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index rounded to the nearest...) of this section. We will use your modified adjusted gross income amount together with your tax filing... from his/her spouse for the entire tax year for the year we use to make our income-related...

  3. Balloon-occluded percutaneous transheptic obliteration of isolated vesical varices causing gross hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices.

  4. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the GMF

  5. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of t

  6. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  7. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  8. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129.315 Section 129.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) The...

  9. Combined climate factors alleviate changes in gross soil nitrogen dynamics in heathlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorsne, Anna-Karin; Rutting, Tobias; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    of exposure to three climate change factors, i.e. warming, elevated CO2 (eCO(2)) and summer drought, applied both in isolation and in combination. By conducting laboratory N-15 tracing experiments we show that warming increased both gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. In contrast, gross...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. 1.1332-1 Section 1.1332-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  11. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  12. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  13. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  14. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income derived from business. 1.61-3 Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Taxable Income § 1.61-3 Gross income derived from business. (a) In general. In a...

  15. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... law) shall be excluded from the gross investment income of a life insurance company. However, section... company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... insurance company. (a) Gross investment income defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of...

  16. 17 CFR 1.58 - Gross collection of exchange-set margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross collection of exchange-set margins. 1.58 Section 1.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.58 Gross collection of exchange-set...

  17. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  19. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  20. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  1. The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, J; Passfield, L; Coleman, D; Jobson, S; Edwards, L; Carter, H

    2009-12-01

    There has been much debate in the recent scientific literature regarding the possible ability to increase gross efficiency in cycling via training. Using cross-sectional study designs, researchers have demonstrated no significant differences in gross efficiency between trained and untrained cyclists. Reviewing this literature provides evidence to suggest that methodological inadequacies may have played a crucial role in the conclusions drawn from the majority of these studies. We present an overview of these studies and their relative shortcomings and conclude that in well-controlled and rigorously designed studies, training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency. Putative mechanisms for the increase in gross efficiency as a result of training include, muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria. However, the specific mechanisms by which training improves gross efficiency and their impact on cycling performance remain to be determined.

  2. Gross nitrogen fluxes in intact beech-soil-microbe systems under experimentally simulated climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Javier; Bilela, Silvija; Gasche Gasche, Rainer; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Bimüller, Carolin; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Rennenberg, Heinz; Dannenmann, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The vulnerability of beech forests of Central Europe to projected climate change conditions is a current matter of debate and concern. In order to investigate the response of N cycling in a typical beech forest to projected climate change conditions, we transplanted small lysimeters with intact beech-soil systems from a slope with N-exposure (representing present day climate conditions) to a slope with S exposure (serving as a warmer and drier model climate for future conditions). Lysimeters transfers within the N exposure served as control. After an equilibration period of 1 year, three isotope labeling/harvest cycles were performed: (1) comparison between N and S slopes under ambient conditions; (2) comparison between N and S slopes after intensified drought at S exposure; (3) rewetting after the drought period. Homogenous triple isotope labeling (15N/13C glutamine, 15NH4+, 15NO3-) in combination with 15N tracing and -pool dilution approaches as well as molecular analyses of nitrogen cycling genes and mycorrhiza morphotyping allowed to simultaneously quantify all N turnover processes in the intact beech-soil-microbe system. Nitrate was the major N source of beech seedlings with little importance of ammonium and no importance of glutamine. Experimental simulation of climate change resulted in significantly reduced gene copies of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in soil (AOB), a dramatic attenuation of microbial gross nitrate production from 252±83 mg N m-2 day-1 for the control treatment to 49±29 mg N m-2 day-1 for the climate change treatment and associated strong declines in soil nitrate concentrations as well as nitrate uptake by microorganisms and beech, which could not be compensated by uptake of ammonium or glutamine. Therefore, N content of beech seedlings was strongly reduced in the climate change treatment. Hence our data provide a microbial mechanism to explain nutritional limitations of beech under higher temperatures and drought and raise questions about

  3. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5) t N yr(-1), and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  4. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbiao Lin

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1 d(-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5 t N yr(-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  5. GROSS ANATOMY AND BLOOD SUPPLY OF SMALL INTESTINE IN FOETUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Unisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY: To develop charts of length and width of small intestine, origin, length and branching pattern of celiac trunk and Superior mesenteric artery. This will help us to know any congenital anomaly in the small intestine, and abnormal origin, length, variation i n the branching pattern. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The material used for the present study of 100 foetuses of different stages of gestation collected from Government maternity Hospital, Hanamkonda, ChandaKantha Memorial Hospital Warangal and private nursing h omes of Warangal D istrict of Andhra Pradesh within 10 hours of death. The dead foetuses were preserved in the hospital in 10% formalin. The foetuses were embalmed by injecting with 20 cc to 100 cc 10% formalin in to the cranial cavity and trunk depending o n the stage of gestation. Foetuses were dissected to expose small intestine and the blood vessels which supply it systematically in the following manner. OBSERVATIONS: The present study conducted has shown that length, width of small intestine was found to be increasing with foetal age. The length of celiac trunk, the length of superior mesenteric artery was found to increase proportionality with the foetal age. The causes of death in foetuses related to small intestine are intussusceptions intestional malr otation such as ladd’s bands, volvulus, cystic fibrosis, intestional infections and necrotizing enterocolitis. Knowledge related to gross anatomy and blood supply of small intestine is important because of these causes which may lead to death in foetus e s. In the present study no anomalies related to small intestine are found.

  6. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zscheischler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake and negative extremes (decrease in uptake on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  7. Gross and Histomorphological Studies of Femoral Head Resurfacing in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sharifi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The foetal skull bone as a biological graft was investigated. This study was conducted on Fifteen adult mixed - breed normal dogs 12 to 24 months with weighing 21.4=3.6 Kg .Dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each. The foetal skull bone of 45 days old was collected from one pregnant bitch via cesarean method. The right femoral head cartilage was removed completely in all dogs of 3 groups.. Group I acted as control one, whereas in II group, resurfacing was done by using foetal skull bone which was fixed by using 0.8 mm cerclage wire in criss-cross fashion, but in III group, it was done similar to II group and the hip joint additionally was fixed by using 2 mm steinmenn pin.The clinical observations was made accordingly for 60 days in all groups. The gross changes of femoral head in group I & II were quite smooth and slippy, but in III group were uneven and rough due to secondary changes and ankylosis, but on micropscopic interpertation there was a remarkable compatibility of the graft with femoral head.The reconstruction of articular cartilage was faster in group II and even group III animals than group I animals. There was single row of chondrocyte in scatter area of samples in group . The complete and uniform hyaline cartilage in group II and fibro - cartilage and mixture of connective tissues in group III animals were observed. The results indicated that the foetal skull bone due to its pleuripotent calvarium easily can orient itself into the chondrocytes and cartilagenous tissues in articular surface of the hip joint, if there is suitable enviroment before complete ossification,so that normal joint motion could expect.

  8. The Early Devonian eurypterid Grossopterus overathi (Gross, 1933 from Overath, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only known specimen of the eurypterid (Chelicerata: Eurypterida Grossopterus overathi (Gross, 1933 from the Early Devonian (Siegennian of Overath, north-west Germany is redescribed. Based on comparisons with other eurypterid taxa we interpret G. overathi as having a well-preserved type B genital appendage, which exhibits two apomorphic character states: (1 a furca fused into a single, spatulate plate and (2 marginal serrations near the distal end of the appendage. Grossopterus is assigned to the family Hughmilleriidae, but its carapace resembles that of the larger Slimonia acuminata (Salter, 1856 (Slimoniidae. A provisional phylogenetic analysis resolves Grossopterus as the sister group of (Slimonia + Pterygotoidea. The large pterygotids, in particular, have been suggested as significant predators on early vertebrates and hypotheses about eurypterid-fish co-evolution are reviewed, in particular Romer's proposal that dermal armour in fish evolved in response to eurypterid predation. Der Holotyp – das einzig bekannte Exemplar – des Eurypteriden (Chelicerata: Eurypterida Grossopterus overathi (Gross, 1933 aus dem frühen Devon (Siegennian von Overath im nordwestlichen Deutschland wird wieder beschrieben. Basierend auf Vergleichen mit anderen Eurypteriden-Taxa interpretieren wir G. overathi als Träger eines Typ B-Anhanges, wobei zwei apomorphe Merkmalszustände vorliegen: (1 die Furca ist zu einer einzigen, spatelförmigen Platte verschmolzen, und (2 der Seitenrand nahe des distalen Endes des Genitalanhanges ist gezähnt. Grossopterus wird zur Familie der Hughmilleriidae gestellt, aber der prosomale Dorsalschild ähnelt der größeren Slimonia acuminata (Salter, 1856 (Slimoniidae. Eine vorläufige phylogenetische Analyse zeigt Grossopterus als Schwesteruppe von (Slimonia + Pterygotoidea auf. Besonders die großen Pterygotiden wurden als signifikante Prädatoren von frühen Vertebraten gehandelt, und Hypothesen zur Eurypteriden

  9. Added value, decreased cost: the evolving role of the cytotechnologist for preliminary screening and triage of thyroid aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotruba, Angelean L; Stewart, Jimmie; Scheberl, Thomas; Selvaggi, Suzanne M

    2011-12-01

    Immediate adequacy assessment for thyroid fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) is standard practice in many cytopathology laboratories. A pathologist is usually present for these time consuming assessments. The purpose of this 5 month study (January 2008-May 2008) was to show that cytotechnologists can accurately provide the majority of immediate adequacy assessments for thyroid FNAs, saving both time and money for pathologists, clinicians, and patients. The study consisted of 167 thyroid nodule FNAs performed in twice weekly thyroid FNA clinics. A comparison was made of the immediate assessments by five participating cytotechnologists and the preliminary and final diagnoses by three pathologists. The cytotechnologist prepared the slides, assessed the air-dried Hema-Diff™ stained slides for adequacy, and the pathologist viewed the slides remotely via real-time video streaming. Results were recorded in an Excel spreadsheet. There was a discordance rate of 1.2% when comparing the cytotechnologist's adequacy interpretation and the pathologist's preliminary diagnosis; both clinically insignificant. By cytotechnologist assessment, 79.0% of the cases were benign and 6.6% were nondiagnostic. 14.4% of the cases were assessed as cellular nodule or neoplastic lesion; all requiring pathologist's preliminary diagnosis. Utilizing a cytotechnologist to provide adequacy, instead of a pathologist, saved $464.10/case (2.38 passes/case) based on current gross technical and professional charges. On the basis of our findings, cytotechnologists can accurately provide immediate onsite adequacy assessments for thyroid nodule FNAs. Affording cytotechnologists the opportunity to preliminarily assess FNAs for adequacy also creates a new role in the laboratory. Furthermore, cost-savings are realized for patients and the health care system.

  10. Hand-Rim Forces and Gross Mechanical Efficiency in Asynchronous and Synchronous Wheelchair Propulsion : A Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenton, J. P.; Fowler, N.; Nicholson, G.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.; van der Woude, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    To compare the force application characteristics at various push frequencies of asynchronous (ASY) and synchronous (SYN) hand-rim propulsion, 8 able-bodied participants performed a separate sub-maximal exercise test on a wheelchair roller ergometer for each propulsion mode. Each test consisted of a

  11. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  12. Resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the imaginary-time method on a Lagrange mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baye, D; Sparenberg, J-M

    2010-11-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which has the simplicity of a mesh calculation. Combined with the imaginary-time method, it is applied to the iterative resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Two variants of a fourth-order factorization of the exponential of the Hamiltonian and two types of mesh (Lagrange-Hermite and Lagrange-sinc) are employed and compared. The accuracy is checked with the help of these comparisons and of the virial theorem. The Lagrange-Hermite mesh provides very accurate results with short computing times for values of the dimensionless parameter of the nonlinear term up to 10⁴. For higher values up to 10⁷, the Lagrange-sinc mesh is more efficient. Examples are given for anisotropic and nonseparable trapping potentials.

  13. 5 CFR 890.1112 - Denial of continuation of coverage due to involuntary separation for gross misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. 890.1112 Section 890.1112 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. (a) Notice of denial. (1) When an employing office determines that the offense for which an employee is being removed constitutes gross misconduct for the purpose...

  14. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  15. Efficacy of Barium-Based Fecal Tagging for CT Colonography: a Comparison between the Use of High and Low Density Barium Suspensions in a Korean Population - a Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Ju; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Byeon, Jeong Sik; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Yeoung Nam; Kim, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eugene K. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)

    2009-02-15

    This preliminarily study was designed to determine and to compare the efficacy of two commercially available barium-based fecal tagging agents for CT colonography (CTC) (high-density [40% w/v] and low-density [4.6% w/v] barium suspensions) in a population in Korea. In a population with an identified with an average-risk for colorectal cancer, 15 adults were administered three doses of 20 ml 40% w/v barium for fecal tagging (group I) and 15 adults were administered three doses of 200 ml 4.6% w/v barium (group II) for fecal tagging. Excluding five patients in group I and one patient in group II that left the study, ten patients in group I and 14 patients in group II were finally included in the analysis. Two experienced readers evaluated the CTC images in consensus regarding the degree of tagging of stool pieces 6 mm or larger. Stool pieces were confirmed with the use of standardized CTC criteria or the absence of matched lesions as seen on colonoscopy. The rates of complete fecal tagging were analyzed on a per-lesion and a per-segment basis and were compared between the patients in the two groups. Per-lesion rates of complete fecal tagging were 52% (22 of 42; 95% CI, 37.7-66.6%) in group I and 78% (28 of 36; 95% CI, 61.7-88.5%) in group II. The difference between the two groups did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.285). The per-segment rates of complete tagging were 33% (6 of 18; 95% CI, 16.1%-56.4%) in group I and 60% (9 of 15; 95% CI, 35.7%-80.3%) in group II; again, the difference between the two groups did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.171). Barium-based fecal tagging using both the 40% w/v and the 4.6% w/v barium suspensions showed moderate tagging efficacy. The preliminary comparison did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in the tagging efficacy between the use of the two tagging agents, despite the tendency toward better tagging with the use of the 4.6% w/v barium suspension.

  16. Use of the scoliosis research society outcomes instrument to evaluate patient outcome in untreated idiopathic scoliosis patients in Japan: part I: comparison with nonscoliosis group: preliminary/limited review in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kei; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Toru; Uchiyama, Seiji; Endo, Naoto

    2005-05-15

    This preliminary study evaluates untreated Japanese patients with idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-24). To determine the baseline patient outcome score using the SRS-24 for untreated Japanese scoliosis patients compared with a nonscoliosis group. The SRS instrument with 24 questions was developed to help evaluate patient-perceived outcomes of idiopathic scoliosis treatment. Evaluation of untreated Japanese idiopathic scoliosis patients using the SRS instrument has not been reported. Japanese idiopathic scoliosis patients (n = 141) (mean age, 13.6 years; range, 10-17 years) with a Cobb angle of more than 20 degrees who were not treated with a brace or surgery, were evaluated in comparison with a nonscoliosis group (healthy junior high school students; n = 72) using the SRS-24. The scoliosis group was categorized as mild deformity group with a major curve Cobb angle of less than 30 degrees, moderate deformity group with 30 degrees to 49 degrees, and severe deformity group with more than 50 degrees. The patients were evaluated using section 1 (15 questions) of the SRS-24, which was divided into four domains: total pain, general self-image, general function, and activity. Reliability, as determined by internal consistency, was validated using Cronbach's alpha for these domain scales. The severe deformity group had the lowest scores compared with the other deformity groups and the nonscoliosis group in pain (P self-image (P self-image of back appearance, were significantly lower in the scoliosis group than those in the nonscoliosis group. This tendency was more significant in the patients with greater curve magnitude. Scores for questions 14 and 15, evaluation of general self-image, in the scoliosis group were, however, higher than those in the nonscoliosis group. Internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha was 0.57 (pain), 0.27 (general self-image), -0.08 (general function), and 0.15 (overall level of activity

  17. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations c

  18. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations cent

  19. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP....... Method This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on 92 consecutive referrals of children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V, 39 females, 53 males (median age 4y [range 1–14y]), and 77, 12, and 3 with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP respectively....... The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age...

