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Sample records for preliminary fractional distillation

  1. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  2. Continuous fractional distillation of petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-05

    This invention has for its object a process of distillation, fractional, and continuous, of shale oil, tar, etc., characterized by the vapors leaving the evaporation chamber being forced, before condensation, to go over a continuous circuit. The vapors traverse first a preheater then return to the vaporization chamber in which they are passed along large surfaces and by application of the counter-current principle in contact with the liquid to be distilled. They stream through the chamber in a continuous manner (the quantity of vapor emitted in the circuit being determined in a manner to advance the distillation just to completion); the excess of vapor formed being removed from the circuit and sent to a condensing apparatus for fractionation.

  3. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  4. A catalyst for hydrogenating medium-distilled petroleum fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordanov, M A; Gasanova, Zh I; Isaev, A Ia; Khavkin, V A; Kurganov, V M; Musaeva, S K

    1982-01-01

    The catalyst for hydrogenating medium-distilled petroleum fractions, which contain Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Ni-concentrate components in the gamma-A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ transfer agent, also contains, as a Ni-concentrate component, NiO and Re in the following component ratios (by percentage): Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 25-44, NiO 4-25, Re 1-2 and the transfer agent the remainder, in order to improve catalytic resistance to catalyst toxins--nitrous and sulfurous compounds. The resistance of the proposed catalyst to toxins makes it possible to hydrogenate in less stringent conditions (280 degrees, 30 atmospheres) without first hydropurifying the raw material. Here, the catalyst's selectivity reaches 100 percent (aromatic hydrocarbons are absent); the yield of the target fraction is 99 percent.

  5. Fractionation of Java Citronella Oil and Citronellal Purification by Batch Vacuum Fractional Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, W. T.; Alighiri, D.; Cahyono, E.; Supardi, K. I.; Wijayati, N.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the performance of a vacuum fractionating column for the fractionation of Java Citronella Oil (Cymbopogon winterianus) and citronellal purification during batch mode operation at vacuum -76 cmHg and reflux ratios 5:1. Based on GC-MS analysis of Java Citronella Oil is known that citronellal, citronellol, and geraniol has yielded 21,59%; 7,43%; and 34,27%, respectively. Fractional distillation under reduced pressure and continued redistilled are needed to isolate the component of Java Citronella Oil. Redistilled can improve the purity, then distillate collected while the temperature changed. In the first distillate yielded citronellal with a purity of 75.67%. The first distillate obtained residue rhodinol product will then be carried back to separation into citronellol and geraniol. The purity of citronellol reached 80,65% purity, whereas geraniol reached 76.63% purity. Citronellal Purification resulting citronellal to 95.10% purity and p-menthane-3,8-diol reached 75.95% purity.

  6. Carbon-13 isotopic composition of distillation fractions of some Egyptian crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.I.M.; Hamza, M.S.; Abd Elsamie, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    13 C/ 13 C ratios were determined for some crude oil fields in the Gulf of Suez and Western Desert provinces. The crude oil was subjected to distillation at atmospheric pressure and subsequently under vacuum. Distillation fractions were collected at 25 degree C intervals. Carbon-13 content of these distillation fractions showed some differences in the degree of isotopic fractionation. The results were interpreted in view of the age of the source rocks and the degree of maturation process. The carbon-13 content of distillation fractions may be helpful in revealing petroleum mechanisms which can be exploited in exploration.4 fig

  7. Fractionation of nitrogen-15 during distillation of ammonia in an all-glass still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Deen, W.A.; Porter, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    The detection of N isotopic fractionation during distillation in an all-glass Kjeldahl distillation apparatus is reported. Five milligrams of N from (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 in 100 ml of solution at a 1.3 atom % 15 N level were distilled from a 250 ml boiling flask through a Kontes Kjeldahl distillation apparatus. The solution was made basic with 1 ml of 13N NaOH and distillate was collected sequentially in three glass shell vials, and then in a 100 ml beaker, each containing .5ml of 1N HCl. Three ml of distillate were collected in each vial and 40 ml in the beaker. The first distilled N-fraction was lower in atom % 15 N than the standard. In subsequent fractions, atom % 15 N values increased until the last fraction was higher than the undistilled standard. The last fraction differed from the first fraction and standard significantly at the 0.01 level. The first fraction differed significantly from the standard at the 0.05 probability level by 3.2 parts per thousand. Data indicated that atom % 15 N distillation values can be expected to be slightly lower than undistilled values owing to N isotopic fractionation. 1 table

  8. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Erdmann; Demetrio Humana; Samuel Franco Domínguez; Lorgio Mercado Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV) distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887) and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required...

  9. Sulfur transfer in the distillate fractions of Arabian crude oils under gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Soliman, Yasser S.; Alkhuraiji, Turki S.

    2017-01-01

    Desulfurization of light distillation fractions including gasoline, kerosene and diesel obtained from the four Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) upon γ-rays irradiation to different doses was investigated. In addition, yields vol%, FTIR analysis, kinematic viscosity and density of all distillation fractions of irradiated crude oils were evaluated. Limited radiation-induced desulfurization of those fractions was observed up to an irradiation dose of 200 kGy. FTIR analysis of those fractions indicates the absence of oxidized sulfur compounds, represented by S=O of sulfone group, indicating that γ-irradiation of the Arabian crude oils at normal conditions does not induce an oxidative desulfurization in those distillation fractions. Radiation-induced sulfur transfer decreases by 28.56% and increases in total sulfur by 16.8% in Arabian extra light oil and Arabian medium crude oil respectively. - Highlights: • Limited desulfurization in the light distillate fraction of Arabian crude oils using γ-rays was observed. • FTIR analysis confirms limited unchanged in density, viscosity and yields of Arabian crude oils. • In absence of oxidizer, radiation-induced sulfur transfer was observed in gasoline and diesel fractions of Arabian crude oils. • Radiation-induced oxidative desulfuration of the light distillate fractions depends on its characteristics.

  10. Sulfur transfer in the distillate fractions of Arabian crude oils under gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Soliman, Yasser S.; Alkhuraiji, Turki S.

    2017-05-01

    Desulfurization of light distillation fractions including gasoline, kerosene and diesel obtained from the four Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) upon γ-rays irradiation to different doses was investigated. In addition, yields vol%, FTIR analysis, kinematic viscosity and density of all distillation fractions of irradiated crude oils were evaluated. Limited radiation-induced desulfurization of those fractions was observed up to an irradiation dose of 200 kGy. FTIR analysis of those fractions indicates the absence of oxidized sulfur compounds, represented by S=O of sulfone group, indicating that γ-irradiation of the Arabian crude oils at normal conditions does not induce an oxidative desulfurization in those distillation fractions. Radiation-induced sulfur transfer decreases by 28.56% and increases in total sulfur by 16.8% in Arabian extra light oil and Arabian medium crude oil respectively.

  11. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  12. A method for removing sulfur bearing compounds from paraffinous hydrocarbons or a directly distilled benzine fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konyukhova, T.P.; Bolotskaya, I.A.; Mikhaylova, L.A.; Sadykov, A.N.; Shitovkin, N.T.; Vlasov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    In the known method for removing sulfurorganic compounds from paraffinous hydrocarbons or a directly distilled gasoline fraction through their adsorption using natural zeolite, in order to increase the degree of purification, clinoptilolite (Kp), which contains SiO2 and A12O3 in a molar ratio of 10.6 to 16.7 is used as the natural zeolite. The purification of the paraffinous hydrocarbons through clinoptilolite adsorption as compared with mordenite adsorption makes it possible to increase the degree of their purification of ethylmercaptane and dimethylsulfide. The effectiveness of clinoptilolite is also confirmed in removing mercaptanes and sulfides from directly distilled gasoline fractions.

  13. Exergy analysis of a distillation tower for crude oil fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the application of the exergy method to a crude oil atmospheric distillation tower is presented. The fundamentals and procedures are presented as well as the main parameters used to describe the thermodynamic performance of the system, such as Exergy Losses, Effectiveness and Improvement Potential. A parametric analysis of the influence on the effectiveness of the tower is then performed as a function of the number of trays, the amount of stripping steam, the use of reboilers and the operation pressure. The results obtained are discussed. As expected, the effectiveness of the tower increases with the overall number of trays in the tower and in the stripping columns for a constant operation pressure and a constant amount of stripping steam but there is a limit at which the pressure drop across the trays and the stripping steam requirements make the effectiveness decrease. The use of reboilers in the stripping columns adjacent to the main tower allows an increase in the effectiveness basically due to a greater heat integration. Finally, the increase in the operation pressure of the tower produces an increase of the effectiveness but also an increase in the stripping steam requirements

  14. Fractional treatment of spent scintillation cocktail with low level tritium by azeotropic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Kotoh, Kenji; Koga, Keisuke; Katase, Akira

    1982-01-01

    Among various waste from RI laboratories, one of the most troublesome wastes is the spent liquid scintillation cocktail, because there are no good disposal way but to store in each laboratories. The fractionation of tritiated water, solvent and alkyl detergent from the spent scintillation cocktail by the azeotropic distillation method is examined in this study, and it has been concluded that this method is applicable, It is also found in this study that removal of tritiated water from distilled solvent can be conducted by using adsorption tower with Molecular sieve 3A. Treatment of the spent scintillation cocktail within 3 months after use is recomended because no isotope exchange reaction with solvent or detergent is observed within 3 months after use in this study. No isotope effects are observed in the zeotropic distillation process. (author)

  15. Distillation fraction-specific ecotoxicological evaluation of a paraffin-rich crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlacher, Elisabeth; Loibner, Andreas P.; Kendler, Romana; Scherr, Kerstin E.

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) with distinct chemical, physical and toxicological properties relevant for contaminated site risk assessment. Ecotoxicological effects of crude oil distillation fractions on luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), earthworms (Dendrobaena hortensis) and invertebrates (Heterocypris incongruens) were tested using two spiked soils and their elutriates. Fraction 2 (F2) had an equivalent carbon number (ECN) range of >10 to 16, and F3 from >16 to 39. F2 showed a substantially higher ecotoxicological effect than F3 for Vibrio and Dendrobaena. In contrast, severe inhibition of Heterocypris by the poorly soluble F3 is attributed to mechanical organ blockage. Immediate sequestration of PHC to the organic matter-rich soil effected reduced toxicity for all organisms. This study indicates that a more differentiated consideration (i) of PHC mixtures based on ECN range and (ii) of model soil properties employed for ecotoxicity testing should be included into PHC-contaminated site risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► Crude oil distillates show distinctly different effects on receptor organisms. ► Toxicity of the higher boiling point Fraction is attributed to physical effects. ► TPH sorption to the organic-matter rich soil occurred immediately after spiking. -- A differentiated consideration of the prevailing crude oil distillation fractions and of model soil properties employed for ecotoxicity testing should be included into the risk assessment of crude oil contaminated sites

  16. Fractionation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by sieving and winnowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, KeShun

    2009-12-01

    Four commercial samples of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were sieved. All sieved fractions except for the pan fraction, constituting about 90% of original mass, were then winnowed with an air blast seed cleaner. Sieving was effective in producing fractions with varying composition. As the particle size decreased, protein and ash contents increased, and total carbohydrate (CHO) decreased. Winnowing sieved fractions was also effective in shifting composition, particularly for larger particle classes. Heavy sub-fractions were enriched in protein, oil and ash, while light sub-fractions were enriched for CHO. For protein, the combination of the two procedures resulted in a maximum 56.4% reduction in a fraction and maximum 60.2% increase in another fraction. As airflow velocity increased, light sub-fraction mass increased, while the compositional difference between the heavy and light sub-fractions decreased. Winnowing three times at a lower velocity was as effective as winnowing one time at a medium velocity. Winnowing the whole DDGS was much less effective than winnowing sieved fractions in changing composition, but sieving winnowed fractions was more effective than sieving whole DDGS. The two combination sequences gave comparable overall effects but sieving followed by winnowing is recommended because it requires less time. Regardless of combinational sequence, the second procedure was more effective in shifting composition than the first procedure.

  17. Distillation of tar and tar fractions in the presence of surface-active coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeppelt, A; Klaus, J

    1943-01-01

    The tar obtained by low-temperature carbonization of Upper Silesian gas coke and fractions from this tar were distilled in the presence of different grades of coke dust with varying surface activity; the coke had been activated by steam in the course of its production by low-temperature carbonization. The surface activity of the coke dusts was measured by determining the heat of wetting with C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Tar and coke dust, both anhydrous, were mixed in a kneading machine in such proportions that the capillaries of the dust were saturated and enough ''externally'' bound tar was present to permit briquetting. The briquets were distilled without cracking and with steam as heating medium. The yield and quality of the distillate depended on the magnitude of the internal surface of the coke dust used; a mixture of a very active coke from brown coal and tar yielded a distillate with Conradson carbon residue of 1.34 percent, asphalt content 6.1 percent and eta/sub 20/ 5.4/sup 0/ E. as compared with C residue of 10.95 percent, asphalt content 33.5 percent and eta/sub 20/ 123.6/sup 0/ E. of the distillate obtained in the absence of surface-active coke. Even higher-boiling fractions can be improved by this treatment, although it is preferable to use oils with an initial boiling point below 300/sup 0/. The ratio of oil to adsorbent is not critical, but better results were obtained with higher percentages of added coke dust. The process in its present form is not suited for the conversion of crude creosote to useful phenols.

  18. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Preliminary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. Its rotating cascading distiller operates similarly to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD), but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be straightforward and simpler to implement into a successful design. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). The key objectives for the CDS 2.0 design task is to provide a flight forward ground prototype that demonstrates improvements over the SOA system in the areas of increased reliability and robustness, and reduced mass, power and volume. It will also incorporate exploration-class automation. The products of this task are a preliminary flight system design and a high fidelity prototype of an exploration class CDS. These products will inform the design and development of the third generation CDS which is targeted for on-orbit DTO. This paper details the preliminary design of the CDS 2.0.

  19. Measurement of the tritium concentration in the fractionated distillate from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert; Eddy, Teresa; Kuhne, Wendy; Jannik, Tim; Brandl, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The current study investigates the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process, distinguishing it from and extending previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.04 ± 0.036, 1.05 ± 0.026, and 1.07 ± 0.038, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples where the first 5 mL are discarded, the tritium concentration could be underestimated by 4-7%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Erdmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887 and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required for obtaining an EFV curve. Any commercial simulator able to model petroleum can be used for the simulation (HYSYS and CHEMCAD simulators were used here. Several types of petroleum and fractions were experimentally analysed for evaluating the proposed method; this data was then put into a process si-mulator (according to the proposed method to estimate the corresponding EFV curves. HYSYS- and CHEMCAD-estimated curves were compared to those produced by two traditional estimation methods (Edmister’s and Maswell’s methods. Simulation-estimated curves were close to average Edmister and Maxwell curves in all cases. The propo-sed method has several advantages; it avoids the need for experimentally obtaining an EFV curve, it does not de-pend on the type of experimental curve used to fit the model and it enables estimating several pressures by using just one experimental curve as data.

  1. Influence of essential oil fractionation by vacuum distillation on acaricidal activity against the cattle tick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cidade Torres

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of essential oil fractionation on acaricidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus J. and pepper tree (Schinus molle L. essential oils were fractionated by vacuum distillation yielding fractions that were analyzed by the GC/MS. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of the total essential oil and fractions on larvae of the cattle tick R. (B. microplus. The fractions 04 and 05 of the C. winterianus essential oil were the most active showing LC50 values of 1.20 and 1.34 μL/mL, respectively. The LC50 of the total oil was 3.30 μL/mL while the effect of the fractions 01, 02 and 03 was less pronounced, with LC50 values of 4.37, 4.24 and 3.49 μL/mL, respectively. The fraction 03 of the S. molle essential oil was the most active showing LC50 value of 8.80 μL/mL while the fractions 01 and 02 did not show toxic effects on the larvae.

  2. Full characterization of compounds obtained from fractional distillation and upgrading of a HTL biocrude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T. H.; Jensen, C. U.; Sandström, L.

    2017-01-01

    % of the total biocrude composition is determined. It is demonstrated that a total mass fraction of 48.2% of the biocrude is volatile below 350 °C, comprising mainly value-added marketable ketones, oxygenated aromatics and prospective liquid fuel candidates, which are easily fractionated according to boiling...... points. Novel, high resolution pyr-GCxGC-MS analysis of the residue indicates a high molecular weight aromatic structure, valuable for bio-materials production or for further processing into fuels. The distillate fractions are mildly hydrotreated to show the fuel and chemical precursor potential...... of the volatile components. This results in the formation of mainly hydrocarbons and added-value phenolics. This work takes a significant step by going beyond the biocrude as an intermediate bulk energy product and addressing actual applications and pathways to these....

  3. Characterization of upgraded fast pyrolysis oak oil distillate fractions from sulfided and non-sulfided catalytic hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olarte, Mariefel V.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Ferrell, Jack R.; Christensen, Earl D.; Hallen, Richard T.; Lucke, Richard B.; Burton, Sarah D.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Swita, Marie S.; Fioroni, Gina; Elliott, Douglas C.; Drennan, Corinne

    2017-08-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing of pyrolysis oils from biomass produces hydrocarbons that can be considered for liquid fuel production. This process requires removal of oxygen and cracking of the heavier molecular weight bio-oil constituents into smaller fragments at high temperatures and pressures under hydrogen. A comprehensive understanding of product oils is useful to optimize cost versus degree of deoxygenation. Additionally, a better understanding of the chemical composition of the distillate fractions can open up other uses of upgraded oils for potentially higher-value chemical streams. We present in this paper the characterization data for five well-defined distillate fractions of two hydroprocessed oils with different oxygen levels: a low oxygen content (LOC, 1.8% O, wet basis) oil and a medium oxygen content (MOC, 6.4% O, wet basis) oil. Elemental analysis and 13C NMR results suggest that the distillate fractions become more aromatic/unsaturated as they become heavier. Our results also show that the use of sulfided catalysts directly affects the S content of the lightest distillate fraction. Carbonyl and carboxylic groups were found in the MOC light fractions, while phenols were present in the heavier fractions for both MOC and LOC. PIONA analysis of the light LOC fraction shows a predominance of paraffins with a minor amount of olefins. These results can be used to direct future research on refinery integration and production of value-added product from specific upgraded oil streams.

  4. A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two

  5. Studies on sludge from storage tank of waxy crude oil. Part I: structure and composition of distillate fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, S.A.; Zarapkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.C. [D.G. Ruparel College, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-08-01

    Tank bottom sludge from storage tanks of Bombay High crude oil deposited during ten years have been studied. The yield of the sludge is approximately 0.1% wt. of the crude oil through-put. The residue boiling above 500{degree}C amounts to over 50%. The distillate fractions collected at 50{degree}C intervals have been analyzed extensively and compared to fractions from whole crude of same boiling range. The sludge distillate are distinctly more paraffinic in nature. 15 refs., 7 tabs.

  6. An Investigation into the Relationship Between Distillate Yield and Stable Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, T.; Wagner, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Recent breakthroughs in laser spectrometry have allowed for faster, more efficient analyses of stable isotopic ratios in water samples. Commercially available instruments from Los Gatos Research and Picarro allow users to quickly analyze a wide range of samples, from seawater to groundwater, with accurate isotope ratios of D/H to within ± 0.2 ‰ and 18O/16O to within ± 0.03 ‰. While these instruments have increased the efficiency of stable isotope laboratories, they come with some major limitations, such as not being able to analyze hypersaline waters. The Los Gatos Research Liquid Water Isotope Analyzer (LWIA) can accurately and consistently measure the stable isotope ratios in waters with salinities ranging from 0 to 4 grams per liter (0 to 40 parts per thousand). In order to analyze water samples with salinities greater than 4 grams per liter, however, it was necessary to develop a consistent method through which to reduce salinity while causing as little fractionation as possible. Using a consistent distillation method, predictable fractionation of δ 18O and δ 2 H values was found to occur. This fractionation occurs according to a linear relationship with respect to the percent yield of the water in the sample. Using this method, samples with high salinity can be analyzed using laser spectrometry instruments, thereby enabling laboratories with Los Gatos or Picarro instruments to analyze those samples in house without having to dilute them using labor-intensive in-house standards or expensive premade standards.

  7. Uranium isotope fractionation resulting from UF6 vapor distillation from containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedge, W.D.; Turner, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    This empirical study for possible isotopic fractionation due to UF 6 vapor distillation from valved containers was performed to determine the effects of repeated vapor sampling. Four different experiments were performed, each of which varied by the method of measuring the isotopic contents and/or by the difference in temperature gradients as follows: The ratio of the parent UF 6 to the desublimed UF 6 collected at liquid nitrogen temperature and homogenized was measured by sampling the containers. The ratio of the parent UF 6 to the desublimed UF 6 collected at liquid nitrogen temperature and homogenized was measured by direct comparison to each other without subsampling. The ratio of the parent UF 6 to the desublimed UF 6 collected at liquid nitrogen and ice-water temperatures and homogenized was measured by indirect comparison to a common UF 6 reference material without subsampling. The ratio of the parent UF 6 to the desublimed UF 6 collected at liquid nitrogen temperature without homogenizing was measured by indirect comparison to a common UF 6 reference. Gas-phase, relative mass spectrometry was used for all isotopic measurements. Results of the study indicate that fractionation does occur. The U-235 isotope becomes more enriched in the parent container as the UF 6 is vaporized from it and desublimed into the receiving cylinder; i.e., the vaporized fraction is enriched in the U-238 isotope. The degree of fractionation indicates that the separation is due to the U-238 isotope of UF 6 having a higher vapor pressure than the U-235 isotope of UF 6 . 3 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation and their effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, Gabriela N; Borgarello, Ana V; Grosso, Nelson R; Fernandez, Héctor; Pramparo, María C; Gayol, María F

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation (MD) and investigate their effect on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. MD fractions were prepared in a series of low-pressure stages where rosemary essential oil was the first feed. Subsequently, a distillate (D1) and residue (R1) were obtained and the residue fraction from the previous stage used as the feed for the next. The residue fractions had the largest capacity to capture free radicals, and the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was due to oxygenated monoterpenes, specifically α-terpineol and cis-sabinene hydrate. Oxidative stability results showed the residues (R1 and R4) and butylated hydroxytoluene had greater antioxidant activity than either the distillate fractions or original rosemary essential oil. The residue fractions obtained by short path MD of rosemary essential oil could be used as a natural antioxidants by the food industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Distillation fraction-specific ecotoxicological evaluation of a paraffin-rich crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher, Elisabeth; Loibner, Andreas P; Kendler, Romana; Scherr, Kerstin E

    2013-03-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) with distinct chemical, physical and toxicological properties relevant for contaminated site risk assessment. Ecotoxicological effects of crude oil distillation fractions on luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), earthworms (Dendrobaena hortensis) and invertebrates (Heterocypris incongruens) were tested using two spiked soils and their elutriates. Fraction 2 (F2) had an equivalent carbon number (ECN) range of >10 to 16, and F3 from >16 to 39. F2 showed a substantially higher ecotoxicological effect than F3 for Vibrio and Dendrobaena. In contrast, severe inhibition of Heterocypris by the poorly soluble F3 is attributed to mechanical organ blockage. Immediate sequestration of PHC to the organic matter-rich soil effected reduced toxicity for all organisms. This study indicates that a more differentiated consideration (i) of PHC mixtures based on ECN range and (ii) of model soil properties employed for ecotoxicity testing should be included into PHC-contaminated site risk assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative determination of acid oils in low-temperature coal tar by means of fractional distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, A

    1950-01-01

    The aromatic hydroxy compounds in low-temperature tar were separated, and 75 compounds in the boiling range 180/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/ isolated by means of fractional distillation in packed columns of at least 45 theoretical plates. Mixtures not separable by fractionation were separated by means of other physicochemical or chemical methods. Hydroxy compounds with boiling point up to 230/sup 0/C were detemined quantitatively, as were the phenols present in low-temperature carbonization liquors. With the Krupp-Lurgi process of low-temperature carbonization, 1.8% phenol, 1.8% o-cresol, and 3.6% m-p-cresols were formed. The tar contained up to 1.3% 1:3:5-xylenol and up to 0.9% 1:2:4-xylenol. Of the 12.1% v/v of phenol, cresols, and xylenols present in tar, 11.2% were determined quantitatively, and 9 hydroxy compounds were identified in the remaining 0.9%. On the basis of these investigations, a technical plant that permitted the recovery of pure low-temperature tar phenols and the preparation of a number of different phenol resins from the mixtures was erected.

  11. PLS models for determination of SARA analysis of Colombian vacuum residues and molecular distillation fractions using MIR-ATR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Orrego-Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, prediction models of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes fractions (SARA from thirty-seven vacuum residues of representative Colombian crudes and eighteen fractions of molecular distillation process were obtained. Mid-Infrared (MIR Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS regression analysis was used to estimate accurately SARA analysis in these kind of samples. Calibration coefficients of prediction models were for saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes fractions, 0.99, 0.96, 0.97 and 0.99, respectively. This methodology permits to control the molecular distillation process since small differences in chemical composition can be detected. Total time elapsed to give the SARA analysis per sample is 10 minutes.

  12. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  13. High performance liquid chromatographic hydrocarbon group-type analyses of mid-distillates employing fuel-derived fractions as standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, G. T.; Otterson, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods have been developed for the determination of saturates, olefins and aromatics in petroleum and shale derived mid-distillate fuels. In one method the fuel to be analyzed is reacted with sulfuric acid, to remove a substantial portion of the aromatics, which provides a reacted fuel fraction for use in group type quantitation. The second involves the removal of a substantial portion of the saturates fraction from the HPLC system to permit the determination of olefin concentrations as low as 0.3 volume percent, and to improve the accuracy and precision of olefins determinations. Each method was evaluated using model compound mixtures and real fuel samples.

  14. Identification of genotoxic compounds in crude oil using fractionation according to distillation, polarity and Kow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Yeong; Lee, Hyo Jin; Khim, Jong Seong; Kim, Gi Beum

    2017-01-30

    We examined the degree of DNA damage caused by fractions of crude oil in accordance with the boiling points, polarity and log K ow . Relatively high DNA damage was observed in the aromatic fraction (290-330°C) and resin and polar fraction (350-400°C). The resin and polar fraction showed relatively high genotoxicity compared with the aliphatic and aromatic fraction at the 1-4 log K ow range. At the 6-7 log K ow range, the aromatic fraction showed relatively high DNA damage compared with the aliphatic and resin and polar fraction. In particular, every detailed fraction in accordance with the log K ow values (aliphatic and aromatic (310-320°C) and resins and polar fractions (370-380°C)) showed one or less than one DNA damage. However, the fractions before separation in accordance with log K ow values (aliphatic and aromatic (310-320°C) and resin and polar (370-380°C) fractions) showed high DNA damage. Thus, we confirm the synergistic action between the detailed compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of protective effect of deposits formed by naphthenic corrosion and sulfidation on carbon steel and steel 5Cr-0.5Mo exposed in atmospheric distillation fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Duarte

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Refining of so-called opportunity crude oils with a high level of naphthenic acids and sulfur compounds has been increasing interest due to limited availability of light crude oils, however, considerable corrosive effects in the processing to high temperature on pipes and distillation towers mainly by the attack of naphthenic acids and sulfur compounds; sulfur compounds could be corrosive or can reduce the attack of naphthenic acids due to the formation of sulfides layers on the metal surface. In this work was evaluated the performance of deposits formed on the surface of carbon steel AISI SAE 1020 and 5% Cr-0.5% Mo steel exposed in crude oil fractions obtained from atmospheric distillation tower. For this, gravimetric tests were performed in dynamic autoclave using metal samples pre-treated in a crude oil fraction obtained from the atmospheric distillation tower of the Crude Distillation Unit (CDU # 1 in order to form layers of sulfides on the surface of the two materials and subsequently to expose pre-treated and non-pretreated samples in two different crude oil fractions obtained from atmospheric distillation tower of Crude Distillation Unit (CDU # 2. The evaluation showed that the samples pretreated decreased tendency to corrosion by naphthenic acids and sulfidation compared to untreated samples.

  16. Deep desulfurization of middle distillates. Process adaptation to oil fractions' compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedernera, Esteban; Reimert, Rainer; Nguyen, Ngoc Luan; Van Buren, Vincent [Division of Fuel Technology, Universitat Karlsruhe TH, Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2003-04-30

    The influence of oil fractions' compositions on the conversion of sulfurous components was investigated in a trickle-bed reactor in laboratory scale. A commercially available NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was used throughout the investigations. Experimental results including sulfur conversion of different oil fractions and residence time distributions under reacting conditions are presented. The hydrogen consumption is ascribed to the conversion of sulfur and of nitrogen, to the hydrogenation of aromatics and to hydrocracking based on a simulation applying ASPEN Plus. Various configurations of the desulfurization process are evaluated but no advantage is found by separate treatment of individual oil fractions. In addition, experiments were carried out to determine liquid distribution and wetting efficiency in a catalyst bed by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10178 - Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10178 Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized...

  18. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Beltranena, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0?21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ? 0.8 g were a...

  19. MIKROEMULSIFIKASI FRAKSI TIDAK TERSABUNKAN DISTILAT ASAM LEMAK MINYAK SAWIT [Microemulsification of Unsaponifiable Fractions of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD is a by-product of palm oil refining that contains valuable bioactive compounds such as phytosterols, tocopherol, tocotrienols, and squalene which acummulates in unsaponifiable fraction (USF. In emulsion form, USF will be convenient and easy to use as food supplements or fortificants. Microemulsion is a type of emulsion that has stable droplet sizes of less than 10 m. Hence, the best emulsifier for USF microemulsion is important to be determined. The USF microemulsion was prepared by homogenizing the sample mixtures at 12.000 rpm for 20 min at USF concentration of 10% (w/v with lecithin and tween 80 as the emulsifiers at concentratiosn of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (w/v. The microemulsions were analyzed for their viscosity, stability, and particle size distributions, as well as microstructures. The results showed that characteristics of microemulsion were affected by emulsifier types and concentrations. Tween 80 produced better microemulsion than lecithin as indicated by more stable emulsions, smaller droplet sizes, and narrower ranges of droplet size distributions. Increasing lectihin concentrations resulted in a narrower droplet size distribution but the average droplet size was not always smaller. Conversely, increasing tween 80 concentrations increased the average droplet sizes and ranges of particle size distributions. The most suitable emulsifier for USF microemulsion was tween 80 at concentration of 0.5%. This microemulsion contained bioactive compounds derived from USF, namely vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols, phytosterols, and squalene.

  20. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In the distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery by direct heating with a gas such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gas which is passed in counter-flow to the materials, the volume of the gas used is such as to lower the vapor tension of the volatiles to enable the oil vapor to be liberated at temperatures not exceeding 450 to 500/sup 0/C and so that the gaseous mixture may be cooled to from 80 to 100/sup 0/C without causing the highest boiling oil fraction to condense. Coking coals may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment with gases containing an oxygen content of from 2 to 8 percent to reduce their coking properties, and oxygen may be added to the heating gases to assist the polymerization of resinous bodies. Lubricating oil may be obtained by treating the primary oil with caustic soda to remove tar acids, refining the residue with sulfuric acid, distilling off 25 percent of the refined oil and passing the remainder through a filter press at -5/sup 0/C to extract the paraffin wax. The residue of wax-free oil is distilled to yield a lubricating oil which at normal temperatures has a static coefficient of friction of from .1 to .185. Other specifications are referred to.

  1. Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of different fractions of hemp essential oil extracted at 130 °C using steam distillation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Nawaz, Haq; Naz, Saima; Mukhtar, Rubina; Rashid, Nosheen; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for the characterization of pure essential oil (pure EO) isolated from the leaves of the Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.,) as well as its different fractions obtained by fractional distillation process. Raman spectra of pure Hemp essential oil and its different fractions show characteristic key bands of main volatile terpenes and terpenoids, which significantly differentiate them from each other. These bands provide information about the chemical composition of sample under investigation and hence can be used as Raman spectral markers for the qualitative monitoring of the pure EO and different fractions containing different active compounds. PCA differentiates the Raman spectral data into different clusters and loadings of the PCA further confirm the biological origin of the different fractions of the essential oil.

  2. Calculated identification of the output of a refinate in furfurol purification of distillate oil fractions. Raschetnoye opredeleniye vykhoda rafinata pri ochistke furfurolom distillyatnykh maslyanykh fraktsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okhrimenko, N.V.; Dorodnova, V.S.; Martynenko, A.G.; Shiryayeva, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility is shown of using an equation proposed by Weigl and Dvayvedi for calculated identification of the outputs of a refinate in furfurol purification of gas oil fractions as applied to the purification of distillate oil fractions (350 to 420 and 420 to 500 degrees of a mixture of Eastern Ukrainian oils from the Druzhba pipeline with a content of 43.6 and 53.8 percent aromatic hydrocarbons (ArU). The deviations between the calculated values of the refinate output and the actual do not exceed 0.5 to 1.5 percent.

  3. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosden, S; Cosden, J S

    1937-09-08

    A means and process are described for the destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials in which the process comprises charging the material, in a finely divided condition into a stream of hot combustion gases, and allows the hot gases to act pyrolytically on the organic compounds contained in the material, separating the volatile liberated constituents from residuary constituents. Hot reaction gases are generated by fuel ignition means in a generator and are immediately intermingled with comminuted carbonaceous material from a hopper, in a narrow conduit. The mixture of material and reaction fluid is then passed through an elongated confined path, which is exteriorly heated by the combustion chamber of the furnace, where the destructive distillation is effected. Volatile and solid constituents are separated in the chamber, and the volatile constituents are fractionated and condensed.

  4. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  5. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  6. Variation in Children's Understanding of Fractions: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Tran, Dung; Elliott, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    This research targets children's informal strategies and knowledge of fractions by examining their ability to create, interpret, and connect representations in doing and communicating mathematics when solving fractions tasks. Our research group followed a constant comparative method to analyze clinical interviews of children in grades 2-6 solving…

  7. Distilling tar; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brash, P; Young, W

    1866-09-17

    The tarry residue, which separates on treating crude shale oil with sulfuric acid, is redistilled, in the manner described in Specification No. 1278, A.D. 1866, together with shale. Previous to the distillation, the acid is neutralized with lime, or may be separated by blowing steam into the tar and adding salt. The purified tar thus obtained is absorbed by ashes, or is mixed with lime or other alkaline matter, or the shale may be mixed with lime and distilled with the tar, which is allowed to flow over and through the shale during the process. The tar obtained in the purification of natural paraffin may be similarly utilized.

  8. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J E

    1923-03-19

    In distilling mineral oils such as petroleum, shale oil, distillates and topped or residual oils, particularly to obtain lubricating oils, the distillation is carried out under reduced pressures below an absolute pressure of 25 mm. of mercury and preferably below about 5 mm. of mercury, and the distillate is collected in fractions determined by the physical characteristics, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, etc. Superheated steam may be passed through the liquid during distillation. A horizontal cylindrical still provided with cross braces and peripheral ribs interrupted at the base is connected through a condensing coil immersed in a steam chest and a baffled chamber with distillate receiver and is evacuated by a pump. Steam from a boiler and superheater is injected into the still through a perforated pipe. Steam and light oil vapors passing from the chamber are condensed in a coil.

  9. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1927-12-23

    Oil bearing solids such as coal, tar sands, oil shales, or the like, are distilled in a current of hot gas and are first preheated to a temperature above that at which the heaviest oil fractions in the vapors are liable to condense, for example 100 to 250/sup 0/C, according to the volume of gas passing through the retort, temperature being in inverse proportion to the quantity of oxygen containing constituents in the charge. When the distillation takes place in a controlled volume of hot inert gas of 45,000 cubic feet per ton and the volume of oil recovered is about 20 gallons per ton, the material is preheated to 200 to 250/sup 0/C, when the volume of gas used is 100,000 cubic feet the preheating temperature is 150/sup 0/C. The temperatures of the retort dust extractor etc. do not fall below 100 to 150/sup 0/C until actual condensation of the oil vapor is desired. Specification 287,381 is referred to, and Specification 287,037 also is referred to in the Provisional Specification.

  10. Microbial Desulfurization of a Crude Oil Middle-Distillate Fraction: Analysis of the Extent of Sulfur Removal and the Effect of Removal on Remaining Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Garrett, K. K.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 was evaluated for its ability to desulfurize a 232 to 343°C middle-distillate (diesel range) fraction of Oregon basin (OB) crude oil. OB oil was provided as the sole source of sulfur in batch cultures, and the extent of desulfurization and the chemical fate of the residual sulfur in the oil after treatment were determined. Gas chromatography (GC), flame ionization detection, and GC sulfur chemiluminesce detection analysis were used to qualitatively evaluate the effect of Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 treatment on the hydrocarbon and sulfur content of the oil, respectively. Total sulfur was determined by combustion of samples and measurement of released sulfur dioxide by infrared absorption. Up to 30% of the total sulfur in the middle distillate cut was removed, and compounds across the entire boiling range of the oil were affected. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption-edge spectroscopy was used to examine the chemical state of the sulfur remaining in the treated OB oil. Approximately equal amounts of thiophenic and sulfidic sulfur compounds were removed by ECRD-1 treatment, and over 50% of the sulfur remaining after treatment was in an oxidized form. The presence of partially oxidized sulfur compounds indicates that these compounds were en route to desulfurization. Overall, more than two-thirds of the sulfur had been removed or oxidized by the microbial treatment. PMID:9872778

  11. Organic palladium and palladium-magnesium chemical modifiers in direct determination of lead in fractions from distillation of crude oil by electrothermal atomic absorption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Zofia; Bulska, Ewa; Hulanicki, Adam

    1999-05-01

    Platinum reforming catalysts are easily poisoned by increased levels of lead, therefore a sensitive atomic absorption spectrometric procedure for lead determination in fractions from crude oil distillation was developed. Lead was present in organic form in the samples analysed therefore the behaviour of various lead compounds (Pb-alkylarylsulphonate, Pb-4-cyclohexanobutyrate, tetraethyllead, Pb in fuel oil) was studied. The best procedure for the determination of lead in different petroleum products, including those containing asphaltenes includes a pretreatment with iodine and methyltrioctylammonium chloride, followed by the use of an organic Pd-Mg modifier. Under these conditions an effective matrix removal is possible at a pyrolysis temperature up to approximately 1100°C and the behaviour of lead present in different forms is unified. The characteristic mass is 11-12 pg Pb, corresponding to a detection limit of 0.25 ng g -1 for 20 μl sample solution. This can be lowered by multiple injection.

  12. The effect of several crude oils and some petroleum distillation fractions on intestinal absorption in ducklings (Anas platyhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, A D; Cronshaw, J; Holmes, W N

    1975-01-01

    Ducklings given hypertonic saline drinking water show significant increases in the rates of Na+ and water transfer across the intestinal mucosa. These increased rates of transfer are maintained as long as the birds are fed dypertonic saline. Oral administration of a single small dose of crude oil had no effect on the basal rate of mucosal transfer in freshwater-maintained ducklings but the adaptive response of the mucosa is suppressed in birds given hypertonic saline. When crude oils from eight different geographical locations were tested, the degree of inhibition varied between them; the greatest and smallest degrees of inhibition being observed following administration of Kuwait and North Slope, Alaska, crude oils respectively. The effects of distallation fractions derived from two chemically different crude oils were also examined. The volume of each distallation fraction administered corresponded to its relative abundance in the crude oil from which it was derived. The inhibitory effect was not associated exclusively with the same distallation fractions from each oil. A highly naphthenic crude oil from the San Joaquin Valley, California, showed the greatest inhibitory activity in the least abundant (2%), low boiling point (smaller than 245 degrees C) fraction and the least inhibitory activity in the highest boiling point (greater than 482 degrees C) most abundant (47%) fraction. In contrast, a highly paraffinic crude oil from Paradox Basin, Utah, showed the greatest inhibitory effect with the highest boiling point fraction and a minimal effect with the lowest boiling point fraction; the relative abundances of these two fractions in the crude oil represented 27 and 28% respectively. Water-soluble extracts of both crude oils also had inhibitory effects on mucosal transfer rates and these roughly proportionate to the inhibitory potency of the low boiling point fraction of each oil. Weathered samples of San Joaquin Valley, California, and the Paradox Basin, Utah

  13. Distillation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.

    1975-01-01

    Two main methods of separation using the distillation method are given and evaluated, namely evaporation and distillation in carrier gas flow. Two basic apparatus are described for illustrating the methods used. The use of the distillation method in radiochemistry is documented by a number of examples of the separation of elements in elemental state, volatile halogenides and oxides. Tables give a survey of distillation methods used for the separation of the individual elements and give conditions under which this separation takes place. The suitability of the use of distillation methods in radiochemistry is discussed with regard to other separation methods. (L.K.)

  14. Technical and economical feasibility studies and preliminary plan of a heavy water plant by the criogenic distillation method of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Vargas, F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the pre-feasibility study of a heavy water production plant, both from the technical and economical point of view. Criogenic distillation of hydrogen is used as the final enrichment stage. The deuterium source is water treated previously by a process of enrichment based on the water-hydrogen isotopic exchange. The economical analysis is aimed at the study of the feasibility of the installation of a heavy water moderated reaction in Chile. General properties of heavy water are presented and also the various materials of its enrichment at the industrial scale. The plant itself has a first stage based on the water-hydrogen isotopic exchange procesS, where deuterium is extracted from the water by the hydrogen which is subsequently treated in a criogenic distillation stage. An important fact of the plant analysis is the calculation of heat exchangers mainly in relation to the problem posed by tHe hydrogen's low point of liquifaction. The distillation units are also treated and designed. The economic evaluation produces project diScount rates of 15.71% and 21.97%, for 25 tons/year and 40 tons/year of production capacity. The heavy water price used for these evaluation was 600 $/Kg

  15. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justice, P M

    1917-09-19

    Light paraffin oils and other oils for motors are obtained from shale, and benzene, toluene, and solvent naphtha are obtained from coal by a process in which the coal or shale is preferably powered to pass through a mesh of 64 to the inch and is heated with a mixture of finely ground carbonate or the like which under the action of heat gives off carbonic acid, and with small iron scrap or its equivalent which is adapted to increase the volume of hydrocarbons evolved. The temperature of the retort is maintained between 175 and 800/sup 0/C., and after all the vapors are given off at the higher temperature a fine jet of water may be injected into the retort and the temperature increased. The produced oil is condensed and purified by fractional distillation, and the gas formed is stored after passing it through a tower packed with coke saturated with a non-volatile oil with recovery of an oil of light specific gravity which is condensed in the tower. The residuum from the still in which the produced oil is fractionated may be treated with carbonate and iron, as in the first stage of the process, and the distillate therefrom passed to a second retort containing manganese dioxide and iron scrap preferably in the proportion of one part or two. The mixture, e.g., one containing shale or oil with six to thirteen percent of oxygen, to which is added three to eight per cent of carbonate, and from one and a half to four per cent of scrap iron, is conveyed by belts and an overhead skip to a hopper of a retort in a furnace heated by burners supplied with producer gas. The retort is fitted with a detachable lid and the vapors formed are led by a pipe to a vertical water-cooled condenser with a drain-cock which leads the condensed oils to a tank, from which a pipe leads to a packed tower for removing light oils and from which the gas passes to a holder.

