Sample records for preliminary flume experiments

  1. A curved flume bed-load experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; Marsman, E.R.A.


    In this report the results of a bed-load experiment in a curved flume are presented. The experiments have been carried out in the Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics (L.F.M.) at the Delft University of Technology. The main object of the experiments is to develop and to test data-acquisition procedures for

  2. Evaluation of Bed Load Transport Formulas Using Flume Experiments (United States)

    Cashman, E. M.; Smith, B.; Sorenson, C.; Gayheart, J.


    The ability to model sediment transport is a critical assessment tool for forest management of water quality, endangered fisheries and downstream communities. The analysis of sediment transport is especially relevant on the North Coast of California. The economy of the region is heavily dependent upon the production of wood products and the extensive ownership and activity of forest product companies has led to substantial controversy over the effects of forest management on other resources. In this research, an experimental flume has been used to evaluate bed load transport formulas based on sediment size distributions appropriate to Coastal watersheds in Northern California. The intended outcome of this research project is to verify the total sediment transport equation used in mathematical modeling of sediments in this particular model (KINEROS2) to ensure that the most appropriate equation is being used for modeling sediment load in the North Coast Region. This analysis is critical to improve the physical and numerical models of sediment transport and extend this type of analysis to other Northern California watersheds. The flume experiments are being conducted in a research quality sediment transport flume at the College of Natural Resources and Sciences at Humboldt State University. The open channel flow laboratory flume is capable of simulation of open channel flows, sediment transport, flow through floodplains and unsteady flow over in-stream structures such as sediment traps and weirs. The flume is 40 feet long and 2.5 feet wide, with two-foot high sidewalls. There is a storage tank for water that runs under the flume, and water is recirculated through the tank and down the flume by several pumps. A headworks tank with baffling allows the water to enter at the top of the flume. At maximum output the flow is approximately 550 gpm and about 6 inches high. The slope on the flume can be adjusted from 0 to 6%. Instrumentation on the flume includes flow meters

  3. Using Flume Experiments to Model Large Woody Debris Transport Dynamics (United States)

    Braudrick, C. A.; Grant, G. E.


    In the last decade there has been increasing interest in quantifying the transport dynamics of large woody debris in a variety of stream types. We used flume experiments to test theoretical models of wood entrainment, transport, and deposition in streams. Because wood moves infrequently during high flows where direct measurement and observation can be difficult and dangerous. Flume experiments provide an excellent setting to study wood dynamics because channel types, flow, log size, and other parameters can be varied relatively easily and extensive data can be collected over a short time period. Our flume experiments verified theoretical model predictions that piece movement is dependent on the diameter of the log and its orientation in large rivers (where piece length is less than channel width). Piece length, often reported as the most important factor in determining piece movement in field studies, was not a factor in these simulated large channels. This is likely due to the importance of banks and vegetation on inhibiting log movement in the field, particularly for pieces longer than channel width. Logs are often at least partially lodged on the banks sometimes upstream of vegetation or other logs which anchors the piece, and increases the force required for entrainment. Rootwads also increased the flow depth required to move individual logs. By raising logs off the channel bed, rootwads decrease the buoyant and drag forces acting on the log. We also developed a theoretical model of wood transport and deposition based upon the ratios of the piece length to channel width, piece length to the radius of curvature of the channel, and piece diameter to water depth. In these experiments we noted that individual logs tend to move down the channel parallel to the channel margin, and deposited on the outside of bends, heads of shallow and exposed bars, and bar crossovers. Our theoretical model was not borne out by the experiments, likely because there were few potential

  4. Hydralab+: Representing timescales of biological change in flume experiments (United States)

    Baynes, Edwin; McLelland, Stuart; Parsons, Daniel


    Fluvial environments are vulnerable to future climate change due to non-linear responses to shifts in boundary conditions such as a migration to a hydrological regime characterised by more frequent extreme events. The biological component of these systems is critical for understanding the morphodynamic responses since organisms are often at the interface between water and sediment transport systems. Under a changing climate, the growth or decline of a particular species may change the flow dynamics and/or sediment transport. Hence, flume experiments that seek to accurately model the impact of climate change on the morphodynamics of sedimentary systems should consider the interaction between organisms and climate-induced changes in hydrodynamic forcing. This requires the ability to control and/or mimic biological components within flume experiments on timescales that are compatible with climate change forcing. Here, we present a review of existing research covering morphodynamics-biological interactions in flume experiments. We consider the approaches implemented to scale organisms (e.g. small-scale or chemical surrogates) and how these can be used to represent variations in the biological component over different timescales. Disparities in the scaling of hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and biota using these existing approaches are identified. During Hydralab+, this review will form the basis to develop innovative experimental protocols to represent total system response to climate change within a laboratory setting (e.g. developing new surrogates that can capture biological responses to climate forcing and enable modelling of longer time periods and longer-term trends). This will allow an improved understanding of the impact of climate change to be developed and potentially guide future adaptation strategies.

  5. Deciphering landslide behavior using large-scale flume experiments (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Iverson, Richard M.; Iverson, Neal R.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Brien, Dianne L.; Logan, Matthew


    Landslides can be triggered by a variety of hydrologic events and they can exhibit a wide range of movement dynamics. Effective prediction requires understanding these diverse behaviors. Precise evaluation in the field is difficult; as an alternative we performed a series of landslide initiation experiments in the large-scale, USGS debris-flow flume. We systematically investigated the effects of three different hydrologic triggering mechanisms, including groundwater exfiltration from bedrock, prolonged rainfall infiltration, and intense bursts of rain. We also examined the effects of initial soil porosity (loose or dense) relative to the soil’s critical-state porosity. Results show that all three hydrologic mechanisms can instigate landsliding, but water pathways, sensor response patterns, and times to failure differ. Initial soil porosity has a profound influence on landslide movement behavior. Experiments using loose soil show rapid soil contraction during failure, with elevated pore pressures liquefying the sediment and creating fast-moving debris flows. In contrast, dense soil dilated upon shearing, resulting in slow, gradual, and episodic motion. These results have fundamental implications for forecasting landslide behavior and developing effective warning systems.

  6. Vertical sorting in bed forms: flume experiments with a natural and a trimodal sediment mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Astrid; Ribberink, Jan S.; Vriend, de Huib J.


    Two sets of flume experiments were conducted to examine grain size selective transport and vertical sorting in conditions with migrating bed forms and bed load transport. In the two sets of experiments we used a sediment mixture from the river Rhine and a trimodal mixture, respectively. The vertical

  7. Channel responses to varying sediment input: A flume experiment modeled after Redwood Creek, California (United States)

    Madej, M.A.; Sutherland, D.G.; Lisle, T.E.; Pryor, B.


    At the reach scale, a channel adjusts to sediment supply and flow through mutual interactions among channel form, bed particle size, and flow dynamics that govern river bed mobility. Sediment can impair the beneficial uses of a river, but the timescales for studying recovery following high sediment loading in the field setting make flume experiments appealing. We use a flume experiment, coupled with field measurements in a gravel-bed river, to explore sediment transport, storage, and mobility relations under various sediment supply conditions. Our flume experiment modeled adjustments of channel morphology, slope, and armoring in a gravel-bed channel. Under moderate sediment increases, channel bed elevation increased and sediment output increased, but channel planform remained similar to pre-feed conditions. During the following degradational cycle, most of the excess sediment was evacuated from the flume and the bed became armored. Under high sediment feed, channel bed elevation increased, the bed became smoother, mid-channel bars and bedload sheets formed, and water surface slope increased. Concurrently, output increased and became more poorly sorted. During the last degradational cycle, the channel became armored and channel incision ceased before all excess sediment was removed. Selective transport of finer material was evident throughout the aggradational cycles and became more pronounced during degradational cycles as the bed became armored. Our flume results of changes in bed elevation, sediment storage, channel morphology, and bed texture parallel those from field surveys of Redwood Creek, northern California, which has exhibited channel bed degradation for 30??years following a large aggradation event in the 1970s. The flume experiment suggested that channel recovery in terms of reestablishing a specific morphology may not occur, but the channel may return to a state of balancing sediment supply and transport capacity.

  8. A suspended-load experiment in a straight flume at Delft Hydraulics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.


    A suspended sediment transport experiment in a straight flume with a mobile bed is reported. The bed topography is non-horizontal. The flow is steady. Due to an obstruction in the entrance a steady bed oscillation is generated. The bed topography is measured by means of manual bed soundings (by Del

  9. The Science of Design in Flume Experiments: A Research Experience for Undergraduates at Humboldt State University (United States)

    Cashman, E.; Amoussou, G.; Calderon, J.; Castro, A.


    Humboldt State University hosted an NSF-sponsored Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) during the summer of 2005 entitled "The Science of Design". This REU was a joint venture between the Computer Science, Math and Environmental Resources Engineering Departments. Eight students participated in research projects including energy efficient building design, fish population modeling, design of computer code requirements and bedload transport flume experiments. The recruitment of students for this REU emphasized heavily the participation of underrepresented students in the sciences. As a result, five of the eight students were women, four of the eight students were non-white, and three of the eight students were first-generation college students. The research presented in this paper began as a proposal to evaluate models that are commonly used to predict bedload transport. Many of these models relate bedload transport to hydraulic variables such as water velocity, water depth and bed slope and sediment properties such as particle size and distribution. We used a laboratory flume to conduct controlled experiments to evaluate a select number of these mathematical models. The research evolved over the eight-week program and the students were only able to touch on the evaluation of bedload transport models using experimental data during the last week of the program. However, the students did collect valuable data from multiple runs and analyzed data for variability in bedload transport with respect to flow discharge, flow velocity, water depth and channel slope. A significant finding from their research is that there is large variation in bedload transport under constant hydraulic conditions. These results will be analyzed further by the advising faculty and other undergraduate students. The focus on the "Science of Design" enabled students to respond to experimental results and adjust their research so that the experience was educational and worthwhile for both

  10. A Liquid Metal Flume for Free Surface Magnetohydrodynamic Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nornberg, M.D.; Ji, H.; Peterson, J.L.; Rhoads, J.R.


    We present an experiment designed to study magnetohydrodynamic effects in free-surface channel flow. The wide aspect ratio channel (the width to height ratio is about 15) is completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidization of the liquid metal. A custom-designed pump reduces entrainment of oxygen, which was found to be a problem with standard centrifugal and gear pumps. Laser Doppler Velocimetry experiments characterize velocity profiles of the flow. Various flow constraints mitigate secondary circulation and end effects on the flow. Measurements of the wave propagation characteristics in the liquid metal demonstrate the surfactant effect of surface oxides and the damping of fluctuations by a cross-channel magnetic field.

  11. Flume experiments on scour downstream of wood stream restoration structures (United States)

    Pagliara, Stefano; Kurdistani, Sahameddin Mahmoudi


    River restoration aims to improve physical natural form and processes of a river. Techniques to control the riverbed, stabilize channel alignment, protect stream banks, and rebuild the natural habitat are an important part of river restoration projects. Rivers can be stabilized and habitat restored through techniques such as rebuilding meanders and pool-riffle sequences and managing large wood. Structures that limit channel width to accelerate the normal flows through the constricted section are referred to as stream deflectors. Single-wing, double-wing and triangular deflectors are the most commonly used types of this measure. Log-frame deflectors consist of a triangular log frame filled with rock. Deflector constructions singly or in series in low gradient meandering streams, divert base flows toward the center of the channel and, under certain conditions, increase the depth and velocity of flow thereby creating scour pools and enhancing fish habitat. Scour characteristics and morphologies downstream of log-frame deflectors have been analyzed at the hydraulic laboratory of the University of Pisa. All experiments have been carried out in clear water conditions. The results showed that the tailwater depth plays an important role on scour characteristics. In addition, it was experimentally proven that using log-frame deflectors instead of log-deflectors result in a better river bank protection. In this case, for all the tested hydraulic conditions, the scour hole never occurred close to the channel bank. Useful empirical relationships have been proposed in order to evaluate the main features of the scour geometry.

  12. Armor Development from Decapitated Flash Flood Bores in Supply-Limited Flume Experiments (United States)

    Goodwin, K.; Rhodes, R.; Johnson, J. P.


    In rivers assumed to have quasi-normal flow, three main processes have been used to explain bed surface armoring: i) selective entrainment and transport of smaller grains, ii) limited supply of smaller grain sizes, and iii) equal mobility of grains of different sizes, which develops through natural feedbacks such that larger, less mobile grains are enriched on the surface relative to smaller grains. Flash flood-dominated river channels in arid environments often completely lack surface armoring, yet it is unclear whether increased sediment supply or transport of all grain sizes prevents armor development. In order to examine armor development in an end-member case of non-normal flow, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments using flash flood bores. The flume is 33.5 m long, 0.5 m wide, 0.8 m tall, and capable of creating reproducible flood bores by raising a high-speed computerized lift gate and releasing impounded water. For each experiment, the gate was quickly lowered as soon as the flood bore traveled the length of the flume, 'decapitating' the bore from subsequent flow, to better isolate the effects of the bore alone on entrainment and transport. Sediment was not fed into the upstream end of the flume and only sourced from the gravel bed (2 mm to 40 mm), resulting in supply-limited experimental conditions. In response to repeated flood bores, the surface grain size distribution rapidly coarsened. We interpret that kinetic sieving was the dominant cause of surface armoring in these experiments. LiDAR scans of the bed topography from before and after each bore show increased surface roughness due to grain size changes, but small surface elevation changes due to relatively limited erosion. Digital gravelometry from photographs taken after each bore show increased armoring, while sediment transported out the downstream end of the flume tended to be as coarse or coarser than the bed surface. Travel distances of three sizes of RFID-tagged tracer clasts show

  13. Wave-flume experiments of soft-rock cliff erosion under monochromatic waves (United States)

    Regard, Vincent; Astruc, Dominique; Caplain, Bastien


    We investigate how cliffs erode under wave attack. Rocky coast erosion works through cycles, each one corresponding to three successive phases: (i) notch creation at cliff toe by mechanical action of waves, (ii) cliff fracturation leading to collapse, and (iii) evacuation of scree aprons by waves and currents. We performed experiments in a 5m x 14cm x 25cm wave flume (15 cm water depth) to investigate how waves are eroding a rocky coast. The cliff is made of wet sand and models a relatively soft rock. We used 3 different grain size (D50 = 0.28-0.41-0.48 mm), changing the cliff rheology. Waves are monochromatic; their height and period differ for the various experiments. Actual wave parameters are estimated by capacitive probes located offshore. The experiments are monitored by two video cameras both on the side and above the flume. Pictures are taken at a rate of 1Hz during the first 4h and then the rate is decreased to 0.1Hz till the end of experiment (about 1 day). The monitoring ensure a confident characterization of experiments in terms of waves (surf similarity parameter ξ and the incident wave energy flux F) and in terms of sediment (Dean number Ω and Shields number θb at breakers). Experiments begin by an initial phase of quick cliff retreat. Then the system evolves with slower cliff retreat. We focus on bottom morphology which we characterize in function of wave forcing (ξ, F). We show that the bottom morphology mainly depends on ξ. For our reference sediment (Dm = 0.41 mm), we observed: (i) surging breakers on a steep terrace (type T1) for ξ > 0.65; (ii)collapsing breakers on a bared profile attached to the inner platform (type T2) for 0.55< ξ <0.6; (iii) spilling breakers on gentle terrace (type T3) for F < 1.3 W/m and 0.55< ξ <0.6. Another bottom morphology, type T4, displays two sub-systems, an outer system with a double-bar profile where breaking waves are plunging, and an inner system with a T1, T2 or T3 profile. Some of these bottom

  14. Morphodynamics of semi-alluvial streams in northern Fennoscandia: a flume experiment to determine bedform self-organization (United States)

    Polvi, Lina


    Streams in northern Fennoscandia have two characteristics that complicate a process-based understanding of sediment transport affecting channel form: (1) they are typically semi-alluvial, in that they contain coarse glacial legacy sediment, and (2) numerous mainstem lakes buffer sediment and water fluxes. Systematic studies of these streams are complicated because natural reference sites are lacking due to over a century of widespread channel simplification to aid timber-floating. This research is part of a larger project to determine controls on channel geometry and sediment transport at: (1) the catchment scale, examining downstream hydraulic geometry, (2) the reach scale, examining sediment transport, and (3) the bedform scale, examining the potential for predictable bedform formation. The objective of the current study, targeting the bedform scale, was to use a flume experiment to determine whether sediment self-organizes and creates bedforms in semi-alluvial channels. The prototype channels, tributaries to the unregulated Vindel River in northern Sweden that are being restored after timber-floating, contain coarse sediment (D16: 55 mm, D50:250 mm, D84:620 mm) with moderately steep slopes (2-5%) and typically experience snowmelt-flooding and flooding due to ice jams. Using a scaling factor of 8 for Froude number similitude, an 8-m long, 1.1 m wide fixed-bed flume was set up at the Colorado State University Engineering Research Center with a scaled-down sediment distribution analogous to the prototype channels. For two flume setups, with bed slopes of 2% and 5%, four runs were conducted with flows analogous to QBF, Q2, Q10 and Q50 flows in the prototype channels until equilibrium conditions were reached. Digital elevation models (DEMs) of bed topography were constructed before and after each run using structure-from-motion photogrammetry. To examine self-organization of sediment, DEMs of difference between pre-flow conditions and after each flow were created

  15. Influences of Sediment Viscosity and Bed Slope on Transport and Deposition Characteristics of Debris flow in Flume Experiments (United States)

    Eu, Song; Li, Qiwen; Lee, Eunjai; Im, Sangjun


    Debris flow is a rapid flow of soil-water mixture along a confined channel. Implementing mitigation structures against debris flow, such as debris flow barrier or flexible net, is the widely used mitigation strategy to prevent the debris flow hazard. To design those structures enough to endure debris flow events, accurate estimation of flow behavior and hazardous area of debris flow is necessary. In this study, we conducted the small-scale flume experiments to analyze flow behavior and corresponding deposit characteristics according to the slope conditions of flume and viscosity of sediment mixture. In terms of flow characteristics of debris mixtures, there was a positive correlation between flow velocity and flume inclination while slower velocity was observed in higher viscosity of mixture. Results of flow depth, however, showed no significant difference along variation of flume angles and mixture viscosity. The deposit characteristics, including runout length and spreading width, showed a positive correlation with approaching flow velocity. The larger runout length and deposit width were observed in higher flow velocity, and runout length was more sensitive to the change of flow velocity compared to spreading width. (This study was carried out with the support of ´R&D Program for Forestry Technology (Project No. S211316L020110)´ provided by Korea Forest Service.)

  16. Flume experiments on wind induced flow in static water bodies in the presence of protruding vegetation (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha; Muste, Marian; Katul, Gabriel


    The problem of wind-induced flow in inland waters is drawing significant research attention given its relevance to a plethora of applications in wetlands including treatment designs, pollution reduction, and biogeochemical cycling. The present work addresses the role of wind induced turbulence and waves within an otherwise static water body in the presence of rigid and flexible emergent vegetation through flume experimentation and time series analysis. Because no prior example of Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) experiments involving air-water and flexible oscillating components have been found in the literature, a spectral analysis framework is needed and proposed here to guide the analysis involving noise, wave and turbulence separation. The experiments reveal that wave and turbulence effects are simultaneously produced at the air-water interface and the nature of their coexistence is found to vary with different flow parameters including water level, mean wind speed, vegetation density and its flexibility. For deep water levels, signature of fine-scaled inertial turbulence is found at deeper layers of the water system. The wave action appears stronger close to the air-water interface and damped by the turbulence deeper inside the water system. As expected, wave action is found to be dominated in a certain frequency range driven by the wind forcing, while it is also diffused to lower frequencies by means of (wind-induced) oscillations in vegetation. Regarding the mean water velocity, existence of a counter-current flow and its switching to fully forward flow in the direction of the wind under certain combinations of flow parameters were studied. The relative importance of wave and turbulence to the overall energy, degree of anisotropy in the turbulent energy components, and turbulent momentum transport at different depths from the air-water interface and flow combinations were then quantified. The flume experiments reported here differ from previous laboratory

  17. Video documentation of experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume 1992–2006 (amended to include 2007-2013) (United States)

    Logan, Matthew; Iverson, Richard M.


    This set of videos presents about 15 hours of footage documenting the 141 experiments conducted at the USGS debris-flow flume from 1992 to 2012. Owing to improvements in video technology over the years, the quality of footage from recent experiments generally exceeds that from earlier experiments. Use the list below to access the individual videos, which are grouped by year and listed by date and subject matter. When an experiment is selected from the list, multiple video sequences are automatically shown in succession, beginning with a far-field overview and proceeding to close-up views and post-experiment documentation. Interpretations and data from experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume are not provided here but can be found in published reports, many of which are available online at: A brief introduction to the flume facility is also available online in USGS Open-File Report 92–483 [].

  18. Short-term transport of glyphosate with erosion in Chinese loess soil--a flume experiment. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaomei; Wang, Fei; Bento, Célia P M; Xue, Sha; Gai, Lingtong; van Dam, Ruud; Mol, Hans; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette


    Repeated applications of glyphosate may contaminate the soil and water and threaten their quality both within the environmental system and beyond it through water erosion related processes and leaching. In this study, we focused on the transport of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) related to soil erosion at two slope gradients (10 and 20°), two rates of pesticide with a formulation of glyphosate (Roundup®) application (360 and 720 mg m(-2)), and a rain intensity of 1.0 mm min(-1) for 1 h on bare soil in hydraulic flumes. Runoff and erosion rate were significantly different within slope gradients (psoil at the end of the experiment decreased significantly with depth (psoil layers, respectively. The risk of contamination in deep soil and the groundwater was thus low, but 5% of the initial application did reach the 2-10 cm soil layer. The risk of contamination of surface water through runoff and sedimentation, however, can be considerable, especially in regions where rain-induced soil erosion is common.

  19. Resistance to uprooting of Alfalfa and Avena Sativa and related importance for flume experiments (United States)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Burlando, P.; Perona, P.


    Vegetation influences sediment dynamics by stabilizing the alluvial sediment with its root system. Thus, vegetation engineers the riparian ecosystem by contributing to the formation and stabilization of river bars and islands. The resistance to uprooting of young plants in non-cohesive sediment depends on the competition between flow induced drag and root growth timescales. The investigation of flow-sediment-plant interactions in situ is difficult since variables cannot be controlled and material hardly be collected. In order to investigate ecomorphological processes, laboratory experiments are essential and have gained importance in the last decade. To achieve a better understanding of the dependence of resistance to uprooting on the root system (length and structure) we conducted vertical uprooting experiments with Alfalfa and Avena Sativa which are both species that have been used in flume experiments on vegetation-flow interactions (e.g. Tal and Paola, 2010; Perona et al., in press). Seeds were seeded on quartz sand and vertically uprooted with constant velocity whereat the weight force required to uproot a seedling was measured. After uprooting, roots were scanned and analyzed and the correlation of root parameters with the uprooting work was studied. Total root length was found to be the best explanatory variable, in particular the uprooting work increases following a power law with increasing root length. The impact of other root parameters (main root length, root number, tortuosity) on the uprooting work was as well analyzed. Still, not all influencing root parameters could be captured, like the angle between roots or root hair distribution. Environmental conditions like grain size and saturation were also found to have an effect on the uprooting resistance of roots. So, lower saturated sediment results in a higher uprooting work. This work is a first step to better understand the energy regime for vegetation uprooting and its dependence on various

  20. Comparisons of Derived Metrics from Computed Tomography (CT) Scanned Images of Fluvial Sediment from Gravel-Bed Flume Experiments (United States)

    Voepel, Hal; Ahmed, Sharif; Hodge, Rebecca; Leyland, Julian; Sear, David


    Uncertainty in bedload estimates for gravel bed rivers is largely driven by our inability to characterize arrangement, orientation and resultant forces of fluvial sediment in river beds. Water working of grains leads to structural differences between areas of the bed through particle sorting, packing, imbrication, mortaring and degree of bed armoring. In this study, non-destructive, micro-focus X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging in 3D is used to visualize, quantify and assess the internal geometry of sections of a flume bed that have been extracted keeping their fabric intact. Flume experiments were conducted at 1:1 scaling of our prototype river. From the volume, center of mass, points of contact, and protrusion of individual grains derived from 3D scan data we estimate 3D static force properties at the grain-scale such as pivoting angles, buoyancy and gravity forces, and local grain exposure. Here metrics are derived for images from two flume experiments: one with a bed of coarse grains (>4mm) and the other where sand and clay were incorporated into the coarse flume bed. In addition to deriving force networks, comparison of metrics such as critical shear stress, pivot angles, grain distributions, principle axis orientation, and pore space over depth are made. This is the first time bed stability has been studied in 3D using CT scanned images of sediment from the bed surface to depths well into the subsurface. The derived metrics, inter-granular relationships and characterization of bed structures will lead to improved bedload estimates with reduced uncertainty, as well as improved understanding of relationships between sediment structure, grain size distribution and channel topography.

  1. Experimental determination of vertical uprooting resistance for grass species used in flume experiments (United States)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Ennos, R.; Burlando, P.; Perona, P.


    Vegetation affects river morphodynamics by contributing to the stabilization of alluvial sediment via the root system. The survival and establishment of riparian pioneer vegetation on river bars and islands is determined by timescales of vegetation growth and flood interarrival times. Several laboratory experiments have investigated the role of vegetation in river morphodynamics but none of those has quantied the forces involved to produce uprooting of growing plants. Thus, parallel analyses on root resistance to uprooting are needed. In this work we investigate the uprooting resistance of young vegetation in laboratory experiments, where we vertically uprooted seedlings of Avena sativa and Medicago sativa. Uprooting force and work were related to the root structure (root length, number of roots, root tortuosity) and environmental conditions (grain size, saturation). We found the uprooting work of both species to follow a power law relation with the total root length which was found to be the main driving factor of the process. In addition, the number of roots was found to increase uprooting work. For similar total root length, the multi-root system of Avena sativa shows greater uprooting resistance in terms of work than the single-root system of Medicago sativa. Less sediment saturation produces higher uprooting forces and favors root breaking. Smaller sediment sizes lead to a higher uprooting resistance than bigger ones. Nevertheless, both saturation and grain size showed minor influence on the uprooting process compared to root characteristics. From measured uprooting forces of Avena sativa grown on sediment with a grain size distribution similar to that used in the flume experiments of Perona et al. (2012) we computed the ensemble probability of Avena sativa being uprooted by a particular drag force at certain growth stages, allowing us to compute a probability distribution of being uprooted in dependence of the root length and thus experimentally assess the

  2. Two-dimensional vertical moisture-pressure dynamics above groundwater waves: Sand flume experiments and modelling (United States)

    Shoushtari, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Jazayeri; Cartwright, Nick; Perrochet, Pierre; Nielsen, Peter


    This paper presents a new laboratory dataset on the moisture-pressure relationship above a dispersive groundwater wave in a two-dimensional vertical unconfined sand flume aquifer driven by simple harmonic forcing. A total of five experiments were conducted in which all experimental parameters were kept constant except for the oscillation period, which ranged from 268 s to 2449 s between tests. Moisture content and suction head sensor pairings were co-located at two locations in the unsaturated zone both approximately 0.2 m above the mean watertable elevation and respectively 0.3 m and 0.75 m from the driving head boundary. For all oscillation periods except for the shortest (T = 268s), the formation of a hysteretic moisture-pressure scanning loop was observed. Consistent with the decay of the saturated zone groundwater wave, the size of the observed moisture-pressure scanning loops decayed with increasing distance landward and the decay rate is larger for the shorter oscillation periods. At the shortest period (T = 268s), the observed moisture-pressure relationship was observed to be non-hysteretic but with a capillary capacity that differs from that of the static equilibrium wetting and drying curves. This finding is consistent with observations from existing one-dimensional vertical sand column experiments. The relative damping of the moisture content with distance landward is higher than that for the suction head consistent with the fact that transmission of pressure through a porous medium occurs more readily than mass transfer. This is further supported by the fact that observed phase lags for the unsaturated zone variables (i.e. suction head and moisture content) relative to the driving head are greater than the saturated zone variables (i.e. piezometric head). Harmonic analysis of the data reveals no observable generation of higher harmonics in either moisture or pressure despite the strongly non-linear relationship between the two. In addition, a phase lag

  3. Size stratification in a Gilbert delta due to a varying base level: flume experiments. (United States)

    Chavarrias, Victor; Orru, Clara; Viparelli, Enrica; Vide, Juan Pedro Martin; Blom, Astrid


    A foreset-dominated Gilbert delta is a delta that is dominated by sediment avalanches (i.e., discontinuous grain flows) over its front. It forms when a river flows into a basin or sea characterized by a flow depth that is much larger than the one in the fluvial reach, and the conditions are such that the transported sediment passing the brinkpoint forms a wedge at the topmost part of the foreset, which results in avalanches down the foreset and a fining upward pattern within the foreset deposit. A Gilbert delta is typically described in terms of a low-slope topset (resulting from deposition over the fluvial reach), a steep-slope foreset (resulting from sediment avalanches over the lee face), and a bottomset (resulting from deposition of fine sediment passing the brinkpoint as suspended load). The objective of the present study is to gain insight into the mechanisms taking part in Gilbert delta formation and progradation under variable base level conditions. In order to do so, three flume experiments were conducted in which the water discharge and sediment feed rate were maintained constant but the base level varied between the experiments: (I) constant base level, (II) a gradually rising base level, and (III) a slowly varying base level. The stratigraphy within the delta deposit was measured using image analysis combined with particle coloring. A steady base level resulted in aggradation over the fluvial reach in order to maintain a slope required to transport the supplied sediment downstream. Sea level rise enhanced the amount of aggradation over the fluvial reach due to the presence of an M1 backwater curve. The aggrading flux to the substrate was slightly coarser than the fed sediment. The sediment at the base of the foreset deposit appeared to become coarser in streamwise direction. Eventually, a fall of the base level induced an M2 backwater curve over the fluvial reach that caused degradation of the fluvial reach. Base level fall first induced erosion of the

  4. Flume Experiments for Optimizing the Hydraulic Performance of a Deep-Water Wetland Utilizing Emergent Vegetation and Obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Shu Shih


    Full Text Available Constructed ponds and wetlands are widely used in urban areas for stormwater management, ecological conservation, and pollution treatment. The treatment efficiency of these systems is strongly related to the hydrodynamics and hydraulic residence time. In this study, we developed a physical model and used rhodamine-WT as a tracer to conduct flume experiments. An equivalent Reynolds number was assumed, and the flume was a 1/25-scale model. Emergent obstructions (EOs, submerged obstructions (SOs, and high- and low-density emergent vegetation were placed along the sides of the flume, and 49 tracer tests were performed. We altered the density, spatial extent, aspect ratio, and configurations of the obstructions and emergent vegetation to observe changes in the hydraulic efficiency of a deep-water wetland. In the cases of low-aspect-ratio obstructions, the effects of the EOs on the hydraulic efficiency were significantly stronger than those of the SOs. In contrast, in the cases of high-aspect-ratio obstructions, the improvement effects of the EOs were weaker than those of the SOs. The high-aspect-ratio EOs altered the flow direction and constrained the water conveyance area, which apparently caused a short-circuited flow phenomenon, resulting in a decrease in hydraulic efficiency. Most cases revealed that the emergent vegetation improved the hydraulic efficiency more than the EOs. The high-density emergent vegetation (HEV improved the hydraulic efficiency more than the low-density emergent vegetation (LEV. Three cases involving HEV, two cases involving LEV, and one case involving EOs attained a good hydraulic efficiency (λ > 0.75. To achieve greater water purification, aquatic planting in constructed wetlands should not be overly dense. The HEV configuration in case 3-1 achieved optimum hydraulic performance for compliance with applicable water treatment standards.

  5. Nereis diversicolor and copper contamination effect on the erosion of cohesive sediments: A flume experiment (United States)

    Fernandes, S.; Sobral, P.; Alcântara, F.


    The effect of bioturbation on the erodability of natural and manipulated copper spiked sediments (3 μmol Cu g -1 dw) was investigated using sediments collected in the Tagus estuary and Nereis diversicolor (900 ind m -2). The input of particulate matter and Cu into the water column as a result of erosion was quantified in an annular flume at 7 shear velocities (1-13 cm s -1). The biogeochemical characteristics of the sediment were analysed in depth down to 8 cm. Cu contamination elicited lower levels of eroded matter and lower shear strength profiles. Eroded matter and sediment shear strength values were higher (up to 1.7 kg m -2) in the presence of N. diversicolor, whose effect was less pronounced under contamination. Sediment erodability was not only related to hydrodynamics but was highly affected by the biogeochemical characteristics and contamination of the sediments.

  6. Can Geostatistical Models Represent Nature's Variability? An Analysis Using Flume Experiments (United States)

    Scheidt, C.; Fernandes, A. M.; Paola, C.; Caers, J.


    The lack of understanding in the Earth's geological and physical processes governing sediment deposition render subsurface modeling subject to large uncertainty. Geostatistics is often used to model uncertainty because of its capability to stochastically generate spatially varying realizations of the subsurface. These methods can generate a range of realizations of a given pattern - but how representative are these of the full natural variability? And how can we identify the minimum set of images that represent this natural variability? Here we use this minimum set to define the geostatistical prior model: a set of training images that represent the range of patterns generated by autogenic variability in the sedimentary environment under study. The proper definition of the prior model is essential in capturing the variability of the depositional patterns. This work starts with a set of overhead images from an experimental basin that showed ongoing autogenic variability. We use the images to analyze the essential characteristics of this suite of patterns. In particular, our goal is to define a prior model (a minimal set of selected training images) such that geostatistical algorithms, when applied to this set, can reproduce the full measured variability. A necessary prerequisite is to define a measure of variability. In this study, we measure variability using a dissimilarity distance between the images. The distance indicates whether two snapshots contain similar depositional patterns. To reproduce the variability in the images, we apply an MPS algorithm to the set of selected snapshots of the sedimentary basin that serve as training images. The training images are chosen from among the initial set by using the distance measure to ensure that only dissimilar images are chosen. Preliminary investigations show that MPS can reproduce fairly accurately the natural variability of the experimental depositional system. Furthermore, the selected training images provide

  7. Bedload transport of sand-gravel mixtures with antidunes: flume experiments


    Núñez González, Francisco


    In this thesis, the interaction between flow and sediment in alluvial channels is studied from an empirical approach, for conditions close or pertaining to supercritical flow, and for four types of sediment: sand, gravel and two mixtures with sand and gravel in a relative proportion of 70-30 and 55-45, respectively. The objective is to obtain by means of laboratory experiments a data set with the characteristics of flow, sediment transport, bed configurations and sediment sorting patterns in ...

  8. Flume experiments of deposition rate on foreset of silty delta relative to hydrographic patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUZUKI Taro; ENDO Noritaka


    Foreset profiles of deltaic topography change corresponding to hydraulic conditions, and are influenced by water discharge and change rates of water discharge. To investigate the correlation between the transition of deposition rates on the foreset and the change rate of water discharge of temporary waxing and subsequent waning lfows, we perform experiments on silty deltas that developed under several different hydrographic patterns. The ifndings are as follows: (1) Under lfows with constant discharge, the deposition rate on the foreset was low at high water discharge and high at low water discharge because the separated lfow became vigorous at high water discharge and prevented sediment supply onto the foreset. If the water discharge is not constant, the deposition rate shifted concurrently with water discharge only at extremely low change rate. (2i) In a waxing lfow at low (but not extremely low) increase rate, the deposition rate gradually decreased with some time lag. (2ii) In the case of high increase discharge, intense erosion on the topset caused by rapid waxing made a large amount of silt move onto the foreset and the deposition rate temporary increased. (3) With ample time after waning stage, the deposition rate recovered to that at constant low water discharge in all runs. However, the transitional processes depended on not only waning rate but also waxing rate at before waning stage. (3i) In the case of high decrease rate of water discharge, the deposition rate abruptly decreased regardless of increase rate. (3ii) Even in the case of low decrease rate of water discharge, if the increase rate before waning stage was high, the deposition rate abruptly decreased. (3iii) Only in the case where both the increase rate and the decrease rate were low, deposition rate gradually increased.

  9. [Beaver Creek Project Flumes (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Pictures of installed Parshall flumes and structures for the Beaver Creek Project at Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge for the Beaver Creek, Jarvie, DeJournette...

  10. Hydraulic performance experiment of portable short-throat flume with flat base in field%田间便携式平底短喉道量水槽水力特性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖苡辀; 王文娥; 胡笑涛


    Accurate flow measurement in irrigation areas is a fundamental part in the collection, distribution, delivery and application of water resources. Flow-measuring devices are used for continuous measurement of discharges in open channels. Compared with other existing flow-measuring devices, flumes are more suitable for flow measurement in open channels and easier to be widely applied. Much research has studied different kinds of flumes, such as airfoil-shaped flow flume, water-measuring column with round head, cut-throat flume, long-throat flume, providing a variety of adjustments of the channels. But there is not much work attempting for small-size flume or flume set in the field to measure discharges of water inlet in the field. Agricultural irrigation metrology is still the weak link of current metrological work. Owing to large head loss of long-throat flume and complex hydraulic performance of cut-throat flume, short-throat flume is appropriate for water discharge measurement of inlet in the field, which needs to satisfy the requirements such as simple structure, cheap price, reasonable accuracy and low head loss. One of the most widely used open-channel short-throat flumes is Parshall flume. However, owing to high price and complex structure, Parshall flume is not the optimum choice for water discharge measurement of inlet in the field. Originated from Parshall flume, a kind of portable short-throat flume with a flat base for the field is an emerging technique developed for water discharge measurement of inlet in the field, which consists of entrance, throat and exit sections. Based on the principle of critical flow, taking the flume with the width of 51 mm, the length of 774 mm and the discharge of up to 36 L/s as study subject, the experiments are conducted under 18 working conditions to determine its hydraulic performance. Hydraulic performance of portable short-throat flume with a flat base for the field is obtained from experimental analyses on water

  11. SEDflume - High Shear Stress Flume (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers High Shear Stress flume (SEDflume) is designed for estimating erosion rates of fine-grained and mixed fine/coarse grained sediments...

  12. Observation of strongly non-Gaussian statistics for random sea surface gravity waves in wave flume experiments. (United States)

    Onorato, M; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Cavaleri, L; Brandini, C; Stansberg, C T


    We study random surface gravity wave fields and address the formation of large-amplitude waves in a laboratory environment. Experiments are performed in one of the largest wave tank facilities in the world. We present experimental evidence that the tail of the probability density function for wave height strongly depends on the Benjamin-Feir index (BFI)-i.e., the ratio between wave steepness and spectral bandwidth. While for a small BFI the probability density functions obtained experimentally are consistent with the Rayleigh distribution, for a large BFI the Rayleigh distribution clearly underestimates the probability of large events. These results confirm experimentally the fact that large-amplitude waves in random spectra may result from the modulational instability.

  13. Habitat selection and adult-recruit interactions in Pectinaria koreni (Malmgren) (Annelida: Polychaeta) post-larval populations: Results of flume experiments (United States)

    Olivier, Frédéric; Desroy, Nicolas; Retière, Christian


    The fate of recently settled populations of soft-bottom invertebrates depends not only on dispersal of pelagic larvae by tidal currents but also on other physical ( e. g. resuspension) and biological mechanisms ( e.g. habitat selection and adult-recruit interactions) acting at the water-substratum interface. To assess the relative importance of such processes under megatidal conditions in the Abra alba community of the eastern Baie de Seine (English Channel), flume experiments were conducted on post-larvae of the dominant polychaete species, Pectinaria koreni. Habitat selection by post-larvae of P. koreni was determined in a first set of experiments, where individuals were sowed either on a suitable or on an unsuitable substratum. Once resuspended, post-larvae were given a choice between two highly contrasting treatments with a natural organic-rich muddy sand and a bare flat PVC surface. P. koreni post-larvae were able to leave an unfavourable substratum into which they had initially burrowed and reach a more suitable substrate by drifting (induced by the secretion of mucus) before final settlement. The influence of adults on habitat selection and survival of P. koreni post-larvae was analysed in a second set of experiments, where individuals were sowed onto a suitable sediment with adults (test treatment) or without (control treatment). The presence of conspecific adults induced a high resuspension rate of the post-larvae. Drifting occurred mainly just after the introduction of the current and affected the whole experimental population, regardless of size. Such a response seems to be related to the intense bioturbation caused by the sub-surface deposit-feeding habit of the adults, which alters the boundary-layer flow. In contrast, the presence of adults of Owenia fusiformis, another dominant polychaete of the Abra alba community, led to an enhanced recruitment by a reduction in post-larvae resuspension. In fact, at low shear velocities, dense aggregates of tubes

  14. Flume-based calibration of different surrogate devices for bedload monitoring (United States)

    Mao, Luca; Escauriaza, Cristian; Gordo, Fernanda; Carrillo, Ricardo


    Bedload assessment is important for geomorphological, engineering, and ecological studies of gravel-bed rivers. Bedload is usually assessed using portable traps, which allows measuring instantaneous transport rates, but at a single point and at high costs and operational risks. Slot traps or other fixed devices allow measuring bedload rate for longer periods, but require expensive maintenance. The need of measuring continuously bedload intensity and dynamics has therefore increased the use and enhancement of surrogate methods, such as geophones, hydrophones, and acoustic sensors. However, converting the signals recorded by these instruments to actual bedload fluxes, direct bedload measurements are needed to obtain a calibration relationship. Even if some noticeable examples are available in literature, only few flume experiments have been undertaken to calibrate rate and grain size of transported sediments, and to explore rigorously the sensitivity and signal dampening effects of various surrogate devices. Here we present some preliminary results obtained from a set of flume experiments on which different devices have been used. We have tested a 1m-long Japanese acoustic pipe sensor, a 150×130×6 mm steel plate linked to an accelerometer and a count input data logger, and a hydrophone. Experiments were made in a 0.8m-wide flume, using 4 homogeneous (4, 8, 32, and 45 mm) sediment mixtures. These fractions were then combined in order to obtain 3 further heterogeneous mixtures. Experiments with different discharges and slopes were performed, allowing to observe a wide range of shear stresses and transport rates. All transported sediments were captured with traps, weighted, and then manually recirculated at the upstream end of the flume. Preliminary results show that devices have different sensitivity to lower grain size that could be detected, being the transport of 4 mm particles detected relatively well only by the impact plates. Intense transport of 8 mm particles

  15. Understanding the size selectivity in diamond mesh codends based on flume tank experiments and fish morphology: effect of catch size and fish escape behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Junita Diana; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent;


    (Gadus morhua) and Nephrops (N. norvegicus) to simulate potential size selection. By assuming certain patterns of fish escape behaviour in the codend, it was demonstrated that it was possible to replicate results for size selection based on sea trials with similar codends. Results show that L50 can......This study quantifies potential size selection of a fish and a crustacean species in di-amond mesh codends during a fishing process. Changes in mesh geometry along the codends and at different catch weights were recorded in a flume tank and subse-quently used together with the morphology of cod...... happens mostly in the area of catch accu-mulation. In response to questions, it was also noted that FISHSELECT methodology has been used. Mesh penetrations were simulated for each individual. Considering the relationship between catch weight and codend selectivity, studies with lower catches can...

  16. Apache Flume distributed log collection for Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    D'Souza, Subas


    A starter guide that covers Apache Flume in detail.Apache Flume: Distributed Log Collection for Hadoop is intended for people who are responsible for moving datasets into Hadoop in a timely and reliable manner like software engineers, database administrators, and data warehouse administrators

  17. Apache Flume distributed log collection for Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Steve


    If you are a Hadoop programmer who wants to learn about Flume to be able to move datasets into Hadoop in a timely and replicable manner, then this book is ideal for you. No prior knowledge about Apache Flume is necessary, but a basic knowledge of Hadoop and the Hadoop File System (HDFS) is assumed.

  18. A large scale flume for hydro-environmental studies (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Casalí, Javier; Hermosín, Maria del Carmen; Mateos, Luciano


    The understanding of key hydrologic processes such as, water erosion, rill network development or agrochemical transport, requires controlled experiments at the appropriate scale. This is the reason for experimentation at flume scale in hydro-environmental research, used for many decades in this field. This communication presents a research infrastructure, recently completed in its first stage, consisting of a large flume for studying soil water erosion, sediment transport, and environmental processes such as the transport of different substances (salts, fertilizers, herbicides, carbon, …) rather dissolved or absorbed with the sediment. It is located at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC) in Córdoba, Spain. The flume is 0.6 m deep, 12 m long, and 6 m wide. It may be divided longitudinally into three channels (6 m long, 1 m wide). The slope of the flume can be regulated from 0 % to 20 %. The device allows studying free surface flows over movable beds with different conditions of sediment transport by supplying clear or sediment-laden water from its head system. The head system consists of three triangular weirs for accurate measurement of water flow, three stilling tanks at the entrance of the flume, and three vibratory hoppers for applying sediments at pre-set rates. The water can be re-circulated, the maximum inflow is then about 30 l s-1, or evacuated, then the inflow is limited to about 20 l s-1. The infrastructure is within a shelter with an area of 400 m2 and height 8.7 m. The area of the shelter allows in-door mechanical preparation of soil and sediments. The height of the shelter will allow the installation of the rainfall simulator and a light rail crane in a second stage, not started yet. Several experiments have been planned at IAS-CSIC already, particularly investigation of the water erosion and sediment transport processes in concentrated flows under different soil conditions, as well as hydrodynamics aspects of suspended and bed

  19. Experimental study of drag reduction in flumes and spillway tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-kui WANG; Chun-bo JIANG


    Experiments in an open flume model and spillway tunnel model were carried out using drag reduction techniques.Two drag reduction techniques were adopted in the experiments:polymer addition and coating.The drag reduction effect of a polyacrylamide(PAM)solution and dimethyl silicone oil coating were studied in the flume model experiments,and the results were analyzed.Experiments were then carried out with a model of the Xiluodu Hydropower Station,the second largest dam in China.In order to reduce the resistance,the spillway tunnels were internally coated with dimethyl silicone oil.This is the first time that these drag reduction techniques have been applied to so large a hydraulic model.The experimental results show that the coating technique can effectively increase flood discharge.The outlet velocity and the jet trajectory distance are also increased,which enhances the energy dissipation of the spillway tunnel.

  20. The physical simulation of wave groups and their variations in a wave flume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Si; ZHANG Yongliang; LIU Shuxue; LI Jinxuan; XIA Zhisheng


    The physical simulation method of wave groups in a wave flume is proposed and verified by the exper-iments. The experimental results demonstrate that random waves with desired wave groupiness, which simultaneously includes the wave group height and length, can be generated satisfactorily at the specified position in a wave flume using the proposed method. Furthermore, the transformation properties of the wave groupiness along the flat-bottomed wave flume are investigated based on the physically simulated waves. Associated proposals with the physical simulation of wave groups are given.

  1. Mudflow rheology in a vertically rotating flume (United States)

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Westphal, Jerome A.; Jobson, Harvey E.; ,


    Joint research by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Missouri-Rolla currently (1990) is being conducted on a 3.05 meters in diameter vertically rotating flume used to simulate mudflows under steady-state conditions. Observed mudflow simulations indicate flow patterns in the flume are similar to those occurring in natural mudflows. Variables such as mean and surface velocity, depth, and average boundary shear stress can be measured in this flume more easily than in the field or in a traditional tilting flume. Sensitive variables such as sediment concentration, grain-size distribution, and Atterberg limits also can be precisely and easily controlled. A known Newtonian fluid, SAE 30 motor oil, was tested in the flume and the computed value for viscosity was within 12.5 percent of the stated viscosity. This provided support that the data from the flume can be used to determine the rheological properties of fluids such as mud. Measurements on mud slurries indicate that flows with sediment concentrations ranging from 81 to 87 percent sediment by weight can be approximated as Bingham plastic for strain rates greater than 1 per second. In this approximation, the yield stress and Bingham viscosity were extremely sensitive to sediment concentration. Generally, the magnitude of the yield stress was large relative to the change in shear stress with increasing mudflow velocity.

  2. Vortical structures in a flume (United States)

    Gurka, R.; Liberzon, A.; Hetsroni, G.


    We report the results of statistical spatial characterization of coherent structures in turbulent boundary layer in a flume. The characterization approach is based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of vorticity, elucidating large-scale coherent patterns in a turbulent boundary layer. The method was successfully applied to the two- and three-dimensional experimental data extracted from particle image velocimetry (PIV), and multi-plane stereoscopic PIV (XPIV) respectively, and the three-dimensional data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) in a channel flow. The large-scale structure was obtained by using linear combination of POD eigenmodes of vorticity. POD allows for methodological analysis of the properties of the educed structure in the different measurement planes (orthogonal in the case of 2D PIV and parallel in the case of XPIV) and in the different cross-sections of the DNS data. Based on the statistical approach we suggest a conceptual model of large-scale coherent structures in a turbulent boundary layer flow that incorporates the experimental and the numerical results. The proposed conceptual model is a spiral vortical structure attached to the wall and expanding in both the spanwise and the wall-normal directions. Its shape resembles a funnel structure and a `double-cone eddy' concept. The relationship of the model to the structures in the near wall region is presented.

  3. Sediment–flow interactions at channel confluences: A flume study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonghuan Liu


    Full Text Available Sediment transport and bed morphology at channel confluences with different confluence angles and discharge ratios are analyzed through a series of flume experiments. Bed topography and sediment transport rate are measured and results are compared among different conditions. Sediment transport is intermittent and pulsating as the tributary flow mixes with the mainstream, and the sediment transport rate goes up with the increase in discharge ratio and confluence angle. With no sediment supplied from upstream of the flume, a central scour hole will form along the shear plane and develop toward the right bank, and the depth of the central scour hole increases as the confluence angle and discharge ratio increase. With heavy upstream sediment supplement, deposition will happen in the separation zone and upstream of the confluence area because of the tributary. And the deposition height is related to the discharge ratio and confluence angle. Results indicate the significant impact of confluence geometry, sediment, and flow factors on fluvial processes.

  4. Simulation of Wave Overtopping of Maritime Structures in a Numerical Wave Flume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago C. A. Oliveira


    Full Text Available A numerical wave flume based on the particle finite element method (PFEM is applied to simulate wave overtopping for impermeable maritime structures. An assessment of the performance and robustness of the numerical wave flume is carried out for two different cases comparing numerical results with experimental data. In the first case, a well-defined benchmark test of a simple low-crested structure overtopped by regular nonbreaking waves is presented, tested in the lab, and simulated in the numerical wave flume. In the second case, state-of-the-art physical experiments of a trapezoidal structure placed on a sloping beach overtopped by regular breaking waves are simulated in the numerical wave flume. For both cases, main overtopping events are well detected by the numerical wave flume. However, nonlinear processes controlling the tests proposed, such as nonlinear wave generation, energy losses along the wave propagation track, wave reflection, and overtopping events, are reproduced with more accuracy in the first case. Results indicate that a numerical wave flume based on the PFEM can be applied as an efficient tool to supplement physical models, semiempirical formulations, and other numerical techniques to deal with overtopping of maritime structures.

  5. L-Shaped Flume Wave Basin and 2-ft Flume Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, two-dimensional wave flumes and three-dimensional stability wave basins are used...

  6. L-Shaped Flume Wave Basin and 2-ft Flume Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, two-dimensional wave flumes and three-dimensional stability wave basins are used...

  7. Approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear waves in wave flumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas


    An approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear regular waves in flumes is presented. This theory is based on an ad hoe unified wave-generation method that combines linear fully dispersive wavemaker theory and wave generation for non-linear shallow water waves. This is done...... by applying a dispersion correction to the paddle position obtained for non-linear long waves. The method is validated by a number of wave flume experiments while comparing with results of linear wavemaker theory, second-order wavemaker theory and Cnoidal wavemaker theory within its range of application....

  8. Preliminary experiments on quantification of skin condition (United States)

    Kitajima, Kenzo; Iyatomi, Hitoshi


    In this study, we investigated a preliminary assessment method for skin conditions such as a moisturizing property and its fineness of the skin with an image analysis only. We captured a facial images from volunteer subjects aged between 30s and 60s by Pocket Micro (R) device (Scalar Co., Japan). This device has two image capturing modes; the normal mode and the non-reflection mode with the aid of the equipped polarization filter. We captured skin images from a total of 68 spots from subjects' face using both modes (i.e. total of 136 skin images). The moisture-retaining property of the skin and subjective evaluation score of the skin fineness in 5-point scale for each case were also obtained in advance as a gold standard (their mean and SD were 35.15 +/- 3.22 (μS) and 3.45 +/- 1.17, respectively). We extracted a total of 107 image features from each image and built linear regression models for estimating abovementioned criteria with a stepwise feature selection. The developed model for estimating the skin moisture achieved the MSE of 1.92 (μS) with 6 selected parameters, while the model for skin fineness achieved that of 0.51 scales with 7 parameters under the leave-one-out cross validation. We confirmed the developed models predicted the moisture-retaining property and fineness of the skin appropriately with only captured image.

  9. Preliminary Observations from the 2014 Sand Dunes Experiment (United States)


    2014 Sand Dunes Experiment by Christopher W. Miller, Ching-Sang Chiu, D. Benjamin Reeder, Ying-Jang Yang, Linus Chiu, and Chi-Fang Chen...COVERED (From-To) June 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Preliminary Observations from the 2014 Sand Dunes Experiment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government 14. ABSTRACT The Sand Dunes 2014 experiment was international US – Taiwan

  10. Determination of Adsorption Capacity and Kinetics of Amidoxime-Based Uranium Adsorbent Braided Material in Unfiltered Seawater Using a Flume Exposure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Schlafer, Nicholas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Wood, Jordana R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.


    PNNL has developed a recirculating flume system for exposing braided adsorbent material to natural seawater under realistic temperature and flow-rate exposure conditions. The flumes are constructed of transparent acrylic material; they allow external light to pass into the flumes and permit photosynthetic growth of naturally present marine organisms (biofouling). Because the system consists of two flumes, replicate experiments can be conducted in which one of the flumes can be manipulated relative to the other. For example, one flume can be darkened to eliminate light exposure by placing a black tarp over the flume such that dark/light experiments can be conducted. Alternatively, two different braided adsorbents can be exposed simultaneously with no potential cross contamination issues. This report describes the first use of the PNNL flume system to study the impact of biofouling on adsorbent capacity. Experiments were conducted with the ORNL AI8 braided adsorbent material in light-exposed and darkened flumes for a 42-day exposure experiment. The major objective of this effort is to develop a system for the exposure of braided adsorbent material to unfiltered seawater, and to demonstrate the system by evaluating the performance of adsorption material when it is exposed to natural marine biofouling as it would be when the technology is used in the marine environment. Exposures of amidoxime-based polymeric braid adsorbents prepared by Oak Ridge Natural Laboratory (ORNL) were exposed to ambient seawater at 20°C in a flume system. Adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity were assessed using time series determinations of uranium adsorption and one-site ligand saturation modeling. Biofouling in sunlight surface seawater has the potential to significantly add substantial biogenic mass to adsorption material when it is exposed for periods greater than 21 days. The observed biomass increase in the light flume was approximately 80% of the adsorbent mass after 42 days

  11. Preliminary results of noise radar experiments (United States)

    Malanowski, Mateusz; Contartese, Clara; Maslikowski, Lukasz; Baczyk, Marcin; Kulpa, Krzysztof


    The paper describes the first results of noise radar experiments carried out at Warsaw University of Technology. The radar system was built with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components: log-periodic antennas, an arbitrary waveform generator and a two-channel spectrum analyzer. The radar operated in the continuous-wave mode, and the aim was to detect moving targets in the received signal. The paper shows the system setup as well as the numerical results obtained from the recorded signals.

  12. Metabolic Control with Insulin Pump Therapy: Preliminary Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Ren Hsu


    Conclusion: Our preliminary experience demonstrated the effectiveness of insulin pump therapy for both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The reduction in their HbA1C values was both statistically and clinically significant. This treatment should be considered for patients poorly controlled by subcutaneous insulin injection therapy.

  13. Preliminary results of the echo-seeding experiment at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Ding, Y.; Dunning, M.; Frederico, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodley, M.; Corlett, J.; Qiang, J.; Penn, G.; Prestemon, S.; Schlueter, R.; Venturini, M.; Wan, W.; Pernet, P-L.


    ECHO-7 is a proof-of-principle echo-enabled harmonic generation FEL experiment in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC. The experiment aims to generate coherent radiation at 318 nm and 227 nm, which are the 5th and 7th harmonic of the infrared seed laser. In this paper we present the preliminary results from the commissioning run of the completed experimental setup which started in April 2010.

  14. Wind generated rogue waves in an annular wave flume

    CERN Document Server

    Toffoli, A; Salman, H; Monbaliu, J; Frascoli, F; Dafilis, M; Stramignoni, E; Forza, R; Manfrin, M; Onorato, M


    We investigate experimentally the statistical properties of a wind-generated wave field and the spontaneous formation of rogue waves in an annular flume. Unlike many experiments on rogue waves, where waves are mechanically generated, here the wave field is forced naturally by wind as it is in the ocean. What is unique about the present experiment is that the annular geometry of the tank makes waves propagating circularly in an {\\it unlimited-fetch} condition. Within this peculiar framework, we discuss the temporal evolution of the statistical properties of the surface elevation. We show that rogue waves and heavy-tail statistics may develop naturally during the growth of the waves just before the wave height reaches a stationary condition. Our results shed new light on the formation of rogue waves in a natural environment.

  15. Wind Generated Rogue Waves in an Annular Wave Flume. (United States)

    Toffoli, A; Proment, D; Salman, H; Monbaliu, J; Frascoli, F; Dafilis, M; Stramignoni, E; Forza, R; Manfrin, M; Onorato, M


    We investigate experimentally the statistical properties of a wind-generated wave field and the spontaneous formation of rogue waves in an annular flume. Unlike many experiments on rogue waves where waves are mechanically generated, here the wave field is forced naturally by wind as it is in the ocean. What is unique about the present experiment is that the annular geometry of the tank makes waves propagating circularly in an unlimited-fetch condition. Within this peculiar framework, we discuss the temporal evolution of the statistical properties of the surface elevation. We show that rogue waves and heavy-tail statistics may develop naturally during the growth of the waves just before the wave height reaches a stationary condition. Our results shed new light on the formation of rogue waves in a natural environment.

  16. Percutaneous aspiration thromboembolectomy: a preliminary experience. (United States)

    Murray, J G; Brown, A L; Wilkins, R A


    Percutaneous aspiration thromboembolectomy (PAT) is a radiological alternative to surgical embolectomy or thrombolysis in the treatment of acute arterial thromboembolic disease. We report our experience in eight patients aged 63-83 years (mean 71 years). Indications were graft thrombosis (1) or emboli from atrial fibrillation (3), abdominal aneurysm (2) or proximal angioplasty (2). PAT was performed at 10 arterial sites; common iliac (1), profunda femoris (1), superficial femoral (2), femoro-popliteal graft (1), popliteal (2) and arteries of the trifurcation (3). PAT was used as an adjunct to thrombolysis or angioplasty in five patients and as the sole procedure in three patients. It was successful in six patients (seven sites) with mean ABI rising from 0.4 pre- to 0.8 post-procedure. Two of the failures required amputations. One of these was a completely thrombosed dacron femoro-popliteal graft with poor run-off, and the second case had a failed surgical embolectomy prior to amputation. There were no major complications, and no mortality on follow-up at 1 month. PAT is a useful adjunct to thrombolysis and balloon angioplasty in the radiological treatment of acute thromboembolic disease. In patients in whom thrombolysis is contraindicated, it offers an alternative to surgical embolectomy.

  17. Flume length and post-exercise impingement affect anaerobic metabolism in brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis. (United States)

    Tudorache, C; O'Keefe, R A; Benfey, T J


    The effect of flume length and impingement time on post-exercise lactate concentrations in brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis were examined. Swimming in longer flumes increased lactate concentrations, as does impingement after swimming in short flumes.

  18. Preliminary results from the MINERvA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab


    The MINERvA experiment, operating since 2009 in the NuMI neutrino beam line at Fermilab, has collected neutrino and antineutrino scattering data on a variety of nuclear targets. The detector is designed to identify events originating in plastic scintillator, lead, carbon, iron, water, and liquid helium. The goal of the experiment is to measure inclusive and exclusive cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino with much greater precision than previous experiments. We present preliminary kinematic distributions for charged current quasi-elastic scattering and other processes.

  19. Settling distances of benthic invertebrates in a sediment mobilization simulation in semi-natural flumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Bruno


    Full Text Available Drift time and distance depend on the ability of the drifting invertebrates to alter their body posture or by swimming, and these behaviors may change according to the local hydraulic environment, resulting in different distances travelled before exiting the drift. Such drift and settlement mediated invertebrate movement determine dispersal processes and ultimately generates distribution patterns within streams. We conducted an experiment in an open-air, artificial flume system directly fed by an Alpine stream, where we disturbed the sediment in the flumes, inducing catastrophic drift in the benthic community, and then assessed the settlement distances of benthic invertebrates. For each flume, we collected drift samples by disturbing the substrate at 1.5 m intervals, at increasing distance from the downstream end, for a total of 7 disturbances and a maximum settling distance of 10 m in each flume, with five replicates (i.e., five flumes for each disturbance. The disturbances induced a massive catastrophic drift in Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, always higher than the behaviorally-occurring basedrift. The Settling Index calculated over the total drift collected at each distance increased with increasing distance, and after 10 m, 90% of the drifting animals had settled. Evenness and taxa richness progressively decrease with increasing settling distance. All drifting taxa were represented mainly by young instars. We used the drift collected at 1 m from the disturbance to standardize the remaining samples, based on the assumption that 1 m is not a distance long enough to allow animals to settle at that water velocity. We calculated the percentage of possible drifters which settled by computing a Settling Index for each taxon. The drifting taxa listed by decreasing Settling Index scores were Epeorus sp., Rhithrogena semicolorata, Isoperla spp., Sericostoma spp., Ecdyonurus spp., Nemoura spp., Leuctra spp., Baetis spp., Hydropsyche spp

  20. Measurement of flow in supercritical flow regime using cutthroat flumes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shrikant A Tekade; Avinash D Vasudeo; Aniruddha D Ghare; Ramesh N Ingle


    Cutthroat flume is commonly used for measurement of subcritical flow in open channel because of its simplicity and ease of construction. No experimental data is available in literature for measurement of flow in supercritical regime using cutthroat flume. The present paper finds the feasibility of cutthroat flume as a measurement device for flow in supercritical regime. Experimental data are generated to develop the relation between discharge and observed head at a specified location on upstream of throat section. Regression analysis for discharge and head indicated a good correlation. Based on all the experimental data generated, a relationship between discharge and head is proposed.