  20. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  1. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  2. Envelope Periodic Solutions to One-Dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii Equation in Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-Kuo; GAO Bin; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, applying the dependent and independent variables transformations as well as the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method, the envelope periodic solutions to one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates are obtained.

  3. P-T path fluid evolution in the Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Frindt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock (GSS is a zoned 30 km^2 epizonal intrusion that consists of three main granites: 1 medium-grained biotite granite (marginal, 2 a coarse-grained biotite granite, and 3 a central, porphyritic granite. The stock contains pegmatites as banded marginal stockscheiders and isolated pockets composed of large alkali feldspar and quartz, dark mica, interstitial fluorite, and euhedral topaz and beryl crystals. In the porphyritic granite there are local wolframite-bearing greisens and hydrothermal fluorite and topaz-rich veins.Fluid inclusion studies were conducted on: 1 topaz and quartz crystals from the marginal stockscheider; 2 quartz, topaz, fluorite and beryl crystals from isolated pegmatites; 3 topaz from a miarolitic pegmatite; 4 beryl and quartz veins from greisenized porphyritic granite; and 5 fluorite from a late fluorite vein inthe coarse-grained biotite granite. Preliminary data indicate the presence of three compositionally distinct primary and pseudosecondary inclusion types that are of late magmatic-hydrothermal origin.Type 1. Low salinity (0–10 eq. wt% NaCl H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz, topaz and beryl. Inclusions in fluorite from the fluorite vein homogenize at ~170˚C and have a salinity of ca. 1–2 eq. wt% NaCl.Type 2. Saline (25–30 eq. wt% NaCl halite-bearing H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 400˚C. These inclusions are from quartz.Type 3. Low salinity (0–3 eq. wt% NaCl H2O-CO2 inclusions that homogenize to vapor phase in the temperature range of 330 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz and topaz.Hydrothermal fluids from greisen minerals are represented by type 1 and type 2 H2O inclusions. They are predominantly of low salinity (~8 eq. wt% NaCl and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 500

  4. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  5. Analysis of historical gross gamma logging data from BY tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-10-13

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the BY tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface. This report presents the BY tank farm gross gamma ray data in such a way as to assist others in their study of vadose zone mechanisms.

  6. Current usage and future trends in gross digital photography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher L; DeKoning, Lawrence; Klonowski, Paul; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current usage, utilization and future direction of digital photography of gross surgical specimens in pathology laboratories across Canada. An online survey consisting of 23 multiple choice and free-text questions regarding gross digital photography was sent out to via email to laboratory staff across Canada involved in gross dissection of surgical specimens. Sixty surveys were returned with representation from most of the provinces. Results showed that gross digital photography is utilized at most institutions (90.0%) and the primary users of the technology are Pathologists (88.0%), Pathologists' Assistants (54.0%) and Pathology residents (50.0%). Most respondents felt that there is a definite need for routine digital imaging of gross surgical specimens in their practice (80.0%). The top two applications for gross digital photography are for documentation of interesting/ complex cases (98.0%) and for teaching purposes (84.0%). The main limitations identified by the survey group are storage space (42.5%) and security issues (40.0%). Respondents indicated that future applications of gross digital photography mostly include teaching (96.6%), presentation at tumour boards/ clinical rounds (89.8%), medico-legal documentation (72.9%) and usage for consultation purposes (69.5%). The results of this survey indicate that pathology staff across Canada currently utilizes gross digital images for regular documentation and educational reasons. They also show that the technology will be needed for future applications in teaching, consultation and medico-legal purposes.

  7. Class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions and Gross conjecture over Q

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Gross conjecture over Q was first claimed by Aoki in 1991.However,the original proof contains too many mistakes and false claims to be considered as a serious proof.This paper is an attempt to find a sound proof of the Gross conjecture under the outline of Aoki.We reduce the conjecture to an elementary conjecture concerning the class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions of Q.

  8. Improved assessment of gross and net primary productivity of Canada's landmass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M.; Price, David T.; Kurz, Werner A.; Liu, Jane; Boisvenue, Céline; Hember, Robbie A.; Wu, Chaoyang; Chang, Kuo-Hsien

    2013-12-01

    assess Canada's gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) using boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) at 250 m spatial resolution with improved input parameter and driver fields and phenology and nutrient release parameterization schemes. BEPS is a process-based two-leaf enzyme kinetic terrestrial ecosystem model designed to simulate energy, water, and carbon (C) fluxes using spatial data sets of meteorology, remotely sensed land surface variables, soil properties, and photosynthesis and respiration rate parameters. Two improved key land surface variables, leaf area index (LAI) and land cover type, are derived at 250 m from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor. For diagnostic error assessment, we use nine forest flux tower sites where all measured C flux, meteorology, and ancillary data sets are available. The errors due to input drivers and parameters are then independently corrected for Canada-wide GPP and NPP simulations. The optimized LAI use, for example, reduced the absolute bias in GPP from 20.7% to 1.1% for hourly BEPS simulations. Following the error diagnostics and corrections, daily GPP and NPP are simulated over Canada at 250 m spatial resolution, the highest resolution simulation yet for the country or any other comparable region. Total NPP (GPP) for Canada's land area was 1.27 (2.68) Pg C for 2008, with forests contributing 1.02 (2.2) Pg C. The annual comparisons between measured and simulated GPP show that the mean differences are not statistically significant (p > 0.05, paired t test). The main BEPS simulation error sources are from the driver fields.

  9. Ploidy influences cellular responses to gross chromosomal rearrangements in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemoine Sophie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs such as aneuploidy are key factors in genome evolution as well as being common features of human cancer. Their role in tumour initiation and progression has not yet been completely elucidated and the effects of additional chromosomes in cancer cells are still unknown. Most previous studies in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model for cancer cells have been carried out in the haploid context. To obtain new insights on the role of ploidy, the cellular effects of GCRs were compared between the haploid and diploid contexts. Results A total number of 21 haploid and diploid S. cerevisiae strains carrying various types of GCRs (aneuploidies, nonreciprocal translocations, segmental duplications and deletions were studied with a view to determining the effects of ploidy on the cellular responses. Differences in colony and cell morphology as well as in the growth rates were observed between mutant and parental strains. These results suggest that cells are impaired physiologically in both contexts. We also investigated the variation in genomic expression in all the mutants. We observed that gene expression was significantly altered. The data obtained here clearly show that genes involved in energy metabolism, especially in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, are up-regulated in all these mutants. However, the genes involved in the composition of the ribosome or in RNA processing are down-regulated in diploids but up-regulated in haploids. Over-expression of genes involved in the regulation of the proteasome was found to occur only in haploid mutants. Conclusion The present comparisons between the cellular responses of strains carrying GCRs in different ploidy contexts bring to light two main findings. First, GCRs induce a general stress response in all studied mutants, regardless of their ploidy. Secondly, the ploidy context plays a crucial role in maintaining the stoichiometric balance

  10. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  11. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  12. The use of the stable isotope, oxygen-18, as a tracer to measure gross primary production in coastal and oligotrophic waters and in monoclonal cultures of marine phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique was developed to measure the in vitro rates of gross oxygen production in planktonic communities, in which water is enriched with the stable isotope {sup 18}O, and photosynthetic evolution of {sup 18}O{sup 16}O is measured. In order to calculate gross oxygen production, they correct for the {sup 18}O fractionation due to respiration. The standard technique for measuring production in the oceans, {sup 14}C-bicarbonate uptake, has recently been questioned due to discrepancies with other estimates of water column production and suspected intrinsic problems with the {sup 14}C technique. They compared rates of {sup 18}O gross production and {sup 14}C production in oligotrophic and coastal sites. Samples were generally incubated under natural lighting with neutral density screening. Some oligotrophic bottles were incubated in situ at the depth of collection. Rates of {sup 14}C production were 60-100% of {sup 18}O gross production in both coastal and oceanic communities. Assuming a PQ of 1.0 to 1.5, these comparisons suggest that {sup 14}C production rates are not seriously underestimating actual in vitro rates of production. They also measured rates of light respiration in cultures and natural populations by the {sup 18}O technique. The rates of light respiration in algal cultures were generally greater than dark rates by a factor of two to ten. The increased respiration in the light could be due to increased rates of mitochondrial respiration, photorespiration or Mehler respiration. They measured the enhanced {sup 14}C production under reduced (O{sub 2}) conditions (the Warburg effect), as an estimate of the rate of photorespiration. In three clones, rates of photorespiration were a significant fraction of light respiration. In five other clones examined, photorespiration was not implicated as a source of light respiration.

  13. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  14. Gross alpha determination in radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants using the track registration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: he04@caminos.upm.es; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (ion-exchange resins and evaporator concentrates) essentially contain beta and gamma emitters, with very few alpha emitters. Several techniques may be used to determine gross alpha activity but, in this case, solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are a suitable technique for gross alpha determination because track detectors are not sensitive to beta and gamma emitters. Also, this technique is simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we studied the parameters (background, efficiency and self-absorption) that could affect the gross alpha determination using SSNTDs for both sample preparation methods, the 'dry method' with tensioactives and the 'wet method'. For the 'dry method', a self-absorption curve for {sup 241}Am standard was prepared using a set of varying thickness of sodium salt and for two different tensioactives: Tween{sup (R)}20 and Teg. The results showed that, below 1mg/cm{sup 2}, the self-absorption factor can be considered similar for both tensioactives and equal to unity. Several detectors for gross alpha determination were compared and we found that the most suitable techniques were ZnS(Ag) solid scintillator and track detectors. Both detectors were used to compare radioactive waste samples. Finally, the proposed methods ('dry method' with Teg tensioactive and 'wet method') using track detectors were tested by analysing the gross alpha activity of several radioactive wastes.

  15. Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2014-01-01

    Onsite greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WETs) reduce urban freshwater demand and thus enhance urban water use sustainability. Research on GWR and WETs has generally overlooked their potential effects on municipal sewer systems: GWR and WETs affect the flow regime in sewers, and consequently also influence gross solids transport. To asses these impacts, a gross solids transport model was developed. The model is based on approaches found in the literature. Hydrodynamic calculations of sewage flow were performed using the SIMBA6 simulator and then used for the gross solid movement models. Flow characteristics in the up- and downstream sections of the sewer network differ. Therefore different approaches were used to model solids movement in each of these two parts. Each model determines whether a solid moves as a result of a momentary sewage flow, and if it moves, calculation of its velocity is possible. The paper shows the adoption and implementation of two gross solids transport models using SIMBA6 and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR and WET scenarios on gross solids movement in sewers for a real case study in Israel.

  16. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  17. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of natural radioactivity by gross alpha and beta measurements in ground water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Ozçitak, E; Taşkin, H; Varinlioğlu, A

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the gross α and β in ground water samples collected from the different drilled wells in Nevşehir province were measured to assess annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the water samples. Nevşehir province is one of the major cities of Cappadocia Region which is a popular tourist destination as it has many areas with unique geological, historic, and cultural features. Sampling and measurements were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The values of the activity concentrations of the gross α and β measured in the water samples ranged from 80 to 380 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 192 mBq L(-1) and 120-3470 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 579 mBq L(-1) respectively. All values of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two ground water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). Therefore two water samples were the subject of further radioisotope-specific analysis. The obtained result indicated that the elevated activity concentrations of the gross β in these water samples are dominated by (40)K activity. Annual effective doses ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 mSv y(-1).

  19. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS OF NORMALLY DEVELOPING OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehmus ASLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. 18 girls and 28 boys with 12-18 age range, in totally 46 overweight and obese adolecents participated in the study. Body mass index of participants were calculated. Fine and gross motor skills of adolescents were assessed by Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF. There was no differences between girls and boys for BOT-2 SF total scores (p>0.05, but it was found differences in several items of BOT-2 SF. Scores of test items for fine motor scores in the girls were higher than the boys (p0.05. Gross motor skill tests including jumping in place, dribling a ball, sit-ups, one- legged stationary hop test scores were higher in the boys, while tapping feet and fingers test score was higher in the girls (p<0.05. Our results suggested that there is differences between girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. Girls have better fine motor skill performance while boys have better gross motor skill performance in overweight and obese adolescents.

  20. ASSETS ADMITTED TO COVER GROSS TECHNICAL RESERVES CASE STUDY: INSURANCE – REINSURANCE COMPANY ASTRA SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINELA – CONSTANTINA BADEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the asset structure and the coverage of gross technical reserves of the Insurance – Reinsurance Company Astra SA, for the period 2003 – 2014. Insurance companies are required to constitute technical reserves, in order to cope with the payment obligations to policyholders. These reserves may only be covered on account of certain assets, admitted by law. In Romania, Orders No. 8 and 9/2011, issued by the Insurance Supervisory Commission, contain Rules regarding the assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves, the dispersion of assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves and the liquidity coefficient. Order No. 9/2011, relating to general insurance, has been amended by Rule No. 22/2014. In this paper, we have analyzed the main elements of Astra’s assets, their share in total assets and we have calculated the coverage of gross technical reserves by total assets and liquid assets. In 2013 and 2014, the value of total assets was below the value of gross tehnical reserves, which demonstrated Astra’s financial instability, through negative capital and the inability to meet the obligations to policyholders. Failure to comply with the prudential indicators has been one of the main causes of Astra`s bankruptcy.

  1. Association of therapeutic occasion, gross motor function grading and developmental level with gross motor functional recovery in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormal posture and motor pattern have not stabilized in children with cerebral palsy at early period, thus timely treatment can establish normal postural reflex and motor pattern, and prevent complications of muscle contracture, ankylosis, skeletal deformity, etc. The clinical factors affecting the rehabilitative efficacy of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy should be observed.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of therapeutic occasion, grading of gross motor function and developmental level on the rehabilitative efficacy in children with cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled analysis.SETTING: Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy, who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, were selected from April 2004 to September 2006, and all the children were diagnosed to be accorded with the standard set by the national seminar on cerebral palsy in 2004. There were 97 males and 41 females, including 55 cases of 0 - 2 years old,47 cases of 2 - 4 years and 36 cases of 4 - 6 years. Informed contents were obtained from relatives of all the children.METHODS: ① Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment: Vojta method was to induce the children to turn over the body and crawl by stimulating reflective turn over and crawling on belly. Bobath method including trainings of head control, turning over body, keeping sitting position, keeping balance, crawling, keeping standing position, and walking, etc.; The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push, press, rub,pull, wave, etc. according to the sites and types of palsy. Acupuncture was performed mainly at bilateral motor areas, the needle was retained for 1 hour per time, 6 days continuously every week, and followed by a 1-day interval. ② Prognosis assessment: The gross motor functional grading of the children with cerebral palsy at admission was

  2. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  3. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  4. Gross N transformation rates after application of household compost or domestic sewage sludge to agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Kure, L.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    Gross N mineralization and immobilization was examined in soil amended with compost and sewage sludge on seven occasions during a year using N-15 pool dilution and enrichment techniques. Gross N mineralization was initially stimulated with both wastes and accelerated through the first 112 days...... of incubation, peaking at 5 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) with compost compared with 4 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) in control and sludge-treated soil. The magnitudes of mineralization rates exceeded those of immobilization by on average 6.3 ( compost) and 11.4 ( sludge) times, leading to a persistent net N mineralization cumulating...... up to 160 mg N.kg(-1) soil(compost) and 54 mg N.kg(-1) soil (sludge) over the season from May to November. The numerical model FLUAZ comprehensively predicted rates of gross mineralization and immobilization. Sludge exhibited an early season N-release, whereas compost released only 10% of the N...

  5. Gross β activity level of fallout in the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; CHEN Bin; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement results of gross β activities in fallout samples collected from the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) during 1993-2002. The gross β activity of 191 samples collected at five monitoring spots were (0.11~3.64) Bq · m-2 · d-1, with an average of (0.91 ±0.49) Bq · m-2 · d-1. This value was lower than (1.02±0.35) Bq·m-2·d-1 , the average of the samples collected at the reference spot in Hangzhou.It indicated that no obvious rise in the gross β activity level of fallout was observed in ambience of Qinshan NPP.