  16. Dry distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1939-11-30

    To heat rapidly, and prevent agglutination of carbonaceous material duriing distillation of shale, a furnace of the tunnel type has four compartments (the preheating chamber, the distillation chamber proper, and two cooling chambers). Waggons, which convey the material through the distilling chamber, have perforated bottoms. Above the waggons in the distilling chamber are three heating sections having pipes which pass through the sections and communicate with the distilling chamber. Fans cause the distillation gases to circulate through the material and the pipes. The heating gases from three fire boxes are introduced into the oven, and circulate around pipes and are drawn to the discharge apertures by the fans. The heating gases introduced at two points travel in the direction of the material being treated, while the gases introduced at a third point travel in counter flow thereto. Gas is discharged by two pipes. Trucks carrying treated material are passed to two cooling chambers.

  17. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanding, F H

    1946-08-29

    A continuous method of distilling shale to produce valuable hydrocarbon oils is described which comprises providing a fluidized mass of the shale in a distillation zone, withdrawing hydrocarbon vapors from the zone, mixing fresh cold shale with the hydrocarbon vapors to quench the same, whereby the fresh shale is preheated, recovering hydrocarbon vapors and product vapors from the mixture and withdrawing preheated shale from the mixture and charging it to a shale distillation zone.

  18. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-05

    A process and apparatus for the destructive distillation at low temperature of mineral or organic material particularly oil shale, is given in which the process comprises distilling the material in a horizontal gaseous stream, subjecting the hot residues to the action of a gaseous stream containing a predetermined amount of oxygen so as to burn, at least partly, the carbon-containing substances, and the process uses the gases from this combustion for the indirect heating of the gases serving for the distillation.

  19. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-02-06

    The yield of oil obtained by distilling shale is increased by first soaking the shale with about 10 percent of its volume of a liquid hydrocarbon for a period of 24 hours or longer. Distillation is carried on up to a temperature of about 220/sup 0/C., and a further 10 percent of hydrocarbon is then added and the distillation continued up to a temperature of about 400/sup 0/C.

  20. Evaluation of chemical composition of defect wine distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaljević Žulj, Marin; Posavec, Barbara; Škvorc, Melanija; Tupajić, Pavica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the distillate obtained from wine with off-flavour. The chemical composition of wine distillates obtained by distillation of Chardonnay wine with oxidation off-flavour was investigated. Distillation of wine was carried out using a simple distillation pot still by double distillation and separation the different portion of the first fraction. Volatile compounds of wine and wine distillates (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol ...

  1. A Preliminary Design of a Wire Mesh Sensor for Measurement of Void Fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Ho; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Jin Ho; Hong, Seok Boong

    2006-01-01

    Steam explosion phenomena are accompanied with a multi-dimensional and multi-phase fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena. Void fraction is one of the major parameters, which governs the premixing behavior of melt particles in water and the explosion behavior of the pre-mixed fuel. However, efforts for the development of a reliable measurement technique for void fraction are still underway, as it deals with an interaction between a melt at a very high temperature and water in a short time scale. Hundreds of conductivity type probes installed in a test section enabled monitoring of the evolution of a melt-water interaction zone in the ECO test. A technique using a dual energy X-ray system was developed to measure gas fraction, liquid fraction, and melt fraction simultaneously for a small-scale steam explosion experiment. A high-energy X-ray system for monitoring multi-phase fractions is now being developed at CEA. Recently a measurement of multi-phase fractions by using a wire mesh system has been introduced. It has an advantage that the speed of the measurement is fast and a direct measurement is possible. As a part of a feasibility study on a wire mesh technique for a steam explosion experiment, this paper discusses the design of the wire mesh and the results of the preliminary calibration tests

  2. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  3. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fraction mixtures as entrainers: A pilot-scale study with industrially produced bioethanol and naphta

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; Garcia-Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Various hydrocarbons (n-hexane, cyclohexane, toluene, isooctane) and mixtures of them (binary, ternary or quaternary), as well as two different types of industrially produced naphtha (one obtained by direct distillation and the other from a catalytic cracking process), have been tested as candidate entrainers to dehydrate ethanol. The tests were carried out in an azeotropic distillation column on a semi pilot plant. The results show that it is possible to dehydrate bioethanol using naphtha as...

  4. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fractions as entrainers: A pilot-scale study of the manufacture of an ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; Garcia-Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We establish experimentally and through simulations the economic and technical viability of dehydrating ethanol by means of azeotropic distillation, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer. The purpose of this is to manufacture a ready-to-use ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposition, we have tested an azeotropic water–ethanol feed mixture, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer, in a semi pilot-plant scale distillation column. Four different hydrocarbons ...

  5. The Use of Fuel Gas as Stripping Medium in Atmospheric Distillation of Crude Oil L’utilisation de gaz combustible comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères en distillation atmosphérique du pétrole brut

    OpenAIRE

    Plellis-Tsaltakis C.; Lygeros A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Stripping of petroleum fractions aims to remove the light ends that spoil some of their properties, such as the flash point. Stripping usually employs steam for that purpose. Except for steam, other substances can perform the same function, among them light hydrocarbons. In this article, we investigate the use of refinery fuel gas as stripping medium for a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. L’extraction des fractions légères du pétrole vise à enlever les produits nuisibles à cer...

  6. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanding, F H

    1948-08-03

    A continuous method of distilling shale to produce valuable hydrocarbon oils is described, which comprises providing a fluidized mass of the shale in a distillation zone, withdrawing hydrocarbon vapors containing shale fines from the zone, mixing sufficient fresh cold shale with the hydrocarbon vapors to quench the same and to cause condensation of the higher boiling constituents thereof, charging the mixture of vapors, condensate, and cold shale to a separation zone where the shale is maintained in a fluidized condition by the upward movement of the hydrocarbon vapors, withdrawing condensate from the separation zone and recycling a portion of the condensate to the top of the separation zone where it flows countercurrent to the vapors passing therethrough and causes shale fines to be removed from the vapors by the scrubbing action of the condensate, recovering hydrocarbon vapors and product vapors from the separation zone, withdrawing preheated shale from the separation zone and charging it to a shale distillation zone.

  7. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, T

    1863-09-14

    Shales and other bituminous minerals are distilled in horizontal retorts arranged side by side and with furnaces beneath their front ends. The furnace gases pass, preferably through a brickwork grating, into spaces between the retorts and beneath a horizontal partition towards the back ends. They return above the partition to the front of the retorts, and finally enter a horizontal flue leading to a chimney. The front end of each retort is fitted with a hopper for charging and with a door for discharging. The products of distillation pass through perforated partitions inside the retorts and are conveyed away by pipes at the back.

  8. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, R

    1884-04-04

    In obtaining paraffin by distillation of shales, etc., containing sulfur, the steam used for heating is charged with ammonia or ammonium carbonate in suspension. This prevents the sulfur from decomposing the paraffin. The ammonia, etc., may also be used alone or in solution in water.

  9. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, C A

    1906-05-22

    The invention relates to an apparatus in which the destructive distillation or coking of coal, peat, shale, etc., is carried out by means of a current of hot gases at a temperature of 700--800/sup 0/F., as described in Specification No. 11,925, A.D. 1906.

  10. Biocatalytic desulfurization of petroleum and middle distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticello, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Biocatalytic Desulfurization (BDS) represents an alternative approach to the reduction of sulfur in fossil fuels. The objective is to use bacteria to selectively remove sulfur from petroleum and middle distillate fractions, without the concomitant release of carbon. Recently, bacteria have been developed which have the ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and other organosulfur molecules. These bacteria are being developed for use in a biocatalyst-based desulfurization process. Analysis of preliminary conceptual engineering designs has shown that this process has the potential to complement conventional technology as a method to temper the sulfur levels in crude oil, or remove the recalcitrant sulfur in middle distillates to achieve the deep desulfurization mandated by State and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of initial feasibility studies, sensitivity analyses and conceptual design work. Feasibility studies with various crude oils and middle distillates achieved unoptimized desulfurization levels of 40-80%. Sensitivity analyses indicate that total desulfurization costs of about $3.00 per barrel for crude oil and less than $2.00 per barrel for diesel are possible. Key criteria for commercial success of the process include the cost and half-life of the biocatalyst, residence time in the reactor, oil/water ratios required to extract the sulfur and the disposition of the separated sulfur products. 9 refs., 3 figs

  11. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, A; Renfrewshire, I; Black, W

    1889-06-14

    The invention relates to a method of, and apparatus for, distilling shale, coal, or other oil or tar-yielding minerals, to obtain gases, liquids, or other products. The distillation is effected in vertical retorts by the combustion of the partially spent material in the lower part of the retorts, to which steam and air are admitted. The retorts are built of firebrick, and provided with iron casings. They are fed through hoppers and discharged through the openings. The discharging is facilitated by a cone, or its equivalent, in the base of each retort. Steam and air are admitted through the pipes. The interior may be viewed through holes. The products are taken off from the space around the hopper.

  12. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, J; Armour, H

    1889-05-07

    The invention relates to retorts and accessory apparatus for distilling shale or other oil-yielding minerals. A series of long vertical retorts, composed of fire-brick or similar refractory material, are arranged in two rows in a bench, being divided into groups of four by transverse vertical partitions. The retorts are surmounted by metal casings or hoppers into which the fresh mineral is charged, and from which the distillate passes off through lateral pipes. Any uncondensed gases from the retorts may be passed into the flues surrounding them by the pipe and burned. The products of combustion from a furnace pass through a series of horizontal flues, being compelled to pass completely round each retort before entering the flue above. The products from two or more sets pass from the upper flues into flues running along the top of the bench, and return through a central flue to the chimney.

  13. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, D

    1882-08-19

    Manufacture of ammonia and purification of shale oils are described. In the distillation of shales, increase of ammonia is obtained and the oils are less contaminated by sulfur, by mixing a small proportion, about two to three percent, of lime or slaked line with the shale. The same process is used with other carbonaceous substances containing nitrogen, such as peat, coal, or the like; but a smaller proportion of lime is used than in the former case, and the lime is slaked with caustic soda solution. When slack or waste coal or other carbonaceous substances are distilled by heated air or gases arising from imperfect combustion, as in furnaces on the gas producer principle, slaked lime is added to the slack or other material.

  14. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  15. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, L

    1922-07-21

    In the distillation of shale and similar materials the shale is ground and briquetted and the briquettes are placed in a retort so that air passages are left between them, after which they are uniformly and slowly heated to at least 700/sup 0/C, the air passages facilitating the escape of the oil vapors, and the slow heating preventing fusion of the flux forming constituents. After the bitumen has been driven off, air is passed into the retort and heating continued to about 1050/sup 0/C, the result being a porous product suitable for insulating purposes or as a substitute for kieselguhr. The ground shale may be mixed prior to distillation with peat, sawdust, or the like, and with substances which yield acids, such as chlorides, more particularly magnesium chloride, the acids acting on the bitumen.

  16. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  17. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J M

    1884-06-03

    The invention relates to retorts for the destructive distillation of shale, dross, and other carbonaceous or oleaginous materials, and for the distillation and carbonization of sawdust, shavings, tan bark, and the like. The material is fed from a trapped hopper on a series of trays or casings of cast iron or other material, separated by flue spaces and arranged in a tier round a vertical rotating shaft passing through tubular pieces cast on the casings. The shaft is fitted with arms which carry stirring-blades so disposed that the material is shifted from side to side and slowly fed towards the ducts through which it passes to the casing next below, and is finally withdrawn from the apparatus by a pipe, which may be trapped or otherwise. Furnace gases are admitted through openings in the enclosing brickwork having settings to support the casings, the lowermost of which may be fitted below the inlet for furnace gases and their contents cooled by the circulation of cold water round them. The gaseous or volatile products of distillation pass to a condenser by means of openings and the pipe, which may be formed in sections to obtain access to the casings, or doors may be provided for this purpose. The ducts may be arranged alternately at the edge and center of the casings, which may be jacketed, and heated air or steam may be employed instead of furnace gases. Means may also be provided for admitting superheated steam into one or more of the casings.

  18. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1877-03-29

    The method consists in agitating or circulating the distillation products inside the retort by means of jets of gas, steam, or vapor, or by means of reciprocating pistons; condensing certain of the heavy hydrocarbons; sealing or luting the doors of retorts or distilling-vessels; and conducting the distillation for the manufacture of oil so that the charging or discharging doors may be fitted with self-sealing lids. Several arrangements are shown and described; a single horizontal retort is divided into two compartments by a perforated plate which supports the coal, shale, or other bituminous substance, beneath which a piston is reciprocated or a jet of steam, gas, or vapor injected; a vertical retort is fitted with a central tube into which steam, gas, or vapor is injected, or it may be divided into two compartments and the jet injected into one of these; a pair of vertical retorts are connected by a horizontal passage at the top and bottom, and into the upper one steam, gas, or vapor is injected, or the lower one is fitted with a piston.

  19. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, A V

    1856-04-22

    In order to obtain, at the first distillation, from coal, shale, and bituminous substances an oil sufficiently pure for illuminating and other purposes, the material broken into very small pieces and placed on the bottom of the retort, is evenly covered with common sand, about four times greater in weight than the weight of the coal. The coal and sand are then gradually raised to a temperature of 212/sup 0/F. Steam containing carbonaceous impurities first passes to the condenser, and subsequently oil, which rises to the surface of the water in the receiving-vessel. When some bituminous substances are employed, the temperature, after oil ceases to come over, may be gradually raised until the oil produced ceases to be pure. Most kinds of clay and earth, chalk, gypsum, black oxide of manganese, plumbago, or charcoal may be used separately, in combination, or with added chemicals, instead of sand as the medium for filtering the gas or vapor from which the oil is formed. Either the oil obtained by the first distillation or oils obtained by other means may be rectified by distilling with sand.

  20. The Use of Fuel Gas as Stripping Medium in Atmospheric Distillation of Crude Oil L’utilisation de gaz combustible comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères en distillation atmosphérique du pétrole brut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plellis-Tsaltakis C.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stripping of petroleum fractions aims to remove the light ends that spoil some of their properties, such as the flash point. Stripping usually employs steam for that purpose. Except for steam, other substances can perform the same function, among them light hydrocarbons. In this article, we investigate the use of refinery fuel gas as stripping medium for a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. L’extraction des fractions légères du pétrole vise à enlever les produits nuisibles à certaines propriétés comme le point d’éclair. Cette opération utilise habituellement de la vapeur d’eau. D’autres substances peuvent remplir la même fonction, comme les hydrocarbures légers. Dans cet article, on étudie l’utilisation du gaz combustible de la raffinerie comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères dans une unité de distillation atmosphérique.

  1. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1915-07-03

    Oils are extracted from coal, lignite, shale, boghead, butumen, asphalt, tar, pitch, etc., by distillation at a low temperature, which may be 300 to 425/sup 0/CC, solvent oils or vapors being circulated during the heating which may be conducted with or without increased or reduced pressure. The solvent oils and the extracted oils are recovered in condensers, etc., last traces being expelled from the material by a current of water vapor. The uncondensed gases may be used for heating, and the solid residue may be used for the production of gas and coke, or may be briquetted.

  2. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dow, P

    1884-09-11

    The invention has for its object to regulate the temperature at any point of vertical retorts in which steam or steam and air are employed for the distillation of shale, coal, and other substances. Vertical steam pipes at the exterior of each retort and connected with main pipes have a series of branches at different levels and furnished with regulating-valves or cocks. The admission of air is similarly regulated and spy-holes with shutters blocked or sealed against the escape of such products by the fuel intake at one end of the conduit and the congested masses of coke discharged at the other.

  3. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennie, G

    1875-11-12

    For distilling shale, or other oil-yielding minerals, two or more, preferably four, vertical retorts are mounted in a brickwork oven and are heated in the first place by coal, coke or other fuel on a grate. The spent material from the retorts is discharged from one or more in turn on to the grate and is used, together with additional fuel if necessary, to maintain the heat of the retorts. The retorts are charged by means of hoppers and lids and are discharged by means of movable bottoms actuated by rods and levers acting in combination with outlet valves. The retorts are tapered from the bottom upwards.

  4. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Brash, P

    1866-05-04

    In the distillation of oil from coal, shale, etc., hydrocarbon vapors which are condensed only with difficulty, and are of small value, are reheated and sent back into the retorts. A jet of steam, or a forcing or exhausting apparatus, may be used for this purpose, and the vapors are passed under false bottoms with which the retorts are preferably provided. In the rectification of the oils, a producer known as still bottoms results which, when redistilled, gives rise to vapors condensable only with difficulty. These vapors may be passed back into the still, or may be mixed and heated, in a separate vessel, with the vapors coming from the still.

  5. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medlrum, E

    1869-02-06

    The invention relates to the decomposition of the liquids with high boiling points, and the solids with low melting points, left in the purification of paraffin oil obtained from coal or shale. The liquids or melted solids, or their vapors, are passed through a heated iron tube or retort and c., which may be packed with broken stones, spent shale, and c. The temperature is regulated between 700/sup 0/F and a low red heat. The condensed products consist of a mixture of light and heavy oils, which may be separated by distillation. The heavier residues may be again passed through the decomposing apparatus.

  6. Induction of short-term biomarkers of tumor promotion in skin of CD-1 mice by petroleum middle distillates: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skisak, C; DiGiovanni, J; Conti, C J; Slaga, T J; Sharma, S; Sagartz, J W; Walborg, E F

    1995-01-01

    The induction of sustained epidermal hyperplasia in mouse skin has been shown to be a reliable predictor of tumor promoting activity for chemicals as diverse as phorbol esters, anthralins, n-dodecane and organic peroxides (DiGiovanni, 1992). The results contained herein demonstrate that API 81-07 and API 81-10, petroleum middle distillates that exhibit tumor promoting activity in mouse skin, induce epidermal hyperplasia and ODC activity. Other petroleum middle distillates (odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons, a light vacuum distillate, and a mineral seal oil) were also shown to share these activities. It should be emphasized that the relevance of these observations to human skin remains unresolved; however, the availability of these short-term biomarkers offers the opportunity to address the issue by performing comparative investigations on the effects of petroleum middle distillates on human skin xenografted to athymic (nude) mice. Such studies are being initiated.

  7. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomini, V V

    1938-06-07

    To produce valuable oils from shale by continuous distillation it is preheated by a heated fluid and introduced into a distilling retort from which the oil vapours and spent material are separately removed and the vapours condensed to recover the oil. The shale is preheated to 400 to 500/sup 0/F in the hopper by combustion gases from a flue and is fed in measured quantities to a surge drum, a loading chamber and surge drum, the latter two being connected to a steam pipe which equalises the pressure thereon. The material passes by two screw conveyors to a retort with deflector bars to scatter the material so that lean hot cycling gas flowing through a pipe is spread out as it makes its way upwardly through the shale and heats the oil so that it is driven off as vapour, collected in the lean gas and carried off through an outlet pipe. A measuring valve is provided at the bottom of a retort and cutter knives cut the spent shale and distribute cooling water thereto. The gases travel through heat exchangers and a condenser to an accumulator where the cycling gas is separated from the vapours, passed to compression, and preheated in a gas exchanger and spiral coils before it is returned to the retort. The oil passes to a storage tank by way of a unit tank in which oil vapours are recovered. Water is collected by a pipe in the tank bottom and returned by shaft to a retort.

  8. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1881-04-12

    Destructive distillation of shale for the manufacture of mineral oil and ammonia is described. The retorts are arranged in benches, each retort being placed over its own combustion chamber into which the spent shale is discharged and consumed in heating the next charge as described in Specification No. 1578, A. D. 1880. Two forms of retorts are shown, each consisting of two retorts placed above and communicating with one another, the upper being employed to distill the oil at a low red heat, and the lower to eliminate the nitrogen in the form of ammonia at a much higher temperature. The retorts are divided by a sliding damper and have an outlet for the passage of the products placed at the junction. The retorts have an outlet at the top for the escape of the products. Each retort has an opening closed by a cover for charging and a door for discharging. The products of combustion from the combustion chambers pass through ports to a chamber surrounding the lower retorts and thence through ports in the division wall controlled by dampers into the chamber surrounding the upper retorts, whence they pass through flues to the chimney. Around the bottom of each retort are openings communicating with a chamber to which steam is admitted through a valve from a pipe preferably placed in a coil in the flue.

  9. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrom, W A; Bennett, J A.B.

    1884-02-22

    Effecting the separation of the various products of the distillation of coal, shale, etc., by taking advantage of the graduated temperature of successive portions of the length of mechanical retorts is described. The substances entering from the hopper are gradually heated in their progress and give off a series of products in their order of volatilization, which pass from openings in the retort through a series of ascension pipes into collecting-vessels. The vessels are designed to contain different portions of the distillate and are sealed against the escape of uncondensed vapor or gas by the condensed liquid. Each of the ascension pipes communicates above its vessel with a common pipe to convey away permanent gases. The flues for heating the retort may be so arranged as to give the greatest heat at the end farthest from the point of entrance, or the stages of heat may be self-regulated by the time necessary for the material to acquire heat as it travels. If necessary the pipes may be fitted with refrigerating-appliances.

  10. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitting, E K

    1882-08-09

    The broken-up shale is placed in cast-iron retorts, heated externally, having exit tubes placed at a low level. Each retort is provided with a steam-pipe with a regulating-cock outside, the pipe being carried around the walls of the retort in a spiral or zig-zag way to ensure superheating of the steam, perforations being made in the pipe to allow exit for the steam into the retort. The steam, which may if desired be superheated before entrance, is passed into the retort when the latter has attained a temperature of from 210 to 250/sup 0/C and the passage is continued while the temperature rises, as long as distillation goes on. The exit pipe to the retort leads to a condenser of much condensing-surface, provided with a drag obtained by an exhausting steam jet or otherwise. The distilled products consist of tar, oils, wax, ammoniacal water (stated to be in greater proportion through the use of the process), and lighting and heating gas. The latter gas goes through a scrubber to a gasholder. The carbonaceous residue in the retort is discharged when cooled below a red heat, into sheet-iron cylinders, with tightly fitting lids, to avoid as far as possible contact with the atmosphere.

  11. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennent, R B

    1886-12-02

    The invention has reference to an improved construction or mode of building, arranging, and combining the parts of gas-heated retorts for the distillation of shale and other minerals, which by the improved mode and means comprised therein of heating the retorts by the gases, combined with highly heated air and the use of superheated steam in the retorts, and the utilization of the heat of the escaping waste gases for the superheating of the steam, and the raising of steam in boilers for motive power and other purposes. The retorts are erected in transverse pairs, each retort having its surrounding flame flues heating the air for each pair and with steam superheating chambers and pipes between for each pair heated by the escaping gases from the retorts.

  12. Destructive, distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, J

    1882-10-23

    The apparatus employed resembles a reverberatory furnace, having a brickwork chamber with pipes or passages leading from the bottom, through which gases and vapors, arising from destructive distillation or heating of the materials with which the chamber is charged to a certain depth, are drawn by suction produced by a fan or blower. The materials are heated from above by firegates admitted from a separate furnace or fireplace. When shale is thus treated, to obtain burning gas, oil, and ammonia, the suction may be so regulated as to give preponderance to whichever product is desired, the depth of material treated being also concerned in the result. The process is applicable also in the treatment of coal pit refuse, sawdust, peat, and other matters, to obtain volatile products; in burning limestone to obtain carbon dioxide; and in roasting ores. Reference is made to a former Specification for coking coal, No. 1947, A. D. 1882.

  13. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, A

    1863-11-12

    To obtain hydrocarbons, coal, shale, or other bituminous substance is distilled in an annular retort. The outer surface is heated by an arrangement of furnaces and flues, and the inner surface has a number of small openings through which the evolved hydrocarbons pass. The inner chamber is cooled by cold air or water pipes to condense the hydrocarbon which is then run off to purifying-apparatus. In a modification, the retort is heated from the inside, the hydrocarbon being condensed in an outer case. Another form of retort consists of a narrow flat chamber, heated from one side and with a cooled condensing-chamber on the other; or two retorts may be used, with one condensing-chamber between them.

  14. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinjes, J F

    1867-03-12

    The invention relates to means for conveying the material through rotary retorts for distilling shale or the like. The retort is fitted with longitudinal ribs which lift the material and allow it to fall again as the retort rotates. Inclined deflecting plates attached to a fixed shaft cause the material as it falls to be gradually fed towards the discharge end of the retort. By means of the handle, which can be fixed in angular position by a pin entering holes in a quadrant, the angle of the plates may be adjusted and the rate of feed may be thus regulated. Or the plates may be hinged on the shaft or to the inside of the retort, and the angle is then adjusted by a longitudinal rod moved by a handwheel and nut. A similar arrangement may be applied to retorts with an oscillating motion.

  15. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, H; McAlley, R

    1871-05-18

    Shale or clay is coked or carbonized by the action of heat in retorts in the same way that coal is coked or by any of the methods used for coking or carbonizing coal, ironstone, or wood. Clay or shale, which is poor in carbon, is mixed or ground with coal, moss, peat, or earth mold, oil, tar, or other carbonaceous matter, shale, or the coke of certain kinds of coal after having been used in the manufacture of gas or oil by distillation. The mixture is coked or carbonized or the coke may be used alone and submitted to further coking or carbonization. The volatile hydrocarbons may be used in carbonizing or assisting to carbonize the shale by being burned beneath the retorts or they may be condensed along with sulfur, ammonia, etc., and kept for after use.

  16. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenshields, J

    1870-01-13

    In distilling shale or other carbonaceous substances to obtain oil, paraffin, ammonium salts, etc., sulfuric or other acid is added to the material, in the still or before treatment. The shale is first reduced to a fine powder. Acid tar from the treatment of oils may be used instead of acid. Hydrogen is sometimes passed into the still, or iron or other metal is mixed with the shale to generate hydrogen in the still. A figure is included which shows the condenser for paraffin and heavy oils, consisting of an iron cylinder connected with the still by a short pipe and surmounted by a long pipe communicating with other condensers. The pipe projects into the cylinder and perforated plates or baffles are fixed across the central portion of the cylinder. The condensed oils are drawn off by a pipe.

  17. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, G

    1865-05-16

    A retort for the destructive distillation of coal, shale, whereby hydrocarbons are produced, is described. The vertical retort is provided with a charging door, a discharging door, an outlet leading to the condensing plant, an inclined bottom, and a perforated cage to facilitate the escape of the vapor and to regulate the amount of materials operated upon in the retort. The upper part of the cage is conical to deflect the materials fed in by the door and the lower part is also slightly conical to facilitate emptying the retort. The bottom may incline from both back and front, and also from the sides to the center. The apparatus is heated from below, and the flues pass all round the lower part of the retort.

  18. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Neilson, A; Young, A

    1876-10-09

    The invention relates to modifications of the retort apparatus, described in Specification No. 2487, A.D. 1872, for the destructive distillation of shale and other bituminous substances. The retorts instead of being worked continuously are completely filled and completely discharged in turn. They are made oblong in cross-section in order to present the material in thin layers and cause it to be acted upon more rapidly and economically. The retorts can thus be heated solely by the combustion of the carbonaceus matter contained in the discharged residues or with a small amount of coal in addition. Each retort is contracted at the bottom and is fitted with a box or chest having a hole in it corresponding to the opening in the retort and a sliding plate of iron, firebrick, or other suitable material, which can be operated by a rod passing through the front of the box, for opening or closing the retort. Underneath the box and over the combustion chamber are placed fireclay blocks leaving an opening, which can be closed by another plate of firebrick or the like. When distillation commences, the gases and vapors in the retort are drawn off through a pipe and a main by an exhauster. In order to prevent air from entering the retort or hydrocarbon vapor from being puffed back by the action of the wind, the gas which remains after the condensation of the oils is forced back into the box between the plates and part of it enters the retort and part the combustion chamber. In order to avoid the liability of the oil being carried past the condensers by the action of the gas, steam may be used as a substitute for the gas or mixed with it in large proportions, a steam jet being used to force the gas into the main supplying the boxes.

  19. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1875-09-07

    The invention relates to apparatus for absorbing and recovering volatile hydrocarbons from gases resulting from the distillation of coal, shale, and the like for the production of mineral oil, or from the coking of coal, charring of wood, and like operations. The apparatus is adapted for the repeated use of the same quantity of absorbent. The gases are passed by pipes through a coke tower down which is allowed to flow a stream of mineral oil or a fatty oil such as rape, olive, lard, tallow, and fish oils. The oil is supplied by a pipe and distributed by a plate which is held up against the opening of the pipe by a spring. The oil absorbs the volatile hydrocarbons contained in the gas and is drawn off by a pipe and passed through a tubular heat-exchanging apparatus, and thence by a pipe to a still formed at the bottom of the coke tower and constructed with a number of trays on the principle of the coffey still. The still is heated by a fire or by admitting the exhaust steam from an engine driving a fan, which draws the gases through the coke tower. The stream is admitted by a pipe and distributed by a perforated disk. Live steam may also be admitted if necessary by a pipe. The volatile oils are distilled off through a pipe to a coil condenser, and flow thence into a tank for separating any condensed water. This tank is covered preferably by a glass plate to allow inspection. The oil remaining in the still flows by a pipe to the heat-exchanger, in which it gives up heat to the oil flowing from the coke tower. It then flows by a pipe through a tubular cooler, cooled by water circulation, and thence to a store tank from which it is again pumped to the top of the coke tower.

  20. Apparatus for distillation of bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carthaus, E; von Rittersberg, K; Abraham, A

    1917-05-03

    Apparatus for dry distillation of bituminous material, such as oil shale and brown coal with simultaneous fractional separation of the distillate, consists in the fact, that the domed water-cooled condenser, arranged above the conveyer carrying it, is divided by double vertical partitions in the chamber.

  1. Coal distillation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, P C

    1937-05-20

    To fractionally condense the vapours derived from the distillation of coal or shale, an apparatus comprises a low temperature carbonisation retort having a plurality of differently heating zones therein which connect with a manifold in which said gas oil vapours can expand. A dephlegmator, cold water jacketted and centrally air heated, causes the heavier matters of the vapours to settle out and the lighter oil gas vapours are conveyed to the bottom of an electrically operated fractionating apparatus comprising a column furnished with a plurality of compartments each heated by electrical elements connected to source of current by lead wires. Annular launders in the compartments collect the derived liquids at the various levels and deliver same by pipes to separate sump while pipe at head of column draws off incondensible gases for return to retort.

  2. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Fyfe, J

    1897-06-03

    Improvements in retorts of the class described in Specification No. 1377, A. D. 1882, for the destructive distillation of shale are disclosed. The retorts are provided with enlarged multiple hoppers for the reception of the fresh shale, and with enlarged chambers for the reception of the exhausted shale. The hoppers are built up of steel plates, and are bolted at the bottom to flanges on the upper ends of the retorts so as to permit of differential expansion. The shale is fed continuously into the retorts by rods or chains carried by a rocking shaft, or by a slit tube attached to a rocking shaft, and in connection with the hydraulic main. The spent shale is discharged into the receiving chambers by means of a series of prongs extending through a grating and carried by a rocking shaft actuated by levers engaging with reciprocating bars. In an alternative arrangement, the pronged rocking shafts are replaced by worms or screws formed into one half with a right-hand thread and the other half with a left-hand thread.

  3. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, T

    1862-03-03

    Apparatus for the primary distillation of shale or other bituminous minerals in large quantity is constructed as follows:--An annular retort chamber is heated by two or more furnaces, one of which communicates with a central or internal vertical flue, and the others with external or encircling flues preferably disposed in zig-zag, helical or other tortuous course; or the gases pass up the external flues and down the internal flue or flues. The retort chamber may be divided by partitions, or there may be two or more separate chambers disposed concentrically or otherwise with intermediate flues. A pipe or pipes are provided to carry away volatile matters, and valved hoppers are arranged at the top of the retort chamber. The refuse or waste passes off by discharge tubes between the furnaces, and the mouths of these tubes dip into water tanks. The bottom of the retort chamber is funnel-shaped at the discharging points. The apparatus is preferably cylindrical, but may be triangular, square, or polygonal, and may be inclined or horizontal instead of vertical.

  4. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinjes, J F

    1866-03-13

    Continuous distillation of shale, boghead coal, or other noncaking bituminous material is effected in one or more rotating or oscillating horizontal retorts constructed to advance the charge. In the former case, internal spiral ribs or projections are provided. In the latter case, the retort is subdivided by annular flanges provided each with an opening, and a series of double inclined projections is disposed opposite the openings. An apparatus is shown in which the material is fed continuously from a hopper, and is advanced through upper and lower oscillating retorts, provided with annular flanges, double inclined projections, and longitudinal ribs or ledges. The retorts are supported on antifriction rollers. The retort is oscillated by means of a mangle wheel and a pinion on a shaft connected by a universal joint to a driving-shaft. The retort is oscillated from the retort by means of a chain connection. The retort is situated in a chamber separated by perforated brickwork from the actual furnace chamber, so that it is subjected to a lower temperature than the retort. The hopper delivers to crushing-rollers in a lower hopper which delivers to a shoot controlled by a sliding door. A hook on the retort is connected by a pipe to the retort, and a pipe leads from the hood to a condenser. A hood at the delivery end of the retort is connected by a pipe to an airtight cooler for the residue, which is discharged through doors into a truck of other receiver.

  5. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, A

    1865-10-04

    To prevent oil distilled from coal, shale, or other minerals from being condensed and burnt in the retort, the oil is drawn off from the bottom of the retort. In order that the oil may be drawn off free from dirt and dust, the vertical retort is made of greater diameter at the bottom than at the top, and a vessel containing water is placed at the bottom. Within the retort is a cylinder built up of spaced rings, between which the oil percolates to the interior of the cylinder, whence it is drawn off through a pipe near its lower end. Externally, the rings present a smooth surface which offers no obstruction to the descent of the coal, and the passing of dust and dirt to the interior of the cylinder is prevented by making the lower edge of each ring overlap the upper edge of the ring below it. The cylinder may be replaced by a square, or other casing, and may be cast in one piece.

  6. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hislop, G R

    1882-11-03

    Relates to apparatus for the treatment of cannel or common coal, shale, dross, peat, wood, and similar carbonaceous materials and ironstones for the purpose of obtaining gas, ammonia, and oil. A series of horizontal retorts are built into an arched chamber, and are supported by open arches. A series of vertical retorts in a chamber are situated beneath and in front of the retorts, so that the contents of the latter may easily be discharged into them. The carbonaceous material is first subjected to distillation in the retorts, the products passing by pipes to a hydraulic main where the coal tar and mineral oil are collected in the usual way. The gas is passed through oxide of iron and of lime if to be used for illuminating purposes, and through the former only, if to be used solely for heating purposes. The lower ends of the retorts are closed by doors, or may be sealed by water. They are preferably oblong in section and are surrounded by heating-flues, and each preferably contains the spent material from two of the primary retorts. They discharge their contents into a chamber at the bottom, from which they are withdrawn through a door. When the coke has been transferred from the horizontal to the vertical retorts the latter are closed by suitable covers, and the former are recharged with raw material. Superheated steam is introduced into the lower ends of the vertical retorts in order to facilitate the production of ammonia, which, together with the gases generated pass by a pipe to a main.

  7. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In a process of distilling solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery, the time factor and the temperature gradient during the distillation period are so controlled that a temperature difference exceeding 150/sup 0/C is avoided between the temperatures at the center and periphery of any suitable size of material or thickness of fuel bed. The material is heated by direct contact with an inert gas, such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gases, which is passed in counterflow to the material and whose volume is such as to lower the vapor tension or partial pressure of the volatilizable oils and to withdraw the oils without cracking of the oil vapors. The material may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment by gases containing 2 to 3 percent of free oxygen to reduce its coking properties, and free oxygen may be added either to the heating gases during the heat treatment, or to the retort and heating gases and vapors to polymerize resinous bodies prior to condensation or during condensation and while the oils are still wholly or partially in the vapor state.

  8. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrow, J R

    1921-04-16

    To obtain an increased yield of by-products such as oils, ammonia, and gas from coal, oil shale, wood, peat, and the like by low and medium temperature processes, the requisite quantity of hot producer gas from a gas producer, is caused to travel, without ignition, through the material as it passes in a continuous manner through the retort so that the sensible heat of the producer gas is utilized to produce distillation of the carbonaceous material, the gases passing to a condenser, absorption apparatus, and an ammonia absorber respectively. In a two-stage method of treatment of materials such as peat or the like, separate supplies of producer gas are utilized for a preliminary drying operation and for the distillation of the material, the drying receptacle and the retort being joined together to render the process continuous. The gas from the drying receptacle may be mixed with the combined producer and retort gas from the retort, after the hydrocarbon oils have deen removed therefrom.

  9. Distilling oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, R H

    1923-04-18

    In the fractional distillation of oils from oil shale and similar materials the charge is passed continuously through a vertical retort heated externally by hot combustion gases in flues and internally by the passage of these gases through flues passing through the retort so that zones of increasing temperature are maintained. A vapor trap is provided in each zone having an exit pipe leading through a dust trap to a condenser. The bottoms of the conical vapor traps are provided with annular passages perforated to permit of steam being sprayed into the charge to form screens which prevent the vapors in different zones from mingling, and steam may also be introduced through perforations in an annular steam box. Dampers are provided to control the passage of the heating gases through the flues independently.

  10. Multiple daily fractionation in radiotherapy: biological rationale and preliminary clinical experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangeli, G [Instituto Medico Scientifico, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Oncology; Mauro, F; Morelli, D; Nervi, C

    1979-09-01

    The biological bases of radiation dose fractionation are reviewed and discussed with special emphasis on reassortment. Experimental data on animal model systems are presented to clarify that reassortment has to be added to sublethal damage repair and reoxygenation in the rationale for an optimized radiotherapy course according to tumor cell kinetics. Clinical results on several human tumors treated with twice or thrice daily fractions are described. These results show that some clinically radioresistant tumors (especially if not characterized by a relatively long clinical doubling line) can be satisfactorily dealt with using multiple daily fractionation. Clinical observations indicate that a relatively high cumulative daily dose (200 + 150 + 150 rad) can be safely administered.

  11. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  12. Preliminary results in advanced head and neck cancer with radiotherapy by multiple fractions a day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.G.; Breur, K.; Schueren, E. v.d.

    1980-01-01

    Nine patients with advanced head and neck cancer were treated by irradiation consisting of three fractions a day of 180 rad administered with intervals of 4 h. The total dose was 4860-5400 rad in an overall time of 11-12 days. The acute mucosal reactions produced by this multifractionated schedule were similar to those observed with conventional fractionation. The acute skin reactions were minimal. The period of acute reactions were shorter than is generally observed with conventional fractionation. In six patients with a follow-up time of six months or longer no late reactions were detected with the exception of one patient requiring permanent tracheostomy because of laryngeal oedema. In the whole group of patients loco-regional control of the disease was achieved. Six patients had maintained the full response for six months or longer. The results so far obtained with this multiple fractions a day schedule are encouraging. More patients have to be entered in this study in order to draw definitive conclusions. (author)

  13. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  14. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy for intracranial benign tumor : preliminary results of clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Yong; Ahn, Yong Chan; Huh, Seung Jae [Samsung Medical Center, Syungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1998-06-01

    With the development of stereotactic immobilization systems capable of reliable serial repositioning, fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy(FSRT) offers the potential for an improved treatment outcome by excellent dose delivery, and dose distribution characteristics with the favorable radio-biological properties of fractionated irradiation. We describe our initial experience using FSRT for the treatment of intracranial benign tumor. Between August 1995 and December 1996, 15 patients(7 males and 8 females aged 6-70 years) were treated with FSRT. The patients had the following diagnosis : pituitary adenoma(10) including one patient who previously had received radiotherapy, craniopharyngioma(2), acoustic neurinoma(1), meningioma(2). Using the Gill-Thomas-Cos-man relocatable head frame and multiple non-coplanar therapy, the daily dose of 2Gy was irradiated at 90% to 100% isodose surface of the isocenter. The collimator sizes ranged from 26mm to 70mm. In all patients except one follow-up lost, disease was well-controlled. Acute complication was negligible and no patient experienced cranial nerve neuropathies and radiation necrosis. In overall patient setup with scalp measurements, reproducibility was found to have mean of 1.1{+-}0.6mm from the baseline reading. Relocatable stereotactic system for FSRT is highly reproducible and comfortable. Although the follow-up period was relatively short, FSRT is considered to be a safe an effective radiation technique as the treatment of intracranial tumor. But the fractionation schedule(fraction size, overall treatment time and total dose) still remains to be solved by further clinical trials.