  1. Check dams effects on sediment transport in steep slope flume (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain


    Depending on many influences (geology, relief, hydrology, land use, etc.) some mountainous watershed are prone to cause casualties and facilities damages. Large amounts of sediments episodically released by torrents are often the biggest problem in torrent related hazard mitigation. Series of transversal structures as check dams and ground sills are often used in the panel of risk mitigation technics. A large literature exits on check dams and it mainly concerns engineering design, e.g. toe scouring, stability stress diagram, changes in upper and lower reaches equilibrium slopes. Check dams in steep slope rivers constitute fixed points in the bed profile and prevent general bed incision. However their influence on sediment transport once they are filled is not yet clear. Two flume test campaigns, synthetize in Table 1, were performed to investigate this question: Table 1 : experiment plan Run (duration) Ref1 (50h)CD1a (30h)CD1b (30h)Ref2 (92h)CD2 (18h) Solid feeding discharge (g.s^-1) 44 44 44 60 60 Number of check dams none 1 3 none 2 A nearly 5-m-long, 10-cm-wide and 12%-steep flume was used. The water discharge was set to 0,55 l/s in all runs. A mixture of poorly sorted natural sediments with diameters between 0.8 and 40 mm was used. An open solid-discharge-feeding circuit kept the inlet sediment flux constant during all experiments. As both feeding rates did not present variation, changes in outlet solid discharge were assumed to be due to bed variations in the bed storage. We observed strong fluctuations of solid flux and slope in each reaches of all runs between: (i) steep aggradating armoured bed and (ii) less steep and finer bed releasing bedload sheets during erosion events and inducing bedload pulses. All experiments showed consistent results: transported volume associated with erosion event decreased with the length between two subsequent check dams. Solid transversal structures shorten the upstream erosion-propagation and avoid downstream change in the

  2. Turbulence levels in a flume compared to the field: Implications for larval settlement studies (United States)

    Hendriks, Iris E.; van Duren, Luca A.; Herman, Peter M. J.


    The settlement stage of shellfish larvae is important in determining distribution patterns of adults. In order to reach the substratum, the larvae need to cross the benthic boundary layer near the sediment surface. Suspended larvae reach the substratum by a combination of passive sinking, turbulent advection and possibly active swimming. Subsequently the larvae need a certain amount of time in contact with the substratum to attach themselves to the bed. Flumes are commonly used experimental set-ups to study larval settlement in flowing water. Since turbulence plays an important role in the vertical transport of larvae and in the probability of resuspension, such experiments must take turbulence scaling into account. This study compares turbulence characteristics in the flume at the NIOO-CEME with field conditions encountered by intertidal bivalve larvae during their settlement stage. Turbulence in the flume was manipulated throughout the water column using a grid and in the benthic boundary layer by introducing roughness structures. Hydrodynamic parameters such as shear velocity ( u*), roughness height (z 0), turbulence intensity (TI) and Reynolds stress were determined. We used the dimensionless Rouse number to scale the ratio between advective motion and random (turbulent) motion. Relative particle concentrations (Rouse distribution) near the bottom, as calculated theoretically for the flume under normal conditions and in the field, show that the flume is biased towards sinking. In the Oosterschelde, where flow is tidally driven, the ratio between advective motion and random (turbulent) motion for flow velocities around 0.35 m s - 1 is balanced. In this situation a small change in directional movement (e.g. by swimming) may have an effect on settlement success of larvae. The grid has a modifying effect on mixing throughout the water column, but close to the bottom turbulence intensities are similar to the situation without a grid. Turbulence introduced by bottom

  3. The "SCORPION" experiment onboard the International Space Station. Preliminary results. (United States)

    Borisov, V; Deshevaya, E; Grachov, E; Grigoryan, O; Tchurilo, I; Tsetlin, V


    The "SCORPION" program onboard the Russian Segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is designed to carry out complex research of the effects of the nar-Earth space parameters on the conditions under which various experiments and operations are being conducted. Special attention in this program was paid to the biological objects onboard the orbital station, e.g. it was found that variation in the number of colony forming units (micromicets and bacteria) correlates with the solar activity and the absorbed dose. The "SCORPION" experiment onboard the RS ISS started in January 2002. It was designed to measure the following parameters inside the space absorbed doses in different places inside the RS ISS, the fluxes of energetic charged particles, neutrons and gamma-quanta; the vectors of the magnetic field and low-frequency electromagnetic waves. At the same time the growth of micromicets on the samples of various materials was studied. The description of the "SCORPION" experiment and the preliminary results obtained onboard the RS ISS in 2002 are presented.

  4. Calibration Study and Preliminary Results of PRad Experiment (United States)

    Levillain, Maxime; PRad Collaboration


    The latest measurements of the proton radius through muonic hydrogen Lamb shift show a discrepancy of 7 σ from a global analysis of standard hydrogen Lamb shift and elastic ep -scattering. In order to understand this proton radius puzzle, the PRad experiment successfully took in last June some elastic ep -scattering data at very low Q2 (2 .10-4 to 10-1 GeV2) with very accurate angle and energy measurements to minimize the systematic uncertainties. Before measuring the cross-sections that will be used to extract the electromagnetic form factor GE(Q2) and the proton radius, a very careful calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter (HyCal) must be performed to get a good energy resolution and separate ep -events from M øller events especially at low angle. We will present an extended study of the electromagnetic calorimeter calibration of this experiment as well as some preliminary results on ep - and ee -scattering processes extracted from the data. The PRad experiment is supported in part by NSF MRI Award PHY-1229153.

  5. Flume and field-based calibration of surrogate sensors for monitoring bedload transport (United States)

    Mao, L.; Carrillo, R.; Escauriaza, C.; Iroume, A.


    Bedload transport assessment is important for geomorphological, engineering, and ecological studies of gravel-bed rivers. Bedload can be monitored at experimental stations that require expensive maintenance or by using portable traps, which allows measuring instantaneous transport rates but at a single point and at high costs and operational risks. The need for continuously measuring bedload intensity and dynamics has therefore increased the use and enhancement of surrogate methods. This paper reports on a set of flume experiments in which a Japanese acoustic pipe and an impact plate have been tested using four well-sorted and three poorly sorted sediment mixtures. Additional data were collected in a glacierized high-gradient Andean stream (Estero Morales) using a portable Bunte-type bedload sampler. Results show that the data provided by the acoustic pipe (which is amplified on 6 channels having different gains) can be calibrated for the grain size and for the intensity of transported sediments coarser than 9 mm (R2 = 0.93 and 0.88, respectively). Even if the flume-based calibration is very robust, upscaling the calibration to field applications is more challenging, and the bedload intensity could be predicted better than the grain size of transported sediments (R2 = 0.61 and 0.43, respectively). The inexpensive impact plate equipped with accelerometer could be calibrated for bedload intensity quite well in the flume but only poorly in the field (R2 = 0.16) and could not provide information on the size of transported sediments.

  6. Suspended particle capture by synthetic vegetation in a laboratory flume (United States)

    Fauria, Kristen E.; Kerwin, Rachel E.; Nover, Daniel; Schladow, S. Geoffrey


    Vegetated floodplains and wetlands trap particles, a process that is important for water quality and wetland function and morphology. The rates of particle removal by vegetation remain poorly characterized, especially for small particles and vegetation coated with biofilm. In this study, we measured capture rates of road dust by arrays of grass-like synthetic vegetation in a laboratory flume. We performed 40 experiments in which stem density, flow velocity, the presence of biofilm, and initial particle concentration varied, and used an in situ particle size analyzer to measure the concentration of a continuous particle size distribution (1.25-250 µm diameter). We fit first-order decay models to the particle concentration measurements to determine particle capture rates and found that capture rates increased with particle size, stem density, and the presence of biofilm. Capture rates decreased with increasing flow velocity, which suggests that fast flows may resuspend particles from stems. We also calculated percent particle capture efficiencies and fit a new empirical model for capture efficiency to our results. We found that particle capture efficiency was highest for low stem density treatments and propose that stem density affects capture by altering turbulent kinetic energy.

  7. Application of Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry in laboratory flumes (United States)

    Morgan, Jacob A.; Brogan, Daniel J.; Nelson, Peter A.


    Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry has become widely used for topographic data collection in field and laboratory studies. However, the relative performance of SfM against other methods of topographic measurement in a laboratory flume environment has not been systematically evaluated, and there is a general lack of guidelines for SfM application in flume settings. As the use of SfM in laboratory flume settings becomes more widespread, it is increasingly critical to develop an understanding of how to acquire and process SfM data for a given flume size and sediment characteristics. In this study, we: (1) compare the resolution and accuracy of SfM topographic measurements to terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements in laboratory flumes of varying physical dimensions containing sediments of varying grain sizes; (2) explore the effects of different image acquisition protocols and data processing methods on the resolution and accuracy of topographic data derived from SfM techniques; and (3) provide general guidance for image acquisition and processing for SfM applications in laboratory flumes. To investigate the effects of flume size, sediment size, and photo overlap on the density and accuracy of SfM data, we collected topographic data using both TLS and SfM in five flumes with widths ranging from 0.22 to 6.71 m, lengths ranging from 9.14 to 30.48 m, and median sediment sizes ranging from 0.2 to 31 mm. Acquisition time, image overlap, point density, elevation data, and computed roughness parameters were compared to evaluate the performance of SfM against TLS. We also collected images of a pan of gravel where we varied the distance and angle between the camera and sediment in order to explore how photo acquisition affects the ability to capture grain-scale microtopographic features in SfM-derived point clouds. A variety of image combinations and SfM software package settings were also investigated to determine optimal processing techniques. Results from this

  8. Design, integration and preliminary results of the IXV Catalysis experiment (United States)

    Viladegut, Alan; Panerai, F.; Chazot, O.; Pichon, T.; Bertrand, P.; Verdy, C.; Coddet, C.


    The CATalytic Experiment (CATE) is an in-flight demonstration of catalysis effects at the surface of thermal protection materials. A high-catalytic coating was applied over the baseline ceramic material on the windward side of the intermediate experimental vehicle (IXV). The temperature jump due to different catalytic activities was detected during re-entry through measurements made with near-surface thermocouples on the windward side of the vehicle. The experiment aimed at contributing to the development and validation of gas/surface interaction models for re-entry applications. The present paper summarizes the design of CATE and its integration on the windward side of the IXV. Results of a qualification campaign at the Plasmatron facility of the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics are presented. They provided an experimental evidence of the temperature jump at the low-to-high catalytic interface of the heat shield under aerothermal conditions relevant to the actual IXV flight. These tests also gave confidence so that the high-catalytic patch would not endanger the integrity of the vehicle and the safety of the mission. A preliminary assessment of flight data from the thermocouple measurements shows consistency with results of the qualification tests.

  9. Preliminary results of the XR2-1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, R.O.; Helmick, P.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, L. [SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The XR2-1 (Ex-Reactor) experiment, investigating metallic core-melt relocation in boiling water reactor geometry, was performed on October 12, 1995, following two previous simpler XR1-series tests in August and November of 1993. The XR2-1 test made use of a highly detailed replication of the lower region of the BWR core, including the control blade and channel box structures, fuel rods, fuel canister nosepieces, control blade velocity limiter, and fuel support pieces, in order to investigate a key core melt progression uncertainty for BWR Station Blackout type accidents. The purpose of this experiment program is to examine the behavior of downward-draining molten metallic core materials in a severe reactor accident in a dry BWR core, and to determine conditions under which the molten materials drain out of the core region, or freeze to form blockages in the lower portion of the core. In the event that the draining metallic materials do not form stable blockages in the lower core region, and instead erode the lower core structures such as the lower core plate, then the subsequent core melt progression processes may proceed quite differently than was observed in the TMI-2 accident, with correspondingly different impact on vessel loading and vessel release behavior. The results of the Ex-Reactor tests are preliminary. All of the tests conducted have shown a significant degree of channel box destruction induced by the draining control blade materials. The XR2-1 test further showed that the draining zircaloy melt causes significant disruption of the fuel rod geometry. All of the tests have shown tendencies to form interim blockages as the melts temporarily freeze, but that these blockages re-melt, assisted by eutectic interactions, resulting in the sudden draining of accumulated metallic melt pools.

  10. The influence of fish feed pellets on the stability of seabed sediment: A laboratory flume investigation (United States)

    Neumeier, Urs; Friend, Patrick L.; Gangelhof, Uffe; Lunding, Jens; Lundkvist, Morten; Bergamasco, Alessandro; Amos, Carl L.; Flindt, Mogens


    Superfluous fish food settling below fish farms can have a negative impact on the seabed. To aid in the assessment of this impact a series of flume experiments, designed to mimic seabed conditions below a fish farm, was conducted with the aim of examining the effects of fish pellets on the stability of fine sediments. Artificial beds, with varying quantities of fish pellets incorporated both within the sediment matrix and lying on the sediment surface, were allowed to consolidate for different periods of time ranging from 1 to 10 days, and then subjected to erosion experiments. In flume experiments containing fish pellets, a bacterial biofilm developed at the sediment-water interface after a few days. In the control experiments (no fish pellets), a diatom biofilm caused extensive stabilisation of the surface sediment. The erosion experiments showed that the addition of fish pellets reduced the surface erosion threshold by more than 50%. The stability decrease was more pronounced in the experiments with greater amounts of pellets. Evidence of drag reduction due to high suspended sediment concentration was also observed. This phenomenon is discussed and a correction formula is proposed for the effective shear stress experienced by the bed.

  11. Experimental study on phosphorus release from sediments of shallow lake in wave flume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Xiaojing; ZHU; Guangwei; LUO; Liancong


    Influence of wave on sediment resuspension and nutrients release from sediments, collected from Lake Taihu and Lake Chaohu, was studied in flume experiments. Under strong-wave conditions, concentrations of suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) in overlying water were increased significantly following the sediments re-suspension. During the experiments on sediments of Lake Taihu and Lake Chaohu, TP concentrations increased 6 times and 3 times, and DTP concentration increased 100% and 70% more than it in presuspension, respectively. Concentration of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) of experiment on sediment of Lake Taihu increased 25%. During the massive sediment suspension, the dissolved phosphorus in pore water and much of the phosphorus adsorbed by the sediment particles were released into overlying water. The phenomena in this wave flume experiment are quite similar to the situation observed in situ of Lake Taihu. The critical wave stresses of sediment re-suspension are nearly equal. The change of concentrations of SS, TP, and SRP was the same as that in situ situation.This study showed that concentrations of TP and SRP in lake water could be increased significantly by wave disturbance. Phosphorus release was significantly enhanced by wave disturbance at the beginning of massive sediment re-suspension, but decreased later.

  12. Preliminary experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a nigerian teaching hospital. (United States)

    Afuwape, O O; Akute, O O; Adebanjo, A T


    Presently many centers have facilities for laparoscopic surgery in Nigeria, but the practice is just evolving in most of these centers. This article presents the preliminary experience of the endoscopic surgery unit (general surgery) at the University College Hospital Ibadan Nigeria. The University College Hospital is the premier Nigerian teaching hospital and is located in the south-western part of the country. All the patients who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy at the University College Hospital between June 2009 and January 2011 were included in this study. The patients' demographic data, diagnosis, results of investigations and intra-operative findings were obtained from the records. Additional information extracted from the records was the duration of surgery, complications, outcome and discharge periods. There were thirteen patients over the twenty month period consisting of twelve females and one male. The age range was twenty six to sixty seven years with a mean of 44.6 years. The duration of surgery ranged from 90 to 189 minutes with a mean of 124 minutes. There were two complications. These were adhesive bowel obstruction and common bile duct injury. The duration of admission ranged from four to thirty two days with a mean of 7.53SD ± 8.5 days. There was one conversion to open surgery due to intra-operative gallbladder perforation with consequent dispersal of multiple gall stones within the peritoneal cavity. The common bile duct injury was diagnosed four days following surgery for which a choledochojejunostomy was done after initial conservative treatment. There was no mortality. Laparoscopic surgery is feasible in Nigeria and is likely to show increasing popularity among patients and surgeons. A careful patient selection protocol is necessary for an acceptable success rate with minimal complications. Our protocol of patient selection eliminated the need for intra-operative common bile duct exploration which requires expensive instruments. However, to

  13. Preliminary Design of a Pendulum Experiment for Searching for a Lorentz-Violation Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Yu-Jie


    This work mainly presents a preliminary design for a pendulum experiment with both the source mass and the test mass in a striped pattern to amplify the Lorentz-violation signal, since the signal is sensitive to edge effects.

  14. Environmental Effects of Hydrokinetic Turbines on Fish: Desktop and Laboratory Flume Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T. [Electric Power Research Institute; Amaral, Stephen V. [Alden Research Laboratory; Castro-Santos, Theodore [U.S. Geological Survey; Giza, Dan [Alden Research Laboratory; Haro, Alexander J. [U.S. Geological Survey; Hecker, George [Alden Research Laboratory; McMahon, Brian [Alden Research Laboratory; Perkins, Norman [Alden Research Laboratory; Pioppi, Nick [Alden Research Laboratory


    This collection of three reports describes desktop and laboratory flume studies that provide information to support assessment of the potential for injury and mortality of fish that encounter hydrokinetic turbines of various designs installed in tidal and river environments. Behavioral responses to turbine exposure also are investigated to support assessment of the potential for disruptions to upstream and downstream movements of fish. The studies: (1) conducted an assessment of potential injury mechanisms using available data from studies with conventional hydro turbines; (2) developed theoretical models for predicting blade strike probabilities and mortality rates; and (3) performed flume testing with three turbine designs and several fish species and size groups in two laboratory flumes to estimate survival rates and document fish behavior. The project yielded three reports which this document comprises. The three constituent documents are addressed individually below Fish Passage Through Turbines: Application of Conventional Hydropower Data to Hydrokinetic Technologies Fish passing through the blade sweep of a hydrokinetic turbine experience a much less harsh physical environment than do fish entrained through conventional hydro turbines. The design and operation of conventional turbines results in high flow velocities, abrupt changes in flow direction, relatively high runner rotational and blade speeds, rapid and significant changes in pressure, and the need for various structures throughout the turbine passageway that can be impacted by fish. These conditions generally do not occur or are not significant factors for hydrokinetic turbines. Furthermore, compared to conventional hydro turbines, hydrokinetic turbines typically produce relatively minor changes in shear, turbulence, and pressure levels from ambient conditions in the surrounding environment. Injuries and mortality from mechanical injuries will be less as well, mainly due to low rotational speeds and

  15. Effect of oxygen manipulations on benthic foraminifera: A preliminary experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.; Linshy, V.; Rana, S.S.; Ingole, B.S.

    marine protists, which have a great potential to detect ecological stress at a very early stage. Due to their high fossilization potential, an understanding of the ecology of foraminifera allows interpretations of the past benthic environmental...’. Many soft-shelled forms also exist, but have not been considered in the present study as they have no fossilization potential and thereby of no geological significance. This is a preliminary report and only presents the effect of oxygen...

  16. Preliminary Experiments with XKaapi on Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor


    Ferreira Lima, Joao Vicente; Broquedis, Francois; Gautier, Thierry; Raffin, Bruno


    International audience; This paper presents preliminary performance comparisons of parallel applications developed natively for the Intel Xeon Phi accelerator using three different parallel programming environments and their associated runtime systems. We compare Intel OpenMP, Intel CilkPlus and XKaapi together on the same benchmark suite and we provide comparisons between an Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor and a Sandy Bridge Xeon-based machine. Our benchmark suite is composed of three computing k...

  17. Hydrologic Triggering of Shallow Landslides in a Field-scale Flume (United States)

    Reid, M. E.; Iverson, R. M.; Iverson, N. R.; Brien, D. L.; Lahusen, R. G.; Logan, M.


    Hydrologic Triggering of Shallow Landslides in a Field-scale Flume Mark E. Reid, Richard M. Iverson, Neal R. Iverson, Dianne L. Brien, Richard G. LaHusen, and Mathew Logan Shallow landslides are often triggered by pore-water pressure increases driven by 1) groundwater inflow from underlying bedrock or soil, 2) prolonged moderate-intensity rainfall or snowmelt, or 3) bursts of high-intensity rainfall. These shallow failures are difficult to capture in the field, limiting our understanding of how different water pathways control failure style or timing. We used the field-scale, USGS debris-flow flume for 7 controlled landslide initiation experiments designed to examine the influence of different hydrologic triggers and the role of soil density, relative to critical state, on failure style and timing. Using sprinklers and/or groundwater injectors, we induced failure in a 0.65m thick, 2m wide, 6m3 prism of loamy sand on a 31° slope, placed behind a retaining wall. We monitored ~50 sensors to measure soil deformation (tiltmeters & extensometers), pore pressure (tensiometers and transducers), and soil moisture (TDR probes). We also extracted soil samples for laboratory estimates of porosity, shear strength, saturated hydraulic conductivity at differing porosities, unsaturated moisture retention characteristics, and compressibility. Experiments with loose soil all resulted in abrupt failure along the concrete flume bed with rapid mobilization into a debris flow. Each of the 3 water pathways, however, resulted in slightly different pore-pressure fields at failure and different times to failure. For example, groundwater injection at the flume bed led to a saturated zone that advanced upward, wetting over half the soil prism before pressures at the bed were sufficient to provoke collapse. With moderate-intensity surface sprinkling, an unsaturated wetting front propagated downward until reaching the bed, then a saturated zone built upward, with the highest pressures at the

  18. AGC-1 Experiment and Final Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert L. Bratton; Tim Burchell


    This report details the experimental plan and design as of the preliminary design review for the Advanced Test Reactor Graphite Creep-1 graphite compressive creep capsule. The capsule will contain five graphite grades that will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory to determine the irradiation induced creep constants. Seven other grades of graphite will be irradiated to determine irradiated physical properties. The capsule will have an irradiation temperature of 900 C and a peak irradiation dose of 5.8 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} [E > 0.1 MeV], or 4.2 displacements per atom.

  19. Preliminary results of the scientific experiments on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite (United States)


    The scientific equipment and experiments on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite are described, including various ground controls and the lab unit for studies at the descent vehicle landing site. Preliminary results are presented of the physiological experiment with rats, biological experiments with drosophila and higher and lower plants, and radiation physics and radiobiology studies for the planning of biological protection on future space flights. The most significant conclusion from the preliminary data is that rats tolerate space flight better with an artificial force of gravity.

  20. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.


    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  1. Interactions between piscivores, zooplanktivores and zooplankton in submerged macrophytes : Preliminary observations from enclosure and pond experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Perrow, M.R.; Landkildehus, F.


    behavioural changes of zooplanktivores has received little attention, even though this may be an important mechanism in enhancing the stability of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes. Preliminary observations from an unreplicated large-scale field enclosure experiment and a replicated pond experiment...

  2. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion (United States)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.


    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  3. Environmental Effects of Hydrokinetic Turbines on Fish: Desktop and Laboratory Flume Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T. [Electric Power Research Institute; Amaral, Stephen V. [Alden Research Laboratory; Castro-Santos, Theodore [U.S. Geological Survey; Giza, Dan [Alden Research Laboratory; Haro, Alexander J. [U.S. Geological Survey; Hecker, George [Alden Research Laboratory; McMahon, Brian [Alden Research Laboratory; Perkins, Norman [Alden Research Laboratory; Pioppi, Nick [Alden Research Laboratory


    This collection of three reports describes desktop and laboratory flume studies that provide information to support assessment of the potential for injury and mortality of fish that encounter hydrokinetic turbines of various designs installed in tidal and river environments. Behavioral responses to turbine exposure also are investigated to support assessment of the potential for disruptions to upstream and downstream movements of fish. The studies: (1) conducted an assessment of potential injury mechanisms using available data from studies with conventional hydro turbines; (2) developed theoretical models for predicting blade strike probabilities and mortality rates; and (3) performed flume testing with three turbine designs and several fish species and size groups in two laboratory flumes to estimate survival rates and document fish behavior. The project yielded three reports which this document comprises. The three constituent documents are addressed individually below Fish Passage Through Turbines: Application of Conventional Hydropower Data to Hydrokinetic Technologies Fish passing through the blade sweep of a hydrokinetic turbine experience a much less harsh physical environment than do fish entrained through conventional hydro turbines. The design and operation of conventional turbines results in high flow velocities, abrupt changes in flow direction, relatively high runner rotational and blade speeds, rapid and significant changes in pressure, and the need for various structures throughout the turbine passageway that can be impacted by fish. These conditions generally do not occur or are not significant factors for hydrokinetic turbines. Furthermore, compared to conventional hydro turbines, hydrokinetic turbines typically produce relatively minor changes in shear, turbulence, and pressure levels from ambient conditions in the surrounding environment. Injuries and mortality from mechanical injuries will be less as well, mainly due to low rotational speeds and

  4. Preliminary results from the {sup 51}Cr neutrino source experiment in GALLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)] [and others


    The GALLEX collaboration performed a second {sup 51}Cr neutrino source experiment during fall 1995. The full results from this second source experiment will not be available before the end of 1996. Meanwhile, we present a short description and preliminary results in this informal note. The (preliminary) value of the activity obtained form direct measurements has been found equal to (68.7 {+-}0.7) PBq (with 1-sigma error). This value, which is about 10% higher than the activity of the first source, was achieved by optimizing the irradiation conditions in the Silo{acute e} reactor and doing a longer irradiation of the enriched chromium. Preliminary results show that the ratio, R, of the radiochemically determined activity from {sup 71}Ge counting (57.1 {+-} PBq) to the directly measured activity is (0.83 {+-} 0.10). The combined value of R for the two source experiments is (0.92 {+-} 0.08).

  5. Kinetics experiments and bench-scale system: Background, design, and preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rofer, C.K.


    The project, Supercritical Water Oxidation of Hazardous Chemical Waste, is a Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Research and Development task being carried out by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its objective is to obtain information for use in understanding the basic technology and for scaling up and applying oxidation in supercritical water as a viable process for treating a variety of DOE-DP waste streams. This report gives the background and rationale for kinetics experiments on oxidation in supercritical water being carried out as a part of this HAZWRAP Research and Development task. It discusses supercritical fluid properties and their relevance to applying this process to the destruction of hazardous wastes. An overview is given of the small emerging industry based on applications of supercritical water oxidation. Factors that could lead to additional applications are listed. Modeling studies are described as a basis for the experimental design. The report describes plug flow reactor and batch reactor systems, and presents preliminary results. 28 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Laboratory observations of saline and turbidity currents flowing in U-shaped flume (United States)

    Stagnaro, M.; Bolla Pittaluga, M.


    Saline and turbidity currents belong to the large family of gravity currents. Due to the difficulties to predict and observe these kinds of phenomena, especially turbidity currents, we developed an experimental apparatus able to reproduce these currents in our Marchi Environmental Laboratory (Genova, Italy). The experiments were performed in a large U-shaped flume, 30 m long, characterized by a constant curvature bend (radius of 2.5 m) joining two straight reaches approximately 12 m long. The flume has a rectangular cross section 0.6 m wide and 0.5 m deep. Inside the flume we made a uniform concrete bottom slope (0.005), which proceeds from the inlet section along the first straight track and finishes 3 m after the bend exit. For each experiment we have been able to measure density distribution and velocity profiles along the vertical in different cross section. Density measurements were obtained using two ranks of siphons that sample the currents at different heights. Velocity was acquired with the DOP2000 ultrasound velocimeter; we measured longitudinal component in the straight reach of the flume, and both longitudinal and transversal velocity in the curved reach. We performed 30 experiments by changing the inlet conditions: primary defining the nature of the currents, saline or sediment laden, then varying two of the main parameters governing the currents: the density of the mixture and the flow discharge. The former covered a range between 1003 and 1023 kg/m^3 and the flow discharge ranged between 0.5 to 4.0 l/s. Both of these parameters influence the densimetric Froude Number, and allowed us to reproduce both subcritical and supercritical flow. In each experiment water entrainment from above was negligible hence the current was able to attain a quasi-uniform configuration in the first straight reach, whereby the longitudinal velocity and the thickness of the current were approximately constant. By varying the inlet conditions, it was possible to observe the

  7. Preliminary Experiments on the Propagation of Plastic Deformation (United States)


    Burnh:l.m Kelly Assist:J.nt to the Chief 2 Defense and Offense • • .. , . R E _S __ 1 RIC TED ., Preface ’ . The work described ~n this...variance with t he t heoreticall ;J- obta i ned curves and , hence, needs f~ther explanation. The object of the experiment s des cribed in t hi s...quite well with the experiments . The shape of t he pl3.stic wave is at some variance with the theor et i cally obta i ned curves. A.s shown by

  8. The MathScheme Library: Some Preliminary Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Carette, Jacques; Jeremic, Filip; Maccio, Vincent; O'Connor, Russell; Tran, Quang M


    We present some of the experiments we have performed to best test our design for a library for MathScheme, the mechanized mathematics software system we are building. We wish for our library design to use and reflect, as much as possible, the mathematical structure present in the objects which populate the library.

  9. Design and Construction of an Optimum Wave Flume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khalilabadi


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of a small wave flume and associated equipment. The wave flume is equipped with a flap-type wave generator, capable of producing both regular and irregular waves. Flap paddle is used to examine deep water and floating structures. Instrumentation includes three capacitive wave gauges. The wave-maker is controlled by a desktop computer, which also provides data-logging capability. In order to design a wave absorber of restricted length, all the different mechanisms able to dissipate wave energy studied. Finally from the survey of the wave absorbers used in different laboratories, a gravel beach designed for absorbing the waves coming from wave maker. By sealing leaks around paddle the error of measuring height-to-stroke ratios versus relative depth is decreased by 3%. The main advantage of this system over the previous ones is reduction of the amount of effort in the set up with optimum deflection and low level cost utility.

  10. Measurements of turbulent flow in a suddenly expanding flume with a rough bottom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.X.


    Some measurements were conducted in a suddenly expanding flume with a rough bottom. In the approach flume, the friction velocity was determined in three ways and the distributions of turbulence intensities and Reynolds stress in a vertical were obtained. The measurement of the separating turbulent f

  11. Preliminary results of solar constant observations with the SOLCON experiment on ATLAS-1 (United States)

    Crommelynck, D.; Domingo, V.; Barkstrom, B.; Lee, R. B., II; Donaldson, J.; Telljohann, U; Warren, L.; Fichot, A.


    A brief description is given of the Solar Constant (SOLCAN) experiment on Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 1, its scientific and technical objectives, as well as its measurement principle and its on board chronology of operations. A preliminary value of the solar constant during the third solar operation of the mission is also provided.


    The morphological basis for olfactory perception of steroids during agonistic behavior in lobsters: preliminary experiments. Borsay Horowitz, DJ1, Kass-Simon, G2, Coglianese, D2, Martin, L2, Boseman, M2, Cromarty, S3, Randall, K3, Fini, A.3 1US EPA, NHEERL, ORD, Atlantic Ecology...

  13. Preliminary experience with laparoscopic surgery in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. (United States)

    Adisa, A O; Arowolo, O A; Salako, A A; Lawal, O O


    This study presents a pioneer experience with laparoscopic operations in a General Surgical unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Consecutive patients who had laparoscopic operations from April through December 2008 were prospectively studied. Following clinical diagnosis, initial diagnostic laparoscopy was undertaken in all patients, followed by therapeutic open or laparoscopic procedures. All procedures were done under general anaesthesia. Duration of operation and outcome including complications were recorded. In all, there were 12 patients (8 males, 4 females), aged 15 to 50 years. Eight patients had clinical diagnoses of acute appendicitis, one each had undetermined right lower abdominal pain suspected ectopic gestation, adhesive intestinal obstruction and metastatic liver disease. The first 4 patients with inflammed appendix confirmed at laparoscopy had open appendicectomy. Of the next cohort of 5 patients, laparoscopic appendicectomy was completed in four but converted to open procedure in one. Normal findings were noted in the lady with suspected ectopic gestation. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was done for adhesive intestinal obstruction while a laparoscopic liver biopsy was done for the patient with metastatic liver disease. Operative time ranged from 55-105 minutes with marked reduction in operation time as confidence and experience grew. No intraoperative complication was observed but one patient had superficial port site infection postoperatively. We conclude that with good patient selection and some improvisation, laparoscopic general surgical operations are feasible with acceptable outcome even in a poor resource setting.

  14. Preliminary skyshine calculations for the Poloidal Diverter Tokamak Experiment (United States)

    Nigg, D. W.; Wheeler, F. J.


    A calculational model is presented to estimate the radiation dose, due to the skyshine effect, in the control room and at the site boundary of the Poloidal Diverter Experiment (PDX) facility at Princeton University which requires substantial radiation shielding. The required composition and thickness of a water-filled roof shield that would reduce this effect to an acceptable level is computed, using an efficient one-dimensional model with an Sn calculation in slab geometry. The actual neutron skyshine dose is computed using a Monte Carlo model with the neutron source at the roof surface obtained from the slab Sn calculation, and the capture gamma dose is computed using a simple point-kernel single-scatter method. It is maintained that the slab model provides the exact probability of leakage out the top surface of the roof and that it is nearly as accurate as and much less costly than multi-dimensional techniques.


    Wada, Nariaki; Nakamichi, Tamihiro; Yagi, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshihide; Kugimiya, Akikazu; Michioku, Kohji

    A laboratory experiment on denitrification was carried out in order to reduce nitrogen load from municipal landfill leachate. Nitrogen was efficiently removed by feeding sludge of the leachate pond into the tanks, which could activate denitrification bacteria. Although inorganic reducing agent such as iron powder was not able to make the whole water mass anoxic, denitrification took place by supplying organic matters such as methanol, hydrogen feeding agent, etc.. It is considered that small amount of anoxic water film produced on surfaces of container and carriers might contribute to denitrification, although the bulk water is kept aerobic. It is found that organic matters contained in the leachate is so insufficient that nitrification liquid circulation does not work well for denitrification.

  16. Preliminary Results of the Echo-Seeding Experiment ECHO-7 at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Ding, Y.; Dunning, M.; Frederico, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Corlett, J.; Qiang, J.; Penn, G.; Prestemon, S.; /LBL, Berkeley /LPHE, Lausanne


    ECHO-7 is a proof-of-principle echo-enabled harmonic generation FEL experiment in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC. The experiment aims to generate coherent radiation at 318 nm and 227 nm, which are the 5th and 7th harmonic of the infrared seed laser. In this paper we present the preliminary results from the commissioning run of the completed experimental setup which started in April 2010.

  17. Preliminary experiments: High-energy alpha PIXE in archaeometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, Thomas, E-mail: [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Chene, G.; Mathis, F. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Marchal, A.; Philippe, M.; Garnir, H.-P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Strivay, D. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)


    This paper describes the work realized at the 'Centre Europeen d'Archeometrie' to highlight the utility of high-energy alpha PIXE in the particular field of archaeometry and to introduce the developments done and to be done to complete the knowledge of high-energy alpha PIXE. It starts with the comparison of the yield and the noise background between several alpha particle beams and the comparison between alpha particle and proton beams on different thick and thin references. After, this paper depicts the developments done at the 'Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie' to perform such high-energy experiments, first on standards and later on cultural heritage objects. Moreover, it introduces the problematics of such beams for the quantification in PIXE by the intermediary of the knowledge of the ionization and X-ray production cross-sections and also the developments done to answer to this serious lack in the databases.

  18. Mitchell′s technique for epispadias repair: Our preliminary experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Yogesh


    Full Text Available Aim: We present here experience of a single surgeon with Mitchell′s procedure for correction of epispadias. Materials and Methods: Nine boys (mean age 5½ years, range 9 months to 16 years underwent Mitchell′s repair in Department of Pediatric Surgery over a period of 5½ (September 1999 to March 2005 for correction of epispadias. Six of these patients had come for the second stage of exstrophy-epispadias repair after primary bladder closure; the other three had incontinent penopubic epispadias. Results: The penis was cosmetically acceptable as regards to size, glans shape and peno-pubic angle in all the patients. However, there was a high incidence of penopubic fistula (44%. These patients with penopubic fistula also required postoperative urethral dilatations, at times repeated. One of the common factors to these subset patients was their younger age when Mitchell′s urethroplasty was performed. Limitations: The series is descriptive in nature, short in numbers and does not provide statistical comparison of Mitchell′s procedure with the previously done procedures. Conclusions: Mitchell′s complete penile disassembly technique for epispadias repair is more acceptable anatomical procedure that results in near-pendulous penis. However, when performed at young age, it is fraught with the complication of penopubic fistula similar to that as seen with Cantwell-Ransley′s procedure. Mitchell′s procedure creates a hypospadiac meatus initially and the meatal advancement is required as for any other distal penile/coronal hypospadias.

  19. Smart Ultrasound Remote Guidance Experiment (SURGE) Preliminary Findings (United States)

    Hurst, Victor; Dulchavsky, Scott; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Ebert, Doug


    To date, diagnostic quality ultrasound images were obtained aboard the International Space Station (ISS) using the ultrasound of the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Laboratory module. Through the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) and the Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs (BRASLET SDTO) studies, non-expert ultrasound operators aboard the ISS have performed cardiac, thoracic, abdominal, vascular, ocular, and musculoskeletal ultrasound assessments using remote guidance from ground-based ultrasound experts. With exploration class missions to the lunar and Martian surfaces on the horizon, crew medical officers will necessarily need to operate with greater autonomy given communication delays (round trip times of up to 5 seconds for the Moon and 90 minutes for Mars) and longer periods of communication blackouts (due to orbital constraints of communication assets). The SURGE project explored the feasibility and training requirements of having non-expert ultrasound operators perform autonomous ultrasound assessments in a simulated exploration mission outpost. The project aimed to identify experience, training, and human factors requirements for crew medical officers to perform autonomous ultrasonography. All of these aims pertained to the following risks from the NASA Bioastronautics Road Map: 1) Risk 18: Major Illness and Trauna; 2) Risk 20) Ambulatory Care; 3) Risk 22: Medical Informatics, Technologies, and Support Systems; and 4) Risk 23: Medical Skill Training and Maintenance.

  20. Preliminary experience with biodegradable implants for fracture fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhillon Mandeep


    Full Text Available Background: Biodegradable implants were designed to overcome the disadvantages of metal-based internal fixation devices. Although they have been in use for four decades internationally, many surgeons in India continue to be skeptical about the mechanical strength of biodegradable implants, hence this study. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done to assess the feasibility and surgeon confidence level with biodegradable implants over a 12-month period in an Indian hospital. Fifteen fractures (intra-articular, metaphyseal or small bone fractures were fixed with biodegradable implants. The surgeries were randomly scheduled so that different surgeons with different levels of experience could use the implants for fixation. Results: Three fractures (one humeral condyle, two capitulum, were supplemented by additional K-wires fixation. Trans-articular fixator was applied in two distal radius and two pilon fractures where bio-pins alone were used. All fractures united, but in two cases the fracture displaced partially during the healing phase; one fibula due to early walking, and one radius was deemed unstable even after bio-pin and external fixator. Conclusions: Biodegradable -implants are excellent for carefully selected cases of intra-articular fractures and some small bone fractures. However, limitations for use in long bone fractures persist and no great advantage is gained if a "hybrid" composite is employed. The mechanical properties of biopins and screws in isolation are perceived to be inferior to those of conventional metal implants, leading to low confidence levels regarding the stability of reduced fractures; these implants should be used predominantly in fracture patterns in which internal fixation is subjected to minimal stress.

  1. Preliminary Experience with a New Total Distal Radioulnar Joint Replacement (United States)

    Ewald, Timothy J.; Skeete, Kshamata; Moran, Steven L.


    resurfacing design may provide a means of decreasing pain and restoring DRUJ stability and motion following severe trauma, failed hemiarthroplasty, or failed Sauvé–Kapandji procedure. More experience is needed with this implant to confirm these initial encouraging results. The level of evidence for this study is IV (therapeutic, case series). PMID:23904976

  2. Vertical Flume Testing of WIPP Surrogate Waste Materials (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Schuhen, M.; Kicker, D.


    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. The DOE demonstrates compliance with 40 CFR 194 by means of performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. WIPP PA calculations estimate the probability and consequences of radionuclide releases for a 10,000 year regulatory period. Human intrusion scenarios include cases in which a future borehole is drilled through the repository. Drilling mud flowing up the borehole will apply a hydrodynamic shear stress to the borehole wall which could result in erosion of the waste and radionuclides being carried up the borehole. WIPP PA uses the parameter TAUFAIL to represent the shear strength of the degraded waste. The hydrodynamic shear strength can only be measured experimentally by flume testing. Flume testing is typically performed horizontally, mimicking stream or ocean currents. However, in a WIPP intrusion event, the drill bit would penetrate the degraded waste and drilling mud would flow up the borehole in a predominantly vertical direction. In order to simulate this, a flume was designed and built so that the eroding fluid enters an enclosed vertical channel from the bottom and flows up past a specimen of surrogate waste material. The sample is pushed into the current by a piston attached to a step motor. A qualified data acquisition system controls and monitors the fluid's flow rate, temperature, pressure, and conductivity and the step motor's operation. The surrogate materials used correspond to a conservative estimate of degraded TRU waste at the end of the regulatory period. The recipes were previously developed by SNL based on anticipated future states of the waste

  3. Verification of vertically rotating flume using non-newtonian fluids (United States)

    Huizinga, R.J.


    Three tests on non-Newtonian fluids were used to verify the use of a vertically rotating flume (VRF) for the study of the rheological properties of debris flow. The VRF is described and a procedure for the analysis of results of tests made with the VRF is presented. The major advantages of the VRF are a flow field consistent with that found in nature, a large particle-diameter threshold, inexpensive operation, and verification using several different materials; the major limitations are a lack of temperature control and a certain error incurred from the use of the Bingham plastic model to describe a more complex phenomenon. Because the VRF has been verified with non-Newtonian fluids as well as Newtonian fluids, it can be used to measure the rheological properties of coarse-grained debris-flow materials.

  4. Numerical Wave Flume Study on Wave Motion Around Submerged Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐鹏; 侯一筠


    Nonlinear interaction between surface waves and a submerged horizontal plate is investigated in the absorbed numerical wave flume developed based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method. The governing equations of the numerical model are the continuity equation and the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the k-ε turbulence equations. Incident waves are generated by an absorbing wave-maker that eliminates the waves reflected from structures. Results are obtained for a range of parameters, with consideration of the condition under which the reflection coefficient becomes maximal and the transmission coefficient minimal. Wave breaking over the plate, vortex shedding downwave, and pulsating flow below the plate are observed. Time-averaged hydrodynamic force reveals a negative drift force. All these characteristics provide a reference for construction of submerged plate breakwaters.

  5. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiment target and detector system. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.E.; Watts, K.D.; Caffrey, A.J.; Walter, J.B.


    We present detailed plans for the target and particle detector systems for the muon-catalyzed fusion experiment. Requirements imposed on the target vessel by experimental conditions and safety considerations are delineated. Preliminary designs for the target vessel capsule and secondary containment vessel have been developed which meet these requirements. In addition, the particle detection system is outlined, including associated fast electronics and on-line data acquisition. Computer programs developed to study the target and detector system designs are described.

  6. Charge generation associated with liquid spraying in tank cleaning and comparable processes - preliminary experiments (United States)

    Blum, Carsten; Losert, Oswald F. J.


    The BG RCI has initiated investigations in order to improve the data basis for assessing the ignition hazard by electrostatic charging processes associated with the spraying of liquids. On the base of preliminary experiments, we established procedures for measurements of electric field strength and charging current in the presence of aerosol particles. Results obtained with three different nozzle types, variation of pressure and with built-in deflecting plate are presented.

  7. The RPC-based IFR system at BaBar experiment preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Piccolo, D; Bagnasco, S; Baldini, R; Band, H R; Bionta, R; Buzzo, A; Calcaterra, A; Cavallo, N; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Fabozzi, F; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Gatto, C; Johnson, J; Lista, L; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, R; Palano, A; Paolucci, P; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Sciacca, C; Wright, D; Yu, Z; Zallo, A


    The IFR system is a RPC-based detector used to identify muons and neutral hadrons in the BaBar experiment at PEP II machine in SLAC. The RPC system can be used to reconstruct the trajectory of muons, pions and neutral hadrons interacting in the iron of the IFR. The different range and hit pattern allow to discriminate different particles crossing the IFR. An overview of the system design and the preliminary results on the IFR performances are reported.

  8. Fiscal year 1981 US corn and soybeans pilot preliminary experiment plan, phase 1 (United States)

    Livingston, G. P.; Nedelman, K. S.; Norwood, D. F.; Smith, J. H. (Principal Investigator)


    A draft of the preliminary experiment plan for the foreign commodity production forecasting project fiscal year 1981 is presented. This draft plan includes: definition of the phase 1 and 2 U.S. pilot objectives; the proposed experiment design to evaluate crop calendar, area estimation, and area aggregation components for corn and soybean technologies using 1978/1979 crop-year data; a description of individual sensitivity evaluations of the baseline corn and soybean segment classification procedure; and technology and data assessment in support of the corn and soybean estimation technology for use in the U.S. central corn belt.

  9. The NASA Juncture Flow Experiment: Goals, Progress, and Preliminary Testing (Invited) (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Kegerise, Michael A.


    NASA has been working toward designing and conducting a juncture flow experiment on a wing-body aircraft configuration. The experiment is planned to provide validation-quality data for CFD that focuses on the onset and progression of a separation bubble near the wing-body juncture trailing edge region. This paper describes the goals and purpose of the experiment. Although currently considered unreliable, preliminary CFD analyses of several different configurations are shown. These configurations have been subsequently tested in a series of "risk-reduction" wind tunnel tests, in order to help down-select to a final configuration that will attain the desired flow behavior. The risk-reduction testing at the higher Reynolds number has not yet been completed (at the time of this writing), but some results from one of the low-Reynolds-number experiments are shown.

  10. An evaluation of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale: A preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene van Wyk


    Full Text Available Orientation: The positive organisational behaviour movement emphasises the advantages of psychological strengths in business. The psychological virtues of positive emotional experiences can potentially promote human strengths to the advantages of business functioning and the management of work conditions. This is supported by Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory that emphasises the broadening of reactive thought patterns through experiences of positive emotions.Research purpose: A preliminary psychometric evaluation of a positive measurement of dimensions of emotional experiences in the workplace, by rephrasing the Kiefer and Barclay Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.Motivation for the study: This quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis investigates the factorial structure and reliability of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale, a positive rephrased version of the Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.Research approach, design and method: This Exploratory Factor Analysis indicates an acceptable three-factor model for the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale. These three factors are: (1 psychological recurrent positive state, (2 social connectedness and (3 physical refreshed energy, with strong Cronbach’s alphas of 0.91, 0.91 and 0.94, respectively.Main findings: The three-factor model of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a valid measure in support of Fredrickson’s theory of social, physical and psychological endured personal resources that build positive emotions.Practical/Managerial implications: Knowledge gained on positive versus negative emotional experiences could be applied by management to promote endured personal resources that strengthen positive emotional experiences.Contribution/value-add: The contribution of this rephrased Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a reliable measure of assessment of the social, physical and endured psychological and personal resources identified in Fredrickson’s broaden

  11. BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment): Preliminary results on Antarctic black cryptoendolithic fungi in ground based experiments


    C. Pacelli; Selbmann, L.; S. Onofri; de Vera, J.P.P.


    The main goal for astrobiologists is to find traces of present or past life in extraterrestrial environment or in meteorites. Biomolecules, such as lipids, pigments or polysaccharides, may be useful to establish the presence of extant or extinct life (Simoneit, B et al., 1998). BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment) aims to measure to what extent biomolecules, such as pigments and cellular components, preserve their stability under space and Mars-like conditions. The experiment has just been la...

  12. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)


    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  13. Preliminary experience with Piccolo Composite™, a radiolucent distal fibula plate, in ankle fractures. (United States)

    Caforio, Marco; Perugia, Dario; Colombo, Massimiliano; Calori, Giorgio Maria; Maniscalco, Pietro


    The radiolucent plate has many advantageous properties in the treatment of complex ankle fractures, particularly trimalleolar fractures. Surgeons may sometimes have difficulty observing the posterior malleolus after synthesis of lateral malleolus with a traditional plate because common materials of conventional plates are not radiolucent. In this study, the authors highlight the importance of the radiolucent property in the treatment of ankle fractures and describe their preliminary experience with a carbon fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone distal fibula plate, with good results at 4 months' follow-up and no signs of tissue inflammatory reaction.

  14. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation in a single artery branch: A preliminary experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Massimo; Chessa; Gianfranco; Butera; Luca; Giugno; Angelo; Micheletti; Diana; G; Negura; Mario; Carminati


    To describe preliminary experience of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, in a single pulmonary branch position. Two procedures in 2 patients from a single center are described, where implantation of percutaneous valves within a single pulmonary artery branch was technically successful. The procedural indication was pulmonary valve regurgitation and/or residual stenosis. The 2 patients were symptomatic. An Edwards Sapien? valve(Patient 1), and a Medtronic Melody? valve(Patient 2) were implanted. Both pts were discharged with an excellent valve function. In this report it is underlined that this modality is technically feasible and may be considered an option in patients with congenital heart defect under special circumstances.

  15. Low-dose fetal CT for evaluation of severe congenital skeletal anomalies: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Epelman, Monica; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bebbington, Michael [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wilson, R.D. [University of Calgary, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Calgary (Canada)


    Congenital skeletal abnormalities compose a heterogeneous and complex group of conditions that affect bone growth and development and result in various anomalies in shape and size of the skeleton. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of these anomalies is challenging because of the relative rarity of each skeletal dysplasia, the multitude of differential diagnoses encountered when the bony abnormalities are identified, lack of precise molecular diagnosis and the fact that many of these disorders have overlapping features and marked phenotypic variability. The following review is a preliminary summary of our experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) using low-dose fetal CT in the evaluation of severe fetal osseous abnormalities. (orig.)

  16. Laboratory Experiments of Roughness Effects on the Lateral Surface Transient Storage Mean Residence Time in Small Streams (United States)

    Jackson, T. R.; Haggerty, R.; Apte, S. V.; Budwig, R.; Tonina, D.


    Lateral surface transient storage (LSTS) zones are common in riverine systems. The higher mean residence times (MRTs) associated with LSTS recirculation impact water quality and solute transport. We are working to develop a predictive model of LSTS MRT based on parameters easily measured in the field. We investigated the effect of streambed roughness and LSTS shape (a lateral roughness) on MRT. We performed 9 laboratory experiments spanning roughness conditions and LSTS shapes that are based on shapes observed in natural streams. The three streambed roughness conditions were: (1) a smooth flume with a 15-cm depth; (2) a uniformly rough flume with 5-cm gravels 1-particle thick in the main channel and finer sand in the LSTS at 15-cm depth; and (3) a uniformly rough flume at 30-cm depth. We collected data on: (1) entrainment velocities at the LSTS entrance using stereo particle image velocimetry; (2) velocity and turbulence quantities along a horizontal plane in the LSTS with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter; and (3) MRT with salt injection experiments and electrical conductivity probes. Preliminary results from the experiments will be presented, and resulting insights into the predictive relationship.

  17. Effect of Covers and Rainfall on Soil and Water Conservation Using a Tilting Flume Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Compliew


    Full Text Available The effect of stone and vegetative covers was evaluated for soil and water conservation in a waterway on salty soils in the Northeast of Thailand. Experiments were conducted on a hydraulic tilting flume under simulated unit flow (120 and 45 cm2s-1, rainfall (120 mm/hr and slope (0, 1.2,1.4,1.6,1.8,2.0, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8 and 3.0% conditions. The depth of soil was maintained at 0.20 m. over a perforated bed to facilitate deep drainage. A comparative study of bare soil, stone cover (50% and vegetative cover (50% is made to evaluate soil loss, deep drainage, Manning’s roughness coefficient. The study has revealed that stone cover is more effective than vegetative cover at lower discharge in reducing the flow velocity and thereby soil erosion. Deep drainage has been reduced from lower discharge to higher discharge for all the slopes with cover measures, including bare soil. It is also found that cover measures are necessary beyond 2.6% bed slope in order to prevent rill erosion in salty soils.

  18. China ADS sub-critical experimental assembly-Venus-1 and preliminary experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yongqian; ZHANG Wei; CAO Jian; QUAN Yanhui; LUO Huangda; WU Xiaofei; XIA Pu; LUO Zhanglin; ZHAO Zhixiang; DING Dazhao; LI Yiguo; ZHU Qinfu; XIA Haihong; LI Jien


    China's accelerator-driven sub-critical system (ADS) sub-critical experimental assembly--Venus-1 and the preliminary experiment is presented. The core of Venus-1 is a coupled one of a fast neutron zone and a thermal neutron zone. The fast neutron zone is at the centre of the core and formed by natural uranium fuel. A fast neutron spectrum field can be produced in the fast neutron zone and used for the transmutation of minor actinides (Mas). The thermal neutron zone surrounds the fast neutron zone and is formed by low-enriched uranium fuel. It is a fission zone. An epithermal neutron zone between the fast neutron zone and the thermal neutron zone can be established for the transmutation of longlived fission products (LLFP). On July 18, 2005, the first fuel element was loaded into the Venus-Ⅰ sub-critical assembly and some preliminary experiments about the subcritical neutronics were performed. The Venus-1 can be driven by an Am-Be source or other steady neutron source (Cf-252, D-D reaction and D-T reaction) to study the effect of the external neutron source with different energies or a D-T pulsed neutron source on the dynamic characteristics.

  19. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability within Sediment Layers Due to Gas Retention: Preliminary Theory and Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rassat, Scot D.


    In Hanford underground waste storage tanks, a typical waste configuration is settled beds of waste particles beneath liquid layers. The settled beds are typically composed of layers, and these layers can have different physical and chemical properties. One postulated configuration within the settled bed is a less-dense layer beneath a more-dense layer. The different densities can be a result of different gas retention in the layers or different degrees of settling and compaction in the layers. This configuration can experience a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability where the less dense lower layer rises into the upper layer. Previous studies of gas retention and release have not considered potential buoyant motion within a settle bed of solids. The purpose of this report is to provide a review of RT instabilities, discuss predictions of RT behavior for sediment layers, and summarize preliminary experimental observations of RT instabilities in simulant experiments.

  20. Investigation of fracture-matrix interaction: Preliminary experiments in a simple system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, S.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.; Sobolik, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Paramount to the modeling of unsaturated flow and transport through fractured porous media is a clear understanding of the processes controlling fracture-matrix interaction. As a first step toward such an understanding, two preliminary experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of matrix imbibition on water percolation through unsaturated fractures in the plane normal to the fracture. Test systems consisted of thin slabs of either tuff or an analog material cut by a single vertical fracture into which a constant fluid flux was introduced. Transient moisture content and solute concentration fields were imaged by means of x-ray absorption. Flow fields associated with the two different media were significantly different owing to differences in material properties relative to the imposed flux. Richards` equation was found to be a valid means of modeling the imbibition of water into the tuff matrix from a saturated fracture for the current experiment.

  1. [The use of nitric oxide during transport of newborns with critical respiratory insufficiency: own experience, preliminary report]. (United States)

    Ziebiński, Marek; Walas, Wojciech


    This preliminary report presents author's experience with inhaled nitric oxide during transport of newborns with critical respiratory insufficiency. The theoretical basis, indications and contraindications as well as principles of administration during transport are described. The required equipment and some technical aspects are discussed. A short preview of performed transportations is given. Preliminary data show, that use of NO during transport is very helpful in children with critical respiratory insufficiency.

  2. Preliminary Results on Sediment Sorting Under Intense Bedload Transport (United States)

    Hernandez Moreira, R. R.; Vautin, D.; Mathews, S. L.; Kuprenas, R.; Viparelli, E.


    Previous experiments show that parallel-laminated deposits are emplaced under upper plane bed regime by the migration of small-amplitude, long-wavelength bedforms. The present research focuses on how sediment is sorted under upper plane bed and sheet flow transport regimes, and whether parallel-lamination is inhibited during sheet flow transport. The problem of studying the sorting of sediment under so intense transport conditions is plagued by the uncertainties related to flow resistances and bedload transport rates. We simplify the problem by first running the experiments with uniform sediment, to establish a baseline that will aid in the design of the experiments with poorly sorted material. We are running experiments at the Hydraulics Laboratory of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of South Carolina in Columbia, in a unidirectional sediment-feed flume, 9 meters long by 0.2 meters wide, of which 7 meters are used as test section. During the experiments, water surface and bed elevations are periodically measured to characterize the global parameters of the flow, e.g. mean flow velocity and bed shear stress. When the flow and the sediment transport reach conditions of mobile bed equilibrium, bed elevation fluctuations are measured with ultrasonic transducer systems at six fixed locations. Channel bed aggradation is then induced by slowly raising the tail gate of the flume such that there is no change in transport regime, as confirmed by additional measurements of water surface and bed elevation and bed elevation fluctuations. Preliminary observations under upper plane bed regime show the formation of the small-amplitude and long-wavelength bedforms, as well as hints of parallel lamination in the deposits. In the near future we aim to achieve sheet flow transport conditions with both uniform and non-uniform grain size distributions to look at the internal structure of the emplaced deposit.

  3. Investigating the effects of transport on the preservation of soft-bodied organisms using an annular flume tank. (United States)

    Bath Enright, Orla; Minter, Nicholas; Sumner, Esther; Mángano, Gabriela; Buatois, Luis


    Annular flume tank experiments offer unique opportunities to be able to investigate the effect of transport on a range of organisms; being able to create slow to fast sediment-laden flows that can be laminar to fully turbulent, and lasting over durations of minutes to hours. Understanding the effects of transport on the preservation potential of different organisms is fundamental to the study of palaeoecology. Despite this, the sedimentological processes leading up to fossil entombment remain largely overlooked. This is especially significant for fossil lagerstätte such as the Burgess Shale, whose exquisite fossil preservation has enabled insights into the anatomy of early soft-bodied organisms and their evolution during the Cambrian explosion. However there is still a fundamental debate with regards to the transport these organisms have undergone. Namely, whether they were living within or close to the environment of deposition, or could they have been transported from one environment to another? As such, does the Burgess Shale biota represent a palaeocommunity or not? To explore the limits of the effect of transport, initial experiments have been designed using an annular flume tank in order to test the influence of fully turbulent sandy suspensions (75-250μm) on organism preservation. This is a three factorial design where the three independent variables are transport duration, sediment concentration and grain angularity. In all experiments, flow velocity was kept constant along with controls on pH and salinity. The dependent variable, an index of "increasing state of damage" has been devised to classify the amount of destruction each organism exhibits after the experimental procedure. Results are presented here. From observations such as these, we can begin to set constraints on the amount of transport, if any, that these fossil organisms could have endured.

  4. Preliminary test of effects of cognitive ability, experience, and teaching methods on Verbal Analogy Test scores. (United States)

    Rosenberg, D; Willson-Quayle, A; Pasnak, R


    The methods from which one can choose when preparing for the GRE Verbal Analogies include books, software, audiotapes, and formal classroom instruction. What teaching method will work best for a given individual? To begin the search for an answer, Gray's test of reasoning ability was given to 28 undergraduates who also answered a questionnaire detailing their experience with analogies. They were randomly assigned to teaching conditions ranging from self-directed workbook study to intensive interactive assistance. No teaching method was superior overall, but interactions showed that (1) students who scored worst on the pretest improved the most, (2) those higher in cognitive functioning and experience performed better after intensive interactive assistance, and (3) those lower in both cognitive functioning and experience did significantly better with self-paced workbooks. This preliminary work suggests that it may be profitable to assess the prior experience and reasoning of potential students and adopt the methods for teaching formal operational thought found empirically to be most suitable.

  5. Preliminary Results from the PrimEx-II experiment at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparian, Ashot [NCA& T, Greensboro, NC; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    Properties of the neutral pion, as the lightest hadron in Nature, are most sensitive to the basic symmetries and their partial breaking effects in the theory of the strong interaction (QCD). In particular, the po →gg decay width is primarily defined by the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking effect (chiral anomaly) in QCD. The next order corrections to the anomaly have been shown to be small and are known to a 1% precision level. The PrimEx Collaboration at JLab has developed and performed two Primakoff type experiments to measure the po →gg decay width with a similar precision. The published result from the PrimEx-I experiment, G(p0 →gg ) = 7.82±0.14 (stat.)±0.17 (syst.) eV, was a factor of two more precise than the average value quoted in PDG-2010 [1]. The second experiment was performed in 2010 with a goal of 1.4% total uncertainty to address the next-to-leading-order theory calculations. The preliminary results from the PrimEx-II experiment are presented and discussed in this note.