  6. Integrable Gross-Neveu models with fermion-fermion and fermion-antifermion pairing

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The massless Gross-Neveu and chiral Gross-Neveu models are well known examples of integrable quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions. We address the question whether integrability is preserved if one either replaces the four-fermion interaction in fermion-antifermion channels by a dual interaction in fermion-fermion channels, or if one adds such a dual interaction to an existing integrable model. The relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach is adequate to deal with the large N limit of such models. In this way, we construct and solve three integrable models with Cooper pairing. We also identify a candidate for a fourth integrable model with maximal kinematic symmetry, the "perfect" Gross-Neveu model. This type of field theories can serve as exactly solvable toy models for color superconductivity in quantum chromodynamics.

  7. Financial Variables Effect on the U.S. Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) 1959-2001

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Byron E

    2007-01-01

    I studied what role the US stock markets and money markets have possibly played in the Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) of the United States from the year 1959 to the year 2001, Gross Private Domestic Investment refers to the total amount of investment spending by businesses and firms located within the borders of a nation. It includes both the values of the purchases of non-residential fixed investment, which include capital goods used for production, and the values of the purchases of residential fixed investment, which include construction spending for factories or offices. And I created a Multiple Linear Regression Model of the GDPI. To see if companies and private citizens use the stock market and money markets as a way of financing capital projects (business ventures, buying commercial and noncommercial property, etc). Keywords: Gross Private Domestic Investment, Pearson Correlation, SP 500, TB3

  8. EFFECT OF SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shamsoddini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe primary problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, frequently referred for occupational therapy, is gross motor dysfunction. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT on gross motor skills in CP patients.Materials & MethodsTwenty-four children with diplegic spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups: First group (n=14,6 girls, 8 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.9 years; the second or control group (n=10, 5 girls, 5 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.4 years. SIT training was given to the first group and only the home program was given for the second group. All children were evaluated with gross motor function measurement (GMFM 88 for rolling, sitting, crawling, standing and walking position before and after intervention. Treatment duration for both groups was 1 hour, 5 days per week for a period of 12 weeks.ResultsGross motor function in children of the case group improved significantly better that in the control group, after intervention in sitting (P=0.02, crawling (P=0.001 and standing (P=0.03 positions; however no significant difference was seen in rolling (P=0.65 and walking (P=0.69 ability assessment.ConclusionThis study showed the beneficial effects of the SIT training program for children with CP; the SIT intervention had a significantly positive effect on gross motor function in the children with diplegic spastic CP. Moreover the results of the present study showed that sensory integration and vestibular stimulation were effective in children with cerebral palsy.Keywords:Cerebral palsy, Children, Gross motor, Occupational therapy, Sensory integration

  9. Effect of cerebrolysin on gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Jafar; Safavifar, Faezeh

    2017-01-10

    Gross motor dysfunction is considered as the most challenging problem in cerebral palsy (CP). It is proven that improvement of gross motor function could reduce CP-related disabilities and provide better quality of life in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of cerebrolysin (CBL) on gross motor function of children with CP who are undergoing treatment. In this clinical trial study, paediatric patients aged 18-75 months with spastic diplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy, who were under rehabilitation therapy, were selected and randomly allocated in control and CBL groups. Patients in CBL group underwent treatment with standard rehabilitation therapy plus CBL. The latter was administrated intramuscularly as a single daily dose of 0.1 cc/kg for 10 days and then continued weekly for 4 months. Gross motor function of participants in the two studied groups, before and after trial, was evaluated and compared using the validated Persian version of gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R). During this trial, 108 patients with CP were evaluated for eligibility. From these, 50 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated in the CBL and control groups. Four months after trial, the mean level of GMFCS decreased significantly in the two groups (P < 0.05). However, it was significantly lower in the CBL group than in the control group (2.1 vs. 3.16, P < 0.05). The results of this trial indicated that CBL could improve gross motor function in patients with CP. This finding is consistent with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of CBL, which have been reported in various clinical trials in other neurological disorders. Further studies are recommended to establish the value of continued neuroprotection and to determine the pharmacokinetics/dynamics of CBL in this group of patients.

  10. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  11. Btryoid Wilm's tumor in a child presenting with gross hematuria: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chae Jung; Im, Young Jae; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We report a unique case of botryoid Wilms' tumor with its characteristic imaging findings in a 5-month-old boy presenting with gross hematuria. In our case, ultrasonography revealed lobulated hyperechoic lesions filling the pelvicalyceal system without parenchymal invasion, mimicking a blood clot. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the exact extent of the lesion with diffusion restriction and delayed enhancement suggestive of a tumor. Despite their rarity, botryoid Wilms' tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of lobulated renal pelvic lesions presenting as gross hematuria in children, and MRI can suggest the diagnosis.

  12. MODELING AND FORECASTING THE GROSS ENROLLMENT RATIO IN ROMANIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gross enrollment ratio in primary school is one of the basic indicators used in order to evaluate the proposed objectives of the educational system. Knowing its evolution allows a more rigorous substantiation of the strategies and of the human resources politics not only from the educational field but also from the economic one. In this paper we propose an econometric model in order to describe the gross enrollment ratio in Romanian primary school and we achieve its prediction for the next years, having as a guide the Box-Jenkins’s methodology. The obtained results indicate the continuous decrease of this rate for the next years.

  13. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  14. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies...... varies significantly between the various countries with major differences in yield and costs. Italy and Denmark are two regions with highest gross margins due to hight yields and revenues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries. The production is primarily based...

  15. No First-Order Phase Transition in the Gross-Neveu Model?

    CERN Document Server

    Brzoska, A; Brzoska, Andrej; Thies, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Within a variational calculation we investigate the role of baryons for the structure of dense matter in the Gross-Neveu model. We construct a trial ground state at finite baryon density which breaks translational invariance. Its scalar potential interpolates between widely spaced kinks and antikinks at low density and the value zero at infinite density. Its energy is lower than the one of the standard Fermi gas at all densities considered. This suggests that the discrete gamma_5 symmetry of the Gross-Neveu model does not get restored in a first order phase transition at finite density, at variance with common wisdom.

  16. Global estimates of evapotranspiration and gross primary production based on MODIS and global meteorology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Chen, J.; Davis, K.; Desai, A.R.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Gianelle, D.; Rossi, F.; Suyker, A.E.; Verma, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales remains a major challenge for quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency model, called EC-LUE, driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux. The EC-LUE model may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP because its parameters (i.e., the potential light use efficiency and optimal plant growth temperature) are invariant across the various land cover types. However, the application of the previous EC-LUE model was hampered by poor prediction of Bowen ratio at the large spatial scale. In this study, we substituted the Bowen ratio with the ratio of evapotranspiration (ET) to net radiation, and revised the RS-PM (Remote Sensing-Penman Monteith) model for quantifying ET. Fifty-four eddy covariance towers, including various ecosystem types, were selected to calibrate and validate the revised RS-PM and EC-LUE models. The revised RS-PM model explained 82% and 68% of the observed variations of ET for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. Using estimated ET as input, the EC-LUE model performed well in calibration and validation sites, explaining 75% and 61% of the observed GPP variation for calibration and validation sites respectively. Global patterns of ET and GPP at a spatial resolution of 0.5?? latitude by 0.6?? longitude during the years 2000-2003 were determined using the global MERRA dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global estimates of ET and GPP agreed well with the other global models from the literature, with the highest ET and GPP over tropical forests and the lowest values in dry and high latitude areas. However, comparisons with observed GPP

  17. Gross hepatomegaly due to ‘minimal change’ liver disease in a young female alcoholic

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Sisir K.; Shaw, G K; Aps, E. J.; Thomson, Allan D.; O Gorman, P.; Bugler, J.

    1982-01-01

    The case of a grossly enlarged liver due to alcohol excess in a woman of 21 is reported. This case further demonstrates that a chronic alcoholic can have gross hepatomegaly with normal histology and normal liver function tests. The possible pathogenetic basis of ethanol-induced hepatomegaly (‘minimal change’ liver disease) is discussed.

  18. 26 CFR 1.62-1T - Adjusted gross income (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 165 for losses incurred in any transaction entered into for profit though not connected with a... determining adjusted gross income, expenses must be those directly, and not those merely remotely, connected... research scientist, is employed by Corporation X. B gives a speech before members of Association Y,...

  19. Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: Global distribution and covariation with climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, C.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO2 flux driving several ecosystem functions. We provide an observation-based estimate of this flux at 123 ± 8 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year-1) using eddy covariance flux data and various diagnostic models. Tropical forests

  20. 7 CFR 1400.501 - Determination of average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewable energy; (4) The sale, including the sale of easements and development rights, of farm, ranch... renewable energy; (7) The feeding, rearing, or finishing of livestock; (8) The sale of land that has been..., and farm operations. (c) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, adjusted gross income means:...

  1. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  2. The gross motor function measure is a valid and sensitive outcome measure for spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leslie; Owens, Hollis; Hynan, Linda S; Iannaccone, Susan T

    2006-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease of the anterior horn cell with high morbidity rate in childhood. Certain drugs may be of benefit and are in or under consideration for Phase II trials. Outcome measures that are age appropriate and representative of disease activity remain under study. Several have not yet been validated for spinal muscular atrophy. The Gross Motor Function Measure is a measure of motor function. We showed previously that the Gross Motor Function Measure is a reliable outcome measure to assess motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy. By collating our data from 40 spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 through 17 years, we now show the validity of the Gross Motor Function Measure when compared to Quantitative Muscle Testing and ambulatory status in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The median for Gross Motor Function Measure total scores for walkers was 237 (range: 197-261) and for non-walkers, 64 (range: 4-177; PGross Motor Function Measure is valid and sensitive as an outcome measure for clinical trials in pediatric spinal muscular atrophy.

  3. Stereoscopic Anatomy: Evaluation of a New Teaching System in Human Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ernest D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A stereoscopic slide-based autoinstructional program has been developed as a substitute for dissection in teaching gross anatomy. Evaluation data suggest that this program, while having minor limitations in terms of anatomical orientation, does provide a viable alternative to dissection. (Editor/LBH)

  4. Student performance on practical gross anatomy examinations is not affected by assessment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J; Innes, Stanley I; Stomski, Norman J; Armson, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional anatomy practical examinations; and (2) to examine if students' perceptions of the online or laboratory testing environments influenced their performance on the examinations. In phase one, 10 third-year students were interviewed to generate perception items to which five anatomy lecturers assigned content validity. In phase two, students' gross anatomical knowledge was assessed by examinations in two modes and their perceptions were examined using the devised survey instrument. Forty-five second-year chiropractic students voluntarily participated in Phase Two. The two randomly allocated groups completed the examinations in a sequential cross-over manner. Student performance on the gross anatomy examination was not different between traditional "steeplechase" (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 69 ± 11%) and online (68 ± 15%) modes. The majority of students (87%) agreed that they felt comfortable using computers for gross anatomy examinations. However, fewer students found it easy to orientate images of cadaver specimens online. The majority of students (85%) agreed that they felt comfortable working with cadavers but there was less agreement on the effect of moving around the laboratory during practical examinations. This data will allow anatomists to confidently implement online assessments without fear of jeopardizing academic rigor or student performance. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Macroeconomic Models used in the Structural Analysis of the Gross Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a use case for macro economical models, the objective being the structural analysis of the Gross Domestic Product. The authors offer a snapshot on GDP evolution, the econometric models proposed for analysis are designed with the help of EViews software. Its performances are determined through the optics of the statistical tests.

  6. Scattering and duality in the 2 dimensional OSp(2|2) gross neveu and sigma models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleur, H.; Pozsgay, B.

    2010-01-01

    We write the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for the massive OSp(2|2) Gross Neveu and sigma models. We find evidence that the GN S matrix proposed by Bassi and Leclair [12] is the correct one. We determine features of the sigma model S matrix, which seem highly unconventional; we conjecture in particular

  7. Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Lasne, Gregory; Tribollet, Aline

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the reefs of Grande Terre, New Caledonia, for coral diseases in 2010 and 2013. Lesions encountered in hard and soft corals were systematically described at the gross and microscopic level. We sampled paired and normal tissues from 101 and 65 colonies in 2010 and 2013, respectively, comprising 51 species of corals from 27 genera. Tissue loss was the most common gross lesion sampled (40%) followed by discoloration (28%), growth anomalies (13%), bleaching (10%), and flatworm infestation (1%). When grouped by gross lesions, the diversity of microscopic lesions as measured by Shannon–Wiener index was highest for tissue loss, followed by discoloration, bleaching, and growth anomaly. Our findings document an extension of the range of certain diseases such as Porites trematodiasis and endolithic hypermycosis (dark spots) to the Western Pacific as well as the presence of a putative cnidarian endosymbiont. We also expand the range of species infected by cell-associated microbial aggregates, and confirm the trend that these aggregates predominate in dominant genera of corals in the Indo-Pacific. This study highlights the importance of including histopathology as an integral component of baseline coral disease surveys, because a given gross lesion might be associated with multiple potential causative agents.

  8. 48 CFR 29.401-4 - New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax. 29.401-4 Section 29.401-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 29.401-4 New Mexico...

  9. 20 CFR 10.712 - What amounts are included in the gross recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recovery? 10.712 Section 10.712 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF... gross recovery? (a) When a settlement or judgment is paid to, or for, one individual, the entire amount... recovery. If a settlement or judgment is paid to or for more than one individual or in more than...

  10. Gross genomic damage measured by DNA image cytometry independently predicts gastric cancer patient survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belien, J.A.M.; Buffart, T.E.; Gill, A.; Broeckaert, M.A.M.; Quirke, P.; Meijer, G.A.; Grabsch, H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DNA aneuploidy reflects gross genomic changes. It can be measured by flow cytometry (FCM-DNA) or image cytometry (ICM-DNA). In gastric cancer, the prevalence of DNA aneuploidy has been reported to range from 27 to 100%, with conflicting associations with clinicopathological variables. Th

  11. Medical gross anatomy as a predictor of performance on the USMLE Step 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cathryn A; Tucker, Richard P

    2005-03-01

    Traditional predictors of medical school performance, such as Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores and grade point averages, are often used during the admissions process to help identify the prospective students who are most likely to complete the basic science portion of the curriculum successfully. Here we analyzed the admissions files and student records of 285 first-year medical students who matriculated at the University of California at Davis School of Medicine between 1999 and 2001 to determine if performance in medical gross anatomy is a similar, if not better, predictor of performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 than traditional predictors used by medical school admissions committees. Though MCAT scores and grade point averages were correlated with scores on the USMLE Step 1, only the score on the biological science section of the MCAT was significantly correlated with passing the licensing examination. In contrast, class rank in medical gross anatomy and the score on a gross anatomy comprehensive final examination were correlated both with scores on the USMLE Step 1 and passing the examination. Our results indicate that medical schools should consider performance in medical gross anatomy just as much, if not more, than traditional predictors of medical school performance when trying to identify students who may need more time or tutoring to pass the licensing examination.

  12. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstrea

  13. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  14. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  15. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  16. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  17. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  18. Method of Multi-dimensional Gross Errors Snooping of GPS Velocity Estimation in Airborne Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Kai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Precision velocity plays an important role in airborne gravimetry. Since the aircraft in a state of stable flight, we could establish a strict state equation with constant acceleration model for it, then obtained predicted velocity which was used for constructing a priori residual Q to detect the gross errors. Theoretical research showed that Q was influenced by the accuracy of predicted velocity and the measurement errors. According to the statistical features of Q combined with IGG Ⅲ principle, we could lower the contribution of the observation that contained the gross errors. Static testing was used for analyzing the characteristic of measurement errors as well as the accuracy of predicted velocity under the simulated ideal flight environment where the acceleration was approximate to a constant, the results also showed the relationship between the sampling rate and the ability of detecting gross errors. Both the static and kinematic tests demonstrate that new method can well detect the gross error smaller than 1 cycle.

