WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary evidence supporting

  1. FY2012 Office of Child Support Preliminary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Preliminary Report highlights financial and statistical program achievements based on quarterly and annual data. In fiscal year (FY)...

  2. Social support and fires in the workplace: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimmie, Blake M; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Mathews, Rebecca; Moffat, Kieren

    2009-01-01

    Workers who experience fire in the workplace are faced with disruption to their work routine, as well as the emotional strain of the fire. In the broader occupational stress literature, researchers have suggested that social support will be most effective at reducing the negative effects of stressors on strain when the type of support matches the type of stressor being experienced (either instrumental or emotional). This study was a preliminary investigation into employee responses to less routine stressors, such as workplace fires, and the role of different sources of social support in predicting coping effectiveness. This study also was a first attempt at considering the influence of the social context (in terms of group identification) on the effectiveness of social support as a predictor of coping effectiveness. Specifically, it was predicted that social support would be more effective when it came from multiple sources within the organization, that it would be especially effective when provided from a group that workers identified more strongly with, and that simply feeling part of a group would improve adjustment. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 33 employees who had recently experienced a significant fire in their workplace. Results suggested that the type of stressors experienced and the type of support were mismatched, but despite this, coping effectiveness was generally moderate to high. There was mixed support for predictions about the effects of social support-no moderating effect of group identification on coping effectiveness was observed for measures of workplace support, although it did moderate the effects of family support on this adjustment indicator.

  3. Preliminary Lessons about Supporting Participation and Learning in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morningstar, Mary E.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Born, Kiara

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study examined observational data collected in inclusive classrooms from six schools that were operating schoolwide inclusive policies and practices. Illustrative evidence of classroom practices supporting learning and participation of all students, including students with significant disabilities, adds to an understanding of…

  4. 22 CFR 511.9 - Supporting evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disability, if any, the prognosis, and the period of hospitalization, or incapacitation. Itemized bills for medical, hospital, or burial expenses actually incurred should be attached to report. (b) In support of...

  5. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system, preliminary test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary plan and procedure are presented for conducting an extended manned test program for a regenerative life support system. Emphasis will be placed on elements associated with long-term system operation and long-term uninterrupted crew confinement.

  6. Preliminary evidence for a cognitive phenotype in Barth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, M M; Kelley, R I

    2001-09-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare, X-linked, recessive disorder that affects almost exclusively males. It is characterized by short stature, cardioskeletal myopathy, cyclic neutropenia, increased excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid in the urine, and moderate hypocholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to assess whether BTHS presents with a cognitive phenotype. Preliminary data were collected from five kindergarten or first-grade boys with BTHS. An abbreviated psychoeducational test battery was administered to each boy, and parents of each boy completed standardized behavior rating scales. Data from 120 boys of similar age or grade level were used for one comparison group; a subset of this sample comprised a comparison group that was individually matched on age and grade level to one of the five boys with BTHS. Preliminary data reflect a higher incidence of cognitive difficulties in boys with BTHS relative to both comparison groups. Boys with BTHS had significantly lower visual spatial skills, but comparable reading-related skills, when compared with either group. Although based on a small sample size, the preliminary data presented in this work are the first indication of a cognitive phenotype associated with BTHS.

  7. Preliminary Analysis of Helicopter Options to Support Tunisian Counterterrorism Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    results of the current analysis and in Mouton et al., 2015, is the relative cost -effectiveness between the CH-47D and the Mi-17v5. In the previous...helicopters from Sikorsky to fulfill a number of roles in counterterrorism operations. Rising costs and delays in delivery raised the question of...whether other cost -effective options exist to meet Tunisia’s helicopter requirement. Approach Our team conducted a preliminary assessment of

  8. Current evidence supporting "letrozole" for ovulation induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitor "letrozole" was first introduced as a potential ovulation induction (OI drug almost a decade back. Large number of studies has been published using letrozole for OI: In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS women, clomiphene citrate (CC resistant women, for intrauterine insemination and also in various protocols of mild stimulation for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. Letrozole appears to be a good option, with its oral route of administration, cost, shorter half-life and negligible side effects. However, the verdict on efficacy and safety of letrozole is still uncertain. This review explores the current scientific data supporting letrozole for OI.