  6. Detecting coherent patterns in a flume by using PIV and IR imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurka, Roi [Multiphase Flow Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Technion-IIT, 32000, Haifa (Israel); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Liberzon, Alex [Multiphase Flow Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Technion-IIT, 32000, Haifa (Israel); Institute of Hydromechanics and Water Resources Management, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Hetsroni, Gad [Multiphase Flow Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Technion-IIT, 32000, Haifa (Israel)


    We investigated the flow field in a turbulent boundary layer in a flume, by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Hot-Foil Infrared Imaging (HFIRI) techniques. Coherent patterns in the flow were identified and characterized by using instantaneous velocity and temperature fields. The velocity fields in the streamwise-spanwise plane were measured in parallel to the temperature distribution of the flume bottom. The identified patterns are represented by means of their spatial characteristics - a non-dimensional spatial separation between streamwise patterns, {lambda}{sup +}. (orig.)

  7. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience. (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R


    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  8. Experiments, conceptual design, preliminary cost estimates and schedules for an underground research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korbin, G.; Wollenberg, H.; Wilson, C.; Strisower, B.; Chan, T.; Wedge, D.


    Plans for an underground research facility are presented, incorporating techniques to assess the hydrological and thermomechanical response of a rock mass to the introduction and long-term isolation of radioactive waste, and to assess the effects of excavation on the hydrologic integrity of a repository and its subsequent backfill, plugging, and sealing. The project is designed to utilize existing mine or civil works for access to experimental areas and is estimated to last 8 years at a total cost for contruction and operation of $39.0 million (1981 dollars). Performing the same experiments in an existing underground research facility would reduce the duration to 7-1/2 years and cost $27.7 million as a lower-bound estimate. These preliminary plans and estimates should be revised after specific sites are identified which would accommodate the facility.

  9. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: jumping from 1.5 to 3 tesla (preliminary experience)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaramillo, Diego; Roberts, Timothy Paul Leslie; Zarnow, Deborah; Johnson, Ann Michelle; Delgado, Jorge; Vossough, Arastoo [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rubesova, Erika [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)


    Several attempts have been made at imaging the fetus at 3 T as part of the continuous search for increased image signal and better anatomical delineation of the developing fetus. Until very recently, imaging of the fetus at 3 T has been disappointing, with numerous artifacts impeding image analysis. Better magnets and coils and improved technology now allow imaging of the fetus at greater magnetic strength, some hurdles in the shape of imaging artifacts notwithstanding. In this paper we present the preliminary experience of evaluating the developing fetus at 3 T and discuss several artifacts encountered and techniques to decrease them, as well as safety concerns associated with scanning the fetus at higher magnetic strength. (orig.)

  10. Post-depositional changes in snow isotope content: preliminary results of laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ekaykin


    Full Text Available Isotopic content of the snow and firn thickness is assumed to be altered significantly due to the post-depositional (PD mass- and isotope exchange with the atmospheric water vapor. If so, these effects should be accounted for in the ice core-based isotope-temperature paleo-reconstructions. In order to study the intensity of the PD processes we set up a series of laboratory experiments. In this paper we describe in detail the experimental technique and briefly overview preliminary results. It is shown that the PD modifications in the upper layer of snow thickness are noticeably strong even under such a low temperature as −35°C (the value typical for the Central Antarctic summer. It is demonstrated that the PD isotopic changes in snow can be approximated as a linear function of the relative mass loss due to snow sublimation. Possible applications for improving the isotope-temperature paleo-reconstructions are shortly discussed.

  11. Screening diagnostics of antivital experiences and propensity toward impulsive, autoagressive behavior in adolescents (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannikov G.S.,


    Full Text Available Development of methods for revealing antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in educational institutions is one of the key steps in developing strategies for the primary prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening diagnostic package aimed at identifying antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior. The survey methods we used were: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Russell Loneliness Scale, A.G. Shmelev Suicide Risk Questionnaire, PDQ-IV Borderline disorder and Narcissism scales. At the first stage we examined 750 minors aged 12-18 and identified risk group (85 people – 11.4%, which included adolescents with high levels of both individual scales, and their combination. At the second stage we examined 10 adolescents at risk. In 7 of them (70% were identified antivital, suicidal thoughts of passive or compulsive nature, signs of subjective and objective socio- psychological maladjustment. Our preliminary conclusion is that high levels of hopelessness and loneliness in adolescents are stable predictors of mental and emotional distress and psychosocial maladjustment in the period of psychological crises and decompensation of character accentuation of borderline and narcissistic types. These scales can be recommended for primary screening of antivital (depressive experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in adolescents.

  12. Experimental investigation of the wake behind a model of wind turbine in a water flume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Naumov, Igor; Kabardin, I.;


    The flow behind the model of wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using Particle Image Velocimetry. The study carried out involves rotors of three bladed wind turbine designed using Glauert’s optimization. The transitional regime, generally characterized as in between...

  13. Monitoring of surface velocity of hyper-concentrated flow in a laboratory flume by means of fully-digital PIV (United States)

    Termini, Donatella; Di Leonardo, Alice


    High flow conditions, which are generally characterized by high sediment concentrations, do not permit the use of traditional measurement equipment. Traditional techniques usually are based on the intrusive measure of the vertical profile of flow velocity and on the linking of water depth with the discharge through the rating curve. The major disadvantage of these measurement techniques is that they are difficult to use and not safe for operators especially in high flow conditions. The point is that, as literature shows (see as an example Moramarco and Termini, 2015), especially in such conditions, the measurement of surface velocity distribution is important to evaluate the mean flow velocity and, thus, the flow discharge. In the last decade, image-based techniques have been increasingly used for surface velocity measurements (among others Joeau et al., 2008). Experimental program has been recently conducted at the Hydraulic laboratory of the Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospatial and of Materials Engineering (DICAM) - University of Palermo (Italy) in order to analyze the propagation phenomenon of hyper-concentrated flow in a defense channel. The experimental apparatus includes a high-precision camera and a system allowing the images recording. This paper investigates the utility and the efficiency of the digital image-technique for remote monitoring of surface velocity in hyper-concentrated flow by the aid of data collected during experiments conducted in the laboratory flume. In particular the present paper attention is focused on the estimation procedure of the velocity vectors and on their sensitivity with parameters (number of images, spatial resolution of interrogation area,) of the images processing procedure. References Jodeau M., A. Hauet, A. Paquier, Le Coz J., Dramais G., Application and evaluation of LS-PIV technique for the monitoring of river surface in high flow conditions, Flow Measurements and Instrumentation, Vol.19, No.2, 2008, pp.117

  14. Preliminary experience with dexmedetomidine for monitored anesthesia care during ENT surgical procedures. (United States)

    Busick, Tamra; Kussman, Mary; Scheidt, Troy; Tobias, Joseph D


    Dexmedetomidine is an alpha2-adrenergic agonist that produces anxiolysis, amnesia, sedation, potentiation of opioid analgesia, and sympatholysis. It is currently approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration for the sedation of adults in the intensive care setting for up to 24 hours during mechanical ventilation. Given its beneficial sedative and anxiolytic properties and limited adverse effect profile, it has been used in several other clinical scenarios. The authors present their experience using dexmedetomidine for monitored anesthesia care (MAC) during "awake" ENT procedures such as thyroplasty, a procedure requiring a patient to verbalize when requested but to otherwise remain immobile to allow for completion of the procedure, and in a patient with post-polio syndrome with poor pulmonary reserve requiring esophagoscopy with dilation and botulinum toxin injection for cricopharyngeal dysfunction. Our preliminary experience suggests that dexmedetomidine provides effective sedation as the primary agent for MAC during such procedures in adult patients. The end-organ effects of dexmedetomidine and previous reports of its use during MAC are reviewed.

  15. Preliminary experiments on pharmacokinetic diffuse fluorescence tomography of CT-scanning mode (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqi; Wang, Xin; Yin, Guoyan; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Limin


    In vivo tomographic imaging of the fluorescence pharmacokinetic parameters in tissues can provide additional specific and quantitative physiological and pathological information to that of fluorescence concentration. This modality normally requires a highly-sensitive diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) working in dynamic way to finally extract the pharmacokinetic parameters from the measured pharmacokinetics-associated temporally-varying boundary intensity. This paper is devoted to preliminary experimental validation of our proposed direct reconstruction scheme of instantaneous sampling based pharmacokinetic-DFT: A highly-sensitive DFT system of CT-scanning mode working with parallel four photomultiplier-tube photon-counting channels is developed to generate an instantaneous sampling dataset; A direct reconstruction scheme then extracts images of the pharmacokinetic parameters using the adaptive-EKF strategy. We design a dynamic phantom that can simulate the agent metabolism in living tissue. The results of the dynamic phantom experiments verify the validity of the experiment system and reconstruction algorithms, and demonstrate that system provides good resolution, high sensitivity and quantitativeness at different pump speed.

  16. Augmented Reality Cubes for Cognitive Gaming: Preliminary Usability and Game Experience Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Boletsis


    Full Text Available Early detection is important in dementia care; however, cognitive impairment is still under-recognised and under-diagnosed. Cognitive screening and training are two important preventative treatments, which can lead to early detection of cognitive decline. In this work, the “Cognitive Augmented Reality Cubes” (CogARC system is presented, i.e. a serious game for cognitive training and screening, utilising an interaction technique based on Augmented Reality and the manipulation of tangible, physical objects (cubes. The game is a collection of cognitive mini-games of preventative nature and is, primarily, targeting elderly players (≥60 years old. A preliminary testing was conducted focusing on the game experience that CogARC offers (utilising the In-Game Experience Questionnaire, the usability of the system (using the System Usability Scale, and the specific user observations and remarks, as documented by open, semi-structured interviews.  Overall, CogARC demonstrated satisfying positive responses, however, the negative reactions indicated that there are specific problems with aspects of the interaction technique and a number of mini-games. The open interview shed more light on the specific issues of each mini-game and further interpretation of user interactions. The current study managed to provide interesting insights into the game design elements, integration of Augmented Reality, tangible interaction of the system, and on how elderly players perceive and use those interaction components. 

  17. Preliminary experience with the MicroMed DeBakey pediatric ventricular assist device. (United States)

    Fraser, Charles D; Carberry, Kathleen E; Owens, W Richard; Arrington, Karol A; Morales, David L S; Heinle, Jeffery S; McKenzie, E Dean


    Mechanical circulatory support for both acute and chronic heart failure is a widely applied therapeutic option in the adult population with a variety of devices clinically available. Technology in this field has advanced sufficiently such that long-term support or "destination therapy" has become a generally accepted reality. Similar progress has not occurred in the field of device support for heart failure in children. While the number of potential patients is significantly lower in the pediatric population, the clinical relevance and poignancy of individual need are nonetheless real. Until recently, children with heart failure have been largely disadvantaged in comparison to their adult counterparts. The DeBakey VAD Child (MicroMed Technology, Inc, Houston, TX) represents a hopeful initial step in the direction of reducing the technological gap between adults and children. While the clinical experience with this device is limited at present, preliminary results are encouraging. This report will provide an overview of the DeBakey VAD Child, including device specifications, indications for clinical use, surgical and postoperative considerations, and updated clinical experience.

  18. Preliminary Flight Results of the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed: NASA DR1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus Experiment (United States)

    Jackson, George L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl; Barth, Janet; Seidleck, Christina; Marshall, Paul


    NASA Goddard Spare Flight Center's (GSFC) Dual Rate 1773 (DR1773) Experiment on the Microelectronic and Photonic Test Bed (MPTB) has provided valuable information on the performance of the AS 1773 fiber optic data bus in the space radiation environment. Correlation of preliminary experiment data to ground based radiation test results show the AS 1773 bus is employable in future spacecraft applications requiring radiation tolerant communication links.

  19. Prospectively gated axial CT coronary angiography: preliminary experiences with a novel low-dose technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, Oliver; Jeltsch, Martin; Feuerlein, Sebastian; Brunner, Horst; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Hoffmann, Martin H.K. [University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany); Nagel, Hans-Dieter [Philips Healthcare, Department of Science and Technology, Hamburg (Germany); Walker, Matthew J. [CT Clinical Science, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    To assess image quality and radiation exposure with prospectively gated axial CT coronary angiography (PGA) compared to retrospectively gated helical techniques (RGH). Forty patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and a stable heart rate below 65 bpm underwent CT coronary angiography (CTCA) using a 64-channel CT system. The patient cohort consisted of 20 consecutive patients examined using a PGA technique and 20 patients examined using a standard RGH technique. Both groups were matched demographically according to age, gender, body mass index, and heart rate. For both groups, two independent observers assessed image quality for all coronary segments on an ordinal scale from 1 (nonassessable) to 5 (excellent quality). Image quality and radiation exposure were compared between patient groups. There were no significant differences in vessel-based image quality between the two groups (P > 0.05). Mean ({+-} SD) effective radiation exposure in the PGA group was 3.7 {+-} 0.8 mSv compared to 18.9 {+-} 3.8 mSv in the RGH group without ECG-based tube current modulation (P < 0.001). Preliminary experience shows PGA technique to be a promising approach for CTCA resulting in a substantial reduction in radiation exposure with image quality comparable to that of standard RGH technique. (orig.)

  20. Preliminary experience with drug-coated balloon angioplasty in primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hee; Hwa; Ho; Julian; Tan; Yau; Wei; Ooi; Kwok; Kong; Loh; Than; Htike; Aung; Nwe; Tun; Yin; Dasdo; Antonius; Sinaga; Fahim; Haider; Jafary; Paul; Jau; Lueng; Ong


    We evaluated the clinical feasibility of using drugcoated balloon(DCB) angioplasty in patients undergoingprimary percutaneous coronary intervention(PPCI). Between January 2010 to September 2014,89 STelevation myocardial infarction patients(83% male,mean age 59 ± 14 years) with a total of 89 coronary lesions were treated with DCB during PPCI. Clinical outcomes are reported at 30 d follow-up. Left anterior descending artery was the most common target vessel for PCI(37%). Twenty-eight percent of the patients had underlying diabetes mellitus. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 44% ± 11%. DCB-only PCI was the predominant approach(96%) with the remaining 4% of patients receiving bail-out stenting. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction(TIMI) 3 flow was successfully restored in 98% of patients. An average of 1.2 ± 0.5 DCB were used per patient,with mean DCB diameter of 2.6 ± 0.5 mm and average length of 23.2 ± 10.2 mm. At 30-d follow-up,there were 4 deaths(4.5%). No patients experienced abrupt closure of the infarctrelated artery and there was no reported target-lesion failure. Our preliminary experience showed that DCB angioplasty in PPCI was feasible and associated with a high rate of TIMI 3 flow and low 30-d ischaemic event.

  1. An overview of the Tokamak Physics Experiment vacuum vessel preliminary design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocco, R.E. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)


    The mission of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) Project is to develop the scientific basis for a compact and continuously operating tokamak fusion reactor. The vacuum vessel, which consists of a double walled torus, ports and supports, is a major element of the TPX machine. This paper provides an overview of the vacuum vessel preliminary design work. The design of the vacuum vessel is being carried out by an industrial team under subcontract to the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The respective work scopes of this team are discussed. The role of concurrent engineering is presented in the context of this design-build subcontract. A discussion of the engineering requirements, material selection rationale and vacuum vessel configuration is provided. Titanium 6Al-4V will be used to fabricate the vacuum vessel. Significant material concerns were identified with the use of titanium; hydrogen embrittlement and the effects of borated water were the major issues. A research and development (R and D) program was established to resolve these material issues as well as to develop the vessel weld details. A comprehensive analytical effort was established to perform the structural and thermal analysis of the vessel. Design details of the vessel, supports, ports, and flanges are presented.

  2. Pool film boiling experiments on a wire in low gravity: preliminary results. (United States)

    Di Marco, P; Grassi, W; Trentavizi, F


    This paper reports preliminary results for pool film boiling on a wire immersed in almost saturated FC72 recently obtained during an experimental campaign performed in low gravity on the European Space Agency Zero-G airplane, (reduced gravity level 10(-2)). This is part of a long-term research program on the effect of gravitational and electric forces on boiling. The reported data set refers to experiments performed under the following conditions: (1) Earth gravity without electric field, (2) Earth gravity with electric field, (3) low gravity without electric field, and (4) low gravity with electric field. Although a decrease of gravity causes a heat transfer degradation, the electric field markedly improves heat exchange. This improvement is so effective that, beyond a certain field value, the heat flux is no longer sensitive to gravity. Two main film boiling regimes have been identified, both in normal and in low gravity: one is affected by the electric field and the other is practically insensitive to the field influence.

  3. Electromagnetic experiment to map in situ water in heated welded tuff: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.


    An experiment was conducted in Tunnel Complex G at the Nevada Test Site to evaluate geotomography as a possible candidate for in situ monitoring of hydrology in the near field of a heater placed in densely welded tuff. Alterant tomographs of 200 MHz electromagnetic permittivity were made for a vertical and a horizontal plane. After the 1 kilowatt heater was turned on, the tomographs indicated a rapid and strong drying adjacent to the heater. Moisture loss was not symmetric about the heater, but seemed to be strongly influenced by heterogeneity in the rock mass. The linear character of many tomographic features and their spatial correlation with fractures mapped in boreholes are evidence that drying was most rapid along some fractures. When the heater was turned off, an increase in moisture content occurred around the heater and along the dry fractures. However, this process is much slower and the magnitude of the moisture increase much smaller than the changes observed during heating of the rock. The interpretation of the tomographs is preliminary until they can be processed without the restrictive assumption of straight ray paths for the signals through the highly heterogeneous rock mass. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Preliminary experience with laparoscopic repair of associated inguinal and umbilical hernias in children. (United States)

    Bertozzi, M; Magrini, E; Appignani, A


    The authors report their preliminary experience in laparoscopic repair of associated inguinal and umbilical hernias in children. Twenty-six patients affected by the association of inguinal and umbilical hernia with an umbilical defect larger than 5 mm underwent a laparoscopic procedure. A 5-mm trocar was placed through the umbilical defect for the optic. To fix the trocar to avoid loss of carboperitoneum, we fashioned and tightened a purse-string non-absorbable suture with a sliding knot around the defect. In this manner, we ensured the trocar, fixing it and avoiding any loss of CO2, proceeding safely to the laparoscopic IH repair, by means of two additional 3 mm operative trocars. At the end of the inguinal herniorrhaphy, the previously fashioned purse-string suture was tightened to repair the umbilical defect. The mean operative time for the repair of associated inguinal and umbilical hernias was 30.1 ± 7.4 min in cases of unilateral inguinal hernia and 39.5 ± 10.6 for bilateral inguinal hernia. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 32 months. Neither intra- nor post-operative complications nor recurrences were seen. This small sample suggests that this simple method is safe, effective and might be useful for pediatric surgeons performing laparoscopic repair for inguinal hernia in presence of an associated UH with a statistically significant decrease of operative time.

  5. Preliminary Λ ^0 arrow p + π ^- Signal for SELEX - Fermilab Experiment 781 (United States)

    Parkhurst, James F.; Dauwe, Loretta J.; E781 Collaboration


    SELEX (SEgmented Large X baryon spectrometer), a fixed target experiment at Fermilab, collected data from February to September 1997, using both 650 GeV/c Σ ^-/π ^-, and 550 GeV/c p/π ^+ beams. This run resulted in 2 billion triggered interactions being logged to tape. Primarily designed to study charmed baryons, E781 can also study hyperon production and decays, and the Primakoff effect. Λ ^0 has several decay modes, however it primarily decays into a p and π ^-. A neutral particle decay to two charged particles appears in the spectrometer as two oppositely charged tracks, originating downstream from the primary interaction in the target. Spectrometer magnets provide a transverse momentum kick which spreads the particle trajectories in a direction depending on the particles' charge. Particle momentum is determined from knowledge of the magnetic field and the track curvature. Assuming masses for the positive and negative tracks, the invariant mass and momentum of the initial neutral particle is calculated. A preliminary reconstruction of Λ ^0 decay, including the mass distribution, will be presented.

  6. [The lived experience of family member caring for a person affected by Alzheimer's disease: preliminary results]. (United States)

    Vellone, E; Micci, F; Sansoni, J; Sinapi, N; Cattel, C


    The aim of this article is to report the preliminary results from a phenomenological study on the lived experience of Alzheimer's caregivers. Eight caregivers involved in caring for two years at list were interviewed. The analysis of interviews by Giorgi's method showed a multidimensional reality synthesizable in eight spheres of themes: Illness, Patient, Caring, Caregiver's Life and Health, Coping, Spouse/Family, Others, Feelings. Illness has a great impact on the caregivers' life and causes the loss of the affected person even before his/her death. Caring is very hard and emotionally involving. Caregivers mainly complain the lack of support from the National Health System. The continuous involvement in caring produces also health problems, depression, and negative effects within the family. Others are considered as bad. The most common feelings are fear for possible accidents to the patients and remorses. Some caregivers have good coping style putting their faith in God, valuing the closeness of the family and living daily. The utility of the eight spheres of themes are discussed in order to guide the practice toward the caregivers.

  7. Universal newborn hearing screening: preliminary experience at the University Hospital of Cagliari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Pinna


    Full Text Available Bilateral congenital or acquired sensorineural hearing loss is a pathological condition affecting 1-2 children per 1,000 live births; it represents a major issue in public health because its late identification can negatively affect speech and language development. The aim of hearing screening is to obtain diagnosis and management of hearing loss as soon as possible; in fact early diagnosis and treatment allow children with congenital hearing impairment to acquire adequate linguistic competence. The present study reports our preliminary experience in newborn hearing screening at Neonatology services of University of Cagliari (Italy. During the first semester of surveillance, between January 2012 and June 2012, hearing screening was performed on a total of 901 babies using two different methods, TEOAEs in healthy neonates and automated ABR in high-risk babies. All infants were screened prior to hospital discharge; in some cases, especially for preterm infants of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Puericulture Institute, the screening was performed after discharge, to achieve a possible better global and acoustic maturation; 5 cases of hearing impairment were found. In the present study the Authors confirmed that it is possible to start a universal hearing screening in a relatively short time reaching the percentages suggested by Joint Committee on Infant Hearing.

  8. Wageningen Urban Rainfall Experiment 2014 (WURex14): Experimental setup and preliminary results (United States)

    van Leth, Thomas C.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Hazenberg, Pieter; Berne, Alexis


    Microwave links from cellular communication networks have been shown to be able to provide valuable information concerning the space-time variability of rainfall. In particular over urban areas, where network densities are generally high, they have the potential to complement existing dedicated infrastructure to measure rainfall (gauges, radars). In addition, microwave links provide a great opportunity for ground-based rainfall measurement for those land surface areas of the world where gauges and radars are generally lacking. Such information is not only crucial for water management and agriculture, but also for instance for ground validation of space-borne rainfall estimates such as those provided by the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) mission. WURex14 is dedicated to address several errors and uncertainties associated with such quantitative precipitation estimates in detail. The core of the experiment is provided by three co-located microwave links installed between two major buildings on the Wageningen University campus, approximately 2 km apart: a 38 GHz commercial microwave link, provided by T-Mobile NL, and 26 GHz and 38 GHz (dual-polarization) research microwave links from RAL. Transmitting and receiving antennas have been attached to masts installed on the roofs of the two buildings, about 30 m above the ground. This setup has been complemented with a Scintec infrared Large-Aperture Scintillometer, installed over the same path, as well as 5 Parsivel optical disdrometers and an automated rain gauge positioned at several locations along the path. Temporal sampling of the received signals was performed at a rate of 20 Hz. The setup is being monitored by time-lapse cameras to assess the state of the antennas as well as the atmosphere. Finally, data is available from the KNMI weather radars and an automated weather station situated just outside Wageningen. The experiment has been active between August 2014 and December 2015. We give a global overview of

  9. Preliminary stress characterization for an in-situ stimulation experiment at the Grimsel Underground Laboratory (United States)

    Krietsch, Hannes; Doetsch, Joseph; Gischig, Valentin; Amann, Florian; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Madonna, Claudio; Evans, Keith; Valley, Benoit; Giardini, Domenico; Wiemer, Stefan; Maurer, Hansruedi; Loew, Simon


    A decameter-scale in-situ stimulation experiment is currently being executed at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland, spanning from hydraulic fracturing to controlled fault-slip experiments. For the feasibility of this project the in-situ stress tensor is of foremost importance. Therefore a unique stress characterization campaign combining stress relief methods (overcoring of USBM and CSIRO-HI probes) with hydraulic fracturing (HF) and hydraulic testing on pre-existing fractures (HTPF) in three boreholes was conducted in a first phase of this project. During all hydraulic stress measurements, micro-seismicity was monitored and localized in real time utilizing a dense network of piezo-electric sensors. In this contribution, we present preliminary results of the stress characterization and compare the derived stress tensor with previous estimates of the stress state. The stress characterization campaign was conducted in three boreholes, one sub-vertical and two sub-horizontal boreholes, assuming that the sub-vertical and one sub-horizontal are parallel to a principal stress component. A major task in this contribution is the integration of the different stress characterization methods. Our results of the different methods (overcoring and HF) are largely consistent, but disagree with some of the previous stress orientation estimates. From the new campaign the overcoring measurements indicate a sub-horizontal sigma1 of 17.3 MPa with a strike of 145°, a sigma2 of 9.7 MPa with 241°/69° and a sigma3 of 8.3 MPa with 055°/21° using an isotropic approach for inversion calculation. Whereas the USBM-Probe measures a projection of the principal stresses in a plane normal to borehole axis, the CSIRO-HI Probe provides the real 3D stress tensor. The HF and HTPF measurements indicate a far-field minimum horizontal stress between 8.7 and 9.1 MPa, consistent with the overcoring. Principal stresses, estimated by location of micro-seismic events during HF and HTPF, suggest that

  10. [Low field intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging for brain tumour surgery: preliminary experience]. (United States)

    Roldán, Pedro; García, Sergio; González, Josep; Reyes, Luis Alberto; Torales, Jorge; Valero, Ricard; Oleaga, Laura; Enseñat, Joaquim

    Intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is a recently introduced tool in the most advanced neurosurgical operating rooms worldwide. We present our preliminary experience in brain tumour surgery with low field PoleStar N30® intraoperative MRI since its introduction in 2013 in the Barcelona Clinic Hospital. A prospective non-randomised study was conducted on cases operated on using iMRI and intention of complete removal up to October 2015. A record was made of the data as regards surgical times, resection rates, histological diagnosis, hospital stay, and survival rates during follow-up. The study included 50 patients, with a mean age of 55 years (±13.7), a preoperative mean Karnofsky of 92 (being 81 post-operatively), and a mean follow-up of 10.5 months (±6.5). There were 26% re-operations due to recurrence. High-grade gliomas were reported in 56%, low-grade gliomas in 24%, and 20% "Other" tumours. Overall hospital stay was 10 days (±4.5). Depending on the histologiacl diagnosis, the "Others" group had a longer hospital stay. Overall, there were 52% complete removal, 18% of maximum removals, and 30% of partial removals. The overall survival rates during follow-up was 84%. iMRI is a safe and effective tool for brain tumour surgery. Its use allows an increase in resection rates, and minimises post-operative complications. Its implementation involves an increase in surgical time, which improves with the characteristic learning curve. More studies are needed to establish its role in the long-term survival of patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary Results of the NASA Beacon Receiver for Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP5 Propagation Experiment (United States)

    Nessel, James; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Riva, Carlo; Luini, Lorenzo


    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have initiated a joint propagation campaign within the framework of the Alphasat propagation experiment to characterize rain attenuation, scintillation, and gaseous absorption effects of the atmosphere in the 40 GHz band. NASA GRC has developed and installed a K/Q-band (20/40 GHz) beacon receiver at the POLIMI campus in Milan, Italy, which receives the 20/40 GHz signals broadcast from the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP#5 beacon payload. The primary goal of these measurements is to develop a physical model to improve predictions of communications systems performance within the Q-band. Herein, we describe the design and preliminary performance of the NASA propagation terminal, which has been installed and operating in Milan since May 2014. The receiver is based upon a validated Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) I/Q digital design approach utilized in other operational NASA propagation terminals, but has been modified to employ power measurement via a frequency estimation technique and to coherently track and measure the amplitude of the 20/40 GHz beacon signals. The system consists of a 1.2-m K-band and a 0.6-m Qband Cassegrain reflector employing synchronous open-loop tracking to track the inclined orbit of the Alphasat satellite. An 8 Hz sampling rate is implemented to characterize scintillation effects, with a 1-Hz measurement bandwidth dynamic range of 45 dB. A weather station with an optical disdrometer is also installed to characterize rain drop size distribution for correlation with physical based models.

  12. Risk of surgical site infection in paediatric herniotomies without any prophylactic antibiotics: A preliminary experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Vaze


    Full Text Available Background: Different studies underline the use of pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis in clean surgeries like herniotomy and inguinal orchiopexy. But, the meta-analyses do not recommend nor discard the use of prophylactic pre-operative antibiotics. The scarcity of controlled clinical trials in paediatric population further vitiates the matter. This study assessed the difference in the rate of early post-operative wound infection cases in children who received single dose of pre-operative antibiotics and children who did not receive antibiotics after inguinal herniotomy and orchiopexy. Materials and Methods: This randomised prospective study was conducted in Paediatric Surgery department of PGIMER Chandigarh. Out of 251 patients, 112 patients were randomised to the case group and 139 were ascribed to the control group. The patients in control group were given a standard regimen of single dose of intravenous antibiotic at the time of induction followed by 3-4 days of oral antibiotic. Case group patients underwent the surgical procedure in similar manner with no antibiotic either at the time of induction or post-operatively. Results: The incidence of surgical site infection in case group was 3.73 % and that in control group was 2.22%. The observed difference in the incidence of surgical site infection was statistically insignificant (P value = 0.7027. The overall infection rate in case and control group was 2.89%. Conclusions: Our preliminary experience suggests that there is no statistically significant difference in the proportion of early post-operative wound infection between the patients who received single dose of pre-operative antibiotics and the patients who received no antibiotics after inguinal herniotomy and orchiopexy. The risk of surgical site infection in paediatric heriotomies does not increase even if the child′s weight is less than his/her expected weight for age.

  13. Evaluation of swimming performance for fish passage of longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae using an experimental flume. (United States)

    Dockery, D R; McMahon, T E; Kappenman, K M; Blank, M


    The swimming performance of longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae, the most widely distributed minnow (Cyprinidae) in North America, was assessed in relation to potential passage barriers. The study estimated passage success, maximum ascent distances and maximum sprint speed in an open-channel flume over a range of water velocities and temperatures (10·7, 15·3 and 19·3° C). Rhinichthys cataractae had high passage success (95%) in a 9·2 m flume section at mean test velocities of 39 and 64 cm s(-1) , but success rate dropped to 66% at 78 cm s(-1) . Only 20% of fish were able to ascend a 2·7 m section with a mean velocity of 122 cm s(-1) . Rhinichthys cataractae actively selected low-velocity pathways located along the bottom and corners of the flume at all test velocities and adopted position-holding behaviour at higher water velocities. Mean volitional sprint speed was 174 cm s(-1) when fish volitionally sprinted in areas of high water velocities. Swimming performance generally increased with water temperature and fish length. Based on these results, fishways with mean velocities 100 cm s(-1) within structures should be limited to short distance (swimming performance metrics in an open-channel flume, which can simulate the hydraulic features of fishways and allow for behavioural observations that can facilitate the design of effective passage structures. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. PET/MRI: a novel hybrid imaging technique. Major clinical indications and preliminary experience in Brazil. (United States)

    Vitor, Taise; Martins, Karine Minaif; Ionescu, Tudor Mihai; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Wagner, Jairo; Campos, Guilherme de Carvalho; Nogueira, Solange Amorim; Guerra, Elaine Gonçalves; Amaro, Edson


    In recent years, medical imaging with hybrid techniques has widely accepted and employed in clinical routine. PET/MRI offers significant advantages, including excellent contrast and resolution and reduced ionizing radiation, as compared to well-established PET/CT. Therefore, PET/MRI is a promising modality for oncologic imaging of some regions, such as brain, head and neck, liver and pelvis. This article set out to analyze clinical conditions that could benefit from PET/MRI imaging based on our caseload. The potential of PET/MRI to become the imaging modality of choice for assessment of neurologic and oncologic conditions associated with soft tissues is highlighted. Clinical aspects of PET/MRI and its application to clinical cases are illustrated with examples extracted from the authors' preliminary experience. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, imagens médicas com tecnologias híbridas tornaram-se amplamente aceitas e utilizadas na prática clínica. O PET/RM possui vantagens importantes, incluindo excelentes contrastes e resolução, e menor radiação ionizante, em comparação ao PET/TC. Por isto, é uma modalidade promissora para exames de imagem de pacientes oncológicos, para avaliar o cérebro, cabeça e pescoço, o fígado e a pelve. O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar as situações clínicas que se beneficiariam de exames de PET/RM a partir de uma casuística. Destacamos o potencial desta técnica se tornar o método de imagem de escolha para doenças neurológicas e oncológicas que envolvam partes moles. Os aspectos clínicos de PET/RM e sua aplicação aos casos clínicos são ilustrados com exemplos da experiência inicial dos autores.

  15. Surveying rip current survivors: preliminary insights into the experiences of being caught in rip currents (United States)

    Drozdzewski, D.; Shaw, W.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Brander, R.; Walton, T.; Gero, A.; Sherker, S.; Goff, J.; Edwick, B.


    This paper begins a process of addressing a significant gap in knowledge about people's responses to being caught in rip currents. While rip currents are the primary hazard facing recreational ocean swimmers in Australia, debate exists about the best advice to give swimmers caught in rip currents. Such surf rescue advice - on what to do and how to respond when caught in a rip - relies on empirical evidence. However, at present, knowledge about swimmers reactions and responses to rip currents is limited. This gap is a considerable barrier to providing effective advice to beach goers and to understanding how this advice is utilised (or not) when actually caught in the rip current. This paper reports the findings of a pilot study that focussed on garnering a better understanding of swimmers' experiences when caught in rip currents. A large scale questionnaire survey instrument generated data about rip current survivors' demographics, knowledge of beach safety and their reactions and responses when caught in a rip current. A mix of online and paper surveys produced a total of 671 completed surveys. Respondents were predominantly an informed group in terms of rip current knowledge, beach experience and had a high self-rated swimming ability. Preliminary insights from the survey show that most respondents recalled a "swim across the rip/parallel to the beach" message when caught in the rip and most escaped unassisted by acting on this message. However, while nearly a quarter of respondents recalled a message of "not to panic", short answer responses revealed that the onset of panic inhibited some respondents from recalling or enacting any other type of beach safety message when caught in the rip current. Results also showed that despite the research sample being younger, competent and frequent ocean swimmers, they were more likely to swim at unpatrolled beaches and outside of the red and yellow safety flags. Moreover, they were still caught in a rip current and they

  16. Preliminary experience in the management of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in Lagos, Nigeria. (United States)

    Falase, Bode; Sanusi, Michael; Majekodunmi, Adetinuwe; Ajose, Ifeoluwa; Oke, David


    Aspiration of tracheobronchial foreign bodies commonly affects young children, is potentially life threatening and requires early intervention for extraction. Access to facilities and skill manpower for bronchoscopic extraction is however limited in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to describe the experience in our institution with bronchoscopic removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies and highlight the challenges encountered. This is a retrospective study of all patients referred to the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital with a diagnosis of tracheobronchial foreign body within the period of February 2008 and February 2013. Data extracted from the medical records were age, sex, time interval between aspiration and presentation, location of tracheobronchial foreign body, bronchoscopic technique, complications and outcome. A total of 24 patients were referred and confirmed at bronchoscopy to have tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Mean age was 6.6 + 5 years. Male to female ratio was 1:1. Delayed presentation was common with 22 patients (91.7%) presenting more than 24 hours after aspiration. Aspirated material was inorganic in 17 patients (70.8%) and organic in 7 patients (29.2%). Location of tracheobronchial foreign bodies was right main bronchus in 16 patients (66.7%), left main bronchus in 6 patients (25%) and the trachea in 2 patients (8.3%). Challenges to speedy and safe removal of the foreign bodies were delayed presentation and a limited range of bronchoscopic equipment early in the series which caused prolonged procedures and increased complications. Two mortalities occurred early in the series; one from airway obstruction and the other from respiratory failure caused by tracheobronchial oedema. Extraction of tracheobronchial foreign bodies was faster, more complete and safer later in the series due to a wider range of bronchoscopy equipment which included both flexible and rigid videobronchoscopy with the use of optical forceps. This preliminary

  17. Surveying rip current survivors: preliminary insights into the experiences of being caught in rip currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Drozdzewski


    Full Text Available This paper begins a process of addressing a significant gap in knowledge about people's responses to being caught in rip currents. While rip currents are the primary hazard facing recreational ocean swimmers in Australia, debate exists about the best advice to give swimmers caught in rip currents. Such surf rescue advice – on what to do and how to respond when caught in a rip – relies on empirical evidence. However, at present, knowledge about swimmers reactions and responses to rip currents is limited. This gap is a considerable barrier to providing effective advice to beach goers and to understanding how this advice is utilised (or not when actually caught in the rip current.

    This paper reports the findings of a pilot study that focussed on garnering a better understanding of swimmers' experiences when caught in rip currents. A large scale questionnaire survey instrument generated data about rip current survivors' demographics, knowledge of beach safety and their reactions and responses when caught in a rip current. A mix of online and paper surveys produced a total of 671 completed surveys. Respondents were predominantly an informed group in terms of rip current knowledge, beach experience and had a high self-rated swimming ability. Preliminary insights from the survey show that most respondents recalled a "swim across the rip/parallel to the beach" message when caught in the rip and most escaped unassisted by acting on this message. However, while nearly a quarter of respondents recalled a message of "not to panic", short answer responses revealed that the onset of panic inhibited some respondents from recalling or enacting any other type of beach safety message when caught in the rip current. Results also showed that despite the research sample being younger, competent and frequent ocean swimmers, they were more likely to swim at unpatrolled beaches and outside of the red and yellow safety flags. Moreover, they were still

  18. Geomorphic expression of strike-slip faults: field observations vs. analog experiments: preliminary results (United States)

    Hsieh, S. Y.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.


    The aim of this project is to study the surface expression of strike-slip faults with main aim to find rules how these structures can be extrapolated to depth. In the first step, several basic properties of the fault architecture are in focus: (1) Is it possible to define the fault architecture by studying surface structures of the damage zone vs. the fault core, particularly the width of the damage zone? (2) Which second order structures define the damage zone of strike-slip faults, and how relate these to such reported in basement fault strike-slip analog experiments? (3) Beside classical fault bend structures, is there a systematic along-strike variation of the damage zone width and to which properties relates the variation of the damage zone width. We study the above mentioned properties on the dextral Altyn fault, which is one of the largest strike-slip on Earth with the advantage to have developed in a fully arid climate. The Altyn fault includes a ca. 250 to 600 m wide fault valley, usually with the trace of actual fault in its center. The fault valley is confined by basement highs, from which alluvial fans develop towards the center of the fault valley. The active fault trace is marked by small scale pressure ridges and offset of alluvial fans. The fault valley confining basement highs are several kilometer long and ca. 0.5 to 1 km wide and confined by rotated dextral anti-Riedel faults and internally structured by a regular fracture pattern. Dextral anti-Riedel faults are often cut by Riedel faults. Consequently, the Altyn fault comprises a several km wide damage zone. The fault core zone is a barrier to fluid flow, and the few springs of the region are located on the margin of the fault valley implying the fractured basement highs as the reservoir. Consequently, the southern Silk Road was using the Altyn fault valley. The preliminary data show that two or more orders of structures exist. Small-scale develop during a single earthquake. These finally

  19. Gaslini's tracheal team: preliminary experience after one year of paediatric airway reconstructive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre Michele


    single tertiary care Centre providing rapid access to endoscopic and surgical manoeuvres on upper and lower airways and the possibility to start immediately cardiopulmonary bypass or ECMO. The preliminary experience of the Tracheal Team shows that good results can be obtained with this multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of complicated cases. The centralization of all the cases in one or few national Centres should be considered.

  20. Preliminary experiments to estimate the PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) offshore behaviour (United States)

    Albani, Marta; Piermattei, Viviana; Stefanì, Chiara; Marcelli, Marco


    The phytoplankton community is controlled not only by local environmental conditions but also by physical processes occurring on different temporal and spatial scales. Hydrodynamic local conditions play an important role in marine ecosystems. Several studies have shown that hydrodynamic conditions can influence the phytoplankton settling velocity, vertical and horizontal distribution and formation of cyanobacterial blooms. Mesocosms are useful structures to simulate marine environment at mesoscale resolution; allowing to closely approximate biotic or abiotic parameters of interest directly in nature. In this work an innovative structure named PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) is presented and tested. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to observe seasonal variations of biomass behaviour in two different hydrodynamic conditions: outside as well as whithin the PE.MA.M. We have evaluated whether it is possible to isolate a natural system from external water mass hydrodynamic exchanges and to assume that phytoplankton cells' transition is limited at the net and sea interface. Preliminary experiments test the isolating capacity of the net, to determine the currents' attenuation rate and to estimate the possible PE.MA.M. offshore behaviour. In the first investigation, we monitored the diffusion of phytoplankton cells. The PE.MA.M. exterior and interior were simulated using a plexiglass tank divided into two half-tanks (Aout-Bin) by a septum consisting of a net like a PE.MA.M. The tank was filled up with 10 L of water and only the half-tank Aout was filled up with 10 ml of phytoplankton culture (Clorella sp.). We monitored the chlorophyll concentrations for 24 hours. The two tanks had similar concentrations after 4 hours (2.70322 mg/m³ Aout and 2.37245 mg/m3 Bin) and this constant relationship was maintened until the end of the test. In the second investigation we used clod cards to measure water motions.We conducted two experiments within tank, the first

  1. Preliminary planning study for safety relief valve experiments in a Mark III BWR pressure suppression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.


    In response to a request from the Water Reactor Safety Research Division of the US NRC, a preliminary study is provided which identifies key features and consideration involved in planning a comprehensive in-plant Safety Relief Valve experimental program for a Mark III containment design. The report provides identification of program objectives, measurement system requirements, and some details quantifying expected system response. In addition, a preliminary test matrix is outlined which involves a supporting philosophy intended to enhance the usefulness of the experimental results for all members of the program team: experimentalists, analysts, and plant operator.

  2. A new extra-abdominal channel alternative to the mitrofanoff principle: experimental and preliminary clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Macedo Jr.


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The appendix is the gold-standard channel for the Mitrofanoff principle in pediatric urology, but the search for alternatives is justified considering it may not be available or preferably used for colonic stomas (Malone antegrade continence enema. The aim of this study is to report on technical feasibility of a new approach for creating catheterizable channels in a rabbit model and to present our preliminary clinical experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We configured a tube from two rectangular skin flaps 1x4 cm opposite each other in the middle line of the lower inferior abdomen. The channel was anastomosed to the bladder dome with embedding sutures to create a valvular mechanism. The experimental study consisted of 12 rabbits, divided in 4 groups according to the sacrifice schedule at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. At 30th postoperative day, an urodynamic evaluation was performed to record continence of the stoma. A histological analysis of the specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome and Picrosirius red was also done in group 2 (sacrifice at 4 weeks postoperatively. We used this method in 3 patients with congenital non-neurogenic bladder disease presenting with massive residual volumes without compliance deficits. RESULT: The technique proved feasible in all animals, 9 of 12 could be easily catheterized and underwent urodynamic study. No stoma leakage was observed in 7 animals at high bladder pressures (> 50 cm H20 and only 2 animals had some leakage at 40 cm H20. Urodynamics performed through the stoma showed urethral leakage at 20 cm H20, therefore demonstrating the efficacy of the valvular mechanism. Histological analysis confirmed good integration between the tube and the bladder. Mean follow-up of the clinical series (3 patients was 7.2 months. Two patients remained continent up to 4 hours, whereas 1 patient had some leakage after 2 hours. CONCLUSION: We were able to confirm feasibility of a new extra

  3. Only fixation for cervical spondylosis: Report of early results with a preliminary experience with 6 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Goel


    Full Text Available Aim: The author reports early post-operative outcome and preliminary experience with an alternative form of treatment of cervical degenerative or spondylotic disease leading to spinal canal stenosis that involves fixation-arthrodesis of the affected spinal segment using one or two (double insurance transarticular screws for each joint. Materials and Methods: During the period of months from March 2013 to July 2013, six patients having cervical spondylotic cord compression were treated with transarticular method of screw fixation of the involved segments. The operation involved section of the spinous process at its base, opening up of the facet joint, denuding of articular cartilage, placement of intraarticular cavity bone graft chips and insertion of either a single or two transarticular screws at each level. The fixation was done in four levels in four patients and at two levels in two patients. Japanese Orthopedic Association score, visual analog scale (neck pain and Odom′s criteria were used to monitor the clinical status of the patients before and after the surgery and at follow-up. Results: Immediate post-operative and a relatively short-term post-operative outcome was remarkably gratifying. During the average period of follow-up of 6 months (range: 3-8 months; there was varying degree of recovery of symptoms. The procedure resulted in firm stabilization and fixation of the spinal segment and provided a ground for arthrodesis. No patient worsened after treatment. During the period of follow-up, all patients showed remarkable and progressive recovery in symptoms. Conclusions: Vertical instability and telescoping, listhesis or overriding of the facets on physical activity seems to be the defining phenomenon in pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic disease. The clinical outcome in our patients suggest that only fixation of the spinal segment can be a rationale form of treatment. Transarticular method of treatment is a simple, safe and

  4. Preliminary data for the 20 May 1974, simultaneous evaluation of remote sensors experiment. [water pollution monitoring (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Batten, C. E.; Bowker, D. E.; Bressette, W. E.; Grew, G. W.


    Several remote sensors were simultaneously used to collect data over the tidal James River from Hopewell to Norfolk, Virginia. Sensors evaluated included the Multichannel-Ocean Color Sensor, multispectral scanners, and multispectral photography. Ground truth measurements and remotely sensed data are given. Preliminary analysis indicates that suspended sediment and concentrated industrial effluent are observable from all sensors.

  5. A laboratory experiment on the evolution of a sand gravel reach under a lack of sediment supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orru, C.; Chavarrias Borras, V.; Ferrara, V.; Stecca, G.; Blom, A.


    A flume experiment was conducted to examine the evolution of a sand-gravel reach under a lack of sediment supply. A bed composed of a bimodal sediment mixture was installed with a uniform slope and an gradual fining pattern. At the upstream end of the flume the initial bed consisted of 100% gravel,

  6. Towards a quantitative study of the VUV photolysis of methane: preliminary experiment on trichloromethane (United States)

    Gans, B.; Boyé-Péronne, S.; Douin, S.; Gauyacq, D.


    Photolysis of methane in Titan's stratosphere is the starting point of gas phase carbon chemistry. Quantitative studies of methane photolytic products are of utmost importance for Titan atmosphere models. With this aim, two experimental strategies are presented in this article. Preliminary results demonstrate the possibility of using CRDS absorption coupled with pulsed photolysis on the example of a halogenated derivative of methane: Trichloromethane (CHCl_3).

  7. Mass transport phenomena during solidification in microgravity; preliminary results of the first Mephisto flight experiment (United States)

    Favier, J. J.; Garandet, J. P.; Rouzaud, A.; Camel, D.


    The MEPHISTO space facility flew on the Columbia space shuttle in October 1992. The preliminary scientific results, mainly based on the analysis of the Seebeck signal, are presented in this paper. Valuable information was obtained for both planar and cellular solidification regimes. It is shown that mass transfer in the melt during the flight was principally diffusive; however, even in microgravity, slow growth rates may result in significant convective transport. A tentative interpretation of the Seebeck signal for destabilized interfaces is also proposed.

  8. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M


    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require Fluorine based (F-based) gases for optimal performance. Recent European regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade, several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector with these new ecological gas mixtures, in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard CMS electronic setup are under test. In this paper preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze, with CO2 and CF3I based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  9. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Cauwenbergh, Simon Marc D; Ferrini, Mauro; Muhammad, Saleh; Passamontic, L; Pierluigi, Daniele; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Russo, Alessandro; Savianoc, G; Tytgat, Michael


    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard cms electronic setup are under test. In this talk preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze and with CO2 based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  10. Hydrogeological characterization of the Heletz Sands Reservoir, Heletz (Israel) as a preliminary step towards CO2 injection experiments (United States)

    Bensabat, Jacob; Niemi, Auli; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Sharma, Prabhakar; Carrera, Jesus; Sauter, Martin; Tatomir, Alexandru; Ghergut, Julia; Pezard, Philippe; Edlman, Katriona; Brauchler, Ralf


    Hydrogeological characterization of the Heletz Sands Reservoir, Heletz (Israel) as a preliminary step towards CO2 injection experiments One the major components of the EU-FP7 funded MUSTANG project is to conduct a highly controlled series of CO2 injection experiments, aimed at determining field values of key CO2 trapping mechanisms such as dissolution and residual trapping and to establish a comprehensive and consistent dataset for model validation. Prior to injecting CO2 there is a need to achieve a sufficient degree of hydrogeological characterization of the reservoir. In what follows we present a sequence of hydrologic tests to be conducted at Heletz and their expected contribution to the understanding relevant hydrogeology. These include: 1) Chemical characterization of the formation fluid; 2) Flowing Fluid Electrical Conductivity log, aimed at determining the vertical variability of the reservoir permeability in the near well vicinity; 3) Water pulse and pumping tests, aimed at determining the reservoir scale hydraulic properties; 4) Thermal test, aimed at determining the value of the heat transfer coefficient from the reservoir to the borehole fluid, which is responsible for the heating of injected fluid in the borehole; 5) two-well injection and pumping of water and tracers test, in order to determine the impact of heterogeneity on the hydraulic parameters and to identify preferential flow paths in the reservoir. This paper presents the design and planning of the experiments, the results obtained in field and a preliminary interpretation.

  11. The Thirty Gigahertz Instrument Receiver for the QUIJOTE Experiment: Preliminary Polarization Measurements and Systematic-Error Analysis. (United States)

    Casas, Francisco J; Ortiz, David; Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Génova-Santos, Ricardo


    This paper presents preliminary polarization measurements and systematic-error characterization of the Thirty Gigahertz Instrument receiver developed for the QUIJOTE experiment. The instrument has been designed to measure the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. Two kinds of linearly polarized input signals have been used as excitations in the polarimeter measurement tests in the laboratory; these show consistent results in terms of the Stokes parameters obtained. A measurement-based systematic-error characterization technique has been used in order to determine the possible sources of instrumental errors and to assist in the polarimeter calibration process.

  12. Interactions Between Hydropeaking and Thermopeaking Waves and Their Effect on the Benthic Community in Flume Simulations (United States)

    Bruno, M.; Carolli, M.; Maiolini, B.; Siviglia, A.; Zolezzi, G.


    induced responses on benthic macroinvertebrates, i.e., the active (behavioral) and passive (catastrophic) drift. Although the achieved changes in temperature were within the tolerability range for benthic invertebrates, their drift propensity increased threefold and fivefold, and twofold and fourfold in the two cold and two warm thermopeaking experiments, respectively. Drift was probably behavioral, given the immediate responses of invertebrates which seek habitat patches downstream, that are within their temperature tolerance and/or preference levels. Catastrophic and behavioral drift can occur as distinct events in hydropeaking-impacted streams, thus we analyzed the effects of a hydropeaking wave followed by a thermopeaking wave in the same flume. We observed that the slight but abrupt increase in discharge caused an increase in drift of elevenfold the basedrift, but the abrupt decrease in temperature caused a stronger response, of thirty-ninefold the basedrift. Our experimental results suggest that effects of thermopeaking are mixed and synergic with those due to hydropeaking, and in the long-term may alter the longitudinal distribution of benthic communities. Such complex responses should be taken into account in simulation studies, in modelling of aquatic ecosystems and in proposing remediation strategies to hydropeaking-impacted rivers.

  13. A Preliminary Study on 1D Numerical Experiment of Water Debris Flow in Gully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to improve and enhance the numerical modeling methods and its application on debris flow problems,a preliminary study has been proposed in accordance with the corrected water-sediment numerical model on the premise of revised resistance and sediment capacity equations.Firstly,an overview the recent re- search achievements on numerical simulation of debris flow has been conducted,the results shown that a gener- al numerical model for debris flow can not be existed at all because the complex rheol...

  14. Rapid screening of wheat bran contaminated by deoxynivalenol mycotoxin using Raman spectroscopy: a preliminary experiment (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; De Girolamo, A.; Lippolis, V.; Pascale, M.


    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin frequently occurring in cereals and derived products, and regulated in many countries. Raman spectroscopy performed using optical fibers, with excitation at 1064 nm and a dispersive detection scheme, was utilized to analyze wheat bran samples naturally contaminated with DON. A multivariate processing of the spectroscopic data allowed to distinguish two classes of contamination, with DON below and above 400 μg/kg, respectively. Only one highly contaminated sample was misclassified. This preliminary result demonstrates the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a useful analytical tool for the non-destructive and rapid analysis of mycotoxins in food.

  15. Frictional sliding in layered rock model: Preliminary experiments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, K.E. Jr.; Buescher, B.J.; Anderson, D.; Epstein, J.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    An important aspect of determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a possible nuclear waste repository requires understanding the mechanical behavior of jointed rock-masses. To this end we have studied the frictional sliding between simulated rock joints in the laboratory using the technique of phase shifting moire interferometry. The models were made from stacks of Lexan plates and contained a central hole to induce slip between the plates when the models were loaded in compression. These preliminary results confirm the feasibility of the approach and show a clear evolution of slip as function of load.

  16. Mass transport phenomena in microgravity: Preliminary results of the first MEPHISTO flight experiment (United States)

    Favier, Jean Jacques; Garandet, J. P.; Rouzaud, A.; Camel, D.


    The MEPHISTO space program is the result of a cooperative effort that involves the French nuclear and space agencies (Commissariat a l'energie atomique, CEA - Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, CNES) and the American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scientific studies and apparatus development were funded in the frame of the GRAMME agreement between CEA and CNES, the flight costs being taken in charge by NASA. Six flight opportunities are scheduled, with alternating French and American principal investigators. It is the purpose of this paper to briefly present MEPHISTO along with the preliminary results obtained during its first flight on USMP-1 in October 1992.

  17. MR imaging of prostate. Preliminary experience with calculated imaging in 28 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevenois, P.A.; Van Regemorter, G.; Ghysels, M.; Delepaut, A.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Struyven, J.


    The majority of studies with MR imaging in prostate disease are based on a semiology obtained using images weighted in T1 and T2. A study was carried out to evaluate effects of images calculated in T1 and T2 obtained at 0.5T. This preliminary study concerns 28 prostate examinations with spin-echo acquisition and inversion-recuperation parameters, and provided images calculated in T1, weighted and calculated in T2. Images allowed detection and characterization of prostate lesions. However, although calculated images accentuate discrimination of the method, the weighted images conserve their place because of their improved spatial resolution.

  18. Preliminary Single-Center Canadian Experience of Human Normothermic Ex Vivo Liver Perfusion: Results of a Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Bral, M; Gala-Lopez, B; Bigam, D; Kneteman, N; Malcolm, A; Livingstone, S; Andres, A; Emamaullee, J; Russell, L; Coussios, C; West, L J; Friend, P J; Shapiro, A M J


    After extensive experimentation, outcomes of a first clinical normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) liver trial in the United Kingdom demonstrated feasibility and clear safety, with improved liver function compared with standard static cold storage (SCS). We present a preliminary single-center North American experience using identical NMP technology. Ten donor liver grafts were procured, four (40%) from donation after circulatory death (DCD), of which nine were transplanted. One liver did not proceed because of a technical failure with portal cannulation and was discarded. Transplanted NMP grafts were matched 1:3 with transplanted SCS livers. Median NMP was 11.5 h (range 3.3-22.5 h) with one DCD liver perfused for 22.5 h. All transplanted livers functioned, and serum transaminases, bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and lactate levels corrected in NMP recipients similarly to controls. Graft survival at 30 days (primary outcome) was not statistically different between groups on an intent-to-treat basis (p = 0.25). Intensive care and hospital stays were significantly more prolonged in the NMP group. This preliminary experience demonstrates feasibility as well as potential technical risks of NMP in a North American setting and highlights a need for larger, randomized studies. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Spatial characterization of the numerically simulated vorticity fields of a flow in a flume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi; Hetsroni, Gad [Technion - IIT, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Haifa (Israel); Tiselj, Iztok [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Engineering Division, Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    The topology of large scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer is investigated numerically. Spatial characteristics of the large scale structure are presented through an original method, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the three-dimensional vorticity fields. The DNS results, obtained by Tiselj et al. [23] for a fully developed turbulent flow in a flume, are used in the present work to analyze coherent structures with the proposed methodology. In contrast to the reconstruction methods that use instantaneous flow quantities, this approach utilizes the whole dataset of the numerical simulation. The analysis uses one thousand 3D vorticity fields from 50000 time steps of the simulation for the Reynolds number of 2600 (the turbulent Reynolds number Re{sup *}=171). The computational domain is 2146 x 171 x 537 wall units and the grid resolution is 128 x 65 x 72 points (in streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively). Experimental results obtained by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in a flume, which were analyzed with the same statistical characterization method, are in agreement with the DNS analysis: the dominant vortical structure appears to have a longitudinal streamwise orientation, an inclination angle of about 8 , streamwise length of several hundred wall units, and a distance between the neighboring structures of about 100 wall units in the spanwise direction. (orig.)

  20. Spatial characterization of the numerically simulated vorticity fields of a flow in a flume (United States)

    Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi; Tiselj, Iztok; Hetsroni, Gad


    The topology of large scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer is investigated numerically. Spatial characteristics of the large scale structure are presented through an original method, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the three-dimensional vorticity fields. The DNS results, obtained by Tiselj et al. [23] for a fully developed turbulent flow in a flume, are used in the present work to analyze coherent structures with the proposed methodology. In contrast to the reconstruction methods that use instantaneous flow quantities, this approach utilizes the whole dataset of the numerical simulation. The analysis uses one thousand 3D vorticity fields from 50000 time steps of the simulation for the Reynolds number of 2600 (the turbulent Reynolds number Re*=171). The computational domain is 2146×171×537 wall units and the grid resolution is 128×65×72 points (in streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively). Experimental results obtained by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in a flume, which were analyzed with the same statistical characterization method, are in agreement with the DNS analysis: the dominant vortical structure appears to have a longitudinal streamwise orientation, an inclination angle of about 8°, streamwise length of several hundred wall units, and a distance between the neighboring structures of about 100 wall units in the spanwise direction.

  1. The Dysarthria Impact Profile: A Preliminary French Experience with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Letanneux


    Full Text Available This preliminary study aimed to adapt the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP in French and to confirm its relevance for the assessment of the psychosocial impact of dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD. The DIP scale was administered to 10 people with PD and 10 age-matched control subjects. The DIP psychometric properties were calculated (discriminant validity, internal consistency, and concurrent validity, notably by using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI for interscale comparisons. The French version of the DIP discriminated people with PD from control subjects (χ2 test, P<0.05. Good internal consistency was observed in both populations (Cronbach’s α=0.93 for PD people and α=0.76 for control subjects. The DIP was highly correlated with the VHI (Spearman’s ρ=-0.70, P<0.01, confirming the external validity of the scale. There was no direct relationship between PD speech and quality of life as assessed by the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39. Our preliminary data suggest that the French version of the DIP has the potential to make a useful contribution for the assessment and outcome management in acquired dysarthria for both clinicians and researchers.

  2. Depletion and biodegradation of hydrocarbons in dispersions and emulsions of the Macondo 252 oil generated in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin. (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Daling, Per S; Faksness, Liv-G; Almås, Inger K; Vang, Siv-H; Syslak, Line; Leirvik, Frode


    Physically and chemically (Corexit 9500) generated Macondo 252 oil dispersions, or emulsions (no Corexit), were prepared in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin at 30-32 °C, and studies of oil compound depletion performed for up to 15 days. The use of Corexit 9500 resulted in smaller median droplet size than in a physically generated dispersion. Rapid evaporation of low boiling point oil compounds (C⩽15) appeared in all the experiments. Biodegradation appeared to be an important depletion process for compounds with higher boiling points in the dispersions, but was negligible in the surface emulsions. While n-alkane biodegradation was faster in chemically than in physically dispersed oil no such differences were determined for 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds. In the oil dispersions prepared by Corexit 9500, increased cell concentrations, reduction in bacterial diversity, and a temporary abundance of bacteria containing an alkB gene were associated with oil biodegradation.

  3. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads (United States)

    Wells, H. B.


    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  4. Frictional sliding in layered rock: Preliminary experiments on stacked Lexan plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, K.E. Jr.; Epstein, J.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fracture Behavior Group; Jung, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Understanding the mechanical behavior of jointed-rock masses is of critical importance to designing and predicting the performance of a potential nuclear waste repositiry. To this end we have studied the frictional sliding between simulated rock joints using phase shifting moire interferometry. Preliminary calibration models were made from stacks of Lexan plates that were sand-blasted to provide a uniform frictional interface. Load was applied monotonically and phase shifted moire fringe patterns were recorded at three different load states. Plots of slip along the interfaces for the model are presented to demonstrate the ability of the photomechanics technique to provide precise measurements of in-plane displacement, and ultimately the slip between the plates.