  19. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  20. Gross Square Feet Per Student. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Art

    The Council of Educational Facility Planners International regularly provides the recommended number of gross square feet (gsf) per student figures. This report provides revised numbers based on responses from its Design Portfolio winners over the past 5 years. Average national averages of square footage space per student for Canada and the…

  1. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  2. Remarks on the Blow-Up Solutions for the Critical Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the blow-up solutions of the critical Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which models the Bose-Einstein condensate. The existence and qualitative properties of the minimal blow-up solutions are obtained.

  3. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  4. Hydrodynamical form for the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We establish a well-posedness result for the hydrodynamical form (HGP of the one dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GP via the classical form of this equation. The result established in this way proves that (HGP is locally well-posed since the solution of (GP can vanished at some $t\

  5. The effect of ambient temperature on gross-efficiency in cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, F.J.; Koning, J.J. de; Vrijer, A. de; Wüst, R.C.I.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Foster, C.

    2007-01-01

    Time-trial performance deteriorates in the heat. This might potentially be the result of a temperature-induced decrease in gross-efficiency (GE). The effect of high ambient temperature on GE during cycling will be studied, with the intent of determining if a heat-induced change in GE could account f

  6. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  7. Hand-rim Forces and Gross Mechanical Efficiency at Various Frequencies of Wheelchair Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenton, J. P.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Fowler, N. E.; Nicholson, G.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of push frequency changes on force application, fraction of effective force (FEF) and gross efficiency (GE) during hand-rim propulsion. 8 male able-bodied participants performed five 4-min sub-maximal exercise bouts at 1.8 m.s(-1); the freely chosen frequency (FCF), followed

  8. 26 CFR 1.951-1 - Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. Therefore, the redemption rights are not restrictions or other limitations within the meaning of... States shareholders. 1.951-1 Section 1.951-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... included in gross income of United States shareholders. (a) In general. If a foreign corporation is...

  9. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biot

  10. Spatial patterns for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Squassina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we highlight some particular spatial patterns of ground state solutions for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane having physical coefficients with particular attention to the cases where the inter-species coefficients become large. The solutions models least energy stationary states of a mixture of three Bose-Einstein condensates.

  11. An Efficient Compact Finite Difference Method for the Solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongpei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    matrices. The CFDM-AIF method is implemented to investigate the ground and first excited state solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of the CFDM-AIF method.

  12. G7 country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) time correlations. A graph network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mi'skiewicz, J

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between G7 countries has been analysed on the basis of Gross Domestic Product using different distance functions i.e. discrete, linear correlation and distribution distance. The distance matrics is analysed by various graph methods and the percolation threshold is calculated. The globalization process understood as increas of correlation has been observed. The applications of different distance function discussed.

  13. Direct measurements of the light dependence of gross photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, B.; Park, J.; Brown, C. M.; Bidle, K. D.; Lee, S.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    For decades, a lack of understanding of how respiration is influenced by light has been stymying our ability to quantitatively analyze how phytoplankton allocate carbon in situ and the biological mechanisms that participate to the fate of blooms. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), the light dependencies of gross photosynthesis and oxygen uptake rates were measured during the bloom demises of two prymnesiophytes, in two open ocean regions. In the North Atlantic, dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, respiration was independent of irradiance and was higher than the gross photosynthetic rate at all irradiances. In the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica), dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, the situation was very different. Dark respiration was one order of magnitude lower than the maximal gross photosynthetic rate. ut the oxygen uptake rate increased by 10 fold at surface irradiances, where it becomes higher than gross photosynthesis. Our results suggest that the light dependence of oxygen uptake in P. antarctica has two sources: one is independent of photosynthesis, and is possibly associated with the photo-reduction of O2 mediated by dissolved organic matter; the second reflects the activity of an oxidase fueled in the light with photosynthetic electron flow. Interestingly, these dramatic light-dependent changes in oxygen uptake were not reproduced in nutrient-replete P. antarctica cultures, in the laboratory. Our measurements highlight the importance of improving our understanding of oxygen consuming reactions in the euphotic zone, which is critical to investigating the physiology of phytoplankton and tracing the fate of phytoplankton blooms.

  14. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  15. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  16. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  17. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be installed in the pilothouse to indicate operation of the power units. (e) The auxiliary means... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. 130.130... VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.130 Steering on OSVs of...

  18. A note on a proof of F. Hahn concerning the gross substitutability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi, G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note is to investigate the assumptions and the proofs of some results by F. Hahn, which have been stated in several other classics of Economic Theory. The results deal with the relations between the gross substitutability and the weak axiom of revealed preference, in a pure exchange economy, ruled by the Walras law.

  19. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of

  20. Associations between gross motor and communicative development in at-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-08-01

    Infants' advances in locomotion relate to advances in communicative development. However, little is known about these relations in infants at risk for delays in these domains and whether they may extend to earlier achievements in gross motor development in infancy. We examined whether advances in sitting and prone locomotion are related to communicative development in infants who have an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are at risk for motor and communication delays (heightened-risk; HR). We conducted a longitudinal study with 37 HR infants who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months. Infants were observed monthly between the ages of 5 and 14 months. We assessed gross motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) and recorded ages of onset of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. Results indicated increased presence of early gross motor delay from 5 to 10 months. In addition, there were positive relations between sitting and gesture and babble onset and between prone development and gesture onset. Thus, links between gross motor development and communication extend to at-risk development and provide a starting point for future research on potential cascading consequences of motor advances on communication development.

  1. The phase diagram of the massive Gross-Neveu model, revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The phase diagram features a kink-antikink crystal phase which was missed in previous works. Translated into the framework of condensed matter physics our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  2. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... oilfield machinery, etc.) mounted on the vehicle for use on construction jobs, in oilfield operations, etc...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1)...

  3. The Impact of Gross Anatomy on the Future Head and Neck Surgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, David J.; Carlson, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Gross anatomy is not only a rite of passage for medical students as they enter the world of practicing medicine but may also be an unrecognized fork in the road in their pursuit of choosing a medical specialty. Otolaryngology: head and neck surgery tends to be poorly represented in medical school curriculum, often only offered as an elective…

  4. Building a Low-Cost Gross Anatomy Laboratory: A Big Step for a Small University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates details of the planning, building, and improvement phases of a cost-efficient, full-dissection gross anatomy laboratory on a campus of an historically design-centric university. Special considerations were given throughout the project to the nature of hosting cadavers in a building shared amongst all undergraduate majors.…

  5. A "Second Life" for Gross Anatomy: Applications for Multiuser Virtual Environments in Teaching the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Challman, Sandra D.; Morgenstein, Aaron M.; Brueckner, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the emerging role of educational multiuser virtual environments, specifically Second Life[TM], in anatomical sciences education. Virtual worlds promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, potentially making them applicable for teaching and learning gross anatomy. A short introduction to Second Life as an…

  6. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  7. Calculation of gross energy consumption[in a building]; Beregning af bruttoenergiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, Kirsten; Aggerholm, Soeren

    2000-07-01

    This bulletin presents a method for calculating the gross energy consumption of a building. The net heat demand for space heating, ventilation and domestic hot water should be calculated. Next converted to gross energy consumption, i.e. the amount of energy that is required to supply, for instance, a gas furnace in order that it produces the calculated amount of heat. First the electricity consumption required for ventilation, appliances and lighting is calculated, taking into consideration the daylight utilisation in commercial buildings. The point of departure is the existing method for calculating the net heat demand of buildings. The method includes heat supply from persons, lighting and appliances. This calculating method was later extended to include a method for calculating the energy demand for domestic hot water and addition of non-utilised heat loss from pipes and heat producing installations. This loss is calculated on the basis of loss in hot water tanks, heat and hot water pipes. Heat supply from solar collectors is calculated and deducted from the heat demand. The calculated end result is called gross heat requirement. Next the gross energy consumption for heating, ventilation and domestic hot water is determined by means of annual efficiency for heating installations. An inventory of the environmental impact is calculated based on the energy consumption measured by the total CO{sub 2} production per m{sup 2} floor area. The CO{sub 2} emission is calculated on the basis of the calculated gross energy consumption of heating and electricity, and on standard values for CO{sub 2} contents in the fuels used and emissions from electricity production issued by the Danish Energy Agency. The gross energy consumption is calculated for three examples of buildings: a single-family house, an administration building and a multi-storey building. The examples show that it is feasible to do calculations for typical buildings. Heat consumption for space heating and

  8. Gross violation of human rights and inequality in city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotti, Caren; Freitas, Taís Viudes de; Almeida, Juliana Feliciano de; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the profile of gross human rights violations, and the relationship between these violations and socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Cross-sectional ecological study of 96 census districts of the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil) in the year 2000. The data used came from the gross human rights violations database maintained by the Núcleo de Estudos de Violência (Center for the Study of Violence) at the Universidade de São Paulo. This database contains information on all the cases of summary executions, lynching and police violence reported on the written press. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the 2000 Census carried out by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out, and the association between the dependent variable - gross human rights violations (number of police violence victims, lynching episodes and summary executions) -, and different socioeconomic and demographic variables was tested. In order to test this association the Spearman's correlation test was used. The correlations between gross human rights violations and the socioeconomic and demographic indicators were statistically significant, except for the urbanization rate and the hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants. The strongest correlations were found between the dependent variable and the following variables: size of the resident population (r=0,693), proportion of youths aged from 15 to 24 years (r=0,621), and proportion of household heads with no education or with up to three years of schooling (r=0,590). Gross human rights violations more markedly occur in the population with the worst living conditions. Therefore, in a scenario in which inequality in attaining social and economic rights is directly superposed to the violation of civil rights, the violence cycle is intensified and perpetuated.

  9. How the Integration of Pathology in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory Affects Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Guenevere; Cork, John R; Karpinski, Aryn C; McGoey, Robin; Swartz, William

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to integrate pathologists into the gross anatomy laboratory setting to increase the exposure that early medical students receive to pathologists as clinicians. Pathologists visited the gross anatomy laboratory 3 times throughout the 15-week course to assist medical students in determining the cause of death of the cadaver being dissected. This intervention was implemented with 1st-semester medical students for 2 consecutive years (a total of 100 dissection teams consisting of 4 students in each team). A quantitative content analysis was performed on the students' end of the course assignments to determine whether the students learned a greater percentage of pathologic information by having interactions with pathologists in the gross lab and to identify trends in the way medical students diagnosed their "first patient" (i.e., the cadaver). The students who had interactions with pathologists in the laboratory had significantly more pathology in their narrative than the students who did not receive pathologist interaction. They were also more likely to conclude that the cadaver they dissected actually died from a cause other than the one listed on the death certificate (18.3%; n = 15) compared to the students who had no pathologist interaction (1.8%; n = 2). A postintervention survey indicated that 65% of students felt that interaction with pathologists helped them understand the clinical application of gross anatomy, more than 40% become more interested in pathology, and 74% would have liked to have had more pathologist interaction. This intervention demonstrated a way to increase pathologist interaction within the undergraduate medical curriculum and enhance the educational environment of the gross anatomy laboratory.

  10. Effectiveness of catch basins equipped with hoods in retaining gross solids and hydrocarbons in highway runoff, Southeast Expressway, Boston, Massachusetts, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    materials made of high-density plastics that did not float in water, and as a result, the effect that the catch-basin hoods had on these materials likely was marginal. The effectiveness for the deep-sump hooded catch basins, excluding the mass of high-density materials identified in the solids collected from the outlet pipe and the sump of the catch basins, ranged from 13 to 38 percent. The effectiveness for each catch basin, based solely on the material that remained floating at the end of the monitoring period, was less than 11 percent; however, these values likely underestimate the effectiveness of the hooded catch basins because much of the low-density material collected from the sumps may have been retained as floatable material before it was saturated and settled during non-storm conditions. The effectiveness of the catch basins equipped with hoods in reducing gross solids was not greatly different among the three types of hoods tested in this study. Concentrations of OG and TPH collected from the water surface of the catch-basins varied from catch basin to catch basin and were similar to concentrations of flow-weighted composite samples collected during storms. Comparisons indicate concentrations of OG and TPH in flow-weighted composite samples collected at the outlet of a catch basin equipped with an Eliminator hood were not substantially different from concentrations of the respective constituents in flow-weighted composite samples collected during a previous study from catch basins containing cast-iron hoods in the same study area. The similarity between these flow-weighted concentrations and the concentrations of the respective constituents in a vertical profile sample collected from the catch-basin sump indicates that OG and TPH are emulsified in the sump of each catch basin during storms and circumvent the hoods.

  11. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  12. 26 CFR 1.132-1T - Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary). 1.132-1T Section 1.132-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... 1988 (temporary). (a) In general. Gross income does not include any fringe benefit which qualifies as...

  13. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  14. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  15. The Natural History of Gross Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckung, E.; Carlsson, G.; Carlsdotter, S.; Uvebrant, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using developmental curves for CP, subtypes, and the five severity levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the GMFCS were applied to 317 children (145 females, 172 males) with CP, aged…

  16. Loosely-guided, self-directed learning versus strictly-guided, station-based learning in gross anatomy laboratory sessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooloos, J.G.M.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Ruiter, D.J.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy students studying dissected anatomical specimens were subjected to either a loosely-guided, self-directed learning environment or a strictly-guided, preformatted gross anatomy laboratory session. The current study's guiding questions were: (1) do strictly-guided gross anatomy laboratory sess

  17. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  18. An attempt to determine the effect of increase of observation correlations on detectability and identifiability of a single gross error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prószyński, Witold; Kwaśniak, Mieczysław

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the results of investigating the effect of increase of observation correlations on detectability and identifiability of a single gross error, the outlier test sensitivity and also the response-based measures of internal reliability of networks. To reduce in a research a practically incomputable number of possible test options when considering all the non-diagonal elements of the correlation matrix as variables, its simplest representation was used being a matrix with all non-diagonal elements of equal values, termed uniform correlation. By raising the common correlation value incrementally, a sequence of matrix configurations could be obtained corresponding to the increasing level of observation correlations. For each of the measures characterizing the above mentioned features of network reliability the effect is presented in a diagram form as a function of the increasing level of observation correlations. The influence of observation correlations on sensitivity of the w-test for correlated observations (Förstner 1983, Teunissen 2006) is investigated in comparison with the original Baarda's w-test designated for uncorrelated observations, to determine the character of expected sensitivity degradation of the latter when used for correlated observations. The correlation effects obtained for different reliability measures exhibit mutual consistency in a satisfactory extent. As a by-product of the analyses, a simple formula valid for any arbitrary correlation matrix is proposed for transforming the Baarda's w-test statistics into the w-test statistics for correlated observations.

  19. Estimating of gross primary production in an Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest using MODIS and Landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelichen, Victor H M; Biudes, Marcelo S; Velasque, Maísa C S; Machado, Nadja G; Gomes, Raphael S R; Vourlitis, George L; Nogueira, José S

    2015-09-01

    The acceleration of the anthropogenic activity has increased the atmospheric carbon concentration, which causes changes in regional climate. The Gross Primary Production (GPP) is an important variable in the global carbon cycle studies, since it defines the atmospheric carbon extraction rate from terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) using local meteorological data and remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat 5 TM reflectance from 2005 to 2008. The GPP was estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) calculated by MODIS and Landsat 5 TM images. The GPP estimates were compared with measurements in a flux tower by eddy covariance. The GPP measured in the tower was consistent with higher values during the wet season and there was a trend to increase from 2005 to 2008. The GPP estimated by VPM showed the same increasing trend observed in measured GPP and had high correlation and Willmott's coefficient and low error metrics in comparison to measured GPP. These results indicated high potential of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate the GPP of Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by VPM.

  20. Anatomy online: presentation of a detailed WWW atlas of human gross anatomy--reference for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrow, Holger; Vollrath, Lutz

    2002-11-01

    We present an online anatomy atlas based on the Visible Human Project (VHP) of the US National Library of Medicine. The objective is to provide original unlabeled as well as labeled sections of the human body of high quality and resolution on the Internet, for use in basic and continuing medical education. For a representative overview of the body, 370 axial sections were selected from the male and female data base of the VHP with special regard to regions of clinical interest. Each section is accompanied by its corresponding computer tomography (CT) image and, if available, magnetic resonance images (MRI) for quick and easy comparison of morphologic and radiologic structures. The sections can be studied unlabeled or labeled according to the current Terminologia Anatomica. A linked vocabulary with more than 850 terms explains the labeling. Animations of the sections as well as of CT and MR images allow for further visualization of the topographic relationships of anatomical structures. The responses to the project indicate that students and physicians regard the Internet Atlas of Human Gross Anatomy as a most useful aid for learning and reviewing anatomical details. The atlas is accessible on: http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Medizin/Anatomie/workshop/vishuman/Eready.html.