  9. Preliminary Design of IHTS Piping Support for PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Hyun; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A pipe support is a designed element that transfer the load from pipe to the supporting structures. Providing sufficient pipe wall thickness and installing proper supports are most important elements for structural integrity of the piping system. Piping supports are generally referred to as device used in supporting the weight of the piping. The weight includes that of the pipe proper, the content the pipe carries, and the pipe converting, such as insulation. A FE analysis was performed to select variable spring hanger of IHTS hot-leg piping for PGSFR. The calculated values will be used to design variable spring hanger.

  10. Biochemical evidence supporting the Cortina criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Werder, K

    2005-01-01

    Whether acromegaly is inactive or active, respectively cured or not cured depends on the GH suppressibility and the basal IGF-I level. According to the Cortina criteria, GH suppression after oral ingestion of 75 g glucose to acromegaly. According to more recent publications, mortality, which is increased in active acromegaly, is normalized when GH and IGF-I levels have become normal as defined above. Morbidity, i.e. typical features of acromegaly like cardiac problems, carpal tunnel syndrome, carbohydrate intolerance, and excessive sweating may also improve though painful arthropathy, and coarse facial features usually remain unaltered even if the biochemistry has been completely normalized. Using more sensitive GH assays, a group of acromegalic patients was shown to have normal IGF-I levels after surgery, with post-glucose levels of GH 0.14 microg/l, which is the upper level of normal subjects and of a second group of successfully operated acromegalic patients. The latter group also had slightly lower IGF-I levels, though such levels were normal in both groups. Whether this may indicate that these patients who have higher GH levels after oral glucose measured with the more sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) will more likely develop recurrences remains to be demonstrated in a larger cohort. According to the criteria put forward in Cortina d'Ampezzo in February 1999, all patients who have post-glucose GH levels <1 microg/l and normal age-matched IGF-I levels have to be regarded as well controlled, i.e. sufficiently treated. Because of lack of evidence, there is at present no reason to change the consensus reached there.

  11. A new Arctic seepage site? Preliminary evidence from benthic community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, Francesca; Sabbatini, Anna; Morigi, Caterina; Giulia Lucchi, Renata

    2017-04-01

    The Kveithola Trough is an abrupt and narrow sedimentary system located in the NW Barents Sea. The hydrographic, bio-geochemical conditions and the possible existence of gas seepage activity of the area have been investigated during the Eurofleets 2- BURSTER cruise, conducted on board the German icebreaker RV Polarstern. The aim of our work is to characterize the benthic biota and more specifically the macrofaunal community structure coupled to the study of benthic foraminiferal meiofauna. Preliminary qualitative results revealed that in the inner Kveithola Trough, the macrofaunal community is composed by abundant black worm tubes (Chaetopteridae worms and Siboglinidae-like taxa) with presence of Thyasiridae bivalve species. The occurrence of these macrofaunal taxa is usually associated to oxygen-reduced environments, hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. The living benthic foraminiferal assemblage in the same stations is characterized by the presence of typically oxygen-depleted environmental taxa including the calcareous species Nonionellina labradorica and Globobulimina spp.. Conversely, in the outer Kveithola trough, both benthic macrofauna and foraminiferal meiofauna assemblages are characterized by less opportunistic taxa with a higher biodiversity suggesting very distinct oceanographic sea bottom conditions. The organic matter richness plays a large role in the Kveithola Trough environmental setting and may bring anoxic conditions that could affect the biota of the area. In fact, the benthic community structure of this area inhabits suboxic, anoxic and organic-enriched sediments and disturbed environments, forming assemblages with low diversity and high abundances of a few tolerant and/or specialized species. This preliminary finding could be consistent with other studies examining benthic community structure around Svalbard and in particular cold seep and vents habitats where faunal characteristics are patchy, suggesting small-scale heterogeneity in the

  12. Are claims made in orthodontic journal advertisements evidence-supported?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Kouskoura, Thaleia; Ren, Yijin; Katsaros, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the supporting evidence of advertisements published in six leading orthodontic journals. Materials and Methods: The 2012-2013 printed issues of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Australian Orthodontic Journal, Journal of Orthodontics, European Journa

  13. Are claims made in orthodontic journal advertisements evidence-supported?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Kouskoura, Thaleia; Ren, Yijin; Katsaros, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos

    Objective: To examine the supporting evidence of advertisements published in six leading orthodontic journals. Materials and Methods: The 2012-2013 printed issues of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Australian Orthodontic Journal, Journal of Orthodontics, European

  14. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kazemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan.  Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  15. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Maryam Kazemi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  16. Scientific Evidence on the Supportive Cancer Care with Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William CS CHO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.