  15. Preliminary Results of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy After Cyst Drainage for Craniopharyngioma in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanesaka, Naoto; Mikami, Ryuji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Nogi, Sachika; Tajima, Yu; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Wada, Jun; Miki, Tamotsu; Haraoka, Jou; Okubo, Mitsuru; Sugahara, Shinji; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for craniopharyngioma. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2005, 16 patients with craniopharyngioma were referred to Tokyo Medical University Hospital. They received FSRT alone after histologic confirmation by needle biopsy and underwent cyst drainage via endoscopy. The median prescription dose fraction was 30 Gy in six fractions. All patients except 1 were followed up until December 2009 or death. Results: The median follow-up period was 52 months (range, 4–117 months). Of the 17 patients, 3 experienced recurrence 4 to 71 months after FSRT. The 3-year local control rate was 82.4%. One patient died of thyroid cancer, and the 3-year survival rate was 94.1%. Eight patients had improved visual fields at a median of 2.5 months after FSRT, but hormonal functions did not improve in any patient. Conclusions: FSRT after cyst drainage seems to be safe and effective for patients with craniopharyngiomas, and it may be a safe alternative to surgery.

  16. Preliminary Results of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy After Cyst Drainage for Craniopharyngioma in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesaka, Naoto, E-mail: kaneka@tokyo-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Mikami, Ryuji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Nogi, Sachika; Tajima, Yu [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Wada, Jun; Miki, Tamotsu; Haraoka, Jou [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Okubo, Mitsuru [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Sugahara, Shinji [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Tokuuye, Koichi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for craniopharyngioma. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2005, 16 patients with craniopharyngioma were referred to Tokyo Medical University Hospital. They received FSRT alone after histologic confirmation by needle biopsy and underwent cyst drainage via endoscopy. The median prescription dose fraction was 30 Gy in six fractions. All patients except 1 were followed up until December 2009 or death. Results: The median follow-up period was 52 months (range, 4-117 months). Of the 17 patients, 3 experienced recurrence 4 to 71 months after FSRT. The 3-year local control rate was 82.4%. One patient died of thyroid cancer, and the 3-year survival rate was 94.1%. Eight patients had improved visual fields at a median of 2.5 months after FSRT, but hormonal functions did not improve in any patient. Conclusions: FSRT after cyst drainage seems to be safe and effective for patients with craniopharyngiomas, and it may be a safe alternative to surgery.

  17. Colour-coded fractional anisotropy images: differential visualisation of white-matter tracts - preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, T.; Higano, S.; Tamura, H.; Mugikura, S.; Takahashi, S.

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion-tensor analysis allows quantitative assessment of diffusion anisotropy. Fractional anisotropy (FA) is commonly used to quantify anisotropy. One of the limitations of FA imaging is, however, that it does not contain information about the directionality of anisotropy and it is therefore difficult to identify white-matter tracts on FA images. Our purpose was to describe a simple method of making composite images containing information about both magnitude and direction of diffusion anisotropy. The composite colour-coded FA images enabled us to identify different adjacent fibre bundles of similar degrees of diffusion anisotropy, and might be helpful in assessment of these fasciculi. (orig.)

  18. Preliminary PM2.5 and PM10 fractions source apportionment complemented by statistical accuracy determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samek Lucyna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were collected between the years 2010 and 2013 at the urban area of Krakow, Poland. Numerous types of air pollution sources are present at the site; these include steel and cement industries, traffic, municipal emission sources and biomass burning. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the concentrations of the following elements: Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, As and Pb within the collected samples. Defining the elements as indicators, airborne particulate matter (APM source profiles were prepared by applying principal component analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multiple linear regression (MLR. Four different factors identifying possible air pollution sources for both PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were attributed to municipal emissions, biomass burning, steel industry, traffic, cement and metal industry, Zn and Pb industry and secondary aerosols. The uncertainty associated with each loading was determined by a statistical simulation method that took into account the individual elemental concentrations and their corresponding uncertainties. It will be possible to identify two or more sources of air particulate matter pollution for a single factor in case it is extremely difficult to separate the sources.

  19. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  20. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-01-01

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  1. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  2. Distillation of bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, M

    1875-02-16

    The retort with its accessories constitutes a distillation apparatus for shale composed of a cylindrical, vertical, fixed, tubular, and of ring form metal retort. Also it is comprised of a special hearth of large dimensions in the form of a circular pocket receiving from the retort as heating agent the distilled shale and emitting by radiation the heat that makes the distillation apparatus for the shale act.

  3. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S.

    2013-01-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  4. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mariliasemmler@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S., E-mail: tony8013@hotmail.com, E-mail: insaurraldemar9@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (FCV/UNA), San Lorenzo (Paraguay). Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura

    2013-07-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  5. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-12-26

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  6. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Amy, Gary; Chunggaze, Mohammed; Al-Ghasham, Tawfiq

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  7. Fractionation and rectification apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwald, A

    1932-05-25

    Fractionation and rectifying apparatus with a distillation vessel and a stirring tube, drainage tubes leading from its coils to a central collecting tube, the drainage tubes being somewhat parallel and attached to the outer half of the stirring tube and partly on the inner half of the central collecting tube, whereby distillation and rectification can be effected in a single apparatus.

  8. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shaibu Auwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod.

  9. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF ITO CELLS FROM RAT LIVER USING THE OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR - A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marcos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, much light has been shed on hepatic fibrosis, and the activation / proliferation of Ito cells (IC emerged to play a central role. Therefore, it is essential to have solid quantitative data in nonpathological statuses; yet, this data is scarce and confined to "number per area" or semiquantitative information. Moreover, the supposed heterogeneous distribution of IC in the hepatic lobule was never analysed with design-based (unbiased stereology. In the present study, the total number (N of IC in rat liver was estimated for the first time, by combining immunocytochemistry with the optical fractionator. Quantification was extended to the hepatocytes, to disclose the IC index, an often-used ratio in hepatology. Systematic uniform random liver sections were obtained from male Wistar rats (n = 3, and immunostained against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a known specific marker for hepatic IC. For the first time, these were marked against GFAP in thick (30 μm paraffin sections. The estimated N of IC was 224E06; with a coefficient of error of 0.04 or 0.06, depending on the particular equation used (based on the so-called "quadratic approximation". The IC index was 91 IC/1000 hepatocytes. Concerning the lobular heterogeneity, it was proved the liver harbours a larger total number of periportal IC and hepatocytes.

  10. Improvements in retorting apparatus for fractional distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, W S

    1933-05-05

    A retort is located within a cylindrical chamber with annular space between them. The products of combustion from a furnace pass into said annular space. A flue pipe carries off gases from said space. A perforated plate located at the bottom of the retort and means are located within the furnace for heating air and superheating steam. Perforated pipes deliver air and steam to the retort and a condenser is provided wherein oil vapour produced in the retort is condensed.

  11. Cyberknife fractionated radiotherapy for adrenal metastases: Preliminary report from a multispecialty Indian cancer care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinanjan Basu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Metastasis to adrenal gland from lung, breast, and kidney malignancies are quite common. Historically radiotherapy was intended for pain palliation. Recent studies with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT including Cyberknife robotic radiosurgery aiming at disease control brings about encouraging results. Here we represent the early clinical experience with Cyberknife stereotactic system from an Indian cancer care center. The main purpose of this retrospective review is to serve as a stepping stone for future prospective studies with non- invasive yet effective technique compared to surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed four cases of adrenal metastases (three: lung and one: renal cell carcinoma treated with Cyberknife SBRT. X sight spine tracking was employed for planning and treatment delivery. Patients were evaluated for local response clinically as well as with PETCT based response criteria.Results: With a median gross tumor volume of 20.5 cc and median dose per fraction of 10 Gy, two patients had complete response (CR and two had partial response (PR when assessed 8-12 weeks post treatment as per RECIST. There was no RTOG grade 2 or more acute adverse events and organs at risk dosage were acceptable. Till last follow up all the patients were locally controlled and alive. Conclusion: Cyberknife SBRT with its unique advantages like non- invasive, short duration outpatient treatment technique culminating in similar local control rates in comparison to surgery is an attractive option. World literature of linear accelerator based SBRT and our data with Cyberknife SBRT with small sample size and early follow up are similar in terms of local control in adrenal metastases. Future prospective data would reveal more information on the management of adrenal metastases.

  12. PRELIMINARY CLINICAL RESULTS WITH LIPOASPIRATE STROMAL VASCULAR CELL FRACTION IN TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ya. Shevela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of clinical application of autologous stromal-vascular fraction (SVF cells in patients with degenerative osteoarthritis (OA of the knee, grade II and III (Kellgren–Lawrence scale.We recruited six patients with knee OA (3 men and 3 women; median age 64 years with mean disease duration of 7 years. All the patients were administered a single intra-articular injection of autologous nucleated SVF cells at an average dose of 16.8±0.9 × 106 per joint (a total of 11 joints. The patients did not experience any serious side effects (allergic, toxic or inflammatory related to the knee injection. Patient surveys at 1 month after SVF administration revealed a decrease in the severity of pain, as measured by a visual analog scale (VAS and a specialized 100-point scale KOOS (subscale "pain" (p < 0.05 on both scales. Moreover, the patients reported improvement in the joint functions and quality of life related to affected joints on a KOOS scale (p < 0.05. These positive clinical changes persisted during 6 month follow up. Significant improvements were noted in ultrasound findings, with increased thickness of the cartilage layer at 3 months (in 73% of cases and at 6 months (in 82%. Our pilot study demonstrated the safety and tolerability of intra-articular injection of autologous SVF cells in patients with moderate to severe OA. The results obtained also indicate a significant antiinflammatory effect of autologous adipose tissue SVF cells, which is manifested at the early stages of cell therapy. Our further investigations will be focused on exploring the SVF stimulatory effects on regeneration of damaged joints.

  13. Elementary Analysis of Petroleum Distillates by Gc-Aed: Validation and Application to the Calculation of Distillation Profile Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baco F.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of elementary analysis in the distillation profile of petroleum cuts by gas phase chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED coupling and shows the application perspectives to characterisation of middle distillates of a piece of information unheard of until now on a routine basis. The performances of the analytical assembly used have been studied for carbon, hydrogen, sulphur and nitrogen analysis. Simulated distillation, a gas phase chromatography analysis which enables determining the weight percentage of distilled matter in relation to the boiling point of petroleum cuts, has been adapted to GC-AED coupling. We have developed a method giving access to three types of information: global elementary composition, simulated distillation and elementary composition in distillation profile, i. e. by fraction (% of the distilled product. The analysis of the atmospheric distillates has been assessed in terms of precision and bias for these various types of information. The validation was carried out notably by comparison with the results obtained using reference analytical methods, on preparative distillation cuts of representative samples. The application of GC-AED to characterisation of distillates is discussed, in particular for classification purposes and for predicting petroleum properties in the distillation profile. The cetane number of gas oils was taken as an example to illustrate the latter application.

  14. Preliminary study on fractions' activities of red betel vine (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) leaves ethanol extract toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawaty, Farida Juliantina; Julianto, Tatang Shabur; Tamhid, Hady Anshory

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to identify the antimycobacterial activity of fraction of red betel vine leaves ethanol extract (methanol fraction, ethyl acetate, and chloroform) toward M. tuberculosis. Red betel vine leaves ethanol extract was made with maceration method using ethanol solvent 70%. Resulted extract was then fractionated using Liquid Vacuum Chromatography (LVC) with methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform solvent. Each fractionation was exposed to M. tuberculosis with serial dilution method. Controls of fraction, media, bacteria, and isoniazid as standard drug were included in this research. The group of compound from the most active fraction was then identified. The research found that the best fraction for antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosisis chloroform fraction. The compound group of chloroform fraction was then identified. The fraction contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid. The fraction of methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform from red betel vine leaves has antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosis. Chloroform fraction has the best antimycobacterial activity and it contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid.

  15. Low temperature destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-05

    A process is given and apparatus is described for the destructive distillation at low temperature of coal, oil shale, and the like by subjection to the action of a stream of hot gases or superhearted steam, flowing in a closed circuit. Subsequent treatment of the distillation residues with a gas stream containing oxygen results in combustion of the carbon-containing material therein brings to a high temperature the solid residue, in which the process comprises subsequently contacting the hot solid residue with the fluid stream effecting the distillation.

  16. Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Allen, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. Analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, Karl Fischer coulombic titrimetry, refractometry, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC). These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database. From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

  17. Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Allen, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. Analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, Karl Fischer coulombic titrimetry, refractometry, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC). These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database. From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC. PMID:26401423

  18. Distilling shale and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, H; Young, G

    1923-01-09

    In a process of recovering oil from shale or coal the material is ground and may be subjected to a cleaning or concentrating process of the kind described in Specification 153,663 after which it is distilled in a furnace as described in Specification 13,625/09 the sections of the furnace forming different temperature zones, and the rate of the passage of the material is regulated so that distillation is complete with respect to the temperature of each zone, the whole distillation being accomplished in successive stages. The vapors are taken off at each zone and superheated steam may be passed into the furnace at suitable points and the distillation terminated at any stage of the process.

  19. Low temperature distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-21

    To distil mineral or organic material, the material is heated by means of a hot gas entering into contact with and traversing the material in a horizontal direction. The vertical retort is charged with material from the hopper and hot gases from the furnace after traversing the boiler enter the preheating zone, pass through the slots and charge therein and are educted through connection by the blower. The charge passes downwardly to the distillation zone wherein hot gases from the heater are passed via pipe and slots through the chambers and to the pipe controlled by the dampers. These gases are recycled by the fan through the heater and chamber, that portion of the gases corresponding to the amount of vapours evolved from the distillation being evacuated via the pipe to the condensing plant not shown. Steam and/or a limited quantity of water may be admitted to the distillation zone.

  20. Destructive distillation under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1932-09-08

    A process of destructive distillation of distillable carbonaceous material under pressure is described, consisting of regulating the temperature by introducing the carbonaceous materials to a point where the reaction of hydrogenation has begun but has not stopped, by placing it in indirect heat-exchange with a cooling agent at a critical temperature below the reaction temperature, the agent being under pressure and introduced in the liquid state. Water is used as the cooling agent.

  1. Companded total condensation loxboil air distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a dual pressure cryogenic distillation process for producing gaseous oxygen from a supply of compressed and cleaned air, comprising: a. cooling a major fraction of the compressed and cleaned air; b. rectifying the major fraction in a high pressure rectifier to liquid nitrogen overhead product and kettle liquid bottom product; c. distilling the kettle liquid in a low pressure column to liquid oxygen bottom product and gaseous nitrogen overhead product; d. working expanding a compensating vapor comprised of at least 77% N/sub 2/ thereby producing refrigeration; and e. further compressing the remaining minor fraction comprising no more than about 30% of the compressed, cleaned warm air in a compressor powered by the expansion

  2. Surface active agents from Egyptian petroleum distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.

    Kerosene and solar distillates from local crude petroleum 'Morgan' were fractionated. These fractions were refined with oleum and then distilled. The normal paraffins were separated from the refined fractions by the urea adduction technique. These paraffin cuts were subjected to 50% chlorination and the obtained monochlorinated paraffins were used in the synthesis of alkylbenzenes and alkyldiphenyls which were converted to anionic surfactants by sulphonation with 95% sulphuric acid. The sulphonyl chlorides of alkylbenzenes and of alkyldiphenyls were prepared and then converted to the corresponding sulphonamides. The prepared sulphonamides were then processed to nonionic surfactants through condensation with ethylene oxide. The ethoxylates were sulphated with chlorosulphonic acid and phosphated with phosphorus pentoxide to anionic surfactants. The surface active properties and the biodegradability of all the prepared surfactants were determined.

  3. A brief review on newborn screening methods for hemoglobinopathies and preliminary results selecting beta thalassemia carriers at birth by quantitative estimation of the HbA fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantikou, Eleni; Arkesteijn, Sandra G; Beckhoven van, Jaqueline M; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Giordano, Piero Carlo

    2009-12-01

    We present in a brief summary the basic aspects of the most rational technologies used for new born screening (NBS) of the hemoglobinopathies and we report the preliminary results for the identification of beta-thalassemia carriers at birth by measuring the expression of the HbA fraction. Separation and measurement of the Hb fractions in 1.500 cord blood samples collected among the multi-ethnic Dutch population using different methods. By using a cut of thalassemia can be preselected at birth with a reasonable degree of sensitivity and be confirmed by parent analysis.

  4. Comparative Ebulliometry: a Simple, Reliable Technique for Accurate Measurement of the Number Average Molecular Weight of Macromolecules. Preliminary Studies on Heavy Crude Fractions Ébulliométrie comparative : technique simple et fiable pour déterminer précisément la masse molaire moyenne en nombre des macromolécules. Etudes préliminaires sur des fractions lourdes de bruts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the authors present a comparison of the major techniques for the measurement of the molecular weight of macromolecules. The bibliographic results are gathered in several tables. In the second part, a comparative ebulliometer for the measurement of the number average molecular weight (Mn of heavy crude oil fractions is described. The high efficiency of the apparatus is demonstrated with a preliminary study of atmospheric distillation residues and resins. The measurement of molecular weights up to 2000 g/mol is possible in less than 4 hours with an uncertainty of about 2%. Cet article comprend deux parties. Dans la première, les auteurs présentent une comparaison entre les principales techniques de détermination de la masse molaire de macromolécules. Les résultats de l'étude bibliographique sont rassemblés dans plusieurs tableaux. La seconde partie décrit un ébulliomètre comparatif conçu pour la mesure de la masse molaire moyenne en nombre (Mn des fractions lourdes des bruts. Une illustration de l'efficacité de cet appareil est indiquée avec l'étude préliminaire de résidus de distillation atmosphérique et de résines. En particulier, la mesure de masses molaires pouvant atteindre 2000 g/mol est possible en moins de 4 heures avec une incertitude expérimentale de l'ordre de 2 %.

  5. Destructive distillation: oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J; Glover, S

    1918-01-31

    Canned and other coals are destructively distilled in continuously operated vertical retorts which at their upper portions are maintained at temperatures suitable for low temperature oil distillation such as about 700/sup 0/C, and at their lower portions the temperature is higher and such as to be suitable for the production of gas, e.g., about 1400/sup 0/C. Superheated steam is introduced into the lower portion of the retort, preferably by means of the arrangement described in Specification 120,458, and this is converted into blue water gas which assists the distillation in the center of the coal charge. The retorts are preferably such as are described in Specifications 2663/07 and 7757/14.

  6. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  7. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, M J

    1925-06-29

    Carbonaceous materials such as coal, oil shale, peat, or wood are destructively distilled while being subjected to the action of superheated steam and hydrogen, the latter being provided by dissociating a part of the superheated steam. The materials are charged into a retort heated by a burner and superheated steam and hydrogen are passed in by a pipe and nozzles. The distillates enter a dust extractor through openings and escape through openings shielded by cones into an outlet pipe leading to condensers. The dust which settles in the bottom of the apparatus is periodically removed.

  8. Distilling coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J

    1917-12-21

    Coals of various kinds such as shales, bitumens, and oil sand, peat, etc. are distilled at 350 to 450/sup 0/C and in the presence of vapors and gases obtained by cracking hydrocarbon oils, or the gases obtained by separating the condensable hydrocarbons therefrom, and, if desired, with the addition of superheated steam. The hydrocarbons are properly cracked by passing through molten lead as described in Specification 116,304. According to the Provisional Specification, superheated steam alone may be used to effect the distillation.

  9. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  10. Vacuum distilling vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reik, H

    1928-12-27

    Vacuum distilling vessel for mineral oil and the like, characterized by the ring-form or polyconal stiffeners arranged inside, suitably eccentric to the casing, being held at a distance from the casing by connecting members of such a height that in the resulting space if necessary can be arranged vapor-distributing pipes and a complete removal of the residue is possible.

  11. Distilling bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, C N; Hayden, H P

    1926-12-28

    Bituminous materials such as heavy asphaltic residues from petroleum distillation or natural bitumens such as gilsonite, grahamite, etc. are distilled in presence of a carrier consisting of pieces of inert refractory material and by the heat generated by combustion of the coke which remains on the carrier after distillation. A vertical cylindrical retort, in which a wood and coal fire is first made, is charged with an inert refractory substance such as pumice stone, broken firebrick, burnt fire clay, carborundum, ash, etc. mixed with a bituminous substance, which, if fusible, may be melted and added in a rotary drum. The mixture passes downwards through the retort, first through regions in which the hydrocarbons are distilled and cracked and then through a region in which the remaining carbon is burnt by a limited supply of air and steam admitted through a grate. The inert material is discharged through a water seal and used again. Vapors, withdrawn from the retort though an outlet, pass through a heat intercharger and separator and are treated with a spray of sulfuric acid to separate ammonia in a scrubber, with water sprays to condense oil in scrubbers, and with oil in a scrubber.

  12. Preliminary comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of accelerated relative to conventional fractionation radiotherapy by treatment of spontaneous canine malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, David L.; Levin, Rebecca; Buncher, C. Ralph; Aron, Bernard S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: This study's ultimate goals involve development of an accelerated fractionation (AF) regimen with an integrated final concomitant boost (CB) and examination of factors prognostic of the CB's therapeutic efficacy which could be measured during the initial AF portion to determine for which patients CB should be used. These endpoints can be accurately determined quickly by evaluating the treatment (tx) of spontaneous canine veterinary patient tumors. Because surviving tumor clonogen growth rate increases after radiotherapy (RT) begins, this accelerated repopulation (AR) should be reduced by AF. Furthermore, CB using a small field encompassing only the tumor bed, given as a second daily tx during the last week of RT, should further reduce AR. The initial portion of this project which is nearing completion was designed to determine if incidentally treated normal tissues could tolerate the AF regimen and project whether addition of the tumor bed CB would also be tolerated. Materials and Methods: Currently 20 canine patients with biopsy proven localized tumors have received canine AF radiotherapy given as 3.2Gy/fraction(fx) administered 5 days a week (Mon-Fri) to a total of 15 fxs (48Gy) within 18 elapsed days. RT is given with a 60 Co teletherapy unit. Their tumor response, control, survival, and acute normal tissue responses are being directly compared to results we previously obtained from canines receiving a nearly equivalent dose/fx and total dose conventional fractionation (CF) regimen which was given alone or with adjuvant hyperthermia (HT). In that study the canines were stratified by tumor histology and anatomic site and randomly assigned to receive canine CF (3.5Gy/fx, 3 fxs/week [Mon-Wed-Fri] to 14 fxs (49Gy) in an elapsed time of approx. 30 days) either alone or followed weekly by local HT (44 deg. +/- 2 deg. C) for 30 minutes (5 HT fxs). As is currently done, these CF+/-HT patients were followed up to 3 years to quantitate the magnitudes

  13. Membrane distillation for milk concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Romero Guzman, Maria; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Barrera, K.H.; Feenstra, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging technology to concentrate liquid products while producing high quality water as permeate. Application for desalination has been studied extensively the past years, but membrane distillation has also potential to produce concentrated food products like

  14. Anaesthetic effects of Adenia gummifera distillates on Apis mellifera (Honeybee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngarivhume, T; Dzomba, P; Gwizangwe, I; Zendera, C H; Katsvanga, C A T; Jimu, L; Moyo, M; Chagonda, T

    2008-01-01

    The anaesthetic activities of steam distillates of Adenia gummifera stem on Apis mellifera were evaluated by a diffusion method. Live, direct and fractional (61-80 degrees C fraction) distillates had greater anaesthetic effect while vacuum distillates were mild. The anaesthetic activity significantly increased with concentration up to 6% (v/v), and then it levelled off, while excessive exposure was lethal. The number of bees in a given volume had no significant effect on anaesthetic activity but container volume (F(cal) = 66.4; F(3,8) = 4.07) and bee-distillate distance (F(cal) = 31.0; F(2,6) = 5.14) did, suggesting the rate of diffusion of active component could be the determining factor. The active component is likely to contain amines and the rest halogenated alkane.

  15. The applicability of radiotracers for the investigation of the distillation of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graczyk, J.; Iller, E.

    1976-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracers provide valuable methods for the investigation of distillation processes and have been applied to determine the characteristics of material streams, the dynamics of flowing phases and the composition in various parts of the distillation equipment. A method is proposed for testing individual radiotracers emplozemployed for the investigation of the distillation of hydrocarbons. The method consists in laboratory-scale distillation of a tracer together with a multicomponent hydrocarbon mixture, namely a gasoline fraction. The purification efficiency, distillation characteristics, and effective radiochemical purity of several tracers (reactor activated bromobenzene and synthesized C 3 H 7 82 Br, C 4 H 9 82 Br, C 5 H 11 82 Br) have been investigated. The distillation characteristics of bromohydrocarbons labelled with 82 Br and selected hydrocarbons tagged with 14 C (benzene and cumene) have been compared. The radiotracers investigated were employed for the determination of the hydrodynamic parameters of hydrocarbon distillation in laboratory packed columns and a commercial distillation tower. (author)

  16. Distilling shale and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, H T.P.

    1922-02-23

    In distilling shale or like bituminous fuels by internal heating with hot gas obtained by the gasifying of the shale residues with air or steam or a mixture of these, the amount and temperature of the gaseous distilling medium is regulated between the gasifying and the distilling chambers, by the introduction of cold gas or air.

  17. Distillation with labelled transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Geoffrey William; Jones, Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an improved basis for the " distillation" program transformation. It is known that superlinear speedups can be obtained using distillation, but cannot be obtained by other earlier automatic program transformation techniques such as deforestation, positive supercompilation...... and partial evaluation. We give distillation an improved semantic basis, and explain how superlinear speedups can occur....

  18. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose

    OpenAIRE

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing ...

  19. Advanced distillation curve measurements for corrosive fluids: Application to two crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Starkey Ott; Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

    2008-10-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications include a composition-explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis) and corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The composition-explicit information is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to a variety of fluids, including simple n-alkanes, rocket propellant, gasoline, jet fuels, and a hydrocarbon fluid made corrosive with dissolved hydrogen sulfide. In the current contribution, we present the application of the advanced distillation curve method to two samples of crude oil. A primary motivation behind the work is to precisely measure the distillation curves of these oils using our advanced distillation apparatus; these low uncertainty measurements of true thermodynamic state points can be used for equation of state development and differentiation of crude oil samples. Then, the information content of each distillation was extended much further by use of the composition-explicit data channel: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared spectrophotometry (IR), gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD), and the copper strip corrosion test (CSCT) were used for each distillate volume fraction sampled. Consequently, for each volume fraction of crude oil distillate sampled, we can address the composition, quantitate the total sulfur content, and measure the corrosivity. 39 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  1. Hoizontal retort for distilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, F; Papineau, W

    1854-12-15

    Improvements are disclosed in distilling peaty, schistose, bituminous and vegetable matters. These are arranging a retort in a horizontal position or so little inclined as not to permit matters charged at one end of the retort to fall readily to the other by gravity. The retort is heated externally by a fire at one end, near which end the spent products are discharged without opening the retort, which is done by the aid of two valves or slides, one being at all times closed when discharging products. The other end of the retort is provided with a divided hopper with two valves or slides, one of which is kept closed when the other is open, in order to charge the retort. Within is an endless chain carrying rakes so as to move the matters from the feeding to the discharging end. There are outlets for the distilled products furnished with condensers.

  2. Distillation apparatus for solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurmann, F

    1860-06-26

    The distillation room is continuously charged by the charging mechanism with the material to be distilled. The distillation products pass into the chamber, where they are drawn out through the tube for purifying. The distillation residue is finally pushed out by the fresh material from the room and falls in the common room, from which it is removed through the air-tight door. In the canals enclosing the room heating gas circulates, which carries to the room the heat necessary for the distillation.

  3. Distillation, destructive: gas retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G; Buchanan, J

    1872-06-12

    Retorts used in the distillation of coal, cannel, shale, or other minerals are discharged by means of a joint metal bar or a chain inserted prior to or with the charge, and fitted with a plate or series of plates preferably with the back plate the largest. The rod or chain is formed with a hook, loop, or coupling for withdrawal, preferably by a steam windlass running on rails.

  4. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, C A

    1924-04-15

    In apparatus of the kind set forth for distilling solid carbonaceous materials, a rotary retort in the form of a tubular, hollow cylindrical, or other similar hollow body, of small diameter, having a thin wall is provided to which the heat is applied externally, with means operative within it adapted, not only for cleaning the internal wall of the retort but also for distributing the heat throughout the mass of materials under treatment, substantially as described.

  5. Favorable Preliminary Outcomes for Men With Low- and Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer Treated With 19-Gy Single-fraction High-dose-rate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Daniel J., E-mail: dkrauss@beaumont.edu [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Ye, Hong [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Martinez, Alvaro A. [21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Mitchell, Beth; Sebastian, Evelyn; Limbacher, Amy; Gustafson, Gary S. [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report the toxicity and preliminary clinical outcomes of a prospective trial evaluating 19-Gy, single-fraction high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 63 patients were treated according to an institutional review board-approved prospective study of single-fraction HDR brachytherapy. Eligible patients had tumor stage ≤T2a, prostate-specific antigen level ≤15 ng/mL, and Gleason score ≤7. Patients with a prostate gland volume >50 cm{sup 3} and baseline American Urologic Association symptom score >12 were ineligible. Patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal implantation of the prostate, followed by single-fraction HDR brachytherapy. Treatment was delivered using {sup 192}Ir to a dose of 19 Gy prescribed to the prostate, with no additional margin applied. Results: Of the 63 patients, 58 had data available for analysis. Five patients had withdrawn consent during the follow-up period. The median follow-up period was 2.9 years (range 0.3-5.2). The median age was 61.4 years. The median gland volume at treatment was 34.8 cm{sup 3}. Of the 58 patients, 91% had T1 disease, 71% had Gleason score ≤6 (29% with Gleason score 7), and the median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level was 5.1 ng/mL. The acute and chronic grade 2 genitourinary toxicity incidence was 12.1% and 10.3%, respectively. No grade 3 urinary toxicity occurred. No patients experienced acute rectal toxicity grade ≥2, and 2 experienced grade ≥2 chronic gastrointestinal toxicity. Three patients experienced biochemical failure, yielding a 3-year cumulative incidence estimate of 6.8%. Conclusions: Single-fraction HDR brachytherapy is well-tolerated, with favorable preliminary biochemical and clinical disease control rates.

  6. Distillation of bituminous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    du Buisson, M A.B.B.

    1845-06-23

    New and improved methods are described for the distillation of bituminous schistus and other bituminous substances, as well as for the purification, rectification, and preparation necessary for the employment of the productions obtained by such distillation for various useful purposes. This invention consists, first, in the arrangement and construction of furnace or apparatus for the distillation of schistus, and (any) other bituminous rocks. This furnace is made of circular brick-work, and is provided with the requisite number of fires placed round the circumference. The retort is of a conical or funnel shape, and when ready for use, has the appearance of one inverted cone being placed within a larger cone, in such a manner as to leave a space between the two cones for the reception of the schistus. Both cones are capable of being closed at their apexes, and their mouths, which are placed upwards, are connected together, and hermetically closed by a flat ring. The flame draft is caused to impinge against the lower portion of the outer cone and ascending, turns over the upper edge and descends within the inner cone to the mouth of the chimney, which is placed in the interior, and as low as may be convenient. A third cone is so placed within the inner cone as to cause the flame draft, in its descent, to bind against the surface of the retort.

  7. Multidimensional protein fractionation using ProteomeLab PF 2D™ for profiling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis immunity: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosley R Lee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ProteomeLab™ PF 2D platform is a relatively new approach to global protein profiling. Herein, it was used for investigation of plasma proteome changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patients before and during immunization with glatiramer acetate (GA in a clinical trial. Results The experimental design included immunoaffinity depletion of 12 most abundant proteins from plasma samples with the ProteomeLab™ IgY-12 LC10 column kit as first dimension separation, also referred to as immuno-partitioning. Second and third dimension separations of the enriched proteome were performed on the PF 2D platform utilizing 2D isoelectric focusing and RP-HPLC with the resulting fractions collected for analysis. 1D gel electrophoresis was added as a fourth dimension when sufficient protein was available. Protein identification from collected fractions was performed using nano-LC-MS/MS approach. Analysis of differences in the resulting two-dimensional maps of fractions obtained from the PF 2D and the ability to identify proteins from these fractions allowed sensitivity threshold measurements. Masked proteins in the PF 2D fractions are discussed. Conclusion We offer some insight into the strengths and limitations of this emerging proteomic platform.

  8. Some remarks on the carrier distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, R.; Chaput, M.

    1961-01-01

    The method described by SCRIBNER and MULLIN makes possible the spectrographic analysis of the refractory oxides of uranium and plutonium. It uses a distillation of the elements which is more or less selective. The influence of the carrier is the subject of as many hypotheses as there are parameters involved in the process. The measurements of the arc temperature carried out on the leading edges of the vibration bands and of certain copper lines have made it possible to show the influence of the nature of the carrier and to establish a relationship between the values of the excitation potentials of the atoms and the temperatures produced. Further, this result makes it possible to explain certain contradictions between the principle of a fractional distillation in the arc which is incompatible with the refractory properties of certain elements and their spectrographic sensitivity. (author) [fr

  9. Chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by double distillation methodologies in rectifying still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Alcarde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by different double distillation methodologies in rectifying still. Fermented sugarcane juice was distilled in rectifying still according to three double distillation methodologies: the methodology used for cognac production; the methodology used for whisky production; and the 10-80-10 percentage composition methodology, referring to the volumes of head, heart and tail of the distillate fractions from the second distillation. For comparison purposes, a simple distilled spirit was also produced. The distillates were analyzed for concentrations of ethanol, copper, volatile acidity, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, aldehydes, esters, methanol and higher alcohols. The spirits were also evaluated on the sensory attributes of aroma, taste and preference. Compared to simple distillation, double distillation improved the chemical quality of the spirits, since it has reduced the concentrations of acids, aldehydes, esters, methanol, higher alcohols and, consequently, their coefficient of congeners. Regardless of the methodology employed, the double distillation improved the sensory quality of the spirits since they obtained higher sensory acceptance in relation to spirits produced by simple distillation. Among double distilled spirits, the one produced according to whisky methodology obtained the best scores from appraisers on the aroma and flavor parameters and it was also the most preferred.

  10. Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors. PMID:24322597

  11. Distilling coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, W P

    1906-01-11

    Substances containing hydrocarbons, such as cannel coal, lignite, and shale, are destructively distilled by dividing the charge into small bodies confined in an air-tight chamber through which the products of combustion from a contiguous furnace are passed, the furnace serving also to heat the chamber. The temperature is kept below red heat so that the initial products, such as vapors of heavy oils, paraffin, waxes, naphthas, phenols, and cresols, are not decomposed and there is no formation of gaseous products such as naphthalene and benzol. The operation is of short duration, and large amounts of good coke are produced.

  12. Fractionation distribution and preliminary ecological risk assessment of As, Hg and Cd in ornithogenic sediments from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Chuangneng [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Xiaodong, E-mail: ycx@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Nie, Yaguang [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Emslie, Steven D. [Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 601S. College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate mobility of toxic elements and their potential ecological risk caused by seabird biovectors, the fractionation distributions of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated in three ornithogenic sediment profiles from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica. The results show residual As holds a dominant position, and Hg mainly derives from residual, organic matter-bound and humic acid-bound fractions, indicating weak mobility of As and Hg. However, exchangeable Cd occupies a considerable proportion in studied samples, suggesting Cd has strong mobility. The preliminary evaluation of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SGQs) shows adverse biological effects may occur occasionally for As and Cd, and rarely for Hg. Using Risk Assessment Code (RAC), the ecological risk is assessed at moderate, low and very high for As, Hg and Cd pollution, respectively. Organic matter derived from guano is the main factor controlling the mobility of Hg and Cd through adsorption and complexation. - Highlights: • Residual As holds a dominant position in ornithogenic sediments. • Hg mainly derives from residual, organic matter-bound and humic acid-bound fractions. • Exchangeable Cd occupies a considerable proportion in ornithogenic sediments. • TOC is the main factor controlling the mobility of Hg and Cd in studied sediments.

  13. Distillation with Sublogarithmic Overhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Matthew B.; Haah, Jeongwan

    2018-02-01

    It has been conjectured that, for any distillation protocol for magic states for the T gate, the number of noisy input magic states required per output magic state at output error rate ɛ is Ω [log (1 /ɛ )] . We show that this conjecture is false. We find a family of quantum error correcting codes of parameters ⟦ ∑ i =w +1 m (m i ),∑ i =0 w (m i ),∑ i =w +1 r +1 (r +1 i )⟧ for any integers m >2 r , r >w ≥0 , by puncturing quantum Reed-Muller codes. When m >ν r , our code admits a transversal logical gate at the ν th level of Clifford hierarchy. In a distillation protocol for magic states at the level ν =3 (T gate), the ratio of input to output magic states is O (logγ(1 /ɛ )) , where γ =log (n /k )/log (d )<0.678 for some m , r , w . The smallest code in our family for which γ <1 is on ≈258 qubits.

  14. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ironside, T G

    1921-09-01

    In the distillation of carbonaceous material such as shale, coal, lignite, wood or liquid hydrocarbons, the material is mixed with a heated granular substance such as sand which supplies the necessary heat. The shale or the like, which may be preheated, is fed from a hopper by a worm conveyer to a tube leading into a retort, and the heated granular material such as sand is supplied from a jacketed container through a tube. On the lower end of a rotary shaft are radial arms to which are fixed angularly disposed blades which serve to mix the shale and hot sand and deliver the residue to a central discharge pipe closed at the bottom by a conical valve which opens when the weight of the superimposed material is sufficient. The distillates are taken off by an outlet. Steam vapor or gas may be supplied to the retort, preferably through a hollow shaft leading to hollow stirrers perforated to permit of the gas passing into the material. The retort may be externally heated by hot gases in the space surrounding the retort, and the latter may be divided by horizontal floors so that the material is caused to funnel from the periphery to the center of the floor, then through a central opening on to the floor next below, and from the center to the periphery of this floor, and so on.

  15. Retorts; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, A C

    1869-11-09

    Relates to retorts for distilling shale or other purposes. Each retort has a mouthpiece, which projects into a water trough, having a curved bottom, and sides rising up to ridges, from which extend shoots. Attached to links is the reciprocating discharge bar, actuated from a steam engine, etc., which, through worm-wheel gearing and a shaft, imparts an intermittent motion to a pawl which propels a ratchet-wheel, which is prevented from turning backward by a catch, and drives a rotary shaft, the motion being transmitted to a bar through a crank and rod. The bar, in rising, pushes the residue from the retort out of the trough, over the ridges, and down the shoots into the truck, etc. The vertical retort is made in two lengths, at the joint between which is held the flange of the shell, joined to, or cast with, the part of the retort and forming a jacket into which steam or other vapor or gas is introduced by a pipe. The steam, etc., circulates through an external spiral rib of the shell and issues from the bottom of the shale among the shale, etc., being distilled.

  16. Qutrit magic state distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E; Campbell, Earl T

    2012-01-01

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher-dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the five-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distils non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state-injected implementation of a non-Clifford phase gate, enabling non-Clifford unitary computation. (paper)

  17. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on all... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits. 27.40...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Starter distillate. 184.1848 Section 184.1848 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1848 Starter distillate. (a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on...

  19. Improving the outcome of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing using a probiotic skin cream: Preliminary clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Giovanni; Cinque, Benedetta; La Torre, Cristina; Lombardi, Francesca; Palumbo, Paola; Romano, Lucia; Mattei, Antonella; Orsini, Gino; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Giuliani, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    As known, fractional CO 2 resurfacing treatments are more effective than non-ablative ones against aging signs, but post-operative redness and swelling prolong the overall downtime requiring up to steroid administration in order to reduce these local systems. In the last years, an increasing interest has been focused on the possible use of probiotics for treating inflammatory and allergic conditions suggesting that they can exert profound beneficial effects on skin homeostasis. In this work, the Authors report their experience on fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing and provide the results of a new post-operative topical treatment with an experimental cream containing probiotic-derived active principles potentially able to modulate the inflammatory reaction associated to laser-treatment. The cream containing DermaACB (CERABEST™) was administered post-operatively to 42 consecutive patients who were treated with fractional CO 2 laser. All patients adopted the cream twice a day for 2 weeks. Grades were given according to outcome scale. The efficacy of the cream containing DermaACB was evaluated comparing the rate of post-operative signs vanishing with a control group of 20 patients topically treated with an antibiotic cream and a hyaluronic acid based cream. Results registered with the experimental treatment were good in 22 patients, moderate in 17, and poor in 3 cases. Patients using the study cream took an average time of 14.3 days for erythema resolution and 9.3 days for swelling vanishing. The post-operative administration of the cream containing DermaACB induces a quicker reduction of post-operative erythema and swelling when compared to a standard treatment.

  20. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of a novel fractional unipolar radiofrequency device on facial tightening: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hye; Byun, Eun Jung; Lee, Sang Jun; Song, Kye Yong; Kim, Hei Sung

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that radiofrequency (RF) energy is safe and effective for improving skin laxity. Unlike monopolar and bipolar devices, little has been studied with the unipolar hand piece. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel fractional unipolar RF device on facial tightening. This was a retrospective, single-center study of 14 subjects with age-related facial laxity who underwent five sessions of fractional unipolar RF at an interval of 2 weeks, and then followed-up for 3 months. Standardized photos were taken at baseline and at 3-months follow-up, and were assessed by two independent dermatologists using a 4-point scale (0=no improvement, 1=mild improvement, 2=moderate improvement, 3=significant improvement). Punch biopsies (2 mm) were performed and a questionnaire was used to evaluate the patient's satisfaction and the incidence of adverse reactions. Fourteen subjects with mild to moderate age-related facial laxity were included in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 49.7 years (range 32-80). 35.7% of the subjects showed significant improvement, 50% moderate improvement, and 14.3% slight improvement of facial laxity in their follow-up photos. About 85.7% of the patients replied that they were either greatly satisfied or satisfied with the results at 3-months follow-up. Skin biopsies revealed an increase in collagen in the dermis. None of the subjects experienced any serious adverse events during or after the procedure. Our findings suggest that fractional Unipolar RF can be safely performed on the face and is effective in skin tightening. It has a great advantage over other forms of RF by being entirely painless. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Distilling oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W G

    1913-08-13

    Oils and other products are distilled continuously from materials containing or charged with hydrocarbons, such as coal, shale, absorbent materials containing oil, or metal turnings covered with oil, in a vertical or inclined combustion chamber supplied continuously or intermittently with a small quantity of air, and continuously with a large quantity of gases from the condenser admitted below the combustion zone. If desired, steam may also be supplied to the combustion chamber. In the apparatus shown are the combustion chamber, the air inlet, the gas-inlet pipe, the gas-outlet pipe, the condenser, and a mechanical separator which preferably also acts as a fan. A pair of slides is provided at the bottom of the combustion chamber to discharge the residue without admitting air, or a water seal may be used.