  5. Preliminary Experience with a New Multidirectional Videoendoscope for Neuroendoscopic Surgical Procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Maria Cavallo

    Full Text Available We assessed the applicability of a new multidirectional videoendoscope (digiCAMeleon, Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany in various neuroendoscopic procedures.A 4-mm-diameter rigid videoendoscope (digiCAMeleon, Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany with 1 sensor and an internal LED light source was tested. The device offers a resolution of 1920 x 1080 pixels and weighs ≈ 215 g. The prototype was tested on three cadaveric heads using three different approaches: a endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal; b frontal transcortical intraventricular; c supraorbital.We identified several major benefits of the integrated system as applied to endoscopic endonasal, transcortical intraventricular, and endoscopic supraorbital keyhole approaches. These included improved maneuverability of the scope on account of reduced bulk and integration of the camera and fiberoptic light components, a variable angle of view from 0-70 degrees, and a novel feature that can be activated to maintain orientation of the surgical horizon. Our preliminary report highlights the potential for handling the videoendoscope in one hand, as one would a microsurgical instrument. The videoendoscope harbors all its electronic and lighting data into a unique and thin cable, thus resembling a modern "all-in-one" computer technology. Because of its reduced weight and ergonomic shape, controlling its movements is very easy and comfortable, even in the microsurgical environment. Furthermore, the videoendoscope offers the unique feature of orienting the horizon of vision, thanks to the possibility of offering angled views while working; this helps the surgeons to stay oriented with direct visualization and improved control of the instruments over a specific area of interest.The videoendoscope prototype represents an HD-image quality versatile tool in a neurosurgical environment, thanks to its reduced weight and dimensions; in these preliminary simulations, we have identified optimized visibility

  6. Preliminary Experience with a New Multidirectional Videoendoscope for Neuroendoscopic Surgical Procedures (United States)

    Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Di Somma, Alberto; Solari, Domenico; de Divitiis, Oreste; Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Cappabianca, Paolo


    Purpose We assessed the applicability of a new multidirectional videoendoscope (digiCAMeleon, Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany) in various neuroendoscopic procedures. Methods A 4-mm-diameter rigid videoendoscope (digiCAMeleon, Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany) with 1 sensor and an internal LED light source was tested. The device offers a resolution of 1920 x 1080 pixels and weighs ≈ 215 g. The prototype was tested on three cadaveric heads using three different approaches: a) endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal; b) frontal transcortical intraventricular; c) supraorbital. Results We identified several major benefits of the integrated system as applied to endoscopic endonasal, transcortical intraventricular, and endoscopic supraorbital keyhole approaches. These included improved maneuverability of the scope on account of reduced bulk and integration of the camera and fiberoptic light components, a variable angle of view from 0–70 degrees, and a novel feature that can be activated to maintain orientation of the surgical horizon. Our preliminary report highlights the potential for handling the videoendoscope in one hand, as one would a microsurgical instrument. The videoendoscope harbors all its electronic and lighting data into a unique and thin cable, thus resembling a modern "all-in-one" computer technology. Because of its reduced weight and ergonomic shape, controlling its movements is very easy and comfortable, even in the microsurgical environment. Furthermore, the videoendoscope offers the unique feature of orienting the horizon of vision, thanks to the possibility of offering angled views while working; this helps the surgeons to stay oriented with direct visualization and improved control of the instruments over a specific area of interest. Conclusions The videoendoscope prototype represents an HD-image quality versatile tool in a neurosurgical environment, thanks to its reduced weight and dimensions; in these preliminary simulations, we have

  7. Student Participation in Ecological Research: Preliminary Insights from Students' Experiences in the Smoky Mountains (United States)

    Pacifici, Lara B.; Miller, Craig; Thomson, Norman


    Students participating in summer research internships at the Great Smoky Mountain National Park kept electronic journals to document their experiences. We used a combined content analysis to quantify the responses from the students in particular areas of interest and to understand the essence of experiences from the explanations provided in their…

  8. Near-Death Experiences and the "Fantasy-Prone" Personality: Preliminary Findings. (United States)

    Council, James R.; Greyson, Bruce

    Near-death experiences (NDEs) are subjective experiences at the threshold of death which can include strong positive affect, dissociation from the physical body, and paranormal/transcendental phenomena. Empirical investigation of NDEs has typically relied upon retrospective reports and personality studies of individuals who have come close to…

  9. Preliminary study of tolerance of ambiguity of individuals reporting paranormal experiences. (United States)

    Houran, J


    This research tested the notion that poltergeist-like experiences reflect the need to explain anomalous personal experiences. Thus, it was hypothesized that percipients of poltergeists would score lower on tolerance of ambiguity than controls. Further, it was hypothesized that tolerance of ambiguity would negatively correlate with the number of different categories of poltergeist experience. 30 self-identified percipients of poltergeist-like phenomena and 30 self-identified nonpercipients of the paranormal were administered the Rydell-Rosen Ambiguity Tolerance Scale and Houran and Lange's Poltergeist Experiences Checklist. Results partially supported predictions. Percipients of the paranormal scored significantly lower on tolerance of ambiguity than nonpercipients, but scores on the experiences checklist did not significantly correlate with scores on tolerance of ambiguity. The results supported the main hypothesis but more detailed research is needed to clarify the roles of age and tolerance of ambiguity in the perception of anomalous phenomena.

  10. Bryozoan filter feeding in laminar wall layers: flume experiments and computer simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Matlok, Simon; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik


    gradient (1-4 s-1). The laminar wall layer simulated viscous sublayers found in the field for smooth surfaces. Incurrents to lines of 3-10 zooids typically distort paths of particles approaching the colony at heights 1-2 mm above the level of lophophore inlets and theycapture particles from paths 0...

  11. Quantifying denitrification in rippled permeable sands through combined flume experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Adam J.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Cardenas, M. Bayani


    insight into the coupled hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes. There was broad agreement between the model results and experimental data. The model showed that the coupling between nitrification and denitrification was relatively weak in comparison to that in cohesive sediments. This was due...... to the direct advective transport between anoxic pore water and the overlying water column, and little interaction between the mostly oxic advective region and the underlying anoxic region. Denitrification was therefore mainly fueled by nitrate supplied from the water column. This suggests that the capacity...

  12. Short-term transport of glyphosate with erosion in Chinese loess soil - a flume experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Wang, Fei; Martins Bento, Celia; Xue, Sha; Gai, L.; Dam, van R.C.J.; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.


    Repeated applications of glyphosate may contaminate the soil and water and threaten their quality both within the environmental system and beyond it through water erosion related processes and leaching. In this study, we focused on the transport of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic

  13. Using fluidized bed and flume experiments to quantify cohesion development from aging and drainage (United States)

    Temporal variations in soil erosion resistance are often the result of a decrease in soil cohesion due to physical disruption followed by a regain of soil cohesion through a process analogous to a thixotropic sol-gel reaction also called aging, stabilization or consolidation. The goal of this study ...

  14. Flume Experiment on Stream Blockage by the Debris Flow From Tributary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Stream blockage by the debris flow from tributary valleys is a common phenomenon in mountainous area,which takes place when large quantities of sediment transported by debris flow reaches a river channel causing its complete or partial blockage.The dam formed by debris flow may causes upstream and downstream flooding,and presents great threat to people and property.Because of the catastrophic influence on people and property,debris-flow dam has attracted many attentions from the researchers and local adm...

  15. Morphodynamics and sedimentary structures of bedforms under supercritical-flow conditions: new insights from flume experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartigny, M.J.B.; Ventra, D.; Postma, G.; Berg, J.H. van den


    Particulate density currents, such as pyroclastic flows and turbidity currents, are prone to flow in a supercritical state, due to their small density difference in relation to the ambient fluid. Facies deposited in supercritical-flow conditions are therefore likely to be common, yet their recogniti

  16. Bryozoan filter feeding in laminar wall layers: flume experiments and computer simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Matlok, Simon; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik


    line colony to be about 16 times the frontal area of a simulated lophophore. Fluid particles were captured from paths about 1.3 mm above the sink. At twice the flowrate, the area cleared of particles reduced to about 7 times the frontal area while feeding rate increased by about 19%.KEY WORDS: ambient...

  17. Short-term transport of glyphosate with erosion in Chinese loess soil - a flume experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Wang, Fei; Martins Bento, Celia; Xue, Sha; Gai, L.; Dam, van R.C.J.; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.


    Repeated applications of glyphosate may contaminate the soil and water and threaten their quality both within the environmental system and beyond it through water erosion related processes and leaching. In this study, we focused on the transport of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic

  18. Gender and urban infrastructural poverty experience in Africa: A preliminary survey in Ibadan city, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimi. A. Asiyanbola


    Full Text Available The paper examines gender differences in the urban infrastructural poverty experience in an African city – Ibadan, Nigeria. The result of the cross-sectional survey of 232 households sampled in Ibadan city shows that there is intra-urban variation in the women and men urban infrastructure experience in Ibadan. The result of the correlation analysis shows that there is significant relationship between women and men urban infrastructure experience and the household income, educational level, household size and the stage in the life cycle; only with the urban infrastructure experience of the women is a significant relationship found with the occupation and the responsibility in the household. The result of the multiple linear regression analysis shows that the impact/effect of the socio-cultural, demographic and economic characteristics are more on women experience of urban infrastructure than on men’s experience. While the relative contributions of the economic characteristics, family characteristics and socio-cultural characteristics in that order are all significant in explaining the variance in women’s experience of urban infrastructure, only economic characteristics and family characteristics in that order are found to be significant in the case of the men. Also, the most important socio-cultural demographic and economic variables as shown by the beta coefficients for women are household income, household size, and responsibility in the household, while for men are the household income and the household size. Policy implications of the findings are highlighted in the paper.

  19. Preliminary experiment design of graphite dust emission measurement under accident conditions for HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Wei, E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Tao; Sun, Qi; Wang, Jie [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Suyuan, E-mail: [Center for Combustion Energy, The Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Highlights: • A theoretical analysis is used to predict the total graphite dust release for an AVR LOCA. • Similarity criteria must be satisfied between the experiment and the actual HTGR system. • Model experiments should be conducted to predict the graphite dust resuspension rate. - Abstract: The graphite dust movement behavior is significant for the safety analyses of high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The graphite dust release for accident conditions is an important source term for HTGR safety analyses. Depressurization release tests are not practical in HTGR because of a radioactivity release to the environment. Thus, a theoretical analysis and similarity principles were used to design a group of modeling experiments. Modeling experiments for fan start-up and depressurization process and actual experiments of helium circulator start-up in an HTGR were used to predict the rate of graphite dust resuspension and the graphite dust concentration, which can be used to predict the graphite dust release during accidents. The modeling experiments are easy to realize and the helium circulator start-up test does not harm the reactor system or the environment, so this experiment program is easily achieved. The revised Rock’n’Roll model was then used to calculate the AVR reactor release. The calculation results indicate that the total graphite dust releases during a LOCA will be about 0.65 g in AVR.

  20. Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments (United States)

    Katz, U.


    Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

  1. Preliminary design of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for proto-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment. (United States)

    Shaw, G; Martin, M Z; Martin, R; Biewer, T M


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique for measuring surface matter composition. LIBS is performed by focusing laser radiation onto a target surface, ablating the surface, forming a plasma, and analyzing the light produced. LIBS surface analysis is a possible diagnostic for characterizing plasma-facing materials in ITER. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has enabled the initial installation of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic on the prototype Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX), which strives to mimic the conditions found at the surface of the ITER divertor. This paper will discuss the LIBS implementation on Proto-MPEX, preliminary design of the fiber optic LIBS collection probe, and the expected results.

  2. The Thirty Gigahertz Instrument Receiver for the QUIJOTE Experiment: Preliminary Polarization Measurements and Systematic-Error Analysis (United States)

    Casas, Francisco J.; Ortiz, David; Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Génova-Santos, Ricardo


    This paper presents preliminary polarization measurements and systematic-error characterization of the Thirty Gigahertz Instrument receiver developed for the QUIJOTE experiment. The instrument has been designed to measure the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. Two kinds of linearly polarized input signals have been used as excitations in the polarimeter measurement tests in the laboratory; these show consistent results in terms of the Stokes parameters obtained. A measurement-based systematic-error characterization technique has been used in order to determine the possible sources of instrumental errors and to assist in the polarimeter calibration process. PMID:26251906

  3. The Thirty Gigahertz Instrument Receiver for the QUIJOTE Experiment: Preliminary Polarization Measurements and Systematic-Error Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Casas


    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary polarization measurements and systematic-error characterization of the Thirty Gigahertz Instrument receiver developed for the QUIJOTE experiment. The instrument has been designed to measure the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. Two kinds of linearly polarized input signals have been used as excitations in the polarimeter measurement tests in the laboratory; these show consistent results in terms of the Stokes parameters obtained. A measurement-based systematic-error characterization technique has been used in order to determine the possible sources of instrumental errors and to assist in the polarimeter calibration process.

  4. Potential flow calculations and preliminary wing design in support of an NLF variable sweep transition flight experiment (United States)

    Waggoner, E. G.; Phillips, P. S.; Viken, J. K.; Davis, W. H.


    NASA Langley and NASA Ames-Dryden have defined a variable-sweep transition-flight experiment utilizing the F-14 aircraft to enhance understanding of the interaction of crossflow and Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities on a laminar-boundary-layer transition. The F-14 wing outer panel will be modified to generate favorable pressure gradients on the upper wing surface over a wide range of flight conditions. Extensive computations have been performed using two-dimensional and three-dimensional transonic analysis codes. Flight-test and computational data are compared and shown to validate the applicability of the three-dimensional codes (WBPPW and TAWFIVE). In addition, results from two preliminary glove designs derived from two different approaches to the design problem are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of each approach are identified, and it is concluded that coupling an analysis code with an automated design procedure yields a powerful code with distinct advantages over a 'cut-and-dry' approach.

  5. [Preliminary research on application of Q method in studying experiences of Chinese medicine famous veteran doctors]. (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Yu; Peng, Jin; Jiang, Miao


    As the stands, one-sidedness of subjective understanding and subjective bias is surely existed in the study of Chinese medicine (CM) doctors' experiences, so to find appropriate methods for inheriting the real experiences of experts is needed. Since CM thinking presents as a system integral way of intention thinking and a mental process of subject, to study CM experts' experiences in virtue of Q method, a psychological research method for the subjective sense, must be feasible. The application of Q method was inspected in this article, it was considered to be capable of sorting the experts, integrating the opinions of experts and comparing their opinions from multi-pointviews. A test investigation was carried out by applying Q method to analyze the CM measures, getting from some chosen gynecology specialists, for regain pregnancy in women underwent spontaneous abortion, for exploring the applicative value of Q method in the co-cognizance formation of experts' experiences.

  6. Preliminary study of religious, spiritual and mystical experiences. Thematic analysis of Poles adult’s narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magdalena Boczkowska


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine narratives of the personal religious, spiritual and mystical experiences of adult Poles (N = 74 and their impact on narrative identity. The method for collecting qualitative data about individual understandings and spiritual, religious and mystical experiences was the narrative interview, developed on the basis of the Life Story Interview. During the analysis, the following key topics were identified: awareness of the presence/protection of God, a peak experience, the awareness of oneness with nature and the world, and a sense of closeness/contact with a person who has died. This study provides specific information on the spiritual, religious and mystical experiences of the investigated group of Poles.

  7. Preliminary Results from the GPS-Reflections Mediterranean Balloon Experiment (GPSR MEBEX) (United States)

    Garrison, James L.; Ruffini, Giulio; Rius, Antonio; Cardellach, Estelle; Masters, Dallas; Armathys, Michael; Zavorotny, Valery


    An experiment to collect bistatically scattered GPS signals from a balloon at 37 km altitude has been conducted. This experiment represented the highest altitude to date that such signals were successfully recorded. The flight took place in August 1999 over the Mediterranean sea, between a launch in Sicily and recovery near Nerpio, a town in the Sierra de Segura, Albacete province of Huelva, Spain. Results from this experiment are presented, showing the waveform shape as compared to theoretical calculations. These results will be used to validate analytical models which form the basis of wind vector retrieval algorithms. These algorithms are already being validated from aircraft altitudes, but may be applied to data from future spaceborne GPS receivers. Surface wind data from radiosondes were used for comparison. This experiment was a cooperative project between NASA, the IEEC in Barcelona, and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  8. Preliminary Results from the GPS-Reflections Mediterranean Balloon Experiment (GPSR-MEBEX) (United States)

    Garrison, James L.; Ruffini, Giulio; Rius, Antonio; Cardellach, Estelle; Masters, Dallas; Armatys, Michael; Zavorotny, Valery; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)


    An experiment to collect bistatically scattered GPS signals from a balloon at 37 km altitude has been conducted. This experiment represented the highest altitude to date that such signals were successfully recorded. The flight took place in August 1999 over the Mediterranean sea, between a launch in Sicily and recovery near Nerpio, a town in the Sierra de Segura, Albacete province of Huelva, Spain. Results from this experiment are presented, showing the waveform shape as compared to theoretical calculations. These results will be used to validate analytical models which form the basis of wind vector retrieval algorithms. These algorithms are already being validated from aircraft altitudes, but may be applied to data from future spacebourne GPS receivers. Surface wind data from radiosondes were used for comparison. This experiment was a cooperative project between NASA, the IEEC in Barcelona, and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  9. Blastocyst transfer for patients with multiple assisted reproduction treatment failures: preliminary experience. (United States)

    Sakkas, D; Percival, G; D'Arcy, Y; Lenton, W; Sharif, K; Afnan, M


    This preliminary study reports the results obtained from a patient group in which blastocyst culture and transfer were performed, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of introducing blastocyst transfer in a clinic. Twenty-six patients who had failed to achieve a pregnancy in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments were offered the choice of a fresh cycle with culture to the blastocyst stage. Of the 26 patients who elected to attempt blastocyst culture, 11 opted to have transfer on day 2 or day 3 due to low numbers of embryos. Of the 15 patients who proceeded to blastocyst culture, 46.2% of the embryos cultured reached the blastocyst stage or later and eight of the patients achieved a clinical pregnancy. More oocytes were collected in this patient group, hence the chances of obtaining blastocysts were higher. Offering blastocyst culture to patients with a reasonable chance of success who have had previous multiple assisted reproduction failures is an acceptable way of introducing blastocyst culture into practice.

  10. Outcome measures to evaluate new technology for tonsillectomy: preliminary experience with Coblation (United States)

    Shah, Udayan K.; Puchalski, Robert; Briggs, Marianne; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Galinkin, Jeffrey


    Evaluating the benefits of new surgical technologies does not end with the observation of successful instrument-to- tissue interaction. The impact of new technologies in medicine today is also gauged by improvements in patients' daily activities and performance. We present our outcomes assessment tool for judging the value of applying a novel tonsillectomy technique, plasma- mediated ablation using Coblation technology. Plasma- mediated ablation (PMA) achieves soft tissue resection in the oropharynx by energizing protons to break bonds. Less heat is released, allowing for less thermal injury, and possibly less pain, than with tonsillectomy performed using electrocautery alone. Children undergoing tonsillectomy by PMA, were evaluated using our outcomes-based scale, which asked families to report the degree of interruption of normal activities for the patient and their family during the post-tonsillectomy recovery period. A preliminary review of several outcomes assessments exemplify the benefits and limitations of this tool. The tracking of valuable data is weighed against the limitations of a short time course relative to the duration of disability, and a poor response rate. Future work aims to improve this data collection tool to allow application to other new technologies in otolaryngology.

  11. Estimation of desmosponge (Porifera, Demospongiae) larval settlement rates from short-term recruitment rates: Preliminary experiments (United States)

    Zea, Sven


    During a study of the spatial and temporal patterns of desmosponge (Porifera, Demospongiae) recruitment on rocky and coral reef habitats of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean Sea, preliminary attempts were made to estimate actual settlement rates from short-term (1 to a few days) recruitment censuses. Short-term recruitment rates on black, acrylic plastic plates attached to open, non-cryptic substratum by anchor screws were low and variable (0 5 recruits/plate in 1 2 days, sets of n=5 10 plates), but reflected the depth and seasonal trends found using mid-term (1 to a few months) censusing intervals. Moreover, mortality of recruits during 1 2 day intervals was low (0 12%). Thus, short-term censusing intervals can be used to estimate actual settlement rates. To be able to make statistical comparisons, however, it is necessary to increase the number of recruits per census by pooling data of n plates per set, and to have more than one set per site or treatment.

  12. Experimental investigation of the wake behind a model of wind turbine in a water flume (United States)

    Okulov, V. L.; Naumov, I. N.; Kabardin, I.; Mikkelsen, R.; Sørensen, J. N.


    The flow behind the model of wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using Particle Image Velocimetry. The study carried out involves rotors of three bladed wind turbine designed using Glauert's optimization. The transitional regime, generally characterized as in between the regime governed by stable organized vortical structures and the turbulent wake, develops from disturbances of the tip and root vorticies through vortex paring and further complex behaviour towards the fully turbulent wake. Our PIV measurements pay special attention to the onset of the instabilities. The near wake characteristics (development of expansion, tip vortex position, deficit velocity and rotation in the wake) have been measured for different tip speed ratio to compare with main assumptions and conclusions of various rotor theories.

  13. Sprinting performance of two Iberian fish: Luciobarbus bocagei and Pseudochondrostoma duriense in an open channel flume (United States)

    Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge; Bravo-Cordoba, Francisco Javier; Makrakis, Sergio; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.


    This paper presents sprinting data from Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) and northern straight-mouth nase (Pseudochondrostoma duriense), volitionally swimming against high velocity flows (1.5, 2.5 and 3 m s−1) in an open channel flume. Swimming endurance and speed greatly exceeded previously published observations with both species attaining swim speeds >20 body lengths s−1. Flow velocity was the primary variable limiting the distance both species were able to traverse. Barbel swam greater distances than nase at higher flow velocities, with longer individuals attaining greater distances than smaller ones. The results challenge established fish passage guidelines, suggesting that in some cases these species are capable of passing much higher velocities than was previously believed.

  14. Evaluation of current operating standards for chlorine dioxide in disinfection of dump tank and flume for fresh tomatoes. (United States)

    Tomás-Callejas, Alejandro; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Valadez, Angela M; Sbodio, Adrian; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Danyluk, Michelle D; Suslow, Trevor V


    Standard postharvest unit operations that rely on copious water contact, such as fruit unloading and washing, approach the criteria for a true critical control point in fresh tomato production. Performance data for approved sanitizers that reflect commercial systems are needed to set standards for audit compliance. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) for water disinfection as an objective assessment of recent industry-adopted standards for dump tank and flume management in fresh tomato packing operations. On-site assessments were conducted during eight temporally distinct shifts in two Florida packinghouses and one California packinghouse. Microbiological analyses of incoming and washed fruit and dump and flume system water were evaluated. Water temperature, pH, turbidity, conductivity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were monitored. Reduction in populations of mesophilic and coliform bacteria on fruit was not significant, and populations were significantly higher (P dump tanks but consistently below the detection limit in flumes. Turbidity and conductivity increased with loads of incoming tomatoes. Water temperature varied during daily operations, but pH and ORP mostly remained constant. The industry standard positive temperature differential of 5.5°C between water and fruit pulp was not maintained in tanks during the full daily operation. ORP values were significantly higher in the flume than in the dump tank. A positive correlation was found between ORP and temperature, and negative correlations were found between ORP and turbidity, total mesophilic bacteria, and coliforms. This study provides in-plant data indicating that ClO(2) can be an effective sanitizer in flume and spray-wash systems, but current operational limitations restrict its performance in dump tanks. Under current conditions, ClO(2) alone is unlikely to allow the fresh tomato industry to meet its microbiological quality goals under typical

  15. Acquisition procedures, processing methodologies and preliminary results of magnetic and ROV data collected during the TOMO-ETNA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cavallaro


    Full Text Available The TOMO-ETNA experiment was devised for the investigation of the continental and oceanic crust beneath Mt. Etna volcano and northeastern Sicily up to the Aeolian Islands, through an active source study. In this experiment, a large amount of geophysical data was collected both inland and in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas for identifying the major geological and structural features offshore Mt. Etna and NE Sicily. One of the oceanographic cruises organized within the TOMO-ETNA experiment was carried out on the hydrographic vessel “Galatea” by Italian Navy. During the cruise a detailed magnetic survey and a set of ROV (remotely operated vehicle dives were performed offshore Mt. Etna. The magnetic survey allowed the compilation of a preliminary magnetic map revealing a clear direct relationship between volcanic structures and high frequency magnetic anomalies. Significant positive magnetic anomalies were identified offshore the Timpa area and along the easternmost portion of the Riposto Ridge and correlated to a primitive volcanic edifice and to shallow volcanic bodies, respectively. On the whole, the magnetic anomaly map highlights a clear SW-NE decreasing trend, where high amplitude positive magnetic anomaly pattern of the SW sector passes, northeastwardly, to a main negative one. ROV dives permitted to directly explore the shallowest sectors of the Riposto Ridge and to collect several videos and seafloor samples, allowing us to identify some locally developed volcanic manifestations.

  16. Preliminary studies for the ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) Experiment on the International Space Station (United States)

    Alonzo, Jason; Fresneau, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Chan, J.; Breitenbach, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Salama, F.; Mattioda, A.; Santos, O.; Cottin, H.; Dartois, E.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Demets, R.; Foing, B.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Spaans, M.; Quinn, R.


    Organic compounds that survive in uncommon space environments are an important astrobiology focus. The ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) experiment will investigate, in real time, chemical changes in organic compounds exposed to low Earth orbit radiation conditions on an International Space Station (ISS) external platform. OREOcube is packaged as an identical pair of 10-cm cube instruments, each weighing electronics, microcontroller, and data storage to make each cube an autonomous stand-alone instrument package requiring only a standard power and data interface. We have characterized the influence of mineralogically relevant inorganic materials on the stability, modification, and degradation of the organic molecules under ground laboratory experimental conditions. The results of our laboratory experiments will be used as the basis for the selection of samples for further investigations on the OREOcube ISS experiment. OREOcube is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and University partners.

  17. Student Satisfaction or Happiness?: A Preliminary Rethink of What Is Important in the Student Experience (United States)

    Dean, Aftab; Gibbs, Paul


    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the purpose of the complex open system of higher education and to explore this transformative experience as personal flourishing, where students come to terms with a way of being, matching their potentiality with their agency and leading to profound happiness. There is influential, but not uncontested…

  18. Norwegian fjords as potential sites for CO{sub 2} experiments. A preliminary feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golmen, Lars G.; Soerensen, Jan; Haugan, Peter; Bakke, Torgeir; Bjerknes, Vilhelm


    Large-scale deposition of CO{sub 2} will probably take place deep in the open oceans. But small-scale experiments on plume dynamics and chemical or biological impacts are more conveniently performed in Norwegian fjords. This report describes a feasibility study treating the physical, biological and legal constraints upon such experiments. Several small and large fjord basins with depths exceeding 500 m exist in western Norway. The report gives guidelines to what further steps should be taken to establish an in-situ CO{sub 2} experiment in a fjord. Twenty-six different basins have been identified in terms of maximum depths, municipal adherence etc. Deep water hydrographic conditions vary relatively little from one fjord to another. Data on the dynamical states and on deep water biology are in general lacking and a baseline study on selected fjords should be performed prior to the final selection. User conflicts and legal aspects must be considered and a complete EIA study will probably be required before any CO{sub 2} experiment can be started in a fjord. 60 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Experience Sampling of Positive Affect in Adolescents with Autism: Feasibility and Preliminary Findings. (United States)

    Kovac, Megan; Mosner, Maya; Miller, Stephanie; Hanna, Eleanor K; Dichter, Gabriel S


    Experience sampling is a powerful method for obtaining ecologically valid data from research participants in real-world contexts. Given the urgent need for innovative and sensitive outcome measures in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research, the present study sought to examine the feasibility of using experience sampling of positive affect and behavior in adolescents with ASD. Nineteen high functioning adolescents with ASD and 20 sex and age matched controls completed smartphone- and Qualtrics® -based experience sampling of positive affect and behavior six times over four days. Adherence was excellent: adolescents with ASD completed 85% of the assessments, compared to 93% in controls, and response rates were not impacted by age or IQ. Groups did not differ in positive affect overall or as a function of activities, nor did groups differ in the proportion of assessments completed during social or nonsocial activities. However, groups did differ in the proportion of assessments completed during preferred activities. Results suggest that smartphone- and Qualtrics® -based experience sampling with high functioning adolescents with ASD is feasible and captures real-world behaviors that would not be possible using laboratory-based measures.

  20. Preliminary analysis of the MER magnetic properties experiment using a computational fluid dynamics model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, K.M.; Merrison, J.P.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.;


    Motivated by questions raised by the magnetic properties experiments on the NASA Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, we have studied in detail the capture of airborne magnetic dust by permanent magnets using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model supported by laboratory...

  1. A Preliminary Theoretical Analysis of a Research Experience for Undergraduates Community Model (United States)

    Castillo-Garsow, Carlos; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Woodley, Sherry


    The Mathematical and Theoretical Biology Institute (MTBI) is a successful summer research experience for undergraduates, with a strong record of mentoring Ph.D. graduates, particularly, underrepresented minority students. However, the MTBI program was designed for education in research, not for research in education, and the mechanisms of the…

  2. Preliminary Explorations of Indigenous Perspectives of Educational Management: The Evolving Malaysian Experience. (United States)

    Bajunid, Ibrahim Ahmad


    Articulates the need to understand and seek indigenous perspectives of educational management, using Malaysia's experience as an example. To differentiate culture-free and culture-bound content in educational management, the field's core corpus of theories, concepts, and terminology must be identified; the culture-specific ways of knowing must be…

  3. Student Satisfaction or Happiness?: A Preliminary Rethink of What Is Important in the Student Experience (United States)

    Dean, Aftab; Gibbs, Paul


    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the purpose of the complex open system of higher education and to explore this transformative experience as personal flourishing, where students come to terms with a way of being, matching their potentiality with their agency and leading to profound happiness. There is influential, but not uncontested…

  4. Preliminary studies for the ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) Experiment on the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonzo, Jason; Fresneau, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Chan, J.; Breitenbach, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Salama, F.; Mattioda, A.; Santos, O.; Cottin, H.; Dartois, E.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Demets, R.; Foing, B.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Spaans, M.; Quinn, R.


    Organic compounds that survive in uncommon space environments are an important astrobiology focus. The ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) experiment will investigate, in real time, chemical changes in organic compounds exposed to low Earth orbit radiation conditions on an International Space Stat

  5. Preliminary studies for the ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) Experiment on the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonzo, Jason; Fresneau, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Chan, J.; Breitenbach, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Salama, F.; Mattioda, A.; Santos, O.; Cottin, H.; Dartois, E.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Demets, R.; Foing, B.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Spaans, M.; Quinn, R.

    Organic compounds that survive in uncommon space environments are animportant astrobiology focus. The ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube)experiment will investigate, in real time, chemical changes in organiccompounds exposed to low Earth orbit radiation conditions on anInternational Space Station

  6. Silent game as Model for Examining Student Online Creativity - Preliminary Results from an Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    the creative dialogues developed through a very constrained communicative environment. The participants could only communicate their creative ideas by placing standard LEGO bricks on a plate. No talking or any other communication was allowed. The game used in the experiment is an adoption of the so...

  7. Preliminary studies for the ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) Experiment on the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonzo, Jason; Fresneau, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Chan, J.; Breitenbach, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Salama, F.; Mattioda, A.; Santos, O.; Cottin, H.; Dartois, E.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Demets, R.; Foing, B.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Spaans, M.; Quinn, R.


    Organic compounds that survive in uncommon space environments are animportant astrobiology focus. The ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube)experiment will investigate, in real time, chemical changes in organiccompounds exposed to low Earth orbit radiation conditions on anInternational Space Station

  8. Preliminary studies for the ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) Experiment on the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonzo, Jason; Fresneau, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Chan, J.; Breitenbach, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Salama, F.; Mattioda, A.; Santos, O.; Cottin, H.; Dartois, E.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Demets, R.; Foing, B.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Spaans, M.; Quinn, R.


    Organic compounds that survive in uncommon space environments are an important astrobiology focus. The ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) experiment will investigate, in real time, chemical changes in organic compounds exposed to low Earth orbit radiation conditions on an International Space Stat

  9. Characterize Behaviour of Emerging Pollutants in Artificial Recharge: Column Experiments - Experiment Design and Results of Preliminary Tests (United States)

    Wang, H.; Carrera, J.; Ayora, C.; Licha, T.


    Emerging pollutants (EPs) have been detected in water resources as a result of human activities in recent years. They include pharmaceuticals, personal care products, dioxins, flame retardants, etc. They are a source of concern because many of them are resistant to conventional water treatment, and they are harmful to human health, even in low concentrations. Generally, this study aims to characterize the behaviour of emerging pollutants in reclaimed water in column experiments which simulates artificial recharge. One column set includes three parts: influent, reactive layer column (RLC) and aquifer column (AC). The main influent is decided to be Secondary Effluent (SE) of El Prat Wastewater Treatment Plant, Barcelona. The flow rate of the column experiment is 0.9-1.5 mL/min. the residence time of RLC is designed to be about 1 day and 30-40 days for AC. Both columns are made of stainless steel. Reactive layer column (DI 10cm * L55cm) is named after the filling material which is a mixture of organic substrate, clay and goethite. One purpose of the application of the mixture is to increase dissolve organic carbon (DOC). Leaching test in batchs and columns has been done to select proper organic substrate. As a result, compost was selected due to its long lasting of releasing organic matter (OM). The other purpose of the application of the mixture is to enhance adsorption of EPs. Partition coefficients (Kow) of EPs indicate the ability of adsorption to OM. EPs with logKow>2 could be adsorbed to OM, like Ibuprofen, Bezafibrate and Diclofenac. Moreover, some of EPs are charged in the solution with pH=7, according to its acid dissociation constant (Ka). Positively charged EPs, for example Atenolol, could adsorb to clay. In the opposite, negatively charged EPs, for example Gemfibrozil, could adsorb to goethite. Aquifer column (DI 35cm * L1.5m) is to simulate the processes taking place in aquifer in artificial recharge. The filling of AC has two parts: silica sand and

  10. Preliminary Findings of the Photovoltaic Cell Calibration Experiment on Pathfinder Flight 95-3 (United States)

    Vargas-Aburto, Carlos


    The objective of the photovoltaic (PV) cell calibration experiment for Pathfinder was to develop an experiment compatible with an ultralight UAV to predict the performance of PV cells at AM0, the solar spectrum in space, using the Langley plot technique. The Langley plot is a valuable technique for this purpose and requires accurate measurements of air mass (pressure), cell temperature, solar irradiance, and current-voltage(IV) characteristics with the cells directed normal to the direct ray of the sun. Pathfinder's mission objective (95-3) of 65,000 ft. maximum altitude, is ideal for performing the Langley plot measurements. Miniaturization of electronic data acquisition equipment enabled the design and construction of an accurate and light weight measurement system that meets Pathfinder's low payload weight requirements.

  11. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.


    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  12. Preliminary study of feasibility of an experiment looking for excited state double beta transitions in Tin

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Soumik; Raina, P K; Singh, A K; Rath, P K; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Laubenstein, M; Belli, P; Bernabei, R


    A first attempt to study the feasibility of an experiment to search for double beta decay in $^{124}$Sn and $^{112}$Sn was carried out by using ultra-low background HPGe detector (244 cm$^{3}$) inside the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN (Italy). A small sample of natural Sn was examined for 2367.5 h. The radioactive contamination of the sample has been estimated. The data has also been considered to calculate the present sensitivity for the proposed search; half-life limits $\\sim$ $10^{17} - 10^{18}$ years for $\\beta^{+}$EC and EC-EC processes in $^{112}$Sn and $\\sim$ $10^{18}$ years for $\\beta^{-}\\beta^{-}$ transition in $^{124}$Sn were measured. In the last section of the paper the enhancement of the sensitivity for a proposed experiment with larger mass to reach theoretically estimated values of half-lives is discussed.

  13. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment: technical considerations and preliminary results of the first brazilian experience


    Mendes,Carlos Ramon Silveira; FERREIRA, Luciano Santana de Miranda; Sapucaia,Ricardo Aguiar; LIMA, Meyline Andrade; Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso


    Backgroung : Anorectal fistula represents an epithelized communication path of infectious origin between the rectum or anal canal and the perianal region. The association of endoscopic surgery with the minimally invasive approach led to the development of the video-assisted anal fistula treatment. Aim : To describe the technique and initial experience with the technique video-assisted for anal fistula treatment. Technique : A Karl Storz video equipment was used. Main steps included the ...

  14. Post-irradiation Examination of the AGR-1 Experiment: Plans and Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Demkowicz


    Abstract – The AGR-1 irradiation experiment contains seventy-two individual cylindrical fuel compacts (25 mm long x 12.5 mm diameter) each containing approximately 4100 TRISO-coated uranium oxycarbide fuel particles. The experiment accumulated 620 effective full power days in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory with peak burnups exceeding 19% FIMA. An extensive post-irradiation examination campaign will be performed on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature accident testing. PIE experiments will include dimensional measurements of fuel and irradiated graphite, burnup measurements, assessment of fission metals release during irradiation, evaluation of coating integrity using the leach-burn-leach technique, microscopic examination of kernel and coating microstructures, and accident testing of the fuel in helium at temperatures up to 1800°C. Activities completed to date include opening of the irradiated capsules, measurement of fuel dimensions, and gamma spectrometry of selected fuel compacts.

  15. Student reflections following exposure to a case-based interprofessional learning experience: Preliminary findings. (United States)

    Goldberg, Lynette R; Brown, Gina R; Mosack, Victoria A; Fletcher, Phyllis A


    This study analyzed students' written reflections following their initial exposure to interprofessional teamwork in case-based problem-solving. A three-hour seminar featuring three sequenced scenarios was developed and offered 12-times over two semesters. A total of 305 students from a variety of healthcare programs worked together with standardized patients in an on-campus laboratory simulating hospital ward and rehabilitation settings. A thematic analysis of students' reflections showed that they valued the shared learning and realistic case study. However, they felt the experience would be strengthened by working in smaller, more representative teams that included students from medicine, psychology, and social work to enable more effective communication and comprehensive case discussion. While useful for future planning, the identified themes did not enable a comparative statistical analysis of what students found helpful and difficult and a re-coding of students' responses now is underway. Implications for measuring the effectiveness of future interprofessional case-based learning center on addressing the identified weaknesses, and establishing a research design that enables a comparison of pre- and post-seminar data, and the effectiveness of the IPE experience compared to profession-specific experiences.

  16. Preliminary study of kaonic deuterium X-rays by the SIDDHARTA experiment at DAΦNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Beer, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria BC V8W3P6 (Canada); Berucci, C. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bombelli, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bragadireanu, A.M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); IFIN-HH, Institutul National pentru Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara Horia Hulubei, Reactorului 30, Magurele (Romania); Cargnelli, M., E-mail: [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Curceanu, C.; D' Uffizi, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Fiorini, C.; Frizzi, T. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ghio, F. [INFN Sezione di Roma I and Instituto Superiore di Sanita, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Guaraldo, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Hayano, R. [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Iliescu, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Ishiwatari, T. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others


    The study of the K{sup ¯}N system at very low energies plays a key role for the understanding of the strong interaction between hadrons in the strangeness sector. At the DAΦNE electron–positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati we studied kaonic atoms with Z=1 and Z=2, taking advantage of the low-energy charged kaons from Φ-mesons decaying nearly at rest. The SIDDHARTA experiment used X-ray spectroscopy of the kaonic atoms to determine the transition yields and the strong interaction induced shift and width of the lowest experimentally accessible level (1s for H and D and 2p for He). Shift and width are connected to the real and imaginary part of the scattering length. To disentangle the isospin dependent scattering lengths of the antikaon–nucleon interaction, measurements of K{sup −}p and of K{sup −}d are needed. We report here on an exploratory deuterium measurement, from which a limit for the yield of the K-series transitions was derived: Y(K{sub tot})<0.0143 and Y(K{sub α})<0.0039 (CL 90%). Also, the upcoming SIDDHARTA-2 kaonic deuterium experiment is introduced.

  17. Preliminary study of kaonic deuterium X-rays by the SIDDHARTA experiment at DAΦNE. (United States)

    Bazzi, M; Beer, G; Berucci, C; Bombelli, L; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu Petrascu, C; Dʼuffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Frizzi, T; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayano, R; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Kienle, P; Levi Sandri, P; Longoni, A; Marton, J; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Ponta, T; Romero Vidal, A; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Vazquez Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J


    The study of the [Formula: see text] system at very low energies plays a key role for the understanding of the strong interaction between hadrons in the strangeness sector. At the DAΦNE electron-positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati we studied kaonic atoms with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], taking advantage of the low-energy charged kaons from Φ-mesons decaying nearly at rest. The SIDDHARTA experiment used X-ray spectroscopy of the kaonic atoms to determine the transition yields and the strong interaction induced shift and width of the lowest experimentally accessible level (1s for H and D and 2p for He). Shift and width are connected to the real and imaginary part of the scattering length. To disentangle the isospin dependent scattering lengths of the antikaon-nucleon interaction, measurements of [Formula: see text] and of [Formula: see text] are needed. We report here on an exploratory deuterium measurement, from which a limit for the yield of the K-series transitions was derived: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (CL 90%). Also, the upcoming SIDDHARTA-2 kaonic deuterium experiment is introduced.

  18. Preliminary investigation of relations between young students' self-regulatory strategies and their metacognitive experiences. (United States)

    Dermitzaki, Irini


    The present study investigated second-graders' self-regulative behav ior during task engagement and its relations to performance and to students' on-line metacognitive experiences. Participants were 25 individually examined Greek second graders (13 boys and 12 girls; M age: 7.6 yr., SD = 0.2). Students' use of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational regulatory strategies while performing a cognitive task were directly observed and recorded by two independent observers. Students' task-specific performance was also evaluated. Finally, students' feeling of satisfaction with the solution produced, their estimate of effort expenditure, and estimate of the solution's correctness were assessed. Analysis showed these second grade students' use of self-regulatory strategies and feeling of satisfaction were significantly associated with their performance. However, metacognitive experiences reported after the solution were only slightly related to the students' actual self-regulative behavior during the task, implying that the relations of students' regulatory efforts with their metacognitive processes are still developing at such a young age.

  19. Predictive models applied to groundwater level forecasting: a preliminary experience on the alluvial aquifer of the Magra River (Italy). (United States)

    Brozzo, Gianpiero; Doveri, Marco; Lelli, Matteo; Scozzari, Andrea


    Computer-based decision support systems are getting a growing interest for water managing authorities and water distribution companies. This work discusses a preliminary experience in the application of computational intelligence in a hydrological modeling framework, regarding the study area of the alluvial aquifer of the Magra River (Italy). Two sites in the studied area, corresponding to two distinct groups of wells (Battifollo and Fornola) are managed by the local drinkable water distribution company (ACAM Acque), which serves the area of La Spezia, on the Ligurian coast. Battifollo has 9 wells with a total extraction rate of about 240 liters per second, while Fornola has 44 wells with an extraction rate of about 900 liters per second. Objective of this work is to make use of time series coming from long-term monitoring activities in order to assess the trend of the groundwater level with respect to a set of environmental and exploitation parameters; this is accomplished by the experimentation of a suitable model, eligible to be used as a predictor. This activity moves on from the modeling of the system behavior, based on a set of Input/Output data, in order to characterize it without necessarily a prior knowledge of any deterministic mechanism (system identification). In this context, data series collected by continuous hydrological monitoring instrumentation installed in the studied sites, together with meteorological and water extraction data, have been analyzed in order to assess the applicability and performance of a predictive model of the groundwater level. A mixed approach (both data driven and process-based) has been experimented on the whole dataset relating to the last ten years of continuous monitoring activity. The system identification approach presented here is based on the integration of an adaptive technique based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and a blind deterministic identification approach. According to this concept, the behavior of

  20. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Final coupled 3D thermo-mechanical modeling. Preliminary particle mechanical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanne, Toivo; Johansson, Erik; Potyondy, David [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)


    SKB is planning to perform a large-scale pillar stability experiment called APSE (Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment) at Aespoe HRL. The study is focused on understanding and control of progressive rock failure in hard crystalline rock and damage caused by high stresses. The elastic thermo-mechanical modeling was carried out in three dimensions because of the complex test geometry and in-situ stress tensor by using a finite-difference modeling software FLAC3D. Cracking and damage formation were modeled in the area of interest (pillar between two large scale holes) in two dimensions by using the Particle Flow Code (PFC), which is based on particle mechanics. FLAC and PFC were coupled to minimize the computer resources and the computing time. According to the modeling the initial temperature rises from 15 deg C to about 65 deg C in the pillar area during the heating period of 120 days. The rising temperature due to thermal expansion induces stresses in the pillar area and after 120 days heating the stresses have increased about 33% from the excavation induced maximum stress of 150 MPa to 200 MPa in the end of the heating period. The results from FLAC3D model showed that only regions where the crack initiation stress has exceeded were identified and they extended to about two meters down the hole wall. These could be considered the areas where damage may occur during the in-situ test. When the other hole is pressurized with a 0.8 MPa confining pressure it yields that 5 MPa more stress is needed to damage the rock than without confining pressure. This makes the damaged area in some degree smaller. High compressive stresses in addition to some tensile stresses might induce some AE (acoustic emission) activity in the upper part of the hole from the very beginning of the test and are thus potential areas where AE activities may be detected. Monitoring like acoustic emissions will be measured during the test execution. The 2D coupled PFC-FLAC modeling indicated that

  1. E-Commerce Experiences in the Real Estate Industry: a preliminary study in regional Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Van Akkeren


    Full Text Available Computer systems have become commonplace in most SMEs and technology is increasingly becoming a part of doing business. In recent years, the Internet has become readily available to businesses; consequently there has been growing pressure on SMEs to take up e-commerce. However, e-commerce is perceived by many as being unproven in terms of business benefit. This research aims to determine what, if any, benefits are derived from assimilating e-commerce technologies into SME business processes. This paper presents three in-depth case studies from the Real Estate industry in a regional setting. Overall, findings were positive and identified the following experiences: enhanced business efficiencies, cost benefits, improved customer interactions and increased business return on investment.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiment of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto. (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Yasuhide; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Chiba-Kamoshida, Kaori; Naito, Sawa; Ohsugi, Tadanori; Sumi, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Ichiro; Morimoto, Yukio


    Nattokinase is a single polypeptide chain composed of 275 amino acids (molecular weight 27,724) which displays strong fibrinolytic activity. Moreover, it can activate other fibrinolytic enzymes such as pro-urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator. In the present study, native nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto was purified using gel-filtration chromatography and crystallized to give needle-like crystals which could be used for X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=74.3, b=49.9, c=56.3 Å, β=95.2°. Diffraction images were processed to a resolution of 1.74 Å with an Rmerge of 5.2% (15.3% in the highest resolution shell) and a completeness of 69.8% (30.0% in the highest resolution shell). This study reports the first X-ray diffraction analysis of nattokinase.

  3. Preliminary results of the Artemia salina experiments in biostack on LDEF (United States)

    Graul, E. H.; Ruether, W.; Hiendl, C. O.


    The mosaic egg of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, resting in blastula or gastrula state represents a system that during further development, proceeds without any further development to the larval stage, the free swimming nauplius. Therefore, injury to a single cell of the egg will be manifest in the larvae. In several experiments, it was shown that the passage of a single heavy ion through the shrimp egg damaged a cellular area large enough to disturb either embryogenesis or further development of the larvae, or the integrity of the adult individual. Emergence from the egg shell was heavily disturbed by the heavy ions as was hatching. Additional late effects, due to a hit by a heavy ion, are delayed of growth and of sexual maturity, and reduced fertility. Anomalies in the body and the extremities could be observed more frequently for the nauplii which had developed from eggs hit by heavy ions.

  4. Hoe Creek II field experiment on underground coal gasification, preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiman, W.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.; Rozsa, R.B.; Cena, R.; Gregg, D.W.; Stephens, D.R.


    A second in-situ coal gasification experiment was performed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory at Hoe Creek in Wyoming. The Linked Vertical Wells scheme for in-situ coal gasification was used. The experiment took 100 days for air flow testing, reverse combustion linking, forward combustion gasification, and post-burn steam flow. Air was used for gasification except for a 2-day test with oxygen and steam. Reverse combustion linking took 14 days at 1.6 m/day. Air requirements for linking were 0.398 Mgmol per meter of link assuming a single direct link. The coal pyrolysed during linking was 17 m/sup 3/, which corresponds to a single link 1.0 m in diameter. There was, however, strong evidence of at least two linkage paths. The detected links stayed below the 3 m level in the 7.6 coal seam; however, the product flow from the forward-burn gasification probably followed the coal-overburden interface not the reverse burn channels at the 3 m level. A total of 232 Mgmols (194 Mscf) of gas was produced with heating value above 125 kJ/mol (140 Btu/scf) for significant time periods and an average of 96 kJ/mol (108 Btu/scf). During the oxygen-steam test the heating value was above 270 kJ/gmol (300 Btu/scf) twice and averaged 235 kJ/gmol (265 Btu/scf). The coal recovery was 1310 m/sup 3/ (1950 ton). Gasification was terminated because of decreasing product quality not because of burn through. The product quality decreased because of increasing underground heat loss.

  5. Beneficial uses of geothermal energy description and preliminary results for phase 1 of the Raft River irrigation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Spencer, S.G.


    The first phase of an experiment using geothermal water for irrigation is described and preliminary results are discussed. The water was from a moderate temperature well, having salinity of about 2000 ppM, and is considered characteristic of the types of geothermal fluids that will be obtained from the young volcanic/young sediment formations of the northern intermountain west. The activity was completed at a location adjacent to ERDA's Raft River Geothermal Project in southern Idaho. About 12.5 acres, of which part had no previous cultivation, were subdivided by crops and irrigation practices for investigation with the geothermal water and a control comparison water from the relatively pure Raft River. Flood and sprinkler application techniques were used and wheat, barley, oats, grasses, alfalfa, potatoes, and garden vegetables were successfully grown. An accompanying experiment evaluated the behavior of an established alfalfa crop located nearby, when most of the irrigation water was geothermal. The experiment addressed heavy metal uptake in plants, plant fluoride retention and damage, plant tolerances to salts, soil alterations and other behavior as a result of the geothermal fluids, all of which were largely believed to eliminate geothermal water from contention for crop growing utilization. Not all analyses and results are complete in this reporting, but first results indicate no apparent difference between the geothermal watered crops and those obtained using the fresh water control. Extensive chemical analyses, neutron activation analyses, and other evaluations of crop samples are discussed, and some of the findings are presented. Although evaluation of crop yields was not an objective, extrapolations from samples indicate that yield results were comparable to those commonly found in the area, and the yield varied little between water sources. (JGB)

  6. Development of a lower extremity wearable exoskeleton with double compact elastic module: preliminary experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Long


    Full Text Available In this paper, a double compact elastic module is designed and implemented in the lower extremity exoskeleton. The double compact elastic module is composed of two parts, i.e., physical human robot interaction (pHRI measurement and the elastic actuation system (EAS, which are called proximal elastic module (PEM and distal elastic module (DEM respectively. The PEM is used as the pHRI information collection device while the DEM is used as the compliance device. A novel compact parallelogram-like structure based torsional spring is designed and developed. An iterative finite element analysis (FEA based optimization process was conducted to find the optimal parameters in the search space. In the PEM, the designed torsional spring has an outer circle with a diameter of 60 mm and an inner hole with a diameter of 12 mm, while in the DEM, the torsional spring has the outer circle with a diameter of 80 mm and the inner circle with a diameter of 16 mm. The torsional spring in the PEM has a thickness of 5 mm and a weight of 60 g, while that in the DEM has a thickness of 10 mm and a weight of 80 g. The double compact elastic module prototype is embedded in the mechanical joint directly. Calibration experiments were conducted on those two elastic modules to obtain the linear torque versus angle characteristic. The calibration experimental results show that this torsional spring in the PEM has a stiffness of 60.2 Nm rad−1, which is capable of withstanding a maximum torque of 4 Nm, while that in the DEM has a stiffness of 80.2 Nm rad−1, which is capable of withstanding a maximum torque of 30 Nm. The experimental results and the simulation data show that the maximum resultant errors are 6 % for the PEM and 4 % for the DEM respectively. In this paper, an assumed regression algorithm is used to learn the human motion intent (HMI based on the pHRI collection. The HMI is defined as the angular position of the human limb joint. A

  7. Wearable ultrasonic guiding device with white cane for the visually impaired: A preliminary verisimilitude experiment. (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Hsun


    Several assistive technologies are available to help visually impaired individuals avoid obstructions while walking. Unfortunately, white canes and medical walkers are unable to detect obstacles on the road or react to encumbrances located above the waist. In this study, I adopted the cyber-physical system approach in the development of a cap-connected device to compensate for gaps in detection associated with conventional aids for the visually impaired. I developed a verisimilar, experimental route involving the participation of seven individuals with visual impairment, including straight sections, left turns, right turns, curves, and suspended objects. My aim was to facilitate the collection of information required for the practical use of the device. My findings demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed guiding device in alerting walkers to the presence of some kinds of obstacles from the small number of subjects. That is, it shows promise for future work and research with the proposed device. My findings provide a valuable reference for the further improvement of these devices as well as the establishment of experiments involving the visually impaired.

  8. Flexible robotic retrograde renoscopy: description of novel robotic device and preliminary laboratory experience. (United States)

    Desai, Mihir M; Aron, Monish; Gill, Inderbir S; Pascal-Haber, Georges; Ukimura, Osamu; Kaouk, Jihad H; Stahler, Gregory; Barbagli, Federico; Carlson, Christopher; Moll, Fredric


    To describe a novel flexible robotic system for performing retrograde intrarenal surgery. Remote robotic flexible ureterorenoscopy was performed bilaterally in 5 acute swine (10 kidneys). A novel 14F robotic catheter system, which manipulated a passive optical fiberscope mounted on a remote catheter manipulator was used. The technical feasibility, efficiency, and reproducibility of accessing all calices were assessed. Additionally, laser lithotripsy of calculi and laser ablation of renal papillae were performed. The robotic catheter system could be introduced de novo in eight ureters; two ureters required balloon dilation. The ureteroscope could be successfully manipulated remotely into 83 (98%) of the 85 calices. The time required to inspect all calices within a given kidney decreased with experience from 15 minutes in the first kidney to 49 seconds in the last (mean 4.6 minutes). On a visual analog scale (1, worst to 10, best), the reproducibility of caliceal access was rated at 8, and instrument tip stability was rated at 10. A renal pelvic perforation constituted the solitary complication. Histologic examination of the ureter showed changes consistent with acute dilation without areas of necrosis. A novel robotic catheter system is described for performing retrograde ureterorenoscopy. The potential advantages compared with conventional manual flexible ureterorenoscopy include an increased range of motion, instrument stability, and improved ergonomics. Ongoing refinement is likely to expand the role of this technology in retrograde intrarenal surgery in the near future.

  9. Preliminary results from recent experiments and future roadmap to Shock Ignition of Fusion Targets (United States)

    Batani, D.; Malka, G.; Schurtz, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Lebel, E.; Giuffrida, L.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Volpe, L.; Patria, A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Gizzi, L. A.; Antonelli, L.; Richetta, M.; Nejdl, J.; Sawicka, M.; Margarone, D.; Krus, M.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Dudzak, R.; Velyhan, A.; Ullshmied, J.; Renner, O.; Smid, M.; Klimo, O.; Atzeni, S.; Marocchino, A.; Schiavi, A.; Spindloe, C.; O'Dell, T.; Vinci, T.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Pysarcizck, T.; Rosinski, M.; Kalinowska, Z.; Chodukowski, T.


    Shock ignition (SI) is a new approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) based on decoupling the compression and ignition phase. The last one relies on launching a strong shock through a high intensity laser spike (<= 1016 W/cm2) at the end of compression. In this paper, first we described an experiment performed using the PALS iodine laser to study laser-target coupling and laser-plasma interaction in an intensity regime relevant for SI. A first beam with wavelength λ = 1.33 μm and low intensity was used to create an extended preformed plasma, and a second one with λ = 0.44 μm to create a strong shock. Several diagnostics characterized the preformed plasma and the interaction of the main pulse. Pressure up to 90 Mbar was inferred. In the last paper of the paper, we discuss the relevant steps, which can be followed in order to approach the demonstration of SI on laser facilities like LMJ.

  10. Investigation of Freeze-Linings in Copper-Containing Slag Systems: Part I. Preliminary Experiments (United States)

    Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni


    Slag freeze-linings are increasingly used in industrial pyrometallurgical processes to insure that furnace integrity is maintained in aggressive high-temperature environments. Most previous studies of freeze-linings have analyzed the formation of slag deposits based solely on heat-transfer models. The focus of the present research is to determine the impact of slag chemistry and local process conditions on the microstructures, thickness, stability, and heat-transfer characteristics of the frozen deposit at steady-state conditions. The formation of the freeze-linings is studied under controlled laboratory conditions using an air-cooled "cold-finger" technique for Cu-Fe-Si-Al-O slag at equilibrium with metallic copper relevant to the industrial copper smelting processes. The phase assemblages and microstructures of the deposits formed in the cold-finger experiments differ significantly from those expected from phase equilibrium considerations. The freeze-lining deposits have been found, in general, to consist of several layers. Starting from the cold finger, these layers consist of glass; glass with microcrystalline precipitates; closed crystalline layer; and open crystalline layer. Even at steady-state conditions, there was no primary phase sealing layer of delafossite [Cu2O · (Al, Fe)2O3] present at the deposit/liquid interface—these observations differ markedly from those expected from phase equilibrium considerations. The findings have significant practical implications, and potential for the improved design and operation of industrial metallurgical furnaces.

  11. Preliminary experience with extraperitoneal endoscopic radical prostatectomy through duplication of the open technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tobias-Machado


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe surgical and functional results with extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with duplication of the open technique, from the experience obtained in the treatment of 28 initial cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 36-month period, we prospectively analyzed 28 patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer undergoing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 280 min, with mean blood loss of 320 mL. As intraoperative complications, there were 2 rectal lesions repaired with laparoscopic suture in 2 planes. There was no conversion to open surgery. Median hospital stay was 3 days, with return to oral diet in the first post-operative day in patients. As post-operative complications, there were 3 cases of extraperitoneal urinary fistula. Two of these cases were resolved by maintaining a Foley catheter for 21 days, and the other one by late endoscopic reintervention for repositioning the catheter. Five out of 18 previously potent patients evolved with erectile dysfunction. The diagnosis of prostate cancer was confirmed in all patients, with focal positive margin occurring in 3 cases. During a mean follow-up of 18 months, 2 patients presented increased PSA, with no clinical evidence of disease. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a laborious and difficult procedure, with a long learning curve. Extraperitoneal access is feasible, and it is possible to practically duplicate the principles of open surgery. The present technique can possibly offer advantages in terms of decreased blood loss, preservation of erectile function and prevention of positive margins.

  12. Preliminary culture and life-cycle experiments with the benthic amphipod Ampelisca abdita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, M.S.; Jones, J.K.P. (AScI Corp., Newport, OR (United States)); Scott, K.J. (Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)); Swartz, R.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Newport, OR (United States))


    The tube-dwelling amphipod Ampelisca abdita Mills 1964 has been used extensively in acute sediment toxicity tests and has been shown to be amenable to chronic testing. Ampelisca abdita was held in the lab through several generations when fed algal food in daily static renewals, although culturing success was not consistent. Algal food consisted of one or more of the following: the flagellate Pseudoisochrysis paradoxa Sutton, and the diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin and Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Tokano. Sensitivity of cultured animals to cadmium chloride in 96-h seawater-only tests was comparable to that of field-collected animals. A life-cycle test initiated with juveniles 8 to 10 d old resulted in production of young or fertilized broods in only two of the 12 sample containers in which young were expected. Amphipods were sexually mature at approximately 20 d of age at 25 C, and young were first produced at 34 to 36 d. Short-term tests were used to quantify growth of this species in 10 to 14 d. Results from a variety of experiments indicated that there are still one or more unresolved problems with the culture and chronic testing of Ampelisca abdita. Factors such as nutrition, flow rate, light, and temperature need to be examined further.

  13. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment: technical considerations and preliminary results of the first Brazilian experience. (United States)

    Mendes, Carlos Ramon Silveira; Ferreira, Luciano Santana de Miranda; Sapucaia, Ricardo Aguiar; Lima, Meyline Andrade; Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso


    Anorectal fistula represents an epithelized communication path of infectious origin between the rectum or anal canal and the perianal region. The association of endoscopic surgery with the minimally invasive approach led to the development of the video-assisted anal fistula treatment. To describe the technique and initial experience with the technique video-assisted for anal fistula treatment. A Karl Storz video equipment was used. Main steps included the visualization of the fistula tract using the fistuloscope, the correct localization of the internal fistula opening under direct vision, endoscopic treatment of the fistula and closure of the internal opening which can be accomplished through firing a stapler, cutaneous-mucosal flap, or direct closure using suture. The mean distance between the anal verge and the external anal orifice was 5.5 cm. Mean operative time was 31.75 min. In all cases, the internal fistula opening could be identified after complete fistuloscopy. In all cases, internal fistula opening was closed using full-thickness suture. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. After a 5-month follow-up, recurrence was observed in one (12.5%) patient. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment is feasible, reproducible, and safe. It enables direct visualization of the fistula tract, internal opening and secondary paths.

  14. The ecological effects of thermopeaking in Alpine streams in flume simulations (United States)

    Maiolini, Bruno; Carolli, Mauro; Bruno, M. Cristina; Siviglia, Annunziato


    In Alpine areas, the temporal patterns of hydropower plants operations can have consequences for the water bodies which receive downstream releases in the form of "hydropeaking", typically consisting in sharp releases of turbinated water in the river reaches below dams. Hydropeaking may significantly affect also the thermal regime of rivers: typically power plants fed by hypolimnetic releases from large dams cause a reduction in summer temperature and an increase in winter temperatures for long distances downstream. Very few studies have addressed the effects of the short-term temperature fluctuations related to hydropeaking (i.e., thermopeaking) on aquatic fauna, although they can be a major cause of riverine habitat degradation posing serious threats to aquatic communities. In the Adige River watershed, warm thermopeaking occurs from September to January and results in additional (up to 4°C) heating to the natural dial fluctuations; cold thermopeaking occurs from March to July and cools down the temperature (up to 6°C), in contrast with the natural trend that would result in heating during the day. The biological effects of thermopeaking are difficult to study in nature, because they are associated with hydropeaking, which is known to cause a high catastrophic drift due to the increased intensity of bed scour. However, controlled simulations of thermopeaking events could be performed in artificial flumes. We used artificial flumes which had proved to perform discharge manipulations which simulate hydropeaking events, and conducted four simulations, two warm thermopeakings in early and late winter, and two cold-thermopeakings, in early and late summer, respectively. The impact of thermopeaking on benthic macroinvertebrates was assessed by collecting those organisms which are displaced from the substrate and drift in the water column. Displacement can be active (i.e., part of the behavioural repertoire of certain insect species), or passive (i.e., catastrophic

  15. Nitrogen Limitation Along The Kalahari Transect: Preliminary Results From A Stable Isotope Fertilization Experiment (United States)

    Wang, L.; Macko, S.; D'Odorico, P.; Ries, L.