  17. Organisational support for evidence-based practice: occupational therapists perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sally; Allen, Shelley; Caldwell, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Mary; Turpin, Merrill; Fleming, Jennifer; Cox, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Barriers to the use of evidence-based practice extend beyond the individual clinician and often include organisational barriers. Adoption of systematic organisational support for evidence-based practice in health care is integral to its use. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of occupational therapy staff regarding the influence of organisational initiatives to support evidence-based practice on workplace culture and clinical practice. This study used semi-structured interviews with 30 occupational therapists working in a major metropolitan hospital in Brisbane, Australia regarding their perceptions of organisational initiatives designed to support evidence-based practice. Four themes emerged from the data: (i) firmly embedding a culture valuing research and EBP, (ii) aligning professional identity with the Research and Evidence in Practice model, (iii) experiences of change: pride, confidence and pressure and (iv) making evidence-based changes to clinical practices. Organisational initiatives for evidence-based practice were perceived as influencing the culture of the workplace, therapists' sense of identity as clinicians, and as contributing to changes in clinical practice. It is therefore important to consider organisational factors when attempting to increase the use of evidence in practice. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. Internet Self-Exclusion: Characteristics of Self-Excluded Gamblers and Preliminary Evidence for Its Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary scientific evidence indicates that online gamblers are more likely to be problem gamblers and thus point to the need for effective protection measures. This study focuses on an online self-exclusion program and seeks to comprehensively examine the benefits of this measure. It was intended to collect detailed information on the…

  19. Preliminary Evidence of the Reliability and Validity of a Quantitative Measure of Self-Authorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Magolda, Marcia Baxter; Yue, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This article presents preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of a measure of self-authorship derived from 18 items in the Career Decision Making Survey. The research conceptualizes a quantitative measure of self-authorship as a three-part score that reflects level of agreement with statements at each of the first three phases of…

  20. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC,...

  1. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Susan C; Grefsheim, Suzanne F; Rankin, Jocelyn A

    2008-06-01

    The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme, including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. RESULTS / OUTCOMES: NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favourable response to the programme.

  2. School Library Support of Health Education in China: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geoffrey Z.; Zhang, Wuhong

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the current situation of school library support of K-12 health education in China. A survey of 42 school librarians and 115 K-12 teachers from selected schools was conducted to find out their views about school library's role in school health education and their current practice of library use in health…

  3. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  4. ADDIS: A decision support system for evidence-based medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Valkenhoef (Gert); T. Tervonen (Tommi); T. Zwinkels (Tijs); B. de Brock (Bert); H.L. Hillege (Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractClinical trials are the main source of information for the efficacy and safety evaluation of medical treatments. Although they are of pivotal importance in evidence-based medicine, there is a lack of usable information systems providing data-analysis and decision support capabilities for

  5. Are claims made in orthodontic journal advertisements evidence-supported?

    OpenAIRE

    Livas, Christos; Kouskoura, Thaleia; Ren, Yijin; Katsaros, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the supporting evidence of advertisements published in six leading orthodontic journals. MATERIALS AND METHODS The 2012-2013 printed issues of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Australian Orthodontic Journal, Journal of Orthodontics, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, and Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics were screened for advertisements implying superior performance compared with competitor products....

  6. ADDIS: A decision support system for evidence-based medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Valkenhoef (Gert); T. Tervonen (Tommi); T. Zwinkels (Tijs); B. de Brock (Bert); H.L. Hillege (Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractClinical trials are the main source of information for the efficacy and safety evaluation of medical treatments. Although they are of pivotal importance in evidence-based medicine, there is a lack of usable information systems providing data-analysis and decision support capabilities for

  7. NICU nurse educators: what evidence supports your teaching strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2013-01-01

    One of our roles as nurse educators is to teach best practices related to patient care. However, have you ever stopped to think about what evidence supports your teaching strategies? Just as our patients deserve care that is based on the best available evidence, our learners also deserve education that is based on evidence.1-3 With so many advances in knowledge, technology, and even life itself, it is interesting that education has changed very little over the past 100 years. A study among 946 nurse educators documented that most teach the way they were taught.4 In addition, even after learning new strategies, educators often continue teaching in the manner they are most comfortable. However, this trend is beginning to change. Nurse educators are becoming increasingly aware of and willing to try new and innovative teaching strategies. Educators are also seeking out evidence-based teaching strategies and are becoming more involved in nursing education research.