  2. Alkali cyanides; destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, J C

    1925-12-02

    The destructive distillation of carbonaceous substances can be accomplished by heating them in a bath of molten alkali and cyanide. Liquid hydrocarbons are produced. The separation of the cyanide from the coke or carbonaceous residues by filtration leaves a substantial quantity of cyanide absorbed by the carbon. A feasible method for removal has been developed by mixing the mixture of cyanide and coke with sodium carbonate or other alkali in the molten state, then treating this substance with nitrogen with or without ammonia to convert most of the carbon to cyanide. The carbonaceous material may be mixed with a liquid hydrocarbon such as petroleum, shale oil, or heavy tar oil, heated, and introduced below the surface of the liquid cyanide which partially decomposes and hydrogenates the coal to increase the yield of hydrocarbons. Dry ammonia may be bubbled through the reaction mixture to effect agitation and to form more cyanide.

  3. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the pastdecades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Varioustechniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packedbed, dividing-wall columns...

  4. Preliminary results using twice-a-day fractionation in the radiotherapeutic management of advanced cancers of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jampolis, S.; Pipard, G.; Horiot, J.C.; Bolla, M.; Le Dorze, C.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four cases of advanced T4 cancers of the head and neck were treated using a twice-a-day treatment fractionation delivering a 1,200 rad weekly tumor dose and 7,000 rad total tumor dose in 5 1 / 2 to 6 weeks. Acute normal mucosal reactions and skin reactions were plotted weekly and corresponded to reactions observed when delivering 1,000 rad per week in five treatment sessions. Chronic problems have been limited to severe neck fibrosis appearing in three of five patients who underwent a planned neck dissection 6 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Local control was observed in 14 of 23 patients (61%) and regional control in 22 of 23 patients

  5. Batch distillation column modeling for quality control program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, Bernardus H.L.

    2000-01-01

    For batch distillation, the dynamic composition behaviour can be described by the dominant time constant and the bottom exhaustion. Its magnitude is determined by the change of the composition distribution and is maximal when the inflection point of the molar fraction profile is located in the

  6. A Preliminary Study of the Effect of Shifts in Packing Fraction on k-effective in Pebble-Bed Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ougouag, Abderrafi Mohammed-El-Ami; Terry, William Knox

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary examination of the effect of pebble packing changes on the reactivity of a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) is performed. As a first step, using the MCNP code, the modeling of a PBR core as a continuous and homogeneous region is compared to the modeling as a collection of discrete pebbles of equal average fuel density. It is shown that the two modeling approaches give the same trends inasmuch as changes in keff are concerned. It is thus shown that for the purpose of identifying trends in keff changes, the use of a homogeneous model is sufficient. A homogeneous model is then used to assess the effect of pebble packing arrangement changes on the reactivity of a PBR core. It is shown that the changes can be large enough to result in prompt criticality. It is shown that for uranium fueled PBRs, thermal feedback could have the potential to offset the increase in activity, whereas for plutonium fueled systems, thermal feedback may not be sufficient for totally offsetting the packing-increase reactivity insertion and could even exacerbate the initial response. It is thus shown that a full study, including reactor kinetics, thermal feedback, and the dynamics of energy deposition and removal is warranted to fully characterize the potential consequences of packing shifts

  7. Implementation of fast macromolecular proton fraction mapping on 1.5 and 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanners: preliminary experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnykh, V.; Korostyshevskaya, A.

    2017-08-01

    Macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) is a biophysical parameter describing the amount of macromolecular protons involved into magnetization exchange with water protons in tissues. MPF represents a significant interest as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarker of myelin for clinical applications. A recent fast MPF mapping method enabled clinical translation of MPF measurements due to time-efficient acquisition based on the single-point constrained fit algorithm. However, previous MPF mapping applications utilized only 3 Tesla MRI scanners and modified pulse sequences, which are not commonly available. This study aimed to test the feasibility of MPF mapping implementation on a 1.5 Tesla clinical scanner using standard manufacturer’s sequences and compare the performance of this method between 1.5 and 3 Tesla scanners. MPF mapping was implemented on 1.5 and 3 Tesla MRI units of one manufacturer with either optimized custom-written or standard product pulse sequences. Whole-brain three-dimensional MPF maps obtained from a single volunteer were compared between field strengths and implementation options. MPF maps demonstrated similar quality at both field strengths. MPF values in segmented brain tissues and specific anatomic regions appeared in close agreement. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of fast MPF mapping using standard sequences on 1.5 T and 3 T clinical scanners.

  8. Distillation of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G A

    1926-03-22

    To distill oil shales, cannel coals, and other carbonaceous materials for the extraction therefrom of hydrocarbons and volatile nitrogenous compounds, hard non-condensable gases from the condensers and scrubbers are withdrawn by blowers and admixed with burnt gases, obtained through conduits from the flues of heaters, and forced downwardly through horizontal chambers, connected by vertical conduits, of the heaters and delivered into the retort beneath the grate. Passing upwardly through the charge they vaporize the volatile substances in the shale, and a suction pump removes the vapors from the top of the retort. Immediately they are produced and at substantially the same temperature as that at which they emanate, thus preventing cracking of the oil vapors and condensation of the oil at the top of the retort. The amount of burnt flue gas admixed with the hard gases is regulated by two valves until a required uniform temperature is obtained. A generator supplies producer gas to a heater at the commencement of the retorting operation for circulation through the shale charge to initially produce oil vapors. The generator is connected by a pipe to the gas conduit leading to blowers.

  9. Low temperature distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, J N; Postel, C

    1929-04-09

    To recover gas, oil tars, and coked residues by low temperature distillation from bituminous coals, lignites, oil shales, and the like, the raw material is fed from a hopper into a rotary retort which is zonally heated, the temperature being greatest at the discharge end. The material is heated first to a relatively low temperature, thereby removing the moisture and lighter volatiles which are withdrawn through a pipe by the suction of a pump, while the higher boiling point volatiles and fixed gases are withdrawn by suction through an outlet from the higher temperature zone. The vapors withdrawn from the opposite ends of the retort pass through separate vapor lines and condensers, and the suction in each end of the retort, caused by the pumps, is controlled by valves, which also control the location of the neutral point in the retort formed by said suction. Air and inert gas may be introduced into the retort from pipe and stack respectively through a pipe, and steam may be admitted into the high temperature zone through a pipe.

  10. Distillation of carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainscow, J W.H.

    1936-10-03

    To recover hydrocarbon products by distillation of carbonaceous material in a plurality of horizontal zones maintained at different temperatures, a retort has a plurality of superimposed (3) retort chambers, the uppermost being in communication at one end with a hopper and at the other end through coupled junction not shown with one end of the next lower chamber, whose opposite end communicates with lowermost chamber, the other end of which has a sealed discharge passage, tank, and conveyor not shown. Each retort chamber has stirring and conveying means consisting of helical blades (2) attached to radial arms on shaft mounted in water cooled bearings and driven through suitably mounted sprocket wheels and chains not shown. Each retort chamber has a gas dome, with pyrometer tube, and off-take connected to a common main opening into a dust eliminator which in turn connects with a plurality of vertical condensation towers of known construction, maintained at different temperatures by means of steam from a superheater not shown situated in one retort chamber. The retort heating gases pass from the furnace via zig-zag, (three) baffles under and around each retort chamber to a flue not shown.

  11. Destructive distillation; retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilby, G T

    1881-10-03

    For distilling shale and other oil-yielding minerals. Relates to apparatus described in Specification No. 2169 (1881) in which retorts arranged in sets, and mounted loosely in brickwork to allow expansion, are formed preferably of upper iron tubes, fixed by socket rings, to lower fireclay tubes formed with belts which, together with ledges in the sides of the oven, support fireclay slabs. In some cases the lower parts of the retorts may be formed of iron tubes. Each set of four upper tubes is supplied with a four-way hopper, suspended by means of a pair of counter-weighted levers, centered on bearing plates and connected with the hopper by links. A single pipe connected to the hopper serves for leading off the vapors from the four retorts. The retorts are heated by a furnace, the hot gases from which after acting on the retorts are led to ovens in which are placed steam generators and superheaters, from which steam is conveyed to the interior of the retorts to assist the decomposition.

  12. Furnaces for destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A

    1897-12-04

    Shale or other material is dropped from a hopper F into an annular retort or kiln A/sup 3/, the walls of which enclose annular flues C, C/sup 1/ in which gas is burnt to heat it. Radial flues also extend across the kiln. The kiln is supported above the ground level by pillars B. The material rests at the bottom on an annular plate H, having a flat middle portion with inclined sides. This is supported within an annular hopper I, provided with counterweighted discharging doors I/sup 1/, held by latches and sealed by placing water on them; or a large conical hopper may be used, provided with a conveyer screw, and containing water. Four long scrapers J are reciprocated radially on the flat part of the plate H by rods J/sup 1/, passed through stuffing-boxes in the hopper, and engaged with eccentric K which are rotated by worm gearing. Doors M in the hopper I, and holes in the plate H, permit stirring-tools to be introduced. The upper part of the kiln consists of iron rings a, a/sup 1/; the products of combustion from the flues pass through openings a/sup 5/ into a central chimney a/sup 3/. The products of distillation are delivered through tubes G.

  13. Destructive distillation of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollason, A

    1918-08-23

    To obtain light oils and ammonia from coals having volatile and oxygen contents, the crushed material is mixed with 5 percent of ground amorphous calcium carbonate and distilled slowly in a cast iron retort to remove the water and light oils, the ammonia being synthesized at a later stage. The crushed residue is gasified in a producer by a blast of air and superheated steam at about 950/sup 0/C. The steam and air are passed very slowly at low pressure through the fuel to cause the dissociation of the atmospheric nitrogen molecules into atoms. The gases are then passed to a heater, having a temperature of 500/sup 0/C, and thence to a continuously working externally-heated retort charged with fuel, such as the hard retort residues, maintained below 850/sup 0/C. The water vapor in the gases is dissociated by the incandescent fuel, the oxygen combining with the carbon, and the lime present in the fuel causes the hydrogen to combine with the free nitrogen atoms, thus forming ammonia. The gases after leaving the retort are cooled down to 85 to 95/sup 0/C and the ammonia may be recovered by conversion into ammonium sulphate. The resultant cooled gases may again be charged with superheated steam and utilized again in the heater and retort.

  14. Method of distilling organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, E G.T.

    1921-11-11

    In the distillation of organic materials, by means of coursing heated gases through the distillation chamber, that can be heated by other means also, a method is given by which the hot gases coming from the distillation chamber are cooled in one or more heat-absorbent devices (for example, in spray coolers, condensers and/or water). The greater part of the products or constituents condensable at ordinary temperature are separated from the vapors and gases, and thereafter the gases should be passed through the distillation chamber after the necessary additional heating in special heaters, as one or more heat producers, suitably of the same construction as the heat absorbers, for heating and saturation with steam by means of warm condensate and/or water obtained fully or partly from the heat absorbers, possibly after separation of tar or oil from them. The patent has 11 other claims.

  15. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  16. Retorts for distilling carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, H E

    1921-09-12

    A retort for distilling carbonaceous material is described in which a mass of such material is retained in a pocket formed between an outer wall and an internal wall which is perforated to permit the free escape of distilled products, the retorts having heating means that directly heat the retort but are so related to the pocket that the material therein is heated indirectly and simultaneously from all sides entirely by heat conducted thereto by the walls.

  17. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Silva, Laura J [Dublin, OH; Qiu, Dongming [Carbondale, IL; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Dublin, OH; Hickey, Thomas P [Dublin, OH; Arora, Ravi [Dublin, OH; Smith, Amanda [Galloway, OH; Litt, Robert Dwayne [Westerville, OH; Neagle, Paul [Westerville, OH

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  18. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  19. Distilling carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karrick, L C

    1926-11-02

    Coal, shale and the like are distilled in a current of superheated steam which is passed into a retort at about midway between its ends a further supply being if necessary introduced at the bottom to generate water-gas, and the coke being dry quenched in a hopper below the retort. Combustion products may also be introduced and the temperature may be varied from 950 to 1725/sup 0/F, oil, gas, resin and a residual coke having good adsorbent value, being obtained. The charge from hoppers and auxiliary hoppers is fed to retorts situated between gas and steam preheaters, the rate of downward movement being controlled by discharge rollers having arms, counterweighted rocking arms allowing the residue to be fed downwards into hoppers. Steam from a pipe is superheated in horizontal passages, and admitted through ports into the retort. Preheated fuel gas is burnt in combustion flues and passes down through vertical flues, across horizontal flues and up flues adjacent the retorts, from which by ports and flues it passes down a chamber having an air or gas preheater each having two independent systems, one discharging into the combustion chamber beneath it and the other into an adjacent chamber. Air or gas enters by pipes and after being heated in pipes is fed by ports to the chamber. The volatiles pass off through outlets leading to a main air cooled condenser and a water-cooled condenser delivering to a separating tank connecting with pipes for quenching the residues and with pipes to preheat the charge in the hoppers and maintain a gas barrier the rein. Superheated steam may also be admitted through ports to generate water-gas and increase the total volume of gases and combustion products may be introduced through ports. The upper part of the retort is made of cast iron, the high temperature parts of silica or carborundum brick, and the lower part of chrome iron or other metal.

  20. Fate of DDT in grape juice when fermented and distilled into arak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawar, N.S.

    1975-01-01

    Since DDT is still used on grapevines to control insect pests, the fate of this insecticide in grape juice fermented and distilled into arak was investigated. Fermentation of the juice resulted in extensive conversion of DDT to DDD. Distillation of the fermented juice resulted in further conversion of DDT to DDD. Moreover, the major portion of both DDT and DDD remained in the undistilled fraction. The second distillation resulted in further distribution of DDT and DDD among the four fractions, thus leaving very low levels of both compounds in the finished product. DDT residue in arak constituted only 2% of the amount added to the fresh juice. (author)

  1. Zone distillation: a new purification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone recrystallization) is should up

  2. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dymerski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h, thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s.

  3. Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-11-25

    The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s).

  4. Protection against oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and preliminary photosafety assessment of Punica granatum seed oil nanoemulsions entrapping polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Lemos-Senna, Elenara; Vinardell, Maria Pilar

    2015-12-25

    The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of nanoemulsion entrapping pomegranate peel polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) prepared from pomegranate seed oil and medium chain triglyceride to protect human erythrocyte membrane from oxidative damage and to assess preliminary in vitro photosafety. In order to evaluate the phototoxic effect of nanoemulsions, human red blood cells (RBCs) are used as a biological model and the rate of haemolysis and photohaemolysis (5 J cm(-2) UVA) is assessed in vitro. The level of protection against oxidative damage caused by the peroxyl radical generator AAPH in human RBCs as well as its effects on bilayer membrane characteristics such as fluidity, protein profile and RBCs morphology are determined. EAF-loaded nanoemulsions do not promote haemolysis or photohaemolysis. Anisotropy measurements show that nanoemulsions significantly retrain the increase in membrane fluidity caused by AAPH. SDS-PAGE analysis reveals that AAPH induced degradation of membrane proteins, but that nanoemulsions reduce the extension of degradation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations corroborate the interaction between AAPH, nanoemulsions and the RBC membrane bilayer. Our work demonstrates that Punica granatum nanoemulsions are photosafe and protect RBCs against oxidative damage and possible disturbance of the lipid bilayer of biomembranes. Moreover it suggests that these nanoemulsions could be promising new topical products to reduce the effects of sunlight on skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dry-distillation of experimental animal wastes containing radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Hideo; Saito, Kazumi; Kurihara, Norio

    1988-01-01

    Mice were dry-distilled at 800deg C for 10 min, after [ 32 P]orthophosphate or L-[4,5- 3 H]leucine was intraperitoneally administered. Phosphorus-32 was quantitatively recovered in the residual solid, whereas 95% of 3 H was found in the distillate (condensed water). When 14 C (L-[U- 14 C]malic acid or L-[U- 14 C]leucine) was administered to mice and they were dry-distilled, 14 C-radioactivity was distributed into two fractions; residual solid and exhaust gas. In these cases, the recovery percentage of 14 C in residual solid was not very high but increased as the treating temperature decreased. It reached about 40% of the administered 14 C at 400deg C for 120 min. By the dry-distillation of animals, their weight was reduced to about 10% in every animal tested (mice, rats and rabbits). The volume was reduced to about 20% in cases of mice and rats, and about 30% in case of rabbits. It was concluded that the dry-distillation can be useful as a pre-treatment for disposal of animal wastes containing radioisotopes. (author)

  6. Efficiency of fermionic quantum distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbrych, Jacek W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feiguin, Adrian E. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heidrich-Meisner, F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Munchen, Munchen (Germany)

    2017-09-13

    Here, we present a time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group investigation of the quantum distillation process within the Fermi-Hubbard model on a quasi-one-dimensional ladder geometry. The term distillation refers to the dynamical, spatial separation of singlons and doublons in the sudden expansion of interacting particles in an optical lattice, i.e., the release of a cloud of atoms from a trapping potential. Remarkably, quantum distillation can lead to a contraction of the doublon cloud, resulting in an increased density of the doublons in the core region compared to the initial state. As a main result, we show that this phenomenon is not limited to chains that were previously studied. Interestingly, there are additional dynamical processes on the two-leg ladder such as density oscillations and self-trapping of defects that lead to a less efficient distillation process. An investigation of the time evolution starting from product states provides an explanation for this behavior. Initial product states are also considered since in optical lattice experiments, such states are often used as the initial setup. We propose configurations that lead to a fast and efficient quantum distillation.

  7. Some remarks on the carrier distillation method; Quelques remarques sur la methode 'carrier distillation'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, R; Chaput, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The method described by SCRIBNER and MULLIN makes possible the spectrographic analysis of the refractory oxides of uranium and plutonium. It uses a distillation of the elements which is more or less selective. The influence of the carrier is the subject of as many hypotheses as there are parameters involved in the process. The measurements of the arc temperature carried out on the leading edges of the vibration bands and of certain copper lines have made it possible to show the influence of the nature of the carrier and to establish a relationship between the values of the excitation potentials of the atoms and the temperatures produced. Further, this result makes it possible to explain certain contradictions between the principle of a fractional distillation in the arc which is incompatible with the refractory properties of certain elements and their spectrographic sensitivity. (author) [French] La methode decrite par SCRIBNER et MULLIN permet l'analyse spectrographique des oxydes refractaires d'uranium et de plutonium. Elle fait appel a une distillation plus ou moins selective des elements. L'influence de l'entraineur est l'objet d'aussi nombreuses hypotheses que les parametres lies au phenomene. Les mesures de la temperature de l'arc, effectuees sur les tetes de bandes de vibration du cyanogene et certaines raies du cuivre ont permis de montrer l'influence de la nature de l'entraineur et de trouver une relation entre les valeurs des potentiels d'excitation des atomes et les temperatures produites. En outre, ce resultat permet d'expliquer certaines contradictions entre le principe d'une distillation fractionnee dans l'arc incompatible avec les proprietes refractaires de certains elements et leur sensibilite spectrographique. (auteur)

  8. Process of producing fuels from slates or bituminous shales. [distillation at incandescent heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenbauer, M

    1902-07-31

    A process of producing a fuel from slates or bituminous shales by saturating or impregnating them after preliminary distillation with the vapors of tars, resins, oils, etc., is given. The process is characterized by the bituminous shale being submitted in the form of fragments to distillation at incandescent heat to make the shale porous and able to absorb the vapors of the substances already mentioned.

  9. Three-phase fluidized distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravagnani, T.M.K.; Pereira, J.A.F.R.

    2001-01-01

    Separation efficiency in distillation operations can be improved by modifying the characteristics of the dispersions formed on the trays. The present work reports on the hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of liquid-solid-vapour dispersions formed on sieve trays without downcomers of a distillation column operating under total reflux conditions. Murphree efficiency and the operating limits of distillation using the ethanol-n-butanol system are analyzed for a large range of vapour velocities and liquid mixture compositions, utilising wettable PVC particles and non-wettable silicone, PE, and Teflon((R)) particles. It was verified that wettable particles show a drastic reduction in the upper operating limit of vapour velocity, but this does not occur for non-wettable particles. Tray efficiency can be increased when non-wettable particles are used, mainly for high vapour velocity operations. (author)

  10. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  11. Performance indicators of bioethanol distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriaga, Nilson

    2009-01-01

    The increase of biofuels demand accelerates the construction of new production plants and technological improvements in the process so the development of versatile tools for evaluating alternatives becomes an undeniable challenge. It was established through heuristic rules, thermodynamic analysis and simulation computer the energy consumption and performance indicators that govern, from fermented mash (ethanol 8.5 % v/v), the distillation of various capacities for bioethanol production: 20, 60, 100 and 150 KLD (kiloliters / day) through Aspen PlusTM simulator. It was found that the distillation demand nearly 30% of heat that would be obtained by burning alcohol fuel produced thus it is necessary the use of raw materials that generate enough biomass to produce the steam required. In addition, correlations were found to allow for easy diameters of distillation columns in terms of production capacity.

  12. Solar power water distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Khan, Muhammad Muzammil; Ateeq, Ijlal Shahrukh; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  13. High-dose-rate brachytherapy as monotherapy delivered in two fractions within one day for favorable/intermediate-risk prostate cancer: preliminary toxicity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilezan, Michel; Martinez, Alvaro; Gustason, Gary; Krauss, Daniel; Antonucci, J Vito; Chen, Peter; Fontanesi, James; Wallace, Michelle; Ye, Hong; Casey, Alyse; Sebastian, Evelyn; Kim, Leonard; Limbacher, Amy

    2012-07-01

    To report the toxicity profile of high-dose-rate (HDR)-brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy in a Human Investigation Committee-approved study consisting of a single implant and two fractions (12 Gy × 2) for a total dose of 24 Gy, delivered within 1 day. The dose was subsequently increased to 27 Gy (13.5 Gy × 2) delivered in 1 day. We report the acute and early chronic genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. A total of 173 patients were treated between December 2005 and July 2010. However, only the first 100 were part of the IRB-approved study and out of these, only 94 had a minimal follow-up of 6 months, representing the study population for this preliminary report. All patients had clinical Stage T2b or less (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 5th edition), Gleason score 6-7 (3+4), and prostate-specific antigen level of ≤12 ng/mL. Ultrasound-guided HDR-BT with real-time dosimetry was used. The prescription dose was 24 Gy for the first 50 patients and 27 Gy thereafter. The dosimetric goals and constraints were the same for the two dose groups. Toxicity was scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. The highest toxicity scores encountered at any point during follow-up are reported. The median follow-up was 17 months (range, 6-40.5). Most patients had Grade 0-1 acute toxicity. The Grade 2 acute genitourinary toxicity was mainly frequency/urgency (13%), dysuria (5%), hematuria, and dribbling/hesitancy (2%). None of the patients required a Foley catheter at any time; however, 8% of the patients experienced transient Grade 1 diarrhea. No other acute gastrointestinal toxicities were found. The most common chronic toxicity was Grade 2 urinary frequency/urgency in 16% of patients followed by dysuria in 4% of patients; 2 patients had Grade 2 rectal bleeding and 1 had Grade 4, requiring laser treatment. Favorable-risk prostate cancer patients treated with a single implant HDR-BT to 24-27 Gy in two fractions

  14. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy Delivered in Two Fractions Within One Day for Favorable/Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Toxicity Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghilezan, Michel, E-mail: mghilezan@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital and Rose Cancer Institute, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Martinez, Alvaro; Gustason, Gary; Krauss, Daniel; Antonucci, J. Vito; Chen, Peter; Fontanesi, James; Wallace, Michelle; Ye Hong; Casey, Alyse; Sebastian, Evelyn; Kim, Leonard; Limbacher, Amy [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital and Rose Cancer Institute, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To report the toxicity profile of high-dose-rate (HDR)-brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy in a Human Investigation Committee-approved study consisting of a single implant and two fractions (12 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) for a total dose of 24 Gy, delivered within 1 day. The dose was subsequently increased to 27 Gy (13.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) delivered in 1 day. We report the acute and early chronic genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 173 patients were treated between December 2005 and July 2010. However, only the first 100 were part of the IRB-approved study and out of these, only 94 had a minimal follow-up of 6 months, representing the study population for this preliminary report. All patients had clinical Stage T2b or less (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 5th edition), Gleason score 6-7 (3+4), and prostate-specific antigen level of {<=}12 ng/mL. Ultrasound-guided HDR-BT with real-time dosimetry was used. The prescription dose was 24 Gy for the first 50 patients and 27 Gy thereafter. The dosimetric goals and constraints were the same for the two dose groups. Toxicity was scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. The highest toxicity scores encountered at any point during follow-up are reported. Results: The median follow-up was 17 months (range, 6-40.5). Most patients had Grade 0-1 acute toxicity. The Grade 2 acute genitourinary toxicity was mainly frequency/urgency (13%), dysuria (5%), hematuria, and dribbling/hesitancy (2%). None of the patients required a Foley catheter at any time; however, 8% of the patients experienced transient Grade 1 diarrhea. No other acute gastrointestinal toxicities were found. The most common chronic toxicity was Grade 2 urinary frequency/urgency in 16% of patients followed by dysuria in 4% of patients; 2 patients had Grade 2 rectal bleeding and 1 had Grade 4, requiring laser treatment. Conclusions: Favorable

  15. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy Delivered in Two Fractions Within One Day for Favorable/Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Toxicity Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilezan, Michel; Martinez, Alvaro; Gustason, Gary; Krauss, Daniel; Antonucci, J. Vito; Chen, Peter; Fontanesi, James; Wallace, Michelle; Ye Hong; Casey, Alyse; Sebastian, Evelyn; Kim, Leonard; Limbacher, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the toxicity profile of high-dose-rate (HDR)-brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy in a Human Investigation Committee-approved study consisting of a single implant and two fractions (12 Gy × 2) for a total dose of 24 Gy, delivered within 1 day. The dose was subsequently increased to 27 Gy (13.5 Gy × 2) delivered in 1 day. We report the acute and early chronic genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 173 patients were treated between December 2005 and July 2010. However, only the first 100 were part of the IRB-approved study and out of these, only 94 had a minimal follow-up of 6 months, representing the study population for this preliminary report. All patients had clinical Stage T2b or less (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 5th edition), Gleason score 6-7 (3+4), and prostate-specific antigen level of ≤12 ng/mL. Ultrasound-guided HDR-BT with real-time dosimetry was used. The prescription dose was 24 Gy for the first 50 patients and 27 Gy thereafter. The dosimetric goals and constraints were the same for the two dose groups. Toxicity was scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. The highest toxicity scores encountered at any point during follow-up are reported. Results: The median follow-up was 17 months (range, 6–40.5). Most patients had Grade 0-1 acute toxicity. The Grade 2 acute genitourinary toxicity was mainly frequency/urgency (13%), dysuria (5%), hematuria, and dribbling/hesitancy (2%). None of the patients required a Foley catheter at any time; however, 8% of the patients experienced transient Grade 1 diarrhea. No other acute gastrointestinal toxicities were found. The most common chronic toxicity was Grade 2 urinary frequency/urgency in 16% of patients followed by dysuria in 4% of patients; 2 patients had Grade 2 rectal bleeding and 1 had Grade 4, requiring laser treatment. Conclusions: Favorable-risk prostate cancer patients treated with

  16. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Özek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Distillation speed was high in the beginning of the process, then gradually reduced as the distillation proceeded. The main component of the oil of Laurel leaf oil was 1,8-cineole accumulating significantly in the early fractions.

  17. Effect of an electron beam on the subsequent pyrogenic distillation of lignin and cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metreveli, P.K.; Metreveli, A.K.; Kholodkova, E.M.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The irradiation notably influences responsiveness of cellulose and lignin to the subsequent pyrogenic distillation though both weight and the form of samples do not change almost at doses up to 3 MGy. Decreases in overpoint of lignin and cellulose irradiated at 2.2 MGy are ∼80°and ∼100°, respectively. Third of condensate from cellulose and almost half from lignin are distilled-off at lower temperatures. The thermally instable compounds convertible mainly to furans via subsequent heating are forming in cellulose. Distillation of the irradiated lignin gives less tar which, however, is richer by methoxy-phenols. In distilled-off water–organic fraction the content of soluble organic compounds is increased. - Highlights: • Irradiation facilitates subsequent dry distillation of cellulose and lignin. • Overpoints of irradiated samples are decreasing. • Furans and methoxy-phenols formation improves

  18. Distillation of oil-bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-05-21

    In the process of distilling oil-bearing minerals such as oil shale which disintegrates during distillation, wherein the subdivided minerals are subjected to a distillation temperature in the form of a highly turbulent dense mass fluidized by an upwardly flowing gasiform medium in a distillation zone and the heat required by the distillation is supplied by burning solid distillation residue with a combustion-supporting gas in the form of a fluidized mass of solids in a separate combustion zone at a temperature substantially higher than the distillation temperature and returning solid combustion residue substantially at the higher temperature to the distillation zone. The steps of starting up the process which consists of maintaining in the distillation and combustion zones dense turbulent fluidized beds of non-disintegrating solids, circulating the non-disintegrating solids between said beds, heating the circulating solids by an auxiliary heat supply until the bed in the distillation zone has reached at least the distillation temperature, thereafter charging fresh oil-bearing minerals to the bed in the distillation zone, continuing the circulation, withdrawing solids which have passed through the combustion zone at a rate adequate to maintain a solids balance, supplying the combustion-supporting gas to the combustion zone to cause the combustion of the residue, and discontinuing the auxilary heating when sufficient heat for the distillation is being generated in the combustion zone.

  19. Konference Distillation and Absorption 2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 10 (2009), s. 862 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : conference * announcement * distillation and absorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Distilling oils and bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutz, H

    1925-08-25

    In the distillation of bituminous materials such as coal, brown coal, peat, or mineral and tar oils or tar, in the presence of hot neutral gases such as hydrogen, illuminating gas, or water-gas, sulfur dioxide is also fed into the above-mentioned materials or into the vapors evolved therefrom. By this treatment better products are obtained.

  1. Distillation of shale in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Ganahl, C F

    1922-07-04

    To distill buried shale or other carbon containing compounds in situ, a portion of the shale bed is rendered permeable to gases, and the temperature is raised to the point of distillation. An area in a shale bed is shattered by explosives, so that it is in a relatively finely divided form, and the tunnel is then blocked by a wall, and fuel and air are admitted through pipes until the temperature of the shale is raised to such a point that a portion of the released hydrocarbons will burn. When distillation of the shattered area takes place and the lighter products pass upwardly through uptakes to condensers and scrubbers, liquid oil passes to a tank and gas to a gasometer while heavy unvaporized products in the distillation zone collect in a drain, flow into a sump, and are drawn off through a pipe to a storage tank. In two modifications, methods of working are set out in cases where the shale lies beneath a substantially level surface.

  2. Mise au point d'un nouvel appareil de "distillation isotherme" Disterm Development of Distherm, a New Isothermal Distillation Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouton M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les études analytiques de distillats pétroliers d'intervalles d'ébullition élevés doivent être réalisées sur des produits préparés dans des conditions de distillation extrêmement douces, de manière à conserver intactes toutes les espèces chimiques initialement contenues dans le pétrole brut en l'état. Pour répondre à cet objectif, le Comité de Distillation du GEC (Groupe d'Études Concertées sur l'analyse des fractions lourdes du pétrole, réunissant Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (CFR, Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA et Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP a mis au point un schéma de préparation spécial de ces distillats, faisant appel à des techniques de distillation continue, de type « isotherme» et « moléculaire ». Dans ce cadre, le Comité de Distillation du GEC a été amené à développer un nouvel appareillage de distillation x isotherme », permettant de réduire, sans craquage, tout pétrole brut jusqu'à une température maximale comprise entre 350 et 380 °C. On décrit dans cet article ce nouvel ensemble de distillation, ainsi que ses conditions opératoires de fonctionnement. On y donne aussi un aperçu de la précision de la méthode de distillation réalisable avec cet appareil, ainsi que de la qualité de fractionnement obtenu.Enfin, à l'aide de quelques exemples particuliers, on montre que le domaine d'application de l'appareil peut être étendu à des produits autres que des pétroles bruts. Analytical examinations of high-boiling-range petroleum distillates must be made with products prepared under extremely mild distillation conditions so as ta maintain intact all the chemical species initially present in the original crude oil.

  3. Distillation of oil-bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-12-03

    A process of distilling oil-bearing minerals of the type of oil shale which disintegrate during distillation consists of subjecting the subdivided minerals to a distillation temperature in the form of a highly turbulent dense mass fluidized by an upwardly flowing gasiform medium in a distillation zone and supplying the heat required for the distillation by burning solid distillation residue with a combustion-supporting gas in the form of a fluidized mass of solids in a separate combustion zone at a combustion temperature and returning solid combustion residue substantially at the combustion temperature to the distillation zone. Combustion temperature is positively maintained at a figure not exceeding 1,200/sup 0/F and at a figure which is not substantially more than 50/sup 0/F higher than the distillation temperature.

  4. Tissue free water tritium separation from foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, F.; Ciubotaru, A.; Popa, D.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the tritium separation from tissue free water in foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation is described. Tritium in tissue water is assayed by liquid scintillation counting using well-established quenched correction method. The mean value of the tritium concentration in tissue water from foodstuffs is about 6-12 Bq/l very similar to the tritium mean concentration measured in the surface waters of the area where the samples have been collected (about 12 Bq/l. Therefore, the tritium content in the water fraction of the food samples can be considered in equilibrium with the local environmental water sources. The azeotropic distillation it is an accessible separation method which does not need a sophisticated and expansive distillation apparatus. It is a fast method of separation tissue free water from foodstuffs being very important in the surveillance activity of the environmental within nuclear electric plant. It is suitable for processing a small quantity of samples and for a production type facility when a large number of samples must be processed because the solvent can be purified and reused. The azeotropic distillation has some limits being used to separate water from samples with high content of water (85-90%) and simple a simple chemical structures as: vegetables, fruits, cereal, soil, vegetation. According to the results obtained, the organic substituents of milk, wine, meat (casein, lactose, milk fat, alcohol, esters) may enhance the chemisorption of tritium on through exchange organic hydrogen as -OH, -SH, -NH, -COOH with tritium. Also, the tissue water separation by azeotropic distillation is not complete and can not guarantee the absence of the vaporization isotope effect of the HTO/H 2 O system., However, the azeotropic distillation is the preferred method of the water extraction from food samples, which makes it useful for the tritium transfer from soil to foodstuffs. (authors)

  5. Tissue free water tritium separation from foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, F; Ciubotaru, A; Popa, D [Inspectorate of Public Health of Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-12-31

    In this paper the tritium separation from tissue free water in foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation is described. Tritium in tissue water is assayed by liquid scintillation counting using well-established quenched correction method. The mean value of the tritium concentration in tissue water from foodstuffs is about 6-12 Bq/l very similar to the tritium mean concentration measured in the surface waters of the area where the samples have been collected (about 12 Bq/l. Therefore, the tritium content in the water fraction of the food samples can be considered in equilibrium with the local environmental water sources. The azeotropic distillation it is an accessible separation method which does not need a sophisticated and expansive distillation apparatus. It is a fast method of separation tissue free water from foodstuffs being very important in the surveillance activity of the environmental within nuclear electric plant. It is suitable for processing a small quantity of samples and for a production type facility when a large number of samples must be processed because the solvent can be purified and reused. The azeotropic distillation has some limits being used to separate water from samples with high content of water (85-90%) and simple a simple chemical structures as: vegetables, fruits, cereal, soil, vegetation. According to the results obtained, the organic substituents of milk, wine, meat (casein, lactose, milk fat, alcohol, esters) may enhance the chemisorption of tritium on through exchange organic hydrogen as -OH, -SH, -NH, -COOH with tritium. Also, the tissue water separation by azeotropic distillation is not complete and can not guarantee the absence of the vaporization isotope effect of the HTO/H{sub 2}O system., However, the azeotropic distillation is the preferred method of the water extraction from food samples, which makes it useful for the tritium transfer from soil to foodstuffs. (authors) 2 tabs.

  6. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Abildskov, Jens; Kiss, Anton A.

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during past decades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Various techniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packed bed, dividing-wall columns and

  7. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of binary combinations of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) act via narcosis and are expected to have additive toxicity. However, previous work has demonstrated less-than-additive toxicity with PHC distillates and earthworms. A study was initiated to investigate this through toxicity and toxicokinetic studies with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Three petroleum distillate fractions, F2 (>C10-C16), F3a (>C16-C23), and F3b (>C23-C34), were used in two binary combinations, F2F3a and F3aF3b. In the toxicity study, clean soil was spiked with equitoxic combinations of the two distillates ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 toxic units. In the toxicokinetic study, a binary combination consisting of one concentration of each distillate was used. On a soil concentration basis, the toxicity of the binary combinations of distillates was less than additive. Accumulation of the individual distillates, however, was generally reduced when a second distillate was present, resulting in lower body burden. This is thought to be due to the presence of a nonaqueous-phase liquid at the soil concentrations used. On a tissue concentration basis, toxicity was closer to additive. The results demonstrate that tissue concentrations are the preferred metric for toxicity for earthworms. They also demonstrate that the Canada-wide soil standards based on individual distillates are likely protective. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  8. Structural characterization of asphaltenes from vacuum residue distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ronaldo C.; Seidl, Peter R.; Menezes, Sonia M.C. de; Teixeira, Marco A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to do structural characterization of asphaltenes from different vacuum residues distillation. Several average molecular parameters using some analytical techniques were obtained and these techniques were: nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H and 13 C NMR), elemental analysis (C,H,N,O and S content), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), vapor pressure osmometry and gel permeation chromatography. Particularly from NMR, some important molecular parameters were obtained, such as aromatic carbon fraction, aliphatic carbons fraction, alkyl substituted aromatic carbons, unsubstituted aromatic carbons, etc. Molecular modeling will be employed to build the structure of asphaltenes using the experimental data. (author)

  9. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  10. Construction and commissioning of a hydrogen cryogenic distillation system for tritium recovery at ICIT Rm. Valcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, George, E-mail: george.ana@icsi.ro [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Cristescu, Ion [Karlsruhe Istitute for Technologies, Tritium Laboratory, Eggenstein-Leopoldshaffen (Germany); Draghia, Mirela [ISTECH, Timisoara (Romania); Bucur, Ciprian; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Vijulie, Mihai; Popescu, Gheorghe; Costeanu, Claudiu; Sofilca, Nicolae; Stefan, Iulia; Daramus, Robert; Niculescu, Alina; Oubraham, Anisoara; Spiridon, Ionut; Vasut, Felicia; Moraru, Carmen; Brad, Sebastian [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Pasca, Gheorghe [ISTECH, Timisoara (Romania)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Cryogenic distillation (CD) process is being employed for tritium separation from tritiated hydrogen mixtures. • Process control and safety phylosophy with the detritiation plant from Rm. Vâlcea. • Tests undertaken prior to commissioning of the CD system from Rm. Vâlcea. • Preliminary experiments with the CD system (non-radiological). - Abstract: Cryogenic distillation (CD) of hydrogen in combination with Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) or Combined Electrolytic Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process is used for tritium removal/recovery from tritiated water. Tritiated water is being obtained after long time operation of CANDU reactors, or in case of ITER mainly by the Detritiation System (DS). The cryogenic distillation system (CDS) used to remove/recover tritium from a hydrogen stream consists of a cascade of cryogenic distillation columns and a refrigeration unit which provides the cooling capacity for the condensers of CD columns. The columns, together with the condensers and the process heat-exchangers are accommodated in a vacuumed cold box. In the particularly case of the ICIT Plant, the cryogenic distillation cascade consists of four columns with diameters between 100–7 mm and it has been designed to process up to 10 mc/h of tritiated deuterium. This paper will present the steps undertaken for construction and commissioning of a pilot plant for tritium removal/recovery by cryogenic distillation of hydrogen. The paper will show besides preliminary data obtained during commissioning, also general characteristics of the plant and its equipments.

  11. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  12. Phase distribution of products of radiation and post-radiation distillation of biopolymers: Cellulose, lignin and chitin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.V.; Kholodkova, E.M.; Metreveli, A.K.; Metreveli, P.K.; Erasov, V.S.; Bludenko, A.V.; Chulkov, V.N.

    2011-01-01

    Influence of both the absorbed dose and the dose rate of 8 MeV electron-beam radiation on destruction of microcrystalline cellulose, pine lignin and krill chitin was investigated. Two conversion modes were compared: (1) post-radiation distillation PRD and (2) electron-beam distillation EBD. Cellulose, chitin and lignin demonstrate different responses to irradiation and distillation in PRD and EBD modes. Treatment in EBD mode transforms biopolymers to organic liquid more productively than conventional dry distillation and treatment in PRD mode. Both radiation heating and an irradiation without heating intensify chitin and cellulose decomposition and distillation. At the same time lignin decaying rather efficiently in EBD mode appears to be insensitive to a preliminary irradiation in PRD mode up to a dose of 2.4 MGy. - Highlights: → Direct conversion of cellulose, chitin and lignin to organic liquid is intensified by electron-beam irradiation. → Alternative approach to bio-oil production. → Both electron-beam distillation mode and post-radiation distillation mode are effective for cellulose and chitin conversion. → Electron-beam distillation mode is preferable for lignin conversion. → Preliminary deep dehydration of biopolymers is realizable at low dose rates.