  1. Estimating of gross primary production in an Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest using MODIS and Landsat imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR H.M. DANELICHEN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration of the anthropogenic activity has increased the atmospheric carbon concentration, which causes changes in regional climate. The Gross Primary Production (GPP is an important variable in the global carbon cycle studies, since it defines the atmospheric carbon extraction rate from terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM using local meteorological data and remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat 5 TM reflectance from 2005 to 2008. The GPP was estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI calculated by MODIS and Landsat 5 TM images. The GPP estimates were compared with measurements in a flux tower by eddy covariance. The GPP measured in the tower was consistent with higher values during the wet season and there was a trend to increase from 2005 to 2008. The GPP estimated by VPM showed the same increasing trend observed in measured GPP and had high correlation and Willmott's coefficient and low error metrics in comparison to measured GPP. These results indicated high potential of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate the GPP of Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by VPM.

  2. Preliminary Experiments with XKaapi on Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Lima, Joao Vicente; Broquedis, Francois; Gautier, Thierry; Raffin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents preliminary performance comparisons of parallel applications developed natively for the Intel Xeon Phi accelerator using three different parallel programming environments and their associated runtime systems. We compare Intel OpenMP, Intel CilkPlus and XKaapi together on the same benchmark suite and we provide comparisons between an Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor and a Sandy Bridge Xeon-based machine. Our benchmark suite is composed of three computing k...

  3. GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH DURING EARLY 2000’S IN EU-MEMBER AND CANDIDATES STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Marius PAVELESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reveal the correlation between the gross capital formation and the gross domestic product in countries of the European Union in 2007, during the period 1999-2006. The evaluation is made both on demand side and on supply side. On the demand side we take into account the gross capital formation dynamics and structure and the gross domestic product dynamics. On the supply side calculate the capital accumulation efficiency, through modification of the formulae resulted from Domar’s economic growth model in order to emphasise the impact of domestic demand and net export changes. In the end we present some conclusions and proposals for gross capital formation contribution to economic growth methodology improvement.

  4. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  5. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001), the time of manipulation (p<0.001) and gross motor function (p<0.001) over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001) and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  6. Gross alpha and beta radioactivity concentration in water, soil and sediment of the Bendimahi River and Van Lake (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk Zorer, Ozlem; Ceylan, Hasan; Doğru, Mahmut

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of the natural radioactivity in water, soil and sediment samples collected from Bendimahi River which originates near the Tendürek Mountain (Van, Turkey), its tributaries and Van Lake (Turkey) were measured. The gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity concentrations were investigated in May and August in 2005. Determination of the gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity of river water, soil and sediment samples was obtained by using gas-flow proportional counter, PIC-MPC 9604-alpha/beta counter. In water samples, the obtained results show that in May; gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations varied between 0.063-0.782 and 0.021-0.816 Bq l(-1) and in August the values were 0.009-0.037 and 0.081-3.116 Bq l(-1), respectively. The gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations in soil samples ranged from 0.800 to 4.277 Bq g(-1) and 0.951 to 11.773 Bq g(-1) in May and 0.686 to 4.713 Bq g(-1) and 0.073 to 9.524 Bq g(-1) in August, respectively. Concentrations ranging from 0.782 to 4.596 Bq g(-1) and from 0.482 to 10.372 Bq g(-1) in May and from 0.580 to 5.824 Bq g(-1) and from 0.303 to 9.702 Bq g(-1) in August for gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity were observed in sediments, respectively.

  7. Design Preliminaries for Direct Drive under Water Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Argeseanu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the preliminary design process of a 20 MW electric generator. The application calls for an offshore, vertical axis, direct drive wind turbine. Arguments for selecting the type of electric machine for the application are presented and discussed. Comparison criteria for deciding...

  8. Characterizing uncertainties of the national-scale forest gross aboveground biomass (AGB) loss estimate: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Modern remote sensing techniques enable the mapping and monitoring of aboveground biomass (AGB) carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where a national forest inventory (NFI) has yet to be established due to a lack of infrastructure and political instability. We demonstrate a method for producing national-scale gross AGB loss estimates and quantifying uncertainty of the estimates using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Forest cover type and loss were characterized using published Landsat-based data sets and related to LIDAR-derived biomass data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). We produced two gross AGB loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a conservative estimate accounting for classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a maximal estimate that also took into consideration omitted change at the 30m spatial resolution. Omitted disturbances were largely related to smallholder agriculture, the detection of which is scale-dependent. The use of LIDAR data as a substitute for NFI data to estimate AGB loss based on Landsat-derived activity data was demonstrated. Comparisons of our forest cover loss and AGB estimates with published studies raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and its impact on carbon stock change estimation using remotely sensed data.

  9. Infrequency of gross skin lesions among Panamanian forest mammals with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrer, A; Christensen, H A

    1975-08-01

    Natural leishmanial infections among feral mammals in the Republic of Panama were studied in relation to gross skin alterations. Three dermatotropic species of Leishmania, L. braziliensis, L. mexicana and L. hertigi, isolated from 230 sylvatic animals of 5 mammalian orders were involved. In 205 (89%) of the cases there were no gross skin alterations. Cryptic infections of all three leishmanial species among wild animals were confirmed by culture and hamster inoculation. This type of infection was always present in the sloths, Choloepus hoffmanni and Bradypus infusatcus, infected with L. braziliensis and in the porcupine, Coendou rothschildi, infected with L. hertigi. Suggestive skin alterations were encountered in 10 (4%) of infected animals. Only 15 (7%) of infected animals exhibited typical leishmanial lesions. It was possible to correlate skin depigmentation with the course of leishmanial infection in one animal, a young kinkajou, Potos flavus.

  10. Cut-and-join description of generalized Brezin-Gross-Witten model

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Brezin-Gross-Witten model, a tau-function of the KdV hierarchy, and its natural one-parameter deformation, the generalized Brezin-Gross-Witten tau-function. In particular, we derive the Virasoro constraints, which completely specify the partition function. We solve them in terms of the cut-and-join operator. The Virasoro constraints lead to the loop equations, which we solve in terms of the correlation functions. Explicit expressions for the coefficients of the tau-function and the free energy are derived, and a compact formula for the genus zero contribution is conjectured. A family of polynomial solutions of the KdV hierarchy, given by the Schur functions, is obtained for the half-integer values of the parameter. The quantum spectral curve and its classical limit are discussed.

  11. Ising and Gross-Neveu model in next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Knorr, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We study scalar and chiral fermionic models in next-to-leading order with the help of the functional renormalisation group. Their critical behaviour is of special interest in condensed matter systems, in particular graphene. To derive the beta functions, we make extensive use of computer algebra. The resulting flow equations were solved with pseudo-spectral methods to guarantee high accuracy. New estimates on critical quantities for both the Ising and the Gross-Neveu model are provided. For the Ising model, the estimates agree with earlier renormalisation group studies of the same level of approximation. By contrast, the approximation for the Gross-Neveu model retains many more operators than all earlier studies. For two Dirac fermions, the results agree with both lattice and large-$N_f$ calculations, but for a single flavour, different methods disagree quantitatively, and further studies are necessary.

  12. Detection of gross errors using mixed integer optimization approach in process industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Cong-li; SU Hong-ye; CHU Jian

    2007-01-01

    A novel mixed integer linear programming (NMILP) model for detection of gross errors is presented in this paper.Yamamura et al.(1988) designed a model for detection of gross errors and data reconciliation based on Akaike information criterion (AIC). But much computational cost is needed due to its combinational nature. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP)approach was performed to reduce the computational cost and enhance the robustness. But it loses the super performance of maximum likelihood estimation. To reduce the computational cost and have the merit of maximum likelihood estimation, the simultaneous data reconciliation method in an MILP framework is decomposed and replaced by an NMILP subproblem and a quadratic programming (QP) or a least squares estimation (LSE) subproblem. Simulation result of an industrial case shows the high efficiency of the method.

  13. Phase structure of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model from Hartree-Fock

    CERN Document Server

    Boehmer, Christian; Kraus, Sebastian; Thies, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The phase diagram of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model (the massive Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1+1 dimensions) is constructed. In the large N limit, the Hartree-Fock approach can be used. We find numerically a chiral crystal phase separated from a massive Fermi gas phase by a 1st order transition. Using perturbation theory, we also construct the critical sheet where the homogeneous phase becomes unstable in a 2nd order transition. A tricritical curve is located. The phase diagram is mapped out as a function of fermion mass, chemical potential and temperature and compared with the one of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model. As a by-product, we illustrate the crystal structure of matter at zero temperature for various densities and fermion masses.

  14. The impact of gross anatomy laboratory on first year medical students' interest in a surgical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Marisa E; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Kumar, Anagha

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of gross anatomy laboratory (GA) on first year medical students' (M1) interest in a surgical career. Secondary objectives included identifying other influences in M1s' career decision making. This prospective study included surveys before and after GA. All M1s enrolled in GA were invited to participate. Sixty students completed both the pre- and post-test surveys. A 5-point Likert-type scale surveyed participants' interests, specific personality traits, experience during the course of GA, and likelihood of pursuing a surgical career. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and (Polychotomous) Ordinal Logistic Regression Model. Students' desire to work with their hands increased (50 vs. 33.3%) and enjoyment working with instruments and tools similarly increased (50 vs. 41.7%). Likelihood of pursuing a surgical career after gross anatomy increased in 31.7% of students, decreased in 16.7%, and was unchanged in 51.7%. Over 75% of students with a prior interest in surgery and 21% of those who previously felt neutral agreed that they were likely to pursue a career in surgery at the conclusion of the laboratory. Students with a surgeon family member were 0.1976 times as likely to exhibit a positive change in interest (P values 0.024). Gross anatomy may influence up to a third of the class to consider a surgical career, especially those with a prior interest in surgery and those previously feeling ambivalent. Students with a surgeon family member became less likely to enter a surgical career after gross anatomy. Clin. Anat. 29:691-695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  16. Clinical management and gross pathological findings of a severe anaplamosis in a dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Abba

    2016-06-01

    Results: The cow did not survive the infection as it eventually died of the disease. Post mortem examination showed gross evidence of splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, distended bile duct and generalized jaundice. Conclusion: Based on the consequence of this case report, preventive vector control, prompt and appropriate treatment and improved management practices are recommended in order to prevent clinical anaplasmosis cases among cattle. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 195-199

  17. Zamolodchikov's c-function for the Chiral Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Cabra, D C

    1993-01-01

    We construct the Zamolodchikov's c-function for the Chiral Gross-Neveu Model up to two loops. We show that the c-function interpolates between the two known critical points of the theory, it is stationary at them and it decreases with the running coupling constant. In particular one can infer the non-existence of additional critical points in the region under investigation.

  18. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  19. Kinetic Thomas-Fermi solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    OpenAIRE

    Ölschläger, M.; Wirth, G.; Smith, C. Morais; Hemmerich, A.

    2010-01-01

    Approximate solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation, obtained upon neglection of the kinetic energy, are well known as Thomas-Fermi solutions. They are characterized by the compensation of the local potential by the collisional energy. In this article we consider exact solutions of the GP-equation with this property and definite values of the kinetic energy, which suggests the term "kinetic Thomas-Fermi" (KTF) solutions. We point out that a large class of light-shift potentials gives ...

  20. Efficient and accurate methods for solving the time-dependent spin-2 Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Symes, L M

    2016-01-01

    We develop numerical methods for solving the spin-2 Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The basis of our work is a two-way splitting of this evolution equation that leads to two exactly solvable subsystems. Utilizing second-order and fourth-order composition schemes we realize two fully symplectic integration algorithms, the first such algorithms for evolving spin-2 condensates. We demonstrate the accuracy of these algorithms against other methods on application to an exact continuous wave solution that we derive.

  1. Gross motor ability predicts response to upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah Hulbert; Rafiei, Mohammad Hossein; Borstad, Alexandra; Adeli, Hojjat; Gauthier, Lynne V

    2017-08-30

    The majority of rehabilitation research focuses on the comparative effectiveness of different interventions in groups of patients, while much less is currently known regarding individual factors that predict response to rehabilitation. In a recent article, the authors presented a prognostic model to identify the sensorimotor characteristics predictive of the extent of motor recovery after Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy amongst individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate motor deficit using the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN). This follow-up paper examines which participant characteristics are robust predictors of rehabilitation response irrespective of the training modality. To accomplish this, EPNN was first applied to predict treatment response amongst individuals who received a virtual-reality gaming intervention (utilizing the same enrollment criteria as the prior study). The combinations of predictors that yield high predictive validity for both therapies, using their respective datasets, were then identified. High predictive classification accuracy was achieved for both the gaming (94.7%) and combined datasets (94.5%). Though CI therapy employed primarily fine-motor training tasks and the gaming intervention emphasized gross-motor practice, larger improvements in gross motor function were observed within both datasets. Poorer gross motor ability at pre-treatment predicted better rehabilitation response in both the gaming and combined datasets. The conclusion of this research is that for individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate upper extremity hemiparesis, residual deficits in gross motor function are highly responsive to motor restorative interventions, irrespective of the modality of training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. From non-degenerate conducting polymers to dense matter in the massive Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Using results from the theory of non-degenerate conducting polymers like cis-polyacetylene, we generalize our previous work on baryonic matter in the massless Gross-Neveu model to finite bare fermion mass. In the large N limit, the exact ground state is constructed analytically, in close analogy to the bipolaron lattice in polymers. These findings are contrasted to the standard scenario with a first order phase transition as a function of density.

  3. Analytical solution of the Gross-Neveu model at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M

    2003-01-01

    Recent numerical calculations have shown that the ground state of the Gross-Neveu model at finite density is a crystal. Guided by these results, we can now present the analytical solution to this problem in terms of elliptic functions. The scalar potential is the superpotential of the non-relativistic Lame Hamiltonian. This model can also serve as analytically solvable toy model for a relativistic superconductor in the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase.

  4. Divergence of the axial current and fermion density in Gross-Neveu models

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix

    2007-01-01

    The divergence of the axial current is used to relate the spatial derivative of the fermion density to the bare fermion mass and scalar/pseudoscalar condensates in 1+1 dimensional Gross-Neveu models. This serves as a novel test of known results, to explain simple features of the continuous chiral model and to resolve a conflict concerning the assignment of baryon number to certain multi-fermion bound states.

  5. Hip displacement in relation to age and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Larnert, Per; Risto, Olof; Hägglund, Gunnar; Wagner, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hip dislocation in cerebral palsy (CP) is a serious complication. By radiographic screening and prophylactic surgery of children at risk most dislocations can be prevented. CPUP, the Swedish CP registry and follow-up program, includes annual radiographic examinations of children at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–V. Data from CPUP were analysed to assess the risk of hip displacement in relation to GMFCS levels and age. Methods All children at GMFCS levels...

  6. Giant prostatic hyperplasia: report of a previously asymptomatic man presenting with gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Carneiro, Ariê; Tristão, Rodrigo Alves; Sakuramoto, Paulo Kouiti; Youssef, Jorg Daoud Merched; Lopes Neto, Antonio Correa; Santiago, Lucila Heloísa Simardi; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2015-01-01

    Giant prostatic hyperplasia is a rare condition characterized by very high volume benign prostatic enlargement (>500g). Few cases have been reported so far and most of them are associated with severe lower urinary symptoms. We report the first case of asymptomatic giant prostatic hyperplasia in an elderly man who had a 720g prostate adenoma, sudden gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock. The patient was successfully treated with open transvesical prostatectomy and had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  7. Twisted Grosse-Wulkenhaar $\\phi^{\\star 4}$ model: dynamical noncommutativity and Noether currents

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of Noether currrents for the renormalizable Grosse-Wulkenhaar (GW) $\\phi^{\\star 4}$ model subjected to a dynamical noncomutativity realized through a twisted Moyal product. The noncommutative (NC) energy-momentum tensor (EMT), angular momentum tensor (AMT) and the dilatation current (DC) are explicitly derived. The breaking of translation and rotation invariances has been avoided via a constraint equation.