  8. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    a substantial number of symptoms 3 years after the incident. Thus, a treatment program designed to target PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed children was established. Objectives The first aim of this study was to provide preliminary evidence that a classroom-based psychosocial intervention program for children....... Furthermore, the results indicated that the Darryl instrument is a useful screening tool for assessing PTSD symptoms in this sample of children. Keywords Trauma Disaster Treatment Children Assessment...

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation in Huntington’s Disease—Preliminary Evidence on Pathophysiology, Efficacy and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wojtecki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is one of the most disabling degenerative movement disorders, as it not only affects the motor system but also leads to cognitive disabilities and psychiatric symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the pallidum is a promising symptomatic treatment targeting the core motor symptom: chorea. This article gives an overview of preliminary evidence on pathophysiology, safety and efficacy of DBS in HD.

  10. Preliminary investigation into the zone of support influence and stable span between support units.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Daehnke, A

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available ). .................................................................126 Figure 8.3.23Conceptual model of dynamic hangingwall displacement and associated energy absorption requirements of the support system, where h1 and 2 is the closure acting on the support unit before and after the dynamic event, respectively...-stressed to 200 kN)...............................140 Figure 8.6.3 Tributary area requirements for rockburst conditions.........................................141 Figure 8.6.4 Remaining energy absortption capacity of the hypothetical support unit...

  11. Preliminary design of a public transportation system to support a theme park

    OpenAIRE

    Malacane, Christine Ann

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop the preliminary design of a public transportation system (PTS) that would support a theme park. Disney's America, a theme park originally planned for Northern Virginia, was used as the basis for this project. The problem was that the primary interstate that serves the park site was already overcrowded; this project was intended to expand the realm of possible transportation solutions to include public-transit solutions. The following report identi...

  12. Decision support for health care: the PROforma evidence base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fox

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer Research UK has developed PROforma, a formal language for modelling clinical processes, along with associated tools for creating decision support, care planning, clinical workflow management and other applications. The PROforma method has been evaluated in a variety of settings: in primary health care (prescribing, referral of suspected cancer patients, genetic risk assessment and in specialist care of patients with breast cancer, leukaemia, HIV infection and other conditions. About nine years of experience have been gained with PROforma technologies. Seven trials of decision support applications have been published or are in preparation. Each of these has shown significant positive effects on a variety of measures of quality and/or outcomes of care. This paper reviews the evidence base for the clinical effectiveness of these PROforma applications, and previews the CREDO project _a multi-centre trial of a complex PROforma application for supporting integrated breast cancer care across primary and secondary care settings.

  13. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

  14. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE.

  15. PRELIMINARY EVIDENCE OF LANDSCAPE-LEVEL STRUCTURE IN A POPULATION OF A PERENNIAL HERB, Cypella herbertii (IRIDACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Devoto, Mariano; Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina).; Medan, Diego; Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary evidence for the existence of a genetic landscape-level structuring that might be a consequence of depressed pollen flow across heavily grazed populations of Cypella herbertii

  16. Are claims made in orthodontic journal advertisements evidence-supported?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Christos; Kouskoura, Thaleia; Ren, Yijin; Katsaros, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    To examine the supporting evidence of advertisements published in six leading orthodontic journals. The 2012-2013 printed issues of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Australian Orthodontic Journal, Journal of Orthodontics, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, and Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics were screened for advertisements implying superior performance compared with competitor products. Advertisements were classified according to type of product, availability, and currency of supporting references. A total of 99 unique advertisements claiming clinical benefit or superiority were identified. The overwhelming majority of the identified advertisements promoted appliance products (62.6%), orthodontic materials (14.1%), and dental operatory equipment, including imaging systems (12.1%). Advertisements were found to provide references or not regardless of the product type. Half of the advertisements referred to at least one peer-reviewed publication, whereas unpublished studies were cited by 25% of the advertisements. Most of the referenced articles were published within the past 5 years. The scientific background of advertisements in the orthodontic literature appears limited. While surveillance of journal advertising needs to be regulated, clinicians are urged to critically appraise the claims being made in orthodontic print advertisements by consulting the associated existing evidence.