  13. Features investigation of corrosion-electrochemical behaviour of Al-alloys for engineering an effective protection of the water-distillings setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokin, M.N.; Lomakina, S.V.; Tselykh, O.G.; Shatova, T.S.; Trubetskaya, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of aluminium alloy application in distilling setups is studied. Investigation into the features of corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of aluminium alloys under sea water distillation allows one to reveal the main control factors and to propose optimal alloy compositions capable of providing the safe setup operation on their base. Preliminary treatment in tungsten and molybdenum isopolycompound solutions is proposed which reduces sedimentation which in its turn is very important for distilling setups

  14. Development on the cryogenic hydrogen isotopes distillation process technology for tritium removal (Final report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Woung; Kim, Yong Ik; Na, Jeong Won; Ku, Jae Hyu; Kim, Kwang Rak; Jeong, Yong Won; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Young Hyun; Ahn, Do Hee; Baek, Seung Woo; Kang, Hee Seok; Kim, You Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    While tritium exposure to the site-workers in Wolsung NPP is up to about 40% of the total personnel exposure, Ministry of Science and Technology has asked tritium removal facility for requirement of post heavy-water reactor construction. For the purpose of essential removal of tritium from the Wolsung heavy-water reactor system, a preliminary study on the cryogenic Ar-N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process for development of liquid-phase catalytic exchange cryogenic hydrogen distillation process technology. The Ar-N{sub 2} distillation column showed good performance with approximately 97% of final Ar concentration, and a computer simulation code was modified using these data. A simulation code developed for cryogenic hydrogen isotopes (H{sub 2}, HD, D{sub 2}, HT, DT, T{sub 2}) distillation column showed good performance after comparison with the result of a JAERI code, and a H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation column was made. Gas chromatography for hydrogen isotopes analysis was established using a vacuum sampling loop, and a schematic diagram of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process was suggested. A feasibility on modification of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process control system using Laser Raman Spectroscopy was studied, and the consideration points for tritium storage system for Wolsung tritium removal facility was suggested. 31 tabs., 79 figs., 68 refs. (Author).

  15. Development on the cryogenic hydrogen isotopes distillation process technology for tritium removal (Final report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ki Woung; Kim, Yong Ik; Na, Jeong Won; Ku, Jae Hyu; Kim, Kwang Rak; Jeong, Yong Won; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Young Hyun; Ahn, Do Hee; Baek, Seung Woo; Kang, Hee Seok; Kim, You Sun

    1995-12-01

    While tritium exposure to the site-workers in Wolsung NPP is up to about 40% of the total personnel exposure, Ministry of Science and Technology has asked tritium removal facility for requirement of post heavy-water reactor construction. For the purpose of essential removal of tritium from the Wolsung heavy-water reactor system, a preliminary study on the cryogenic Ar-N 2 and H 2 -D 2 distillation process for development of liquid-phase catalytic exchange cryogenic hydrogen distillation process technology. The Ar-N 2 distillation column showed good performance with approximately 97% of final Ar concentration, and a computer simulation code was modified using these data. A simulation code developed for cryogenic hydrogen isotopes (H 2 , HD, D 2 , HT, DT, T 2 ) distillation column showed good performance after comparison with the result of a JAERI code, and a H 2 -D 2 distillation column was made. Gas chromatography for hydrogen isotopes analysis was established using a vacuum sampling loop, and a schematic diagram of H 2 -D 2 distillation process was suggested. A feasibility on modification of H 2 -D 2 distillation process control system using Laser Raman Spectroscopy was studied, and the consideration points for tritium storage system for Wolsung tritium removal facility was suggested. 31 tabs., 79 figs., 68 refs. (Author)

  16. Comparative acute toxicity of shale and petroleum derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M A; Dennis, M W; Craig, D K

    1989-12-01

    In anticipation of the commercialization of its shale oil retorting and upgrading process, Unocal Corp. conducted a testing program aimed at better defining potential health impacts of a shale industry. Acute toxicity studies using rats and rabbits compared the effects of naphtha, Jet-A, JP-4, diesel and "residual" distillate fractions of both petroleum derived crude oils and hydrotreated shale oil. No differences in the acute oral (greater than 5 g/kg LD50) and dermal (greater than 2 g/kg LD50) toxicities were noted between the shale and petroleum derived distillates and none of the samples were more than mildly irritating to the eyes. Shale and petroleum products caused similar degrees of mild to moderate skin irritation. None of the materials produced sensitization reactions. The LC50 after acute inhalation exposure to Jet-A, shale naphtha, (greater than 5 mg/L) and JP-4 distillate fractions of petroleum and shale oils was greater than 5 mg/L. The LC50 of petroleum naphtha (greater than 4.8 mg/L) and raw shale oil (greater than 3.95 mg/L) also indicated low toxicity. Results demonstrate that shale oil products are of low acute toxicity, mild to moderately irritating and similar to their petroleum counterparts. The results further demonstrate that hydrotreatment reduces the irritancy of raw shale oil.

  17. Pear distillates from pear juice concentrate: effect of lees in the aromatic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llobodanin, L; Achaerandio, I; Ferrando, M; Güell, C; López, F

    2007-05-02

    Pear juice obtained from pear concentrate was fermented at room temperature using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BDX, ENOFERM, France) as the fermentation microorganism. During the fermentation process, total sugars were measured. High performance liquid chromatography analyses were used to monitor the fermentation process and to characterize the pear wine. The pear wine obtained was distilled with its lees using three different equipments: a glass alembic (a glass pot still coupled to a glass column), a copper alembic, and a glass alembic with the addition of 5 g/L of copper shavings to the pot still. The same distillations were repeated with the wine without its lees (separated by decanting). Several distillation fractions were collected, up to a total of 500 mL of distillate. Gas chromatography was used to identify and quantify the volatile compounds in each fraction, and the methanol and ethanol contents. Based on these results, the heart fraction was defined. ANOVA tests were performed on the heart fractions to determine quantitative differences between some volatile compounds depending on the equipment used and the presence or absence of the wine lees. From this series of ANOVA tests, it can be concluded that the concentrations of the compounds that are considered to have a negative effect on the quality of the distillates (methanol, ethyl acetate, furfural) decrease or do not change when they are distilled in the presence of lees and in the copper alembic. In addition, the concentrations of the positive compounds (ethyl decanoate and ethyl-2-trans-4-cis-decadienoate) increase in the presence of lees for all of the equipment tested. So, it can be assumed that the distillation of pear wine with its lees in copper alembic leads to a better quality product.

  18. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin

    2018-01-01

    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  19. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  20. Low temperature distillation of coal, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-08-12

    A process is disclosed for the low temperature distillation of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, lignite, shale or the like, which comprises feeding or supplying the comminuted fuel in the form of a layer of shallow depth to drying and distilling zones in succession moving the fuel forward through the zones, submitting it to progressively increasing nonuniform heating therein by combustion gases supplied to the distillation zone and traveling thence to the drying zone, the gases heating the distillation zone indirectly and the drying zone both indirectly and then directly such that the fuel retains its solid discrete form during substantially the whole of its travel through the drying and distillation zones, subjecting the fuel for a portion of its travel to a zigzag ploughing and propelling movement on a heated sole, and increasing the heating so as to cause fusion of the fuel immediately prior to its discharge from the distillation zone.

  1. Method and arrangement of distillation of shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1920-03-29

    A method is given of distilling shale and other bituminous materials utilizing the heat from the combustion of the residue, possibly with additional heat from other fuels. It is characterized by the shale, which is arranged in layers, being first submitted to a process of distillation utilizing the heat mentioned, and at the same time recovering the products of distillation, and second the shale being burned without disturbing the layers to any appreciable extent. The patent has 16 more claims.

  2. Study of the repartition of phthalate esters during distillation of wine for spirit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Di Pascale, Nicolas; Vasile Simone, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Andrea

    2017-12-15

    Due to health concerns and legal matters, an investigation to limit phthalates esters (PEAs) in spirits is necessary. A lab still was used to perform pilot distillations according to the official method for brandy production in order to explore the repartition into the distilled fractions of each PAE. The process was divided in two steps: a première chauffe and a bonne chauffe. The former step included the cut into heads, heart and tails, while the latter into heads, brandy, secondes, and tails. The behaviour of each PAE during distillation was affected by its own chemical nature. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was entirely carried over into the distillate, while bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) only partially, and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) accumulated in the stillage. During the bonne chauffe, DBP and DEHP accumulated in the secondes more than in the brandy. A rectification step of the secondes was demonstrated to considerably reduce PAEs concentration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Isolation of CYP1A inducing components in coal tar fraction (F3) of Alaska north slope crude oil : a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanabhavan, G.; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Khan, C.W.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2004-07-01

    Recent concerns regarding the effects of weathered crude oil on the early life stage of aquatic organisms are related to reports that blue sac disease (BSD) has been linked to larval fish exposed to crude oil. Studies have shown that a relationship exists between the induction of CYP1A enzymes and the occurrence of BSD in fish species. However, the mechanism of BSD is not fully understood. This study contributed to the Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) approach by isolating the CYP1A enzyme. An improved separation and analysis method for characterizing crude oil was also developed. Earlier studies revealed that the highest CYP1A activity occurred in the coal tar fraction of crude oil, which is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and which contains many classes of compounds such as waxes, asphaltenes and resins. The TIE method included separation of these compound classes as well as a detailed characterization of the PAH classes. A solvent extraction method was also developed to fractionate the coal tar fraction into compound classes with particular emphasis on isolating PAH components. The study showed that fractions rich in PAH were responsible for a significant CYP1A induction in juvenile trout, but fractions poor in PAH did not. The solid phase extraction method offered better PAH fractions for further analysis by liquid chromatography.

  4. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  5. Determination of methanol in Iranian herbal distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Kobra; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Azar-Khiavi, Kamal Razavi; Moghaddam, Zohreh Samie; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Herbal distillates have been used as beverages, for flavoring, or as phytomedicines in many countries for a long time. Recently, the occurrence of blindness after drinking herbal distillates has created concerns in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of methanol in herbal distillates produced in Iran. Eighty-four most commonly used herbal distillates purchased from herbal distillate factories were analyzed for methanol contents by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection, with ethanol as internal standard. In 15 herbal distillates, the methanol concentration was below the limit of quantitation. The methanol concentrations in all samples ranged from 43 to 277 mg/L. Forty-five samples contained methanol in excess of the Iranian standard. The maximum concentration was found in an herbal distillate of Mentha piperita (factory E) (277±12), and the minimum in a distillate of Carum carvi (factory B) (42.6 ± 0.5). Since the 45 Iranian herbal distillates containing methanol levels were beyond the legal limits according to the Iranian standard, it seems necessary to monitor the amount of methanol and give a warning to watch out for the latent risk problem of methanol uptake, and establish a definitive relationship between the degree of intoxication observed and the accumulation of methanol in the blood.

  6. Dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation emphasizing the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, first-principle model has been formulated, which is flexible enough to describe various diabatic distillation configurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found and control...

  7. Dynamic Effects of Diabatization in Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic eects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation with primary focus on the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, rst-principle model has been formulated, which is exible to describe various diabatic distillation congurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found. Control...

  8. Dose Evaluation of Fractionated Schema and Distance From Tumor to Spinal Cord for Spinal SBRT with Simultaneous Integrated Boost: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Cai, Bo-ning; Wang, Xiao-shen; Cong, Xiao-hu; Xu, Wei; Wang, Jin-yuan; Yang, Jun; Xu, Shou-ping; Ju, Zhong-jian; Ma, Lin

    2016-02-23

    BACKGROUND This study investigated and quantified the dosimetric impact of the distance from the tumor to the spinal cord and fractionation schemes for patients who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and hypofractionated simultaneous integrated boost (HF-SIB). MATERIAL AND METHODS Six modified planning target volumes (PTVs) for 5 patients with spinal metastases were created by artificial uniform extension in the region of PTV adjacent spinal cord with a specified minimum tumor to cord distance (0-5 mm). The prescription dose (biologic equivalent dose, BED) was 70 Gy in different fractionation schemes (1, 3, 5, and 10 fractions). For PTV V100, Dmin, D98, D95, and D1, spinal cord dose, conformity index (CI), V30 were measured and compared. RESULTS PTV-to-cord distance influenced PTV V100, Dmin, D98, and D95, and fractionation schemes influenced Dmin and D98, with a significant difference. Distances of ≥2 mm, ≥1 mm, ≥1 mm, and ≥0 mm from PTV to spinal cord meet dose requirements in 1, 3, 5, and 10 fractionations, respectively. Spinal cord dose, CI, and V30 were not impacted by PTV-to-cord distance and fractionation schemes. CONCLUSIONS Target volume coverage, Dmin, D98, and D95 were directly correlated with distance from the spinal cord for spine SBRT and HF-SIB. Based on our study, ≥2 mm, ≥1 mm, ≥1 mm, and ≥0 mm distance from PTV to spinal cord meets dose requirements in 1, 3, 5 and 10 fractionations, respectively.

  9. Hydrocracking of atmospheric distillable residue of Mongolian oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ts Tugsuu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many catalytic processes to refine heavy part of crude oil have attracted much interest due to declining reserves of light crude oils. This study focused on hydrocracking process of atmospheric distillable residue of Mongolian crude oil in the first time compared to those of other countries. Residue samples were hydrocracked with a commercial catalyst at 450°C, 460°C, 470°C for 2 h under hydrogen pressure of 10 MPa. The amount of residual fraction (350°Cdistillable residue from Tamsagbulag crude oil. When the ME-AR was hydrocracked, the high consumption of hydrogen was related to the lowest H/C atomic ratio of feed atmospheric residue. The amount of liquid fractions (BP<350°C including gaseous products increased from 45.4wt% to 89.2wt%, when the reaction temperature increased from 450°C to 470°C. The highest yield of the middle fraction for each sample was observed at temperature of 460°C. On the other hand, the effect of temperature on the yield of middle fraction was not so high as compared with the yields of other fractions. The contents of n-paraffins on midlle and heavy fractions of TB-AR, DQ-AR were similar, but ME-AR’s was around 2 times lower than other after hydrocracking runs.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.166 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 24-28 

  10. Improving distillation method and device of tritiated water analysis for ultra high decontamination efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2015-01-01

    It is important that monitoring environmental tritiated water for understanding the contamination dispersion of the nuclear facilities. Tritium is a pure beta radionuclide which is usually measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The average energy of tritum beta is only 5.658 keV that makes the LSC counting of tritium easily be interfered by the beta emitted by other radionuclides. Environmental tritiated water samples usually need to be decontaminated by distillation for reducing the interference. After Fukushima Nucleaer Accident, the highest gross beta concentration of groundwater samples obtained around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is over 1,000,000 Bq/l. There is a need for a distillation with ultra-high decontamination efficiency for environmental tritiated water analysis. This study is intended to improve the heating temperature control for better sub-boiling distillation control and modify the height of the container of the air cooling distillation device for better fractional distillation effect. The DF of Cs-137 of the distillation may reach 450,000 which is far better than the prior study. The average loss rate of the improved method and device is about 2.6% which is better than the bias value listed in the ASTM D4107-08. It is proven that the modified air cooling distillation device can provide an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost and effective way of purifying water samples for higher beta radionuclides contaminated water samples which need ultra-high decontamination treatment. - Highlights: • The improvements of method and device make the decontaminatin factor (DF) of Cs-137 of distillation reach over 450,000. • The decontamination factor ( DF) value may be increased about 20 times by increasing the height of the container from 7 cm to 20 cm. • The device provides an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost, stable and effective way for the distillation of triated water analysis.

  11. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillates containing... Distillates containing extraneous substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates containing substantial... produced. Distillates removed from the distilling system under the provisions of this paragraph shall be...

  12. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of distillates... distillates containing aldehydes. Distillates containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were...

  13. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFrac module for distillation columns, to investigate the effect on the separation of the ethylene glycol-glycerol mixture composition, the separating agent feed stages, the separating agent split stream feed, and the azeotropic feed temperature. The NRTL model was used to calculate the phase equilibrium of these strongly polar mixtures. A rigorous simulation of the extractive distillation column finally established was also performed, including a secondary recovery column for the mixture of solvents and a recycle loop, to simulate an industrially relevant situation. This simulation allowed establishing the complete parameters to dehydrate ethanol: the optimal stage for separating agent feed is stage 4; the most adequate composition for the glycols mixture is 60 mol% ethylene glycol and 40 mol% glycerol. Finally, energetically efficient operating conditions for each one of the columns were established through a preliminary pinch analysis.

  14. Preliminary study of selenium and mercury distribution in some porcine tissues and their subcellular fractions by NAA and HG-AFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiujiang Zhao; Chunying Chen; Peiqun Zhang; Zhifang Chai

    2004-01-01

    Selenium and mercury distribution in porcine tissues and their subcellular fractions from a mercury-polluted area of Guizhou Province and from a not mercury-exposed area of Beijing in China have been studied with neutron activation analysis and hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Both the selenium and mercury levels are higher in Guizhou porcine tissues and their subcellular fractions than those in Beijing. These two elements are highly enriched in kidney and liver of Guizhou pig, while selenium is only enriched in the kidney of Beijing pig. Exposure of mercury may result in redistribution of Se and Hg in vivo. The Hg/Se molar ratio of the subcellular fractions is very low in the case of relatively low mercury level and gradually reaches to a high constant value with increasing level of mercury, which implies that selenium and mercury may form some special complexes in the organisms. (author)

  15. UHPLC-ESI-MS Analysis of Purified Flavonoids Fraction from Stem of Dendrobium denneaum Paxt. and Its Preliminary Study in Inducing Apoptosis of HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium denneaum paxt., which has been widely used for health prevention in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, is one of the most popular tonic herbs in China. In order to analyze its flavonoids, characterization and antitumor activity of crude extract and flavonoids rich fractions from D. denneaum paxt. were investigated. Flavonoids extracted from D. denneaum paxt. were clearly enriched in fraction II after determining the total flavonoids content; there were 15 characteristic peaks which have been detected; ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS was applied for structural elucidation of compounds. 13 characteristic peaks including flavonoid-O-glycosides and flavonoid-C-glycosides were determined or preliminarily characterized through comparing retention times and UV and MS spectra with standard compounds or documented literature. The antitumor activity of fraction II on human liver cancer cells HepG2 was investigated. MTT assay method was used to test the antiproliferation activity and to confirm the appropriate treatment concentration as well as inducing time. The morphological changes of the apoptosis cells after being induced by fraction II were observed by a Hoechst reagent and the apoptosis rate was tested by flow cytometry. The results showed that fraction II can inhibit HepG2 cells from proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The apoptosis experiments indicated that fraction II can significantly induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a concentration over 50 μg/mL for 48 h and the most effective level was 150 μg/mL for 48 h.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of multicomponent distillation columns: identifying optimal feed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.O. Maia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the optimisation of feed conditions as well as the calculation of minimum reflux ratio of distillation columns is presented. The reversible profile approach used for saturated liquid feeds is extended to consider other feed conditions. For flashed feed, the liquid fraction of the feed stream is used to compute the column pinch conditions and the minimum reflux ratio. The modifications required for subcooled liquid and superheated vapor feed are discussed, and a procedure to estimate the minimum reflux for those conditions is proposed. The methodology presented allows the identification of the optimal feed condition, without having to resort to a full stage-by-stage procedure.

  17. Quantum Entanglement: Separability, Measure, Fidelity of Teleportation, and Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entanglement plays crucial roles in quantum information processing. Quantum entangled states have become the key ingredient in the rapidly expanding field of quantum information science. Although the nonclassical nature of entanglement has been recognized for many years, considerable efforts have been taken to understand and characterize its properties recently. In this review, we introduce some recent results in the theory of quantum entanglement. In particular separability criteria based on the Bloch representation, covariance matrix, normal form and entanglement witness, lower bounds, subadditivity property of concurrence and tangle, fully entangled fraction related to the optimal fidelity of quantum teleportation, and entanglement distillation will be discussed in detail.

  18. Augmentation of a solar still distillate yield via absorber plate coated with black nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Kabeel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of utilizing nanomaterial on the solar still productivity investigated experimentally. Cuprous oxides (CuO chosen as a nanoparticles material. The nanoparticles added to the black paint of the solar still walls to enhance the solar still performance. Experiments conducted with cuprous oxide nanoparticles weight concentrations ranged from 10% to 40%. It is found that adding nanoparticles to paint increase heat transfer rate and saline water temperature. Solar still productivity of the proposed system is higher than that for the conventional still. Results acquired that utilizing CuO nanoparticles boosted the distillate by 16% and 25% as compared to the conventional solar still (CSS at weight fraction concentration of 10% and 40%, respectively. Payback period of the distillation system for the modified still using CuO nanomaterials is about 96 days, at weight fraction 10%, which is considerable as compared by 89 days for CSS. Keywords: Nanomaterial, Solar still, Distillation, Nanoparticle

  19. Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using different types of electronic noses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gebicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation on quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using a prototype of electronic nose instrument and a commercial electronic nose of Fast/Flash GC type- HERACLES II. The prototype was equipped with TGS type semiconductor sensors. HERACLES II included two chromatographic columns with different polarity of stationary phase and two FID detectors. In case of the prototype volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate was prepared via barbotage process, whereas HERACLES II analysed the headspace fraction. Classification of the samples into three quality classes was performed using: quadratic discriminant function (QDA), supported with cross-validation method. Over 95% correct classification of the agricultural distillates into particular quality classes was observed for the analyses with HERACLES II. The prototype of electronic nose provided correct classification at the level of 70%.

  20. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone

  1. Retort for distilling coal oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbon, J

    1865-12-20

    The construction of a retort for extracting or distilling coal oil or other products from cannel coal, shale, or schist, and more particularly of small coal or dust technically called slack, consists in applying self-acting feed and discharge apparatus to a revolving cylindrical wrought or cast iron retort, and constructing the inner surface of the cylindrical retort with a projecting ridge which encircles the interior of the retort in a spiral manner, the same as the interior of a female screw, and the ridge may be either cast upon or riveted on the internal surface, and is so arranged to cause the material to be operated upon to advance from one end of the retort to the other, as the retort revolves by following the course of the spiral screw or worm formed by the projecting ridge.

  2. Distillation of solid carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, C D

    1918-08-31

    A method of distilling carbonaceous material at low or moderate temperatures is described in which the main supply of gases for heating the material under treatment is generated in a combustion chamber located externally of the retort chamber from which combustion chamber the gases are withdrawn and passed under control through hollow elements located within the retort chamber in such manner as to insure the production of the desired temperature gradient along the length of the retort, the said elements being so constructed that they serve to bring the heating gases into indirect contact with the material undergoing treatment while also moving the material progressively through the retort in the opposite direction to that in which the heating gases flow.

  3. Mutagenicity and chemical characterization of two petroleum distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, J H; MacGregor, J A; King, R W

    1984-08-01

    To investigate if the Salmonella/microsome assay could reliably screen complex petroleum samples for their carcinogenic potential, two high boiling (700-1070 degrees F) petroleum distillates with known activity in a dermal carcinogenesis bioassay were fully characterized with respect to their hydrocarbon composition and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PNA) content and assayed for mutagenic activity. Mutagenicity assays were also carried out on the aromatic hydrocarbon aggregates separated from these oils by adsorption chromatography. The composition of the distillates differed substantially, and reflected the fact that they were derived from crude oils that were extremely divergent in hydrocarbon character. Both the distillate and aromatic samples consistently induced a very slight increase in revertant TA98 and TA100 colonies; however, an increase of 2-4-fold over background was observed when the S-9 concentration was increased 5-10 times that of the standard assay. The maximal response was less than that expected from the samples' known PNA content and observed potency in the dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. In the Salmonella/microsome assay, all samples inhibited the mutagenic activity of added benzo[a]pyrene. Discordance between the magnitude of the samples' mutagenic activity and their known PNA content may be related to direct or indirect inhibition of sample PNAs by other components of the complex petroleum fractions. Observed inhibitory effects support the use of elevated S-9 concentration in the in vitro assays assessing the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials.

  4. Driving Force Based Design of Cyclic Distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Fjordbak; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    with mixed phase feeds. A range of binary test cases, benzene toluene, methanol water, and ethanol water, are evaluated. The advantage of the design approach in cyclic distillation is shown to be analogous to the advantages obtained in conventional continuous distillation, including a minimal utility...

  5. Method of distillation of sulfurous bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallback, A J.S.; Bergh, S V

    1918-04-22

    A method of distillation of sulfur-containing bituminous shales is characterized by passing the hot sulfur-containing and oil-containing gases and vapors formed during the distillation through burned shale containing iron oxide, so that when these gases and vapors are thereafter cooled they will be, as far as possible, free from sulfur compounds. The patent contains six more claims.

  6. Membrane distillation against a pressure difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, L.; van der Ham, LV; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Kjelstrup, S

    2017-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for production of fresh water from seawater. The MemPower®MemPower® concept, studied in this work, uses available heat (86 °C) to produce pressurized water (2.2 bar and 46 °C) by membrane distillation, which again can be used to power a turbine for

  7. Process of distillation of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, A L

    1968-08-16

    In an oil-shale distillation apparatus with a single retort, in which separate zones of preheating, distillation, combustion, and cooling are maintained, the operation is conducted at a presssure higher than the atmospheric pressure, preferably at a gage pressure between about 0.35 and 7.0 bars. This permits increasing the capacity of the installation.

  8. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Starter distillate. 58.331 Section 58.331 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related...

  9. Membrane distillation against a pressure difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, L.; Ham, L.V. van der; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Kjelstrup, S.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for production of fresh water from seawater. The MemPower® concept, studied in this work, uses available heat (86 °C) to produce pressurized water (2.2 bar and 46 °C) by membrane distillation, which again can be used to power a turbine for

  10. FRACTIONATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF TECHNICAL AMMONIUM LIGNOSULPHONATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Ann Leger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to use lignin in any analytical methodology without reducing its considerable polydispersity by fractionation. An ammonium lignosulphonate sample was fractionated using a method of partial solubility in solutions of isopropanol increasingly diluted with distilled water, effectively fractionating by polarity. Selected fractions were characterised by gravimetric determination of the fractions, and determination of acid insoluble lignin, soluble lignin, and carbohydrate contents. Acid-insoluble lignin content was very low, and soluble lignin provided the majority of the lignin content, as should be expected from sulphonated lignin. Carbohydrate contents were also fairly low, the highest percentage at 14.5 being in Fraction 2, with the bulk lignin and Fraction 3 having 6.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Differences in the composition of each fraction support the efficacy of the fractionation process and permitted selection of fractions for use in subsequent studies.

  11. Method of distillation of alum shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, G H

    1920-02-03

    A method is given of distilling alum shale by means of preheated gases obtained from the process of distillation in which the gases are circulating within a system consisting of the retort, the condensation apparatus, and generator, each separate. It is characterized by leading the gases produced during the distillation through a condensation apparatus for separation of the condensable products, such as oil, benzene, ammonia, and sulfur, and the noncondensable gases are conveyed through one or more heated generators that have been charged with residue from the process of distillation (any superfluous amount of gas formed during the process being released). The heated gases are thereupon passed to the retort for completion of the distillation process.

  12. Operation and Design of Diabatic Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas

    Diabatic operation of a distillation column implies that heat is exchanged in one or more stages in the column. The most common way of realising diabatic operation is by internal heat integration resulting in a heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). When operating the rectifying section...... at a higher pressure, a driving forcefor transferring heat from the rectifying section to the stripping section is achieved. As a result, the condenser and reboiler duties can be significantly reduced. For two-product distillation, the HIDiC is a favourable alternative to the conventional distillation column....... Energy savings up to 83% are reported for the HIDiC compared to the CDiC, while the reported economical savings are as high as 40%. However, a simpler heat-integrated distillation column configuration exists, which employs compression in order to obtain a direct heat integration between the top vapour...

  13. Fractionated stereotaxic radiotherapy in the treatment of the retinoblastoma: preliminary results; Radiotherapie stereotaxique fractionnee dans le traitement du retinoblastome: resultats preliminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pica, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service de Radiotherapie, Lausanne (Switzerland); Moeckli, R.; Do, H. [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Lausanne (Switzerland); Balmer, A.; Munier, F. [Hopital ophtalmique Jules-Gonin, Lausanne (Switzerland); Chollet Rivier, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service d' Anesthesie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact in term of morbidity at short and long term and the response to the fractionated stereotaxic radiotherapy with a micro multi slides collimator in the treatment of the retinoblastoma. (N.C.)

  14. Gels of ferulated arabinoxylans extracted from distillers dried grains with solubles: rheology, structural parameters and microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major by-products of bioethanol production is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Maize is one of the main sources for the production of this biofuel. In this way, dietary fiber represents the principal fraction of DDGS, which could be a potential source of added-value biomolecu...

  15. Ignition delay times of Gasoline Distillation Cuts measured with Ignition Quality Tester

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2017-04-21

    Tailoring fuel properties to maximize the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a way towards achieving cleaner combustion systems. In this work, the ignition properties of various gasoline fuel distillation cuts are analyzed to better understand fuel properties of the full boiling range fuel. An advanced distillation column (ADC) provides a more realistic representation of volatility characteristics, which can be modeled using equilibrium thermodynamic methods. The temperature reported is that of the liquid, as opposed to the vapor temperature in conventional ASTM D86 distillation standard. Various FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasolines were distilled and various cuts were obtained. The separated fractions were then tested in an ignition quality tester (IQT) to see the effect of chemical composition of different fractions on their ignition delay time. Fuels with lower aromatic content showed decreasing ignition delay time with increasing boiling point (i.e., molecular weight). However, fuels with higher aromatic content showed an initial decrease in ignition delay time with increasing boiling point, followed by drastic increase in ignition delay time due to fractions containing aromatics. This study also provides an understanding on contribution of different fractions to the ignition delay time of the fuel, which provides insights into fuel stratification utilized in gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines to tailor heat release rates.

  16. Quick assessment of binary distillation efficiency using a heat engine perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahušiak, M.; Kiss, A.A.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Schuur, B.

    2016-01-01

    With emphasis on close boiling, (near-)ideal VLE mixtures, this paper links the efficiency of distillation to the binary feed composition and thermal properties of the compounds. The proposed approach, treating the process as a heat engine, allows to directly quantify distillation performance (in terms of energy intensity & efficiency) based on the components boiling points and feed composition. In addition, this approach reviews and formulates simple, approximate and essentially non-iterative calculation procedures to quickly estimate the energy efficiency of distillation. These estimations may be applied to identify opportunities to save significant amounts of energy. The results show that the reboiler duty for low relative volatility is relatively independent of the heat of vaporization and feed composition, while being reciprocally proportional to the Carnot efficiency of the distillation column. The internal efficiency for distillation of mixtures with low relative volatility has a maximum of about 70% for a symmetrical feed (equimolar ratio) and decreases to zero for unsymmetrical feed compositions approaching infinite dilution. With increasing relative volatility, the maximum efficiency is preserved, but the locus shifts towards lower light component fractions. At very high relative volatility, the internal efficiency increases with decreasing concentration of light component, as typical for evaporators. - Highlights: • A heat engine perspective was applied to estimate binary distillation efficiency. • The method was derived from first principles. • Validation on industrial cases showed the strength of the method.

  17. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  18. Method of distillation of bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, E G.T.

    1919-11-12

    A method is described of dry distillation of bituminous materials by leading warm combustible gases, mixed or not mixed with steam, through the distillation chamber in direct contact with the materials, during which process the distillation chamber may be heated by other means. It is characterized by the mixture of distillation products (formed by the vapors produced by heating the raw materials) and the gas (circulating gas) used for heating in the process, being led through coolers or similar contrivances, in order to separate through condensation the greater part of the content of the products or materials condensable at ordinary temperatures, and also to recover as much as possible of the highly volatile oils in the gas. Thereafter the gas is split, one part is, without further cleaning, and led through the distillation chamber, after this gas has been reheated in suitable apparatus. The other part (surplus gas), which in volume corresponds approximately to the new-formed distillation gases, is treated according to known methods for the extraction of the remaining products of the distillation, such as volatile oils, ammonia, methyl alcohol, sulfuretted hydrogen, and others. The patent contains three other claims.

  19. Microbubble Distillation for Ethanol-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheer Al-yaqoobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a novel approach for separating ethanol-water mixture by microbubble distillation technology was investigated. Traditional distillation processes require large amounts of energy to raise the liquid to its boiling point to effect removal of volatile components. The concept of microbubble distillation by comparison is to heat the gas phase rather than the liquid phase to achieve separation. The removal of ethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths was taken as a case of study. Consequently the results were then compared with those which could be obtained under equilibrium conditions expected in an “ideal” distillation unit. Microbubble distillation has achieved vapour compositions higher than that which could be obtained under traditional equilibrium conditions. The separation was achieved at liquid temperature significantly less than the boiling point of the mixture. In addition, it was observed that the separation efficiency of the microbubble distillation could be increased by raising the injected air temperature, while the temperature of the liquid mixture increased only moderately. The separation efficiency of microbubble distillation was compared with that of pervaporation for the recovery of bioethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths. The technology could be controlled to give high separation and energy efficiency. This could contribute to improving commercial viability of biofuel production and other coproducts of biorefinery processing.

  20. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  1. Energy consumption maps for quaternary distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Castro, F.I.; Ramírez-Vallejo, N.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Thermally coupled distillation columns represent a very interesting option for the intensification of distillation systems in order to reduce the energy consumption, and, as a consequence, the environmental impact of the separation process. Several thermally coupled distillation schemes can......, for a given mixture, depends on the nature of the mixture, usually quantified for ternary mixtures through the ease of separation index (ESI), and also on the feed composition. As can be noticed, the size of the design and optimization problem increases when these variables are considered in the generation...

  2. Vacuum distillation of plutonium pyrochemical salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, Gilles; Faure, S.; Fiers, B.; Saintignon, S.; Lemoine, O.; Cardona-Barrau, D.; Devillard, D.

    2012-01-01

    A pyrochemical process is developed to upgrade the safety of plutonium spent salts interim storage. The feed material, consisting of alkali or alkali-earth chlorides containing various Pu and Am species, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are removed by vacuum distillation which requires temperature from 750 degrees C to 1100 degrees C. After a comprehensive R and D program, full-scale equipment was built to test the distillation of active salts. Tests with NaCl/KCl oxidized spent salt give decontamination factor of chlorides higher than 20000. The distilled salt meets the radiologic requirements to be discarded as low level waste. (authors)

  3. Preliminary Results of a Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Trial for Early-Stage Breast Cancer Using 5-Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Partial-Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Asal; Thomas, Kimberly; Spangler, Ann; Rao, Roshni; Leitch, Marilyn; Wooldridge, Rachel; Rivers, Aeisha; Seiler, Stephen; Albuquerque, Kevin; Stevenson, Stella; Goudreau, Sally; Garwood, Dan; Haley, Barbara; Euhus, David; Heinzerling, John; Ding, Chuxiong; Gao, Ang; Ahn, Chul; Timmerman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability of a dose-escalated 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy for partial-breast irradiation (S-PBI) in treating early-stage breast cancer after partial mastectomy; the primary objective was to escalate dose utilizing a robotic stereotactic radiation system treating the lumpectomy cavity without exceeding the maximum tolerated dose. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive nonlobular epithelial histologies and stage 0, I, or II, with tumor size <3 cm. Patients and physicians completed baseline and subsequent cosmesis outcome questionnaires. Starting dose was 30 Gy in 5 fractions and was escalated by 2.5 Gy total for each cohort to 40 Gy. Results: In all, 75 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 62 years. Median follow-up for 5 cohorts was 49.9, 42.5, 25.7, 20.3, and 13.5 months, respectively. Only 3 grade 3 toxicities were experienced. There was 1 dose-limiting toxicity in the overall cohort. Ten patients experienced palpable fat necrosis (4 of which were symptomatic). Physicians scored cosmesis as excellent or good in 95.9%, 100%, 96.7%, and 100% at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after S-PBI, whereas patients scored the same periods as 86.5%, 97.1%, 95.1%, and 95.3%, respectively. The disagreement rates between MDs and patients during those periods were 9.4%, 2.9%, 1.6%, and 4.7%, respectively. There have been no recurrences or distant metastases. Conclusion: Dose was escalated to the target dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions, with the occurrence of only 1 dose-limiting toxicity. Patients felt cosmetic results improved within the first year after surgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy. Our results show minimal toxicity with excellent cosmesis; however, further follow-up is warranted in future studies. This study is the first to show the safety, tolerability, feasibility, and cosmesis results of a 5-fraction dose-escalated S-PBI treatment for

  4. Preliminary Results of a Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Trial for Early-Stage Breast Cancer Using 5-Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Partial-Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Asal, E-mail: asal.rahimi@utsouthwestern.edu [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Thomas, Kimberly; Spangler, Ann [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Rao, Roshni; Leitch, Marilyn; Wooldridge, Rachel; Rivers, Aeisha [Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Seiler, Stephen [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Albuquerque, Kevin; Stevenson, Stella [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Goudreau, Sally [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Garwood, Dan [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Haley, Barbara [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Euhus, David [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Heinzerling, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Levine Cancer Institute, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Ding, Chuxiong [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Gao, Ang; Ahn, Chul [Department of Statistics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Timmerman, Robert [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability of a dose-escalated 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy for partial-breast irradiation (S-PBI) in treating early-stage breast cancer after partial mastectomy; the primary objective was to escalate dose utilizing a robotic stereotactic radiation system treating the lumpectomy cavity without exceeding the maximum tolerated dose. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive nonlobular epithelial histologies and stage 0, I, or II, with tumor size <3 cm. Patients and physicians completed baseline and subsequent cosmesis outcome questionnaires. Starting dose was 30 Gy in 5 fractions and was escalated by 2.5 Gy total for each cohort to 40 Gy. Results: In all, 75 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 62 years. Median follow-up for 5 cohorts was 49.9, 42.5, 25.7, 20.3, and 13.5 months, respectively. Only 3 grade 3 toxicities were experienced. There was 1 dose-limiting toxicity in the overall cohort. Ten patients experienced palpable fat necrosis (4 of which were symptomatic). Physicians scored cosmesis as excellent or good in 95.9%, 100%, 96.7%, and 100% at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after S-PBI, whereas patients scored the same periods as 86.5%, 97.1%, 95.1%, and 95.3%, respectively. The disagreement rates between MDs and patients during those periods were 9.4%, 2.9%, 1.6%, and 4.7%, respectively. There have been no recurrences or distant metastases. Conclusion: Dose was escalated to the target dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions, with the occurrence of only 1 dose-limiting toxicity. Patients felt cosmetic results improved within the first year after surgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy. Our results show minimal toxicity with excellent cosmesis; however, further follow-up is warranted in future studies. This study is the first to show the safety, tolerability, feasibility, and cosmesis results of a 5-fraction dose-escalated S-PBI treatment for

  5. Validation of Agent Based Distillation Movement Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Agent based distillations (ABD) are low-resolution abstract models, which can be used to explore questions associated with land combat operations in a short period of time Movement of agents within the EINSTein and MANA ABDs...

  6. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

  7. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed open-quotes cathode processingclose quotes. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process

  8. Rotary drum for distilling bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-02

    A rotary drum with insert tubes for distilling bituminous materials, like mineral coal, brown coal, wood, peat, and oil-shale, is characterized in that the insert tube is heated also by superheated steam introduced into the drum.

  9. Reoxidation of uranium in electrolytically reduced simulated oxide fuel during residual salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Young Choi; Jin-Mok Hur; Min Ku Jeon; University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon

    2017-01-01

    We report that residual salt removal by high-temperature distillation causes partial reoxidation of uranium metal to uranium oxide in electrolytically reduced simulated oxide fuel. Specifically, the content of uranium metal in the above product decreases with increasing distillation temperatures, which can be attributed to reoxidation by Li 2 O contained in residual salt (LiCl). Additionally, we estimate the fractions of Li 2 O reacted with uranium metal under these conditions, showing that they decrease with decreasing temperature, and calculate some thermodynamic parameters of the above reoxidation. (author)

  10. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  11. Furnaces for the distillation of coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, F A; Deacon, M; Brady, N P.W.

    1918-08-14

    A tunnel or other furnace for the distillation of coal of the kind provided with inverted pockets in its roof to collect diverse distillates in the manner described, characterized by one or more of the pockets being provided with a sloping roof whose gradient from the higher end downwards is in the direction of the forward travel of the fuel beneath it for the purposes described.

  12. Process modeling and control applied to real-time monitoring of distillation processes by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rodrigo R; Pedroza, Ricardo H P; Sousa, A O; Lima, Kássio M G; de Juan, Anna

    2017-09-08

    A distillation device that acquires continuous and synchronized measurements of temperature, percentage of distilled fraction and NIR spectra has been designed for real-time monitoring of distillation processes. As a process model, synthetic commercial gasoline batches produced in Brazil, which contain mixtures of pure gasoline blended with ethanol have been analyzed. The information provided by this device, i.e., distillation curves and NIR spectra, has served as initial information for the proposal of new strategies of process modeling and multivariate statistical process control (MSPC). Process modeling based on PCA batch analysis provided global distillation trajectories, whereas multiset MCR-ALS analysis is proposed to obtain a component-wise characterization of the distillation evolution and distilled fractions. Distillation curves, NIR spectra or compressed NIR information under the form of PCA scores and MCR-ALS concentration profiles were tested as the seed information to build MSPC models. New on-line PCA-based MSPC approaches, some inspired on local rank exploratory methods for process analysis, are proposed and work as follows: a) MSPC based on individual process observation models, where multiple local PCA models are built considering the sole information in each observation point; b) Fixed Size Moving Window - MSPC, in which local PCA models are built considering a moving window of the current and few past observation points; and c) Evolving MSPC, where local PCA models are built with an increasing window of observations covering all points since the beginning of the process until the current observation. Performance of different approaches has been assessed in terms of sensitivity to fault detection and number of false alarms. The outcome of this work will be of general use to define strategies for on-line process monitoring and control and, in a more specific way, to improve quality control of petroleum derived fuels and other substances submitted

  13. Active solar distillation - A detailed review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampathkumar, K.; Pitchandi, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore 641659, Tamilnadu (India); Arjunan, T.V. [Department of Automobile Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004, Tamilnadu (India); Senthilkumar, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KSR College of Engineering, Tiruchengode 637215, Tamilnadu (India)

    2010-08-15

    All over the world, access to potable water to the people are narrowing down day by day. Most of the human diseases are due to polluted or non-purified water resources. Even today, under developed countries and developing countries face a huge water scarcity because of unplanned mechanism and pollution created by manmade activities. Water purification without affecting the ecosystem is the need of the hour. In this context, many conventional and non-conventional techniques have been developed for purification of saline water. Among these, solar distillation proves to be both economical and eco-friendly technique particularly in rural areas. Many active distillation systems have been developed to overcome the problem of lower distillate output in passive solar stills. This article provides a detailed review of different studies on active solar distillation system over the years. Thermal modelling was done for various types of active single slope solar distillation system. This review would also throw light on the scope for further research and recommendations in active solar distillation system. (author)

  14. Early changes produced in mouse skin by the application of three middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, P; Sharratt, M; Ingram, A J

    1988-01-01

    It has been reported by the American Petroleum Institute (API) that dermal applications of certain middle distillates of mineral oils can result in high incidences of skin tumours in mice. This was unexpected as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in these were below detection limits. To examine the possible role of tissue injury in the induction of tumours, the skin reactions produced by thrice weekly applications of three middle distillates similar to those tested by the API were examined grossly and histopathologically at intervals up to 6 weeks. Various reference materials and oils were used as controls. Preliminary histological examination showed that severe skin damage was present from week 1 onwards in mice treated with the three middle distillates, two of them producing epidermal loss and ulceration. Marked epidermal hyperplasia was produced by all three middle distillates. These findings support the view that regenerative epidermal hyperplasia due to repeated severe skin damage may have exerted a powerful promotional effect in the production of the skin tumours by middle distillates in the API study.