  8. Using Wavelets to Understand the Relationship between Mortgages and Gross Domestic Product in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. González-Concepción

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use wavelet multiresolution decomposition and cross-wavelet analysis to reveal certain properties in financial data related to mortgages to households and gross domestic product data in Spain. Wavelet techniques possess many desirable properties, some of which are useful as a vehicle for analysing economic and financial data. In our case, wavelets are useful for drawing conclusions both in the time and frequency domains and for obtaining information on the different phases through which the study variables progress.

  9. Relationships between Myers-Briggs type indicator measure of psychological type and neo measure of big five personality factors in Polish University students: a preliminary cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacyk, Jerome J; Livingston, Mary M; Robbins, James E

    2008-10-01

    English-language versions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G) measure of psychological type and the NEO-FFI measure of the Big Five personality factors were completed by 57 Polish university students fluent in the English language. The pattern of correlations between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales for the Polish sample was compared to the pattern of correlations for measures of these same constructs reported for Americans. Four of the five significant relationships between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales reported in the American sample were also recorded in the Polish sample: MBTI Extraversion-Introversion with NEO Extraversion, MBTI Sensing-Intuition and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO-Openness, and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO Conscientiousness. Pending replication with a larger, more representative sample, this preliminary study supports the validity of psychological type in Polish society.

  10. Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gross motor skill performance of overweight and non-overweight preschool children from South of Italy, and to investigate possible differences by gender. Participants were 38 boys and 42 girls (4.5 ± 0.5 yr) categorized as overweight (n = 38) and non-overweight (n = 42), according to the IOTF body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess seven locomotor skills (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, skip and slide) and five object-control skills (two-hand strike, stationary bounce, catch, kick and overhand throw). The raw, standard and percentile scores and the Gross Motor Development Quotient (GMDQ) were calculated for each participant. ANOVA 2 (gender) x 2 (group) was conducted on the subtest standard scores and the GMDQ. No differences in performance were found between boys and girls on the subscale standard scores and the GMDQ. Significant main effects (p overweight children reporting lower movement competence than their counterparts. Pearson's correlations revealed relationships (p Overweight participants showed poorer performance on locomotor and object-control tasks than their non-overweight peers. Interventions to promote physical activity in overweight children should be directed towards achieving a healthy weight and motor skill improvement.

  11. The relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoui, Maryam; Majnemer, Annette; Dagenais, Lynn; Shevell, Michael I

    2013-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to describe the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in children with cerebral palsy and explore differences between cerebral palsy subtypes and associated comorbidities. Children with cerebral palsy born between 1999 and 2008 were included from the Registre de la Paralyse Cérébrale de Québec identifying 332 children. The overall agreement between Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale Levels was moderate (kappa 0.457, standard error 0.034) with a strong positive correlation (Spearman rho of 0.820, standard error 0.023). This agreement was moderate among children with spastic quadriparesis and dysketic cerebral palsy, fair in children with spastic diplegia, and poor in children with spastic hemiplegia. Children with cognitive impairment showed a higher correlation than those without cognitive impairment. The correlation between gross motor function and manual ability in children with CP varies based on neurologic subtype and cognitive level.

  12. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danmaigoro, A; Onu, J E; Sonfada, M L; Umaru, M A; Hena, S A; Mahmuda, A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology.

  13. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary.

  14. Determination of gross-β and γ-ray activity concentrations of human tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hayun Ja [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Silla University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The γ-ray concentration and gross-β activity by age group were measured in the teeth of males and females of the domestic residents. They were divided into 7 age groups from 10s to the age of 70s. The gross-β activity concentration was measured by using the Tennelec XLB measuring instrument filled with P10 gas (argon 90%, methane 10%). The γ-ray was measured through the γ-ray spectroscopic analytical method by using the high purity germanium (HPGe) radiation detector. The range of gross-β activity concentration was measured 0.089 to 0.32 Bq/kg in females and 0.13 to 0.26 Bq/kg in males. From the γ-ray spectroscopic analysis of the teeth, the natural radioactive isotopes of '4{sup 0}K, {sup 208}Tl, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 234}Th were detected and their measured γ-ray activity concentrations were found to be 20.7, 21.9, 3.88 and 5.24 Bq/kg, respectively.

  15. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danmaigoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum. Thirty male bats (adults n=17 and juveniles n=13 were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31±6.30 g, 12.14±0.19 cm and 69.54±7.68 g, 7.77±0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P>0.05 were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology.

  16. Health and Gross National Happiness: review of current status in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tashi Tobgay1, Ugen Dophu1, Cristina E Torres2, Kesara Na-Bangchang31Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kawajangsa, Bhutan; 2Forum for Ethical Review Committees in Asian and Western Pacific Region, Clinical Coordination and Training Center, 3Thailand Center of Excellence on Drug Discovery and Development (TCEDDD, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, ThailandAbstract: Worldwide, contemporary measures of the success of health development programs have been mostly in terms of the reduction of mortality and morbidity as well as increasing longevity. While these goals have yielded much-needed health improvements, the subjective outcomes of these improvements, as experienced by individuals and the communities, have not been considered. Bhutan, under the overarching policy of Gross National Happiness, has provided due consideration to these subjective indicators. Here, we report on the current status of health and happiness in Bhutan as revealed by conventional objective indicators and subjective Gross National Happiness indicators. The current literature on health in Bhutan in relation to the Gross National Happiness Survey conducted by the Centre of Bhutan Studies has been reviewed. Bhutan has made great strides within a short period of modernization, as shown by both objective and subjective indicators. Tremendous challenges lie ahead to achieve the ultimate goal of health and happiness, and how Bhutan articulates its path to modernization may be a lesson for the rest of the world.Keywords: Bhutan, happiness, health, indicators

  17. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs area of abdomen in fetus. Materials and Methods: Four fetus (two male & two female of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. Conclusion: The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules.

  18. Impact of introduction of blended learning in gross anatomy on student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Whitburn, Laura Y

    2016-10-01

    Blended learning has become increasingly common, in a variety of disciplines, to take advantage of new technology and potentially increase the efficiency and flexibility of delivery. This study aimed to describe blended delivery of a gross anatomy course and to evaluate the effectiveness of the delivery in terms of student outcomes. A gross anatomy course for second-year physiotherapy students across two campuses was delivered in traditional face-to-face teaching mode in 2013 (n = 150 students), some online content was introduced in 2014 (n = 160) and the subject was fully blended in 2015 (n = 151). The final 'blend' consisted of one lecture per week with most content delivered using online video resources (prepared by staff using a structured peer-reviewed process) and retention of face-to-face practical classes. Outcomes evaluated included student grades, student engagement with content through online discussion forums and student feedback using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Grades were higher in 2014 and 2015 than in 2013 (P blended version in 2015 resulted in more balanced comments about online content but higher perceived workload (P learning. Blended learning appears to be well-suited to gross anatomy teaching on the proviso that face-to-face practical classes are maintained, but may result in higher perceived workloads. Anat Sci Educ 9: 422-430. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anudeep; Min, Aung Ko Ko

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigates the level of students' learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning.

  20. Associations between gross motor coordination and academic achievement in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor P

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between gross motor coordination (MC) and academic achievement (AA) in a sample of Portuguese children aged 9-12 years. The study took place during the 2009/2010 school year and involved 596 urban children (281 girls) from the north of Portugal. AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams. Gross MC was evaluated with the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Body weight and height were measured following standard procedures. Socio-economic status was based on annual family income. Logistic Regression was used to analyze the association of gross MC with AA. 51.6% of the sample exhibited MC disorders or MC insufficiency and none of the participants showed very good MC. In both genders, children with insufficient MC or MC disorders exhibited a higher probability of having low AA, compared with those with normal or good MC (pbody mass index and socio-economic status.

  1. Effects of an aquatic program on gross motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS CHRYSAGIS; ANGELIKI DOUKA; MICHAIL NIKOPOULOS; FOTEINI APOSTOLOPOULOU; DIMITRA KOUTSOUKI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 10-week aquatic program on the gross motor function, on the range of motion and on spasticity of childrenwith cerebral palsy (CP. Six students served as subjects for the experimental group and another 6 were assigned to the control group. The aquatic program was taking place twice a week and consisted of a warm up, the main training session and a cool down phase. Measuring instruments were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, a goniometer and the modified Ashworth Scale. Pre-test and Post-test were executed before and after the intervention program. Significant interaction effect was found with respect to: the active shoulder flexion (p=.052, the active shoulder abduction (p=.052, the passive hip abduction (p=.001 and the passive knee extension (p=.045. Interaction effect was found for spasticity of the hip adductors (p=.002 and knee flexors (p=.049. Results of the present study indicated that an aquatic program might have a positive effect in gross motor function as well as in range of motion and spasticity in students with spastic cerebral palsy.

  2. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danmaigoro, A.; Onu, J. E.; Sonfada, M. L.; Umaru, M. A.; Hena, S. A.; Mahmuda, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology. PMID:24800105

  3. Determination of gross alpha, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra activities in drinking water using a single sample preparation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Bahman; Obed, Reynaldo N; Nemeth, William K; Suozzo, Gail P

    2005-12-01

    results were in close agreement with the assigned values. In addition, method comparison results of actual sample analyses agreed well with the ones performed using EPA-approved procedures. With a 3-L sample aliquot and 1,000-min counting time, the average gross alpha minimum detectable concentration (MDC) was about 0.002 Bq L(-1). The average MDC's for 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra were 0.034 Bq L(-1), 0.017 Bq L(-1), and 0.036 Bq L(-1), respectively, based on a 3-L sample aliquot, 85% chemical yield, 40% intrinsic Ge detector, and 1,000-min count time. This method combines and simplifies the analytical procedures and reduces labor while achieving the precision, accuracy, and minimum detection limit requirements of EPA regulations.

  4. Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina LABAF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA How to Cite This Article: labaf S, Shamsoddini A, Hollisaz MT, Sobhani V, Shakibaee A . Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(1:37-42.AbstractObjectiveNeurodevelopmental treatments are an advanced therapeutic approach practiced by experienced occupational therapists for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. The primary challenge in children with cerebral palsy is gross motor dysfunction. We studied the effects of neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.Materials & MethodsIn a quasi-experimental design, 28 children with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups. Neurodevelopmental therapy was given to a first group (n=15 with a mean age of 4.9 years; and a second group with a mean age 4.4 years (n=13 who were the control group. All children were evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Measure. Treatments were scheduled for three - one-hour sessions per week for 3 months.ResultsWe obtained statistically significant differences in the values between the baseline and post treatment in two groups. The groups were significantly different in laying and rolling (P=0.000, sitting (0.002, crawling and kneeling (0.004, and standing abilities (P=0.005. However, there were no significantdifferences in walking, running, and jumping abilities between the two groups (0.090.ConclusionWe concluded that the neurodevelopmental treatment improved gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy in four dimensions (laying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, and standing. However, walking, running, and jumping did not improve significantly. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso

  5. On Preliminary Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  6. Measurement of {ital {alpha}}{sub {ital s}}({ital Q}{sup 2}) from the Gross{endash}Llewellyn Smith Sum Rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.A.; Vakili, M. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States); Kim, J.H.; Arroyo, C.G.; Bazarko, A.O.; Conrad, J.; King, B.J.; Lefmann, W.C.; McNulty, C.; Mishra, S.R.; Quintas, P.Z.; Romosan, A.; Schellman, H.; Sciulli, F.J.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E.G. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Bernstein, R.H.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; McFarland, K.S.; Yu, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Bolton, T.; Naples, D. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); de Barbaro, L. [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Harris, D.A.; de Barbaro, P.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Yang, U.K. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Kinnel, T.; Smith, W.H. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    1998-10-01

    We extract a set of values for the Gross{endash}Llewellyn Smith sum rule at different values of 4-momentum transfer squared (Q{sup 2} ), by combining revised CCFR neutrino data with data from other neutrino deep-inelastic scattering experiments for 1{lt}Q{sup 2}{lt}15 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} . A comparison with the order {alpha}{sup 3}{sub s} theoretical predictions yields a determination of {alpha}{sub s} at the scale of the Z -boson mass of 0.114{plus_minus}{sup 0.009}{sub 0.012} . This measurement provides a new and useful test of perturbative QCD at low Q{sup 2} , because of the low uncertainties in the higher order calculations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  7. Reference Curves for the Gross Motor Function Measure: Percentiles for Clinical Description and Tracking Over Time Among Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Steven E.; Bartlett, Doreen J; Rivard, Lisa M; Russell, Dianne J

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapists frequently use the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to examine gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Until now, reference percentiles for this measure were not available. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical utility of this gross motor measure by developing cross-sectional reference percentiles for the GMFM-66 within levels of the GMFCS.

  8. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in aquatic...

  9. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in aquatic...

  10. 26 CFR 1.101-1 - Exclusion from gross income of proceeds of life insurance contracts payable by reason of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.101-1 Exclusion from gross income of proceeds of life insurance... proceeds of life insurance policies, if paid by reason of the death of the insured, are excluded from the gross income of the recipient. Death benefit payments having the characteristics of life...

  11. Preliminary experience with MRA in evaluating the degree of carotid stenosis and plaque morphology using high-resolution sequences after gadofosveset trisodium (Vasovist) administration: comparison with CTA and DSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzidei, M; Napoli, A; Geiger, D; Cavallo Marincola, B; Zini, C; Zaccagna, F; Di Paolo, P; Catalano, C; Passariello, R

    2010-06-01

    The authors performed a preliminary study with blood-pool contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in evaluating the degree of carotid artery stenosis and plaque morphology, comparing the diagnostic performance of first-pass (FP) and steady-state (SS) acquisitions with 64-slice computed tomography angiography (CTA) and using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. Twenty patients with >or=50% carotid artery stenosis at Doppler sonography underwent blood-pool contrast-enhanced MRA, CTA and DSA. Two independent radiologists evaluated MRA and CTA examinations to assess the degree of stenosis and characterise plaque morphology. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for FP, SS and CTA. The McNemar and Wilcoxon tests were used to determine significant differences (p0.05). Blood-pool contrast-enhanced MRA with SS sequences allow improved diagnostic evaluation of the degree of carotid stenosis and plaque morphology compared with FP and is substantially equal to CTA and DSA.

  12. Interview with one of the 2004 Nobel Laureates in Physics, Dr. David J. Gross, January 26, 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2005-01-01

    Dr. David Gross, (Professor of Theoretical Physics, Director of the Kavli Institute For Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), at CERN for a talk, answered the questions of Paola Catapano

  13. MODIS/TERRA MOD17A2 Gross Primary Productivity 8-Day L4 Global 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) products are a cumulative composite of GPP values based on the radiation...

  14. The clinimetric properties of performance-based gross motor tests used for children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Leanne M; Hillier, Susan L; Civetta, Lauren R

    2010-01-01

    Performance-based measures of gross motor skills are required for children with developmental coordination disorder to quantify motor ability and objectify change. Information related to psychometrics, clinical utility, feasibility, and client appropriateness and acceptability is needed so that clinicians and researchers are assured that they have chosen the most appropriate and robust tool. This review identified performance-based measures of gross motor skills for this population, and the research evidence for their clinimetric properties through a systematic literature search. Seven measures met the inclusion criteria and were appraised for their clinimetric properties. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Test for Gross Motor Development (second version) scored highest on appraisal. The 2 highest scoring measures are recommended in the first instance for clinicians wishing to evaluate gross motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder. However, both measures require further testing to increase confidence in their validity for this population.