    Globally, savannas cover ~ 20% of the Earth's land area. Nutrients and soil moisture interactively control vegetation dynamics in many savannas although it is unclear how the relative importance of water and nutrient limitations (especially nitrogen) change with the mean climatic conditions. The Kalahari Transect (KT) in southern Africa traverses a dramatic aridity gradient (from ~ 200 mm to more than 1000 mm of mean annual precipitation (MAP), through the Republic of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Zambia), on relatively homogenous soils (deep Kalahari sands). This transect offers the ideal setting to study nutrient and vegetation dynamics without confounding soil effects. To improve the understanding of nitrogen and water controls on savanna vegetation, this study tested the hypothesis that the savannas in the Kalahari switch from conditions of water limitation in the dry areas to nutrient limitation in the wet areas. To this end, we conducted a large-scale stable isotope fertilization experiment using four study sites with different MAP. The transect included sites in Mongu, Zambia (MAP ~950mm), Pandamatenga, Ghanzi, and Tshane, Botswana with MAP ranging between 700 mm and 300 mm. The experimental design consisted of a randomized block design with four 21 m x 13 m plots at each site. Each plot was divided into four 10 m x 6 m subplots with 1 m buffer zone between each subplot. Four treatments (N addition, P addition, N+P addition and control) were randomly applied to the subplots. The experiment began during the dry season, in August, 2004, when 39g/m2 of Ca(NO3)2 (3.3g-N/ m2 ) was evenly applied to the N and N+P subplots, and 7.5g/m2 of Ca(H2PO4)2 (1.7g-P/m2) was applied to the P and N+P subplots, while the control subplots were left with no treatment. The N and N+P additions were enriched with 15N (Ca(15NO3)2 ) to a signature of 10.3 ‰. Before application, soil samples from two different layers (0cm and 50cm) outside the plots and foliar samples of the

  16. Preliminary experience using transthoracic echocardiography guiding percutaneous closure of ruptured right sinus of Valsalva aneurysm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; WANG Guang-yi; WANG Zhi-feng; GUO Liang


    Background In the 21st century, minimally invasive treatment is one of the main developmental directions of medical sciences. It is well known that the echocardiography plays an important role during interventional treatments of some structural heart diseases. Because the ruptured right sinus of the Valsalva aneurysm (RRSVA) is a rare disease, there were few reports about percutaneous catheter closure of RRSVA. This study aimed to sum up our experience with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) during percutaneous catheter closure of RRSVA.Methods Five RRSVA cases were treated with percutaneous catheter closure. The whole procedure was guided and monitored by TTE and fluoroscopy. The maximum diameter of the RRSVA was measured by TTE before and after the catheter passed through the rupture site. A duct occluder 2 mm larger than the maximum diameter was chosen. The closure effects were evaluated with TTE and fluoroscopy immediately after the occluding device was deployed. All patients were followed up by TTE for 8 to 30 months.Results Before the catheter passed through the rupture site the maximum diameter of the RRSVA measured with TTE and aortography were (7.9 ±2.1) mm and (7.8 ± 1.8) mm. After the catheter passed through the rupture site the maximum diameter measured with TTE was (11.2 ± 3.2) mm, which was significantly larger than before the procedure (P <0.05). The percutaneous catheter closure was successful in four cases and failed in one. Compared to the aortography the TTE was better at distinguishing residual shunts from aortic valve regurgitation immediately after the occluding device was deployed. There were no complications during 8 to 30 months of follow-up.Conclusion Transthoracic echocardiography can play an important role during percutaneous catheter closure of RRSVA,especially for estimating the size of the RRSVA after the catheter passes through the rupture site, and differentiating residual shunt from aortic valve regurgitation immediately

  17. Staff empowerment: a medical record department's preliminary experiences with continuous quality improvement. (United States)

    Markon, E


    After observing the results of continuous quality improvement, no one would argue against its value in the workplace. However, learning to apply the concepts requires change on everyone's part, and the challenge lies in effecting this change. Not everyone will want to work in this type of environment and, if the organization is truly committed to continuous quality improvement, those individuals may have to make hard decisions as to whether the organization is the right place for them to work. Certain skills are required for staff empowerment to be successful, and training in these skills is essential. The medical record department staff learned early in this process that, although the group possessed job skills, interaction and team skills were lacking. The Development Dimensions International program helped the managers and staff identify the weaknesses of the group and provided educational tools for improvement. The changes often are so subtle, the group does not realize anything has changed. It was not until recently, when the medical record department staff was requested by administration to identify department quality improvement projects, that the group looked back at where the process started and realized how different things are today from three years ago--now staff members lead team meetings, work-groups are redesigning their job processes, and teams update the rest of the department staff on its progress at department meetings. Everyone expressed a sense of pride and accomplishment that the group had indeed responded to the challenge. The experiences of the medical record department thus far clearly support empowerment of employees.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Fetal reduction by bipolar cord coagulation in managing complicated monochorionic multiple pregnancies: preliminary experience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zhi-ming; FANG Qun; YANG Yong-zhong; LUO Yan-min; CHEN Jun-hong; CHEN Yong-zhen; ZHOU Yi; CHEN Min-ling


    Background Monochorionic multiple pregnancies (MMPs) are associated with higher rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality caused by interfetal vascular anastomoses in the monochorionic placenta, which can lead to fetal health interactions. In some circumstances, selective feticide of the affected fetus is necessary to save the healthy co-twin. We evaluated the effects and safety of our initial experiences using bipolar cord coagulation for the management of complicated MMPs. Methods Using ultrasound-guided bipolar cord coagulation, we performed selective feticide on 14 complicated MMPs (5 with twin-twin transfusion syndrome, 4 with acardia, 3 with discordant structural anomalies, and 2 with severe selective intrauterine growth restriction). One patient with monochorionic triplets received the procedure twice to terminate 2 affected fetuses for different indications. Data regarding the operations, complications and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. Results Cord occlusions were successfully performed in 13/14 (93%) cases. The failure happened in an acardiac fetus and the pregnancy was terminated by induction. The included cases delivered at a mean gestational age of 35.4 weeks with a perinatal survival rate of 11/13 (85%). Three operation-related complications occurred (21%), including membrane rupture of the terminated sac (1 case), preterm labor at 28 weeks gestation (1 case), and chorioamniotic membrane separation (1 case). Amnioinfusion was indicated in 11 procedures to expand the target sacs for entering the trocar and obtaining sufficient working space. However, in all 4 cases of acardia, the acardiac sacs showed extreme oligohydramnios and could not be well expanded by infusion; thus, the trocar had to be inserted from the sac of the preserved co-twin. Conclusions The application of bipolar cord coagulation in complicated MMPs is safe and improves the prognosis. Amnioinfusion is useful in helping to expand the target sac when the working space is limited.

  19. Micromultileaf collimator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for selected arteriovenous malformations: Technique and preliminary experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali Rakesh


    Full Text Available Purpose : To report our experience of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS in consecutively treated patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs. Materials and Methods : Of the 87 patients, 23 patients qualified and were treated with SRS as per predefined protocol according to AVM size, location, neurological status, prior bleeding, and the AVM score. All had Spletzer-Martin grade II/III and AVM scores < 2.5. Patients underwent SRS using micromultileaf collimators delivering multiple noncoplanar fixed fields. Doses were prescribed using the Flickinger model. Patients were followed up with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA and digitally subtracted angiography (DSA. Results : The mean nidus volume was 3.65 cc. The mean prescribed maximum dose was 22 Gy and the marginal dose was 19.24 Gy; 12 Gy normal brain volume was 8.39 cc and 12 Gy marginal volume was 5.03 cc. Mean dose to brain stem, pituitary hypothalamic axis, and optic chiasm was 2.5, 0.72, and 0.49 Gy, respectively. At a median follow-up of 22 months (range 1.5-71.2 months, 7 of 10 patients presenting with a neurological deficit showed significant improvement. All 15 patients who underwent MRA 1.5-2 years after SRS had no residual nidus yielding an MRA complete obliteration rate of 100%. Twelve patients also underwent a check DSA, which confirmed obliteration in 11 of them resulting in an accuracy of MRA of 92%. One patient after SRS had transient deterioration of motor power, which resolved completely after a short course of steroids and another had mild worsening of the hemiparesis. All patients are able to lead an active functional life. Conclusions : Careful selection of cases suitable for SRS provides optimum obliteration rates with low toxicity.

  20. Molten salt oxidation of mixed waste: Preliminary bench-scale experiments without radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.; Bell, J.T.


    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp 851 {degrees}C) at {ge} 900{degrees}C. This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidic products from Cl, S, P, etc., in the waste, along with most metals and most radionuclides, are retained within the melt as oxides or salts. Rockwell International has studied the application of MSO to various wastes, including some mixed waste. A unit used by Rockwell to study the mixed waste treatment is presently in use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL`s studies to date have concentrated on chemical flowsheet questions. Concerns that were studied included carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, NO{sub x}, emissions, and metal retention under a variety of conditions. Initial experiments show that CO emissions increase with increasing NaCl content in the melt, increasing temperature, and increasing airflow. Carbon monoxide content is especially high (> 2000 ppm) with high chlorine content (> 10%). Thermal NO{sub x}, emissions are relatively low ( < 5 ppm) at temperatures < 1000{degrees}C. However, most (85--100%) of the nitrogen in the feed as organic nitrate or amine was released as NO{sub x}, The metal contents of the melt and of knockout pot samples of condensed salt show high volatilities of Cs as CsCl. Average condensed salt concentrations were 60% for barium and 100% for strontium and cobalt. The cerium disappeared -- perhaps from deposition on the alumina reactor walls.

  1. 脉冲等离子体推力器羽流的混合粒子仿真研究%Simulation Study on Flume of Pulsed Plasma Thruster by DSMC/PIC Fluid Hybrid Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹乐; 周进; 杨乐; 吴建军; 李自然; 李洁


    目前微小卫星正在积极的发展中,脉冲等离子体推力器是其推进系统的一个重要发展方向,为了能够将PPT成功地运用于空间,需对其羽流进行研究.将一维MHD双温放电模型用于DSMC(Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo)/PIC(Particle in Cell)流体混合算法模拟PPT羽流的入口条件计算,一体化模拟实验室PPT羽流,对不同电容情况下的羽流场进行模拟,并与实验结果进行了比较.计算结果显示高电容下带来更高的质量流量,更高的中性粒子的含量,同时返流的影响域更广.在推力器入口附近,CEX碰撞与一般碰撞形式共同存在,且频率很高,在羽流外围,CEX碰撞成为碰撞的主要形式.%Now, micro-satellite is being developed, and the pulsed plasma thruster is one of its choices. For space application,the pulsed plasma tluuster's flume is need to being studied. One-dimension MHD two-temperature discharge model was used to simulate the exit condition of the Expenmental flume for DSMC (Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo )/PIC (Particle in Cell) fluid hybrid method. The flume at different capacitor was simulated from end to end, comparing to experiment data. The results show the big capacitor brings high mass flux, bigh neutral ratio and bigger affect repon. There are CEX collisions and non-CEX collisions at the thruster's exit, with high frequency, and at the flume edge CEX collision becomes the main collision

  2. Designing assisted living technologies ‘in the wild’: preliminary experiences with cultural probe methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wherton Joseph


    , limited emotional or psychological resources, life events, and acute illness. Discussions between researchers and participants about the materials collected (and sometimes about what had prevented them completing the tasks helped elicit further information relevant to assisted living technology design. The probe materials were particularly helpful when having conversations with non-English speaking participants through an interpreter. Conclusions Cultural probe methods can help build a rich picture of the lives and experiences of older people to facilitate the co-production of assisted living technologies. But their application may be constrained by the participant’s physical, mental and emotional capacity. They are most effective when used as a tool to facilitate communication and development of a deeper understanding of older people’s needs.

  3. Preliminary experience of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery with extend system of Gamma Knife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Bisht


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present multisession stereotactic radiosurgery with initial experience using custom made extend system (ES of Gamma Knife.Methods: The ES is comprised of a carbon fiber frame also called extend frame, vacuum head rest cushion, patient surveillance unit and a configurable front piece with dental impression tray. The extend frame is a rigid connection between patient's head and patient positioning system (PPS of Gamma Knife. A dental impression of patient was created and attached to the frontal piece of extend system. The treatment setup involves positioning the patient within the extend frame using patient specific headrest cushion and front piece. The reference patient’s head position was recorded through measurements of repositioning check tool (RCT apertures using a high precision digital probe before computed tomography (CT scan. The RCT measurements taken before treatment were compared with recorded reference position to ensure appropriate patient treatment position. Volumetric magnetic resonance (MR scan was co-registered with stereotactic CT scan on Leksell Gamma plan. Fused MR to CT images on Gamma Plan was utilized to delineate regions of interest and prepare a precise treatment plan. The presented study includes positional reproducibility check and dosimetric evaluation of ten patients treated with ES.Results: Forty-three fractions on ten patients with prescribed treatment format were delivered successfully. An average tumor volume of 11.26 cm3 (range, 340 mm3 to 59.12 cm3 was treated with ES. The mean tumor coverage of 91.91% (range, 90% to 95% was able to achieve at 50% prescription isodose without compromising adjacent normal structure radiation dose tolerances. The mean inter-fraction positional variation of 0.69 mm influences an inherent strength of immobilization technique. Follow-up of seven patients at a median interval of 16 months (range, 9 months to 26 months showed evidence of 100

  4. Global atmospheric response to specific linear combinations of the main SST modes.. Part I: numerical experiments and preliminary results (United States)

    Trzaska, S.; Moron, V.; Fontaine, B.


    This article investigates through numerical experiments the controversial question of the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena on climate according to large-scale and regional-scale interhemispheric thermal contrast. Eight experiments (two considering only inversed Atlantic thermal anomalies and six combining ENSO warm phase with large-scale interhemispheric contrast and Atlantic anomaly patterns) were performed with the Météo-France atmospheric general circulation model. The definition of boundary conditions from observed composites and principal components is presented and preliminary results concerning the month of August, especially over West Africa and the equatorial Atlantic are discussed. Results are coherent with observations and show that interhemispheric and regional scale sea-surface-temperature anomaly (SST) patterns could significantly modulate the impact of ENSO phenomena: the impact of warm-phase ENSO, relative to the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP) climatology, seems stronger when embedded in global and regional SSTA patterns representative of the post-1970 conditions [i.e. with temperatures warmer (colder) than the long-term mean in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere)]. Atlantic SSTAs may also play a significant role. Acknowledgements. We gratefully appreciate the on-line DMSP database facility at APL (Newell et al., 1991) from which this study has benefited greatly. We wish to thank E. Friis-Christensen for his encouragement and useful discussions. A. Y. would like to thank the Danish Meteorological Institute, where this work was done, for its hospitality during his stay there and the Nordic Baltic Scholarship Scheme for its financial support of this stay. Topical Editor K.-H. Glassmeier thanks M. J. Engebretson and H. Lühr for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: A. Yahnin-->

  5. CT-guided thin needles percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) in patients with primary and secondary lung tumors: A preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusceddu, Claudio, E-mail: [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncologic Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy); Sotgia, Barbara, E-mail: [Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy); Fele, Rosa Maria, E-mail: [Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy); Melis, Luca, E-mail: [Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy)


    Purpose: To report the data of our initial experience with CT-guided thin cryoprobes for percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) in patients with primary and secondary pulmonary tumors. Material and methods: CT-guided thin needles PCA was performed on 34 lung masses (11 NSCLC = 32%; 23 secondary lung malignancies = 68%) in 32 consecutive patients (24 men and 8 women; mean age 67 ± 10 years) not suitable for surgical resection. Lung masses were treated using two types of cryoprobes: IceRod and IceSeed able to obtain different size of iceball. The number of probes used ranged from 1 to 5 depending on the size of the tumor. After insertion of the cryoprobes into the lesion, the PCA were performed with two 2 (91%) or 3 (9%) cycles each of 12 min of freezing followed by a 4 min active thawing phase and a 4 min passive thawing phase for each one for all treatments. Results: All cryoablation sessions were successfully completed. All primary and metastatic lung tumors were ablated. No procedure-related deaths occurred. Morbidity consisted of 21% (7 of 34) pneumothorax and 3% (1 of 34) cases asymptomatic small pulmonary hemorrhage, respectively, all of CTCAE grade 1 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). Low density of entire lesion, central necrosis and solid mass appearance were identify in 21 (62%), 7 (21%) and 6 (17%) of cryoablated tumors, respectively. No lymphadenopathy developed in the region of treated lesions. Technical success (complete lack of enhancement) was achieved in 82%, 97% and 91% of treated lesions at 1-, 3- and 6-months CT follow-up scan, respectively (p < .000). Comparing the tumor longest diameter between the baseline and at 6 month CT images, technical success was revealed in 92% cases (p < .000). Conclusion: Our preliminary experience suggests that PCA is a feasible treatment option. Well-designed clinical trials with a larger patient population are necessary to further investigate the long-term results and prognostic factors.

  6. Numerical simulation of failure behavior of granular debris flows based on flume model tests. (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Ye-xun; Jia, Min-cai; Li, Cui-na


    In this study, the failure behaviors of debris flows were studied by flume model tests with artificial rainfall and numerical simulations (PFC(3D)). Model tests revealed that grain sizes distribution had profound effects on failure mode, and the failure in slope of medium sand started with cracks at crest and took the form of retrogressive toe sliding failure. With the increase of fine particles in soil, the failure mode of the slopes changed to fluidized flow. The discrete element method PFC(3D) can overcome the hypothesis of the traditional continuous medium mechanic and consider the simple characteristics of particle. Thus, a numerical simulations model considering liquid-solid coupled method has been developed to simulate the debris flow. Comparing the experimental results, the numerical simulation result indicated that the failure mode of the failure of medium sand slope was retrogressive toe sliding, and the failure of fine sand slope was fluidized sliding. The simulation result is consistent with the model test and theoretical analysis, and grain sizes distribution caused different failure behavior of granular debris flows. This research should be a guide to explore the theory of debris flow and to improve the prevention and reduction of debris flow.

  7. Study on transport of powdered activated carbon using a rotating circular flume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹海龙; 邱敏燕; 徐祖信


    This study employed a rotating flume to examine the Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) transport with water flow. The initial PAC concentration was 10 mg/L-30 mg/L, and PAC concentration versus time under a specified cross-sectional averaging fluid shear was observed. Results show that compared with PAC deposition in still water, PAC is depleted to zero faster under a fluid shear of 0.02 Pa, due to PAC agglomeration with the fluid shear. However, since PAC floc size only ranges from a single particle (2mm) to approximate 6mm, an increasing of instantaneous turbulent fluctuations could counteract the force of PAC floc settling downward, and as a result the steady PAC concentration increases with the increase of shear stress. It is found that the critical shear stress for PAC deposition is about 0.60 Pa, and further the PAC deposition probability is presented according to the experimental scenarios between 0.02 Pa and 0.60 Pa. Combining the PAC transport and deposition formula with PAC-pollutant removal model provides an insight into PAC deployment in raw water aqueduct for sudden open water source pollution.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Failure Behavior of Granular Debris Flows Based on Flume Model Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou


    Full Text Available In this study, the failure behaviors of debris flows were studied by flume model tests with artificial rainfall and numerical simulations (PFC3D. Model tests revealed that grain sizes distribution had profound effects on failure mode, and the failure in slope of medium sand started with cracks at crest and took the form of retrogressive toe sliding failure. With the increase of fine particles in soil, the failure mode of the slopes changed to fluidized flow. The discrete element method PFC3D can overcome the hypothesis of the traditional continuous medium mechanic and consider the simple characteristics of particle. Thus, a numerical simulations model considering liquid-solid coupled method has been developed to simulate the debris flow. Comparing the experimental results, the numerical simulation result indicated that the failure mode of the failure of medium sand slope was retrogressive toe sliding, and the failure of fine sand slope was fluidized sliding. The simulation result is consistent with the model test and theoretical analysis, and grain sizes distribution caused different failure behavior of granular debris flows. This research should be a guide to explore the theory of debris flow and to improve the prevention and reduction of debris flow.

  9. Dry granular avalanche down a flume: Choice of discrete element simulation parameters (United States)

    Yang, F.-L.; Chang, W. T.; Huang, Y. T.; Hsieh, S. H.; Chen, C. S.


    This paper presents a method to assign soft-sphere contact model parameters in a discrete-element simulation with which we can reproduce the experimentally measured avalanche dynamics of finite dry granular mass down a flume. We adopt the simplest linear model in which interaction force is decomposed along or tangent to the contact normal. The model parameters are chosen uniquely to satisfy theoretical models or to meet experimental evidences at either the particle or the bulk size level. The normal mode parameters are chosen specifically to ensure Hertzian contact time (but not its force-displacement history) and the resulting loss of particle kinetic energy, characterized by a measured coefficient of restitution, for each pair of colliding surfaces. We follow the literature to assign the tangential spring constant according to an elasticity model but propose a method to assign the friction coefficient using a measured bulk property that characterizes the bulk discharge volume flow rate. The linear contact model with the assigned parameters are evaluated by comparing the simulated bulk avalanche dynamics down three slopes to the experimental data, including instantaneous particle trajectories and bulk unsteady velocity profile. Satisfying quantitative agreement can be obtained except at the free surface and the early-time front propagation velocity.

  10. Transition from wavelets to ripples in a laboratory flume with a diverging channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William B.RAUEN; Binliang LIN; Roger A.FALCONER


    An experimental investigation on the initiation and development of bed forms on a bed of fine silica sand was conducted under alluvial flow conditions in a laboratory flume with a diverging channel.The main aims of the study were to assess:I)the steepness of bed forms in the transition stage of development;and ii)the threshold height of wavelets(nt)that triggered the start of ripple development.Detailed bed profile measurements were carried out using an acoustic Doppler probe,traversed longitudinally over the sediment bed at various experimentation times.The bed form dimensions were extracted from such bed profile records and analysed for the wavelet,transition and equilibrium stages.It was found that the steepness of ripples in the transition and equilibrium stages were similar,confirming predictions of previous mathematical model simulations.A lognormal distribution fitted the wavelet length data.The wavelet threshold height was estimated as ηt≈7 mm,or y+≈80 in wall units.Such a height magnitude suggested that ripple development could be triggered by the wavelets reaching the outer flow zone of a turbulent boundary layer.The ηt value obtained corresponded generally to the intersection point between two predictive equations for bed form dimensions.A formulation was developed to predict ηt as a function of the sediment grain size,which was confirmed for the fine sand used in this study.

  11. Towing Tank and Flume Testing of Passively Adaptive Composite Tidal Turbine Blades: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Robynne [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Composite tidal turbine blades with bend-twist (BT) coupled layups allow the blade to self-adapt to local site conditions by passively twisting. Passive feathering has the potential to increase annual energy production and shed thrust loads and power under extreme tidal flows. Decreased hydrodynamic thrust and power during extreme conditions meann that the turbine support structure, generator, and other components can be sized more appropriately, resulting in a higher utilization factor and increased cost effectiveness. This paper presents new experimental data for a small-scale turbine with BT composite blades. The research team tested the turbine in the Kelvin Hydrodynamics Laboratory towing tank at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, United Kingdom, and in the recirculating current flume at the l Institut Francais de Recherche pour l Exploitation de la Mer Centre in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. Tests were also performed on rigid aluminum blades with identical geometry, which yielded baseline test sets for comparison. The results from both facilities agreed closely, supporting the hypothesis that increased blade flexibility can induce load reductions. Under the most extreme conditions tested the turbine with BT blades had up to 11 percent lower peak thrust loads and a 15 percent reduction in peak power compared to the turbine with rigid blades. The load reductions varied as a function of turbine rotational velocity and ambient flow velocity.

  12. Flume tank studies to elucidate the fate and behavior of diluted bitumen spilled at sea. (United States)

    King, Thomas L; Robinson, Brian; Boufadel, Michel; Lee, Kenneth


    An economical alternative to conventional crudes, Canadian bitumen, harvested as a semi-liquid, is diluted with condensate to make it viable to transport by pipeline to coastal areas where it would be shipped by tankers to global markets. Not much is known about the fate of diluted bitumen (dilbit) when spilled at sea. For this purpose, we conducted dilbit (Access Western Blend; AWB and Cold Lake Blend; CLB) weathering studies for 13 days in a flume tank containing seawater. After six days of weathering, droplets detached from the AWB slick and were dense enough to sink in seawater. The density of CLB also increased, but at a slower rate compared to AWB, which was attributed to the high concentration of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in it, which are more resistant to weathering. An empirical, Monod-type model was introduced and was found to closely simulate the increase in oil density with time. Such a model could be used within oil spill models.

  13. Thermal energy storage in aquifiers: preliminary information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.


    Topics discussed include: conceptual designs; numerical modelling; field experiments; relevant technical information; feasibility studies; preliminary aquifer selection considerations; and preliminary design and operating considerations. (TFD)

  14. Immediate conversion to CAS after neurological intolerance at cross-clamping test during CEA: a preliminary experience. (United States)

    Guy Bianchi, P; Tolva, V; Dalainas, I; Bertoni, G; Cireni, L; Trimarchi, S; Rampoldi, V; Casana, R


    The aim of this preliminary study is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of CAS as treatment option to endarterectomy when carotid shunt cannot be used safely. The medical records concerning 469 carotid stenosis treated between January 2006 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed, focusing on cross-clamp intolerance during CEA. Patients with cross-clamping intolerance were divided in two groups. Group 1: those that concluded the open procedure with the use of a shunt, and Group 2: those who experience immediate brain intolerance and coma and were immediately converted to an endovascular procedure. Mortality and neurological adverse event rate were compared between shunted CEA and cross-clamping intolerant cases converted into CAS. The secondary end-point was long-term survival. Carotid cross-clamp intolerance occurred in 30 cases (8.7%). CEA with Pruitt-Inahara's shunt was performed in 17 cases with a perioperative neurological adverse event rate of 23.5%. In 13 cases limitations to shunting due to quick onset of coma and/or an unfavorable anatomy were encountered. In these 13 cases the open intervention was immediately converted into endovascular procedure. Technical success was achieved in all the converted to CAS cases (100%), with a perioperative neurological adverse event rate of 7.7% (P=0.35 between the two groups). No significant difference emerges comparing patient's survival between the cases Nevertheless, the small dimension of this survey, immediate conversion to CAS resulted feasible with a lower risk of neurological adverse events if compared to CEA with shunt, and could be considered as an alternative to CEA when carotid shunt cannot be used safely.

  15. Production of microspheres labeled with holmium-166 for liver cancer therapy: the preliminary experience at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Renata F.; Azevedo, Mariangela B.M.; Nascimento, Nanci; Sene, Frank F.; Martinelli, Jose R.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: renatafcosta@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Microspheres labeled with therapeutic radionuclides for malignancies of liver are widely used in many countries. The internal radionuclide therapy uses a permanently implanted device, such as Therasphere{sup R} or SIR-Spheres{sup R}, or a biodegradable device that provides structural support for the radionuclide of choice and causes the tumor reduction. Three different types of material supports have been investigated, i.e., biodegradable polymer-based, glass-based and resin-based microspheres. Nowadays there is a project concerning the labeling of these 3 materials with {sup 166}Ho being developed at IPEN-CNEN/SP and coordinated by the Radiopharmacy Directory. {sup 166}Ho(t{sub 1/2}=26.8 h) is a beta minus emitter (E{sub max}=1.84 MeV), with right properties for radiotherapy and can be produced with the low power Brazilian Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1m. The aim of this work is to describe the stage of development of this project. The initial experience used resin-based microspheres, a cation exchange resin labeled with {sup 166}Ho, it showed the essential characteristics for liver therapy. Preliminary results of the preparation of glass-based microspheres labeled with {sup 165}Ho showed that 5% of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} was incorporated in an aluminosilicate glass, through the process of spheronization by flame, which produced spherical microspheres with 20-40mum particle size. The preparation of biodegradable material, polymer-based microspheres, is in its initial stage and the objective is to prepare and label with {sup 165}Ho different polymer-based microspheres. These combined efforts have been done to offer a national radiotherapeutic product for the the Brazilian nuclear medicine community at fair value and also to offer a viable possibility of treatment for patients affected by liver malignancies. (author)

  16. An attempt to assess the relevance of flood events-biomarker response of rainbow trout exposed to resuspended natural sediments in an annular flume. (United States)

    Hudjetz, Sebastian; Herrmann, Henning; Cofalla, Catrina; Brinkmann, Markus; Kammann, Ulrike; Schäffer, Andreas; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Hollert, Henner


    There is a consensus within the scientific community that sediments act as a long-term sink for a variety of organic and inorganic pollutants, which, however, can re-enter the water column upon resuspension of deposited material under certain hydraulic conditions such as flood events. Within the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive, it is important to understand the potential short- and long-term impact of suspended particulate matter (SPM)-associated contaminants on aquatic organisms as well as the related uptake mechanisms for a sound risk assessment. To elucidate the effects of sediment-bound organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to three resuspended natural sediments with different contamination levels. Physicochemical parameters including dissolved oxygen concentration, pH and temperature, total PAH concentration in sediments and SPM as well as different biomarkers of exposure in fish (7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, biliary PAH metabolites, micronuclei, and lipid peroxidation) were measured following seven days of exposure within an annular flume, a device to assess erosion and deposition processes of cohesive sediment. Concentrations of PAHs in SPM remained constant and represented the different contamination levels in the un-suspended sediments. Significant differences in bile metabolite concentrations as well as in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase induction compared to control experiments (untreated animals and animals that were exposed in the annular flume without sediment) were observed for all exposure scenarios. The ratio between 1-hydroxypyrene in bile from fish exposed to the three different contamination levels was 1.0:3.6:10.7 and correlated well with (1) the ratio of pyrene concentrations in corresponding sediments which was 1.0:3.1:12.7 and (2) with the ratio of particle-bound pyrene in SPM which was 1.0:2.7:11.7. In contrast, hepatic lipid

  17. Bed forms created by simulated waves and currents in a large flume (United States)

    Lacy, Jessica R.; Rubin, David M.; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Mokudai, Kuniyasu; Hanes, Daniel M.


    The morphology and evolution of bed forms created by combinations of waves and currents were investigated using an oscillating plate in a 4-m-wide flume. Current speed ranged from 0 to 30 cm/s, maximum oscillatory velocity ranged from 20 to 48 cm/s, oscillation period was 8 s (except for one run with 12 s period), and the median grain size was 0.27 mm. The angle between oscillations and current was 90°, 60°, or 45°. At the end of each run the sand bed was photographed and ripple dimensions were measured. Ripple wavelength was also determined from sonar images collected throughout the runs. Increasing the ratio of current to wave (i.e., oscillatory) velocity decreased ripple height and wavelength, in part because of the increased fluid excursion during the wave period. Increasing the ratio of current to waves, or decreasing the angle between current and waves, increased the three-dimensionality of bed forms. During the runs, ripple wavelength increased by a factor of about 2. The average number of wave periods for evolution of ripple wavelength to 90% of its final value was 184 for two-dimensional ripples starting from a flat bed. Bed form orientations at the end of each run were compared to four potential controlling factors: the directions of waves, current, maximum instantaneous bed shear stress, and maximum gross bed form normal transport (MGBNT). The directions of waves and of MGBNT were equally good predictors of bed form orientations, and were significantly better than the other two factors.

  18. Assessment of pulsed DC electric field to guide downstream migrating sea lamprey in experimental flume at USGS Conte Anadromous Fish Lab, Turners Falls, MA (December 2013) (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Haro, Alexander J.


    This is a tabular data set that contains records of water velocity, depth, temperature and trial information such as start and stop times and date for experimental trials testing the effect of an electric field on the movement patterns and distribution of juvenile sea lamprey moving downstream in an experimental flume. Distribution is recorded for each individual lamprey as presence (1) or absence (0) in a series of downstream collection nets positions laterally across the flume. The data is formatted as comma delimited and contains no special characters. The trails were conducted during December 2 through December 15, 2013 in a 6 meter wide experimental flume at the Conte Anadromous Fish Research Lab in Turners Falls, MA.

  19. Preliminary experience in the monitoring of geothermal probes by borehole logging; Erste Erfahrungen bei der bohrlochgeophysikalischen Ueberpruefung von Erdwaermesonden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Karsten [Bohrlochmessung-Storkow GmbH, Storkow (Germany)


    Authorities as well as waterworks experts have long been calling for a control strategy to ensure that groundwater protection is considered in geothermal projects. So far, control options for geothermal probes were lacking, which raised doubts about the efficiency of sealing. Waterworks experts also were unable to understand why new groundwater wells or groundwater measuring fonts are subject to careful control via geophysical borehole logs while geothermal probes with a depth of 100 m and more can be installed nearby without adequate monitoring. The contribution presents a preliminary approach for monitoring and testing of shallow geothermal probes. (orig.)

  20. Visualization of periventricular collaterals in moyamoya disease with flow-sensitive black-blood magnetic resonance angiography: preliminary experience. (United States)

    Funaki, Takeshi; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Jun C; Takagi, Yasushi; Araki, Yoshio; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Miyamoto, Susumu


    Fragile abnormal collaterals in moyamoya disease, known as "moyamoya vessels," have rarely been defined. While flow-sensitive black-blood magnetic resonance angiography (FSBB-MRA) is a promising technique for visualizing perforating arteries, as of this writing no other reports exist regarding its application to moyamoya disease. Six adults with moyamoya disease underwent FSBB-MRA. It depicted abnormal collaterals as extended lenticulostriate, thalamic perforating, or choroidal arteries, which were all connected to the medullary or insular artery in the periventricular area and supplied the cortex. This preliminary case series illustrates the potential for FSBB-MRA to reveal abnormal moyamoya vessels, which could be reasonably defined as periventricular collaterals.

  1. Effects of wind waves versus ship waves on tidal marsh plants: a flume study on different life stages of Scirpus maritimus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Silinski

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that many ecosystems, including intertidal marshes, follow the alternative stable states theory. This theory implies that thresholds of environmental factors can mark a limit between two opposing stable ecosystem states, e.g. vegetated marshes and bare mudflats. While elevation relative to mean sea level is considered as the overall threshold condition for colonization of mudflats by vegetation, little is known about the individual driving mechanisms, in particular the impact of waves, and more specifically of wave period. We studied the impact of different wave regimes on plants in a full scale flume experiment. Seedlings and adult shoots of the pioneer Scirpus maritimus were subjected to two wave periods at two water levels. Drag forces acting on, and sediment scouring occurring around the plants were quantified, as these are the two main mechanisms determining plant establishment and survival. Depending on life stage, two distinct survival strategies emerge: seedlings present a stress avoidance strategy by being extremely flexible, thus limiting the drag forces and thereby the risk of breaking. Adult shoots present a stress tolerance strategy by having stiffer stems, which gives them a higher resistance to breaking. These strategies work well under natural, short period wind wave conditions. For long period waves, however, caused e.g. by ships, these survival strategies have a high chance to fail as the flexibility of seedlings and stiffness of adults lead to plant tissue failure and extreme drag forces respectively. This results in both cases in strongly bent plant stems, potentially limiting their survival.

  2. Network security visualization system based on Flume%基于Flume的网络安全可视化系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋密; 王劲松


    随着互联网使用者的快速增长,网络安全问题也不断增多。传统的基于日志的入侵检测系统在处理海量信息时存在着实时性不足,认知负担过重等缺点。本文提出了一种基于Flume的网络安全日志可视化方法,利用Flume处理日志信息的高效性,实时收集网络安全日志,结合数据可视化方法,挖掘隐藏的网络异常信息。与传统的基于数据库存储的安全分析相比,提高了数据处理的实时性,能够更直观的展现网络网络异常。%With the rapid growth of Internet users, the network security issues grows accordingly. Traditional intrusion detection system based on log has defects such as real-time insufficiency and cognition burden in dealing with huge amounts of information.This paper proposed one visualization method of network security log based on the Flume, Which collected network security log in real-time by using the efficiency of Flume and combined with data visualization technology to digest the hidden information of unexpected network. Compared with traditional safety analysis based on database storage, the real-time of data processing can be largely improved, and the unexpected network can be presented more visually.

  3. Paranormal experience and the COMT dopaminergic gene: a preliminary attempt to associate phenotype with genotype using an underlying brain theory. (United States)

    Raz, Amir; Hines, Terence; Fossella, John; Castro, Daniella


    Paranormal belief and suggestibility seem related. Given our recent findings outlining a putative association between suggestibility and a specific dopaminergic genetic polymorphism, we hypothesized that similar exploratory genetic data may offer supplementary insights into a similar correlation with paranormal belief. With more affordable costs and better technology in the aftermath of the human genome project, genotyping is increasingly ubiquitous. Compelling brain theories guide specific research hypotheses as scientists begin to unravel tentative relationships between phenotype and genotype. In line with a dopaminergic brain theory, we tried to correlate a specific phenotype concerning paranormal belief with a dopaminergic gene (COMT) known for its involvement in prefrontal executive cognition and for a polymorphism that is positively correlated with suggestibility. Although our preliminary findings are inconclusive, the research approach we outline should pave the road to a more scientific account of elucidating paranormal belief.

  4. Predicting relatedness and self-definition depressive experiences in aging women based on personality traits: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Campos, Rui C; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta; Junqueira, Diana


    As part of the research relating personality and depression, this study seeks to predict depressive experiences in aging women according to Sidney Blatt's perspective based on the Five-Factor Model of Personality. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were administered. The domains Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted self-criticism, explaining 68% of the variance; the domains Neuroticism and Extraversion predicted dependency, explaining 62% of the variance. The subfactors Neediness and Connectedness were differently related to personality traits. These findings are relevant to the research relating personality and anaclitic / introjective depressive experiences in late adulthood.

  5. Bring Your Own Device Technology: Preliminary Results from a Mixed Methods Study to Explore Student Experience of In-Class Response Systems in Post-Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Numer


    Full Text Available This research examines the effectiveness of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD technology in a postsecondary classroom. Despite recent advances in the technological tools available to educators, there is a significant gap in the literature regarding student efficacy, engagement and contribution to learning. This paper will present the preliminary findings of the first phases of an evaluation project measuring student interaction with BYOD technology in a large group setting. Employing a mixed methods design, the findings from two focus groups and two online surveys will be discussed. This project involved students in the Winter and Fall 2014 semesters of a fourth year Human Sexuality course which has enrolment of approximately 400 per semester. The findings suggest that BYOD technology contributes to student engagement and participation in the classroom setting. Further, the findings suggest that students are comfortable in using this tool, and perceived the experience as enjoyable.

  6. Preliminary experiments on the growth of plants exposed to DC corona discharge in a hydroponics. Chokuryu corona hodenkadeno suiko sanbaini yoru shokubutsu seiikuno yobiteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigemitsu, Tsukasa; Watanabe, Yasunori


    For the purpose of utilizing electrical phenomena to agriculture fields, preliminary experiments were carried out hydroponically to evaluate especially the effects of ion by DC corona discharge on the growth of plants such as lettuce or radish. The influences of various shapes of discharge electrodes on a water evaporation rate, ozone production rate and ion current change were studied, and the indirect stimulation effects on plants by more water evaporation under discharge, and the direct stimulation effects on plants with discharge by the electrode fixed 45cm above plants were studied. As a result, the water evaporation rate was 2 or 3 times more than that of control plots by positive or negative corona discharge, however, for the growth of plants, no remarkable direct or indirect stimulation effects by discharge were observed. As subjects, the clarification of water behavior change under discharge and of effects on plants in cellular level were pointed out to be necessary. (14 figs, 12 tabs, 12 refs)

  7. Superfluid helium orbital resupply - The status of the SHOOT flight experiment and preliminary user requirements. [Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (United States)

    Dipirro, Michael J.; Kittel, Peter


    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment is designed to demonstrate the components and techniques necessary to resupply superfluid helium to satellites or Space Station based facilities. A top level description as well as the development status of the critical components to be used in SHOOT are discussed. Some of these components include the thermomechanical pump, the fluid acquisition system, the normal helium and superfluid helium phase separators, Venturi flow meter, cryogenic valves, burst disks, and astronaut-compatible EVA coupler and transfer line. The requirements for the control electronics and software are given. A preliminary description of the requirements that must be met by a satellite requiring superfluid helium servicing is given. In particular, minimum and optimum plumbing arrangements are shown, transfer line flow impedance and heat input impacts are assessed, instrumentation is described, and performance parameters are considered.

  8. Use of movable high-field-strength intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging with awake craniotomies for resection of gliomas: preliminary experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leuthardt, Eric C


    Awake craniotomy with electrocortical mapping and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) are established techniques for maximizing tumor resection and preserving function, but there has been little experience combining these methodologies.

  9. Experiência preliminar com novo filtro de veia cava: resultados de 15 implantes Preliminary experience with a new vena cava filter: results of 15 implantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston B. Yoshida


    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta resultados preliminares obtidos com um novo filtro permanente de veia cava, baseado no desenho de Greenfield, com três hastes prolongadas de um total de seis, para dar estabilidade central ao filtro na luz da veia cava. Neste artigo, relatamos sua avaliação clínica preliminar quanto à aplicabilidade, eficácia e segurança. De agosto de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, 15 filtros foram implantados em nove homens e seis mulheres, com idades variando de 38 a 79 anos (média de 57,8 anos. O acesso foi feito sempre por via transjugular. As indicações foram: trombose venosa proximal, com contra-indicação de anticoagulação em 12 pacientes; complicações hemorrágicas com anticoagulação em dois pacientes; e embolia pulmonar, apesar de anticoagulação adequada, em um paciente. Os filtros foram avaliados quanto à liberação, inclinação, mau posicionamento e perfuração de cava. No seguimento, avaliou-se trombose no local de acesso, tromboembolismo venoso recorrente, migração do filtro e trombose de cava pelo ultra-som. Nenhum paciente recebeu anticoagulantes no seguimento. O filtro foi liberado com sucesso em todos os casos sem mau posicionamento, inclinação, perfuração ou trombose de acesso. Os pacientes foram seguidos entre 3 e 23 meses (média de 11 meses. Nenhum paciente teve recorrência de tromboembolismo venoso. Não houve casos de trombose de veia cava ou migração do filtro. Óbito ocorreu em sete casos, todos relacionados com a moléstia de base. Os resultados preliminares indicam potencial eficácia e segurança do uso do novo filtro no período estudado.This study presents preliminary results obtained from a new permanent filter, based on Greenfield's filter design, with prolongations on three of six struts to stabilize it centrally in the vena caval lumen. The preliminary clinical evaluation of the filter with regard to feasibility, efficacy and safety is reported. From August 2004 to December 2006

  10. Study on critical heat flux in narrow rectangular channel with repeated-rib roughness. 1. Experimental facility and preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    In the design of a spallation target system, the water cooling system, for example a proton beam window and a safety hull, is used with narrow channels, in order to remove high heat flux and prevent lowering of system performance by absorption of neutron. And in narrow channel, heat transfer enhancement using 2-D rib is considered for reduction the cost of cooling component and decrease inventory of water in the cooling system, that is, decrease of the amount of irradiated water. But few studies on CHF with rib have been carried out. Experimental and analytical studies with rib-roughened test section, in 10:1 ratio of pitch to height, are being carried out in order to clarify the CHF in rib-roughened channel. This paper presents the review of previous researches on heat transfer in channel with rib roughness, overview of the test facility and the preliminary experimental and analytical results. As a result, wall friction factors were about 3 times as large as that of smooth channel, and heat transfer coefficients are about 2 times as large as that of smooth channel. The obtained CHF was as same as previous mechanistic model by Sudo. (author)

  11. MR elastography of the liver at 3.0 T in diagnosing liver fibrosis grades; preliminary clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Mitsufuji, Toshimichi; Shinagawa, Yoshinobu; Fujimitsu, Ritsuko; Morita, Ayako; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Takano, Koichi [Fukuoka University, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Hayashi, Hiroyuki [Fukuoka University, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan)


    To clarify the usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography (MRE) in diagnosing the histological grades of liver fibrosis using preliminary clinical data. Between November 2012 and March 2014, MRE was applied to all patients who underwent liver MR study at a 3.0-T clinical unit. Among them, those who had pathological evaluation of liver tissue within 3 months from MR examinations were retrospectively recruited, and the liver stiffness measured by MRE was correlated with histological results. Institutional review board approved this study, waiving informed consent. There were 70 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Liver stiffness showed significant correlation with the pathological grades of liver fibrosis (rho = 0.89, p < 0.0001, Spearman's rank correlation). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.93, 0.95, 0.99 and 0.95 for fibrosis score greater than or equal to F1, F2, F3 and F4, with cut-off values of 3.13, 3.85, 4.28 and 5.38 kPa, respectively. Multivariate analysis suggested that grades of necroinflammation also affected liver stiffness, but to a significantly lesser degree as compared to fibrosis. 3.0-T clinical MRE was suggested to be sufficiently useful in assessing the grades of liver fibrosis. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of the η′ photoproduction off the proton and preliminary beam asymmetry results at the GRAAL experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandaglio G.


    Full Text Available Differential and total cross section measurements on η′ photoproduction were published by the CLAS Collaboration (M. Dugger et al., Phys.Rev.Lett.96, 062001 (2006 and M. Williams et al., Phys.Rev.C80, 045213 (2009 for center-of-mass energies from near the threshold up to 2.84 GeV, and by the CB-ELSA-TAPS Collaboration (V. Crede et al., Phys.Rev.C80, 055202 (2009 up to 2.36 GeV and also making a precise threshold scan of the differential cross section in the 1446 – 1527.4 MeV γ beam energy range. However, the wide information about reaction cross sections are not sufficient to understand the role of resonances involved in the process. Different theoretical works stressed the importance to have also polarization observables in order to solve the ambiguity in the choice of the parameters used in their models. We present the analysis of the η′ photoproduction off the proton, identifying the meson via the γγ, π0π0η, and π+π−η decay modes by using the GRAAL apparatus; and we show the preliminary GRAAL results on the beam asymmetry Σ from the threshold (1.446 GeV up to 1.5 GeV.

  13. Our experience in the diagnosis of intraocular tumours by a B-scan computerized system and angiodynography (Doppler). Preliminary results. (United States)

    Falco, L; Esente, S; Fanfani, S; Pasarelli, N; Utari, S


    The authors compare the ultrasound diagnostic results of intraocular tumours by A/B-scans (Sonomed B 3000, Sonocare, Sonovision STT-100) with images obtained using computerized B-scan (Sonocare, Sonovision STT-100, Acoustic Tissue Typing ATT) and angiodynopgraphy systems (Quantum Philips). The Sonovision uses a computerized ultrasound spectrum analysis to assess the probability that a given lesion is a certain tumour, rather than another. The ATT system provides diagnostic probability for type B and type E melanoma, for haemangioma and metastatic carcinoma. The Quantum ultrasound equipment was developed for studying the heart and the major blood vessels. It is a colour Doppler that simplifies the Doppler technique, allowing it to study small anatomical parts such as tumour-like lesions of the eye. The Doppler technique ascertains the presence and the velocity of blood flow in the tumours. In presenting the preliminary results with the new techniques the authors are aware that the ATT system is not designed for some of the lesions under study (melanomas after conservative radiotherapy).

  14. Valley formation by groundwater seepage, pressurized groundwater outbursts and crater-lake overflow in flume experiments with implications for Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Braat, Lisanne; Baar, Anne W.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.


    Remains of fluvial valleys on Mars reveal the former presence of water on the surface. However, the source of water and the hydrological setting is not always clear, especially in types of valleys that are rare on Earth and where we have limited knowledge of the processes involved. We investigated t

  15. Experiments on Erosion of Mud from the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, C.; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, O.


    Experiments on erosion and consolidation of natural cohesive sediments from the harbour of Esbjerg located in the Danish Watten Sea were conducted using a rotating annular flume. The objective of the paper is to describe the erosion rate of deposited beds and relate the erosion rate...

  16. Laser bonding with ICG-infused chitosan patches: preliminary experiences in suine dura mater and vocal folds (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Ratto, Fulvio; Pini, Roberto; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Giannoni, Luca; Fortuna, Damiano; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Corbara, Sylwia; Dallari, Stefano


    Laser bonding is a promising minimally invasive approach, emerging as a valid alternative to conventional suturing techniques. It shows widely demonstrated advantages in wound treatment: immediate closuring effect, minimal inflammatory response and scar formation, reduced healing time. This laser based technique can overcome the difficulties in working through narrow surgical corridors (e.g. the modern "key-hole" surgery as well as the endoscopy setting) or in thin tissues that are impossible to treat with staples and/or stitches. We recently proposed the use of chitosan matrices, stained with conventional chromophores, to be used in laser bonding of vascular tissue. In this work we propose the same procedure to perform laser bonding of vocal folds and dura mater repair. Laser bonding of vocal folds is proposed to avoid the development of adhesions (synechiae), after conventional or CO2 laser surgery. Laser bonding application in neurosurgery is proposed for the treatment of dural defects being the Cerebro Spinal Fluid leaks still a major issue. Vocal folds and dura mater were harvested from 9-months old porks and used in the experimental sessions within 4 hours after sacrifice. In vocal folds treatment, an IdocyanineGreen-infused chitosan patch was applied onto the anterior commissure, while the dura mater was previously incised and then bonded. A diode laser emitting at 810 nm, equipped with a 600 μm diameter optical fiber was used to weld the patch onto the tissue, by delivering single laser spots to induce local patch/tissue adhesion. The result is an immediate adhesion of the patch to the tissue. Standard histology was performed, in order to study the induced photothermal effect at the bonding sites. This preliminary experimental activity shows the advantages of the proposed technique in respect to standard surgery: simplification of the procedure; decreased foreign-body reaction; reduced inflammatory response; reduced operating times and better handling in

  17. Measurement of hydrogen, helium, carbon and oxygen cosmic ray primaries: Preliminary results from the CREAM II experiment (United States)

    Mognet, S. A. Isaac

    The direct measurement of the energy spectrum and composition of the incoming cosmic-ray flux at multi-TeV energies is of great interest. A feature located somewhere between 1000-10,000 TeV in the all-particle spectrum, referred to as the 'knee' characterized by a steepening of the power-law flux, has been observed by ground-based detectors for many years. It is believed to be related to an upper limit or change in efficiency of the Galactic accelerators of cosmic rays and/or properties of the propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the flux of primary H, He, C and O cosmic-ray species measured using the CREAM II instrument. This analysis is conducted using the Penn State-built Timing Charge Detector, distinct from other charge detectors used in alternative published CREAM II results. The second Antarctic flight of the CREAM instrument had a ~ 28 day flight in the 2005-2006 Antarctic flight season. The instrument was launched on December 16 th 2005 from Williams Field near McMurdo Station, Antarctica. The analysis presented here used events collected throughout the flight to calibrate the charge response of the Timing Charge Detector. High-energy events collected during the entire flight time (except for the first ~ 3.5 days which were used for high-voltage tuning) are also analyzed here. Also presented in this thesis is a novel optical simulation of the Timing Charge Detector used in the various flights of the CREAM instrument. The model suggests fundamental limitations on the timing resolution of the detector arising purely from photon propagation physics in the scintillation and light- guide elements.

  18. Effects of palliative care training program on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists: A preliminary quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female of age (20.51±1.78 years who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants′ written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were noted for all four subscales- knowledge (7.84±4.61 points, attitudes (9.46±8.06 points, beliefs (4.88±3.29 points and experiences (15.8±11.28 points out of a total score of 104 points. Conclusions: The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.

  19. Incorporating field wind data into FIRETEC simulations of the International Crown Fire Modeling Experiment (ICFME): preliminary lessons learned (United States)

    Rodman Linn; Kerry Anderson; Judith Winterkamp; Alyssa Broos; Michael Wotton; Jean-Luc Dupuy; Francois Pimont; Carleton Edminster


    Field experiments are one way to develop or validate wildland fire-behavior models. It is important to consider the implications of assumptions relating to the locality of measurements with respect to the fire, the temporal frequency of the measured data, and the changes to local winds that might be caused by the experimental configuration. Twenty FIRETEC simulations...

  20. Cancer rehabilitation education during physical medicine and rehabilitation residency: preliminary data regarding the quality and quantity of experiences. (United States)

    Raj, Vishwa S; Balouch, Jamal; Norton, James H


    The purpose of this study was to gather descriptive information from residency program directors regarding characteristics of the education and experiences of resident physicians in oncology rehabilitation. The program directors responded to a 28-question survey. Information collected included general descriptors of residency programs, oncology rehabilitation services lines within the institution, educational and clinical opportunities for trainees, and perceptions of quality for oncology experiences. Thirty-eight responses, with a response rate of 48%, were recorded. Thirty-two percent of the programs did not have any dedicated faculty for cancer rehabilitation. A majority of the respondents felt that cancer rehabilitation should be an important component of the curriculum. Sixty-six percent of the programs admitted only one to two cancer diagnoses to their inpatient units per week, and 26% had outpatient clinics that focused specifically on rehabilitation needs for oncology patients. A majority of the programs felt that experiences were only average and that residents do not receive adequate exposure to cancer rehabilitation during their training. Although cancer rehabilitation is considered an important area of education, quality and quantity of experiences may be improved. Several opportunities may exist to improve such exposure in anticipation of serving the functional needs for a growing population of cancer survivors.

  1. Changes in dream experience in relation with antidepressant escitalopram treatment in depressed female patients: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Quartini, Adele; Anastasia, Annalisa; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Melcore, Claudia; Albano, Gabriella; Colletti, Chiara; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Bersani, Giuseppe


    Sleep disturbances have long been considered as a cardinal symptom of endogenous depression and dreams in depressed patients usually differ from those of healthy people. The aim of the present study was to investigate dream subjective experiences and their modifications in relation to clinical response in a group of escitalopram-treated depressed patients. Twenty-seven female patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and starting SSRI therapy were included in the study. Data about psychopathological status and dreaming subjective experiences were collected at baseline (T0), 4 weeks after the beginning of the treatment (T1) and after further 4 weeks of therapy (T2). At T0 dream experience was impaired and negatively toned. Concomitantly with the decrease of symptoms severity, the 8-week escitalopram treatment yielded to significant improvements in the recall of both quantity and quality of dreams; those patients whit lower clinical benefits kept on reporting impaired dream experiences. The results of the present study evidence how the changes in some specific dreaming characteristics, such as the subjective recall of dream activity, the dream recall quality, the dream emotional content and the dream complexity represent reliable markers of the effectiveness of antidepressant therapy.

  2. Preliminary Experience with the GORE(®) EXCLUDER(®) Iliac Branch Endoprosthesis for Common Iliac Aneurysm Endovascular Treatment. (United States)

    Millon, Antoine; Della Schiava, Nellie; Arsicot, Matthieu; De Lambert, Alberic; Feugier, Patrick; Magne, Jean Luc; Lermusiaux, Patrick


    The aim of this study is to assess the safety and the short-term results of endovascular treatment of common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysms using the new GORE EXCLUDER iliac branch endoprosthesis (IBE) device. The study is a retrospective with prospective follow-up nonrandomized, single-arm evaluation. Patients with a CIA aneurysm (diameter >30 mm) extending to the iliac bifurcation underwent endovascular treatment with the Gore IBE. Anatomic and procedural data were collected. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed within the 30 days after the procedure and every 6 month. Thirty-day and at least 6-months outcomes were investigated. From February 2014 to December 2014, 10 male patients with aneurysmal CIA (mean age 75 years old) underwent consecutive endovascular treatment with the Gore IBE. The CIA aneurysm (mean diameter 43.2 mm, range 32-49) treated with the Gore IBE was associated with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in 5 patients. One patient had a previous AAA open repair. CIA aneurysm was bilateral in 5 patients. Preliminary procedure of internal iliac artery embolization was performed in 3 patients. Technical success rate of the Gore IBE implantation was 100% with a median fluoroscopy time of 35 min (range 12-64, ±16) and median contrast load of 150 mL (range 100-250, ±45). No perioperative complications were observed. Median length of stay was 4 days (range 3-7, ±2). One aortic type Ia endoleak was observed on the postoperative CT scan requiring an aortic extension at day 3. Branch patency was observed in all 10 patients at 1 month and 9 patients at 6 month. All CIA aneurysms were excluded without type Ib or type III endoleak. The technical success and short-term results demonstrate encouraging results and clinical benefits of the new GORE EXCLUDER IBE. A longer follow-up is needed to assess midterm and long-term results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.


    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the

  4. Preliminary experiments about the measure of the magnetic properties of a material by means of TDR probes (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele


    In this contribution, the possibility of measuring possible magnetic properties of materials by means of a TDR probe is studied. A transmission line model is adopted and data in time and frequency domain are exploited together. Simulation results are shown, at the moment based on a bifilar line model. Magnetic properties of materials can be of interest for several applications. In particular, the presence of magnetic features in the soil or in any substance, might be associated to some contaminant (presumably containing some metallic element as iron, nickel or chromium [1]). This kind of pollution might occur close to some farms, especially regarding the dying of dresses, the production of some medicines, the tanning of leather issues. Moreover, modern agriculture puts in the soil several fertilizing substances, and there is a debate about the quantity of heavy metals spread in the terrain by these activities [2]. Still, some depuration-mud can be affected by an excessive presence of metallic elements, because of the presence of batteries, skins, varnishes, cosmetics, and so on [2]. Moreover, it is thought that the soil on the planet Mars might show magnetic properties [3]. Finally, in GPR prospecting, possible magnetic characteristics of the soil or of the targets might be of interest too [4], but they cannot be retrieved by means of only GPR data [5]. In the present paper, the results of a preliminary study are exposed with regard to the possibility to measure the magnetic properties of a material by mean of a TDR probe [6-7]. In particular a TDR probe is essentially a transmission line (a bifilar model will be exploited in this work) open at the end, form which most of the impinging energy (ideally the whole of thi energy in a lossless medium) is back reflected. In particular, this allows a customary measure of the propagation velocity in the medium if an impulsive signal is generated. In fact, the return time along a path of known length is measured. The

  5. Design and test of an extremely high resolution Timing Counter for the MEG II experiment: preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De Gerone, M; Ootani, W; Uchiyama, Y; Nishimura, M; Shirabe, S; Cattaneo, P W; Rossella, M


    The design and tests of Timing Counter elements for the upgrade of the MEG experiment, MEG II,is presented. The detector is based on several small plates of scintillator with a Silicon PhotoMultipliers dual-side readout. The optimisation of the single counter elements (SiPMs, scintillators, geometry) is described. Moreover, the results obtained with a first prototype tested at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) are presented.

  6. Preliminary experience with transperitoneal laparoendoscopic single-site radical nephrectomy using a home-made single-port device in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Hai; Ma Lulin; Hou Xiaofei; Zhang Shudong; Wang Guoliang; Zhao Lei


    Background Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery represents a technique to further reduce morbidity and scarring associated with surgery.We present our preliminary experience with transperitoneal LESS radical nephrectomy (RN) using a home-made single-port device in China.Methods From July 2010 to November 2011,eleven patients with renal tumor not greater than T2 underwent LESS-RN by an experienced laparoscopic surgeon.A home-made single-port device was used through a 5-cm umbilical incision.A combination of standard and articulating laparoscopic instruments was used.The sequence of steps of LESS-RN was similar to transperitoneal laparoscopic RN.Patient characteristics,perioperative variables and postoperative outcomes were recorded and analyzed.Results Except for two transperitoneal laparoscopic conversions and one hand-assisted laparoscopic conversion,the other procedures were completed successfully without conversion to open surgery.The mean operative time was 224.5 (155-297) minutes,estimated blood loss was 270.9 (50-900) ml,and hospital stay was 10.4 (5-15) days.The mean visual analog pain scale (VAPS) on the first postoperative day was 4.0/10.Final pathological analysis revealed renal cell carcinoma in all cases with a stage distribution of three T1a,five T1b,and three T2a tumors.With the mean followup period of 21.4 (12-28) months,all patients were alive without evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis,and were satisfied with the appearance of the scars.Conclusion Transperitoneal LESS-RN using a home-made single-port device is technically feasible and safe in a selected group of patients (low body mass index and stage tumor) and has excellent cosmetic results.Although preliminary oncologic outcome is not compromised,the long-term evaluation of these patients is awaited.

  7. Preliminary drop-tower experiments on liquid-interface geometry in partially filled containers at zero gravity (United States)

    Smedley, G.


    Plexiglass containers with rounded trapezoidal cross sections were designed and built to test the validity of Concus and Finn's existence theorem (1974, 1983) for a bounded free liquid surface at zero gravity. Experiments were carried out at the NASA Lewis two-second drop tower. Dyed ethanol-water solutions and three immiscible liquid pairs, with one liquid dyed, were tested. High-speed movies were used to record the liquid motion. Liquid rose to the top of the smaller end of the containers when the contact angle was small enough, in agreement with the theory. Liquid interface motion demonstrated a strong dependence on physical properties, including surface roughness and contamination.