  15. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation from...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distillate diesel fuel. 1065.703... Standards § 1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and... distillate diesel fuels: (1) Cetane improver. (2) Metal deactivator. (3) Antioxidant, dehazer. (4) Rust...

  17. Three methods to distill multipartite entanglement over bipartite noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soojoon; Park, Jungjoon

    2008-01-01

    We first assume that there are only bipartite noisy qubit channels in a given multipartite system, and present three methods to distill the general Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. By investigating the methods, we show that multipartite entanglement distillation by bipartite entanglement distillation has higher yield than ones in the previous multipartite entanglement distillations

  18. Dynamic modeling of the isoamyl acetate reactive distillation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed Sadiq

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cost-effectiveness of reactive distillation (RD processes makes them highly attractive for industrial applications. However, their preliminary design and subsequent scale-up and operation are challenging. Specifically, the response of RD system during fluctuations in process parameters is of paramount importance to ensure the stability of the whole process. As a result of carrying out simulations using Aspen Plus, it is shown that the RD process for isoamyl acetate production was much more economical than conventional reactor distillation configuration under optimized process conditions due to lower utilities consumption, higher conversion and smaller sizes of condenser and reboiler. Rigorous dynamic modeling of RD system was performed to evaluate its sensitivity to disturbances in critical process parameters; the product flow was quite sensitive to disturbances. Even more sensitive was product composition when the disturbance in heat duties of condenser or reboiler led to a temperature decrease. However, positive disturbance in alcohol feed is of particular concern, which clearly made the system unstable.

  19. Studies on cryogenic distillation columns for hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro

    1984-08-01

    Cryogenic distillation is applicable to a number of situations. The feed condition, column cascade configuration, input and output specifications vary greatly from situation to situation. In the mainstream fuel circulation system for a fusion reactor, the feed composition may fluctuate greatly during the operation. The radiological standards for tritium lost to the environment are increasingly becoming stricter. Systematic studies are needed to achieve the goal of long-term operation meeting the strict requirements for products even under great fluctuation of the feed condition in all the situations. The present report gives a critical, brief review of the studies which have been made by the author. The subjects treated are development of computer simulation procedures, analysis on an H-T separation column with a feedback stream, dynamics and control, proposal of a new cascade, analysis on helium effects on column behavior, start-up analysis for a cascade, and preliminary experimental study on dependence of HETP on operational conditions. (author)

  20. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Okon, Shira

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible".1 To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) chose a development approach that explicitly incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 preliminary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigation strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  1. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous research focusing on development of micro-TLC methodology under temperature-controlled conditions. The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple analytical protocols without multi-steps sample pre-purification. One of the advantages of planar chromatography over its column counterpart is that each TLC run can be performed using non-previously used stationary phase. Therefore, it is possible to fractionate or separate complex samples characterized by heavy biological matrix loading. In present studies components of interest, mainly steroids, were isolated from biological samples like fish bile using single pre-treatment steps involving direct organic liquid extraction and/or deproteinization by freeze-drying method. Low-molecular mass compounds with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone derived from the environmental samples (lake water, untreated and treated sewage waters) were concentrated using optimized solid-phase extraction (SPE). Specific bands patterns for samples derived from surface water of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland can be easily observed on obtained micro-TLC chromatograms. This approach can be useful as simple and non-expensive complementary method for fast control and screening of treated sewage water discharged by the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, our experimental results show the potential of micro-TLC as an efficient tool for retention measurements of a wide range of steroids under reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic conditions. These data can be used for further optimalization of SPE or HPLC systems working under RP conditions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that micro-TLC based analytical approach can be applied as an effective method for the internal standard (IS) substance search. Generally, described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of the

  2. Determination of 129I using distillation method and liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, B.; Dulanska, S.; Remenec, B.; Matel, L.; Gardonova, V.

    2014-01-01

    The conditions for effective distillation of iodine as a screening method for the determination of 129 I by liquid scintillation spectrometry were optimized. By distillation of iodine it is possible to achieve high-purity fraction without interferences needed for measuring 129 I for liquid scintillation spectrometer. Yields of separation were determined gravimetrically using PdI 2 ·H 2 O. The environment that was found to be effective for distillation of iodine is made up of 1 - 2 mol dm -3 HNO 3 together with 0.4 g of NaNO 2 as an oxidizing agent (I . →I 2 ). For testing of distillation, suitable apparatus for distillation of iodine was designed. The apparatus was connected to a vacuum box, which sucks iodine of the distilled solution. Then the iodine was captured in a solution of NaOH at a concentration of 1.5 mol dm -3 . As part of the optimization methodology, it was found that the concentration of NaOH solution for adsorption I 2 (g) does not have any influence on the yields, as opposed to its volume, where it is necessary to use a maximum amount of NaOH in the holding flask for maximum adsorption of iodine. It was determined, that time needed for coagulation PdI 2 ·H 2 O is 24 hours and suitable time for distillation was 20 minutes. Optimized method for the determination of 129 I was applied for various matrices from NPPs in Slovak Republic. Values of 129 I for all analyzed samples were less than the minimum detectable activity (0.043 Bq). The separation yields were in the range (73.14 to 82.04)% and 129 I was measured on a liquid scintillation spectrometer TRI CARB 2900TR with high detection efficiency of 95%. (authors)

  3. Process for distilling shales, peats, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felizat, G

    1922-01-09

    The invention has for its object: a process for the distillation of shales, peats, and analogous products characterized by injecting across the substance a very rapid stream of superheated steam under pressure in order to effect a rapid removal of the products of distillation, to lower also the temperature at which it distills, to equalize the temperature throughout the mass, to hydrogenate the heavy hydrocarbons. An apparatus is put into operation characterized by the combination of a retort receiving the material to be distilled with a superheater for the steam, the combustion products which escape from the hearth of the superheater going to encircle the retort while the steam which comes off the superheater traverses this retort, the pressure of the steam being regulated by a convenient regulator; the products of the distillation result from the simultaneous action of the hot gases and steam on the contents of the retort being, on the other hand, separated at the outlet of this retort by means of cooling in a gas separator, a condenser, and part of the gas after being separated serving to heat the mentioned superheater.

  4. Development for a procedure for the determination of 2-phenylethanol in Hellenic wine distillates (Vitis vinifera L. and their changes during distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gerogiannaki-Christopoulou

    2009-09-01

    Significant and impact study: The knowledge of the impact of the commercial fining agent in 2-phenylethanol content during the distillation in different fractions is important for monovarietal wine spirits in order to produce qualified wine brandies. This study is also particular important for brandies production in commercial distilleries in order to separate at the right alcoholic strenght and to take fractions with the higher concentration of this alcohol which in combination of course with the minor and major other congeners gives an qualified organoleptic character.

  5. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  6. Infrared spectrophotometry, a rapid and effective tool for characterization of direct distillation naphthas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldrich Ferrer, Carlos A; Novoa Mantilla, Luz Angela

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of naphtha obtained by direct distillation of medium and heavy crude oils is often limited by the low yield of these fractions. Gas chromatography is a technique that allows a complete determination of the chemical composition of this fraction. However, the prediction of properties such as octane rating and RVP from chromatographic data is a difficult task because there are not adequate models to predict the interaction of the different components, and particularly in the case of heavier fractions, there are some problems for the complete separation of components under the gas chromatographic conditions. The IR technology constitutes a rapid and effective tool to predict several properties of naphtha from the correlation of the spectrum in the infrared area and the properties. In this study, prediction models were developed in a Petrospec Cetane 2000 analyzer, in order to predict in a fast and simple way, the density, the antiknock index and the aromatic content of straight run naphtha obtained in a standard crude oil distillation unit. The equipment used was designed in the factory for the exclusive characterization of medium distillation and not for lighter fractions therefore this work constitutes an innovation given the extensive applications of this type of analyzers

  7. Vacuum Distillation Residue Upgrading by an Indigenous Bacillus Cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Sadat Tabatabaee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly.Results:A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332. This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR, as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively.Conclusion:Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils.

  8. Vacuum distillation residue upgrading by an indigenous Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaee, Mitra Sadat; Mazaheri Assadi, Mahnaz

    2013-07-16

    Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly. A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332). This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR), as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively. Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils.

  9. Solvent distillations studies for a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Guillaume, B.

    1989-01-01

    The substantial amounts of solvent used in large reprocessing plants are such that considerable care must be paid to solvent management to limit the production of organic wastes. The installation of intensive treatment by chemical regeneration serves to increase the service life of the solvent. General solvent management, combined with a distillation unit under reduced pressure also helps to recycle the two components of the solvent at a low activity level. Distillation also serves to remove the heavy degradation products that are generally responsible for poor hydraulic behavior and for the holdup of radioactive products such as plutonium, zirconium and ruthenium. From the safety standpoint, the flashpoint of the distilled diluent tends to rise. It can therefore be recycled without risk

  10. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z D n associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z D n into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively

  11. Low temperature distillation of powdered materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-04-11

    In the low temperature distillation of powdered material such as coal, brown coal, or oil shale, dust carried by the gases and vapors is precipitated by supplying liquid hydrocarbons to the effluent gases, for example, to a dust remover through which the distillates pass. The material is supplied through a hopper and moved through a retort by a worm feed, and is discharged into a sump. Scavenging gases such as steam may be introduced through a pipe. Two conveyor worms moving in opposite directions are provided in an outlet conduit which may be surrounded by a cooling jacket. Heavy hydrocarbons condense on the walls of the conduit and on the conveyor worms and serve as dust catchers for the distillates, the lighted volatiles escaping through an outlet. The high boiling point oils flow back to and are cracked in the retort. Oils such as tar oils may be sprayed into the conduit or directly adjacent the entry of the material from feeding hopper.

  12. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-12-01

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes.

  13. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-01-01

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes

  14. Fractional thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Povstenko, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  15. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  16. Process and apparatus for distilling bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrier, J A

    1922-03-27

    This process of distillation of bituminous minerals and particularly bituminous limestone is characterized by the fact that the minerals are introduced into the retort where they stand only the temperature necessary to distill the water and lighter oils that they contain and then are drawn out into the hearth and serve for heating the retort. The apparatus is characterized by the fact that the retort has a screw conveyor, placed in the flue of the hearth, supplied with a chamber for evacuation below this hearth.

  17. Process and apparatus for destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalin, D; Hedbaeck, T J

    1951-01-10

    A process of distilling wood, coal, shale, and like materials in an externally heated retort, consists of heating the retort by burning fuel in a combustion chamber completely or partly surrounding the retort and passing a heat-absorbing medium through ducts which are mounted in or adjacent the greater part of the length of the retort walls which are so arranged as to effect a greater degree of heat extraction at one part of the retort than at another part of the retort. The zones of different heat extraction being related to the heat developed in the combustion chamber maintains the most favourable distillation temperature in all parts of the retort.

  18. Membrane distillation against a pressure difference

    OpenAIRE

    Keulen, L.; van der Ham, L.V.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Kjelstrup, S.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for production of fresh water from seawater. The MemPower®MemPower® concept, studied in this work, uses available heat (86 °C) to produce pressurized water (2.2 bar and 46 °C) by membrane distillation, which again can be used to power a turbine for co-production of electricity. We develop a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model to accurately describe the transfer at the liquid-membrane interfaces, as well as through the hydrophobic membrane. The...

  19. Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel

    2008-01-01

    channel, the distribution of loss-intolerant entangled states is inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which causes a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. To combat the decoherence, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less...... entangled states, can be used(4-14). Here we report on the distillation of deterministically prepared light pulses entangled in continuous variables that have undergone non-Gaussian noise. The entangled light pulses(15-17) are sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time similarly...

  20. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  1. Refreshment topics II: Design of distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For distillation column design it is necessary to define all the variable parameters such as component concentrations in different streams temperatures, pressures, mass and energy flow, which are used to represent the separation process of some specific system. They are related to each other according to specific laws, and if the number of such parameters exceeds the number of their relationships, in order to solve a problem some of them must be specified in advance or some constraints assumed for the mass balance, the balance of energy, phase equilibria or chemical equilibria. Knowledge of specific elements which are the constituents of a distillation unit must be known to define the number of design parameters as well as some additional apparati also necessary to realize the distilation. Each separate apparatus might be designed and constructed only if all the necessary and variable parameters for such a unit are defined. This is the right route to solve a distilation unit in many different cases. The construction of some distillation unit requires very good knowledge of mass, heat and momentum transfer phenomena. Moreover, the designer needs to know which kind of apparatus will be used in the distillation unit to realize a specific production process. The most complicated apparatus in a rectification unit is the distillation column. Depending on the complexity of the separation process one, two or more columns are often used. Additional equipment are heat exchangers (reboilers, condensers, cooling systems, heaters, separators, tanks for reflux distribution, tanks and pumps for feed transportation, etc. Such equipment is connected by pipes and valves, and for the normal operation of a distillation unit other instruments for measuring the flow rate, temperature and pressure are also required. Problems which might arise during the determination and selection of such apparati and their number requires knowledge of the specific systems which must

  2. Distill: a suite of web servers for the prediction of one-, two- and three-dimensional structural features of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Ian

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe Distill, a suite of servers for the prediction of protein structural features: secondary structure; relative solvent accessibility; contact density; backbone structural motifs; residue contact maps at 6, 8 and 12 Angstrom; coarse protein topology. The servers are based on large-scale ensembles of recursive neural networks and trained on large, up-to-date, non-redundant subsets of the Protein Data Bank. Together with structural feature predictions, Distill includes a server for prediction of Cα traces for short proteins (up to 200 amino acids. Results The servers are state-of-the-art, with secondary structure predicted correctly for nearly 80% of residues (currently the top performance on EVA, 2-class solvent accessibility nearly 80% correct, and contact maps exceeding 50% precision on the top non-diagonal contacts. A preliminary implementation of the predictor of protein Cα traces featured among the top 20 Novel Fold predictors at the last CASP6 experiment as group Distill (ID 0348. The majority of the servers, including the Cα trace predictor, now take into account homology information from the PDB, when available, resulting in greatly improved reliability. Conclusion All predictions are freely available through a simple joint web interface and the results are returned by email. In a single submission the user can send protein sequences for a total of up to 32k residues to all or a selection of the servers. Distill is accessible at the address: http://distill.ucd.ie/distill/.

  3. Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

  4. Batch extractive distillation for high purity methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Ma Sisi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the application in chemical industry and microelectronic industry, market status and the present situation of production of high purity methanol at home and abroad were introduced firstly. Purification of industrial methanol for high purity methanol is feasible in china. Batch extractive distillation is the best separation technique for purification of industrial methanol. Dimethyl sulfoxide was better as an extractant. (authors)

  5. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.A

    This is a lecture on the way that we engineers model distillation. How we have done such modelling, how we would like to do it, and how far we have come at this moment. The ideas that I will be bringing forward are not my own. I owe them mostly to R. Krishna, R. Taylor, H. Kooijman and A. Gorak.

  6. Vertical retorts for distilling, carbonizing, roasting, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H R.L.; Bates, W R

    1917-11-17

    In a continuously operated vertical retort for destructive distillation or roasting the combination of an annular internally and externally heated construction with an annular plunger adapted to compress and assist the travel of the charge and to aid in discharging material substantially is described.

  7. Obtaining shale distillate free from sulphur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-09-14

    A process whereby, from sulfur-containing shale, products free from sulfur may be obtained, consisting of mixing with the finely ground shale a portion of iron salts containing sufficient metal to unite with all the sulfur in the shale and form sulfide therewith, grinding the mixture to a fine state of subdivision and subsequently subjecting it to destructive distillation.

  8. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops." 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Designing reactive distillation processes with improved efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Rivera, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation a life-span inspired perspective is taken on the conceptual design of grassroots reactive distillation processes. Attention was paid to the economic performance of the process and to potential losses of valuable resources over the process life span. The research was cast in a

  10. Robust Geometric Control of a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Andersen, Henrik Weisberg

    1987-01-01

    A frequency domain method, which makes it possible to adjust multivariable controllers with respect to both nominal performance and robustness, is presented. The basic idea in the approach is that the designer assigns objectives such as steady-state tracking, maximum resonance peaks, bandwidth, m...... is used to examine and improve geometric control of a binary distillation column....

  11. Lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutchley, Ian [Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port (United Kingdom); Green, Michael [Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    This article from Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port, UK, and Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington, UK, examines the lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels available today in relation to the requirements and limits imposed in ISO8217:2010. It will estimate expected failure rates and also asses the perceived relationship between lubricity, sulphur content and viscosity. (orig.)

  12. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R

    1997-01-01

    There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase

  13. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Design Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam C.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. The CDS provides a similar function to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD) currently employed on the International Space Station, but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be more straightforward and simpler to implement into a more reliable and efficient system. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). A preliminary design fo the CDS 2.0 was presented to the project in September 2014. Following this review, detailed design of the system continued. The existing ground test prototype was used as a platform to demonstrate key 2.0 design and operational concepts to support this effort and mitigate design risk. A volumetric prototype was also developed to evaluate the packaging design for operability and maintainability. The updated system design was reviewed by the AES LSS Project and other key stakeholders in September 2015. This paper details the status of the CDS 2.0 design.

  14. Distilled water nasal provocation in hyperreactive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, T; Anzic, S A; Kalogjera, L

    1999-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosol may act as a provocation agent in the upper and lower airways of hyperreactive individuals. The purpose of the study was to compare the results of nasal challenge with distilled water in patients with allergic rhinitis to those with noninfective nonallergic rhinitis (NINAR), with respect to the potential clinical use of the obtained data. A group of 68 ambulatory patients with allergic rhinitis or NINAR (39 perennial allergic, 6 seasonal, 23 NINAR) were challenged with 10 mL of distilled water aerosol after the baseline active anterior rhinomanometry. Patients with nasal polyposis at endoscopy, significant unilateral septal deviation, positive bacteriologic swab, recent nasal surgery, and uncertain anamnestic data about the medication taken 6 weeks before the provocation were excluded from the study. After 10 minutes of nasal provocation, rhinomanometry was repeated to assess the response. In 15 patients of the perennial allergic group, the same measurements were performed after a 2-week oral antihistamine and topical steroid therapy. Nasal resistance was significantly increased on the more patent side of the nose after nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol in allergic patients in comparison to the nasal resistance before provocation. In the patients with NINAR, the provocation resulted in a significant rise on the more patent side, but the total nasal airway resistance (NAR) levels were also significantly increased. The systemic antihistamine and topical steroid 2-week therapy in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis significantly reduced the response to nasal distilled water provocation. Nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol is a cheap, simple, and acceptable method that provides useful clinical data on the level of nonspecific nasal hyperreactivity and the therapy success.

  15. Recovery of distillation, gasification, and if necessary redistilled products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stier, H

    1885-05-17

    Collection chambers are operated in pairs. In one of a pair of chambers there is alternately gasification (heating gas generation or complete combustion), in the other distillation, and continually the products from combustion carry on the distillation.

  16. Control of distributed heat transfer mechanisms in membrane distillation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Eleiwi, Fadi; Karam, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided that are related to boundary control in membrane distillation (MD) processes. In one example, a system includes a membrane distillation (MD) process comprising a feed side and a permeate side separated by a membrane

  17. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for rural poverty ... The adaptation of oil distillation technology for essential oil production is ... based on local resources and the first prototype has been manufactured and tested.

  18. Techno-economic assessment of hybrid extraction and distillation processes for furfural production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhien, Le Cao; Long, Nguyen Van Duc; Kim, Sangyong; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-01-01

    hybrid sequence was more favorable than the traditional distillation process when the methanol fraction of the feed stream was <3% and more benefit could be obtained when that fraction decreased.

  19. Investigation of the toxicokinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    The Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils regulate petroleum hydrocarbons based on four distillate ranges: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (>C10-C16), F3 (>C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). Previous toxicity tests with earthworms and F2, as well as two subfractions of F3, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3a (>C23-C34), indicate that test durations might not be sufficiently long to reach threshold effect concentrations, likely because of the differing toxicokinetics for each distillate. A study was conducted to determine the toxicokinetics of both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of F2, F3a, and F3b with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Peak accumulation curves were observed for F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics, likely as a result of changes in exposure concentration over the test duration via loss or a decrease in the bioavailable fraction. Biota-soil accumulation factors were >1 for total F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics as well as for several individual polyaromatic hydrocarbons for each distillate. Aromatics were disproportionately accumulated over aliphatics and were the main contributors to toxicity; therefore, aromatics and aliphatics should be regulated separately. The toxicokinetics were used to interpret previous toxicity data. Higher molecular weight distillates need longer-than-standard test durations to determine toxicity, so toxicity test results from fixed, standard-duration tests are not strictly comparable for these petroleum distillates. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Search for fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included

  1. Improvement of solar ethanol distillation using ultrasonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Jareanjit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a study on the use of ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation to investigate the performance of ultrasonic waves at a frequency of 30 kHz and at 100 Watts that were installed in the inlet area of a 10-litre distillation tank. Based on the non-continuous distillation process (batch distillation, the experiment demonstrated that using ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation caused the average concentration of hourly distilled ethanol to be higher than that of a normal system (solar ethanol distillation without ultrasonic wave at the same or higher distillation rate and hourly distillation volume. The ultrasonic wave was able to enhance the separation of ethanol from the solution (water-ethanol mixture through solar distillation. The amount of pure ethanol product from each distilled batch was clearly larger than the amount of product obtained from a normal system when the initial concentration of ethanol was lower than 50%v/v (% by volume, where an average of approximately 40% and 20% are obtained for an initial ethanol concentration of 10%v/v and 30%v/v, respectively. Furthermore, the distillation rate varied based on the solar radiation value.

  2. A Modeling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a generic, modular model framework for describing fluid separation by distillation is presented. At present, the framework is able to describe a conventional distillation column and a heat-integrated distillation column, but due to a modular structure the database can be further...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN P-96-897...

  4. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... the container, the distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall plainly print, stamp, or stencil with... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller...

  5. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine...

  6. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  7. Determination of volatile compounds in grape distillates by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Banović, Mara; Persurić, Dordano; Radeka, Sanja; Sladonja, Barbara

    2006-01-06

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure on octadecylsilica (C18) was developed for accumulation of volatile compounds from grape distillates. The procedure was optimised for final analysis by capillary gas chromatography. At mass concentrations in model solutions ranging from 0.1 to 50 mg/l solid-phase extraction recoveries of all analytes ranged from 69% for 2-phenylethanol to 102% for capric acid, with RSD values from 2 to 9%. SPE recoveries of internal standards to be added in the sample solution prior to extraction, higher alcohols 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 1-undecanol, were 97 and 93%, respectively, with RSD values of 3%. Detection limits of analyzed compounds in model solutions ranged from 0.011 mg/l for isoamyl acetate to 0.037 mg/l for caproic acid. Method efficiency was tested in relation to acetic acid content, volume fraction of ethanol and possible matrix effects. A significant influence of matrix on SPE efficiency for geraniol, cis-2-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol was detected. For the same reason, 2-phenylethanol could not be determined by developed SPE method in samples of grape distillates. The developed solid-phase extraction method was successfully applied to determine the differences in volatile compound content in different grape distillates produced by the distillation of crushed, pressed and fermented grapes.

  8. Analysis of low-temperature tar fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikkawa, S; Yamada, F

    1952-01-01

    A preliminary comparative study was made on the applicability of the methods commonly used for the type analysis of petroleum products to the low-temperature tar fractions. The usability of chromatography was also studied.

  9. Mathematical modeling of alcohol distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ones Osney Pérez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available New evaluation modules are proposed to extend the scope of a modular simulator oriented to the sugar cane industry, called STA 4.0, in a way that it can be used to carry out x calculation and analysis in ethanol distilleries. Calculation modules were developed for the simulation of the columns that are combined in the distillation area. Mathematical models were supported on materials and energy balances, equilibrium relations and thermodynamic properties of the ethanol-water system. Ponchon-Savarit method was used for the evaluation of the theoretical stages in the columns. A comparison between the results using Ponchon- Savarit method and those obtained applying McCabe-Thiele method was done for a distillation column. These calculation modules for ethanol distilleries were applied to a real case for validation.

  10. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  11. Solar desalination by freezing and distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvajic, G.

    It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is expected that the scaling problem will be insignificant in comparison with that encountered in the conventional multistage flash process. The novel feature here is the use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydrophobic intermediate heat transfer material.

  12. Hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Nobuo; Mitsui, Jin

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope separation in fusion fuel cycle and tritium recovery from heavy water reactor are very important, and therefore the early establishment of these separation techniques are desired. The cryogenic distillation method in particular is promising for the separation of hydrogen isotope and the recovery of high concentrated tritium. The studies of hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation method have been carried out by using the experimental apparatus made for the first time in Japan. The separation of three components (H 2 -HD-D 2 ) under total reflux conditions was got by using the packing tower of 500 mm height. It was confirmed that the Height Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) was 20 - 30 mm for the vapor's line velocity of 20 - 80 mm/s. (author)

  13. 136 Xe enrichment through cryogenic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Henning O.; Bottenus, Daniel R.; Clayton, Christopher K.; Stephenson, David E.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2017-09-01

    The next generation of 136Xe neutrinoless double beta decay experiments will require on the order of 5 tons of enriched 136Xe. By estimating the relative volatilities of the xenon isotopes and using standard chemical engineering techniques we explore the feasibility of using cryogenic distillation to produce 5 tons of 80% enriched 136Xe in 5-6 years. With current state-of-the-art distillation column packing materials we can estimate the total height of a traditional cryogenic distillation column. We also, report on how Micro Channel Distillation may reduce the overall size of a distillation system for 136Xe production.

  14. Study of distillation and degradation of perfluoro polyether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopergolo, Lilian Cristine

    1997-01-01

    Perfluoro-polyethers, PFPE, were first synthesised by Sianesi and collaborators giving rise to a new lubricant oils and greases classes with several applications. Perfluoro polyethers have excellent properties, for instance: high chemical stability and thermal stability, high density, high radiation resistance and excellent lubricating properties. FOMBLIN-Y oil is one of the perfluoro polyethers used as a lubricant in vacuum systems applied in the UF 6 enrichment installations. Due to its excellent properties and for its applications in the nuclear field, IPEN-CNEN/S P had the interest to dominate its production technology with the aim to substitute the commercial FOMBLIN-Y oil used in the national consumption. The FOMBLIN-Y oil synthesis method, adopted in IPEN-CNEN/S P, made by the photooxidation of the hexa fluoro propylene. In this work we study the fraction separation of the national available production with restricted an increased molecular weights which was obtained by fraction distillation in a vacuum according to the ASTM D-1160 norm. We also study the catalytic effect of metals on the thermal stability of perfluoro polyethers. The inertness of perfluoro polyethers at temperatures higher than 300 deg C is strongly affected by presence of some metals. Al and Ti alloys cause fluid degradation at 250 deg C. This degradation is very important because it has a yield increase of the perfluoro polyethers production. (author)

  15. Fractional fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    The theory of fermion fractionization due to topologically generated fermion ground states is presented. Applications to one-dimensional conductors, to the MIT bag, and to the Hall effect are reviewed. (author)

  16. Predictive simulation of the solvent extraction of aromatics from middle distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M.

    1983-03-01

    This work describes a predictive method for calculating liquid-liquid aromatics extracton from a middle distillate. Group contribution models of the ASOG and UNIFAC type are investigated. Four vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) on the binary of naphthalene - n-dodecane, naphthalene - n-tetradecane, phenanthrene - n-hexadecane and transdecaline - benzene and two solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) on the binary of naphthalene - n-hexadecane and phenanthrene - n-hexadecane were measured. Dimethylformamide (DMF) was chosen as an extracting solvent. Three liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) on the binary of DMF with n-hexadecane, n-tetradecane or trans + cis decaline and six ternary LLE on the mixture of DMF - n-hexadecane with octyl benzene, tetralin, 1 methyl naphthalene, phenanthrene or benzothiophene and on the mixture of decaline - DMF with benzothiophene were also measured. The parameters of the models are based mainly on the data for the systems composed by hydrocarbons with a 10-20 carbon number. The data for VLE, SLE and the infinite dilution activity coefficient (17-245/sup 0/C) were used to calculate interaction parameters between hydrocarbon groups, and LLE data (20-80/sup 0/C) for interaction parameters of dimethylformamide - hydrocarbon groups. The validity of the models for predicting the LLE of DMF - hydrocarbon multicomponent mixture (8 components) was verified. Middle distillate representation is based on mass spectrometric and gas chromatographic analysis and on limited data on middle distillate - DMF LLE. Two models for middle-distillate representation were investigated. It is shown that the performance of ASOG and UNIFAC are sufficiently valid for representing of basic data and for the predicting the solvent extraction of aromatics from middle distillates. The method investigated can be useful for the rapid preliminary study of extraction processes.

  17. Heating oil, distillates and residuals outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    M.J. Ervin and Associates offers strategic planning support to the downstream petroleum industry in terms of price market monitoring, market analysis, media commentary and benchmarking of marketing operations. This presentation included graphs depicting supply and demand for heating oil distillates and residuals from the mid 1990s to 2004. It was noted that the long-term decline in residuals demand in the United States and Canada are due to environmental issues, the use of natural gas as an alternative, and the increasing complexity of refineries. Graphs depicting market impacts of refinery utilization and inventory trends showed that middle distillate production will increase at the expense of gasoline production. Middle distillates and gasoline markets will be more sensitive to supply disruptions, resulting in more frequent price spikes. Inventory trends indicate a greater reliance on product imports. The demand for heating fuel has stabilized due to the continued penetration of natural gas in eastern states and provinces. The demand for diesel fuel has growth 1.5 to 2 per cent while the demand for jet fuel has remained relatively flat and depends greatly on the growth of the gross national product (GNP). tabs., figs

  18. A More Efficient Contextuality Distillation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui-xian; Cao, Huai-xin; Wang, Wen-hua; Fan, Ya-jing; Chen, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Based on the fact that both nonlocality and contextuality are resource theories, it is natural to ask how to amplify them more efficiently. In this paper, we present a contextuality distillation protocol which produces an n-cycle box B ∗ B ' from two given n-cycle boxes B and B '. It works efficiently for a class of contextual n-cycle ( n ≥ 4) boxes which we termed as "the generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes". For any two generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes B and B ', B ∗ B ' is more contextual than both B and B '. Moreover, they can be distilled toward to the maximally contextual box C H n as the times of iteration goes to infinity. Among the known protocols, our protocol has the strongest approximate ability and is optimal in terms of its distillation rate. What is worth noting is that our protocol can witness a larger set of nonlocal boxes that make communication complexity trivial than the protocol in Brunner and Skrzypczyk (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 160403 2009), this might be helpful for exploring the problem that why quantum nonlocality is limited.

  19. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T. R.; McInteer, B. B.; Montoya, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of these isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separation of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S vs. 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produced separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . 8 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T.R.; McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of theses isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separations of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S and 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produces separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . (author). 8 refs.; 2 tabs

  1. Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

  2. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  3. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2010-01-01

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  4. Production of uranium metal via electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide in molten LiCl and salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Young Choi; Chan Yeon Won; Dae-Seung Kang; Sung-Wook Kim; Ju-Sun Cha; Sung-Jai Lee; Wooshin Park; Hun Suk Im; Jin-Mok Hur

    2015-01-01

    Recovery of metallic uranium has been achieved by electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide in a molten LiCl-Li 2 O electrolyte at 650 deg C, followed by the removal of the residual salt by vacuum distillation at 850 deg C. Four types of stainless steel mesh baskets, with various mesh sizes (325, 1,400 and 2,300 meshes) and either three or five ply layers, were used both as cathodes and to contain the reduced product in the distillation stage. The recovered uranium had a metal fraction greater than 98.8 % and contained no residual salt. (author)

  5. Herbal distillates: A new era of grape marc distillates with enriched antioxidant profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Vasiliki; Strati, Irini F; Fotakis, Charalambos; Liouni, Maria; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Sinanoglou, Vassilia J

    2018-07-01

    Grape marc distillates are traditional alcoholic beverages, produced mostly in the Mediterranean countries. The present study proposes the enrichment of a Greek traditional grape marc distillate (tsikoudia) with selected herbs to enhance its natural antioxidants and functional properties. Total phenolic content, the antiradical and antioxidant activities, as well as the phenolic and sugar profiles using NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy were evaluated. The enrichment of distillates with Syzygium aromaticum L., Jasminum officinale L. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. exhibited the highest total phenolic content as well as the highest antioxidant and antiradical activities, whereas the lowest values were observed with Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Lycium Barbarum Mill. The implementation of NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies attested to the presence of phenolic compounds and of specific carbohydrates in herbal distillates, postulating their migration from selected herbal species to tsikoudia and probably contributing to their organoleptic characteristics. The target of this approach leads to new added-value distillates with enhanced characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HETP evaluation of structured packing distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Orlando Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Several tests with a hydrocarbon mixture of known composition (C8-C14, obtained from DETEN Chemistry S.A., have been performed in a laboratory distillation column, having 40mm of nominal diameter and 2.2m high, with internals of Sulzer DX gauze stainless steel structured packing. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate HETP of a structured packing laboratory scale distillation column, operating continuously. Six HETP correlations available in the literature were compared in order to find out which is the most appropriate for structured packing columns working with medium distillates. Prior to the experimental tests, simulation studies using commercial software PRO/II® were performed in order to establish the optimum operational conditions for the distillation, especially concerning operating pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed location and reflux ratio. The results of PRO/II® were very similar to the analysis of the products obtained during continuous operation, therefore permitting the use of the properties calculated by that software on the theoretical models investigated. The theoretical models chosen for HETP evaluation were: Bravo, Rocha and Fair (1985; Rocha, Bravo and Fair (1993, 1996; Brunazzi and Pagliant (1997; Carlo, Olujić and Pagliant (2006; Olujić et al., (2004. Modifications concerning calculation of specific areas were performed on the correlations in order to fit them for gauze packing HETP evaluation. As the laboratory distillation column was operated continuously, different HETP values were found by the models investigated for each section of the column. The low liquid flow rates in the top section of the column are a source of error for HETP evaluation by the models; therefore, more reliable HETP values were found in the bottom section, in which liquid flow rates were much greater. Among the theoretical models, Olujić et al. (2004 has shown good results relative to the experimental tests. In addition, the

  7. Toxicity of middle distillates from dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschier, F J

    1999-02-01

    This report focuses on recent studies that investigated the effects of kerosine dermal exposure on neurotoxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity. Background toxicity information will also be reviewed for kerosine range mid distillates. The kerosine range mid distillates have a carbon range of C9-C16 and have a boiling range of 302-554 degrees F (150-290 degrees C). This category includes kerosine, aviation fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP-5 and JP-8), no. 1 fuel oil and diesel fuel oil. In general, the kerosine range mid distillates demonstrate relatively low acute toxicity by any route of exposure. High inhalation exposures can induce central nervous system depression characterized by ataxia, hypoactivity and prostration. Kerosines are known to cause skin irritation and inflammation under conditions of acute and repeated exposure in animals and humans, but are only slightly irritating to the eye and are not skin sensitizers. In addition, the absorption of kerosine range mid distillates through the skin has been demonstrated to be fairly rapid, but limited to approximately 10-15% of the applied dose after 24 hours. The kerosine range mid distillates are generally inactive in genetic toxicity tests although positive studies have been reported. Positive results, while at times equivocal, have been reported for straight run kerosine and jet fuel A in the mouse lymphoma assay with metabolic activation, and hydrodesulfurized kerosine (mouse) and jet fuel A (rat) in the bone marrow cytogenetic assay. Effects on the nervous and reproductive systems have been reported in humans and experimental animals under conditions where inhalation and dermal exposure to specific kerosine type fuels are sometimes difficult to separate. Recent laboratory studies have addressed this point and examined the effects of dermal exposure. In these studies, rats were exposed to hydrodesulfurized kerosine by skin application to determine the potential of dermal contact to cause reproductive

  8. Application of the Advanced Distillation Curve Method to Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine Gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Jessica L.

    2015-07-16

    © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2015 by the American Chemical Society. Incremental but fundamental changes are currently being made to fuel composition and combustion strategies to diversify energy feedstocks, decrease pollution, and increase engine efficiency. The increase in parameter space (by having many variables in play simultaneously) makes it difficult at best to propose strategic changes to engine and fuel design by use of conventional build-and-test methodology. To make changes in the most time- and cost-effective manner, it is imperative that new computational tools and surrogate fuels are developed. Currently, sets of fuels are being characterized by industry groups, such as the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and other entities, so that researchers in different laboratories have access to fuels with consistent properties. In this work, six gasolines (FACE A, C, F, G, I, and J) are characterized by the advanced distillation curve (ADC) method to determine the composition and enthalpy of combustion in various distillate volume fractions. Tracking the composition and enthalpy of distillate fractions provides valuable information for determining structure property relationships, and moreover, it provides the basis for the development of equations of state that can describe the thermodynamic properties of these complex mixtures and lead to development of surrogate fuels composed of major hydrocarbon classes found in target fuels.

  9. Production of bio-fuel ethanol from distilled grain waste eluted from Chinese spirit making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Sun, Zhaoyong; Zhang, Wenxue; Tang, Yueqin; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    Distilled grain waste eluted from Chinese spirit making is rich in carbohydrates, and could potentially serve as feedstock for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. Our study evaluated two types of saccharification methods that convert distilled grain waste to monosaccharides: enzymatic saccharification and concentrated H2SO4 saccharification. Results showed that enzymatic saccharification performed unsatisfactorily because of inefficient removal of lignin during pretreatment. Concentrated H2SO4 saccharification led to a total sugar recovery efficiency of 79.0 %, and to considerably higher sugar concentrations than enzymatic saccharification. The process of ethanol production from distilled grain waste based on concentrated H2SO4 saccharification was then studied. The process mainly consisted of concentrated H2SO4 saccharification, solid-liquid separation, decoloration, sugar-acid separation, oligosaccharide hydrolysis, and continuous ethanol fermentation. An improved simulated moving bed system was employed to separate sugars from acid after concentrated H2SO4 saccharification, by which 95.8 % of glucose and 85.8 % of xylose went into the sugar-rich fraction, while 83.3 % of H2SO4 went into the acid-rich fraction. A flocculating yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae KF-7, was used for continuous ethanol fermentation, which produced an ethanol yield of 91.9-98.9 %, based on glucose concentration.

  10. Design of Unconstrained DMC to Improve the Distillate Product Purity of the Distillation Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Vinayambika S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the use of unconstrained Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC to control the process transfer function with time delay. The selection of tuning parameter is challenging task in predictive control algorithm. The DMC scheme is designed and it is used here to control the process transfer function, First Order Plant with Dead Time (FOPDT model. Here, one manipulated variable (reflux and one controlled variable (distillate is considered for the implementation. The algorithm significantly controls the reflux to improve the distillate product purity. The simulation is done using MATLAB m-file. Both servo and regulatory responses were obtained. The simulation result validates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Characterization of commercial ceramic adsorbents and its application on naphthenic acids removal of petroleum distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of carboxylic acids present in petroleum oil and directly responsible for its acidity and corrosiveness in liquid phase during the refine process is denominated "naphthenic acids". These acids are also present in distilled fraction of petroleum, causing several problems in final products quality. A possible way to remove the carboxilic acids from petroleum distilled fractions is the adsorption in porous materials. However, the results obtained until now indicate that ion exchange resins would be the best adsorbents for this process, which would probably increase its cost. In this work, two commercial adsorbents (clay and activated alumina were characterized by a set of physical-chemistry techniques and evaluated concerning their capacity of removing naphthenic acids from a light petroleum fraction. It was verified the influence of a thermal treatment previous to the adsorption in its physical-chemistry characteristics and its properties. A high reduction of the TAN values was verified in the residual oils from both adsorbent, although there was a competition among all the compounds present in the light oil fraction for the adsorption sites, which can be probably related to the thermal pre-treatment. These results were related to corrosion yield experiments, and it was observed that the adsorbent pretreatment also affected the reduction in corrosion yields for both alumina and clay.

  12. PERFORMANCE INDICES TO DESIGN A MULTICOMPONENT BATCH DISTILLATION COLUMN USING A SHORTCUT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Narvaes-Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this paper, three quality or performance indices (Luyben's capacity factor, total annual costs, and annual profit were applied for the design of a batch distillation column working at variable reflux. This work used the Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland short-cut method to solve a problem of four components (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and ortho-xylene that needed to be separated and purified to a mole fraction of 0.97 or better. The performance of the system was evaluated using distillation columns with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 theoretical stages with a boil-up vapor flow set at 100 kmol/h. It was found that the annual profit was the best quality index, while the best case for variable reflux was the column with 50 stages. It was confirmed that the best case always required a reflux ratio close to the minimum.