  15. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  16. Births: preliminary data for 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2013-09-01

    Objectives-This report presents preliminary data for 2012 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Methods-Data in this report are based on 99.96% of 2012 births.Records for the few states with less than 100% of records received are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2012. Comparisons are made with final 2011 data. Results-The preliminary number of births for the United States in 2012 was 3,952,937, essentially unchanged (not statistically significant) from 2011; the general fertility rate was 63.0 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44, down only slightly from 2011, after declining nearly 3% a year from 2007 through 2010. The number of births and fertility rate either declined or were unchanged for most race and Hispanic origin groups from 2011 to 2012; however, both the number of births and the fertility rate for Asian or Pacific Islander women rose in 2012 (7% and 4%, respectively). The birth rate for teenagers aged 15-19 was down 6% in 2012 (29.4 births per 1,000 teenagers aged 15-19), yet another historic low for the United States, with rates declining for younger and older teenagers and for nearly all race and Hispanic origin groups. The birth rate for women in their early 20s also declined in 2012, to a new record low of 83.1 births per 1,000 women. Birth rates for women in their 30s rose in 2012, as did the birth rate for women in their early 40s. The birth rate for women in their late 40s was unchanged. The nonmarital birth rate declined in 2012 (to 45.3 birth per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44), whereas the number of births to unmarried women rose 1% and the percentage of births to unmarried women was unchanged (at 40.7%). The cesarean delivery rate for the United States was unchanged in 2012 at 32.8%. The preterm

  17. Gross Motor Function Classification System used in adults with cerebral palsy: agreement of self-reported versus professional rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnsen, Reidun; Aamodt, Geir; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of self-reported rating of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels compared with professional rating, and changes in gross motor function over time, in adults with cerebral palsy. Twenty-nine females and 33 males aged between 18 years 5 months and 62 years 11 months (mean age 34y 7mo [SD 10y 6mo]) participated in the study. Participants rated their current gross motor function using the GMFCS and reported their judgement of their gross motor function at age 10 to 12 years. The project leader, a physical therapist, also classified participants' current GMFCS levels and conducted a chart review on all accessible medical records of participants' gross motor function when they were 10 to 12 years old, rating the GMFCS level accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between self-reported and professional ratings showed excellent agreement (ICC=0.93-0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97). More than half the participants experienced a stable gross motor function from the age of 10 to 12 years to the present. Those at GMFCS Levels II and III at the age of 10 to 12 years (according to the professional rating) had significant change for the worse in gross motor function over time, with odds ratios of 9.30 (95% CI 1.2-73.0, p=0.03) and 7.00 (95% CI 1.1-43.0, p=0.04) respectively. Interview data on circumstances regarding changes in gross motor function since childhood are also reported. Changes in GMFCS level were mostly associated with physical or social environmental factors.

  18. Trend of Gross Beta Radioactivity in Air Particles and Rainwater of around the Domestic Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Jungmin; Shin, Daeyewn; Kim, Soongpyung; Ju, Sundong [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); OH, Youngsoo; Kim, Byunggyu; Kim, Sunsik [Hanbit Nuclear Power Site, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Investigating items can be distinguished into two parts, regional radiation and concentrations of environmental radioactivity, and in environmental radioactivity, to access the internal exposure dose, gross beta-radioactivity of particles in air and rainwater specimen are being tested. Gross beta-radioactivity quickly shows whether radiation is unusual or no since most of nuclide released in radioactive emergency while operating an atomic energy facility emits beta rays, and the method used to test it is simple. Looking at the years of analyzed results of particles in air and rainwater around the facility for gross beta-radioactivity, they have a constant trend. The cause of the trend was investigated with a doubt that something else rather than operation of a nuclear power plant might have caused this trend. Due to high gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter, sometimes, radioactivity concentration five times higher than reported last five years average gross beta radioactivity concentration is detected. Looking at the contents investigated above, we can see nuclear power plants have correlation with surrounding gross beta radioactivity concentration. Precipitation has negative correlation, and the weight of air particles and concentration of component element have positive correlation. Our country is influenced by northwest wind in winter. China which is located northwest, has heavy air pollution and smog due to industrialization and there was a report saying it is affecting Korea. Therefore, not because of management of power plants but because of change in season, it can be misunderstood that operating power plants is causing the increased gross beta radioactivity concentration. Based on this investigation, more research to find various causes of gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter is necessary.

  19. Gross anatomy and histology of the alimentary system of Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) and potential phylogenetic information

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Alonso; Juan Marcos Mirande; Matías Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    A compared study of the morphology of the alimentary tract and liver of seven selected species corresponding to the main clades of the Characidae family is presented herein. Three new set of characters corresponding to 1) alimentary tract gross anatomy, 2) alimentary tract histology and 3) liver gross anatomy are evaluated as potential sources of data for future phylogenetic studies of the Characidae. Not considerable interspecific variation was observed at the histological level and therefor...

  20. Correlation between the Gait Deviation Index and gross motor function (GMFCS level) in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Malt, Merete A.; Aarli, Ånen; Bogen, Bård; Fevang, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) is a score derived from three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). The GDI provides a numerical value that expresses overall gait pathology (ranging from 0 to 100, where 100 indicates the absence of gait pathology). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the GDI and different levels of gross motor function [defined as the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS)] and to explore if age, height, weight, gender and cerebral pals...

  1. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E & R): reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela B. R. Silva; Luzia I. Pfeifer; Carolina A. R. Funayama

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R). OBJECTIVE:: To determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children...

  2. [Effects of nitrification inhibitors DCD and DMPP on cinnamon soil' s gross nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Xia, Zong-Wei; Guo, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    By using 15N pool dilution technique in combining with in situ soil cultivation, this paper studied the effects of nitrification inhibitors dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on the gross nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates in a saline-alkali cinnamon soil in North China. The experiment was carried out in a maize-wheat rotation field in Yuncheng City of Shanxi Province, and three treatments were installed, i.e., urea, urea + DCD, and urea + DMPP. In the first two weeks after fertilization, DCD and DMPP made the gross N mineralization rate and gross N nitrification rate decreased by 25.5% and 7.3%, and by 60.3% and 59.1%, respectively, with a significant difference in the gross N mineralization rate but less difference in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP. However, significant difference was observed in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP after seven weeks of fertilization. The gross N mineralization and nitrification rates and the NH4+ and NO3-consumption rates after two weeks of fertilization were 7.2-10.0, 5.5-21.5, 9.1-12.2, and 5.1-8.4 times of those before fertilization, respectively, possibly due to the stimulating effect of N fertilization. DCD and DMPP made the fertilizer urea N more maintained in NH(4+)-N form and less accumulated in NO(3-)-N form in soil. The decreases of the gross N mineralization and nitrifications rate in the test soil due to the effects of the inhibitors would benefit the reduction of N2O emission from the soil.

  3. Deriving a light use efficiency model from eddy covariance flux data for predicting daily gross primary production across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Zhou, G.; Tieszen, L.L.; Baldocchi, D.; Bernhofer, C.; Gholz, H.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Goulden, M.L.; Hollinger, D.Y.; Hu, Y.; Law, B.E.; Stoy, Paul C.; Vesala, T.; Wofsy, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales has been a major challenge in quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency (LUE) daily GPP model from eddy covariance (EC) measurements. The model, called EC-LUE, is driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux (used to calculate moisture stress). The EC-LUE model relies on two assumptions: First, that the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a linear function of NDVI; Second, that the realized light use efficiency, calculated from a biome-independent invariant potential LUE, is controlled by air temperature or soil moisture, whichever is most limiting. The EC-LUE model was calibrated and validated using 24,349 daily GPP estimates derived from 28 eddy covariance flux towers from the AmeriFlux and EuroFlux networks, covering a variety of forests, grasslands and savannas. The model explained 85% and 77% of the observed variations of daily GPP for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. A comparison with GPP calculated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicated that the EC-LUE model predicted GPP that better matched tower data across these sites. The realized LUE was predominantly controlled by moisture conditions throughout the growing season, and controlled by temperature only at the beginning and end of the growing season. The EC-LUE model is an alternative approach that makes it possible to map daily GPP over large areas because (1) the potential LUE is invariant across various land cover types and (2) all driving forces of the model can be derived from remote sensing data or existing climate observation networks.

  4. A simplified gross primary production and evapotranspiration model for boreal coniferous forests - is a generic calibration sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minunno, F.; Peltoniemi, M.; Launiainen, S.; Aurela, M.; Lindroth, A.; Lohila, A.; Mammarella, I.; Minkkinen, K.; Mäkelä, A.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of model complexity has been lively debated in environmental sciences as well as in the forest modelling community. Simple models are less input demanding and their calibration involves a lower number of parameters, but they might be suitable only at local scale. In this work we calibrated a simplified ecosystem process model (PRELES) to data from multiple sites and we tested if PRELES can be used at regional scale to estimate the carbon and water fluxes of Boreal conifer forests. We compared a multi-site (M-S) with site-specific (S-S) calibrations. Model calibrations and evaluations were carried out by the means of the Bayesian method; Bayesian calibration (BC) and Bayesian model comparison (BMC) were used to quantify the uncertainty in model parameters and model structure. To evaluate model performances BMC results were combined with more classical analysis of model-data mismatch (M-DM). Evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP) measurements collected in 10 sites of Finland and Sweden were used in the study. Calibration results showed that similar estimates were obtained for the parameters at which model outputs are most sensitive. No significant differences were encountered in the predictions of the multi-site and site-specific versions of PRELES with exception of a site with agricultural history (Alkkia). Although PRELES predicted GPP better than evapotranspiration, we concluded that the model can be reliably used at regional scale to simulate carbon and water fluxes of Boreal forests. Our analyses underlined also the importance of using long and carefully collected flux datasets in model calibration. In fact, even a single site can provide model calibrations that can be applied at a wider spatial scale, since it covers a wide range of variability in climatic conditions.

  5. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  8. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gross studies revealed that the camel's udder consists of four quarters. The udder and teat showed light brown to solid black tinge in colour. The tips of teats sloped to a point both in immature and mature animals, however, the conformation of teats turned rounded at the tips in lactating camels. Each teat possessed two teat canals. The dimensions of teat and streak canal varied markedly among four different groups. Number of Furestenberg's rosettes ranged from 11.6 to 13.6. Microscopic studies revealed that streak canal was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium that was partially extremely thin in some parts. Cutaneous layer of teat was devoid of hair follicles except at the base of teat. Follicles were associated with sebaceous glands. Sweat glands were less coiled and showed a wide acinous element forming the part of excretory duct. Glomus organs occurred in the stratum profundum of the corium as well as in the subcutis of the skin of mammary gland. They also revealed great variation in structure and size. Epithelial lining of the alveoli varied from flattened to columnar according to physiological state. Number and size of alveoli per lobule decreased and the parenchyma was replaced by loose connective tissue during non-lactating phase. These results suggested that age and lactation considerably influenced gross and microscopic anatomy of mammary gland in camels.

  9. Participation in asynchronous online discussion forums does improve student learning of gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Farchione, Davide; Hughes, Diane L; Chan, Siew-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Asynchronous online discussion forums are common in blended learning models and are popular with students. A previous report has suggested that participation in these forums may assist student learning in a gross anatomy subject but it was unclear as to whether more academically able students post more often or whether participation led to improved learning outcomes. This study used a path model to analyze the contribution of forum participation, previous academic ability, and student campus of enrolment to final marks in a multicampus gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. The course has a substantial online learning management system (LMS) that incorporates asynchronous forums as a learning tool, particularly to answer learning objectives. Students were encouraged to post new threads and answer queries in threads started by others. The forums were moderated weekly by staff. Discussion forums were the most used feature of the LMS site with 31,920 hits. Forty-eight percent of the students posted at least once with 186 threads initiated by students and a total of 608 posts. The total number of posts made a significant direct contribution to final mark (P = 0.008) as did previous academic ability (P = 0.002). Although campus did not contribute to final mark, there was a trend for students at the campus where the course coordinator was situated to post more often than those at the other campus (P = 0.073). These results indicate that asynchronous online discussion forums can be an effective tool for improving student learning outcomes as evidenced by final marks in gross anatomy teaching.

  10. CIRCLE OF WILLIS: VARIANT FORMS AND THEIR EMBRYOLOGY USING GROSS DISSECTION AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajeet Saikia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The circle of Willis is a large arterial anastomotic ring present at the base of the brain uniting the internal carotid and the vertebrobasilar systems. Branches from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries anastomose to form an arterial circle in the basal cisterns and then distribute to supply the brain. The anatomy of the circle is known to vary significantly; the vessels may be absent or sufficiently narrowed altering the hemodynamics of the circle of Willis and affecting its role as a collateral route. These variant forms can be correlated to their phylogeny and embryology. Prior knowledge of these variant forms is important in pathologies and treatment (e.g. parent artery occlusion for carotid aneurysms resulting occlusion of carotid and vertebral arteries. Context and purpose: Our study was undertaken to observe and compare the morphology of circle of Willis using two entirely different methods; gross dissection (GD and Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA and to correlate the variant patterns encountered with the possible underlying developmental events. Gross dissection was carried out in 70 human cadavers and equal numbers of MRA’s of healthy individuals were studied retrospectively. Results: Only 31 cases (22.14% presented with a complete circle of Willis, out of which 14 (20% were cadaveric specimen and 17 (24.18% were in MRA group. Unilateral hypoplastic posterior communicating artery was the most common variation observed in our study (19.28%. Conclusions: The wide variation in completeness of the circle of Willis in general population is similar to earlier observations. Review of phylogeny and embryology makes us familiar with variant forms which would be otherwise difficult to recognize and may be misinterpreted. MRA and gross dissection findings despite certain variations are comparable.

  11. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anudeep Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The current study investigates the level of students’ learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. Methods The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. Results The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. Conclusion The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning.

  12. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ON GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Saini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fetus, placenta and mother constitute a triad of contributors to pregnancy outcome. When pregnancy is complicated by a medical problem like, diabetes mellitus which affects maternal health, architecture and functions of the placenta may even jeopardize the fetal normalcy. The placenta being the bridge between maternal and fetal activities, considered as a window through which maternal dysfunctions and their impacts on fetal well being can be understood. Aim: The aim was to study gross morphology of placentae of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare the results with normal pregnancies. Methods: It was an observational study. After due approval from institutional ethics committee, 40 placentae from pregnant women clinically diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and 40 placentae from uncomplicated normal pregnant women were collected from labour room and operation theatre of department of obstetrics and gynaecology of government medical college hospital in Jaipur (Rajasthan. Confirmed gestational diabetic cases were selected purposively while controls were taken sequentially. Gross morphological features of each placenta were recorded. The statistical methods used were unpaired ‘t’ test and chi square test. Results: The results showed that weight, diameter, surface area, central thickness and number of cotyledons of placentae from diabetic mothers were significantly more than placentae from normal uncomplicated pregnancies, while no significant differences were observed in shape and site of umbilical cord insertion. Conclusion: The gross morphology of placentae with gestational diabetes mellitus significantly differs from normal pregnancies which may be associated with alteration in physiological functioning of placenta and ultimately fetal outcome.

  13. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  14. Evaluating dissection in the gross anatomy course: Correlation between quality of laboratory dissection and students outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Chika; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy learned by active exploration through dissection has many proven benefits including improvement of anatomic knowledge. Decreased laboratory time may affect the quality of dissection and ultimately lower student performance in anatomy translating to lower knowledge acquisition. The aim of this study was to determine whether the quality of students' dissection in teams correlates with their performance in the gross anatomy course. Quality of dissections for each team enrolled in a gross anatomy course at Mayo Medical School was evaluated biweekly using a five-point rubric based on course learning objectives. Assessment of anatomic knowledge was based on sequential laboratory practice practical examination scores, achievements on daily audience response system (ARS) quizzes, and final practical, written, and National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Examinations. Twelve teams comprising 48 students were included in the study. There was a positive correlation between dissection quality and practice practical examination score (R = 0.83) and a negative correlation between dissection quality and ARS quizzes (R = -0.985). Dissection teams with a passing score on their dissection evaluations (>70%) performed better on their final examinations. Based on an end of course survey, students agreed that dissection evaluations should continue to be a part of the course. This study showed that better quality of dissection was associated with higher scores on practice practical examinations, final practical, written, and NBME examinations. The study demonstrated a positive correlation between dissection evaluations, accompanied by formative feedback during the course, and higher scores on final course assessments.