  8. Laboratory Investigations on Estuary Salinity Mixing: Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Nuryazmeen


    Full Text Available Estuaries are bodies of water along the coasts that are formed when fresh water from rivers flows into and mixes with salt water from the ocean. The estuaries serve as a habitat to some aquatic lives, including mangroves. Human-induced activities such as dredging of shipping lanes along the bottom estuarine, the disposal of industrial wastes into the water system and shoreline development influence estuarine dynamics which include mixing process. These activities might contribute to salinity changes and further adversely affect the estuarine ecosystem. In order to study at the characteristics of the mixing between salt water (estuary and freshwater (river, a preliminary investigation had been done in the laboratory. Fresh water was released from one end of the flume and overflowing at weir at the other end. Meanwhile, salt water was represented by the red dye tracer released through a weir and intruded upstream as a gravity current. The isohalines are plotted to see the salinity patterns. Besides, to examine the spatial and temporal salinity profiles along the laboratory investigations, the plotted graphs have been made. The results show that the changes in salinity level along the flume due to mixing between fresh water and salt water. This showed typical salt-wedge estuary characteristics.

  9. Bioaccumulation Experiments in Mussels Contaminated with the Food-Borne Pathogen Arcobacter butzleri: Preliminary Data for Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Ottaviani


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate, at a laboratory scale, the ability of this microorganism to grow in seawater and bioaccumulate in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis maintained in constantly aerated tanks, containing twenty litres of artificial seawater. Three concentrations of A. butzleri LMG 10828T were tested (about 5×106 CFU/mL, 5×104 CFU/mL, and 5×102 CFU/mL. Following contamination, enumeration of A. butzleri was performed from water and mussels each day, for up to 96 h. Three contamination experiments with artificial seawater in absence of mussels were also performed in the same manner. In the experiments with mussels, A. butzleri declined in water of approximately 1 log every 24 h from the contamination. In artificial seawater without mussels the concentration of A. butzleri remained on the same logarithmic level in the first 48 h and then decreased of about 1 log every 24 hours. In mussels, the concentration was approximately 2 log lower than the exposition level after 24 h from the contamination, and then it decreased exponentially of 1 log every 24 h. Our findings suggest that in the experimental conditions tested A. butzleri is neither able to effectively grow in seawater nor bioaccumulate in mussels, at least in the free and cultivable form.

  10. Field flume reveals aquatic vegetation's role in sediment and particulate phosphorus transport in a shallow aquatic ecosystem (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Noe, Gregory B.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Nowacki, Daniel J.; McPhillips, Lauren E.


    Flow interactions with aquatic vegetation and effects on sediment transport and nutrient redistribution are uncertain in shallow aquatic ecosystems. Here we quantified sediment transport in the Everglades by progressively increasing flow velocity in a field flume constructed around undisturbed bed sediment and emergent macrophytes. Suspended sediment 100 μm became dominant at higher velocity steps after a threshold shear stress for bed floc entrainment was exceeded. Shedding of vortices that had formed downstream of plant stems also occurred on that velocity step which promoted additional sediment detachment from epiphyton. Modeling determined that the potentially entrainable sediment reservoir, 46 g m - 2 , was similar to the reservoir of epiphyton (66 g m - 2 ) but smaller than the reservoir of flocculent bed sediment (330 g m - 2 ). All suspended sediment was enriched in phosphorus (by approximately twenty times) compared with bulk sediment on the bed surface and on plant stems, indicating that the most easily entrainable sediment is also the most nutrient rich (and likely the most biologically active).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this article, a shear plate was mounted on the bottom in a wave flume and direct measurements of the smooth and rough bed shear stress under regular and irregular waves were conducted with the horizontal force exerted on the shear plates by the bottom shear stress in the wave boundary layer. Under immobile bed condition, grains of sand were glued uniformly and tightly onto the shear plate, being prevented from motion with the fluid flow and generation of sand ripples. The distribution of the bottom mean shear stress varying with time was measured by examining the interaction between the shear plate and shear transducers. The relation between the force measured by the shear transducers and its voltage is a linear one. Simultaneous measurements of the bottom velocity were carried out by an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), while the whole process was completely controlled by computers, bottom shear stress and velocity were synchronously measured. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that (1) the friction coefficient groews considerably with the increase of the Reynolds number, (2) the shear stress is a function varying with time and linearly proportional to the velocity. Compared with theoretical results and previous experimental data, it is shown that the experimental method is feasible and effective, A further study on the bed shear stress under regular or irregular waves can be carried out. And applicability to the laboratory studies on the initiation of sediments and the measurement of the shear stress after sediment imigration.

  12. A preliminary experiment for the long-term regional reanalysis over Japan assimilating conventional observations with NHM-LETKF (United States)

    Fukui, Shin; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Saito, Kazuo; Seko, Hiromu; Kunii, Masaru


    Several long-term global reanalyses have been produced by major operational centres and have contributed to the advance of weather and climate researches considerably. Although the horizontal resolutions of these global reanalyses are getting higher partly due to the development of computing technology, they are still too coarse to reproduce local circulations and precipitation realistically. To solve this problem, dynamical downscaling is often employed. However, the forcing from lateral boundaries only cannot necessarily control the inner fields especially in long-term dynamical downscaling. Regional reanalysis is expected to overcome the difficulty. To maintain the long-term consistency of the analysis quality, it is better to assimilate only the conventional observations that are available in long period. To confirm the effectiveness of the regional reanalysis, some assimilation experiments are performed. In the experiments, only conventional observations (SYNOP, SHIP, BUOY, TEMP, PILOT, TC-Bogus) are assimilated with the NHM-LETKF system, which consists of the nonhydrostatic model (NHM) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). The horizontal resolution is 25 km and the domain covers Japan and its surroundings. Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55) is adopted as the initial and lateral boundary conditions for the NHM-LETKF forecast-analysis cycles. The ensemble size is 10. The experimental period is August 2014 as a representative of warm season for the region. The results are verified against the JMA's operational Meso-scale Analysis, which is produced with assimilating observation data including various remote sensing observations using a 4D-Var scheme, and compared with those of the simple dynamical downscaling experiment without data assimilation. Effects of implementation of lateral boundary perturbations derived from an EOF analysis of JRA-55 over the targeted domain are also examined. The comparison

  13. Biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content MSW landfill: Preliminary findings from a large-scale experiment. (United States)

    Zhan, Liang-Tong; Xu, Hui; Chen, Yun-Min; Lü, Fan; Lan, Ji-Wu; Shao, Li-Min; Lin, Wei-An; He, Pin-Jing


    A large-scale bioreactor experiment lasting for 2years was presented in this paper to investigate the biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content (HFWC) MSW. The experimental cell was 5m in length, 5m in width and 7.5m in depth, filled with unprocessed HFWC-MSWs of 91.3 tons. In the experiment, a surcharge loading of 33.4kPa was applied on waste surface, mature leachate refilling and warm leachate recirculation were performed to improve the degradation process. In this paper, the measurements of leachate quantity, leachate level, leachate biochemistry, gas composition, waste temperature, earth pressure and waste settlement were presented, and the following observations were made: (1) 26.8m(3) leachate collected from the 91.3 tons HFWC-MSW within the first two months, being 96% of the total amount collected in one year. (2) The leachate level was 88% of the waste thickness after waste filling in a close system, and reached to over 100% after a surcharge loading of 33.4kPa. (3) The self-weight effective stress of waste was observed to be close to zero under the condition of high leachate mound. Leachate drawdown led to a gain of self-weight effective stress. (4) A rapid development of waste settlement took place within the first two months, with compression strains of 0.38-0.47, being over 95% of the strain recorded in one year. The compression strain tended to increase linearly with an increase of leachate draining rate during that two months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Turbulent energy dissipation rate in a tilting flume with a highly rough bed (United States)

    Coscarella, F.; Servidio, S.; Ferraro, D.; Carbone, V.; Gaudio, R.


    Turbulent flows on highly rough beds, such as those occurring in natural watercourses, represent a longstanding and fascinating problem of hydraulics, motivating in the past few decades huge research on new models of turbulence. In this work, laboratory experiments are presented on a stream flowing on a heterogeneous pebble bed with varying slope. The analysis of the flow speed puts in evidence a clear inertial range, where the Kolmogorov 4/5-law for the streamwise velocity spatial increments holds. The law is used for a systematic estimation of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate 𝜖 , here measured for three different bed slopes and hence for three different shear Reynolds numbers. The experiments presented here suggest that small scale turbulence has properties similar to the classical picture of homogeneous universal turbulence invoked by the Kolmogorov theory.

  15. A three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for the South China Sea: preliminary results from observing system simulation experiments (United States)

    Peng, Shiqiu; Zeng, Xuezhi; Li, Zhijin


    A three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) system based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is established for the South China Sea (SCS). A set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) are performed to evaluate the performance of this data assimilation system and investigate the impacts of different types of observations on representation of three-dimensional large-scale circulations and meso-scale eddies in the SCS. The pseudo-observations that are examined include sea surface temperatures (SSTs), sea surface heights (SSHs), sparse temperature/salinity (T/S) profiles, sea surface velocities (SSVs), and sea surface salinities (SSSs). The results show that SSHs can extend their impacts into the subsurface or even the deep ocean while other surface observations only have impacts within surface mixed layer. SSVs have similar impacts though confined to their spatial coverage, suggesting that SSVs could be a substitute of SSHs nearshore where SSHs are of poor quality. Despite their sparseness, the T/S profiles improve the representation of the temperature and salinity structures below the mixed layer, and a combination of T/S profiles with surface observations leads to a better representation of the meso-scale eddies. Based on the OSSE results, an affordable observing network for the SCS in the near future is proposed.

  16. Preliminary approach to neutron instrument selection at ESS-Bilbao based on experience at ISIS molecular spectroscopy group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente Bueno, J. P. de


    Collaborative efforts between the Neutronics and Target Design Group at the Instituto de Fusion Nuclear and the Molecular Spectroscopy Group at the ISIS Pulsed Neutron and Muon Source date back to 2012 in the context of the ESS-Bilbao project. The rationale for these joint activities was twofold, namely: to assess the realm of applicability of the low-energy neutron source proposed by ESS-Bilbao; and to explore instrument capabilities for pulsed-neutron techniques in the range 0.05-3 ms, a time range where ESS-Bilbao and ISIS could offer a significant degree of synergy and complementarity. As part of this collaboration, J.P. de Vicente has spent a three-month period within the ISIS Molecular Spectroscopy Group, to gain hands-on experience on the practical aspects of neutron-instrument design and the requisite neutron-transport simulations. Building upon these previous works, the primary aim of this report is to provide a self contained discussion of general criteria for instrument selection at ESS-Bilbao, the first accelerator-driven, low-energy neutron source designed in Spain. (Author)

  17. Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Dissociative Symptoms, and Dissociative Disorder Comorbidity Among Patients With Panic Disorder: A Preliminary Study. (United States)

    Ural, Cenk; Belli, Hasan; Akbudak, Mahir; Tabo, Abdulkadir


    This study assessed childhood trauma history, dissociative symptoms, and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with panic disorder (PD). A total of 92 psychotropic drug-naive patients with PD, recruited from outpatient clinics in the psychiatry department of a Turkish hospital, were involved in the study. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D), Dissociation Questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Panic Disorder Severity Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Of the patients with PD, 18 (19%) had a comorbid dissociative disorder diagnosis on screening with the SCID-D. The most prevalent disorders were dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorders. Patients with a high degree of dissociation symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity had more severe PD than those without (p dissociation and PD. Among all of the subscales, the strongest relationship was with childhood emotional abuse. Logistic regression analysis showed that emotional abuse and severity of PD were independently associated with dissociative disorder. In our study, a significant proportion of the patients with PD had concurrent diagnoses of dissociative disorder. We conclude that the predominance of PD symptoms at admission should not lead the clinician to overlook the underlying dissociative process and associated traumatic experiences among these patients.

  18. Preliminary results from the first integrated Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments on the Z accelerator (United States)

    Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Awe, T. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Herrmann, M.; Jennings, C.; Lamppa, D.; Martin, M.; McBride, R. D.; Rovang, D. C.; Sinars, D.; Smith, I. C.


    Sandia National Laboratories' Z Machine provides a drive current of up to 27 MA with 100 ns risetime to a magnetically-driven load. Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) is the main focus of the inertial confinement fusion program on Z. The MagLIF concept uses an imploding metallic cylindrical liner to compress magnetized, pre-heated fusion fuel. Simulations indicate that fusion yields on the order of 100 kJ (5e16 DT neutrons) are achievable with a drive current of 27 MA in 100 ns, a laser preheat of 8 kJ in 8 ns, an applied axial B-field of 30 T, and deuterium-tritium fusion fuel. The first fully integrated MagLIF experiments are scheduled to be conducted on Z late summer 2013. These tests will utilize a drive current of 16 MA, a laser preheat of 2 kJ in 2 ns, an applied B-field of 10 T, and deuterium fuel. With these reduced parameters, simulations predict yields greater than 1e10 DD neutrons. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Preliminary study of a leak microstructure detector as a new single-electron counter for STARTRACK experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)], E-mail:; De Nardo, L. [Physics Department and INFN Sezione di Padova, University of Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lombardi, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)


    At Legnaro INFN Laboratories a track nanodosimetry experiment (STARTRACK) is installed in order to investigate the ion energy release in nanometric biological target. The nanodosimeter consists of a wall-less sensitive volume (SV), a series of collection electrodes and a single-electron detector, i.e. a drift column and a multi-step avalanche chamber (MSAC). To resolve temporally all the electrons collected from the SV, the possible replacement of the MSAC with a position sensitive gas counter has been investigated. In order to test if the leak microstructure (LM) counter can be used to detect single-electron in STARTRACK nanodosimeter, single-electron pulse-height spectra were measured in propane gas at low pressure (3 mbar). Experimental data show good prospects for this single step detector: LM detects single-electrons operating in proportional mode also at low pressure, the pulse-height spectra are well fitted by the theoretical Polya distribution, allowing to calculate the single-electron multiplication efficiency, which can reach a value of about 96%, quite similar to that of the MSAC detector.

  20. Experience and BCC subtypes as determinants of MAL-PDT response: preliminary results of a national Brazilian project. (United States)

    Ramirez, Dora P; Kurachi, Cristina; Inada, Natalia M; Moriyama, Lilian T; Salvio, Ana G; Vollet Filho, José D; Pires, Layla; Buzzá, Hilde H; de Andrade, Cintia Teles; Greco, Clovis; Bagnato, Vanderlei S


    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer type in Brazil and worldwide. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive technique with excellent cosmetic outcome and good curative results, when used for the initial stages of skin cancer. A Brazilian program was established to determine the efficacy of methyl aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT, using Brazilian device and drug. The equipment is a dual device that combines the photodiagnosis, based on widefield fluorescence, and the treatment at 630nm. A protocol was defined for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma with 20% MAL cream application. The program also involves the training of the medical teams at different Brazilian regions, and with distinct facilities and previous PDT education. In this report we present the partial results of 27 centers with 366 treated BCC lesions in 294 patients. A complete response (CR) was observed in 76.5% (280/366). The better response was observed for superficial BCC, with CR 160 lesions (80.4%), when compared with nodular or pigmented BCC. Experienced centers presented CR of 85.8% and 90.6% for superficial and nodular BCC respectively. A high influence of the previous doctor experience on the CR values was observed, especially due to a better tumor selection.

  1. Implementation of fast macromolecular proton fraction mapping on 1.5 and 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanners: preliminary experience (United States)

    Yarnykh, V.; Korostyshevskaya, A.


    Macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) is a biophysical parameter describing the amount of macromolecular protons involved into magnetization exchange with water protons in tissues. MPF represents a significant interest as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarker of myelin for clinical applications. A recent fast MPF mapping method enabled clinical translation of MPF measurements due to time-efficient acquisition based on the single-point constrained fit algorithm. However, previous MPF mapping applications utilized only 3 Tesla MRI scanners and modified pulse sequences, which are not commonly available. This study aimed to test the feasibility of MPF mapping implementation on a 1.5 Tesla clinical scanner using standard manufacturer’s sequences and compare the performance of this method between 1.5 and 3 Tesla scanners. MPF mapping was implemented on 1.5 and 3 Tesla MRI units of one manufacturer with either optimized custom-written or standard product pulse sequences. Whole-brain three-dimensional MPF maps obtained from a single volunteer were compared between field strengths and implementation options. MPF maps demonstrated similar quality at both field strengths. MPF values in segmented brain tissues and specific anatomic regions appeared in close agreement. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of fast MPF mapping using standard sequences on 1.5 T and 3 T clinical scanners.

  2. Continuous infusion of amphotericin B: preliminary experience at Faculdade de Medicina da Fundação ABC. (United States)

    Uehara, Roberto Palermo; Sá, Victor Hugo Lara de; Koshimura, Erika Tae; Prudente, Fernanda Vilas Boas; Tucunduva, Luciana Tomanik Cardozo de Mello; Gonçalves, Marina Sahade; Samano, Eliana Sueco Tibana; del Giglio, Auro


    Intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB-D) infusions, usually given over 4 hours, frequently induce nephrotoxicity and undesirable infusion-related side effects such as rigors and chills. There is evidence in the literature that the use of AmB-D in the form of continuous 24-hour infusion is less toxic than the usual four-hour infusion of this drug. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of continuous infusion of AmB-D for the treatment of persistent fever in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies after chemotherapy. Observational retrospective analysis of our experience with continuous infusion of AmB-D, at Faculdade de Medicina da Fundação ABC and Hospital Estadual Mário Covas in Santo André. From October 2003 to May 2004, 12 patients with hematological malignancies and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia received 13 cycles of continuous infusion of AmB-D. The median dose of AmB-D was 0.84 mg/kg/day (0.33 to 2.30 mg/kg/day). Concomitant use of nephrotoxic medications occurred in 92% of the cycles. Nephrotoxicity occurred in 30.76% of the cycles, hypokalemia in 16.67%, hepatotoxicity in 30% and adverse infusion-related events in 23%. All patients survived for at least seven days after starting continuous infusion of AmB-D, and clinical resolution occurred in 76% of the cycles. Continuous infusion of AmB-D can be used in our Institution as an alternative to the more toxic four-hour infusion of AmB-D and possibly also as an alternative to the more expensive liposomal formulations of the drug.

  3. Robot-Assisted Surgery for Mandibular Angle Split Osteotomy Using Augmented Reality: Preliminary Results on Clinical Animal Experiment. (United States)

    Zhou, Chaozheng; Zhu, Ming; Shi, Yunyong; Lin, Li; Chai, Gang; Zhang, Yan; Xie, Le


    Mandibular angle split osteotomy (MASO) is a procedure widely used for prominent mandibular angles. However, conventional mandibular plastic surgery is invasive and high risk. It may induce postoperative neurosensory disturbance of the inferior alveolar nerve, fractures and infection due to the complexity of the anatomical structure and the narrow surgical field of view. The success rate of MASO surgery usually depends on the clinical experience and skills of the surgeon. To evaluate the performance of inexperienced plastic surgeons conducting this surgery, a self-developed and constructed robot system based on augmented reality is used. This robot system provides for sufficient accuracy and safety within the clinical environment. To evaluate the accuracy and safety of MASO surgery, an animal study using this robot was performed in the clinical room, and the results were then evaluated. Four osteotomy planes were successfully performed on two dogs; that is, twenty tunnels (each dog drilled on bilaterally) were drilled in the dogs' mandible bones. Errors at entrance and target points were 1.04 ± 0.19 and 1.22 ± 0.24 mm, respectively. The angular error between the planned and drilled tunnels was 6.69° ± 1.05°. None of the dogs experienced severe complications. Therefore, this technique can be regarded as a useful approach for training inexperienced plastic surgeons on the various aspects of plastic surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

  4. Preliminary experience with air transfer of patients for rescue endovascular therapy after failure of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Masanori; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Enomoto, Yukiko; Yamada, Noriaki; Matsumaru, Naoki; Kumada, Keisuke; Toyoda, Izumi; Ogura, Shinji; Iwama, Toru


    The present report describes our experience with air transfer of patients with acute ischemic stroke in whom intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV t-PA) failed for rescue endovascular therapy (EVT). Twenty-three consecutive patients in whom IV t-PA failed were transferred to our hospital for rescue EVT between February 2011 and April 2013. The amount of time required for transfer, distance, clinical outcomes, and complications were compared between patients transferred by ground (TG group; n = 17) and by air (TA group; n = 6). Computed tomography imaging on arrival revealed hemorrhagic transformation in 1 (5.9%) patient in the TG group, whereas none of the patients in the TA group developed any type of complication. The remaining 22 patients received rescue EVT. The elapsed time from the request call to arrival at our hospital did not significantly differ between the TG and TA groups (45.8 ± 4.9 min vs. 41.6 ± 2.3 min). However, the distance from the primary hospital to our institution was significantly longer for the TA group than for the TG group (38.8 ± 10.4 km vs. 13.5 ± 1.2 km, p = 0.001). The frequency of favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 0-1 at 90 days after onset) in the TG and TA groups were 25.0% and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.267). Air transfer for patients after IV t-PA failure allowed for more rapid delivery of patients over longer distances than ground transfer.

  5. Electron microscopic evaluation and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment: A preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I J van Rooyen; D E Janney; B D Miller; J L Riesterer; P A Demkowicz


    ABSTRACT Post-irradiation examination of coated particle fuel from the AGR-1 experiment is in progress at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this presentation a brief summary of results from characterization of microstructures in the coating layers of selected irradiated fuel particles with burnup of 11.3% and 19.3% FIMA will be given. The main objective of the characterization were to study irradiation effects, fuel kernel porosity, layer debonding, layer degradation or corrosion, fission-product precipitation, grain sizes, and transport of fission products from the kernels across the TRISO layers. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy were used. A new approach to microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates is also briefly demonstrated. The characterization emphasized fission-product precipitates in the SiC-IPyC interface, SiC layer and the fuel-buffer interlayer, and provided significant new insights into mechanisms of fission-product transport. Although Pd-rich precipitates were identified at the SiC-IPyC interlayer, no significant SiC-layer thinning was observed for the particles investigated. Characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentration Ag in precipitates with significantly higher concentrations of contain Pd and U. Different approaches to resolving this problem are discussed. Possible microstructural differences between particles with high and low releases of Ag particles are also briefly discussed, and an initial hypothesis is provided to explain fission-product precipitate compositions and locations. No SiC phase transformations or debonding of the SiC-IPyC interlayer as a result of irradiation were observed. Lessons learned from the post-irradiation examination are described and future actions are recommended.

  6. The effect of coarse gravel on cohesive sediment entrapment in an annular flume (United States)

    Glasbergen, K.; Stone, M.; Krishnappan, B.; Dixon, J.; Silins, U.


    While cohesive sediment generally represents a small fraction (under the maximum applied shear stresses (1.11 Pa) used in the experiment. The gravel bed had an entrapment coefficient (ratio between the entrapment flux and the settling flux) of 0.2. Accordingly, when flow conditions are sufficient to produce a shear stress that will mobilize the armour layer of the gravel bed (>16 Pa), cohesive materials trapped within the gravel bed will be entrained and transported into the Glenmore Reservoir, where sediment-associated nutrients may pose treatment challenges to the drinking water supply.

  7. Turbo STIR magnetic resonance imaging as a whole-body screening tool for metastases in patients with breast carcinoma: preliminary clinical experience. (United States)

    Walker, R; Kessar, P; Blanchard, R; Dimasi, M; Harper, K; DeCarvalho, V; Yucel, E K; Patriquin, L; Eustace, S


    This study was undertaken to assess the utility of whole-body turbo short tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect metastases to liver, brain, and bone as a single examination in women with breast cancer. Seventeen patients with biopsy-proven breast cancer and suspected metastatic disease attending over a 12-month period referred for both conventional imaging and whole-body MRI were included in the study. Three patients were found to be free of metastases at both conventional and MR imaging. Appendicular or axial skeletal metastases were identified in 11 of 17 patients, with correlation between findings at whole-body MRI and scintigraphy in 15 of the 17 patients. Five patients had evidence of hepatic metastases on whole-body MRI, of which metastases were identified in only three patients at CT despite contrast enhancement. Four patients had brain abnormalities (metastases in three patients, meningioma in one patient) detected on both whole-body and dedicated brain MRI. Preliminary clinical experience suggests that turbo STIR whole-body MRI may represent a convenient and cost-effective method of total body screening for metastases in patients with breast carcinoma.

  8. Skull Bone Defects Reconstruction with Custom-Made Titanium Graft shaped with Electron Beam Melting Technology: Preliminary Experience in a Series of Ten Patients. (United States)

    Francaviglia, Natale; Maugeri, Rosario; Odierna Contino, Antonino; Meli, Francesco; Fiorenza, Vito; Costantino, Gabriele; Giammalva, Roberto Giuseppe; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo


    Cranioplasty represents a challenge in neurosurgery. Its goal is not only plastic reconstruction of the skull but also to restore and preserve cranial function, to improve cerebral hemodynamics, and to provide mechanical protection of the neural structures. The ideal material for the reconstructive procedures and the surgical timing are still controversial. Many alloplastic materials are available for performing cranioplasty and among these, titanium still represents a widely proven and accepted choice. The aim of our study was to present our preliminary experience with a "custom-made" cranioplasty, using electron beam melting (EBM) technology, in a series of ten patients. EBM is a new sintering method for shaping titanium powder directly in three-dimensional (3D) implants. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a skull reconstruction performed by this technique. In a 1-year follow-up no postoperative complications have been observed and good clinical and esthetic outcomes were achieved. Costs higher than those for other types of titanium mesh, a longer production process, and the greater expertise needed for this technique are compensated by the achievement of most complex skull reconstructions with a shorter operative time.

  9. Preliminary experience in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation in a single center in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lunan; CHEN Zheyu; LIU Jiangwen; WU Hong; LI Bo; ZENG Yong; WEN Tianfu; ZHAO Jichun; WANG Wentao; YANG Jiayin; XU Mingqing; MA Yukui


    The aim of this paper is to report the authors'experience in performing adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT)by using a modified technique in using grafts of the right lobe of the liver.From January 2002 to September 2006,56 adult patients underwent LDLT using right lobe grafts at the Wlest China Hospital.Sichuan University Medical School,China.All patients underwent a modified operation designed to improve the reconstruction of the right hepatic vein (RHV)and the tributariers of the middle hepatic vein(MHV)by interposing a vessel graft,and by anastomosing the hepatic arteries and bile ducts.There were no severe complications or deaths in all donors.Fifty-two (92.8%) recipients survived the operations.Among the 56 recipients,complications were seen in 15 recipients(26.8%),including hepatic vein stricture(one case),small-for-size syndrome(one case),hepatic artery thrombosis(two cases),intestinal bleeding (one case),bile leakage(two cases),left subphrenic abscess (one case),renal failure(two cases)and pulmonary infection (five cases).Within three months after transplantation,four recipients(7.1 4%)died due to smallfor-size syndrome(one case),renal failure(one case)and multiple organ failure(two cases).All patients underwent direct anastomoses of the RHV and the inferior vena cava (IVC),and in 23 cases,reconstruction of the right inferior hepatic vein was also done.In 24 patients,the reconstruction of the tributaries of the MHV was also done by interposing a vessel graft to provide sufficient venous outflow.Trifurcation of the portal vein was seen in nine cases.Thus,veno-plasty or separate anastomoses were performed.The graft and recipient body weight ratios(GRWR)were between 0.72%and 1.43%,and in three cases it was<0.8%.The graft weight to recipient standard liver volume ratios (GV/SLV) were between 31.86%and 71.68%.among which four cases had<40%.No "small-for-size syndrome"occurred.With modification of the surgical technique,especially in the

  10. Regional Aerosol Forcing over India: Preliminary Results from the South West Asian Aerosol-Monsoon Interactions (SWAAMI) Aircraft Experiment (United States)

    Morgan, W.; Brooks, J.; Fox, C.; Haslett, S.; Liu, D.; Kompalli, S. K.; Pathak, H.; Manoj, M. R.; Allan, J. D.; Haywood, J. M.; Highwood, E.; Langridge, J.; Nanjundaiah, R. S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Babu, S. S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Turner, A. G.; Coe, H.


    Aerosol particles from multiple sources across the Indian subcontinent build up to form a dense and extensive haze across the region in advance of the monsoon. These aerosols are thought to perturb the regional radiative balance and hydrological cycle, which may have a significant impact on the monsoon circulation, as well as influencing the associated cloud and rainfall of the system. However the nature and magnitude of such impacts are poorly understood or constrained. Major uncertainties relevant to the regional aerosol burden include its vertical distribution, the relative contribution of different pollution sources and natural emissions and the role of absorbing aerosol species (black carbon and mineral dust). The South West Asian Aerosol-Monsoon Interactions (SWAAMI) project sought to address these major uncertainties by conducting an airborne experiment during June/July 2016 on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Based out of Lucknow in the), The aircraft conducted multiple flights from Lucknow in the heart of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) in advance of the monsoon and during the onset phase. The spatial and vertical distribution of aerosol was evaluated across northern India, encompassing drier desert-like regions to the west, heavily populated urban and industrial centres over the IGP and air masses in outflow regions to the south-east towards the Bay of Bengal. Principal measurements included aerosol chemical composition using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer, alongside a Leosphere backscatter LIDAR. Sulphate was a major contributor to the aerosol burden across India, while the organic aerosol was elevated and more dominant over the most polluted regions of the IGP. Substantial aerosol concentrations were frequently observed up to altitudes of approximately 6km, with notable changes in aerosol chemical and physical properties when comparing different

  11. Rayleigh-wave imaging of upper-mantle shear velocities beneath the Malawi Rift; Preliminary results from the SEGMeNT experiment (United States)

    Accardo, N. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Shillington, D. J.; Nyblade, A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Mulibo, G. D.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Kamihanda, G.


    The Malawi Rift (MR) is an immature rift located at the southern tip of the Western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). Pronounced border faults and tectonic segmentation are seen within the upper crust. Surface volcanism in the region is limited to the Rungwe volcanic province located north of Lake Malawi (Nyasa). However, the distribution of extension and magma at depth in the crust and mantle lithosphere is unknown. As the Western Rift of the EARS is largely magma-poor except for discrete volcanic provinces, the MR presents the ideal location to elucidate the role of magmatism in early-stage rifting and the manifestation of segmentation at depth. This study investigates the shear velocity of the crust and mantle lithosphere beneath the MR to constrain the thermal structure, the amount of total crustal and lithospheric thinning, and the presence and distribution of magmatism beneath the rift. Utilizing 55 stations from the SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) passive-source seismic experiment operating in Malawi and Tanzania, we employed a multi-channel cross-correlation algorithm to obtain inter-station phase and amplitude information from Rayleigh wave observations between 20 and 80 s period. We retrieve estimates of phase velocity between 9-20 s period from ambient noise cross-correlograms in the frequency domain via Aki's formula. We invert phase velocity measurements to obtain estimates of shear velocity (Vs) between 50-200 km depth. Preliminary results reveal a striking low-velocity zone (LVZ) beneath the Rungwe volcanic province with Vs ~4.2-4.3 km/s in the uppermost mantle. Low velocities extend along the entire strike of Lake Malawi and to the west where a faster velocity lid (~4.5 km/s) is imaged. These preliminary results will be extended by incorporating broadband data from seven "lake"-bottom seismometers (LBS) to be retrieved from Lake Malawi in October of this year. The crust and mantle modeling will be


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li-dong; SUN Da-peng; WU Hao


    A new coupling numerical wave model,based on both the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method,is established by taking advantages of the both methods to solve the wave-structure interaction problems.In this model,the wave transformation in front of structures is calculated by the 0-1 type BEM,and the intense wave motions near the structures are calculated by the VOF method.In this paper,the characteristics of the BEM and the VOF method are discussed first,and then the coupling treatments are describcd in detail.In the end,the accuracy and the validity of the coupling model are examined by comparing the numerical results with experiment results and other numerical results available for the interactions between regular waves with a monolayer horizontal plate.

  13. On the onset of surface wind drift at short fetches as observed in a wind wave flume (United States)

    Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert; Osuna, Pedro; Robles, Lucia


    Ocean surface drift is of great relevance to properly model wind waves and specially the early stages of surface waves development and ocean-atmosphere fluxes during incipient wind events and storms. In particular, wave models are not so accurate predicting wave behaviour at short fetches, where wind drift onset might be very important. The onset of surface drift induced by wind and waves is being studied through detailed laboratory measurements in a large wind-wave flume. Wind stress over the water surface, waves and surface drift are measured in the 40m long wind-wave tank at IRPHE, Marseille. While momentum fluxes are estimated directly through the eddy correlation method in a station about the middle of the tank, they provide reference information to the corresponding surface drift onset recorded at rather short non-dimensional fetches. At each experimental run very low wind was on (about 1m/s) for a certain period and suddenly it was constantly accelerated to reach about 13 m/s (as well as 8 and 5 m/s during different runs) in about 15 sec to as long as 600 sec. The wind was kept constant at that high speed for 2 to 10 min, and then suddenly and constantly decelerate to 0. Surface drift values were up to 0.5 cm/s for the highest wind while very distinctive shear was detected in the upper 1.5 cm. Rather linear variation of surface drift was observed with depth. Evolution of the surface drift velocity is analysed and onset behaviour is addressed with particular emphasis in accelerated winds. This work represents a RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793) contribution. The support from ANUIES-ECOS M09-U01 project, CONACYT-187112 Estancia Sabática, and Institute Carnot, is greatly acknowledged.

  14. In Situ Erosion Flume (ISEF): determination of bed-shear stress and erosion of a kaolinite bed (United States)

    Houwing, Erik-Jan; van Rijn, Leo C.


    The strength of a cohesive sediment bed is difficult to determine and must be found experimentally from laboratory tests or through in situ field tests. A new in situ erosion instrument, the In situ Erosion Flume (ISEF), has been developed which is a circulating flow system in the vertical plane. The erosion process of sediment particles of the bed in the test section of the ISEF is related to the prevailing bed-shear stress induced by a unidirectional current. The bed-shear stress can be determined from the measured velocity profile in the test section assuming a logarithmic distribution in a vertical direction. The bed-shear stress equation has been calibrated under various conditions characterised by initiation of motion of sand and gravel particles at a flat bed where the bed-shear stresses mobilising the particles are known from the Shields curve. Three reproducibility tests were carried out under laboratory conditions. The bed consisted of kaolinite and was formed by sedimentation in still fresh water. The results of the three tests showed similar values. The erosion of a kaolinite sediment bed is more precisely determined under laboratory conditions by means of the ISEF. The results are compared with data from the literature. The ISEF is a relatively simple instrument for the determination of the strength of (cohesive) sediment beds. The results based on the ISEF measurements represent the minimum shear stress exerted at initiation of erosion of the bed, which will lead to the maximum shear strength of the top layer of the (cohesive) sediment bed.

  15. Measurements of coupled fluid and sediment motion over mobile sand dunes in a laboratory flume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel G.WREN; Roger A.KUHNLE


    The relationship between turbulent fluid motions and sediment particle motions over mobile sand dunes was investigated by using a laser Doppler velocimeter and an acoustic backscatter system in laboratory experiments performed at the USDA-ARS-National Sedimentation Laboratory.Profiles of acoustic backscatter from particles and at-a-point turbulence data were collected while translating both measurement devices downstream at the speed of mobile dune bedforms.The resulting data set was used to examine the frequency (recurrence frequency) at which the fluctuating backscatter and fluid velocity signals exceeded magnitude thresholds based on the standard deviation (σ) of the local velocity and the magnitude the acoustic signal resulting from backscatter from suspended particles.The slope of the downstream and vertical velocity recurrence frequencies generally indicated a gradually increasing recurrence time with increasing elevation.The recurrence frequency for acoustic backscatter data was not strongly variable with elevation.The closest correspondence between the recurrence frequencies of sediment backscatter and vertical velocities at the 1σ magnitude threshold was in a region defined by X/L<0.4 and 3<6 cm.The downstream velocity was most closely related to backscatter in a small region at 0.4<X/L<0.8 and less than 3-4 cm from the bed.

  16. Some applications of 2-D and 3-D photogrammetry during laboratory experiments for hydrogeological risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scaioni


    Full Text Available Scaled-down flume tests are largely used to support investigations for the assessment of hydrogeological risk. Achieved outcomes can be integrated to numerical analyses for the study of unstable slope collapse, debris transport, and hydrological models in general. In the set-up of such simulation platforms, a relevant role has to be given to the Spatial Sensor Network (SSN which is in charge of collecting geo-referenced, quantitative information during experiments. Photogrammetry (including 3-D imaging sensors can play an important role in SSN because of its capability of collecting information covering wide surfaces without any contact. The aim of this paper is to give an overview and some examples of the potential of photogrammetry in hydrogeological simulation experiments. After a general introduction on a few preliminary issues (sensors, calibration, ground reference, usage of imaging or ranging sensors, potential applications are classified into 2-D and 3-D categories. Examples are focused on a scaled-down landslide simulation platform, which has been developed at Tongji University (Shanghai, P.R. China.

  17. Virtual laryngoscopy-preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, A.T. [Departments of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Walshe, P. [Departments of Otolaryngology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Dublin 24 (Ireland); McShane, D. [Departments of Otolaryngology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Hamilton, S. [Departments of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Dublin 24 (Ireland)]. E-mail:


    Purpose: Computed tomographic virtual laryngoscopy is a non-invasive radiological technique that allows visualisation of intra-luminal surfaces by three-dimensional reconstruction of air/soft tissue interfaces. It is particularly useful when the patient cannot tolerate clinical examination, when infection, neoplasm or congenital defects compromise the lumen and for assessment of the sub-glottic region. We have performed virtual laryngoscopy on patients referred because of upper airway symptoms, and compared the findings with those at conventional laryngoscopy. Materials and methods: Axial scans were obtained using a Toshiba Xpress helical scanner. Virtual laryngoscopy was then performed on a workstation using Toshiba 'Fly-thru' software and was completed within 5 min. Results: Pathology included vocal cord nodules, laryngeal cysts, Reinke's oedema, laryngeal neoplasms and leukoplakia. Conclusions: Virtual laryngoscopy displays anatomical detail comparable to conventional endoscopy. Impassable obstructions are no hindrance and all viewing directions are possible. It is especially useful for providing views of the larynx from below.

  18. Tidal peritoneal dialysis: preliminary experience. (United States)

    Flanigan, M J; Doyle, C; Lim, V S; Ullrich, G


    To determine the feasibility of home tidal peritoneal dialysis (TPD) and to assess whether eight hours of TPD can achieve uremia control and urea removal equal to that of continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). An open enrollment pilot study. The Home Dialysis Training Center of the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, a tertiary care teaching hospital. Nine patients experienced with CCPD and living 80 km to 280 km from the dialysis center began TPD, because they wished to decrease their dialysis time. Following baseline measurements, each patient was taught to perform TPD. TPD consisted of an initial fill volume of 40 mL/kg, a residual volume approximately 20 mL/kg, and tidal exchanges of 10 to 20 mL/kg to achieve the desired hourly flow rate. Clinic assessments took place every four to six weeks, and prescriptions were subsequently altered to attain urea removal equal to that of CCPD. Patient interviews were used to determine TPD acceptance. Prior to each clinic visit, dialysate effluent volume and dialysis duration were recorded, and a sterile sample of the effluent was obtained for urea, creatinine, and total nitrogen measurement. Urea and creatinine clearances increased with dialysate flow. Dialysate nonurea nitrogen was 3.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/kg/D and changed minimally with increasing dialysate volumes. Eight hours of TPD (initial fill: 40 mL/kg; residual volume: 20 mL/kg; tidal inflow: 20 mL/kg) with hourly tidal flow exceeding 40 mL/kg/hr and no daytime volume achieved urea removal equal to that of the patient's prior CCPD prescription. TPD can provide dialysis equal to that of CCPD within a shorter amount of time (eight vs ten hours), but uses a greater volume of dialysate (16.0 L for TPD vs 9.5 L for CCPD).

  19. A new class of electrodes of 'intermediate invasiveness': preliminary experience with epidural pegs and foramen ovale electrodes in the mapping of seizure foci. (United States)

    Awad, I A; Assirati, J A; Burgess, R; Barnett, G H; Luders, H


    Non-invasive electroencephalographic (EEG) recording with scalp and sphenoidal leads is often insensitive to precise localization of ictal onset, and can be distorted by skull defects and underlying lesions or deformities of the brain. We present preliminary experience with epidural pegs and foramen ovale electrodes used in 30 cases of intractable partial epilepsy where non-invasive EEG did not define a zone of epileptogenesis with sufficient precision to recommend resection, or to dictate precise placement of depth electrodes or subdural girds. Custom designed mushroom shaped peg electrodes were implanted via 4.5 mm twist-drill skull holes for epidural recording from cortical areas of suspected epileptogenesis. Foramen ovale electrodes (flexible 3-contact leads) were introduced via percutaneous puncture of Meckel's cave cistern for recording from mesiotemporal regions. Chronic recording was performed for 4 to 26 days (mean 9.2 days). There were no serious complications and signal quality was excellent in every electrode. Based on interictal and ictal records, resective surgery was performed in 8 cases, more focused further invasive recording was recommended in 15 cases (with subsequent resective surgery), and surgical options were excluded in 7 cases. It is concluded that these electrodes of 'intermediate invasiveness' represent a safe and effective tool in the armamentarium for mapping complicated or elusive epileptic foci. They can be used in lieu of, in addition to, or prior to more invasive measures. Their greatest advantage lies in their relative safety and ability to survey extensive zones of suspected epileptogenesis so as to guide and focus further mapping and surgical intervention.

  20. Experiments with non-uniform sediment in case of bed-load transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribberink, J.S.


    An experimental study was carried out in the framework of a research project concerning the development of a mathematical model for morphological computations in rivers in case of non-uniform sediment. The study consists of a series of laboratory experiments in a straight flume under steady, uniform

  1. 一位世纪法学家的百年:维尔纳·弗卢梅%The 100 Years of a Centenarian Jurist, Werner Flume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    托马斯·洛宾格; 颜晶晶


    @@ 每一位初涉法学的学生在大学的第一学期都会与他不期而遇.维尔纳·弗卢梅(Werner Flume):法律行为学说教科书[1]的作者--他在这一领域的造诣迄今为止尚无人能及--在2008年9月12日度过了他的百岁华诞.

  2. Sentinel Node Mapping Using Indocyanine Green and Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging Technology for Uterine Malignancies: Preliminary Experience With the Da Vinci Xi System. (United States)

    Siesto, Gabriele; Romano, Fabrizio; Fiamengo, Barbara; Vitobello, Domenico


    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has emerged as the new frontier for the surgical staging of apparently early-stage cervical and endometrial cancer. Different colorimetric and radioactive tracers, alone and in combination, have been proposed with encouraging results. Fluorometric mapping using indocyanine green (ICG) appears to be a suitable and attractive alternative to provide reliable staging [1-4]. In this video, we present the technique of SLN mapping in 2 cases (1 endometrial and 1 cervical cancer, respectively) using ICG and the near-infrared technology provided by the newest Da Vinci Xi robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Together we report the results of our preliminary experience on the first 20 cases performed. The new robotic Da Vinci Xi system was available at our institution since May 2015. Upon institutional review board/ethical committee approval, all consecutive patients with early-stage endometrial and cervical cancer who were judged suitable for robotic surgery have been enrolled for SLN mapping with ICG. We adopted the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center SLN algorithm; the tracer was delivered into the cervix in all cases. Four milliliters (1.25 mg/mL) of ICG was injected divided into the 3- and 9-o'clock positions of the cervix alone, with 1 mL deep into the stroma and 1 mL submucosally at the skin incision. Sentinel lymph nodes were examined with a protocol including both ultrastaging with immunohistochemistry [3] and 1-step nucleic acid amplification assay [5,6] under a parallel protocol of study. During the study period, 20 cases were managed; 14 and 6 patients had endometrial and cervical cancer, respectively. SLN was detected in all cases (20/20, 100%). Bilateral SLNs were detected in 17 of 20 (85.0%) cases. Based on preoperative and intraoperative findings, 13 (65.0%) patients received systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy after SLN mapping. Three (15.0%) patients had microscopic nodal metastases on SLN. No

  3. Erosion and basal forces in granular flow experiments (United States)

    Sanvitale, Nicoletta; Bowman, Elisabeth


    Extreme mass wasting avalanche events such as rock, snow and ice avalanches, debris flows, and pyroclastic flows are among the most hazardous geological phenomena. These events driven by gravity, can travel for long distance and high speed, increasing their volumes as they can entertain material along their path. The erosion of material and its entrainment can greatly affect the overall dynamics of transportation, either enhancing or impeding the avalanche mobility depending on flow dynamics and characteristics of the substrate. However, the mechanisms and processes acting at the base as they travel over deformable or erodible substrates are still poor understood. Experiments, simulations and field measurements indicate that large fluctuations can occur in basal forces and stresses, which may be the result of non-uniform load transfer within the mass, and rolling, bouncing and sliding of the particles along the bed. In dense granular materials, force distributions can propagate through filamentary chain structures that carry a large fraction of the forces within the system. Photoelastic experiments on two-dimensional, monodisperse, gravity-driven flows have shown that force chains can transmit high localized forces to the boundary of dense granular flows. Here we describe the preliminary setup and results of 2D experiments on polydisperse granular flows of photoelastic disks down a small flume designed to acquire the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow and to analyze their effects on an erodible bed. The intended outcome of this research is to provide better information on the complex mechanism of erosion and its effects on avalanche behaviour.

  4. Preliminary results of simulation of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays in ground-based experiments on plant objects (United States)

    Belisheva, Natalia; Petrashova, Dina; Shchegolev, Boris

    The most dangerous for the astronauts and cosmonauts are the cosmic rays and drastic decrease of the tension of geomagnetic field (GMF) on the Earth orbit and in the open space. The tension in the interplanetary magnetic field is 10 nT, whereas the tension of GMF is 10 (4) nT on the Earth surface. We carried out the preliminary experiments for study the effects of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays (CR) on the plant objects (Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, Cucumis sativis). GMF was weakened by using special shielding chamber made on the basis of the amorphous alloy magnetic material. The camera is able to weaken the GMF from 48 μT till 0.192 μT. Modulation of the energetic range of the neutron component of secondary CR was performed with using of the shielding by graphite and by paraffin. The influence of hypo magnetic field and the neutron intensity were studied on the germination of seeds, the growth, the length and the side branches of the roots in the experimental samples. We found that the sensitivity to the hypo magnetic field and to the variations in energetic range of neutrons can vary from object to object. For instance, exposure of the hypo magnetic field on black bean and mung bean stimulated the growth of the roots while do not affect on the white bean. Likewise sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris (black and white bean) and Vigna radiata (mung bean) to exposure of nucleon component of cosmic rays on the Earth's surface are differed. It was found that modification of energetic range of CR by using graphite shielding leads to a change in sign of correlation between the length of roots in all experimental samples and the nucleon component of CR compared with the control samples. This is evidence that physiology of biological objects significantly are modified in hypo magnetic environment, as well as under exposure of the CR in different energetic ranges during the space flights. Our

  5. Preliminary Clinical Experience of trans-1-Amino-3-(18F-fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic Acid (anti-(18F-FACBC PET/CT Imaging in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo


    Full Text Available Background. In this retrospective analysis we assessed the role of [18F]-FACBC-PET/CT in the prostatic cancer staging. Procedure. 30 first [18F]-FACBC-PET/CT images of 26 patients (68.1 ± 5.8 years were analyzed. PET/CT findings were compared with PSA concentrations, with PSA doubling times (PDT, and with correlative imaging. Results. On 16 [18F]-FACBC (53.3% scans, 58 metabolically active lesions were found. 12 (20.7% lesions corresponding to the local relapse were found in prostate/prostate bed and seminal vesicles, 9 (15.5% lesions were located in regional lymph nodes, 10 (17.2% were located in distal lymph nodes, and 26 (44.8% metabolically active lesions were found in the skeleton. In one case, focal uptake was found in the brain, confirmed further on MRI as meningioma. The mean S-PSA level in patients with positive [18F]-FACBC findings was 9.5 ± 16.9 μg/L (0.54–69 μg/L and in patients with negative [18F]-FACBC findings was 1.96 ± 1.87 μg/L (0.11–5.9 μg/L, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, the PSA doubling time (PDT in patients with positive findings was significantly shorter than PDT in patients with negative findings: 3.25 ± 2.09 months (0.3–6 months versus 31.2 ± 22.02 months (8–84 months, P<0.0001. There was a strong positive correlation between PSA value and number of metabolically active lesions (R=0.74 and a negative correlation between PDT and number of metabolically active lesions (R=-0.56. There was a weak negative correlation between PDT and SUVmax⁡ (R=-0.30. Conclusion. According to our preliminary clinical experience, [18F]-FACBC-PET may play a role in in vivo restaging of an active prostate cancer, especially in patients with a short S-PSA doubling time.

  6. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning (United States)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.


    simple empirical models [Versace et al., 2003] based on correlation between some features of rainfall records (cumulated height, duration, season etc.) and the correspondent observed landslides. Laboratory experiments on instrumented small scale slope models represent an effective way to provide data sets [Eckersley, 1990; Wang and Sassa, 2001] useful for building up more complex models of landslide triggering prediction. At the Geotechnical Laboratory of C.I.R.I.AM. an instrumented flume to investigate on the mechanics of landslides in unsaturated deposits of granular soils is available [Olivares et al. 2003; Damiano, 2004; Olivares et al., 2007]. In the flume a model slope is reconstituted by a moist-tamping technique and subjected to an artificial uniform rainfall since failure happens. The state of stress and strain of the slope is monitored during the entire test starting from the infiltration process since the early post-failure stage: the monitoring system is constituted by several mini-tensiometers placed at different locations and depths, to measure suction, mini-transducers to measure positive pore pressures, laser sensors, to measure settlements of the ground surface, and high definition video-cameras to obtain, through a software (PIV) appositely dedicated, the overall horizontal displacement field. Besides, TDR sensors, used with an innovative technique [Greco, 2006], allow to reconstruct the water content profile of soil along the entire thickness of the investigated deposit and to monitor its continuous changes during infiltration. In this paper a series of laboratory tests carried out on model slopes in granular pyroclastic soils taken in the mountainous area north-eastern of Napoli, are presented. The experimental results demonstrate the completeness of information provided by the various sensors installed. In particular, very useful information is given by the coupled measurements of soil water content by TDR and suction by tensiometers. Knowledge of

  7. Quantitative Analogue Experimental Sequence Stratigraphy : Modelling landscape evolution and sequence stratigraphy of river-shelf sedimentary systems by quantitative analogue experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijst, Maximiliaan Wilhelmus Ignatius Maria van


    This thesis reports a series of flume tank experiments that were conducted to model the stratigraphic evolution of river-delta systems. Chapter 1 introduces the river-delta sedimentary system that is subject of modelling. The chapter also includes an overview of previous research and the summary and

  8. Neurografía por resonancia magnética en 3T: experiencia preliminar 3T MRI neurography: preliminary experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Aguilar


    Asymmetry and Least-squares estimation sequence in the evaluation of peripheral nerves, brachial plexus and lumbar plexus, for the diagnosis of compression or entrapment neuropathies, non-entrapment neuropathies, and the underlying conditions. The IDEAL sequence provides 4 types of images from a single acquisition, allowing uniform fat or water suppression and in phase/out of phase images of water, fat or a combination of both. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective study, from January 2011 to June 2011. Eleven neurographies were performed on 3T MRI (HDX 3T, GE Healthcare, USA, with 8-channel phased array coils on sagittal and coronal planes, with 1.2-0 mm slices with no gap, axial 3D spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR T , with 1-0-mm slice thickness with and without gadolinium injection and variable field of view (FOV according to the nerve or plexus to explore. Results. We found 2 schwannomas (brachial plexus and sciatic nerve, 1 neuritis (compression to median nerve, 2 cases of multiple neurofibromas (lumbosacral plexus, sciatic nerve, brachial plexus, 3 traumatic neuromas (peroneal nerve and 1 pseudomeningocele avulsion (brachial plexus, and 2 with no structural alterations (lumbosacral plexus and peroneal nerve. Conclusion. In this preliminary experience, the use of highresolution sequences in magnetic resonance imaging neurography studies provided excellent signal homogeneity, improving the recognition of the nerve structure and signal, the identification of anatomical variations, and causes of neuropathy, as well as the characterization of denervation changes of the affected muscle groups.

  9. Validation of the TRACE code for the system dynamic simulations of the molten salt reactor experiment and the preliminary study on the dual fluid molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xun


    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), which was confirmed as one of the six Generation IV reactor types by the GIF (Generation IV International Forum in 2008), recently draws a lot of attention all around the world. Due to the application of liquid fuels the MSR can be regarded as the most special one among those six GEN-IV reactor types in a sense. A unique advantage of using liquid nuclear fuel lies in that the core melting accident can be thoroughly eliminated. Besides, a molten salt reactor can have several fuel options, for instance, the fuel can be based on {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th-{sup 233}U, {sup 238}U-{sup 239}Pu cycle or even the spent nuclear fuel (SNF), so the reactor can be operated as a breeder or as an actinides burner both with fast, thermal or epi-thermal neutron spectrum and hence, it has excellent features of the fuel sustainability and for the non-proliferation. Furthermore, the lower operating pressure not only means a lower risk of the explosion as well as the radioactive leakage but also implies that the reactor vessel and its components can be lightweight, thus lowering the cost of equipments. So far there is no commercial MSR being operated. However, the MSR concept and its technical validation dates back to the 1960s to 1970s, when the scientists and engineers from ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the United States managed to build and run the world's first civilian molten salt reactor called MSRE (Molten Salt Reactor Experiment). The MSRE was an experimental liquid-fueled reactor with 10 MW thermal output using {sup 4}LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4}-UF{sub 4} as the fuel also as the coolant itself. The MSRE is usually taken as a very important reference case for many current researches to validate their codes and simulations. Without exception it works also as a benchmark for this thesis. The current thesis actually consists of two main parts. The first part is about the validation of the current code for the old MSRE concept, while the second

  10. PET/MRI: a novel hybrid imaging technique: major clinical indications and preliminary experience in Brazil; PET/RM: um novo metodo de imagem hibrida: principais indicacoes clinicas e experiencia preliminar no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitor, Taise; Martins, Karine Minaif; Ionescu, Tudor Mihai and others, E-mail: [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In recent years, medical imaging with hybrid techniques has widely accepted and employed in clinical routine. PET/MRI offers significant advantages, including excellent contrast and resolution and reduced ionizing radiation, as compared to well-established PET/ CT. Therefore, PET/MRI is a promising modality for oncologic imaging of some regions, such as brain, head and neck, liver and pelvis. This article set out to analyze clinical conditions that could benefit from PET/MRI imaging based on our caseload. The potential of PET/MRI to become the imaging modality of choice for assessment of neurologic and oncologic conditions associated with soft tissues is highlighted. Clinical aspects of PET/MRI and its application to clinical cases are illustrated with examples extracted from the authors' preliminary experience. (author)

  11. Point-of-Care Testing in Bathhouses: A Narrative Inquiry into the Experience of Receiving a Positive Preliminary HIV Test Result. (United States)

    Genoway, Shyla; Caine, Vera; Singh, Ameeta E; Estefan, Andrew


    With a call to increase the accessibility of HIV testing, point-of-care testing for HIV is being readily adopted, but little attention has been paid to the experiences of people being tested at HIV point-of-care sites. Some testing environments, such as bathhouses, promote testing for HIV in higher-risk groups. In this narrative inquiry study we explored the experiences of people testing positive for HIV through point-of-care while at a bathhouse. Three narrative threads for reconsidering the practice were identified: (a) seeing complexities, understanding testing decisions in relation to time, place, and social context; (b) recognizing the impact and significance of secret and silent stories; and (c) tentative and tension-filled connections to care. It is important to understand testing experiences across time, place, and in diverse social contexts. These experiences are embedded within the larger life histories of people and raise questions about adequate support, follow-up, and counseling.

  12. Ruthenium-106 brachytherapy for uveal melanomas. Preliminary results: a single institutional experience; Braquiterapia com rutenio-106 em melanomas uveais. Resultados preliminares: experiencia uni-instuticional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina (Unifesp/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Medicina. Setor de Radioterapia ; Erwenne, Clelia Maria; Teixeira, Luiz Fernando [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Oftalmologia]. E-mail: segreto.


    Objective: To analyze the early response of uveal melanomas in patients treated with ruthenium-106 brachytherapy. Materials And Methods: In the period between April 2002 and July 2003, 20 patients diagnosed with uveal melanoma were submitted to ruthenium-106 brachytherapy. The calculated dose delivered at the apex of the tumor ranged between 55 Gy and 100 Gy. Patients with lesions greater than 5 mm were submitted to transpupillary thermotherapy concomitantly with ophthalmic plaque insertion. Results: As regards the lesions site, 75% of the lesions were located in the choroid, 15% in the iris, and the remainder 10% in the ciliary body. In a median 19-month-follow-up, the progression-free survival for brachytherapy was 69%, and 87% for associated brachytherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy. A significant tumor height reduction was observed after treatment. No patient was submitted to enucleation. Conclusion: Our preliminary results show that ruthenium-106 brachytherapy is an appropriate method for conservative treatment of patients with uveal melanomas in terms of local management, ocular and visual acuity preservation with an acceptable complications incidence rate. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Beketova


    Full Text Available In 2013, Russia registered officially the indications for the use of monoclonal antibodies to B-lymphocytes (rituximab, RTM in systemic vasculitides associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA-SV. This communication presents the preliminary results of the Russian register of the RTM application in autoimmune diseases (NORMA that has included 50 patients with ANCA-SV treated in 14 cities of the Russian Federation. Twenty-five of 50 (50% patients received repeated courses of RTM. RTM has demonstrated a high efficacy and a good profile of treatment safety in patients with ANCA-SV in real-life national clinical practice. Among 25 patients who had been followed up for over 12 months, the remission was achieved in 92% of cases, a decrease in the ANCA-SV activity was observed in 8%. The efficacy of RTM increased when performing repeated courses, while it has been noted that the positive results can be obtained by prescribing a repeated course of RTM at a reduced dose (500–1000 mg. Prescription of the repeated courses was primarily required in patients with granulomatosis and polyangiitis affecting the lungs. Care should be taken when combining RTM treatment with cytostatics (primarily with cyclophosphamide because of the risk of secondary immunodeficiency and infectious adverse events (AE, which have been the most frequent serious AE (12% in patients with ANCA-SV.

  14. The innovative viscoelastic CP ESP cervical disk prosthesis with six degrees of freedom: biomechanical concepts, development program and preliminary clinical experience. (United States)

    Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Aaron, Alain; Ricart, Olivier; Rakover, Jean Patrick


    The viscoelastic cervical disk prosthesis ESP is an innovative one-piece deformable but cohesive interbody spacer. It is an evolution of the LP ESP lumbar disk implanted since 2006. CP ESP provides six full degrees of freedom about the three axes including shock absorbtion. The prosthesis geometry allows limited rotation and translation with resistance to motion (elastic return property) aimed at avoiding overload of the posterior facets. The rotation center can vary freely during motion. The concept of the ESP prosthesis is fundamentally different from that of the devices currently used in the cervical spine. The originality of the concept of the ESP® prosthesis led to innovative and intense testing to validate the adhesion of the viscoelastic component of the disk on the titanium endplates and to assess the mechanical properties of the PCU cushion. The preliminary clinical and radiological results with 2-year follow-up are encouraging for pain, function and kinematic behavior (range of motion and evolution of the mean centers of rotation). In this series, we did not observe device-related specific complications, misalignment, instability or ossifications. Additional studies and longer patient follow-up are needed to assess long-term reliability of this innovative implant.

  15. 20世纪杰出法学家维尔纳·弗卢梅与私法自治%Werner Flume, a Brilliant Jurist of the Twentieth Century and Autonomy of Private Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 维尔纳·弗卢梅(Werner Flume)享有"百岁法学家"的盛誉,这不仅因为他于2008年9月12日已度过自己的百岁华诞,而且因为他对20世纪德国法学发展作出了卓越的贡献.

  16. Differences in the relationship between traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms among North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents: A preliminary study. (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jun, Jin Yong


    North Korean adolescent defectors experience adaptation difficulties along with a wide range of psychosocial problems, but no study has yet examined their Internet addiction symptoms. We compared early traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms, as well as the relationships between these variables, between North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents. Fifty-six North Korean adolescent defectors and 112 age- and sex- matched South Korean adolescents participated. The analyses examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and Internet addiction symptoms, with negative automatic thoughts or low self-esteem as mediators of these relations. North Korean adolescent defectors tended to have higher levels of negative automatic thoughts and more severe Internet addiction symptoms, as well as better self-esteem, than did South Korean adolescents. Furthermore, only among North Korean adolescent defectors, traumatic experiences were positively associated with Internet addition symptoms via increasing negative automatic thoughts. North Korean adolescent defectors are more susceptible to Internet addiction, negative cognitions, and early traumatic experiences compared to South Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional design of this study precludes consideration of the causality of these relationships. Interventions aiming to correct negative cognitions and increase self-esteem may be helpful for North Korean adolescent defectors with problematic Internet use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 浅谈色度学实验教学内容的规范化%Preliminary Study on the Normalization for Experiment Teaching Contents of Colorimetry Courses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范秋梅; 邓瑞平; 丁仁强


    In consideration of present situation of colorimetry teaching in China universities,e.g.the unevenness of experiment teaching levels, lack of teaching material on experiments etc,it is suggested that on the basis of the teaching material of colorimetry courses,to formulate detailed implementation programs of colorimetry experiments,to prepare experiment instruction material,to normalize the experiment contents of colorimetry,and thus to improve the teaching quality of the course of colorimetry.%针对目前我国高校色度学教学的实际情况,实验教学水平的参差不齐,实验教材的缺乏;建议以色度学教材为依据,研究制订色度学实验的具体实施方案,编写实验指导教材,规范色度学的实验内容;提高色度学的教学质量。

  18. The Disposition of Silver Released from Soviet Oblako Rockets in Precipitation during the Hall Suppression Experiment Grossversuch IV. Part I: Measurements of Background and a Preliminary Seeding Test. (United States)

    Lacaux, J.-P.; Warburton, J. A.