  13. Effect of hydroprocessing severity on characteristics of jet fuel from OSCO 2 and Paraho distillates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, G. M.; Flores, F. J.; Seng, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    Jet A boiling range fuels and broad-property research fuels were produced by hydroprocessing shale oil distillates, and their properties were measured to characterize the fuels. The distillates were the fraction of whole shale oil boiling below 343 C from TOSCO 2 and Paraho syncrudes. The TOSCO 2 was hydroprocessed at medium severity, and the Paraho was hydroprocessed at high, medium, and low severities. Fuels meeting Jet A requirements except for the freezing point were produced from the medium severity TOSCO 2 and the high severity Paraho. Target properties of a broad property research fuel were met by the medium severity TOSCO 2 and the high severity Paraho except for the freezing point and a high hydrogen content. Medium and low severity Paraho jet fuels did not meet thermal stability and freezing point requirements.

  14. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  15. Economic Analysis in Series-Distillation Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO and multi-stage flash (MSF cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. Therefore, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K and 722 kPa for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K, the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3. At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K, the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3. Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. Keywords: desalination, dropwise condensation, mechanical-vapor compression

  16. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, KeShun

    2011-03-09

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS.

  17. Use of corn distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, C.C.

    1984-06-01

    Wet stillage can economically be separated into two fractions: distiller's grain and distiller's solubles. Wet corn distiller's grain has shown potential as a feed supplement for ruminants, swine, and poultry. However, the soluble fraction (with suspended particles) is of little food value to terrestrial animals because of its high water content; it is not generally economically feasible to concentrate it further. The purpose of this project is to determine if the soluble by-product could potentially be used as a food source in an aquatic environment where its high water content would not necessarily pose an impediment. Studies have shown that corn distiller's solubles are not highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that it be administered to ponds at rates less than 2000 ppM on a daily basis. Golden shiners were observed to actively consume the particulates of the corn distiller's solubles. Direct consumption of the particulates by fish makes the use of corn distiller's solubles in aquaculture much more attractive than if the by-product only serves to increase pond fertility. Despite the minimum amount of food material added to the ponds, production of shrimp and fish was favorable over the 4 month growing periods. Golden shiners reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to 130 kg ha/sup -1/. Monoculture of shrimp at higher densities (3000 to 5000 shrimp stocked per pond versus 2000 in 1982) resulted in an average production equivalent to approximately 228 kg ha/sup -1/, with individual shrimp averaging 10.5 g. Based on estimated wholesale prices of $10.00 and $7.75 per kilogram for frozen shrimp and live fish, respectively, the gross profit margin would have exceeded $2000 ha/sup -1/ both years. 25 references, 13 figures, 13 tables.

  18. Ocean thermocline driven membrane distillation process

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2017-07-20

    Systems and methods using membrane distillation are provided for desalinating water, for example for the production of potable water, to address freshwater requirements. In an aspect the systems and methods do not require applying an external heat source, or the energy cost of the heating source, to heat the feed stream to the membrane. In an aspect, the sensible heat present in surface seawater is used for the heat energy for the warm stream fed to the membrane, and deep seawater is used as the cold/coolant feed to the membrane to provide the needed temperature gradient or differential across the membrane.

  19. Destructive distillation of shale, torbanite, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensvelt, M W

    1931-09-21

    In the production of oil by the distillation of coal, shale, torbanite, or the like below 600/sup 0/C the occurrence of tarry matters, free carbon, ammonia, or sulfur compounds in the oils is prevented by the addition of an alkali such as caustic soda, or an alkaline earth as lime, to which sodium carbonate may be added. The carbonaceous material is ground to pass through a 20 mesh screen, and is treated for example with a slurry of quicklime having an addition of sodium carbonate, the adherent water being evaporated before the material is passed into the retort.

  20. Distillation columns inspection through gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marco

    1999-09-01

    The application of nuclear energy is very wide and it allows the saving of economic resources since the investigation of a certain process is carried out without stop the plant. The gamma scanning of oil c racking c olumns are practical examples, they allow to determine the hydraulic operation of the inspected columns. A source of Co-60 22mCi and a detector with a crystal of INa(TI) are used. This paper shows the results got from a profile carried out in a column distillation

  1. Gas manufacture, materials for; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, G

    1866-03-15

    A A mixture of bituminous coal and shale oil, petroleum, or other mineral oil is distilled in a retort in order to obtain illuminating gas and oil according to the temperature, and a residue of good coke is also obtained. Preferably the coal is pulverized, and the mixture is made in a heated state. The oil may be treated for the removal of volatile oils and water before mixture with the coal. With the oil may be used the residues or bottoms from shale-oil stills.

  2. Distillation of coal, wood, peat, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrer, J; Price, A P

    1867-02-01

    The production of permanent gas for the purposes of illumination or for heating purposes, and also to the production of oils and other distillatory products from coal, shale, wood, peat, and other bituminous or carbonaceous substances, consists in subjecting the before-mentioned materials, previously reduced to a fine state, to a process of distillation causing the same to pass or fall through the interior of a heated vertical tube, chamber, or retort, or series of the same, in such a manner that the particles in their descent or passage shall be subjected to the action of heat in order that the desired products may be obtained.

  3. Dynamic simulation of hydrogen isotope distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lann, J.M.; Latge, C.; Joulia, X.; Sere-Peyrigain, P.

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of hydrogen isotope distillation unit involved in the complex environment of a fusion power plant can be a powerful technique in view to analyze the tritium hazard potential. In this paper, issues related to the development of such a dynamic simulator with model formulation and the numerical treatment of the resulting Differential-Algebraic equation (DAE) system are properly adressed. The typical dynamic characteristics of such columns are quantitatively and qualitatively enlighted on case study with very large disturbances. The developed system has proven to be beneficial for understanding the dynamic behaviour and further for developing control schemes. (orig.)

  4. Dynamic simulation of hydrogen isotope distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lann, J.M.; Joulia, X.; Sere-Peyrigain, P.

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of hydrogen isotope distillation unit involved in the complex environment of a fusion power plant can be a powerful technique in view to analyze the tritium hazard potential. Issues related to the development of such a dynamic simulator with model formulation and the numerical treatment of the resulting Differential-Algebraic equation (DAE) system are properly addressed. The typical dynamic characteristics of such columns are quantitatively and qualitatively enlightened on case study with very large disturbances. The developed system has proven to be beneficial for understanding the dynamic behaviour and further for developing control schemes. (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs

  5. A Modelling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    of hydrocarbons such as separations of equimolar mixtures of benzene/toluene or propane/propene described by simple models, a generic, modular, model framework is presented in this work. At present, the framework is able to describe a conventional distillation column, a mechanical vapor recompression column......Diabatic operation of distillation columns can lead to signicant reductions in energy utilization and operation cost compared to conventional (adiabatic) distillation columns, at an expense of an increased complexity of design and operation. The earliest diabatic distillation conguration dates back...... to the late 70s, and various dierent congurations have appeared since. However, at present, no full-scale diabatic distillation columns are currently operating in the industry. Current studies related to alternative distillation congurations report very dierent gures for potential energy savings which...

  6. A comparative evaluation of nitrogen compounds in petroleum distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dheer; Chopra, Anju; Patel, Mitra Bhanu; Sarpal, Amarjit Singh [Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad (India). Research and Development Centre

    2011-07-15

    Although the concentration of nitrogen compounds in crude oil is relatively low, they can become more concentrated in petroleum distillates and poison the catalysts used in refining processes. They cause undesirable deposits, color formation and odor in products; they also contribute to air pollution and some are highly carcinogenic. The poisoned catalyst becomes deactivated for hydrodesulfurization and unable to remove sulfur from middle distillates. In order to understand the effect on catalytic processes, it is desirable to identify the nitrogen compounds in various petroleum distillates. This paper compares the nitrogen species profiles in different petroleum distillates using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector. In addition, four different petroleum distillate samples from different refineries were analyzed to find the variation in their nitrogen profiles. The nitrogen compounds in petroleum distillate samples were identified as anilines, quinolines, indoles, and carbazoles and their alkyl derivatives. Quantitation was carried out against known reference standards. The quantitative data were compared to the total nitrogen content determined by elemental analysis. (orig.)

  7. Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, α H-T equi . The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also α H-T equi . Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors

  8. Solar distillation between a simple and double-glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane KHECHEKHOUCHE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The south-east region of Algeria suffers from a great socio-economic problem that affects a large population. Faced with the unavailability of drinking water, solar distillation; which appears to be a suitable and inexpensive solution; was adopted by local researchers. Improving the productivity of a solar greenhouse distiller is the subject of several researches in the world. As it is well known, distiller with simple glazing is wildly studied but unfortunately has feeble efficiency. Double glazing is a method that increases the efficiency of a flat solar collector. The idea is to use the same technique on a single-slope solar distiller (50 x 50 cm. Two glass plates separated by 1 cm between them air is trapped. Experience shows that this technique has a negative effect on the productivity of the distiller with a rate of 88.63%; it means 9 times. So double glazing is not recommended in the single slope solar distiller.

  9. Research on the separation properties of empty-column gas chromatography (EC-GC) and conditions for simulated distillation (SIMDIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Kamiński, Marian

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have revealed it is possible to separate a high-boiling mixture by gas chromatography in empty fused-silica capillary tubing rather than in columns coated with stationary phase. Chromatographic separation occurs solely on the basis of the different boiling points of the substances separated. The high similarity of such separations to those in classic distillation seems advantageous when gas chromatography is used for simulated distillation. This paper presents results from further research on the separation properties of empty fused silica tubing. The efficiency of this chromatographic system has been examined. The usefulness of such conditions has been studied for simulated distillation, i.e. to determine the boiling-point distribution of complex mixtures, mainly petroleum fractions and products, on the basis of their retention relative to reference substances. The results obtained by use of empty-column gas chromatography (EC-GC) and by use of classical simulated distillation columns have been compared for solutes of different polarity. Studies revealed boiling points determined by EC-GC were more accurate than those obtained by the standard method of simulated distillation.

  10. Entrainer-based reactive distillation versus conventional reactive distillation for the synthesis of fatty acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.C.; Dimian, A.C.; Haan, de A.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper different reactive distillation configurations for the synthesis of isopropyl myristate were compared with the use of process models made in Aspen Plus. It can be concluded that the configurations in which an entrainer is added are more capable to reach the required conversion of

  11. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  12. Asymptotic speedups, bisimulation and distillation (Work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Neil; Hamilton, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Distillation is a fully automatic program transformation that can yield superlinear program speedups. Bisimulation is a key to the proof that distillation is correct, i.e., preserves semantics. However the proof, based on observational equivalence, is insensitive to program running times....... This paper shows how distillation can give superlinear speedups on some “old chestnut” programs well-known from the early program transformation literature: naive reverse, factorial sum, and Fibonacci....

  13. Analytical determination of distillation boundaries for ternary azeotropic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marcilla Gomis, Antonio; Reyes Labarta, Juan Antonio; Velasco, Raúl; Serrano Cayuelas, María Dolores; Olaya López, María del Mar

    2009-01-01

    A new straight forward algorithm to calculate distillation boundaries in ternary azeotropic systems has been developed. The proposed method allows, using cubic splines, the calculation of distillation trajectories and the calculation of that corresponding to the searched distillation boundaries. The algorithm is applied to 4 ternary liquid-vapour systems to test its validity. Vicepresidency of Research (University of Alicante) and Generalitat Valenciana (GV/2007/125)

  14. Design and Implementation of Temperature Controller for a Vacuum Distiller

    OpenAIRE

    Muslim, M. Aziz; N., Goegoes Dwi; F., Ahmad Salmi; R., Akhbar Prachaessardhi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed design and implementation of temperature controller for a vacuum distiller. The distiller is aimed to provide distillation process of bioethanol in nearly vacuum condition. Due to varying vacuum pressure, temperature have to be controlled by manipulating AC voltage to heating elements. Two arduino based control strategies have been implemented, PID control and Fuzzy Logic control. Control command from the controller was translated to AC drive using TRIAC based dimmer circu...

  15. Solvent extraction of aromatics from middle distillates: equilibria prediction method by group contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M.; Mikitenko, P.; Asselineau, L.

    1984-01-01

    A method of calculating liquid-liquid aromatics extraction of a middle distillate is described. The group contribution models of the ASOG and UNIFAC type are investigated. Four vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE), two solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE), three binary and six ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) have been measured. The parameters of the models are based mainly on the data of the systems having 10-20 carbon number. VLE, SLE, and infinite dilution activity coefficient data (17-245/sup 0/C) have been used for calculating interaction parameters between hydrocarbon groups and LLE data (20-80/sup 0/C) for interaction parameters of dimethylformamide-hydrocarbon groups. Middle distillate representation is based on mass spectrometric and gas chromatographic analysis and on limited data of middle distillate-DMF liquid-liquid equilibrium. It is shown that the performance of ASOG and UNIFAC models are sufficiently valid in representation of data base and in extraction calculations. Considering the predictive character and the rapidity of its application this method can be useful in the preliminary study of extraction processes. 34 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  16. Development status of the cryogenic distillation system in Cernavoda Tritium Removal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draghia, Mirela; Ana, George; Pasca, Gheorghe; Porcariu, Florina

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The reference design technology for the heavy water detritiation plant of Cernavoda CANDU station is based on combination of Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) and Cryogenic Distillation (CD) processes. Based on this technology, tritium is transferred from the heavy water to a deuterium stream in the catalyzed isotopic exchange process, LPCE, followed by a final enrichment within the cryogenic distillation cascade. The final step is the tritium storage on metallic hydride. The basic function of the Cryogenic Distillation System (CDS) is the separation of tritium from the tritiated deuterium coming from the LPCE column in the following conditions: - the final product has to be tritium with a concentration of at least 99%; - it must be provided a detritiation factor of at least 100 (the ration between the tritium concentration in the deuterium stream fed to the CD system and the tritium concentration in the returned stream to the LPCE); - the deuterium must be enriched up to 99.995%, by removing the protium; - provisions for safe discharge of the entire inventory of the CD cascade into buffer vessels shall be implemented. To summarize, the present status of the project consists of technical documentation for all the components of CDS, including the P and ID (Pipping and Instrumentation Diagram), preliminary data sheets, technical specifications, drawings for the major components as the buffer vessels, coldbox, etc, and 3D models as well for almost all the components. (authors)

  17. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  18. Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Pierre; Athès, Violaine; Decloux, Martine Esteban; Ferrari, Gérald; Snakkers, Guillaume; Raguenaud, Patrick; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2017-09-06

    Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contributes to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation. The analysis of these samples allowed us to perform a mass balance and to point out several types of volatile compounds whose quantities strongly increased during the distillation process. These compounds were distinguished by their chemical family. It has been found that the first distillation step was decisive for the formation of volatile compounds. Moreover, 2 esters, 3 aldehydes, 12 norisoprenoids, and 3 terpenes were shown to be generated during the process. These results suggest that some volatile compounds found in Cognac spirit are formed during distillation due to chemical reactions induced by high temperature. These findings give important indications to professional distillers in order to enhance the product's quality.

  19. Advances in Membrane Distillation for Water Desalination and Purification Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a process that utilizes differences in vapor pressure to permeate water through a macro-porous membrane and reject other non-volatile constituents present in the influent water. This review considers the fundamental heat and mass transfer processes in membrane distillation, recent advances in membrane technology, module configurations, and the applications and economics of membrane distillation, and identifies areas that may lead to technological improvements in membrane distillation as well as the application characteristics required for commercial deployment.

  20. Evaluation of Controller Tuning Methods Applied to Distillation Column Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; W. Andersen, Henrik; Kümmel, Professor Mogens

    A frequency domain approach is used to compare the nominal performance and robustness of dual composition distillation column control tuned according to Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Biggest Log Modulus Tuning (BLT) for three binary distillation columns, WOBE, LUVI and TOFA. The scope of this is to ex......A frequency domain approach is used to compare the nominal performance and robustness of dual composition distillation column control tuned according to Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Biggest Log Modulus Tuning (BLT) for three binary distillation columns, WOBE, LUVI and TOFA. The scope...

  1. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  2. KINETIC MODELS STUDY OF HYDRODESULPHURIZATION VACUUM DISTILLATE REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulMunem A. Karim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available    This study deals with  kinetics of hydrodesulphurization (HDS reaction of vacuum gas oil (611-833 K which was distillated from Kirkuk crude oil and which was obtained by blending the fractions, light vacuum gas oil (611 - 650 K, medium vacuum gas oil (650-690 K, heavy vacuum gas oil (690-727 K and very heavy vacuum gas oil (727-833 K.   The vacuum gas oil was hydrotreated on a commercial cobalt-molybdenum alumina catalyst presulfied at specified conditions in a laboratory trickle bed reactor. The reaction temperature range (583-643 K,liquid hourly space velocity range (1.5-3.75 h-1 and hydrogen pressure was kept constant at 3.5 MPa with hydrogen to oil ratio about 250 lt/lt.           The conversion results for desulphurization reaction appeared to obey the second order reaction. According to this model, the rate constants for desulphurization reaction were determined. Finally, the apparent activation energy (Ea, enthalpy of activation ( H* and entropy ( S* were calculated based on the values of rate constant (k2 and were equal 80.3792 KJ/mole, 75.2974 KJ/mole and 197.493 J/mole, respectively.

  3. The nutritive value of condensed wheat distillers solubles for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boever, J L; Blok, M C; Millet, S; Vanacker, J; De Campeneere, S

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition and the energy and protein value of five batches of condensed distillers solubles (CDS) originating from wheat were determined. The net energy for lactation (NEL) was derived from digestion coefficients obtained with sheep. The true protein digested in the small intestine (DVE) and the rumen degradable protein balance (OEB) were based on the rumen degradation rate (kd D ), the rumen undegradable fraction (U) and intestinal digestibility of undegraded protein (%DVBE) predicted by regression equations derived from a data set of 28 protein feeds with kd D , U and %DVBE determined in situ. The CDS is a by-product with a high, but very variable CP content (238 to 495 g/kg DM). The CP contained on average 81% amino acids, with glutamine as main component (on average 21.8% of CP) and a relatively good lysine proportion (3.0%). Further, CDS contains quite a lot of crude fat (mean±SD: 71±14 g/kg DM), glycerol (95±52 g/kg DM) and sugars (123±24 g/kg DM) resulting in a high organic matter digestibility (88.6±3.0%) and high NEL content (8.3±0.4 MJ/kg DM). The protein value showed a large variation, with DVE ranging from 122 to 244 g/kg DM and OEB from 50 to 204 g/kg DM. Wheat CDS is a rich source of minerals and trace elements with exception of calcium.

  4. Comparative dermal carcinogenesis of shale and petroleum-derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Walter, M K; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M

    1988-03-01

    Ten test materials derived from petroleum or hydrotreated shale oils were applied 3 times/week for up to 105 weeks to the shaved skin of 25 male and 25 female C3H/HeN mice per group. Mineral oil and benzo(a) pyrene (0.15%) were control materials. Clinical observations were recorded during the study. At death, histopathologic examination was conducted on skin, internal organs and any gross lesions. Exposures to some materials were ended midway in the study due to severe irritation. Chronic toxicity of all materials was limited to inflammatory and degenerative skin changes. Significant increases over control incidence of skin tumors (squamous cell carcinoma and fibrosarcoma) occurred with both petroleum and shale-derived naphtha (21%, 50%), Jet A (26%, 28%), JP-4 (26%, 50%), and crude oils (84%, 54%). Severely hydrotreated shale oil and petroleum and shale-derived diesel distillates were not considered tumorigenic. Results indicate that toxicity of comparable petroleum and shale-derived fractions was qualitatively similar and confirm earlier findings that hydrotreating reduces or eliminates carcinogenicity of raw shale oil.

  5. Bioactive compounds from palm fatty acid distillate and crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiasih, T.; Ahmadi, K.

    2018-03-01

    Crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) are rich sources of bioactive compounds. PFAD is a by-product of palm oil refinery that produce palm frying oil. Physical refining of palm oil by deodorization produces palm fatty acid distillate. CPO and PFAD contain some bioactive compounds such as vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols), phytosterol, and squalene. Bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD are vitamin E, phytosterols, and squalene. Vitamin E of CPO and PFAD mainly comprised of tocotrienols and the remaining is tocopherol. Phytosterols of CPO and PFAD contained beta sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol. Tocotrienols and phytosterols of CPO and PFAD, each can be separated to produce tocotrienol rich fraction and phytosterol rich fraction. Tocotrienol rich fraction from PFAD has both antioxidant and cholesterol lowering properties. Bioactive compounds of PFAD silmultaneously have been proven to improve lipid profile, and have hepatoprotector effect, imunomodulator, antioxidant properties, and lactogenic effect in animal test experiment. It is possible to develop separation of bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD integratively with the other process that utilizes fatty acid.

  6. Process and apparatus to distil petroleum. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Erdoel-Destillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenau, R.; Fauser, F.; Fischer, W.

    1982-12-23

    In a process to distil petroleum the raw petroleum is distilled in the first instance at atmospheric pressure to separate the low-boiling components and subsequently under vacuum to separate the remaining components. The vacuum distillation is carried out as a flash distillation using a shortway distiller.

  7. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata flower extract separated fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Karuppiah; Priya, Sethuraman

    2017-05-01

    Cassia auriculata L., the flower aqueous extract was fractionated by separating funnel using n-hexane (A1), chloroform (A2), ethyl acetate (A3) and triple distilled water (A4). The A4 fraction was concentrated and determined the presence of preliminary phytochemicals such as tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates and polyphenolic compounds. These phytochemical compounds acted as reducing as well as a stabilizing agent in the green synthesis of Ag NPs from aqueous silver ions. Initially, the colour change and UV-vis absorbance surface Plasmon resonance strong, wide band located at 435 nm has confirmed the synthesis of Ag NPs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Ag NPs shows a face-centered cubic crystal structure. The observed values were calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation to theoretical confirms the particle size of 18 nm. The surface morphology of Ag NPs was viewed by HRTEM, the particles are spherical and triangle shapes with sizes from 10 to 35 nm. Further, the Ag NPs was effective catalytic activity in the reduction of highly environmental polluted organic compounds of 4-nitrophenol and methyl orange. The green synthesis of Ag NPs seems to eco-friendly, cost-effective, conventional one spot synthesis and greater performance of catalytic degradation of environmentally polluted organic dyes.

  8. Improvements in the distillation of shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noad, J

    1912-09-20

    A process for treating shale and other bituminous substances containing sulfur and obtaining desulfurized products of distillation consisting in the consecutive steps of crushing the shale, mixing a suitable liquid with the shale granules, mixing slaked lime with the liquid coated shale granules, and gradually feeding the lime coated shale granules into a retort presenting a series of ledges or the like and working the shale granules down from ledge to ledge so that they are continuously agitated while being heated, the volatile constituents escaping through the lime coating and being conducted away from the upper part of the retort to suitable condensing apparatus, and the sulfur being arrested by the lime coating and together with the exhausted shale and other impurities being discharged from the lower part of the retort.

  9. Continuous distillation of oil-bearing rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1923-11-14

    A continuous process of distilling petroleum-bearing, asphaltic, or bituminous rocks to free bitumen is characterized by vaporizing hydrocarbons solid, pasty, or liquid from petroleum-containing asphaltic or bituminous rocks to free bitumen without ever reaching the temperatures at which they can produce decomposition, the necessary heat being furnished by combustion of part of the hydrocarbons of the treated rocks. A furnace for carrying out the process of claim 1 is characterized by consisting of a cavity lined inside with reflector, of variable section and with a throat at the upper part for charging the material to be treated and means for blowing the lower part of the furnace with the air necessary for combustion and inert gas for regulating the combustion and removal of the hydrocarbons.

  10. Distillation of combustibles at temperatures below fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalin, D

    1946-09-26

    A process is described for combustion and distillation for dry fuels, such as bituminous shales, below the temperature of fusion of the ash, for the production of heat, in which the temperature in the charge of fuel forming a vertical column is maintained beneath the temperature of fusion of the ash by a withdrawal of the heat from the combustible charge by means of a fluid absorbing this heat. This fluid being constituted, for example, by water in a suitable form, so that it can be circulated through a convenient cooling system, extending through the different parts of the charge. The fluid circulating also through the desired parts of the charge and absorbing the heat, the quantity of fluid or the surface of absorption increasing with the intensity of the combustion in the part of the combustible charge traversed by the fluid.

  11. Design of Microporosity in Membrane Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tom; Patankar, Neelesh

    2017-11-01

    Membrane Distillation (MD) is a desalination method where only vapor can pass through pores in a hydrophobic membrane. Unlike reverse osmosis, MD is insensitive to feed salinity (osmotic pressure) and demonstrates near 100% salt rejection in processing wastewater with a high concentration of nonvolatile impurities. To maximize vapor flux and maintain salt rejection, we demonstrate using molecular dynamics the critical pore radius below which the liquid feed will not intrude or nucleate inside the pores for cylindrical, re-entrant and conical pore geometries. We note that re-entrant structures not only can process low surface-tension wastewater due to its inherent oleophobicity, but can also be optimized to achieve maximum vapor transport compared to all other pore geometries as a function of the material hydrophobicity.

  12. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; De Moor, Bart

    2006-01-01

    We present an asymptotic bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol that outperforms all existing asymptotic schemes. This protocol is based on the breeding protocol with the incorporation of two-way classical communication. Like breeding, the protocol starts with an infinite number of copies of a Bell-diagonal mixed state. Breeding can be carried out as successive stages of partial information extraction, yielding the same result: one bit of information is gained at the cost (measurement) of one pure Bell state pair (ebit). The basic principle of our protocol is at every stage to replace measurements on ebits by measurements on a finite number of copies, whenever there are two equiprobable outcomes. In that case, the entropy of the global state is reduced by more than one bit. Therefore, every such replacement results in an improvement of the protocol. We explain how our protocol is organized as to have as many replacements as possible. The yield is then calculated for Werner states

  13. Distilling peat and other carbonaceous matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stones, W B

    1850-03-07

    Improvements in treating peat and other carbonaceous and ligneous matters, so as to obtain products therefrom are disclosed. These improvements consist, first, of a machine for compressing and partially drying peat. The unpressed peat is put into boxes and these into frames which are passed through between the bowls of a machine resembling a pair of squeezers. Secondly, consists in distilling, at a temperature of, say 700/sup 0/F, the compressed peat, with or without the addition of tar or fatty matter in retorts, and condensing the vapors in a series of vessels, arranged after the manner of Wolfe's bottles. The resulting charcoal may be extinguished by passing carbonic acid through it while in an air-tight box or chamber, and it may then be compressed into bricks, and used for locomotives and other purposes.

  14. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  15. Design of Batch Distillation Columns Using Short-Cut Method at Constant Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asteria Narvaez-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A short-cut method for batch distillation columns working at constant reflux was applied to solve a problem of four components that needed to be separated and purified to a mole fraction of 0.97 or better. Distillation columns with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 theoretical stages were used; reflux ratio was varied between 2 and 20. Three quality indexes were used and compared: Luyben’s capacity factor, total annual cost, and annual profit. The best combinations of theoretical stages and reflux ratio were obtained for each method. It was found that the best combinations always required reflux ratios close to the minimum. Overall, annual profit was the best quality index, while the best combination was a distillation column with 30 stages, and reflux ratio’s of 2.0 for separation of benzene (i, 5.0 for the separation of toluene (ii, and 20 for the separation of ethylbenzene (iii and purification of o-xylene (iv.

  16. Simulators of tray distillation columns as tools for interpreting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... at 0.05 m intervals were determined from top to the bottom of simulators of tray distillation columns exposed to 20 mCi of 137 Cs. Signals generated from the simulators were identical with the experimental signals obtained from the Stabilizer Column of the crude oil distillation unit at the Tema Oil Refinery Ghana Limited.

  17. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants. The...

  18. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  19. Process for obtaining a distillation product free from sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1920-06-12

    A process is described of obtaining from shale a hydrocarbon product free from sulfur, by distillation, consisting in mixing with the shale a portion of mineral oil and metallic debris, such as turnings and drillings, heating the mixture in a rotary drum and recovering and condensing the vapors distilled.

  20. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    industry in the country do not have the capacity to manufacture the complete distillation plant system with the required precision for standard quality of oil at affordable cost. Thus, the design and the experiment in the use of a prototype small size distillation unit showed that the technology is appropriate for essential oil ...

  1. Towards energy efficient distillation technologies - Making the right choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Landaeta, S.J. Flores; Ferreira, C.A.I.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of claiming around half of the operational costs of chemical plants, distillation is still the most popular separation technology. Distillation has low thermodynamic efficiency, requiring the input of high quality energy in the reboiler – while rejecting a similar amount of heat at lower

  2. Desalination and water recycling by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  3. Graph Modelling Approach: Application to a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovelaque, V.; Commault, C.; Bahar, Mehrdad

    1997-01-01

    Introduction, structured systems and digraphs, distillation column model, generic input-output decoupling problem, generic disturbance rejection problem, concluding remarks.......Introduction, structured systems and digraphs, distillation column model, generic input-output decoupling problem, generic disturbance rejection problem, concluding remarks....

  4. Desalination and Water Recycling by Air Gap Membrane Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  5. Distillation plant for tritium enrichment in metallic lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, E.; Butzek, D.; Cordewiner, J.; Heinrichs, E.

    1984-06-01

    To close the external fuel cycle of fusion reactors, the tritium obtained from lithium must be separated off. One way of doing this is by high-temperature distillation and subsequent permeation. The construction of high-temperature distillation plant is described. For the time being, deuterium is processed instead of tritium. (orig.) [de

  6. 27 CFR 19.830 - Application of distilled spirits tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of distilled spirits tax. 19.830 Section 19.830 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the...

  7. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  8. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Grape Varieties on Wine Distillates Flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Banović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is a phenomenon that occurrs when food and live organism mutually react during the process of consumption. Many factors influence the making of aroma of wine distillates (e.g. cognac during the technological process of distillation. It is extremely difficult to bring an objective judgement on the influence of individual factors since aroma is very subjective in its nature. The possibility of objective assessment of the influence of grape varieties on wine distillate was performed in this work using a computer in processing the results of cromatographic analyses of aroma substances. The given results were verified by sensor analyses. The achieved results have shown that mathematical model for calculating aroma chromatogram similarity can be successfully used for objective assessment of the influence of individual factors on aroma of wine distillates and that grape varieties have significant impact on aroma and the quality of wine distillates.

  10. Purification of simple substances by distillation with impurity hydrothermal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnik, O.N.; Nisel'son, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    A possibility of applying distillation method in water vapours for purification of simple substances from impurities is studied. Based on thermodynamic analysis of interaction processes in E-H 2 O system, conducted using a computer, it is as certained that SS, Se, Te, As, Cd, Hg can be purified from the majority of the impurities analysed by distillation in a water vapour flow. Behaviour of Zn, C, Ge, Al, Sb characteristic impurities under cadmium, arsenic and tellurium distillation is studied. Experiments on cadmium, arsenic and tellurium purification have confirmed, that distillation with hydrothermal oxidation of Zn, C, Ge impurities sometimes appears to be a more effective method as compared to distillation in a hydrogen flow

  11. Investigation of isotopic signals in the unsaturated zone with the use of direct push technology and azaeotropic distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kallioras

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the investigation of the unsaturated zone, through the application of combined field and lab techniques. The results show that direct push methods, which are considered ideal for multilevel sampling of undisturbed soil in the unsaturated zone, proved to be effective also for the consequent extraction of the pore water for further isotopic determination. This ultimate goal can be achieved thank to the application of azaetropic distillation, which has the least isotopic fractionation effects on groundwater samples.

  12. A novel strategy using MASCOT Distiller for analysis of cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag data to quantify protein changes in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kit-Yi; Lescuyer, Pierre; Campbell, James; Byers, Helen L; Allard, Laure; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Ward, Malcolm A

    2005-08-01

    A novel strategy consisting of cleavable Isotope-Coded Affinity Tag (cICAT) combined with MASCOT Distiller was evaluated as a tool for the quantification of proteins in "abnormal" patient plasma, prepared by pooling samples from patients with acute stroke. Quantification of all light and heavy cICAT-labelled peptide ion pairs was obtained using MASCOT Distiller combined with a proprietary software. Peptides displaying differences were selected for identification by MS. These preliminary results show the promise of our approach to identify potential biomarkers.

  13. Biodiesel of distilled hydrogenated fat and biodiesel of distilled residual oil: fuel consumption in agricultural tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Felipe Thomaz da; Lopes, Afonso; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Dabdoub, Miguel Joaquim [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Great part of the world-wide oil production is used in fry process; however, after using, such product becomes an undesirable residue, and the usual methods of discarding of these residues, generally contaminate the environment, mainly the rivers. In function of this, using oil and residual fat for manufacturing biodiesel, besides preventing ambient contamination, turning up an undesirable residue in to fuel. The present work had as objective to evaluate the fuel consumption of a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA tractor functioning with methylic biodiesel from distilled hydrogenated fat and methylic biodiesel from distilled residual oil, in seven blends into diesel. The work was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, at UNESP - Jaboticabal, in an entirely randomized block statistical design, factorial array of 2 x 7, with three repetitions. The factors combinations were two types of methylic distilled biodiesel (residual oil and hydrogenated fat) and seven blends (B{sub 0}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 1}5, B{sub 2}5, B{sub 5}0, B{sub 7}5 and B{sub 1}00). The results had evidenced that additioning 15% of biodiesel into diesel, the specific consumption was similar, and biodiesel of residual oil provided less consumption than biodiesel from hydrogenated fat. (author)

  14. Quantification of tumour initiating effect of jute batching oil and its distillates over mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, R; Kumar, S; Shukla, Y; Antony, M; Mehrotra, N K

    1985-09-30

    In order to identify the tumour initiating constituent(s) of a mineral oil, jute batching oil (JBO), used in the processing of jute fibres, it was fractionally distilled in various boiling range fractions. The latter were then subjected to in vivo assessment of their aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) inducing potential in mouse epidermis. Fractions with almost similar AHH inducing potential were regrouped and studied for their tumour initiating potential over mouse skin following two-stage initiation-promotion protocol and using 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as tumour promoter. It was noticed that: (1) JBO as initiator, provoked local development of benign skin tumours over mouse back; (2) fractions of JBO boiling below 335 degrees C and above 399 degrees C accounted for most of the tumour initiating potential of the oil; (3) the histological features of the tumours (i.e. benign papillomas and keratoacanthomas) initiated by these fractions were similar to those developed after being initiated with unfractionated or reconstituted JBO; (4) removal of these fractions from JBO may be attempted which could decontaminate the batch oil from most of its tumorigenic components and make it safer for industrial use.

  15. Input-Output Decoupling of a Distillation Column LV-Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdi, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Bahar (fratrådt), Mehrdad

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, digraph approach, distillation column, digraph analysis, solution analysis, discussion and conclusion, references.......Introduction, digraph approach, distillation column, digraph analysis, solution analysis, discussion and conclusion, references....

  16. The forms of azeotropic rule for multidimensional diagrams of equilibrium distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarenko, Yu. A.; Usol'tseva, O. O.; Cardona, C. A.; Gerard, O. T.

    2013-09-01

    Linear independent forms of the azeotropy rule applicable to diagrams of distillation (reaction distillation) and their fragments are established and presented as simple polyhedra of arbitrary dimensions.

  17. Pathway Distiller - multisource biological pathway consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doderer, Mark S; Anguiano, Zachry; Suresh, Uthra; Dashnamoorthy, Ravi; Bishop, Alexander J R; Chen, Yidong

    2012-01-01

    One method to understand and evaluate an experiment that produces a large set of genes, such as a gene expression microarray analysis, is to identify overrepresentation or enrichment for biological pathways. Because pathways are able to functionally describe the set of genes, much effort has been made to collect curated biological pathways into publicly accessible databases. When combining disparate databases, highly related or redundant pathways exist, making their consolidation into pathway concepts essential. This will facilitate unbiased, comprehensive yet streamlined analysis of experiments that result in large gene sets. After gene set enrichment finds representative pathways for large gene sets, pathways are consolidated into representative pathway concepts. Three complementary, but different methods of pathway consolidation are explored. Enrichment Consolidation combines the set of the pathways enriched for the signature gene list through iterative combining of enriched pathways with other pathways with similar signature gene sets; Weighted Consolidation utilizes a Protein-Protein Interaction network based gene-weighting approach that finds clusters of both enriched and non-enriched pathways limited to the experiments' resultant gene list; and finally the de novo Consolidation method uses several measurements of pathway similarity, that finds static pathway clusters independent of any given experiment. We demonstrate that the three consolidation methods provide unified yet different functional insights of a resultant gene set derived from a genome-wide profiling experiment. Results from the methods are presented, demonstrating their applications in biological studies and comparing with a pathway web-based framework that also combines several pathway databases. Additionally a web-based consolidation framework that encompasses all three methods discussed in this paper, Pathway Distiller (http://cbbiweb.uthscsa.edu/PathwayDistiller), is established to allow

  18. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  19. Towards energy efficient distillation technologies – Making the right choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Flores Landaeta, Servando J.; Infante Ferreira, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of claiming around half of the operational costs of chemical plants, distillation is still the most popular separation technology. Distillation has low thermodynamic efficiency, requiring the input of high quality energy in the reboiler – while rejecting a similar amount of heat at lower temperature, in the condenser. Several heat pump concepts have been proposed to upgrade that thermal energy and reduce the consumption of valuable utilities. Under certain conditions, the energy savings of heat pump assisted distillation is usually around 20–50%. This study proposes a novel selection scheme of energy efficient distillation technologies, with a special focus on heat pumps. The most promising technologies selected are vapor compression, mechanical or thermal vapor recompression, absorption, compression–resorption and thermo-acoustic heat pumps, multi-effect distillation, heat integrated distillation column, cyclic distillation, Kaibel and dividing-wall column. The scheme considers as the main selection criteria the type of separation tasks, product flow and specifications, operating pressure, difference in boiling points, reboiler duty and its temperature level. Moreover, this scheme is very practical, allowing major time and resources savings in the design of eco-efficient processes. -- Highlights: ► Heat pump assisted distillation with energy savings of 20–50%. ► Novel and practical selection scheme of energy efficient distillation technologies. ► Evaluation of promising technologies: VC, MVR, TVR, AHP, CHRP, TAHP, HIDiC, DWC, CyDist. ► Selection criteria include: ΔT b , ΔT lift , P, T reb , Q reb , volatility. ► Design of eco-efficient processes with high COP, and lower TIC and TAC.

  20. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of a light gas oil deep hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Quintero, A.; Vargas-Villamil, F.D. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Mexico, D.F. 07330 (Mexico); Arce-Medina, E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Ed. 8 Col. Lindavista, Mexico, D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2008-01-30

    In this work, a sensitivity analysis of a light gas oil deep hydrodesulfurization catalytic distillation column is presented. The aim is to evaluate the effects of various parameters and operating conditions on the organic sulfur compound elimination by using a realistic light gas oil fraction. The hydrocarbons are modeled using pseudocompounds, while the organic sulfur compounds are modeled using model compounds, i.e., dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). These are among the most refractive sulfur compounds present in the oil fractions. A sensitivity analysis is discussed for the reflux ratio, bottom flow rate, condenser temperature, hydrogen and gas oil feed stages, catalyst loading, the reactive, stripping, and rectifying stages, feed disturbances, and multiple feeds. The results give insight into the qualitative effect of some of the operating variables and disturbances on organic sulfur elimination. In addition, they show that special attention must be given to the bottom flow rate and LGO feed rate control. (author)

  2. Generalized Choi states and 2-distillability of quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Tang, Wai-Shing; Yang, Yu

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the distillability of bipartite quantum states in terms of positive and completely positive maps. We construct the so-called generalized Choi states and show that it is distillable when it has negative partial transpose. We convert the distillability problem of 2-copy n× n Werner states into the determination of the positivity of an Hermitian matrix. We obtain several sufficient conditions by which the positivity holds. Further, we investigate the case n=3 by the classification of 2× 3× 3 pure states.

  3. Distillability Sudden Birth of Entanglement for Qutrit-Qutrit Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jiang; Ali Mazhar

    2014-01-01

    We report the sudden appearance of distillability between two statistically independent reservoirs modelled as qutrit-qutrit systems. This feature of bipartite quantum systems is different from the previously observed phenomenon of entanglement sudden birth. It is found that the states of reservoirs first become bound entangled, thus exhibiting entanglement sudden birth, consequently followed by the sudden birth of distillability, and it is shown that whenever distillability is lost abruptly from principal system, it also necessarily appears abruptly among reservoirs' degrees of freedom. This surprising observation reflects yet another peculiarity of dynamical aspects of quantum entanglement

  4. Evaluation of sulfonated carbon as catalyst in reactive distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orjuela, Alvaro; Civetta, Nicolas; Rivera, Jairo; Boyaca, Alejandro; Diaz, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    A packed bed using sulfonated coal catalytic pellets was prepared using a Colombian anthracitic coal. Such pellets were introduced in a semi batch distillation column to which acetic acid and ethanol were fed in order to determine experimentally the feasibility of obtaining ethyl acetate by reactive distillation operation. The carbonaceous catalytic packing was characterized by total exchange capacity, potentiometric titration and BET area. Experimental tests were carried out using three acid/alcohol ratios. Results of such process are shown by reaction conversion and concentration in distillate and bottom products. The sulfonated coal showed catalytic activity in this esterification reaction, with conversions between 29-45%

  5. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    on the element concept, which is used to translate a system of compounds into elements. The operation of the reactive distillation column at the highest driving force and other candidate points is analyzed through analytical solution as well as rigorous open-loop and closed-loop simulations. By application...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  6. Method of producing pitch (distillation residue)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, M.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Krysin, V.P.