  15. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The current study investigates the level of students’ learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. Methods The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. Results The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. Conclusion The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning. PMID:28264551

  16. Analysis of the Evolution of the Gross Domestic Product by Means of Cyclic Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will carry out an analysis on the regularity of the Gross Domestic Product of a country, in our case the United States. The method of analysis is based on a new method of analysis – the cyclic regressions based on the Fourier series of a function. Another point of view is that of considering instead the growth rate of GDP the speed of variation of this rate, computed as a numerical derivative. The obtained results show a cycle for this indicator for 71 years, the mean square error being 0.93%. The method described allows an prognosis on short-term trends in GDP.

  17. 61-year-old man with sudden onset of gross hematuria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Alexander; Aitchison, Robert; Lees, Dania S; Landoli, Ciro Louis; Dayrit, Kristoffer; Kharasch, Morris; Wang, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man with a medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease presented with complaints of gross hematuria for 2 days and occasional epistaxis for 1 week. The medication list included only ranitidine. Laboratory data showed significantly elevated prothrombin time and international normalized ratio. The liver panel was normal. On inspection, the patient's bottle of ranitidine, which was refilled 20 days before, contained 5-mg tablets of warfarin. The international normalized ratio and prothrombin time were reversed with FFP, vitamin K, and Novoseven.

  18. Gross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae) in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Merchán, Manuel; Coll, Marta; Fournier, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises were measured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34 months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1 mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurements were correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight h...

  19. Gross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae) in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Merchán, Manuel; Coll, Marta; Fournier, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises weremeasured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurementswere correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight had t...

  20. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills.

  1. Gross nitrous oxide production drives net nitrous oxide fluxes across a salt marsh landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wendy H; Silver, Whendee L

    2016-06-01

    Sea level rise will change inundation regimes in salt marshes, altering redox dynamics that control nitrification - a potential source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O) - and denitrification, a major nitrogen (N) loss pathway in coastal ecosystems and both a source and sink of N2 O. Measurements of net N2 O fluxes alone yield little insight into the different effects of redox conditions on N2 O production and consumption. We used in situ measurements of gross N2 O fluxes across a salt marsh elevation gradient to determine how soil N2 O emissions in coastal ecosystems may respond to future sea level rise. Soil redox declined as marsh elevation decreased, with lower soil nitrate and higher ferrous iron in the low marsh compared to the mid and high marshes (P Net N2 O fluxes differed significantly among marsh zones (P = 0.009), averaging 9.8 ± 5.4 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , -2.2 ± 0.9 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , and 0.67 ± 0.57 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) in the low, mid, and high marshes, respectively. Both net N2 O release and uptake were observed in the low and high marshes, but the mid-marsh was consistently a net N2 O sink. Gross N2 O production was highest in the low marsh and lowest in the mid-marsh (P = 0.02), whereas gross N2 O consumption did not differ among marsh zones. Thus, variability in gross N2 O production rates drove the differences in net N2 O flux among marsh zones. Our results suggest that future studies should focus on elucidating controls on the processes producing, rather than consuming, N2 O in salt marshes to improve our predictions of changes in net N2 O fluxes caused by future sea level rise.

  2. Special solutions of the Riccati equation with applications to the Gross-Pitaevskii nonlinear PDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Al Bastami

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for finding solutions of the Riccati differential equation $y' = P(x + Q(xy + R(xy^2$ is introduced. Provided that certain relations exist between the coefficient $P(x$, $Q(x$ and $R(x$, the above equation can be solved in closed form. We determine the required relations and find the general solutions to the aforementioned equation. The method is then applied to the Riccati equation arising in the solution of the multidimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation of Bose-Einstein condensates by the F-expansion and the balance principle techniques.

  3. Riccati generalization of self-similar solutions of nonautonomous Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, P. K.; Gupta, Rama; Goyal, Amit; Kumar, C. N.

    2013-07-01

    We present a systematic analytical approach to construct a family of self-similar waves, related through a free parameter, in quasi one-dimension Gross-Pitaevskii equation with time-varying parameters. This approach enables us to control the dynamics of dark and bright similaritons, and first- and second- order self-similar rogue waves in Bose-Einstein condensate through the modulation of time dependent trapping potential. The analysis is done for the sech2- type time-varying quadratic trapping potential for two different choices of linear potential.

  4. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  5. Scaling analysis of paces of fetal breathing, gross-body and extremity movements

    OpenAIRE

    Govindan, R. B.; Wilson, J D; Murphy, P; Russel, W.A.; Lowery, C L

    2007-01-01

    Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we studied the scaling properties of the time instances (occurrence) of the fetal breathing, gross-body, and extremity movements scored on a second by second basis from the recorded ultrasound measurements of 49 fetuses. The DFA exponent α of all the three movements of the fetuses varied between 0.63 and 1.1. We found an increase in α obtained for the movement due to breathing as a function of the gestational age while this trend was not observed fo...

  6. Using interactive videodiscs to teach gross anatomy to undergraduates at the Ohio State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J F; Frisby, A J

    1992-02-01

    To determine whether interactive-videodisc lessons can effectively replace some of the labor-intensive laboratories in human gross anatomy, pre-nursing and allied-medical-professions undergraduates at The Ohio State University were randomly assigned to either a traditional cadaver-demonstration lab or an interactive-videodisc computer lab covering the same material. In a one-unit pilot study in the autumn quarter of 1989 (involving 190 students) and a full-quarter course in the spring quarter of 1991 (283 students), the performances of the computer-lab students were not significantly different from those of the students in the traditional cadaver-demonstration-lab groups.

  7. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model...... parameters, and conditional simulation filters for simulating from the predictive distribution of GDP. Both algorithms process sequentially the data as they become available in real time. The GDP density estimates for the output and expenditure approach are combined using alternative weighting schemes...

  8. Postoperative Urinary Retention With Gross Vulvar Edema After Use of 4% Icodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly; Robinson, Randal

    2015-07-01

    4% icodextrin is a fluid that can be instilled laparoscopically to prevent adhesion formation. There are few complications reported in the literature associated with its use. A 38-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 0, abortus 2 underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy. 4% icodextrin was instilled in an effort to prevent adhesion formation. Postoperatively, the patient experienced urinary retention and gross vulvar edema that required foley catheter use until the 4% icodextrin solution had absorbed. Postoperative complications that may be associated with the use of 4% icodextrin include urinary retention and vulvar edema. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model: Exact Results and Condensed Matter Precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Recently the revised phase diagram of the (large N) Gross-Neveu model in 1+1 dimensions with discrete chiral symmetry has been determined numerically. It features three phases, a massless and a massive Fermi gas and a kink-antikink crystal. Here we investigate the phase diagram by analytical means, mapping the Dirac-Hartree-Fock equation onto the non-relativistic Schroedinger equation with the (single gap) Lame potential. It is pointed out that mathematically identical phase diagrams appeared in the condensed matter literature some time ago in the context of the Peierls-Froehlich model and ferromagnetic superconductors.

  10. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  11. Morphological studies of Gross virus-induced lymphoblasts by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichikawa,Hiroyuki

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Gross virus-induced murine lymphoblasts and C-type virus particles budding from these cells were investigated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. The cells appeared spindle-shaped or roughly-rounded with extensive surface features consisting of microvilli, blebs and ruffled membranes. C-type virus particles were detected on the cell membrane as small spherical particles, distinguishable from the microvilli. Clustered virions were observed in some cases. However, the distribution of virions appeared to be random. The surface of the virion was smooth and had no globular units at high magnification. These morphological observations were confirmed in ultrathin sections.

  12. Activity budget, diet, and habitat use in the critically endangered Ka'apor capuchin monkey (Cebus kaapori) in Pará State, Brazil: a preliminary comparison to other capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, S G; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Veiga, Liza M

    2014-10-01

    The Ka'apor capuchin, Cebus kaapori, is perhaps the most endangered primate of the Brazilian Amazon. Endemic to a region with extreme intensification of habitat-degrading activities, it survives in remnant populations in a completely fragmented landscape. Before now, the only data available were isolated observations of feeding, locality records, and information on population densities and group size obtained during census. Here we present the first data on the activity budget, diet, and daily path length of the species, and compare our preliminary results with those for other capuchin monkeys. A group of nine Ka'apor capuchins was monitored over a period of four months during the dry season in the Goianésia do Pará municipality, Pará, Brazil. We used instantaneous scan sampling (n = 4,647 scans) to construct an activity budget for the monkeys, and we identified the plants in their diet to species level (n = 41 plant taxa), allowing us to compare dietary overlap with other gracile capuchin species, as well as with the robust capuchin (Sapajus spp.), a potential competitor present throughout the range of the Ka'apor capuchin. Like other species of gracile capuchins, C. kaapori was highly frugivorous, with the vast majority of the feeding records of arils and fruit pulp (74%), supplemented by arthropods (13%) and seeds (10%), although diet composition was highly variable across months. The group used a total area of 62.4 ha during the study period, and average daily path length was 2,173 m (±400 m), with the entire home range utilized in every month of the study. We found significant overlap in the diet of the Ka'apor capuchin and Sapajus, highlighting the urgency to increase knowledge of the ecological needs of C. kaapori and understand synergistic effects of sympatry with competitive species, increasing forest fragmentation, and widespread human impact on C. kaapori sustainability.

  13. Diagnosing the Dynamics of Observed and Simulated Ecosystem Gross Primary Productivity with Time Causal Information Theory Quantifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Sebastian; Lange, Holger; Mahecha, Miguel D; Hauhs, Michael; Bodesheim, Paul; Kaminski, Thomas; Gans, Fabian; Rosso, Osvaldo A

    2016-01-01

    Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena. We investigate the dynamics of observed and simulated time series of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), a key variable in terrestrial ecosystems that quantifies ecosystem carbon uptake. However, the dynamics, patterns and magnitudes of GPP time series, both observed and simulated, vary substantially on different temporal and spatial scales. We demonstrate here that information content and complexity, or Information Theory Quantifiers (ITQ) for short, serve as robust and efficient data-analytical and model benchmarking tools for evaluating the temporal structure and dynamical properties of simulated or observed time series at various spatial scales. At continental scale, we compare GPP time series simulated with two models and an observations-based product. This analysis reveals qualitative differences between model evaluation based on ITQ compared to traditional model performance metrics, indicating that good model performance in terms of absolute or relative error does not imply that the dynamics of the observations is captured well. Furthermore, we show, using an ensemble of site-scale measurements obtained from the FLUXNET archive in the Mediterranean, that model-data or model-model mismatches as indicated by ITQ can be attributed to and interpreted as differences in the temporal structure of the respective ecological time

  14. Diagnosing the Dynamics of Observed and Simulated Ecosystem Gross Primary Productivity with Time Causal Information Theory Quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Sebastian; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Hauhs, Michael; Bodesheim, Paul; Kaminski, Thomas; Gans, Fabian; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2016-01-01

    Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena. We investigate the dynamics of observed and simulated time series of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), a key variable in terrestrial ecosystems that quantifies ecosystem carbon uptake. However, the dynamics, patterns and magnitudes of GPP time series, both observed and simulated, vary substantially on different temporal and spatial scales. We demonstrate here that information content and complexity, or Information Theory Quantifiers (ITQ) for short, serve as robust and efficient data-analytical and model benchmarking tools for evaluating the temporal structure and dynamical properties of simulated or observed time series at various spatial scales. At continental scale, we compare GPP time series simulated with two models and an observations-based product. This analysis reveals qualitative differences between model evaluation based on ITQ compared to traditional model performance metrics, indicating that good model performance in terms of absolute or relative error does not imply that the dynamics of the observations is captured well. Furthermore, we show, using an ensemble of site-scale measurements obtained from the FLUXNET archive in the Mediterranean, that model-data or model-model mismatches as indicated by ITQ can be attributed to and interpreted as differences in the temporal structure of the respective ecological time

  15. Gross mechanical efficiency of the combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer : a comparison with the bicycle ergometer and handbike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmelink, Elisabeth K.; Borgesius, Emilie C.; Hettinga, Florentina J.; Geertzen, Joannes; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    The combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer is assumed to be a relevant testing and training instrument in the rehabilitation of patients with a lower limb amputation. The efficiency and submaximal strain have not been established and thus cannot be compared with alternative common modes of exercise. A

  16. Comparisons between Intel 386 and i486 microprecessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei

    1989-01-01

    A quick and preliminary comparison is made between the Intel 386 and i486 microprocessors. The following topics are discussed: the i486 key elements, comparison of instruction set architecture, the i486 on-chip cache characteristics, the i486 multiprocessor support, comparison of performance, comparison of power consumption, comparison of radiation hardening potential, and recommendations for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS).

  17. High-performance HVDC transmission over long distances; Hochleistungsuebertragung ueber grosse Entfernungen mit hochgespanntem Gleichstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    High-voltage DC transmission is a world-wide established technology for low-cost transmission of large amounts of electricity over long distances. Thanks to HVDC transmission, large amounts of electricity can now for the first time also be transmitted over long distances via ocean cable, something that cannot be done with AC power cables. HVDC transmission is independent of grid frequencies and can link grids of different frequency and different quality of frequency. Interconnected grids coupled via DC circuits can exploit additional technical and economic advantages such as mutual supply of power reserves, balancing of peak load, and modulation of active and reactive power. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Hochspannungs-Gleichstromuebertragung (HGUe) ist eine weltweit etablierte Technik zur kostenguenstigen Uebertragung grosser elektrischer Leistungen ueber grosse Entfernungen. Sie schafft erstmals die Moeglichkeit, auch mittels Seekabel grosse Leistungen ueber Entfernungen zu uebertragen, die mit der Drehstromtechnik nicht moeglich sind. HGUeist unabhaengig von den Netzfrequenzen und kann Netze unterschiedlicher Frequenz und Frequenzguete miteinander verbinden. Ueber Gleichstromkreise gekuppelte Verbundnetze koennen zusaetzliche technische und wirtschaftliche Vorteile wie gegenseitige Bereitstellung von Kraftwerksreserven, Spitzenlastausgleich sowie Wirk- und Blindleistungsmodulation nutzt. (orig.)

  18. Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schulz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.

  19. Histological features of the placenta and their relation to the gross and data from Thoroughbred mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Pazinato

    Full Text Available Abstract: The placenta is a transitory organ that originates from maternal and fetal tissues, the function of which is transporting nutrients from the mother to the fetus. The aim of this study was describe the histological features of placentas in healthy Thoroughbred mares at foaling and evaluate their relation with the gross placental and data of these mares. For this study 188 Thoroughbred mares were used. It was performed clinical observation for signs of placentitis during daily health checks and ultrasonic examination monthly to assess the fetus and placenta. All of the mares that exhibited clinical signs of placentitis were treated during gestation. The parturition was assisted, the placentas were grossly evaluated and samples were collected immediately after expulsion. The following data were considered for each mare: age, gestational age, number of parturition, time for placental expulsion, umbilical-cord length, placental weight and clinical signs of placentitis. Histological evaluation of the placentas revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial areolar cells, presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hypoplasia-atrophy of the microcotyledons. Most of the gross placental findings were consistent with the histological results. In conclusion the mares with a vacuolated placental chorionic epithelium were older and had experienced a larger number of births. Great part of the mares with inflammatory infiltrates did not showed any clinical signs of placentitis during gestation.

  20. Influence of the environment on performance of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatudimu, Margaret Bukola

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and physiotherapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) are conventionally carried out in the hospital or clinic setting. However, the daily lives of these children include a variety of environmental settings in addition to the clinical setting. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the possible influence of the environment on motor function in children with CP. Purposively selected children with CP (n=107), ages 1 and 6 years with mean age of 2.1 years (SD 1.10 yrs), were involved in this study. The motor function of each child was assessed in the hospital and at their homes within a one-week interval, using the gross motor function measure (GMFM); this was done at the baseline and on a monthly basis for eight consecutive months. The paired t-test rank was computed to compare the overall GMFM score and each of the sub-domain scores measured in the clinic and at home. GMFM scores measured at home were significantly higher than those measured in the clinic and this pattern was also obtained for the sub-domains throughout the study period, suggesting that children performed gross motor functions better at their homes than in the clinic.