    In association with Grossversuch IV, a program designed to test the Soviet hail suppression method by seeding clouds with AgI from Oblako rockets, a complementary program was conducted by l'Observatoire du Puy-de-Dôme and the Desert Research Institute to study the diffusion of the seeding material (AgI) in the clouds, based on the analysis of silver in precipitation. This program covered the summers of 1977 and 1978, and this paper describes the results of measurements of natural background silver concentrations in unseeded precipitation. It also describes a new automatic precipitation collector, five of which were first tested in the field in 1977. A more extensive network of 15 collectors was deployed during two months of the 1978 summer.Based on the analysis of 118 unseeded precipitation samples collected in 1977, the natural background concentration of silver was estimated as 0.9 × 1011 g mL1( = 0.6 × 1011 g mL1). Although the standard deviations overlap, the 1978 season results appear to indicate a lower background of 0.5 × 1011 g mL1 ( = 0.3 × 1011 g mL1), based on the analysis of 414 rain samples. The average value for the two seasons was 0.6 × 1011 g mL1 with a standard deviation of 0.5 × 1011 g mL1. These background concentrations were found to be independent of both the length of sampling period and the precipitation intensity, averaged over the sampling periods of the collectors.The background is sufficiently low to permit the detection of the presence of silver iodide emitted from the Soviet rockets in the precipitation. The preliminary results from one case study are presented to support this conclusion.

  19. 实验昆虫实验动物化的初步研究%Preliminary Research on Experimental Animalization of Experiment Insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安学芳; 夏克祥; 朱幼玲


    With the development of science and technology, life-science is involving in many fields. The requirements for the methods of experiment and experiment object are more abroad, more strict and more diversified. As laboratory animals of experimental material in the life-science, great changes have taken place since then. As for the exploitation of new kind of laboratory animals, it is not only limited in experimental Animalization of ordinary mammals but also expands steadily from Experimental Animalization of birds, reptiles, fish and invertebrates. Now insects of invertebrate have been used in life science research and are enriched gradually in application fields.

  20. A non-diatom plankton bloom controlled by copepod grazing and amphipod predation: Preliminary results from the LOHAFEX iron-fertilisation experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazzocchi, M.G.; Gonzalez, H.E.; Vandromme, P.; Borrione, I.; deAlcala, M.R.; Gauns, M.; Assmy, P.; Fuchs, B.; Klaas, C.; Martin, P.; Montresor, M.; Ramaiah, N.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    The most memorable LOHAFEX cruise came to an end on 17 March 2009 when RV Polarstern docked in the harbour of Punta Arenas (southern Chile) after successfully carrying out the longest iron fertilisation experiment so far (39 days). The two and a...

  1. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  2. Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number (SOFBALL): Preliminary Results From the STS-83 and STS-94 Space Flight Experiments (United States)

    Ronney, Paul D.; Wu, Ming-Shin; Pearlman, Howard G.; Weiland, Karen J.


    Results from the Structure Of Flame Balls At Low Lewis-number (SOFBALL) space flight experiment conducted on the MSL-1 Space Shuttle missions are reported. Several new insights were obtained, including: much lower buoyancy-induced drift speed than anticipated pre-flight; repulsion of adjacent flame balls due to their mutual interaction; remarkable sensitivity of flame balls to small accelerations resulting from Orbiter attitude control maneuvers; and very similar net heat release for all flame balls in all mixtures tested. Comparison of experimental results to computational predictions reveals limitations in current models of H2-02 chemistry for very lean mixtures. It is discussed how the results of these space experiments may provide an improved understanding of the interactions of the two most important phenomena in combusting materials, namely chemical reaction and transport processes, in the unequivocally simplest possible configuration.

  3. Experiment to determine electrical conductivity and equation of state data from Ohmically exploded tamped planar foils - preliminary diagnostic results and modeling (United States)

    Ruden, E. L.; Amdahl, D. J.; Brown, D. J.; Grabowski, T. C.; Gregg, C. W.; Kostora, M. R.; Martinez, B. M.; Parker, J. V.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Poulsen, P.


    Diagnostic results from initial nondestructive (thick foil, low current) tests are presented for an experiment to simultaneously determine the electrical conductivity, pressure, density, specific energy, and temperature time histories of a planar metal foil tamped by a well characterized transparent material and exploded by a 36 μF, 50 kV rated capacitor bank discharge. Voltage differentials measure the foil's surface electric field, a B-dot probe measures surface current density, and a laser velocity interferometer (VISAR) measures dynamic foil thickness. From such and future filtered photodiode measurements, the desired properties will be inferred up to a few eV and within an order of magnitude of solid density. The purpose of the present phase of the experiment is to develop and validate diagnostic designs, data analysis techniques, and 2-D MHD simulations of the process using the MACH2 code.

  4. Preliminary investigation into sport and exercise psychology consultants' views and experiences of an interprofessional care team approach to sport injury rehabilitation. (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien


    Sport injury rehabilitation has moved from predominately physical treatment to a more holistic care. However, limited research has explored the views and experiences of those involved in such an approach. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily investigate sport psychology consultants' (SPCs') views and experiences of an interprofessional team approach to sport injury rehabilitation. A cross-sectional online survey previously used with athletic trainers was distributed via a US-based sport/exercise psychology list-serve (N = 1245). A total of 62 (27 men, 35 women, M age 38.2 years, age range: 22-73 years) participants with 10.6 (SD = 9.8) years of experience as an SPC were included in the final analyses. On average, SPCs felt that it was very important (M = 6.6; SD = 0.6) for athletes to have access to an interprofessional care team. Of the sample, 64.5% (n = 40) typically worked as part of an interprofessional care team 44.7% of the time. The SPCs (n = 28; 45.2%) also indicated that the primary treatment providers (e.g., athletic trainer, physical therapist) were typically serving as the primary point person for such teams. Since gaining entry to sport medicine can be an area SPCs struggle with, building effective working relationships with treatment providers can help promote and increase SPCs involvement in providing holistic, interprofessional care to athletes with injuries. To ensure athletes' successful biopsychosocial return to sport, different individuals and professionals should work together for the benefit of the athlete by adopting holistic care during sports injury rehabilitation.

  5. Acquisition and preliminary analysis of multi-channel seismic reflection data, acquired during the oceanographic cruises of the TOMO-ETNA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Firetto Carlino


    Full Text Available The TOMO-ETNA experiment was performed in the framework of the FP7 “MED-SUV” (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes in order to gain a detailed geological and structural model of the continental and oceanic crust concerning Etna and Aeolian Islands volcanoes (Sicily, Italy, by means of active and passive seismic exploration methodologies. Among all data collected, some 1410 km of marine multi-channel seismic (MCS reflection profiles were acquired in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas during two of the three oceanographic cruises of the TOMO-ETNA experiment, in July and November 2014, with the aim of shading light to deep, intermediate and shallow stratigraphy and crustal structure of the two above mentioned areas. The MCS sections, targeted to deep exploration, were acquired during the oceanographic cruise on board the R/V “Sarmiento de Gamboa”, using an active seismic source of 16 air-guns, for a total volume of 4340 cu. in., and a 3000 m long, 240-channels digital streamer as receiving system. High-resolution seismic profiles were instead collected through the R/V “Aegaeo”, using two smaller air-guns (overall 270 cu. in. volume and a 96 channels, 300 m long digital streamer. This paper provides a detailed description of the acquisition parameters and main processing steps adopted for the MCS data. Some processed lines are shown and preliminarily interpreted, to highlight the overall good quality and the high potential of the MCS sections collected during the TOMO-ETNA experiment.

  6. Distribution of heavy metals in the water column,suspended particulate matters and the sediment under hydrodynamic conditions using an annular flume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianzhi Huang; Xiaopeng Ge; Dongsheng Wang


    Sediment resuspension plays an important role in the transport and fate of heavy metals in the aquatic environment.In the present study,the release and binding forms of Cr,Cu,Zn,Pb under hydrodynamic conditions were investigated using an annular flume.Two sediments located at YLZ and GBD from Liangshui River,Beijing were resuspended for 10 hr at 0.159 and 0.267 m/see,respectively.The concentrations of suspended particulate matters of YLZ were higher than those of GBD during resuspension,indicating that the former sediment is more sensitive to the velocity.Crin the dissolved phase stayed nearly constant at about 2.25 and 1.84 μg/L for YLZ and GBD,respectively,due to the high percentage of its stable binding fractions in both sediments,while Cu,Zn,and Pb showed a fast release in the initial period of time.However,their concentrations in SPM generally decreased with time and were higher at the lower velocity of 0.159 m/see,which resulted from the entrainment and depressing effect of larger size particles with lower heavy metal content,commonly referred to as the "particle concentration effect".In addition,the binding form and heavy metal fractions were also found to vary during the resuspension event.A decrease in the sulphide/organic matters bounded form in GBD sediment was observed,whereas no visible changes were perceived in YLZ site samples.This phenomenon is due to the oxidation of heavy metal-sulphide binding forms,which originated from its high acid volatile sulphide content in GBD sediment.

  7. 渤海海底地震仪探测试验及初步成果%Ocean Bottom Seismometer Experiment and Its Preliminary Results in Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支鹏遥; 刘保华; 华清峰; 刘晨光; 裴彦良; 郑彦鹏; 郝天珧


    利用大容量气枪枪阵震源和海底地震仪在渤海首次开展人工地震深部地球物理探测试验。本次试验布设一条NWW-SEE向垂直构造走向的勘测线,共投放海底地震仪51台,回收成功50台。试验结果和数据分析表明,所使用的枪阵有足够的能量输出,海底地震仪记录震相丰富,可识别到Ps,Pg,PmP,Pn等多种震相。初至波层析成像结果表明,9km以上地层速度结构存在明显的横向不均匀性,渤中地区新生代沉积基底埋深5—6km,结晶基底埋深约9km,郯庐断裂带内存在“u”型下凹的相对低速体并有向下切割的趋势。此次试验是我国在渤海深部探测中的成功示范,有效填补了渤海海域深地震测深数据的空白,为渤海深部地壳结构研究及含油气盆地形成演化研究提供了重要的基础资料。%A deep seismic sounding experiment was carried out for the first time in the Bohai Sea using large volume air-gun array and Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs). Fifty-one OBSs were deployed along a NWW-SEE line perpendicular to the strikes of the regional tectonics and fifty were recovered successfully. Experiment outcome showed the air-gun array used during the experiment had enough power; primary data analysis indicated the OBSs recorded rich seismic phases including Ps, Pg, PmP and Pn. Initial first arrival tomography results show that the shallow layer with depth of less than 9 km has obvious heterogeneity in the lateral direction, the depth of the Ceno- zoic sedimentary basement is 5 ~ 6 km in the Bozhong area and the corresponding crystalline basement depth is a- bout 9 km, and an U-shaped lower velocity body which has the trend to cut through the lower layer can be found in the Tanlu fault zone. This experiment is a successful case of the deep structure exploration in the Bohai Sea. It not only fills in the blanks of deep seismic sounding database, but also supplies fundamental

  8. Preliminary study on magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation for flexible surgical robots in transoral surgery: methods and phantom experiments. (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Zhang, Changchun; Liu, Li; Meng, Max Q-H


    Flexible surgical robot can work in confined and complex environments, which makes it a good option for minimally invasive surgery. In order to utilize flexible manipulators in complicated and constrained surgical environments, it is of great significance to monitor the position and shape of the curvilinear manipulator in real time during the procedures. In this paper, we propose a magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation system for flexible surgical robots in the transoral surgery. The system can provide the real-time tip position and shape information of the robot during the operation. We use wire-driven flexible robot to serve as the manipulator. It has three degrees of freedom. A permanent magnet is mounted at the distal end of the robot. Its magnetic field can be sensed with a magnetic sensor array. Therefore, position and orientation of the tip can be estimated utilizing a tracking method. A shape sensing algorithm is then carried out to estimate the real-time shape based on the tip pose. With the tip pose and shape display in the 3D reconstructed CT model, navigation can be achieved. Using the proposed system, we carried out planar navigation experiments on a skull phantom to touch three different target positions under the navigation of the skull display interface. During the experiments, the real-time shape has been well monitored and distance errors between the robot tip and the targets in the skull have been recorded. The mean navigation error is [Formula: see text] mm, while the maximum error is 3.2 mm. The proposed method provides the advantages that no sensors are needed to mount on the robot and no line-of-sight problem. Experimental results verified the feasibility of the proposed method.

  9. Wide field of view computed tomography and mid carpal instability: The value of the sagittal radius–lunate–capitate axis – Preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repse, Stephen E., E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Monash Health, VIC (Australia); Koulouris, George, E-mail: [Melbourne Radiology Clinic, Ground Floor, 3-6/100 Victoria Parade, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Centre for Orthopaedic Research, School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Troupis, John M., E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging & Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Monash Health and Department of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences, Monash University, VIC (Australia)


    Highlights: • Unique insight into the assessment of mid carpal instability. • 4D CT using sagittal reconstructions along the radius–lunate–capitate axis. • 4D CT observations of vacuum phenomenon, trigger lunate and capitate subluxation. • Earlier recognition of mid carpal instability. - Abstract: Purpose: Dynamic four dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) has recently emerged as a practical method for evaluating complex functional abnormality of joints. We retrospectively analysed 4D CT studies undertaken as part of the clinical management of hand and wrist symptoms. We present our initial experience of 4D CT in the assessment of functional abnormalities of the wrist in a group of patients with mid carpal instability (MCI), specifically carpal instability non-dissociative. We aim to highlight unique features in assessment of the radius–lunate–capitate (RLC) axis which allows insight and understanding of abnormalities in function, not just morphology, which may be contributing to symptoms. Materials and methods: Wide field of view multi-detector CT scanner (320 slices, 0.5 mm detector thickness) was used to acquire bilateral continuous motion assessment in hand flexion and extension. A maximum z-axis coverage of 16 cm was available for each acquisition, and a large field of view (FOV) was used. Due to the volume acquisition during motion, reconstructions at multiple time points were undertaken. Dynamic and anatomically targeted multi-planar-reconstructions (MPRs) were then used to establish the kinematic functionality of the joint. Results: Our initial cohort of 20 patients was reviewed. Three findings were identified which were present either in isolation or in combination. These are vacuum phenomenon, triggering of the lunate and capitate subluxation. We provide 4D CT representations of each and highlight features considered of clinical importance and their significance. We also briefly discuss how the current classifications of dynamic wrist

  10. X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX and particle spectrometer STEP-F of the satellite experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. Preliminary results of the joint data analysis (United States)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Kowalinski, M.; Siarkowski, M.; Plocieniak, S.; Bakala, J.


    A joint analysis is carried out of data obtained with the help of the solar X-ray SphinX spectrophotometer and the electron and proton satellite telescope STEP-F in May 2009 in the course of the scientific space experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. In order to determine the energies and particle types, in the analysis of spectrophotometer records data are used on the intensities of electrons, protons, and secondary γ-radiation, obtained by the STEP-F telescope, which was located in close proximity to the SphinX spectrophotometer. The identical reaction of both instruments is noted at the intersection of regions of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly and the Earth's radiation belts. It is shown that large area photodiodes, serving as sensors of the X-ray spectrometer, reliably record electron fluxes of low and intermediate energies, as well as fluxes of the secondary gamma radiation from construction materials of detector modules, the TESIS instrument complex, and the spacecraft itself. The dynamics of electron fluxes, recorded by the SphinX spectrophotometer in the vicinity of a weak geomagnetic storm, supplements the information about the processes of radial diffusion of electrons, which was studied using the STEP-F telescope.

  11. Development and Preliminary Testing of a Framework to Evaluate Patients' Experiences of the Fundamentals of Care: A Secondary Analysis of Three Stroke Survivor Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Kitson


    Full Text Available Aim. To develop and test a framework describing the interrelationship of three key dimensions (physical, psychosocial, and relational in the provision of the fundamentals of care to patients. Background. There are few conceptual frameworks to help healthcare staff, particularly nurses, know how to provide direct care around fundamental needs such as eating, drinking, and going to the toilet. Design. Deductive development of a conceptual framework and qualitative analysis of secondary interview data. Method. Framework development followed by a secondary in-depth analysis of primary narrative interview data from three stroke survivors. Results. Using the physical, psychosocial and relational dimensions to develop a conceptual framework, it was possible to identify a number of “archetypes” or scenarios that could explain stroke survivors’ positive experiences of their care. Factors contributing to suboptimal care were also identified. Conclusions. This way of thinking about how the fundamentals of care are experienced by patients may help to elucidate the complex processes involved around providing high quality fundamentals of care. This analysis illustrates the multiple dimensions at play. However, more systematic investigation is required with further refining and testing with wider healthcare user groups. The framework has potential to be used as a predictive, evaluative, and explanatory tool.

  12. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1) (United States)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    The problem of native flora plants conservation appears today as one of the most actual for humanity. The wide spreading natural ecosystems degradation results in the status changes for formerly common species to rare, endangered or extincted ones. That is why the complex of biological diversity conservation measures must be used including ex situ and in situ forms. Last years the seed banks (special seed collections in controlled conditions, including temperature below zero) and field banks (special alive plants collections) were created in many countries taking in mind the future of humanity. The seed banks as long-term depositories can be placed on the space stations where the threat of earth catastrophes is removed. But we must make it clear how the complex of space flight factors effects upon the seed quality and germination and plants development from “cosmic” seeds. For instance, the action of residual ionizing radiation into space apparatus on plant seeds can alter its vitality maybe by the growth of free radicals pool in molecular and subcellular level. The unknown level of such action permits us to propose wide diapason of effects from the absence of any changes to the stimulation of vital activity, decrease of it, mutagenesis and maybe the death of seeds. Only the experiments that begin in space and continue on the Earth can show us the effect of space flight factors complex on plant seeds. Here we describe the first results of experiment held on the board of space apparatus “Bion-M” No1. Totally 79 experiments were included to the program of “Bion-M”, among them the experiment “Biocont-BS”. The equipment for it was prepared by Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-building; the seed material was selected and prepared by the Botanical Garden of Samara State University. The equipment with seeds was into space apparatus, which working orbit was average 575 km and the flight lasted for 30 days. The seed samples of 9 rare plants

  13. Preliminary simulations of planned experiments to study the impact of trace gases on the capacity of the Weyburn-Midale field to store carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Hao, Y


    oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} causing enhanced dissolution of carbonate minerals and some sulfate mineral precipitation. Low pH results in higher mineral solubility and faster dissolution rates and is thought to enhance porosity and permeability near the injection well when trace amounts of SO{sub 2} is injected with CO{sub 2}. The impact of H{sub 2}S on storage reservoir performance appears to more subtle. Knauss et al (2005) report no significant impacts of injection of CO{sub 2} gas streams with and without H{sub 2}S (1 M Pascal H{sub 2}S + 8.4 M Pascal CO{sub 2}) in simulations of CO{sub 2} storage in the Frio sandstone formation. Geochemical reactions for H{sub 2}S impurities include enhance field alkalinity and reaction with iron bearing minerals that may delay breakthrough of H{sub 2}S relative to CO{sub 2}. Emberley et al. (2005) report that half of the alkalinity measured at monitoring wells at the Weyburn-Midale field is due to HS{sup -}. Schoonen and Xu (2004) report that H{sub 2}S can be sequestered as pyrite in sandstones and carbonates by dissolving iron hydroxides and iron-bearing clays. Similarly, Gunter et al (2000) propose the that siderite converts to iron sulfides when it is reacted with H{sub 2}S. The geochemical reactions between H{sub 2}S and iron bearing minerals together with the high solubility of H{sub 2}S relative to CO{sub 2} may contribute to the delayed break though of H{sub 2}S in experiments. A few core flood experiments have shown that the injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} into carbonate aquifers has the potential to significantly alter the porosity in the absence of trace gases such as SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. Luquot and Gouze (2009) documented a 2% porosity increase in carbonate cores when rock-water interactions were transport limited and solution concentrations were closer to equilibrium and a 4% porosity increase when rock-water interactions were reaction limited and solution compositions were further from equilibrium. Similarly Le

  14. Improving the cardio protective effect of aFGF in ischemic myocardium with ultrasound-mediated cavitation of heparin modified microbubbles: preliminary experiment. (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Lu, Cui-Tao; Li, Xiao-Kun; Tang, Qin-Qin; Tian, Xin-Qiao; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Ji-Lai; Yang, Wei; Ge, Shuping; Nair, Chandra K; Shen, Xuedong


    Ultrasound (US)-mediated cavitation of microbubbles has evolved into a new tool for organ-specific gene and drug delivery. This paper was to investigate the feasibility of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) intravenous delivery to the ischemic myocardium of rats by ultrasonic microbubbles modified with heparin. Heparin modified microbubbles (HMB) were prepared by the freeze-dried method. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model was established and the cardio protective effect of the aFGF combing with HMB (aFGF-HMB) under US-mediated cavitation technique was investigated. aFGF-HMB combined with US-mediated cavitation technique was examined by ECG. Ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS) and left ventricular diastolic diameter (LVDd) were measured to monitor the improvement of global myocardial contractile function. Myocardial tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosine (HE) to evaluate the elaborate general morphology of the ischemic myocardium. From morphologic observation and echocardiography in rat heart, aFGF-HMB had suitable size distribution, physical stability and good acoustic resonance function. From AMI rat experiments, aFGF-HMB under US-mediated cavitation technique exerted aFGF cardio protective effect in ischemic myocardium. From histological evaluation, US-mediated cavitation of aFGF-HMB showed improvement of myocardial ischemia. With the visual imaging and US-triggered drug release advantages, US-mediated cavitation of aFGF-HMB might be developed as a novel technique for targeting delivery of aFGF into ischemic myocardium.

  15. Preliminary report on potato cultivation experiment mulched by different materials%马铃薯不同材料覆盖栽培试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖义利; 郑莉


    A cultiVation experiment on potato mulched by different materials was carried out. The results showed that,com-pared with traditional non-mulching culture,using plastic film mulching and straw mulching on ridge surface could increase yield and efficiency in field cultiVation. Among them,black plastic film mulching had the adVantages of raising soil tempera-ture,cold-proof,conserVing water and fertilizer,non-weeding,saVing labor,high rate of big tuber,obVious effect of increas-ing yield and efficiency,and so on.%进行马铃薯不同材料覆盖栽培试验,结果表明:畦面采用地膜和稻草覆盖的比传统无覆盖栽培增产增效,其中黑色地膜覆盖处理能够提高土温、防寒、保水、保肥、免除草、节约劳力、大薯率高,增产增效最为明显.

  16. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. Minutes of the annual formal project manager's review, including preliminary technical review reports of FY80 experiments. [wheat/barley and corn/soybean experiments (United States)


    The U.S./Canada wheat/barley exploratory experiment is discussed with emphasis on labeling, machine processing using P1A, and the crop calendar. Classification and the simulated aggregation test used in the U.S. corn/soybean exploratory experiment are also considered. Topics covered regarding the foreign commodity production forecasting project include: (1) the acquisition, handling, and processing of both U.S. and foreign agricultural data, as well as meteorological data. The accuracy assessment methodology, multicrop sampling and aggregation technology development, frame development, the yield project interface, and classification for area estimation are also examined.

  17. Negative childhood experiences alter a prefrontal-insular-motor cortical network in healthy adults: A preliminary multimodal rsfMRI-fMRI-MRS-dMRI study (United States)

    Duncan, Niall W.; Hayes, Dave J.; Wiebking, Christine; Tiret, Brice; Pietruska, Karin; Chen, David Q.; Rainville, Pierre; Marjańska, Malgorzata; Mohammid, Omar; Doyon, Julien; Hodaie, Mojgan; Northoff, Georg


    Research in humans and animals has shown that negative childhood experiences (NCE) can have long-term effects on the structure and function of the brain. Alterations have been noted in grey and white matter, in the brain’s resting state, on the glutamatergic system, and on neural and behavioural responses to aversive stimuli. These effects can be linked to psychiatric disorder such as depression and anxiety disorders that are influenced by excessive exposure to early life stressors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of NCEs on these systems. Resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI), aversion task fMRI, glutamate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) were combined with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in healthy subjects to examine the impact of NCEs on the brain. Low CTQ scores, a measure of NCEs, were related to higher resting state glutamate levels and higher resting state entropy in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). CTQ scores, mPFC glutamate and entropy, correlated with neural BOLD responses to the anticipation of aversive stimuli in regions throughout the aversion-related network, with strong correlations between all measures in the motor cortex and left insula. Structural connectivity strength, measured using mean fractional anisotropy, between the mPFC and left insula correlated to aversion-related signal changes in the motor cortex. These findings highlight the impact of NCEs on multiple inter-related brain systems. In particular, they highlight the role of a prefrontal-insular-motor cortical network in the processing and responsivity to aversive stimuli and its potential adaptability by NCEs. PMID:26287448

  18. A Preliminary Exploration on the Application of Senior Physics Experiment Teaching Based on DIS Experiment Technology%基于DIS实验技术的高中物理实验教学应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    After introduced into senior physics experiment teach-ing, digital information technology represented by DIS experiment technology, with its convenient operation process, powerful data processing and flexible and diversified designs, has brought brand new vitalities to senior physics teaching under the new sit-uation and has been continuously promoting the digitalization process of senior physics experiment teaching. Based on the in-troduction of the definitions relevant to DIS experiment, its ne-cessity and application principles, this paper puts forward corre-sponding application strategies.%以DIS实验技术为代表的数字化信息技术被引入到高中物理实验教学中后以其方便的操作流程、强大的数据处理能力以及灵活多样的设计为新形势下的高中物理教学注入了全新的生机和活力,不断推动高中物理实验教学的数字化进程。本文将在介绍DIS实验的相关概念、必要性及运用原则的基础之上,提出相应的应用策略。

  19. Robotic-assisted transperitoneal nephron-sparing surgery for small renal masses with associated surgical procedures: surgical technique and preliminary experience. (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Graziano; Codacci-Pisanelli, Massimo; Patriti, Alberto; Ceribelli, Cecilia; Biancafarina, Alessia; Casciola, Luciano


    . Challenging situations are hilar, posterior or intraparenchymal tumour localization. In our experience, robotic technology made possible a safe minimally invasive management, including vascular clamping, tumour resection and parenchyma reconstruction.

  20. Braquiterapia com rutênio-106 em melanomas uveais - resultados preliminares: experiência uni-institucional Ruthenium-106 brachytherapy for uveal melanomas - preliminary results: a single institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Souza Dias


    associated brachytherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy. A significant tumor height reduction was observed after treatment. No patient was submitted to enucleation. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results show that ruthenium-106 brachytherapy is an appropriate method for conservative treatment of patients with uveal melanomas in terms of local management, ocular and visual acuity preservation with an acceptable complications incidence rate.

  1. An Ensemble Ocean Wave Forecast System and Preliminary Experiment%一个集合海浪预报系统及其初步试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The basic methods of ensemble wave prediction at home and abroad and an ensemble wave numerical forecast system are introduced. The system is established by running the operational wave model WAV-EWATCH H using wind data from the 15 members' ensemble weather forecast system, which is based on the T213L31 model and operational running in China National Meteorological Center. The ensemble model calculates 15 members wave field, including one control forecast and 14 perturbation members forecast. The model computes the waves over all the oceans up to 10 days at 12; 00 with 1° by 1° resolution. Based on hot initialization, the model uses the 12 h wave hindcast as its initial field. Through the information extraction and processing from the 15 member's wave fields, the system produces the ensemble wave products such as ensemble mean and spread, spaghetti charts and probability charts. Forecast experiment for the period from 1 Sep to 31 Oct in 2007 is done using the system and buoys data in the Pacific and Atlantic at the same period. The main verifying indexes are bias and root mean square error. For the mean monthly bias of 10 m wind speed and significant wave height, the performance of the ensemble mean is better than the control forecast, however both of them have a relatively low system deviation and one cause is that the spin up time of the system may not be long enough. For the monthly root mean square error, the ensemble mean of 10 m wind speed is lower than the control forecast by 3-12 percentage for the different forecast periods, meanwhile the ensemble mean of significant wave height is lower than the control forecast by 3- 17 percentage with consistent variation trend. Comparing 15 ensemble members' forecast to the Buoy_ 46006 data, it shows that the ensemble members can follow the changes of the observation well and cover the variation range of the observation other than the deterministic forecast. In summary, the verification results show that the

  2. 机器人辅助腹腔镜肝切除术的经验初探%Preliminary experience of robotic-assisted laparoscopic liver resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖乐; 李建伟; 郭鹏; 王小军; 别平; 郑树国


    Objective To summarize the preminiary experience of robotic-assisted laparoscopic liver resection. Methods The clinical data of 60 consecutive patients who underwent robot-assisted laparosopic liver resections for liver diseases at our institute from Jan 2010 to Jan 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results There were 57 cases who received successful robotic-assisted laparoscopic hepatectomy and 3 cases (5.0%) converted to open surgery. Operative time was (353±121) min. Intraoperative blood loss was(390±287) mL with transfusion rate 11.7%. Postoperative complications occurred in 15 cases (25.0%) and complications with Clavien≥3b accounted for 3.3%. Hospital stay was (9.1±3.3) days. The stone remove rate was 100%(22 cases) including 21 cases with hepatolithiasis(95.5%) removed intraoperatively and 1 case with residual stone successfully removed using choledochoscopy via a T-tube sinus postoperatively. No death occurred during perioperative period. All cases were followed-up for (18.8±12.0)(2-50)months. During the follow-up period,7 in 24 cases with cancer were found recurrence and 17 cases without. Among the cases with recurrence,4 cases died and 3 survived with tumor. Two in 22 cases with hepatolithiasis recurred and received reoperation and the other 2 cases experienced chronic cholangitis and resolved after medical treatment. Conclusions Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hepatectomy is safe, feasible and efficacious for selected patients with advantages of minimally invasive surgery.%目的:总结机器人辅助腹腔镜肝切除的初步经验。方法:回顾性分析我院2010年1月至2016年1月连续60例达芬奇机器人辅助腹腔镜肝切除术病人的临床资料。结果:60例中57例完成机器人辅助腹腔镜肝切除术,3例中转开腹,中转率为5.0%。平均手术时间(353±121) min,术中失血量(390±287) mL,术中输血率11.7%,术后并发症发生率25.0%(15例),其中3b级以上发生率3.3%

  3. 单切口改良Nuss手术矫治儿童漏斗胸%Modified Single-incision Nuss Procedure for Pectus Excavatum in Children: Preliminary Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶麒麟; 贾兵; 闫宪刚; 张惠锋


    目的 总结单切口改良Nuss手术矫治儿童漏斗胸的手术方法、临床经验及早期效果. 方法 2013年5月~2014年12月,选择性采用单切口改良Nuss手术治疗65例儿童漏斗胸,平均年龄5 .3岁( 4~12岁). 根据Park分型,对称型41例,不对称型24例. 术前胸部CT测量Haller指数3.21~12.54(4.65 ±1.56). 手术采用新型钛合金支架,支架前端为圆钝收窄的穿通段,具有穿通胸骨后及肋间隙的功能. 手术仅做一处右侧胸壁2 cm横行小切口,置入支架及胸腔镜,已塑型的支架凸面朝下由右侧肋弓最高点经胸骨最低点至左侧肋弓最高点穿出,支架翻转后前端置于左侧胸壁皮下,皮下保留2~3 cm. 右侧切口内放入固定片,以螺丝与支架固定. 根据术后Haller指数及随访结果评价手术效果. 结果 全组手术顺利,采用胸腔镜辅助手术63例. 手术时间19~45 min,平均26 min. 全组均植入1根矫形支架. 术后并发气胸1例、胸腔积液1例、切口感染1例. 术后3个月胸部CT测量Haller指数2.21~3.12(2.48 ±0.36),术后6个月2.18~3.24(2.45 ±0.32),与术前相比均有显著差异(t=6.286、6.487,P=0.000、0.000). 所有患儿随访9~28个月,矫形效果满意,无支架移位、获得性脊柱侧弯、金属过敏等并发症,未出现支架前端横向移位脱入胸腔. 结论 在低龄以及稍大龄轻症漏斗胸患儿中使用新型单孔钛合金支架施行单切口改良Nuss手术,安全可行,矫形效果满意,而且切口更美观,操作更简化,手术更微创.%Objective To summarize the clinical experience and evaluate the early outcomes of modified single-incision Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum in children. Methods A total of 65 children with pectus excavatum who were chosen to undergo modified single-incision Nuss procedure from May 2013 to December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients' age ranged from 4 to 12 years old (mean, 5.3 years old).According to the Park classification, there were

  4. Amphibole ceramics: conceptual development and preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.


    Certain natural silicate minerals, commonly called jade, are well known for their resistance to brittle fracture. One type of jade, nephrite, is a compacted form of the amphibole mineral series tremolite-actinolite. Nephrite is tough because the naturally acicular crystal habit of these amphibole minerals produces an interwoven fibrous microstructure that impedes crack propagation. Object of this work was to duplicate the fibrous microstructure of nephrite by pulverizing natural tremolite or actinolite and then compacting it by hot pressing to form a dense body. Two other materials were also investigated, namely, clinochrysotile (serpentine asbestos) and synthetic fluor-tremolite. For each material, the milling characteristics and densification were studied. The resulting microstructures were characterized, and fracture toughness was measured for a limited number of samples. The most ''fibrous'' microstructure was obtained by hot pressing clinochrysotile 15 min a 1000/sup 0/C. Actinolite, hot pressed 15 min at 1100/sup 0/C, had a critical fracture toughness K/sub IC/ = 4.5 MPa m/sup 1/2/, which compares favorably with the toughness of nephrite jade (K/sub IC/ = 3.6). Decomposition of tremolite and actinolite to more stable phases occurred to some degree during hot pressing. Results suggest that hot isostatic pressing at high water vapor pressure should yield a dense product without causing amphibole decomposition. 28 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Mariner 9 science experiments - Preliminary results. (United States)

    Steinbacher, R. H.; Kliore, A.; Lorell, J.; Hipsher, H.; Barth, C. A.; Masursky, H.; Muench, G.; Pearl, J.; Smith, B.


    On the basis of data provided by the IR interferometer spectrometer on the Mariner 9 spacecraft, it is suggested that the composition of the Martian dust corresponds approximately to that of rocks of intermediate silicon dioxide content. The large dynamical pole flattening obtained from satellite observations has been confirmed by the Mariner 9 data.

  6. Preliminary experience with dexmedetomidine in neonatal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcengiz Dilek


    Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine 1 μgkg -1 followed by maintenance dose of 0.5 μg kg -1 h -1 as an adjacent to sevoflurane anaesthesia in new born undergoing laparatomy provides haemodynamic stability during heightened surgical stimulate.

  7. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset (United States)

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  8. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio


    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  9. Simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of pediatric cancer: Preliminary experience and comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomogra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian S Pugmire; Alexander R Guimaraes; Ruth Lim; Alison M Friedmann; Mary Huang; David Ebb; Howard Weinstein; Onofrio A Catalano; Umar Mahmood; Ciprian Catana; Michael S Gee


    AIM: To describe our preliminary experience with simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose(18F-FDG)positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging(PET-MRI) in the evaluation of pediatric oncology patients.METHODS: This prospective, observational, singlecenter study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, and institutional review board approved. To be eligible, a patient was required to:(1) have a known or suspected cancer diagnosis;(2) be under the care of a pediatric hematologist/oncologist; and(3) be scheduled for clinically indicated 18F-FDG PETCT examination at our institution. Patients underwent PET-CT followed by PET-MRI on the same day. PET-CT examinations were performed using standard department protocols. PET-MRI studies were acquired with an integrated 3 Tesla PET-MRI scanner using whole body T1 Dixon, T2 HASTE, EPI diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) and STIR sequences. No additional radiotracer was given for the PET-MRI examination. Both PET-CT and PETMRI examinations were reviewed by consensus by two study personnel. Test performance characteristics of PETMRI, for the detection of malignant lesions, including FDG maximum standardized uptake value(SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient(ADCmin), were calculated on a per lesion basis using PET-CT as a reference standard.RESULTS: A total of 10 whole body PET-MRI exams were performed in 7 pediatric oncology patients. The mean patient age was 16.1 years(range 12-19 years) including 6 males and 1 female. A total of 20 malignant and 21 benign lesions were identified on PET-CT. PET-MRI SUVmax had excellent correlation with PET-CT SUVmax for both benign and malignant lesions(R = 0.93). PETMRI SUVmax > 2.5 had 100% accuracy for discriminating benign from malignant lesions using PET-computed tomography(CT) reference. Whole body DWI was also evaluated: the mean ADCmin of malignant lesions(780.2 + 326.6) was significantly

  10. 机器人外科手术系统体外循环心脏手术的初步经验%Total endoscopic robot-assisted on-pump cardiac surgery: preliminary experience with robot-assisted surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏来; 黄麒; 王春生; 沈金强; 夏利民; 罗红; 廖庆武; 胡克俭; 王萍; 徐竹静


    Objective To introduce our preliminary experience in total endoscopic robot-assisted onpump cardiac surgery with da Vinci system. Methods Five patients with mitral insufficiency (MI) and five patients with atrial septai defect (ASD) underwent on-pump cardiac surgical procedures using da Vinci S system from Aug. 2010 to Dec. 2010. After double-lumen endotracheal intubation and intravenous inhalation anesthesia,the peripheral extracorporeal circulation was established with femoral arterial cannula, femoral venous cannula and right internal jugular venous cannula. Through a 3 cm-length working-port and other three 0.8 cm-length mini-ports,the total endoscopic robotic-assisted operations (including mitral valve repair and ASD repair) were performed.Results All procedures were successfully performed without incision expansion or converting to sternotomy.Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed no moderate or severe .m. itral valve regurgitation or atrial septal shunt. There were no in-hospital death or post-operative complications. The patients recovered quickly with less bleeding and shorter hospital stay. All patients were followed-up for 1 - 3 months and had satisfactory TEE results.Conclusion The da Vinci robotic surgery system is safe and reliable for cardiac surgery, with satisfactory outcome, mini-invasiveness, rapid recovery and bright future. (Shanghai Med J, 2011, 34: 38-42)%目的 介绍复旦大学附属中山医院应用达芬奇S机器人外科手术系统辅助开展全内镜体外循环心脏手术的初步经验.方法 2010年8-12月在达芬奇S机器人外科手术系统辅助下完成全内镜二尖瓣成形术5例,房间隔缺损修补术5例.全组患者均采用双腔气管插管、静脉吸入复合麻醉,经股动脉、股静脉及右颈内静脉插管建立外周体外循环.于右胸第4肋间隙作3 cm工作孔,右胸第3、4、6肋间隙分别作0.8 cm器械孔,由术者操控机械臂完成全内镜下心内直视手术.结果 所有

  11. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio


    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  12. The C.E.B.A. Mini Module on the STS-107 Mission: Data of Ground Experiments and Preliminary Results of the third Spaceflight of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.; Bungart, S.

    The C.E.B.A.S MINI MODULE is the miniaturized version of an artificial aquatic ecosystem consisting of four subcomponents: a ZOOLOGICAL COMPONENT (aquarium for animals), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (higher water plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition, control unit). It has a total volume of 8.6 liters and contains the ovoviviparous teleost Xiphophorus helleri (swordtail), larvae of the ovuliparous cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus, the pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, the rootless (non-graivitropic) higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum (hornweed) and special strains of ammonia oxidizing bacteria. This device was already flown twice successfully in space with the space shuttle missions STS- 89 and STS-90 (NEUROLAB) in 1998. It will fly a third time with the STS-107-mission the launch of which has been repeatedly shifted December 222, April 2001, October 2001) and is now finally scheduled for June 2002. The main focus of scientific interest in the past missions were system performance, reproductive biology (reproductive function of adult females including endocrine system, fertilization, gonadal development in juveniles), vestibular and immunological research in X. helleri, embryology and shell formation in B. glabrata, general morphology and physiology of C. demersum and groth rates of the bacteria. The standard load of the system were 4 adult and 200 neonate X. helleri, 30 adult B. glabrata and 30 g of C. demersum. The evaluation of these experiments showed that all reproductive functions and the immune system of the fishes snails remained undisturbed in space, that the snails developed normally and exhibited no disturbance of shell formation and that the plants showed growth and photosynthesis rates comparable to those on Earth. So, as a logical continuation, the main topics for the STS-107 mission are the remaining important questions in X. helleri biology: puberty, male sexual

  13. On Preliminary Breakdown (United States)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.


    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  14. 部分免疫耐受诱导方案在小肠移植中的应用%Preliminary experience with partial tolerance protocol in small bowel transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元新; 李宁; 李幼生; 倪小冬; 李民; 吴波; 王剑; 黎介寿


    目的 报道4例小肠移植患者应用部分免疫耐受方案的初步经验.方法 小肠移植术中给予CD52单克隆抗体(Campath 1H)30 mg及甲泼尼龙2 g.术后单用低剂量普乐可复维持,不使用激素.术后前3个月普乐可复血药浓度维持在10-15μg/L,术后第4个月开始,普乐可复血药浓度减低至5-10μg/L,术后第7个月,减低至5 μg/L左右.结果 4例患者中2例生存期已超过1年;另2例患者中1例术后6个月,1例术后2个月余,均在顺利康复中.在术后0~3个月2例患者发生移植肠黏膜活检病理学诊断不确定(IND级)至轻度(1级)排斥反应3次,术后3~6个月2例患者发生IND级至1级排斥反应共3次,术后7~12个月1例患者发生中度(2级)排斥反应1次.排斥反应经治疗均成功缓解.移植肠功能良好,分别于术后2~3周彻底摆脱静脉营养,依赖口服饮食维持营养状态.结论 小肠移植术后应用Campath 1H诱导,单用低剂量普乐可复、无激素维持的部分免疫抑制方案,能有效地控制排斥反应.患者移植肠功能良好,能尽早摆脱静脉营养.%Objective To report the preliminary experience of 4 cases of small bowel transplantation. Methods Thirty microgram of Campath 1H was infused during the small bowel transplantation. The patients received 1 gram of Solu-Medrol followed by the Campath 1 H and another gram of Solu-Medrol before reperfusion. The infusion of tacrolimus started iust after reperfusion. The route of tacrolimus administration was transferred from vein to gut tract gradually. the tacrolimus trouth levels were aimed at 10-15μg/L within the first 3 postoperative months, 5-10μg/L at 4-6 months post-operation and taped to 5 μg/L thereafter. Results Two of these 4 cases survived more than one year. The follow-ups of other 2 patients were 6 and 2 months respectively. Three episodes of IND to mild acute rejection verifted by pathology through routine ileoscopical biopsy were found at 1-3 months post

  15. Experiencia preliminar en el tratamiento combinado de metástasis vertebrales mediante radiofrecuencia y cifoplastia en sesión única Preliminary experience in the treatment of vertebral metastases by radiofrequency and Kyphoplasty combined in one single session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Buitrago


    de radiofrecuencia asociada a cifoplastia en la enfermedad metastásica vertebral puede contribuir al manejo del dolor refractario al tratamiento médico y al control local de la enfermedad.Objectives: Describe our preliminary experience in the treatment of vertebral metastases by radiofrequency and Kyphoplasty combined in one single session. Material and methods: Four patients with histologically confirmed single spinal metastasis (breast, prostate, lung and myeloma in L1, L5, D12, D12, respectively were treated. The indication in all cases was pain with a poor response to medical treatment. All patients had pain in the range 6-7 visual analogue scale (VAS. In two cases there was a lytic lesion of the spinal posterior wall. After obtaining informed consent, and under sedation and local anesthetic the procedure took place. The transpedicular approach took place with a 11 G bone puncture system. Two radiofrequency needles were coaxially inserted to carry out an ablation cycle through each pedicle. During the ablation cycle the tip of the ablation neddle stood between the anterior and middle third of the vertebral body, while the second needle was used as thermal sensor with its end to the height of the vertebral posterior wall. The duration of each cycle of ablation was 8 minutes reaching intratumoral temperatures of 70-80 ºC. Transpedicular Kyphoplasty was performed subsequently. Results: No complications were reported during or after the procedure and patients were discharged in the first 24 hours. There was an immediate improvement in pain after the procedure (with a VAS 1-2 intensity pain in all patients. During follow up, analgesic medication was withdrawn in three patients, and there was no evidence of disease progression or recurrence of pain (pain intensity 1 (VAS in a follow-up in the range of 8-14 months. Clinical and radiological follow-up after discharge could not be performed on a patient. Conclusion: The use of radio-frequency associated with

  16. Three-dimensional rotational angiography of the carotid arteries with high-flow injection from the aortic arch. Preliminary experience; Angiografia rotazionale tridimensionale delle carotidi mediante iniezione ad alto flusso dell'arco aortico. Esperienza preliminare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi Mucelli, Fabio; Calgaro, Antonio; Bruni, Stefano; Bottaro, Lorella; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Trieste Univ., Trieste (Italy). Unita' Clinico Operativa di Radiologia


    Purpose: Three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) is a new technique based on a rotational angiographic acquisition able to display arterial vessels in a 3D rendering mode. The system was mainly developed for neuroradiological evaluations but preliminary extracranial experiences have also been reported. The aim of our work was to compare the results of three-dimensional angiography of the carotid arteries done with high-flow injection of contrast medium from the aortic arch with the results of selective angiography. Materials and methods: Twenty patients underwent digital angiography of the supra-aortic vessels in order to quantify a stenosis of the carotid bifurcations previously detected at Doppler Ultrasound. Examinations were performed with the Philips Integris Allura system provided with the rotational angiography (RA) tool connected to a workstation for three-dimensional reconstruction able to display vessels in a 3D fashion (Volume Rendering, Shaded Surface Display), automatically remove bone structures (cervical spine, calcified plaque, etc) and perform an automatic analysis of the vessel diameter and surface area at the point of major stenosis and in the disease-free vessel segments above and below. The carotid evaluation was done either with selective catheterization and the two standard AP and LL projections and with RA after contrast medium injection from the aortic arch followed by 3D reconstruction. Results: The comparison of the selective angiography and three-dimensional images was possible in 37 out of 40 carotid bifurcations (3 internal carotid arteries were occluded) and a good diagnostic quality was obtained in 35 out of 37 cases with an high correlation in the degree of stenosis. In 2/37 cases with calcified plaques the degree of stenosis was effectively demonstrated only after electronic subtraction of the calcified component of the plaque. Conclusions: The technique we propose proved to be feasible in all cases with a good correlation

  17. Oscillating Hydrofoils for Tidal Energy Extraction: Experiments, Simulations and Salt Water Field Tests (United States)

    Mandre, S.; Franck, J.; Breuer, K.; Fawzi, A.; Cardona, J.; Miller, M. J.; Su, Y.; Medina, A.; Loera Loera, C.; Junquera, E.; Simeski, F.; Volkmann, K.; Lorick, R.; Cowles, S.; Luiz Rocha Ribeiro, B.; Winckler, S.; Derecktor, T.


    We report on the development of a new oscillating hydrofoil technology for tidal flow energy harvesting. A series of flume experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed over a wide range of frequencies, f, heave amplitudes, h, and pitch angles, θ. The flume model has chord, c, of 10 cm and aspect ratio of 4.5. Mechanical power extracted is estimated from the foil trajectory, force and moment data. A robust real-time algorithm has been developed to identify the kinematics that optimizes either the total power or the Betz efficiency. Optimal efficiency is found when the pitch and heave cycles are 90 degrees out of phase, oscillating at a reduced frequency, fc/U, of approximately 0.15, with a heave amplitude of approximately 1c, and a pitch amplitude of θ=75 degrees. The high pitch amplitude and sharp leading edge of the foil generates a transient leading edge vortex on the suction side of the foil, significantly enhancing the vertical force and power. The optimal frequency ensures that the vortex generation and ultimate shedding maximize these unsteady hydrodynamic effects. The flume results, including power and efficiency, as well as flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) exhibit excellent agreement with the CFD. Furthermore, extensive CFD and physical experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of operating in confined or shallow channels. It is found that the efficiency and power generation can significantly increase in confined areas due to the acceleration of the freestream flow around the device. Finally, the Leading Edge team has designed, built, and as of this date, is currently field-testing a 1kW prototype device consisting of two foils operating in parallel. The prototype is attached to the underside of a pontoon boat, and testing is currently underway in the Narragansett Bay near Providence RI. On completion of the field tests, in October 2015, data from the prototype will be analyzed

  18. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  19. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  20. Insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport from controlled laboratory and natural field experiments (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Dellinger, Mathieu; Golombek, Nina; Hilton, Robert G.; Hovius, Niels; Sachse, Dirk; Turowski, Jens M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wittmann, Hella


    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere is thought to be a major control on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and hence global climate. The carbon fluxes from the oxidation of rock-derived OC (a CO2 source) and erosion and transport of biospheric OC (a potential CO2 sink) during fluvial transit are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering (France-Lanord and Derry, 1997; Bouchez et al., 2010). Despite field data showing oxidation of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport within the river, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated environment, or during longer periods when OC is temporarily stored in river floodplains which may be anoxic. This represents a major knowledge gap, as the unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to develop process-based models that can be employed to predict OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this gap, we investigated the potential for OC oxidation in both controlled laboratory experiments and a simplified field setting. We consider both rock-derived and biospheric OC. Our experiments simulated fluvial transport without floodplain storage, allowing mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment to be transported for distances of 1000 km in annular flumes while making time-series measurements of OC concentration in both the solid (POC) and dissolved (DOC) loads, as well as measurements of rhenium concentration, which serves as a proxy for the oxidation of rock-derived OC. These transport experiments were compared to static, control experiments where water and sediment in the same proportion were placed in still water. Initial results for transport of OC-rich soil show similar behavior between the transport and static

  1. Survey of CELSS Concepts and Preliminary Research in Japan (United States)

    Ohya, H.; Oshima, T.; Nitta, K.


    Agricultural and other experiments relating to the development of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) were proposed. The engineering feasibility of each proposal was investigated by a CELSS experiment concept met study group. The CELSS experiment concept to clarify the goals of CELSS and to determine three phases to achieve the goals. The resulting phases, or missions, and preliminary proposals and studies needed to develop a CELSS are described.

  2. Designing and Creating a Set of New Lab Experiments for a Traditional Fluid Mechanics Course in Civil Engineering (United States)

    Budny, Dan


    Many fluids lab facilities and their associated student experiences were built back in the 1960-1970 time frames. They typically consisted of large facilities that included wind tunnels, flumes, wet wells, pump stations, etc. Today these labs are physically and pedagogically out dated and the need for lab space is forcing the closing of large scale labs. This is the same basic problem within the Swanson School of Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh. Thus we have replaced all the old equipment and lab experiences with small bench top experiments with a focus on applying the large body of knowledge associate with better student learning experiences. This paper will describe the concepts behind the design of the new experiments and the learning improvements discovered as a result of moving from a few large experiments to a larger number of smaller scale experiments.

  3. Preliminary experience on the implementation of computed tomography (CT)-based image guided brachytherapy (IGBT) of cervical cancer using high-dose-rate (HDR) Cobalt-60 source in University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) (United States)

    Jamalludin, Z.; Min, U. N.; Ishak, W. Z. Wan; Malik, R. Abdul


    This study presents our preliminary work of the computed tomography (CT) image guided brachytherapy (IGBT) implementation on cervical cancer patients. We developed a protocol in which patients undergo two Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examinations; a) prior to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and b) prior to intra-cavitary brachytherapy for tumour identification and delineation during IGBT planning and dosimetry. For each fraction, patients were simulated using CT simulator and images were transferred to the treatment planning system. The HR-CTV, IR-CTV, bladder and rectum were delineated on CT-based contouring for cervical cancer. Plans were optimised to achieve HR-CTV and IR-CTV dose (D90) of total EQD2 80Gy and 60Gy respectively, while limiting the minimum dose to the most irradiated 2cm3 volume (D2cc) of bladder and rectum to total EQD2 90Gy and 75Gy respectively. Data from seven insertions were analysed by comparing the volume-based with traditional point- based doses. Based on our data, there were differences between volume and point doses of HR- CTV, bladder and rectum organs. As the number of patients having the CT-based IGBT increases from day to day in our centre, it is expected that the treatment and dosimetry accuracy will be improved with the implementation.

  4. Preliminary experience with MRA in evaluating the degree of carotid stenosis and plaque morphology using high-resolution sequences after gadofosveset trisodium (Vasovist) administration: comparison with CTA and DSA. (United States)

    Anzidei, M; Napoli, A; Geiger, D; Cavallo Marincola, B; Zini, C; Zaccagna, F; Di Paolo, P; Catalano, C; Passariello, R


    The authors performed a preliminary study with blood-pool contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in evaluating the degree of carotid artery stenosis and plaque morphology, comparing the diagnostic performance of first-pass (FP) and steady-state (SS) acquisitions with 64-slice computed tomography angiography (CTA) and using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. Twenty patients with >or=50% carotid artery stenosis at Doppler sonography underwent blood-pool contrast-enhanced MRA, CTA and DSA. Two independent radiologists evaluated MRA and CTA examinations to assess the degree of stenosis and characterise plaque morphology. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for FP, SS and CTA. The McNemar and Wilcoxon tests were used to determine significant differences (p0.05). Blood-pool contrast-enhanced MRA with SS sequences allow improved diagnostic evaluation of the degree of carotid stenosis and plaque morphology compared with FP and is substantially equal to CTA and DSA.

  5. Preliminary results of ANAIS-25

    CERN Document Server

    Amaré, J; Cuesta, C; García, E; Ginestra, C; Martínez, M; Oliván, M A; Ortigoza, Y; de Solórzano, A Ortiz; Pobes, C; Puimedón, J; Sarsa, M L; Villar, P; Villar, J A


    The ANAIS (Annual Modulation with NaI(Tl) Scintillators) experiment aims at the confirmation of the DAMA/LIBRA signal using the same target and technique at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. 250 kg of ultrapure NaI(Tl) crystals will be used as a target, divided into 20 modules, each coupled to two photomultipliers. Two NaI(Tl) crystals of 12.5 kg each, grown by Alpha Spectra from a powder having a potassium level under the limit of our analytical techniques, form the ANAIS-25 set-up. The background contributions are being carefully studied and preliminary results are presented: their natural potassium content in the bulk has been quantified, as well as the uranium and thorium radioactive chains presence in the bulk through the discrimination of the corresponding alpha events by PSA, and due to the fast commissioning, the contribution from cosmogenic activated isotopes is clearly identified and their decay observed along the first months of data taking. Following the procedures established with ANAIS-0 and ...

  6. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, W B


    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses, and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with...

  7. A Preliminary Jupiter Model (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.


    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  8. Early evaluation of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and clinical assessment in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients before and after ventricular shunt placement: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Lavalle, Mariadea; Leccisotti, Lucia; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Rome (Italy); Mangiola, Annunziato; De Bonis, Pasquale; Anile, Carmelo [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy); Indovina, Luca [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Physics, Rome (Italy); Marra, Camillo [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Neurology, Rome (Italy); Pelliccioni, Armando [Istituto Nazionale per l' Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro (INAIL), Rome (Italy)


    We evaluated the relationships between the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) measured by dynamic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and the clinical and neuropsychological assessment before and after the surgical procedure in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients. Eleven selected INPH patients underwent clinical assessment (modified Rankin scale, Krauss scale, Larsson categorization system and Stein-Langfitt scale), cognitive evaluation (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE) and dynamic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan 3 days before and 1 week after ventricular shunt placement. After shunting, the global CMRglu significantly increased (2.95 {+-} 0.44 vs 4.38 {+-} 0.68, p = 10{sup -7}) in all INPH patients with a mean percentage value of 48.7%. After shunting, no significant change was found in the Evans ratio whereas a significant decrease in all clinical scale scores was observed. Only a slight reduction in the MMSE was found. After shunting, a significant correlation between the global CMRglu value and clinical assessment was found (R {sup 2} = 0.75, p = 0.024); indeed all clinical scale scores varied (decreasing) and the CMRglu value also varied (increasing) in all INPH patients. Our preliminary data show that changes in the CMRglu are promptly reversible after surgery and that there is a relationship between the early metabolic changes and clinical symptoms, independently from the simultaneous changes in the ventricular size. The remarkable and prompt improvement in the global CMRglu and in symptoms may also have important implications for the current concept of ''neuronal plasticity'' and for the cells' reactivity in order to recover their metabolic function. (orig.)

  9. Horticultural therapy as a measure for recovery support of regional community in the disaster area: a preliminary experiment for forty five women who living certain region in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture. (United States)

    Kotozaki, Yuka


    Three years have passed since the earthquake, in the coastal areas in the disaster area, by population transfer or the like from the temporary housing, the importance of the regeneration and revitalization of the local community has been pointed out. This study performed a preliminary study to aim at the psychological inspection about an effect of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction support of the disaster area. Forty five women who are living in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture participated in this study. They experienced the Great East Japan earthquake in 2011 and suffered some kind of damage caused by the earthquake. The participants were assigned to two groups, the intervention group and the control group, via a random draw using a computer. The HI group attended the horticultural therapy intervention (HT intervention) sessions for 16 weeks. The HT intervention was designed in collaboration with a horticultural therapist and clinical psychologists. This intervention comprised a total of 16 weekly sessions (120 min each) at the community center and 15 minutes per day at participants' homes. We used five psychological measures for an intervention evaluation. The HI group showed a significant increase in post- intervention SCI-2 total scores, post- intervention SCI-2 membership scores, post-intervention SCI-2 influence scores, post- intervention SCI-2 meeting needs scores, post- intervention SCI-2 shared emotional connection scores, and post- intervention RSES score. We believe that these results suggest the effectiveness of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction.

  10. Numerical simulations of three-dimensional internal solitary waves within a numerical flume%三维海洋内孤立波数值水槽造波研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晖; 苏晓冰; 田俊杰


    Since internal solitary waves carry large amount of energy and widely exist in oceans all over the world,they have significant influence on the safty of submarines.Using the finite volume algorithm with adaptive semi-structure grids, multi-grid method and the volume of fluid (VOF) method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations, a numerical internal solitary wave flume, based on the idea of pushing two plates in opposite directions in the tank, with the metability of wave generation is developed, and the validity for such a method is numerically confirmed, and the results are compared well with the analytical solution of KdV equation. This study laid a solid foundation for the future study of the interactions between internal solitary waves and submarines.%海洋内孤立波因其分布广泛和携带巨大能量,对于潜艇安全航行影响很大.本文采用有限体积自适应半结构多重网格法求解Navier-Stokes方程,并用VOF方法追踪两层流体界面,应用双推板造波法进行内孤立波数值造波,建立了两层流体中的内孤立波数值水槽.数值模拟结果证实了该数值水槽数值造波的有效性和可靠性,为后续研究打下了基础.

  11. 应用化学专业无机化学实验教学改革的探索%Preliminary Exploration of the Teaching Reform on the Applied Chemistry Specialty Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳; 赵蕾; 赵红梅; 秦向东


    对应用化学专业无机化学实验教学进行了深入的分析和思考,探讨了教学内容及教学手段的改革,探索了建设绿色化实验的主要措施,以绿色化学理念为指导原则,结合教学实际情况,探索无机化学实验教学各环节的绿色化方案,提出实验微型化或小型化等绿色化实验策略,强调实验教学手段的绿色化,从而培养学生的环保意识,为建设绿色化无机化学实验提供参考。%Applied chemistry inorganic chemistry experiment teaching was conducted in -depth analysis and reflection, the reform of teaching contents and teaching methods were discussed , and the main measures of building green experiment were explored.Inorganic chemistry experiment teaching taking green chemical concepts as guidance , combining with teaching practice , greening scheme of experiment teaching of inorganic in each section of teaching process was explored.A series of experimental methods to settle the question , such as promoting microscale or small experiment , were put forward.It was important to emphasize greening of experiment teaching approach to cultivate student's consciousness of environment protection.The study can provide a reference for the construction of green inorganic chemistry.

  12. Retention of Concepts Resulting from Learning by Experience. Preliminary Investigation of the Retention of Selected Reading and Mathematical Concepts Resulting from Students Enrolled in a Traditional Learning Environment and in a Learning-in-Work Environment. (United States)

    Crowe, Michael R.; Harvey, R. J.

    A study investigated the retention of mathematical and reading concepts of students enrolled in a learning-in-work environment (Experience-Based Career Education) and a traditional classroom learning environment on a measure of academic achievement using a twelve-month longitudinal design. The performance of twenty-seven students in each…

  13. The Preliminaries of a Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Sadl, Urska


    by the reasons why the Court after an oral hearing held in the presence of the parties and eight intervening Member States, and after hearing the Advocate General did not deliver one. The comment examines the legal framework, as well as the detailed procedural rules and guidelines that govern the cooperation...... of national courts in the preliminary reference procedure. It highlights the fact that preliminary references can only work when the preliminaries of a reference – the culture of sincere cooperation and litigation, efficient communication and flexible procedural rules – are in place....

  14. Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation (United States)

    Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.


    Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

  15. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.