    1979-08-15

    A method is proposed for producing pitch by mixing hard coal pitch with anthracene fraction and thermal treatment of the mixture. The method is distinguished in that in order to increase the quality of the pitch, the anthracene fraction is subjected to thermal treatment at 250-300/sup 0/ for 10-13 hours in the presence of air. This duration of heat treatment allows one to build up in the anthracene fraction up to 20-24% of material which is not soluble and toluene, without the formation of products which are not soluble in quinoline. The fraction prepared in this manner is inserted into the initial pitch in the ratio 1:2 up to 1:9, the mixture is subject to heat treatment at temperature 360-380/sup 0/ and air consumption 7-91/kgX hours until the production of pitch with softening temperature of 85-90/sup 0/. As the initial raw material we used pitch with softening temperature of 60/sup 0/, content of substances which are not soluble in quinoline, 2.0% which are not soluble and toluene 20.6% and coking residue of 49.2%. Example. 80 grams of anthracene fraction is added to 320 grams of pitch. The anthracene fraction is subjected previously to heat treatment at 300/sup 0/ for 13 hours in the presence of air, supplied in the amount of 9 liters per hour. As a result of the heat treatment of the content of materials which are not soluble in toluence in the anthracene fraction is 24.0%, in quinoline it is 0.1%. The ratio of a pitch and thermally treated anthracene fraction in the mixture was 4:l. The produced mixture was subjected to heat treatment at 360/sup 0/ for 1.5 hours with air supply in the amount of 7 liters/ kilograms/hours. Pitch is produced with the following characteristics: softening temperature 88/sup 0/, content of substances which are not soluble in toluene 32.5%, in quinilone, 6.0%, coking residue, 56.7%. The invention can be used in the chemical coking and petrochemical industry.

  7. On Entropy Generation and the Effect of Heat and Mass Transfer Coupling in a Distillation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Madrigal, Paulina; Mendoza, Diego F.; López de Haro, Mariano

    2018-01-01

    The entropy production rates as obtained from the exergy analysis, entropy balance and the nonequilibrium thermodynamics approach are compared for two distillation columns. The first case is a depropanizer column involving a mixture of ethane, propane, n-butane and n-pentane. The other is a weighed sample of Mexican crude oil distilled with a pilot scale fractionating column. The composition, temperature and flow profiles, for a given duty and operating conditions in each column, are obtained with the Aspen Plus V8.4 software by using the RateFrac model with a rate-based nonequilibrium column. For the depropanizer column the highest entropy production rate is found in the central trays where most of the mass transfer occurs, while in the second column the highest values correspond to the first three stages (where the vapor mixture is in contact with the cold liquid reflux), and to the last three stages (where the highest temperatures take place). The importance of the explicit inclusion of thermal diffusion in these processes is evaluated. In the depropanizer column, the effect of the coupling between heat and mass transfer is found to be negligible, while for the fractionating column it becomes appreciable.

  8. Towards comprehensive hydrocarbons analysis of middle distillates by LC-GCxGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frédérick; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Thiébaut, Didier; Esnault, Sébastien; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, M C

    2007-01-01

    The detailed characterization of middle distillates is essential for a better understanding of reactions involved in refining processes. Owing to a higher resolution power and an enhanced sensitivity, but especially to a group-type ordering in the chromatographic plane, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) offers unsurpassed characterization possibilities for petroleum samples. However, GCxGC fails to totally discriminate naphthenes from unsaturates occurring in hydrotreated diesel samples. This article aims at promoting the implementation of LC-GCxGC for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon distribution in middle distillates, including naphthenes. In this configuration, liquid chromatography (LC) enables the separation of hydrocarbons into two fractions (viz., saturated and unsaturated) before the subsequent analysis of each fraction by GCxGC. In this paper, the choice of GCxGC conditions in order to achieve the separation and identification of hydrocarbons by chemical class is discussed; under these conditions, naphthenes are separated according to the number of saturated rings. For the first time, the presence of di-, tri-, and tetra-naphthenes resulting from the hydroconversion of aromatics can clearly be evidenced. A quantitative procedure for the determination of the distribution of hydrocarbons, including the distribution of naphthenes according to the number of saturated rings, is also proposed and discussed in detail. LC-GCxGC is found to provide an unequalled degree of information that will widely contribute to a better understanding of hydroconversion processes.

  9. Exergy analysis of a MSF distillation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, Nafiz; Cengel, Yunus A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a large MSF distillation plant in the gulf area is analyzed thermodynamically using actual plant operation data. Exergy flow rates are evaluated throughout the plant, and the exergy flow diagram is prepared. The rates of exergy destruction and their percentages are indicated on the diagram so that the locations of highest exergy destruction can easily be identified. The highest exergy destruction (77.7%) occurs within the MSF unit, as expected, and this can be reduced by increasing the number of flashing stages. The exergy destruction in the pumps and motors account for 5.3% of the total, and this also can be reduced by using high efficiency motors and pumps. The plant is determined to have a second law efficiency of just 4.2%, which is very low. This indicates that there are major opportunities in the plant to reduce exergy destruction and, thus, the amount of electric and thermal energy supplied, making the operation of the plant more cost effective

  10. Ekstraksi Minyak Atsiri Dari Akar Wangi Menggunakan Metode Steam - Hydro distillation dan Hydro distilation dengan Pemanas Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana M Al Hanief

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh minyak atsiri dari akar wangi dengan modifikasi metode steam-hydro distillation dan hydro distillation yaitu menggunakan pemanasan microwave kemudian membandingkan hasilnya dengan penelitian sebelumnya. Modifikasi ini diharapkan lebih efisien dalam masalah lama penyulingan dan kualitas serta kuantitas rendemen minyak yang lebih baik dan banyak. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua metode yaitu steam-hydro distillation dan hydro distillation dengan pemanfaatan gelombang mikro. Bahan baku yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah akar wangi jenis pulus wangi yang tumbuh di Kabupaten Garut, Jawa Barat. Variabel yang digunakan adalah bahan baku yang dicacah dan bahan baku utuh dengan variasi massa bahan 50 gr, 60, gr, 70 gr, 80 gr, dan 90 gr dengan pelarut air sebanyak 450 ml dalam labau distiller berukuran 1000 ml. Lama penyulingan adalah lima jam dengan pengamatan tiap 30 menit serta daya yang digunakan adalah 400 Watt. Analisa terhadap hasil minyak atsiri yang diperoleh antara lain analisa GC-MS, spesific gravity, indeks bias, dan bilangan asam. Hasil dari penelitian ini dibandingkan dengan hasil penelitian terdahulu yang tidak memanfaatkan gelombang mikro. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh % rendemen kumulatif, sifat fisik, sifat kimia, dan kandungan komponen minyak dari metode steam-hydro distillation lebih baik dibandingkan metode hydro distillation ditandai dengan kuantitas dan kualitas yang sesuai dengan SNI.  Sementara itu jika dibandingkan dengan metode terdahulu dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan gelombang mikro lebih efisien dalam waktu dan kuantitas serta kualitas minyak yang lebih baik dibandingkan tanpa penggunaan gelombang mikro

  11. Aromatically enhanced pear distillates from blanquilla and conference varieties using a packed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Garay, Yanine; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López-Vázquez, Cristina; Orriols, Ignacio; López, Francisco

    2013-05-22

    Pear distillates are generally produced from the Bartlett variety because of its rich aroma. In this study, a chemical and sensorial comparative examination of pear distillates from the three main varieties grown in Spain (Bartlett, Blanquilla, and Conference) using two distillation systems (copper Charentais alembic and packed column) was undertaken. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography to differentiate the spirits according to pear variety and distillation method. The Bartlett distillates from both distillation systems possessed higher ethyl ester and acetate and lower cis-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol concentrations. Despite these differences, a sensory analysis panel could distinguish only the Bartlett alembic distillate from the alembic distillates of the other varieties. In contrast, the panel rated the packed-column distillates equally. Therefore, less aromatic pear varieties can be used to produce distillates with aromatic characteristics similar to those of the Bartlett variety if a suitable distillation process is used.

  12. New method dynamically models hydrocarbon fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.G.; Weissbrod, J.M.; Sheth, B.V. [Kesler Engineering, East Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method for calculating distillation column dynamics can be used to model time-dependent effects of independent disturbances for a range of hydrocarbon fractionation. It can model crude atmospheric and vacuum columns, with relatively few equilibrium stages and a large number of components, to C{sub 3} splitters, with few components and up to 300 equilibrium stages. Simulation results are useful for operations analysis, process-control applications and closed-loop control in petroleum, petrochemical and gas processing plants. The method is based on an implicit approach, where the time-dependent variations of inventory, temperatures, liquid and vapor flows and compositions are superimposed at each time step on the steady-state solution. Newton-Raphson (N-R) techniques are then used to simultaneously solve the resulting finite-difference equations of material, equilibrium and enthalpy balances that characterize distillation dynamics. The important innovation is component-aggregation and tray-aggregation to contract the equations without compromising accuracy. This contraction increases the N-R calculations` stability. It also significantly increases calculational speed, which is particularly important in dynamic simulations. This method provides a sound basis for closed-loop, supervisory control of distillation--directly or via multivariable controllers--based on a rigorous, phenomenological column model.

  13. Fractional vector calculus for fractional advection dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Mortensen, Jeff; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.

    2006-07-01

    We develop the basic tools of fractional vector calculus including a fractional derivative version of the gradient, divergence, and curl, and a fractional divergence theorem and Stokes theorem. These basic tools are then applied to provide a physical explanation for the fractional advection-dispersion equation for flow in heterogeneous porous media.

  14. Sequential Elution of Essential Oil Constituents during Steam Distillation of Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and Influence on Oil Yield and Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeliazkova, Ekaterina; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Kačániova, Miroslava; Astatkie, Tess; Tekwani, Babu L

    2018-06-07

    The profile and bioactivity of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) essential oil, a complex natural product extracted from cones via steam distillation, depends on genetic and environmental factors, and may also depend on extraction process. We hypothesized that compound mixtures eluted sequentially and captured at different timeframes during the steam distillation process of whole hop cones would have differential chemical and bioactivity profiles. The essential oil was collected sequentially at 8 distillation time (DT) intervals: 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-30, 30-60, 60-120, 120-180, and 180-240 min. The control was a 4-h non-interrupted distillation. Nonlinear regression models described the DT and essential oil compounds relationship. Fractions yielded 0.035 to 0.313% essential oil, while control yielded 1.47%. The oil eluted during the first hour was 83.2%, 9.6% during the second hour, and only 7.2% during the second half of the distillation. Essential oil (EO) fractions had different chemical profile. Monoterpenes were eluted early, while sequiterpenes were eluted late. Myrcene and linalool were the highest in 0-2 min fraction, β-caryophyllene, β-copaene, β-farnesene, and α-humulene were highest in fractions from middle of distillation, whereas α- bergamotene, γ-muurolene, β- and α-selinene, γ- and δ-cadinene, caryophyllene oxide, humulne epoxide II, τ-cadinol, and 6-pentadecen-2-one were highest in 120-180 or 180-240 min fractions. The Gram-negative Escherichia coli was strongly inhibited by essential oil fractions from 2-5 min and 10-30 min, followed by oil fraction from 0-2 min. The strongest inhibition activity against Gram-negative Yersinia enterocolitica, and Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus subs. aureus was observed with the control essential oil. This is the first study to describe significant activity of hops essential oils against Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protozoan that causes African

  15. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill Young Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD of three kinds of distillers grains (DG; i wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg, ii dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg, iii dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis, respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05 in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05 in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3 can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i Control (total mixed ration, TMR, ii WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis, and iii WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis. With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg, WDG 10% (9.21 kg and 20% (8.86 kg and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0, WDG 10% (13.2 and 20% (12.1 did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up to 20

  16. Method of distilling solid materials, such as shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramen, A

    1917-09-04

    A method of distilling compact materials, such as shales, containing volatile matter, is characterized by heating the material in an oven or other apparatus or in a section or zone of same in the presence of some condensable gas (such as steam) which is indifferent to the vapors distillated during the heating of the material. The gas together with these products is conducted through a condensation apparatus, containing water or some other liquid, where the volatile matters are condensed. The steam which is produced in the gas regenerator is, after preheating, forced through the hot remaining residue from the distillation either in the same retort or in another retort in order to heat further this residue for the purpose of making it possible for the steam, by being forced through freshly charged material in the first oven or apparatus to bring about its distillation. The patent contains ten additional claims.

  17. Separation of H-D mixtures by cryogenic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yangming; Gu Mei; Wang Heyi; Liu Jun; Fu Zhonghua; Xia Xiulong; Liu Yunnu; Weng Kuiping; Xie Bo; Ren Xingbi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, separation of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures were performed on a cryogenic distillation apparatus. The results show that the D/H ratio in the reboiler reduced to 1.27x10 -2 at 120h with a flow flux of 5mol/h of the gas mixture in D/H ratio of 1.4xl0 -4 . The enrichment effect increased apparently with D/H ratio of the feeding gas. However, the deuterium content in the top of distillation column increased with the deuterium content in the reboiler, and the de-deuterium efficiencies decreased. In the full reflux experiment, the de-deuterium efficiency increased with heating power of the reboiler, and the inside pressure in the distillation column increased, too. It was necessary that suitable heating power should be chosen in order to control operation pressure in the cryogenic distillation process. (authors)

  18. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use of...

  19. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... departure of the aircraft, and the brand, kind, and quantity of distilled spirits or wines. Where the... shall be retained by the airline. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  20. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    distillation technology for essential oil production is proposed for small scale industrial entrepreneur. ... economic transition like Japan china, India,. Korea is a case in .... foreign currency. ... cost of investment and the quality have a direct.

  1. Molten salt extractive distillation process for zirconium-hafnium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for zirconium-hafnium separation. It utilizes an extractive distillation column with a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides introduced into a distillation column having a top and bottom with hafnium enriched overheads taken from the top of the column and a molten salt solvent circulated through the column to provide a liquid phase, and with molten salt solvent containing zirconium chloride being taken from the bottom of the distillation column. The improvements comprising: utilizing a molten salt solvent consisting principally of lithium chloride and at least one of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium chlorides; stripping of the zirconium chloride taken from the bottom of the distillation column by electrochemically reducing zirconium from the molten salt solvent; and utilizing a pressurized reflux condenser on the top of the column to add the hafnium chloride enriched overheads to the molten salt solvent previously stripped of zirconium chloride

  2. Irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a class of symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M.; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a symmetric (d+1)-parameter family of mixed bipartite quantum states acting on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary dimension dxd. We prove that in this family the entanglement cost is generically strictly larger than the distillable entanglement, so that the set of states for which the distillation process is asymptotically reversible is of measure zero. This remains true even if the distillation process is catalytically assisted by pure-state entanglement and every operation is allowed, which preserves the positivity of the partial transpose. It is shown that reversibility occurs only in cases where the state is a tagged mixture. The reversible cases are shown to be completely characterized by minimal uncertainty vectors for entropic uncertainty relations

  3. Energy savings in distillation via identification of useful configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vishesh Hemanshu

    Recent market and environmental forces require the rapid development of better and cheaper separation process solutions. Especially for multicomponent mixtures, there are several feasible separation process solutions differing significantly in cost and energy consumption in spite of carrying out the same overall process. Therefore a systematic method to identify and design optimal multicomponent separation sequences is needed instead of relying on the inventive activity of a few experienced engineers. Even for a commonly perceived "mature" technology such as distillation, until recently there has been an absence of systematic methods to (i) elucidate all possible separation configurations and to (ii) identify energy efficient candidates. This research aims to address these needs. In this work, we focus on the continuous distillation of non-azeotropic mixtures into n distinct composition final product streams. We develop a computationally efficient and easy-to-use mathematical framework to generate all the basic distillation configurations that use exactly (n-1) distillation columns to carry out this n-component separation. We extend the framework to generate all the additional distillation configurations with thermal coupling. We observe that the search space of distillation configurations grows very rapidly as the number of product streams increases. For instance, for a mixture to be separated into 4 product streams, we can choose from 18 basic configurations and 134 additional configurations with thermal coupling; while for a mixture to be separated into 8 product streams, we can choose from 15,767,207 basic configurations and 29,006,926,681 additional configurations with thermal coupling. The next challenge for a process engineer is to be able to quickly prune the search space to a handful of attractive energy efficient candidates that can be studied in greater detail. To this effect, we develop a quick screening optimization tool that identifies configurations

  4. Distiller's Grains for Dairy Cattle and Potential Environmental Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Stallings, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    Describes how distiller's grain's with solubles (DDGS) are produced, covers their protein, fat or oil and phosphorous quantity and quality, provides recommendations for use as feed for dairy cattle, as well as recommendations to minimize environmental impacts.

  5. EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

  6. Fractional Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Some properties of the fractional Schroedinger equation are studied. We prove the Hermiticity of the fractional Hamilton operator and establish the parity conservation law for fractional quantum mechanics. As physical applications of the fractional Schroedinger equation we find the energy spectra of a hydrogenlike atom (fractional 'Bohr atom') and of a fractional oscillator in the semiclassical approximation. An equation for the fractional probability current density is developed and discussed. We also discuss the relationships between the fractional and standard Schroedinger equations

  7. Logic hybrid simulation-optimization algorithm for distillation design

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Suárez, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for the rigorous design of distillation columns that integrates a process simulator in a generalized disjunctive programming formulation. The optimal distillation column, or column sequence, is obtained by selecting, for each column section, among a set of column sections with different number of theoretical trays. The selection of thermodynamic models, properties estimation etc., are all in the simulation environment. All the numerical issues relat...

  8. DYNAMIC SIMULATION AND FUZZY CONTROL OF A CONTINUOUS DISTILLATION COLUMN

    OpenAIRE

    Arbildo López, A.; Lombira Echevarría, J.; Osario López, l.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is the study of the dinamic simulation and fuzzy control of a multicomponent continuous distillation column. In this work, the mathematical model of the distillation column and the computing program for the simulation are described. Also, the structure and implementation of the fuzzy controller are presentad. Finally, the results obtained using this programare compared with those reported in the scientific literature for different mixtures. El objetivo de nuestra...

  9. Solvent distillation studies for a purex reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Guillaume, B.

    1990-01-01

    A distillation system has been developed for regeneration of Purex solvent and will be implemented for the first time in a reprocessing plant. The results are described and analyzed, with emphasis on laboratory experiments which were made with a radioactive plant solvent. Particularly the distillation provides a good separation of solvent degradation products, which was verified by measurements of interfacial tension and plutonium or ruthenium retention. 16 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Meadow based Fraction Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.

  11. Exergy Rate Profile of Multicomponent Distillation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adewale Adesina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exergy rate profiles, exergetic efficiency and irreversibility were used to examine the driving forces in multicomponent distillation system with the view to identifying feasible and efficient operating parameters. The mixture used comprised of 5% propane, 15% iso-butane, 25% nbutane, 20% iso-pentane and 35% n-pentane. Operating variables were feed temperature (-30 oC and -80 oC, pressure (800 kPa and 1200 kPa, and reflux-ratio (2 and 6. Stage-by-stage system exergy analysis was estimated. Column profiles of base case -30 oC, -80 oC, -30 oC-reflus ratio 6, -80 oC reflux ratio 6 and base case reflux ratio 6 did not crossed thus are thermodynamically feasible. Base case -30 oC-reflux ratio 2, -80 oC-reflux ratio 2, and base case-reflux ratio 2 were crossed and constricted and are infeasible. Base case results gave efficiency of 81.7% at depropanizer and 65.2% at debutanizer. Base cases sensitivity results with -30 oC, -80 oC and reflux ratio 6, efficiency range 57.40 – 70% and 65.20% - 54.90% for depropanizer and debutanizer respectively. Spitted cases gave 81.7% and 62.20% with more scatter profiles. Splitted feed base case -30 oC design gave the lowest overall system exergy loss rate of 1.12E+6 and efficiency of 95.70%. Design feasible parameters, system efficiency and irreversibility which form basis

  12. Distillation principes de calcul et de contrôle Distillation. Engineering and Control Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trambouze P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les principes de base utilisés lors de la conception et de la conduite des colonnes à distiller continues ou discontinues. Dans cet exposé d'initiation le cas des mélanges binaires est seul considéré de manière à ne pas compliquer inutilement la présentation. Par contre pour conserver à cette étude un aspect pratique, la dernière partie est consacrée aux problèmes technologiques et aux principales solutions mises en oeuvre. This article describes the basic principles used in designing and operating columns for continuous or batch distillation. The case of binary mixtures is the only one considered so as not to uselessly complicate the description. However, so as to mointain the practical nature of this study, the last part is devoted to technological problems and to the main solutions applied to them.

  13. Design and construction of a Fresnel linear distiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saettone, E.

    2014-01-01

    It was designed a Fresnel linear distiller based on optical calculations obtained from taking into account Lima's latitude value, Earth inclination angle and heat absorber cavity's dimensions. The 5.6 m 2 reflective surface concentrator of the distiller was constructed with 32 plane rectangular mirrors; the heat absorber cavity was made with a rectangular blackened aluminum tube 1 m long and installed 2.5 m over the plane of mirrors. The Fresnel linear distiller was installed at the University of Lima and experimental tests were performed during no cloudy summer days. There were measured ambient temperature, heat absorber cavity temperature, radiant flux and fresh water volume. From this, it was obtained a production of 0.89 liters/hour and 0.79 L/m 2 , and it was calculated a total performance of 34.5% in desalting sea water. Finally, it is presented a comparison between Fresnel linear distiller (FLD) and parabolic trough distiller (PTD) with similar dimensions and characteristics. It is obtained that the last one produced almost 32% more fresh water than the former, but at the same time, the FLD is almost 20% cheaper than PTD. However, water cost production with both distillers using is almost the same. (author)

  14. A review of the FT distillate pathway in GHGenius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) distillates products are now used throughout the world as a commercial fuel. However, lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from FT distillates fuels are higher than diesel fuel produced from crude oil. This paper provided details of a lifecycle analysis of FT distillates pathways created for GHGenius, a model used to analyze emissions from a variety of combustion sources. The study examined values reported in tests conducted by major oil and gas operators and described the conversion technologies typically used at FT distillates production facilities. Summaries of reports on FT distillates emissions were also provided. Three primary factors were identified that contributed to different results reported for FT distillates emissions: (1) the efficiency of the conversion process; (2) the allocation procedure used in the conventional oil refinery for the emissions of individual products; and (3) the emissions associated with natural gas production. The GHGenius model was used to quantify the impact of the 3 main factors. An alternative system expansion methodology was used to compare crude oil diesel pathways with a high efficiency, low gas leak scenario in order to achieve high values reported by some oil and gas operators. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  16. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  17. Wine distillates: practical operating recipe formulation for stills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Daniel; Pérez-Correa, J Ricardo; Biegler, Lorenz T; Agosin, Eduardo

    2005-08-10

    Consumer perceptions of flavors are associated with the chemical composition of foods. However, consumer preferences change; therefore, it is necessary for food manufacturers to be able to adapt their products. Unlike in aged spirits, the chemical composition of young spirits is determined during distillation; therefore, this is where distillers must tailor their operating recipes to the new trends. Even for an experienced distiller, the complexity of the process makes adapting the operating recipe far from straightforward. In this study, we developed a methodology for generating practical recipes that makes use of computer simulations and optimization techniques. We used Pisco Brandy, a young Muscat wine distillate from Chile and Peru as our case study. Even so, because our methodology is independent of the chemical composition of the broth, it can be applied throughout the industry. Drawing on the experience and preferences of industry enologists, we designed a preferred distillate and used our methodology to obtain the appropriate recipe. This recipe was validated in lab scale experiments, and we obtained a much closer distillate to the desired prescription than commercial products.

  18. Teaching and learning distillation in chemistry laboratory courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Hanno; Mulder, Theo H. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H.

    This study investigates the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Using an interpretive cyclic research design, we collected and interpreted data, mainly in the form of observation notes and transcriptions of the discourse that takes place during laboratory courses. It was found that students experience numerous problems; these are described and interpreted. We summarize students' problems in four categories: (a) students use an independent component conception; (b) they have insufficient understanding of the properties of vapor; (c) they regard distillation from a physical point of view; and (d) they do not have a practical understanding of thermodynamics. The main origin of these problems was found to lie with the traditional curriculum structure. Lecture courses and textbooks treat distillation in a generalized and decontextualized way, whereas decisions in actual distillations are always based on contextual features. It was found that textbooks and teachers often do not discriminate carefully and explicitly among five different contexts for distillation: organic synthesis, chemical analysis, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, and preparation of products. Students take the generalized concepts at face value and apply them to all distillations regardless of context. They cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical framework of a specific context.Received: 2 May 1994; Revised: 14 December 1994;

  19. Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  20. Pilot Scale Distillation and Characterization of Diesel Fuel Fractions of Strategic Petroleum Reserve Crude Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    X FMP~ P"IFI~ 0.61OZ .511 C~~f" Ul5m -5. - WP 01P2M WI: fta .or 77, POOMP P.I...-3UleF4 013 £pp ’Ifff 3 0=7@IP 130 󈨞,001AAs.. i1 99 -Ef-FP430W...SUPPORT US ARMY EUROPE & SEVENTH ARMY COMMAND ATTN: AEAGG- FMD I ATTN: AMSTR-ME AEAGD-TE 1 A MSTR-S APO NY 09403 AMSTR-E AMSTR-WL (MR BRADLEY) I CDR 4300

  1. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Analysis of Factors Affecting Its Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce A.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly to form a complete water recovery system for future missions. A preliminary chemical process simulation was previously developed using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM), but it could not simulate thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. This paper describes modifications to the ACM simulation of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version can be used to model thermal startup and predicts the total energy consumption of the CDS. The simulation has been validated for both NaC1 solution and pretreated urine feeds and no longer requires retuning when operating parameters change. The simulation was also used to predict how internal processes and operating conditions of the CDS affect its performance. In particular, it is shown that the coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric heat pump used to provide heating and cooling for the CDS is the largest factor in determining CDS efficiency. Intrastage heat transfer affects CDS performance indirectly through effects on the coefficient of performance.

  2. THE EFFECT OF DISTILLATE STORING DISTILLED FROM FRUCTOSE SYRUPS TOWARD ITS ACETALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION MEASURED BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Monica Sianita Basukiwardojo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetaldehyde is a compound of aldehyde group that is very volatile and toxic. This compound can be found in fructose syrups used in carbonate beverages. The syrups had been distilled then analysed using gas chromatography. The concentration of acetaldehyde was 289.78 g/g in the distillates kept for one week, 295.30 g/g in those kept for two weeks, 429.45 g/g in those kept for three weeks, and 449.38 g/g in those kept for four weeks. The optimum column temperature was programmed with initial temperature of 40 oC held on for four minutes, then increasing by 40 oC/minute to 200 oC. It can be concluded that the longer the distillates have been kept, the greater the concentration of acetaldehyde in the distillates. A further research to investigate the present of microbe in the distillates and the effect of pH should be conducted   Keywords: acetaldehyde, fructose syrup, distillates, gas chromatography.

  3. Measurement of the τ leptonic branching fractions in DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, M.

    1994-11-01

    Preliminary measurements of the τ leptonic branching fractions from the DELPHI experiment at LEP are presented. The analysis is based on about 25000 Z o →τ + τ - events observed in 1991 and 1992. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Petroleum distillates suppress in vitro metabolic activation: higher [S-9] required in the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, J H; Machado, M L; MacGregor, J A

    1985-01-01

    To determine if standard conditions used in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay could reliably screen complex petroleum samples, two high-boiling (700-1,070 degrees F) distillates and their separated aromatic fractions were tested. The initial mutagenic activities were inconsistent with the samples' known polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents and observed potencies in a dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. A significant mutagenic response was observed only at S-9 concentrations 5 to 10 times higher than those used in the standard assay, supporting the use of elevated levels of S-9 in the Salmonella/microsome assay to assess the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials. All four samples masked the expected mutagenic activity of added PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene and perylene). Data suggested that petroleum distillates suppress the functional efficacy of the S-9; possible mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Fouling mitigation in membrane distillation processes during ammonia stripping from pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarebska, Agata; Amor, Angel Cid; Ciurkot, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Over time fouling leads to membrane wetting. This is the biggest obstacle to widespread use of membrane distillation (MD) for ammonia removal from animal slurry. Feed pretreatment and cleaning strategies of membrane surfaces are the most common methods to prevent or diminish fouling phenomena....... This study investigates preliminary fouling of polypropylene (PP) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes. A model manure solution was used as feed. In addition cleaning efficiencies with deionized water, NaOH/citric acid, and Novadan agents were studied. Further microfiltration and ultrafiltration were...... examined as manure pretreatment to diminish fouling. To this end polyvinylidene fluoride membranes (PVDF 0.2 µm and 150 kDa respectively) were used. Organic fouling was shown to be dominant. For the model manure solution the fouling comprised lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. For pig slurry the fouling...

  6. Characteristics analysis of salt vacuum distillation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Hun Suk; Oh, Seung Chul; Hong, Sun Seok; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Hyo Jik

    2016-01-01

    A new technique for pyroprocessing was designed by adding an oxide reduction process to the previous one. It is regarded as a promising process to treat and recycle oxide spent fuels owing to its enhanced nuclear proliferation resistance and the simplified process equipment and the low process costing. Spent oxide fuel is reduced into a metal by an electrochemical method while using a high-temperature molten salt as the reaction medium. After being subjected to electrorefining and electrowinning processes, the reduced metal fuel can be used in sodium-cooled fast reactors. The salt vacuum distillation process termed cathode processing follows the oxide reduction stage and has been developed to remove the residual salt, allowing for clear fuel metal to be supplied to the next step, which is electrorefining. KAERI has manufactured this apparatus in several sizes and has been able to achieve a fuel recovery rate of 95%. However it is very difficult to scale up the equipment. Because all transport phenomena, including heat transfer and fluid flow, depend on the size and structure of the apparatus used. The ideal method for overcoming this issue is nondimensionalization, which allows one to determine the characteristic properties of a system. A comparison of the dimensionless variables corresponding to the M-type and P-type apparatuses performed on the basis of phase-transition phenomena as well as the results of the above-mentioned analysis elucidated the differences between the two apparatuses. It also means that the structure of the nozzle throat can be the one of the several causes for the recovery performance. First, the standard model (i.e., the M-type apparatus) was analyzed using dimensionless parameters. The characteristics of this apparatus were the following: 1) the diameter of the outlet of the nozzle throat was twice that of the inlet, 2) the ratio of the length to the diameter (L/D) was 8, and 3) the modified heat-transfer factor was 220-270. It indicates

  7. Characteristics analysis of salt vacuum distillation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Hun Suk; Oh, Seung Chul; Hong, Sun Seok; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Hyo Jik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A new technique for pyroprocessing was designed by adding an oxide reduction process to the previous one. It is regarded as a promising process to treat and recycle oxide spent fuels owing to its enhanced nuclear proliferation resistance and the simplified process equipment and the low process costing. Spent oxide fuel is reduced into a metal by an electrochemical method while using a high-temperature molten salt as the reaction medium. After being subjected to electrorefining and electrowinning processes, the reduced metal fuel can be used in sodium-cooled fast reactors. The salt vacuum distillation process termed cathode processing follows the oxide reduction stage and has been developed to remove the residual salt, allowing for clear fuel metal to be supplied to the next step, which is electrorefining. KAERI has manufactured this apparatus in several sizes and has been able to achieve a fuel recovery rate of 95%. However it is very difficult to scale up the equipment. Because all transport phenomena, including heat transfer and fluid flow, depend on the size and structure of the apparatus used. The ideal method for overcoming this issue is nondimensionalization, which allows one to determine the characteristic properties of a system. A comparison of the dimensionless variables corresponding to the M-type and P-type apparatuses performed on the basis of phase-transition phenomena as well as the results of the above-mentioned analysis elucidated the differences between the two apparatuses. It also means that the structure of the nozzle throat can be the one of the several causes for the recovery performance. First, the standard model (i.e., the M-type apparatus) was analyzed using dimensionless parameters. The characteristics of this apparatus were the following: 1) the diameter of the outlet of the nozzle throat was twice that of the inlet, 2) the ratio of the length to the diameter (L/D) was 8, and 3) the modified heat-transfer factor was 220-270. It indicates

  8. Use of refractometry to determine fraction content to 175/sup 0/ in raw coking-chemical benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasak, K

    1980-01-01

    Fraction content to 175/sup 0/C, one of the main quality indicators for benzene, is usually determined via distillation, which requires considerable time and effort. In order to determine this fraction use of refractive index is suggested, using an Abbe or Meopta type refractometer. The refractive index for this fraction is considerably lower than in distillation residue, which contains naphthalene, indene, and higher-boiling compounds. This paper describes technique, calibration curves, and results characterizing accuracy of test, comprising + or - 0.5%.

  9. Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Special Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions.

  10. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  11. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first

  12. Synthesis of Faujasite from Fly Ash and its Applications for Hydrocracking of Petroleum Distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarno Sutarno

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of faujasite from fly ash and its application for hydrocracking catalyst of heavy petroleum distillates have been performed. Faujasite was synthesized from fly ash by hydrothermal reaction in alkaline solution via combination of reflux pretreatment of fly ash with HCl and fusion with NaOH. The preparation of nickel containing catalysts by ion exchange method under similar initial concentration of nickel resulted higher amount of nickel loaded on faujasite than those on zeolite Y, however, the structural damage of faujasite was higher than those of zeolite Y. In the hydrocracking of heavy petroleum distillates over Ni-faujasite and Ni-zeolite Y catalysts, the conversion of heavy gas oil fraction was the most pronounced. The selectivity toward hydrocarbons in the range of gasoline and kerosene obtained over Ni-faujasite catalyst was lower compared to those of Ni-zeolite Y reference catalyst. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: S. Sutarno, Y. Arryanto. (2007. Synthesis of Faujasite from Fly Ash and its Applications for Hydrocracking of Petroleum Distillates. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 45-51.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.9.45-51][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.9.45-51 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/9][Cited by: Scopus 1 | ScienceAsia |

  13. Development of a pilot molecular distillation unit; Desenvolvimento de unidade de destilacao molecular nacional e aplicacao na avaliacao de petroleos extrapesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Erica Roberta Lovo da; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Batistella, Cesar Benedito [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Medina, Lilian Carmem [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the importance and the need in studies with heavy and extra heavy petroleums and their residues, it was designed and built up by the oil research group of LOPCA/LDPS/FEQ/UNICAMP, in partnership with the Laboratory of Valuation Processes of CENPES / PETROBRAS, a pilot plant of falling film molecular distiller (national prototype), where some specific operational facilities were introduced. This project resulted in a suitable system for distillation of products of high molecular weight and thermally sensitive, without degradation of them. This work aims the achievement of distillate fractions of atmospheric residue 400 deg C+, using the new molecular distillation equipment. The experiments were carried out according to factorial design to assess the significant process variables in the molecular distillation prototype. The results showed that the evaporator temperature has high influence on the process and the feed flow rate has minimum influence, as it is desired. Additionally, the equipment showed easy handing operation, high operational stability and results varying around 1%. (author)

  14. Evaluation of high pressure Freon decontamination. I. Preliminary tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1983-01-01

    High-pressure Freon blasting techniques are being evaluated for applications involving the removal of non-adherent radioactive particulate contamination at SRP. Very little waste is generated by this technique because the used Freon can be easily distilled and reused. One of the principle advantages of this technique is that decontaminated electrical equipment can be returned to service immediately without drying, unlike high-pressure water blasting techniques. Preliminary scoutin tests evaluating high-pressure Freon blasting for decontamination at SRP were carried out at Quadrex Co., Oak Ridge, TN, October 12 and 13. DWPF-type contamination (raw sludge plus volatiles) and separations area-type contamination (diluted boiling point (47.6 0 C) allow it to rapidly separate from higher boiling contaminants via distillation with filtration to remove particulate material, and distillation with condensation, the solvent may be recovered for indefinite reuse while reducing the radioactive waste to a minimum. 3 references, 5 figures, 6 tables

  15. Economical investigation of solar water distillation in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakr, I A; Khalil, M A; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Many ways of solar water distillation have been suggested but most of them are either too expensive or only a practical solution to different processes under investigation. Solar heat distillation has a bright future because the greatest potential needs appear to be in those sections where the availability of solar energy is high and the availability of potable water is low as in our Egyptian deserts where the solar intensity has a yearly mean value of about 6000 kcal/(m/sup 2/day). The solar distillation method has a number of economic characteristics which are different from other sea water conversion methods, including: The processing equipment is very simple and results in low equipment costs. No special skills are required for both erection and operation. It can be used with saline water of wide range of salt concentration. The still design is essentially modular, and can be made to meet any desired capacity. Scale formation and corrosion are minor problems as compared with other methods. Power requirements are negligible. The cost of unit construction is not markedly influenced by the size of the still. The lack of quantitative and operative data of solar water distillation techniques with respect to their cost needs in investigation from the economical standpoint of view in Egypt. The subject of this work is to find the order of magnitude of the fresh water cost by solar distillation.

  16. Improvement of Egyptian vacuum distillates by urea dewaxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehssan M.R. Nassef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dewaxing of paraffinic lube stocks is an essential step in the production of lubricants to improve the operability of machines especially in winter. The present work deals with study of the urea dewaxing process of two types of Egyptian vacuum distillates. The effect of different compositions of methanol to water saturated with urea and yield of the oil, percent of wax, pour point, refractive index, viscosity, viscosity index and specific gravity of the oil produced from the two types of distillates (I and II were evaluated. The operating conditions of the urea adduct formation with n-paraffins using methanol to water mixture achieved the best pour point at −3.88 °C from an initial temperature of 4.4 °C for distillate I at (25/75 methanol to water. At the same ratio of methanol to water the best specific gravity of oil produced changed from 0.865 to 0.867, with viscosity index of 80. Percent yield of 50% for oil and percent wax of 50% were obtained. Results for distillate II, of higher specific gravity, are comparatively higher than those for distillate I. Experiments were carried out at room temperature.

  17. Removal of salt from rare earth precipitates by vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hee-Chul; Eun, Hee-Chul; Cho, Yong-Zun; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the distillation rates of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the rare earth (RE) precipitates originating from the oxygen-sparging RE precipitation process. The first part study investigated distillation rates of eutectic salt under different vacuums at high temperatures by using thermo-gravimetric furnace system. The second part study tested the removal efficiency of eutectic salt from RE precipitates by using the laboratory vacuum distillation furnace system. Investigated variables were the temperature, the degree of vacuum and the time. Salt distillation operation with a moderated distillation rate of 10 -4 - 10 -5 mole sec -1 cm -2 is possible at temperature less than 1300 K and vacuums of 5-50 Torr, by minimizing the potentials of the RE particle entrainment. An increase in the vaporizing surface area is relatively effective for removing the residual salt in pores of bulk of the precipitated RE particles, when compared to that for the vaporizing time. Over 99.9% of the salt removal from the salt-RE precipitate mixture could be achieved by increasing the vaporizing surface area under moderate vacuum conditions of 50 Torr at 1200 K. (author)

  18. Sample distillation/graphitization system for carbon pool analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlman, J.W.; Knies, D.L.; Grabowski, K.S.; DeTurck, T.M.; Treacy, D.J.; Coffin, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    A facility at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, DC, has been developed to extract, trap, cryogenically distill and graphitize carbon from a suite of organic and inorganic carbon pools for analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The system was developed to investigate carbon pools associated with the formation and stability of methane hydrates. However, since the carbon compounds found in hydrate fields are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, this apparatus is applicable to a number of oceanographic and environmental sample types. Targeted pools are dissolved methane, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), solid organic matrices (e.g., seston, tissue and sediments), biomarkers and short chained (C 1 -C 5 ) hydrocarbons from methane hydrates. In most instances, the extraction, distillation and graphitization events are continuous within the system, thus, minimizing the possibility of fractionation or contamination during sample processing. A variety of methods are employed to extract carbon compounds and convert them to CO 2 for graphitization. Dissolved methane and DIC from the same sample are sparged and cryogenically separated before the methane is oxidized in a high temperature oxygen stream. DOC is oxidized to CO 2 by 1200 W ultraviolet photo-oxidation lamp, and solids oxidized in sealed, evacuated tubes. Hydrocarbons liberated from the disassociation of gas hydrates are cryogenically separated with a cryogenic temperature control unit, and biomarkers separated and concentrated by preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC). With this system, up to 20 samples, standards or blanks can be processed per day

  19. Development of conversion efficient processes for +525[degree]C pitch to low boiling distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, R.N.

    1992-10-22

    Catalytic hydroprocessing of Esso pitch (+525[degree]C fraction) was investigated using a continuous reactor system at various operating conditions. The catalysts studied included ZnCl[sub 2], SnCl[sub 4], SiO[sub 2], Ni/W, Co/Mo, Zn/Cr, and H[sub 3]PO[sub 4]/SiO[sub 2]. The catalysts were characterized by surface area and acidity measurements. The gas and liquid products were collected and analyzed, and results are presented. The work demonstrates the effectiveness of a continuous flash hydropyrolysis process for the conversion of petroleum residuals to low boiling distillates. It has been found that in the presence of ZnCl[sub 2] catalyst, conversions up to 92% can be obtained under relatively moderate conditions of temperature and hydrogen pressure. The formation of gaseous products is less than 5 wt %. The favorable conditions of operation, a reduction in sulfur content, increase in H/C ratio, and a significant yield of low boiling distillates is obtained. The process variables, such as temperature, hydrogen pressure, and liquid residence times influence product yield and quality. Coke formation was almost negligible even under conditions of high pitch conversion. A review of various techniques of pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of materials such as coal, bitumen, and heavy oil is included. 198 refs., 46 figs., 40 tabs.

  20. Exergy Analysis of Air-Gap Membrane Distillation Systems for Water Purification Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Woldemariam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Exergy analyses are essential tools for the performance evaluation of water desalination and other separation systems, including those featuring membrane distillation (MD. One of the challenges in the commercialization of MD technologies is its substantial heat demand, especially for large scale applications. Identifying such heat flows in the system plays a crucial role in pinpointing the heat loss and thermal integration potential by the help of exergy analysis. This study presents an exergetic evaluation of air-gap membrane distillation (AGMD systems at a laboratory and pilot scale. A series of experiments were conducted to obtain thermodynamic data for the water streams included in the calculations. Exergy efficiency and destruction for two different types of flat-plate AGMD were analyzed for a range of feed and coolant temperatures. The bench scale AGMD system incorporating condensation plate with more favorable heat conductivity contributed to improved performance parameters including permeate flux, specific heat demand, and exergy efficiency. For both types of AGMD systems, the contributions of the major components involved in exergy destruction were identified. The result suggested that the MD modules caused the highest fraction of destructions followed by re-concentrating tanks.