    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  16. Station experiment and preliminary data analysis of high-precision solar radiation measurement system%高精度太阳辐射测量系统台站试验与初步资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文华; 边泽强


    在原高精度太阳辐射测量系统研究的基础上,改进太阳跟踪装置,提高其运行稳定性与可靠性,使其达到业务运行的要求。将总辐射表、散射辐射表和大气长波辐射表放在跟踪太阳的装置上,利用太阳自动跟踪和遮光装置,可准确地测量太阳散射辐射。采用两短、两长波辐射测量方法,获得净全辐射测量值,改变净全辐射测量方法,提高了净全辐射测量的准确度。通过丽江和漠河气象站的比对观测,对试验资料进行了初步分析和比较,验证了高精度太阳辐射测量系统辐射测量方法的正确性。%Our research improved the operational stability and reliability to meet the operation requirements on the basis of the original research of high-precision solar radiation measurement system. The solar diffuse radiation data can be collected by using the automatic sun-tracking device and shadow device according to putting the pyranometer, diffuse radiometer and atmospheric long-wave radiometer onto the automatic sun-tracking device. Based on two short-wave and two long-wave radiation, the net radiation data can be obtained, which improves its measurement method and accuracy. The data that was collected from the Lijiang and Mohe meteorological station was preliminary analyzed and compared to verify the accuracy of measurement method of high-precision solar radiation measurement system.

  17. Turning the tide: effects of river inflow and tidal amplitude on sandy estuaries in laboratory landscape experiments (United States)

    Kleinhans, Maarten; Braat, Lisanne; Leuven, Jasper; Baar, Anne; van der Vegt, Maarten; van Maarseveen, Marcel; Markies, Henk; Roosendaal, Chris; van Eijk, Arjan


    Many estuaries formed over the Holocene through a combination of fluvial and coastal influxes, but how estuary planform shape and size depend on tides, wave climate and river influxes remains unclear. Here we use a novel tidal flume setup of 20 m length by 3 m width, the Metronome (, to create estuaries and explore a parameter space for the simple initial condition of a straight river in sandy substrate. Tidal currents capable of transporting sediment in both the ebb and flood phase because they are caused by periodic tilting of the flume rather than the classic method of water level fluctuation. Particle imaging velocimetry and a 1D shallow flow model demonstrate that this principle leads to similar sediment mobility as in nature. Ten landscape experiments recorded by timelapse overhead imaging and AGIsoft DEMs of the final bed elevation show that absence of river inflow leads to short tidal basins whereas even a minor discharge leads to long convergent estuaries. Estuary width and length as well as morphological time scale over thousands of tidal cycles strongly depend on tidal current amplitude. Paddle-generated waves subdue the ebb delta causing stronger tidal currents in the basin. Bar length-width ratios in estuaries are slightly larger to those in braided rivers in experiments and nature. Mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels are ubiquitous and appear to be formed by an instability mechanism with growing bar and bifurcation asymmetry. Future experiments will include mud flats and live vegetation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  19. Preliminary reference Earth model (United States)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.


    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  20. Arapahoe NWR diversion reconstruction : Preliminary (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary plan for a diversion reconstruction for Hubbard #2. Oklahoma #1, Dryer, Hill and Crowder sites on the Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge.

  1. Danish experiments with a grid system tested in the North Sea shrimp fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Hansen, K.E.


    can retain marketable catches of roundfish and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). The grid system was made of polyamide with a fish escape hole at the top and a Norway lobster escape hole at the bottom. Hinges made the grid flexible. The grid system was developed acid tested in a flume tank......), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). whiting (Merlangius merlangus), saithe (Pollachius virens), Norway pout (Trisopterus esmarki). Norway lobster, herring (Clupea harengus) and witch (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus) but no significant difference in weight of shrimp and monkfish (Lophius piscatorius......) in the first experiment. The grid system was altered in experiment 2 resulting in no significant difference in the catch of cod and saithe above the minimum landing size while the catch of Norway lobster and shrimp improved significantly. Experiments with collecting bags indicated that most fish went through...

  2. The role of therapists' treatment adherence, professional experience, therapeutic alliance, and clients' severity of psychological problems: Prediction of treatment outcome in eight different psychotherapy approaches. Preliminary results of a naturalistic study. (United States)

    Tschuschke, Volker; Crameri, Aureliano; Koehler, Miriam; Berglar, Jessica; Muth, Katharina; Staczan, Pia; Von Wyl, Agnes; Schulthess, Peter; Koemeda-Lutz, Margit


    In this naturalistic study, 262 audiotaped psychotherapy sessions--randomly drawn from 81 individual therapies from eight different psychotherapy approaches--were rated completely on treatment adherence using a newly developed rating manual. In the therapy sessions, a relatively low percentage of treatment specific interventions (ranging from 4.2% to 27.8%) was found for all eight approaches, 50% to 73% of the interventions were nonspecific or common, and approximately 18% to 27% were intervention techniques from other approaches. Different types of psychotherapy differed highly significantly in levels of treatment adherence. There was no statistically significant association between the type of psychotherapy and its outcome, or between the degree of therapists' treatment fidelity and the treatment outcome. However, there were significant associations between therapists' degree of professional experience, clients' initial psychological burden, and treatment response. Clients' severity of psychological problems prior to treatment predicted quality of therapeutic alliance while therapists' treatment adherence was predicted by therapists' professional experience and by the quality of the therapeutic alliance. We discuss the seemingly indirect importance of treatment adherence for psychotherapy outcome that we found in this study in relation to findings from other studies and in the context of the role of schools within psychotherapy.

  3. Preliminary Discussion on the Integrative Experiment Teaching Innovation of Biological Control of Plant Disease%《植物病害生物防治学》综合性实验的教学改革初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁婷; 齐永霞; 孙微微; 江海洋


    The design principle, teaching model, teaching effect of the integrative experiment of biological control of plant disease which was the undergraduate course in plant protection professional were discussed and analyzed in this paper.It suggested that teaching model of integrative experiment course expanded the knowledge of students , enabled the students to have a visual perceptual knowledge of biological control of plant disease , improved the comprehensive experimental skills and abilities and laid the foundation for the corresponding professional research of students in the future.%对植物保护专业本科生课程---《植物病害生物防治学》综合性实验的设计基本思路、教学方式、教学实施效果等进行了综合讨论与分析。综合性实验课教学模式扩大了学生的知识面,使学生对植物病害生物防治知识有了直观的感性认识,提高了综合实验技能和动手能力,为学生今后从事相应的专业研究奠定了基础。

  4. Preliminary Study of the Experiment in Online Interactive English Writing Teaching Model%网上交互式英文写作教学模式实验前期研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    为了更有效地提高非英语专业大学生的英语写作能力,借助网上平台进行师生交互式教学模式实验,采用访谈和问卷调查的方式,了解学生英语写作的现状以及英语写作教学目前存在的问题,据此着手网上交互式英文写作教学实验设计,充分利用网络的方便快捷,采用多样网络技术,教师提供信息,进行策略指导,学生进行自主学习,教师又对学生的学习状况进行反馈。事实证明,本实验在提高非英语专业大学生的英语写作水平方面已初见成效。同时,通过前期调研,以及对于本实验的反思,发现网上写作训练比传统的写作训练更具有优越性和发展前景。%In order to improve the English writing ability of non-English majors more effectively,with the help of teacher-student interactive online platform,the project team members conduct the experiment in teacher-student online interactive teaching model,in which the interview and questionnaire are carried out,to understand the present situation of students′ English writing and the existing problems of the teaching of English writing,accordingly,set out to make an online interactive English writing teaching experimental design,make full use of the convenient and swift network and the variety of network technology,through which the teacher provides information gives guidance on strategies,and students study autonomously,and then the teacher gives feedback about the students′ learning.It proves that this experiment has resulted in the improvement of the English writing of the non-English majors.In the meanwhile,through the prophase survey and rethinking profoundly about the experiment,it has been found that online writing training has more advantages and better development prospects than traditional writing training.

  5. An organized, comprehensive, and security-enabled strategic response to the Haiti earthquake: a description of pre-deployment readiness preparation and preliminary experience from an academic anesthesiology department with no preexisting international disaster response program. (United States)

    McCunn, Maureen; Ashburn, Michael A; Floyd, Thomas F; Schwab, C William; Harrington, Paul; Hanson, C William; Sarani, Babak; Mehta, Samir; Speck, Rebecca M; Fleisher, Lee A


    On Tuesday, January 12, 2010 at 16:53 local time, a magnitude 7.0 M(w) earthquake struck Haiti. The global humanitarian attempt to respond was swift, but poor infrastructure and emergency preparedness limited many efforts. Rapid, successful deployment of emergency medical care teams was accomplished by organizations with experience in mass disaster casualty response. Well-intentioned, but unprepared, medical teams also responded. In this report, we describe the preparation and planning process used at an academic university department of anesthesiology with no preexisting international disaster response program, after a call from an American-based nongovernmental organization operating in Haiti requested medical support. The focus of this article is the pre-deployment readiness process, and is not a post-deployment report describing the medical care provided in Haiti. A real-time qualitative assessment and systematic review of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania's communications and actions relevant to the Haiti earthquake were performed. Team meetings, conference calls, and electronic mail communication pertaining to planning, decision support, equipment procurement, and actions and steps up to the day of deployment were reviewed and abstracted. Timing of key events was compiled and a response timeline for this process was developed. Interviews with returning anesthesiology members were conducted. Four days after the Haiti earthquake, Partners in Health, a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization based in Boston, Massachusetts, with >20 years of experience providing medical care in Haiti contacted the University of Pennsylvania Health System to request medical team support. The departments of anesthesiology, surgery, orthopedics, and nursing responded to this request with a volunteer selection process, vaccination program, and systematic development of equipment lists. World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control guidelines, the American

  6. 司法权能现代化的内在机理--基于美国经验的分析%The Inner Mechanism of Modernization in Judicial Power-A Preliminary Work on the US Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The US is the first country to realize modernization of j udicial power,whose experience can be concluded in one tradition,one theory and one faith.Americans hold to the philosophical tradi-tion of Pragmatism,respecting the Judges'practical rationality in judicial process,recognizing judicial legislation power.Americans pursue the theory of Check and Balance,surpassing Separation of Pow-ers Doctrine,bringing j udicial review into the domains of modern j udicial power.Americans initiate new Constitutionalism,affirming that the Supreme Court is the Constitution-holder and the Judges possess the final interpretation power of the Constitution.Americans'experience promotes inheritance and innovation to judicial civilization of Human Beings,which also inspires us to deeply understand and conscientiously abide by to the inner mechanism of modernization in j udicial power in our country.%美国是世界上率先实现司法权能现代化的国家,其经验可以概括为“一个传统,一个理论,一个主义”。美国人秉持实用主义的法律哲学传统,尊重司法过程中法官的经验理性,认同法官造法的权力;其奉行权力制衡理论,超越了严格分权学说,将司法审查权纳入现代司法权能的范畴;其倡导新宪政主义,确立最高法院是宪法的守护者,法官拥有宪法的最终解释权,并发展了宪法解释方法论。美国的率先垂范推动了人类司法文明的传承与创新,也启发我们进一步深入把握和自觉遵循中国司法权能现代转型的内在机理。

  7. Fluid Mud in Energetic Systems: FLUMES II (United States)


    demonstrated for fluid mud on the Amazon Shelf (Kineke and Sternberg , 1992). Disaggregated Inorganic Grain Size (DIGS) analysis for the suspended...the Petitcodiac River, New Brunswick, Canada. Masters Thesis, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA. 125 pp. Kineke, G.C. and R.W. Sternberg (1992

  8. Determination of in-situ thermal properties of Stripa granite from temperature measurements in the full-scale heater experiments: method and preliminary results. Technical information report No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffry, J.A.; Chan, T.; Cook, N.G.W.; Witherspoon, P.A.


    The in-situ thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of a granite rock mass at the Stripa mine, Sweden, have been extracted from the first 70 days of temperature data for the 5 kW full-scale heater experiment by means of least-squares fit to a finite-line source solution. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity have been determined to be 3.69 W/(m-/sup 0/C) and 1.84 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s, respectively, at an average rock temperature of 23/sup 0/C (the average value of the actual temperature data used). These values are only slightly higher than the corresponding laboratory values, i.e., there is no significant size effect in the thermal properties of this rock mass. Since the size and shape of the heater canister used are similar to those considered for nuclear waste canisters and a substantial volume of rock is heated, the thermal properties obtained in this study are representative of in-situ rock mass properties under actual nuclear repository operating conditions.

  9. High fluid shear strain causes injury in silver shark: Preliminary implications for Mekong hydropower turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, L. J. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Narrandera Fisheries Centre, Narrandera NSW Australia; Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Thorncraft, G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, National University of Laos, Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Phonekhampheng, O. [Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, National University of Laos, Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Boys, C. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, Nelson Bay NSW Australia; Navarro, A. [Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Robinson, W. [Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Brown, R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA


    Fluid shear arises when two bodies of water, travelling at different velocities, intersect. Fish entrained at the interface of these two water masses will experience shear stress; which can be harmful. The stress magnitude is dependent on waterbody mass and velocity; with the fish impact largely related to body size. Elevated shear stress occurs where rapidly flowing water passes near spillways, across screens, within turbine draft tubes or other passage routes. A flume was used to determine critical tolerances of silver shark (Balantiocheilos melanopterus) to different shear stress rates generated by a high velocity jet. Fish experienced higher levels of injury and mortality as shear stress was increased. Excessive shear forces had damaging impacts on fish. Mortality occurred at shear levels higher that 600/s. It is important that developers should attempt to model potential shear profiles expected during turbine passage in selected designs. These data will be critical to determine potential impacts on fish. If the likelihood of adverse impact is high, then alternative designs which have lower shear stress could be explored.

  10. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment (United States)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.


    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  11. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests (United States)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.


    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  12. Preliminary design for a maglev development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, H.T.; He, J.L.; Chang, S.L.; Bouillard, J.X.; Chen, S.S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L.O.; Lottes, S.A.; Rote, D.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zhang, Z.Y. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States); Myers, G.; Cvercko, A. [Sterling Engineering, Westchester, IL (United States); Williams, J.R. [Alfred Benesch and Co., Chicago, IL (United States)


    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh form 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  13. Preliminary design for a maglev development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, H.T.; He, J.L.; Chang, S.L.; Bouillard, J.X.; Chen, S.S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L.O.; Lottes, S.A.; Rote, D.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zhang, Z.Y. (Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Myers, G.; Cvercko, A. (Sterling Engineering, Westchester, IL (United States)); Williams, J.R. (Alfred Benesch and Co., Chicago, IL (United States))


    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh form 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  14. Preliminary design for a MAGLEV development facility (United States)

    Coffey, H. T.; He, J. L.; Chang, S. L.; Bouillard, J. X.; Chen, S. S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L. O.; Lottes, S. A.; Rote, D. M.; Zhang, Z. Y.


    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh from 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  15. Preliminary Experiment Study on the Cultivation of Earthworm with Surplus Sludge in Urban Sewage Treatment Plant%利用蚯蚓处理城市污水厂剩余污泥的初步试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘康怀; 李艳红; 龙飞; 王栎雯; 严博; 吴国恩


    The surplus sludge of urban sewage treatment plant and diary manure is prepared to produce earthworm feed and a series of experiment researches have been conducted in different proportion prescription for raising earthworm .Under suit-able surrounding conditions ,the weight of the Second Daping earthworm has been increased in ranging from 54 to 100 per-cent and the average number of spawned egg cocoons is 0 .687 for each earthworm after being nurtured for 21 days .The re-search results show that the surplus sludge could be used directly for rearing earthworm and never be fermented before . When the ratio of diary manure to surplus sludge is 1∶1 or 0 .3∶0 .7 ,it is useful for the earthworm supersession and repro-ducing .Also it would be safety for breeding earthworm in that range .%采用城市污水处理厂的剩余污泥(滤泥)和牛粪直接配置养殖蚯蚓的饲料,按照不同比例的配料分组进行了饲养蚯蚓的试验研究。在适宜的环境条件下,经过21 d培养,大平二号蚯蚓的最少增重为54%,最高增重达100%;平均产卵茧的数量为0.687个/条蚯蚓。研究结果表明,滤泥不需经过发酵即可用于养殖蚯蚓,牛粪与滤泥配置的比例为1∶1或0.3:0.7时,有利于蚯蚓的代谢和繁殖,并可确保蚯蚓养殖的安全。

  16. Large-scale laboratory testing of bedload-monitoring technologies: overview of the StreamLab06 Experiments (United States)

    Marr, Jeffrey D.G.; Gray, John R.; Davis, Broderick E.; Ellis, Chris; Johnson, Sara; Gray, John R.; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.


    A 3-month-long, large-scale flume experiment involving research and testing of selected conventional and surrogate bedload-monitoring technologies was conducted in the Main Channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory under the auspices of the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics. These experiments, dubbed StreamLab06, involved 25 researchers and volunteers from academia, government, and the private sector. The research channel was equipped with a sediment-recirculation system and a sediment-flux monitoring system that allowed continuous measurement of sediment flux in the flume and provided a data set by which samplers were evaluated. Selected bedload-measurement technologies were tested under a range of flow and sediment-transport conditions. The experiment was conducted in two phases. The bed material in phase I was well-sorted siliceous sand (0.6-1.8 mm median diameter). A gravel mixture (1-32 mm median diameter) composed the bed material in phase II. Four conventional bedload samplers – a standard Helley-Smith, Elwha, BLH-84, and Toutle River II (TR-2) sampler – were manually deployed as part of both experiment phases. Bedload traps were deployed in study Phase II. Two surrogate bedload samplers – stationarymounted down-looking 600 kHz and 1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers – were deployed in experiment phase II. This paper presents an overview of the experiment including the specific data-collection technologies used and the ambient hydraulic, sediment-transport and environmental conditions measured as part of the experiment. All data collected as part of the StreamLab06 experiments are, or will be available to the research community.

  17. Fluvial experiments using inertial sensors. (United States)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Valyrakis, Manousos; Hodge, Rebecca; Drysdale, Tim; Hoey, Trevor


    During the last four years we have announced results on the development of a smart pebble that is constructed and calibrated specifically for capturing the dynamics of coarse sediment motion in river beds, at a grain scale. In this presentation we report details of our experimental validation across a range of flow regimes. The smart pebble contains Inertial Measurements Units (IMUs), which are sensors capable of recording the inertial acceleration and the angular velocity of the rigid bodies into which they are attached. IMUs are available across a range of performance levels, with commensurate increase in size, cost and performance as one progresses from integrated-circuit devices for use in commercial applications such as gaming and mobile phones, to larger brick-sized systems sometimes found in industrial applications such as vibration monitoring and quality control, or even the rack-mount equipment used in some aerospace and navigation applications (which can go as far as to include lasers and optical components). In parallel with developments in commercial and industrial settings, geomorphologists started recently to explore means of deploying IMUs in smart pebbles. The less-expensive, chip-scale IMUs have been shown to have adequate performance for this application, as well as offering a sufficiently compact form-factor. Four prototype sensors have been developed so far, and the latest (400 g acceleration range, 50-200 Hz sampling frequency) has been tested in fluvial laboratory experiments. We present results from three different experimental regimes designed for the evaluation of this sensor: a) an entrainment threshold experiment ; b) a bed impact experiment ; and c) a rolling experiment. All experiments used a 100 mm spherical sensor, and set a) were repeated using an equivalent size elliptical sensor. The experiments were conducted in the fluvial laboratory of the University of Glasgow (0.9 m wide flume) under different hydraulic conditions. The use of

  18. The SELEX experiment at Fermilab (United States)

    Smith, V. J.


    The SELEX experiment (Segmented Large-X Spectrometer) has been taking data in the 1996-7 Fermilab fixed-target run. The experiment uses a 650 GeV/c negative beam which is 50% Σ-, 50% π-. The primary purpose is to study the production and properties of charmed and charm-strange baryons, but there is also a wide program of other physics topics. The present status of the experiment and preliminary analysis are presented.

  19. 股动脉穿刺置管术后快速手法压迫止血的体会%Rapid manual compression for puncturing site hemostasis after femoral catheterization: preliminary experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探讨股动脉穿刺置管术后快速手法压迫止血的止血效果及并发症.方法 总结了一套快速手法压迫止血的方法(平均止血时间约2 min),并对324例行介入股动脉穿刺置管患者术后立即进行快速手法压迫止血,术后1 d对患者穿刺点周围的皮肤观察并行相应的触诊检查.结果 324例经股动脉穿刺置管介入术后患者均用了快速手法压迫止血,其中4例患者穿刺点周围皮下片状淤青,余患者穿刺点周围未见明显淤青,其有效止血率高达98.8%(320/324).320例患者中6例患者穿刺点周围出现局部皮肤轻度压伤,未予处理1周后均自行修复.结论 股动脉穿刺置管介入诊疗术后快速手法压迫止血是一种省时、省力、安全、经济、可重复、环保、实用的止血方法.%Objective To discuss the hemostasis effect of rapid manual compression performed immediately after the catheterization through femoral artery, and to analyze its complications. Methods Based on the author's experience obtained from dozens of years' practice in interventional field, the author summarized an effective hemostasis technique, which was performed through rapid manual compression on the pun cturing point. The mean compression time with hand was only about two minutes. This manipulation procedure for hemostasis had been carried out in 324 patients immediately after the catheterization through femoral artery was finished. One day after the catheterization, observation of the skin around the puncture point and palpation of the puncturing site were conducted. Results Rapid manual compression hemostasis was successfully carried out in all 324 patients, of whom subcutaneous ecchymosis around the puncture site was seen in only four. The effective hemostasis rate was 98.8% (320/324). In another six patients mild skin injury due to compression around the puncture site was observed, which, without any medication, recovered spontaneously in one week

  20. Da Vinci S手术机器人在胸外科应用的初步经验%Preliminary experiences with the da Vinci S surgical system in thoracic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀; 韩冰; 郭巍; 褚剑; 王道喜; 李耀奇; 侯高峰; 崔琦; 吴晔


    transfer the surgeon's movements to the arm tips.The so called EndoWrist'technology offers up , down, left, right, and twist, seven degrees of movements, thus exceeding the capacity of a surgeon's hand in open surgery.17 intrathoracic lesion cases, including 12 Myasthenia Gravis, 1 diaphragm hernia, 2 esophageal cancer, 1 pulmonary cancer , 1 pneumothorax, were evaluated for clinical application of the da Vinci S surgical system.Results Out of 17 surgical procedures, 14 procedures were done using the robot from beginning to the end, including 12 thymectomies, 1 diaphragm hernia repair, 1 pulmonary bleb dissection.Only gastric mobilizations, the abdominal part procedures were done using the da Vinci S system, and the thoracic part procedures were done through small incision thoracotomy in 2 cases with esophageal cancer.One resection of left upper lobectomy had to be converted due to surgical problem.The postoperative courses were uneventful.Conclusion The da Vinci operating robot can do nearly all kinds of thoracic operations.Advanced general thoracic procedures can be performed safely and effectively with the da Vinci S robot allowing precise dissection.This benefit becomes evident most elegantly in thymectomies.The robot operation procedures can be done by the doctors with open and assisted thoracopic surgery experiences and other personnels getting trained in a short period of time, but case selection and preparing emergency thoracotomy at any time is needed to ensure the patient safety.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Mădălina LARION


    Full Text Available The study analyses the effects of the preliminary rulings rendered by the Court of Justice for the judicial body that made the reference and for other bodies dealing with similar cases, for the member states, for the European Union’ s institutions and for EU legal order. Starting from the binding effect of the preliminary judgment for national judicial bodies, which requires them to follow the ruling or make a new reference, to the lack of precedent doctrine in EU law, continuing with the possibility to indirectly verify the compatibility of national law of the member states with EU law and ending with the administrative or legislative measures that can or must be taken by the member states, the study intends to highlight the limits, nuances and consequences of the binding effect. It mentions the contribution of the national courts and of the Court of Justice of the European Union to the development of EU law, such as clarifying autonomous notions and it emphasizes the preliminary procedure's attributes of being a form of judicial protection of individual rights, as well as a means to review the legality of acts of EU institutions. The paper is meant to be a useful instrument for practitioners. Therefor, it also deals with the possibility and limits of asking new questions, in order to obtain reconsideration or a refinement of the legal issue and with the problem of judicial control over the interpretation and application of the preliminary ruling by the lower court.

  2. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary determination. 150.217 Section 150.217... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... designees). (b) Notifies the State of CMS's preliminary determination that the State has failed to...

  3. Aphallia (Penile agenesis: A preliminary report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sadashiv Patil


    Full Text Available Aphallia (penile agenesis is an extremely rare abnormality with the reported incidence of 1 in 30 million births. The cause of this anomaly is associated with no genital tubercle formation or its development impairment. The majority of patients have 46XY Karyotype. The scrotum, testes and testicular function are usually normal. We report the preliminary experience with 3 cases of aphallia in different age groups along with a review of the literature.

  4. Sonographic appearance of primary thyroid lymphoma-preliminary experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL is an uncommon thyroid malignancy. Despite the rarity of PTL, it is important to recognize PTL promptly because its management differs from that of all the other thyroid neoplasms. This study was designed to investigate the sonographic features of PTL. METHODS: Twenty-seven pathologically confirmed PTLs were categorized into diffuse and non-diffuse type. Sonographic features including thyroid size, thyroid background echotexture, lesion size, echogenecity, calcification, vascularity, cervical lymphadenopathy of each type were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: All 27 PTLs were diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and were accompanied by diffuse Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Ten were diffuse type and seventeen were non-diffuse type sonographically. The observations in diffuse group included goiter (10/10, 100.0%, marked echogenesity (10/10, 100.0%, heterogeneous echotexture (10/10, 100.0%, and cervical lymphadenopathy (4/10, 40.0%. The observations in non-diffuse group included marked hypoechogenicity (17/17, 100.0%, heterogeneous background thyroid gland (17/17, 100.0%, goiter (15/17, 88.2%, increased vascularity (8/13, 61.5%, mulifocality (10/17, 58.8%, and cervical lymphadenopathy (7/17, 41.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Although some common features were found, the sonographic appearance of PTL is unspecific, especially for the diffuse type. Therefore, interventional diagnostic procedures should be warranted in the clinical settings when PTL is suspected.

  5. Preliminary Experiment Combining Virtual Reality Haptic Shoes and Audio Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Berrezag, Amir; Dimitrov, Smilen


    We describe a system that provides combined auditory and haptic sensations to simulate walking on different grounds. It uses a physical model that drives haptic transducers embedded in sandals and headphones. The model represents walking interactions with solid surfaces that can creak, or be cove...

  6. Preliminary Investigation of the Satellite Gravitational Red Shift Experiment (United States)

    Zacharias, J. R.; Searle, C. L.; Graham, J. W.; Badessa, R. S.; Bates, V. J.; Kent, R. L.


    The work performed under this contract involved study, design, and construction of experimental equipment to perform a short-term measurement of the gravitational red shift. In the system designed, phase comparison techniques are employed so that the time interval required to obtain a single measurement for one altitude is of the order of one minute. An elliptical orbit was chosen to permit measurement of frequency shift as a function of altitude. One particularly attractive orbit is that having a 12-hour orbiting period (perigee, 270 miles, apogee 24,800 miles). This orbit, shown in Fig. 1, allows continuous measurements to be made over an 11-hour interval during which time the altitude is varying greatly. Measurements can not be made for the succeeding 14 hours. Since the variation of frequency difference with altitude is of greatest interest, a fixed offset or a slow drift between the oscillator on the ground and. the oscillator in the satellite will not invalidate the measurements.

  7. Preliminary Experience of Integrative Medicine in Acute Kidney Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Xiang-rong


    @@ Acute kidney injury (AKI), a concept that replaces the traditional concept known as acute renal failure (ARF),has been adopted by more and more nephrologists and intensive-care specialists in recent years. The definition and diagnostic criteria of AKI are quite different from thoseof ARF(1).

  8. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results (United States)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo


    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity model. The integration of electric and electromagnetic data allowed us to overcome the limits of each technique, especially in terms of resolution and depth, in humid/saturated conditions was investigated and the effectiveness of three-dimensional acquisitions was studied to better explore archeological sites and reduce the uncertainties related on the interpretation of geophysical analysis. The complexity of the relationship between archaeological features in the subsoil and their geophysical response requires efforts in the interpretation of resulting data. Reference Campana S. and Piro, S., (2009): Seeing the unseen - Geophysics and landscape archaeology., CRC Press, London, 2. No. of pages: 376. ISBN: 978-0-415-44721-8. Conyers, L. and Goodman, D., (1997): Ground-Penetrating Radar: An Introduction for Archaeologists. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press. Davis, J.L. and Annan, A.P. (1989): Ground-penetrating radar for high-resolution mapping of soil and rock stratigraphy. Geophysical Prospecting, 37, 531-551.

  9. Experience of liver transplantation in Uludag University: Preliminary results


    Ayyildiz, Talat; Kiyici, Murat; BAŞARIR ÖZKAN, Tanju; Türker, Gürkan; BOLCA TOPAL, Naile; İŞÇİMEN, Remzi; Yildirim, Nalan; KAYA, Ekrem


    Liver transplantation (LT) is a viable treatment option for end-stage hepatic failure. Uludag University Liver Transplant Center has begun performing liver transplant operations in December 2007 and in this article, we review outcomes of 34 cases of LT performed until August 2010 including 30 cadaveric livers and 4 living donors. We achieved a 24-month survival rate of 84.2% in our center and LT surgeries continue with an acceptable success rate. 

  10. Climate Users Interface Platform: some preliminary ideas from EUPORIAS experience (United States)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro


    One of the most important and yet least developed component of the GFCS is probably the Climate Users Interface Platform (CUIP). At front of its centrality in the framework, the development of this component has suffered from the existence of a series of pre-conceived ideas of what a users interface should look like. The FP7 project EUPORIAS promised in its description of work to develop and deliver an online users interface platform. This paper summarises the process EUPORIAS has been through to define and deliver the CUIP. The paper also highlighted what are the characteristics that a CUIP must have to ensure its ability to engage the users. Finally the paper identifies a number of errors that are often committed when thinking about user interface and try to identifies a set of key principles that should be considered when developing the CUIP.

  11. Sonographically guided cryoneurolysis: preliminary experience and clinical outcomes. (United States)

    Friedman, Talia; Richman, Daniel; Adler, Ronald


    Chronic peripheral nerve pain is a common problem that can arise from numerous causes, for which neurolysis is a therapeutic option. It is postulated that cryotherapy will have less adverse events than other methods of nerve ablation. A retrospective case series review was performed in patients who had undergone sonographically guided cryoneurolysis for Morton neuromas, postsurgical and posttraumatic neuromas, and idiopathic neuralgia. Fifteen of 20 patients had a positive response to cryoneurolysis, as did 2 of 4 patients with borderline symptoms for chronic regional pain syndrome. In view of our positive results, we believe that cryoneurolysis should be considered a reasonable option in performing neurolytic therapy.

  12. Preliminary experience with Option inferior vena cava filter. (United States)

    Iqbal, Shams I; Elmi, Azadeh; Hedgire, Sandeep; Yeddula, Kalpana; Ganguli, Suvranu; Walker, T Gregory; Salazar, Gloria M; Wicky, Stephan; Kalva, Sanjeeva P


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Option inferior vena cava (IVC) filter during placement and short-term follow-up. A total of 165 patients (mean age: 60-years) who received Option IVC filter from June 2009 to July 2011 were included. In all, 42 patients presented with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 26 with pulmonary embolism (PE), and 17 with both. All outcomes were examined until April 30, 2012. The filters were successfully deployed in 161patients. During follow-up (mean, 9.5 ± 0.68months), 10 patients were diagnosed with post-filter PE and 13 patients with DVT. There were no instances of fatal PE. Follow-up abdominal computed tomography was available in 60 patients and demonstrated filter-related problems in 8 patients (2: penetration of filter legs, 5: asymptomatic nonocclusive thrombus, and 1: caval occlusion). There were no instances of filter migration or fracture. In total, 27 filters were successfully retrieved after a mean of 5.27 ± 0.76 months. The Option filter was effective and safe during implantation and short-term follow-up and associated with high technical success at retrieval.

  13. Preliminary clinical experience in application of rapamycin eluting coronary stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ya-ling; WANG Xiao-zeng; JING Quan-min; WANG Shou-li; MA Ying-yan


    @@ Objective To evaluate the safety and feasibility of rapamycin eluring coronary stent(Cyphter). Methods From 2001.12 to 2003.8, there were 80patients received Cypher stent implantation in our hospital. The 68 males and 12 females were aged from 34 to 75(average 58.2 ± 10.7) years old, with AMI in 13 patients, unstable angina pectoris in 43patients and stable angina pectoris in 24 patients.

  14. Preliminary clinical experience in application of rapamycin eluting coronary stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ya-ling; WANG Xiao-zeng; JING Quan-min; WANG Shou-li; MA Ying-yan


    @@ Objective To evaluate the safety and feasibility of rapamycin eluting coronary stent(Cypther). Methods From 2001.12 to 2003.8, there were 80 patients received Cypher stent implantation in our hospital. The 68 males and 12 females were aged from 34 to 75 (average 58.2 ± 10.7)years old, with AMI in 13 patients, unstable angina pectoris in 43patients and stable angina pectoris in 24 patients.

  15. Preliminary Experiment Combining Virtual Reality Haptic Shoes and Audio Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Berrezag, Amir; Dimitrov, Smilen


    We describe a system that provides combined auditory and haptic sensations to simulate walking on different grounds. It uses a physical model that drives haptic transducers embedded in sandals and headphones. The model represents walking interactions with solid surfaces that can creak, or be cove...

  16. Real-time elastography for detecting prostate cancer: preliminary experience. (United States)

    Pallwein, Leo; Mitterberger, Michael; Struve, Peter; Pinggera, Germar; Horninger, Wolfgang; Bartsch, Georg; Aigner, Friedrich; Lorenz, Andreas; Pedross, Florian; Frauscher, Ferdinand


    To assess the use of real-time elastography (RTE) for detecting prostate cancer in patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy (RP), as most solid tumours differ in their consistency from the deriving tissue, and RTE might offer a new tool for cancer detection. We examined 15 patients (mean age 56 years, sd 6.2, range 46-71) with RTE, using an ultrasonography (US) system with a 7.5-MHz transrectal probe as a transducer. RTE is capable of visualizing displacements between pairs of US images of tissues when placed under axial compression. The stiffness of the lesion was displayed from blue (soft) to black (hard). Hard lesions with a diameter of > or = 5 mm were considered as malignant. All patients had the diagnosis of prostate cancer confirmed by biopsy and had a mean (range) prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of 4.6 (1.4-16.1) ng/mL; all were scheduled for RP. US was performed by two investigators and interpreted by consensus. Cancer location and size was determined in the RTE mode only. One pathologist classified tumour location, grade and stage. The RTE findings were compared with the pathological findings. There were no major complications during RP in any patient; all had a pT2 tumour on histopathological examination, the Gleason score was 5-9 and the mean (range) tumour size 1.1 (0.6-2.5) cm. Thirty-five foci of prostate cancer were present at the pathological evaluation; multiple foci were found in 11 of the 15 glands. RTE detected 28 of 35 cancer foci (sensitivity 80%). The per-patient analysis showed that RTE detected at least one cancer area in each of the 15 patients. Only four sites with false-positive findings on RTE and no histopathological correlation were detected; these findings were obtained in the first five patients (period of learning). RTE can be used to visualize differences in tissue elasticity. Our results show that RTE allows the detection of prostate cancer and estimation of tumour location and size. RTE of the prostate is a new imaging method with great potential for detecting prostate cancer.

  17. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulov, S.B., E-mail: shaul@sci.lebedev.r [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Tkaczyk, W. [Department of Experimental Physics of University of Lodz (Poland); Finger, M. [Karlov University, Prague (Czech Republic); Sonsky, M. [COMPAS Consortium, Turnov (Czech Republic)


    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV.

  18. Spallation neutron experiment at SATURNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The double differential cross sections for (p,xn) reactions and the spectra of neutrons produced from the thick target have been measured at SATURNE in SACLAY from 1994 to 1997. The status of the experiment and the preliminary experimental results are presented. (author)

  19. Preliminary study on washability and composition analysis of highsulfur coal in some mining areas in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yue-qin; MAO Song; ZHANG Qin; TIAN Ye; LIU Zhi-hong


    Preliminary sink-float experiments on high-sulfur coal was done in some mining areas and carried on elementary analysis, industrial analysis, and ashcontent analysis. Through the experiments, definite middlings, and gangue, the phase analysis of sulfur was carried on, by which a good understanding of sulfur characters in raw coal was achieved.

  20. Experimenting with a design experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker, Judith


    Full Text Available The design experiment is an experimental research method that aims to help design and further develop new (policy instruments. For the development of a set of guidelines for the facilitation of citizens’ initiatives by local governments, we are experimenting with this method. It offers good opportunities for modeling interventions by testing their instrumental validity –the usefulness for the intended practical purposes. At the same time design experiments are also useful for evaluating the empirical validity of theoretical arguments and the further development of these arguments in the light of empirical evidence (by using e.g. the technique of pattern matching. We describe how we have applied this methodology in two cases and discuss our research approach. We encountered some unexpected difficulties, especially in the cooperation with professionals and citizens. These difficulties complicate the valid attribution of causal effects to the use of the new instrument. However, our preliminary conclusion is that design experiments are useful in our field of study

    El experimento de diseño es un método de investigación experimental que tiene como objetivo diseñar y desarrollar posteriormente nuevas herramientas (políticas. En este artículo experimentamos con este método para desarrollar un conjunto de directrices que permitan a los gobiernos locales facilitar las iniciativas ciudadanas. El método ofrece la oportunidad de modelar las intervenciones poniendo a prueba su validez instrumental (su utilidad para el fin práctico que se proponen. Al mismo tiempo, los experimentos de diseño son útiles también para evaluar la validez empírica de las discusiones teóricas y el posterior desarrollo de esas discusiones a la luz de la evidencia empírica (usando, por ejemplo, técnicas de concordancia de patrones. En este trabajo describimos cómo hemos aplicado este método a dos casos y discutimos nuestro enfoque de

  1. Preliminary investigation of the transport of small plastic litter along a vegetated riverbank (United States)

    Liu, Da; Valyrakis, Manousos


    Plastics are widely used in consumer products, due to its low cost, low weight and high durability compared to other types of materials. Contamination of marine ecosystems due to plastics (including microplastics) is a challenge that has received a lot of attention due to the significant risks it poses for the environment and human health. Plastics find their way to the ocean from land via the river system. Studying and obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the fate of plastic litter is therefore important in proactively devising methods to reduce their quantity or produce designs to trap plastic pollutants and prevent them from entering the ocean through estuaries. In this context, it is a common observation of hydraulic practitioners and field geomorphologists, that plastic litter can be trapped within riparian vegetation patches along streams or canals, which can be washed away in periods of high flows. To this goal this study aims to use a series of purpose specific physical experiments to examine the mechanisms of dispersion of plastic litter along the water surface of a channel with simulated riparian vegetation. The set of experiments are conducted in a recirculating flume with rigid riverbank and riparian vegetation modeled by a large number of acrylic rods, placed on the top of the riverbank section. Six different sizes of pieces of Styrofoam are used to simulate plastic litter. These are released from different locations upstream and in the vicinity of the riparian vegetation for various configurations (linear, staggered and random) of characteristic solid density. The trajectory of the plastic litter is recorded with a camera offering a top view of the arrangement. From the analysis of this a variety of results are obtained including transport metrics (including transport velocity and time to trapping) and litter-trapping location. The relation between the size of the litter, the vegetation configuration and the traveling

  2. STACEE-32: Design, performance, and preliminary results (United States)

    Ong, Rene A.


    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is designed to detect astrophysical sources of γ-rays at energies between 25 and 500 GeV. STACEE uses large solar mirrors (heliostats) to collect the atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced in γ-ray air showers. The use of a large mirror collection area will allow STACEE to probe γ-ray sources at energies above the reach of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), but below the reach of conventional Cherenkov telescopes. During the 1998-99 observing season, a portion of STACEE using 32 heliostats was installed at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) of Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM). This initial configuration (STACEE-32) observed a number of astronomical sources, including the Crab and several active galactic nuclei (AGN). Here we report on these observations. We highlight the experimental configuration and the preliminary results from the Crab data. The full STACEE experiment using 64 heliostats will be commissioned in 2000. .

  3. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans


    of a research project  mapping the different approaches to urban transformation and experience design, to the level of strategic thinking and planning, and to the content of the programs implemented. Special emphasis is put on on projects combining experience, leisure and learning, and on projects which have...... concepts and framings that will guide the understanding and the analysis of the experience city. In section three we focus on the design of the Danish experience city and present the first findings of the research project The projects are categorised according to their content, structure and urban...... localisation. In particular the cases are represented in relation to their strategic and urban planning importance, their social and cultural content and their architectural representation and the programmes they contain. The article ends with a short discussion of some  of these preliminary findings as well...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨情情; 苏志满; 陈锣增; 黄丽娟


    a huge volume and an extremely long run-out,which involved ice or snow from the beginning of the movement or due to entrainment.A series of flume tests are conducted to reproduce the propagation of roc-ice avalanches and to explain a group of holes located on the front of deposit which are observed in the field.Furthermore,the run-outs of granular avalanches with different ice contents and size ratios of rock and ice particles are measured.The results show that ice particles are possibly involved in the front mass of granular avalanches on their whole movement.Then they melt when the avalanches deposit.It is the possible cause of the formation of the holes in the deposit.The involved ice particles can enhance the mobility of rock-ice avalanches.However,the length of run-out would not increase but decrease in the condition of large ice contents due to the ice cohesive action which makes the ice particles become large ones and difficult to enter into granular avalanches.It is concluded that the entrainment of ice particles into the mass of granular avalanches plays an important role in enhancing the mobility.The smaller size ratio of ice and rock particles,the easier the ice particles entered into granular avalanches.This work contributes to a better understanding of the role of ice in enhancing the mobility of rock-ice avalanches,and also to provide a scientific guidance in preventing the hazards.

  5. Preliminaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el jardín de Freud


    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud se encuentra indexada en el IBN-Publindex (Colciencias, en categoría C, y en Latindex. También se encuentra en las siguientes bases de datos y catálogos: ebsco, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj y e-Revistas.

  6. A Laboratory Experiment on the Evolution of a Sand Gravel Reach Under a Lack of Sediment Supply (United States)

    Orru, C.; Chavarrias, V.; Ferrara, V.; Blom, A.


    A flume experiment was conducted to examine the evolution of a sand-gravel reach under a lack of sediment supply. The experimental data are used to validate a numerical sand-gravel model. A bed composed of a bi-modal sediment mixture is installed with a uniform slope and an imposed gradual fining pattern. Initially, the sand fraction gradually increases in streamwise direction until the bed is fully composed of sand. The water discharge and downstream water level were constant, and the sediment feed rate was equal to zero. The experiment was dominated by bed load, partial transport, and a subcritical flow regime was imposed. The flow rate was such that only sand was mobile (partial transport), which led to a coarsening over the upstream reach and a gradual reduction of the sediment transport rate during the experiment. New equipment was used to measure the evolution of the grain size distribution of the bed surface during the experiment over the entire flume using image analysis. In the upstream reach we observed a gradual coarsening over time and the formation of an armour layer, which resulted in a more abrupt transition in grain size of the bed surface. Bed degradation increased in streamwise direction. This is due to the initial streamwise increase in the availability of sand in the bed. The different volume fraction content of sand in the bed allowed for the gravel to sink more in the downstream part of the upstream reach. The sand reach suffered from a larger degradation. Finally, we see one reach dominated by sand, small bedforms, and a small bed slope, and a gravel reach dominated by a larger bed slope.

  7. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.


    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  8. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.


    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  9. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.


    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  10. Preliminary design of the Space Station internal thermal control system (United States)

    Herrin, Mark T.; Patterson, David W.; Turner, Larry D.


    The baseline preliminary design configuration of the Internal Thermal Control system (ITCS) of the U.S. Space Station pressurized elements (i.e., the Habitation and U.S. Laboratory modules, pressurized logistics carrier, and resources nodes) is defined. The ITCS is composed of both active and passive components. The subsystems which comprise the ITCS are identified and their functional descriptions are provided. The significant trades and analyses, which were performed during Phase B (i.e., the preliminary design phase) that resulted in the design described herein, are discussed. The ITCS interfaces with the station's central Heat Rejection and Transport System (HRTS), other systems, and externally attached pressurized payloads are described. Requirements on the ITCS with regard to redundancy and experiment support are also addressed.

  11. Preliminary status of the CALET observations (United States)

    Torii, Shoji


    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) space experiment, which has been developed by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, is a high-energy astroparticle physics mission to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The primary goals of the CALET mission include investigating possible nearby sources of high energy electrons, studying the details of galactic particle propagation and searching for dark matter signatures. During a two- year mission, extendable to five years, the CALET experiment will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (including positrons) to 20 TeV, gamma-rays to 10 TeV and nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to several 100 TeV. The instrument consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for the cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), a 3 radiation length thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 27 radiation length thick lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). CALET has sufficient depth, imaging capabilities and excellent energy resolution to allow for a clear separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays. The instrument was launched on Aug. 19, 2015 to the ISS with HTV-5 (H-II Transfer Vehicle 5) and was successfully berthed to the Japanese Experiment Module- Exposure Facility (JEM-EF) . After a functional check-out phase until the beginning of October, it started an initial operation phase which was completed on Nov. 17, whence it began its standard operation phase. This paper will review the preliminary status of the CALET.

  12. Preliminary Investigation of a Paraglider (United States)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Lowry, John G.; Croom, Delwin R.; Taylor, Robert T.


    A preliminary investigation of the aerodynamic and control characteristics of a flexible glider similar to a parachute in construction has been made at the Langley Research Center to evaluate its capabilities as a reentry glider. Preliminary weight estimates of the proposed vehicle indicate that such a structure can be made with extremely low wing loading. Maximum temperatures during the reentry maneuver might be held as low as about 1,500 F. The results of wind-tunnel and free-glide tests show that the glider when constructed of nonporous material performed extremely well at subsonic speeds and could be flown at angles of attack from about 200 to 900. At supersonic speeds the wing showed none of the unfavorable tendencies exhibited by conventional parachutes at these speeds, such as squidding and breathing. Several methods of packing and deploying the glider have been successfully demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that this flexible-lifting-surface concept may provide a lightweight controllable paraglider for manned space vehicles.

  13. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric


    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  14. Microlinear piezo drive experiments (United States)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.


    The article embraces the experimental description of the micro linear piezo drive intended for the peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target is the experimental investigation of the micro linear piezo drive to determine the stable oscillatory system operating modes which would include improved energy conversion parameters. The following points are briefly presented: test stand construction-design of the peripheral cord tensioner; the determined frequency characteristics and the identified resonant and actual frequencies of an oscillatory system under inertia load. A series of experiments has been conducted for both different preliminary voltages and inertia mass values.

  15. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  16. 33 CFR 116.10 - Preliminary review. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary review. 116.10... ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.10 Preliminary review. (a) Upon receipt of a written complaint, the District Commander will review the complaint to determine if, in the District...

  17. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.


    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  18. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  19. Laboratory experiments on rainfall-induced flowslide from pore pressure and moisture content measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hakro


    Full Text Available During or immediately after rainfall many slope failures have been observed. The slope failure occurred due to rainfall infiltration that rapidly increase the pore pressure and trigger the slope failure. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the rainfall-induced slope failure, but the mechanism of slope failure is still not well clarified. To investigate mechanism of rainfall-induced slope failure laboratory experiments have been conducted in flume. The slope was prepared with sandy soil in flume with constant inclination of 45°, because most of rainfall-induced slope failure occurred in sandy soil and on steep slope. The hydrological parameters such as pore pressure and moisture content were measured with piezometers and advanced Imko TDRs respectively. The slope failure occurred due to increase in moisture content and rise in pore pressure. During the flowslide type of slope failure the sudden increase in pore pressure was observed. The higher moisture content and pore pressure was at the toe of the slope. The pore pressure was higher at the toe of the slope and smaller at the upper part of the slope. After the saturation the run-off was observed at the toe of the slope that erodes the toe and forming the gullies from toe to upper part of the slope. In the case antecedent moisture conditions the moisture content and the pore pressure increased quickly and producing the surface runoff at the horizontal part of the slope. The slope having less density suffer from flowslide type of the failure, however in dense slope no major failure was occurred even at higher rainfall intensity. The antecedent moisture accompanied with high rainfall intensity also not favors the initiation of flowslide in case of dense slope. The flowslide type of failure can be avoided by controlling the density of soil slope. Knowing such parameters that controls the large mass movement helpful in developing the early warning system for flowslide type of

  20. Educação via Internet: experiência preliminar de Hematologia e Oncologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Fundação ABC Medical education through the Internet: preliminary experience of the Hematology-Oncology discipline of the ABC Foundation School of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Moura


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Com o intuito de estimular o uso da Internet pelos nossos estudantes de medicina, criamos uma prova virtual a qual se submeteu toda a classe durante o curso de Oncologia e Hematologia ministrado no 3o ano do curso médico. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Através de uma página na Internet especialmente criada para esta prova, avaliou-se através de perguntas específicas dados pessoais, padrões de uso e conhecimentos básicos sobre o acesso à rede. Ofereceu-se ainda, dentro desta mesma página, um pequeno curso virtual sobre como utilizar a Internet. RESULTADOS: Notamos que apenas 53% dos nossos alunos tinham usado a Internet antes da prova. O uso da Internet se correlacionou com a presença de outros usuários entre os membros da família (p BACKGROUND: In order to foster the use of the Internet by our medical students, we devised a virtual test to be taken by the whole class during the Hematology-Oncology course given in the third year. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Through a specially designed home page in the Internet students were asked questions regarding their personal characteristics, knowledge of basic Internet skills and were also given a short virtual course on line on the use of the Internet. RESULTS: We noted that only 53% of our students had used the Internet before. The use of the Internet was correlated with having more members of the household accessing the net (p < 0,001 but not with the student's sex, age or family income. CONCLUSION: Most of the students reacted favourably to this educational experience through which about half of them got acquainted with the use of the Internet for the first time.

  1. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others


    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report.

  2. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)


    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  3. BASE Flexible Array Preliminary Lithospheric Structure Analysis (United States)

    Yeck, W. L.; Sheehan, A. F.; Anderson, M. L.; Siddoway, C. S.; Erslev, E.; Harder, S. H.; Miller, K. C.


    The Bighorns Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE) is a Flexible Array experiment integrated with EarthScope. The goal of BASE is to develop a better understanding of how basement-involved foreland arches form and what their link is to plate tectonic processes. To achieve this goal, the crustal structure under the Bighorn Mountain range, Bighorn Basin, and Powder River Basin of northern Wyoming and southern Montana are investigated through the deployment of 35 broadband seismometers, 200 short period seismometers, 1600 “Texan” instruments using active sources and 800 “Texan” instruments monitoring passive sources, together with field structural analysis of brittle structures. The novel combination of these approaches and anticipated simultaneous data inversion will give a detailed structural crustal image of the Bighorn region at all levels of the crust. Four models have been proposed for the formation of the Bighorn foreland arch: subhorizontal detachment within the crust, lithospheric buckling, pure shear lithospheric thickening, and fault blocks defined by lithosphere-penetrating thrust faults. During the summer of 2009, we deployed 35 broadband instruments, which have already recorded several magnitude 7+ teleseismic events. Through P wave receiver function analysis of these 35 stations folded in with many EarthScope Transportable Array stations in the region, we present a preliminary map of the Mohorovicic discontinuity. This crustal map is our first test of how the unique Moho geometries predicted by the four hypothesized models of basement involved arches fit seismic observations for the Bighorn Mountains. In addition, shear-wave splitting analysis for our first few recorded teleseisms helps us determine if strong lithospheric deformation is preserved under the range. These analyses help lead us to our final goal, a complete 4D (3D spatial plus temporal) lithospheric-scale model of arch formation which will advance our understanding of the mechanisms

  4. The SELEX experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E781 collaboration


    The SELEX experiment (Segmented Large-X Spectrometer) has been taking data in the 1996{endash}7 Fermilab fixed-target run. The experiment uses a 650 GeV/c negative beam which is 50{percent} {Sigma}{sup {minus}}, 50{percent} {pi}{sup {minus}}. The primary purpose is to study the production and properties of charmed and charm-strange baryons, but there is also a wide program of other physics topics. The present status of the experiment and preliminary analysis are presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. The main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajendran Raja


    We describe the physics capabilities and status of the MIPP experiment which concluded its physics data taking run in March 2006. We show some preliminary results from this run and describe plans to upgrade the spectrometer.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Wnukowski


    Full Text Available The paper refers to the main problem connected with biomass gasification - a presence of tar in a product gas. This paper presents preliminary results of tar decomposition in a microwave plasma reactor. It gives a basic insight into the construction and work of the plasma reactor. During the experiment, researches were carried out on toluene as a tar surrogate. As a carrier gas for toluene and as a plasma agent, nitrogen was used. Flow rates of the gases and the microwave generator’s power were constant during the whole experiment. Results of the experiment showed that the decomposition process of toluene was effective because the decomposition efficiency attained above 95%. The main products of tar decomposition were light hydrocarbons and soot. The article also gives plans for further research in a matter of tar removal from the product gas.

  7. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James


    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  8. Realization and preliminary measurements on a 94 GHz SIS mixer

    CERN Document Server

    Oberto, L; Fretto, M; Tartari, A; Brunetti, L; Lacquaniti, V


    In this paper we present the realization and a preliminary characterization of a SIS based receiver. It has been developed for the MASTER experiment that consists in a three-band SIS receiver (94, 225 and 345 GHz) for astrophysical observations through the atmospheric windows available at high altitude dry sites. The measurements performed establish an upper limit to the overall receiver noise temperature. A comparison has been tried with the MASTER requirements and with state of the art results. A noise figure of 110 K has been obtained at 94 GHz, about 22 times the quantum limit.

  9. A preliminary experimental investigation into lateral pedestrian-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Knudsen, Anders


    This paper presents results from a preliminary experimental study on lateral human-structure dynamic interaction on footbridges using an instrumented platform. The platform has a natural frequency within the range of an average pedestrian and consists of a suspended concrete girder. With a length...... of 17 m and weight of 19.6 ton, the platform provides a realistic comparison to an actual footbridge. Based on experiments with single pedestrians walking across the platform at resonance, the fundamental dynamic load factor is determined using only the recorded acceleration signal. Furthermore, tests...

  10. Neutronics analysis of the DHCE experiment in ATR-ITV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    The preliminary analysis of the DHCE experiments in the ITV and ATR was performed and its was concluded that such a vehicle is suitable for this kind of experiment. It is recommended to place an extra filter material in the thermocouple sleeve (such as B-10), to improve the helium to dpa ratio profile during irradiation. Also, it was concluded that a preliminary estimation of period of time for replacement of the external filter would be around 5 dps`s.

  11. Design and analysis of experiments with SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, John


    IntroductionStatistics and Data Collection Beginnings of Statistically Planned Experiments Definitions and Preliminaries Purposes of Experimental Design Types of Experimental Designs Planning Experiments Performing the Experiments Use of SAS SoftwareCompletely Randomized Designs with One Factor Introduction Replication and Randomization A Historical Example Linear Model for Completely Randomized Design (CRD) Verifying Assumptions of the Linear Model Analysis Strategies When Assumptions Are Violated Determining the Number of Replicates Comparison of Treatments after the F-TestFactorial Designs

  12. 表面置换治疗中青年强直性脊柱炎伴髋关节炎初步经验%Preliminary experience of hip resurfacing arthroplasty for coxarthria with ankylosing spondylitis in young and middle-aged adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 夏军; 魏亦兵; 陈飞雁; 黄钢勇; 石晶晟


    目的 总结髋关节表面置换术(HRA)治疗中青年强直性脊柱炎(AS)伴髋关节炎的初步经验.方法 2008年4月至2009年12月期间采用HRA治疗AS伴髋关节炎患者共9例(11髋),术前常规行X线、双髋CT等检查,并模板测量髋臼侧假体和股骨头侧假体大小(按15%放大率).记录手术时间、术中出血量,评价术后X线片、术前及术后髋关节活动度、Harris评分.结果 手术时间平均96 min(80~110 min),术中出血量平均300 ml(200~370 ml).患者术后住院期间均无伤口感染、神经血管损伤、假体脱位和下肢深静脉血栓形成等并发症发生.9例患者均成功随访,随访时间为6~21.5个月,平均随访12.3个月,Harris评分由术前平均33.8±4.2改善为术后末次随访时平均82.3±2.4(P<0.05).术后摄片显示假体在位,无脱位、异位骨化等并发症.结论 HRA治疗中青年AS伴髋关节炎可以保留更多骨量,明显增加髋关节活动度,提高生活质量.%Objective To investigate the preliminary experience of the hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) for coxarthria with ankylosing spondylitis in young and middle-aged adults. Methods From April 2008 to December 2009, 9 patients (11 hips)suffering from ankylosing spondylitis with coxarthria underwent HRA. The preoperative X-ray and CT scan of the patients were taken, and the prosthesis measured (15% multiplying power). The operation time, blood loss, Harris score, range of motion of the hip joint were noted. And preoperative and postoperative X-ray in all patients were compared to evaluate the clinical effects.Results The mean operation time was 96 min (80 min to 110 min) and the mean blood loss was 300 ml (200 ml to 370 ml). No wound infection, nerve or vascular injury, joint dislocation or DVT occured during the hospital stay. The follow-up of all patients were among 6 months to 21.5 months (mean 12. 3 months). Harris score increased from 33. 8 ± 4. 2 preoperatively to 82. 3:± 2. 4

  13. Births: preliminary data for 2012. (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J


    Objectives-This report presents preliminary data for 2012 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Methods-Data in this report are based on 99.96% of 2012 births.Records for the few states with less than 100% of records received are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2012. Comparisons are made with final 2011 data. Results-The preliminary number of births for the United States in 2012 was 3,952,937, essentially unchanged (not statistically significant) from 2011; the general fertility rate was 63.0 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44, down only slightly from 2011, after declining nearly 3% a year from 2007 through 2010. The number of births and fertility rate either declined or were unchanged for most race and Hispanic origin groups from 2011 to 2012; however, both the number of births and the fertility rate for Asian or Pacific Islander women rose in 2012 (7% and 4%, respectively). The birth rate for teenagers aged 15-19 was down 6% in 2012 (29.4 births per 1,000 teenagers aged 15-19), yet another historic low for the United States, with rates declining for younger and older teenagers and for nearly all race and Hispanic origin groups. The birth rate for women in their early 20s also declined in 2012, to a new record low of 83.1 births per 1,000 women. Birth rates for women in their 30s rose in 2012, as did the birth rate for women in their early 40s. The birth rate for women in their late 40s was unchanged. The nonmarital birth rate declined in 2012 (to 45.3 birth per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44), whereas the number of births to unmarried women rose 1% and the percentage of births to unmarried women was unchanged (at 40.7%). The cesarean delivery rate for the United States was unchanged in 2012 at 32.8%. The preterm

  14. Preliminary Measurement of the Differential Cross Section from Neutrino-Nucleon Deeply Inelastic Scattering at Nutev


    McDonald, J.; collaboration, for the NuTeV


    Preliminary results for the neutrino-nucleon differential cross section from the NuTeV experiment are presented. The extraction of the differential cross section from NuTeV is discussed and the structure functions $F_2$ and $\\Delta xF_3$ are presented. Comparisons are made with CCFR results.

  15. Sand laser-ablation as source of elements laser isotope separation: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, N.A.S.; Destro, M.G.; Vasconcelos, G; Neri, J.W.; Silveira, C.A.B.; Riva, R. [Institute for Advanced Studies, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    This paper presents preliminary results of emission spectroscopy experiments, performed with the aim to verify the presence of monoatomic neutral material in the jet produced by laser ablation of simple and complex targets. All studied materials (copper, graphite, alumina and beach sand) showed emission of single atoms, indicating the presence of monoatomic material in the ablated plume. (author)

  16. Enhanced Mean Dynamic Topography And Ocean Circulation Estimation Using Goce Preliminary Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Bingham, Rory; Andersen, Ole Baltazar;


    The Gravity and Ocean Circulation Experiment - GOCE satellite mission measure the Earth gravity field with unprecedented accuracy leading to substantial improvements in the modelling of the ocean circulation and transport. In this study of the performance of GOCE, the new preliminary gravity mode...

  17. Preliminary study of rain effects on radar scattering from water surfaces (United States)

    Moore, R. K.; Yu, Y. S.; Fung, A. K.; Dome, G. J.; Werp, R. E.; Kaneko, D.


    Preliminary wave-tank results indicate that radar scatter from water surfaces is severely affected by rain at low but not at high wind speeds. The effect is governed by both the rain rate and droplet size. A simple experiment to check this phenomenon is described.

  18. Sphingoid esters from the molecular distillation of squid oil: A preliminary bioactivity determination. (United States)

    Saliu, Francesco; Longhin, Eleonora; Salanti, Anika; Degano, Ilaria; Della Pergola, Roberto


    A mixture of sphingoid esters was isolated (1.4% w/w) from the molecular distillation of crude squid visceral oil. A preliminary investigation on the bioactivity profile and toxic potential of this residue was carried out by in vitro experiments. No cytotoxicity and a moderate lipase inhibition activity were highlighted.

  19. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.


    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  20. EUPORIAS: plans and preliminary results (United States)

    Buontempo, C.


    Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability have meant that skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made on seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. Such forecasts have the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are strongly influenced by variations in the climate. In 2012 the European Commission funded EUPORIAS, a four year long project to develop prototype end-to-end climate impact prediction services operating on a seasonal to decadal timescale, and assess their value in informing decision-making. EUPORIAS commenced on 1 November 2012, coordinated by the UK Met Office leading a consortium of 24 organisations representing world-class European climate research and climate service centres, expertise in impacts assessments and seasonal predictions, two United Nations agencies, specialists in new media, and commercial companies in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, water and tourism. The poster describes the setup of the project, its main outcome and some of the very preliminary results.