  17. METEOR: An Enterprise Health Informatics Environment to Support Evidence-Based Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppala, Mamta; He, Tiancheng; Chen, Shenyi; Ogunti, Richard; Yu, Xiaohui; Li, Fuhai; Jackson, Robert; Wong, Stephen T C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the design and implementation of next-generation enterprise analytics platform developed at the Houston Methodist Hospital (HMH) system to meet the market and regulatory needs of the healthcare industry. For this goal, we developed an integrated clinical informatics environment, i.e., Methodist environment for translational enhancement and outcomes research (METEOR). The framework of METEOR consists of two components: the enterprise data warehouse (EDW) and a software intelligence and analytics (SIA) layer for enabling a wide range of clinical decision support systems that can be used directly by outcomes researchers and clinical investigators to facilitate data access for the purposes of hypothesis testing, cohort identification, data mining, risk prediction, and clinical research training. Data and usability analysis were performed on METEOR components as a preliminary evaluation, which successfully demonstrated that METEOR addresses significant niches in the clinical informatics area, and provides a powerful means for data integration and efficient access in supporting clinical and translational research. METEOR EDW and informatics applications improved outcomes, enabled coordinated care, and support health analytics and clinical research at HMH. The twin pressures of cost containment in the healthcare market and new federal regulations and policies have led to the prioritization of the meaningful use of electronic health records in the United States. EDW and SIA layers on top of EDW are becoming an essential strategic tool to healthcare institutions and integrated delivery networks in order to support evidence-based medicine at the enterprise level.

  18. [Implementation of a psychological support program for children with cancer in Poland. Preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardakiewicz, M; Kowalczyk, J; Antonowicz, M; Budzińska-Skowronska, U; Boguslawska-Jaworska, J; Mazurowa, M; Mazur, A; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Bukowska-Posadzy, A; Kołecki, P; Maroczkaniec, E; Slazak, D; Sońta-Jakimczyk, D; Szweda, E; Armata, J; Budziński, W; Balcerska, A

    2000-01-01

    Intensive chemotherapy programme in children with cancer may result in psychological mal adjustment. Treatment facilities as well as psychological support are of great importance to minimize these side effects. In 1998 the programme of psychological support was introduced in 7 Polish paediatric haematology / oncology centres. Psychological adjustment of patients treated in each centre was examined 5 yrs after the termination of therapy. At the same time children with new diagnosis of cancer were monitored psychologically along with the psychological support programme. Psychological status of each patient was examined with the following tests: Cattell's questionnaires (CPQ, HSPQ), Manifest Anxiety Scale, Spielberger's inventories (STAI, STAIC), Wechsler Intelligence Scale. The programme of psychological support was based on guidelines of SIOP Psychosocial Committee and included such elements as informing about diagnosis and treatment, explaining any doubt, maintaining an open communication, educational care in the periods of treatment, encouraging to activity even during periods of discomfort. The analysis showed that most of the participating centres could only provide some elements of the support programme. The main problem was to convince medical staff to inform children on diagnosis and treatment plans. Preliminary results of the study indicate that full psychological support for children with cancer and their families from the beginning of therapy can result in improvement in psychological adjustment. During the ensuing period, patients and their parents appreciate the possibilities to contact a psychologist.

  19. The new polio eradication end game: rationale and supporting evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Roland W; Platt, Lauren; Mach, Ondrej; Jafari, Hamid; Aylward, R Bruce

    2014-11-01

    Polio eradication requires the removal of all polioviruses from human populations, whether wild poliovirus or those emanating from the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). The Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 provides a framework for interruption of wild poliovirus transmission in remaining endemic foci and lays out a plan for the new polio end game, which includes the withdrawal of Sabin strains, starting with type 2, and the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, for risk mitigation purposes. This report summarizes the rationale and evidence that supports the policy decision to switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV and to introduce 1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine into routine immunization schedules, and it describes the proposed implementation of this policy in countries using trivalent OPV.

  20. Developing research competence to support evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lora E; Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Sereika, Susan M; Cohen, Susan M; Happ, Mary Beth; Dorman, Janice S

    2005-01-01

    This article describes one step in the process that was undertaken to prepare for the introduction of evidence-based practice (EBP) into the curriculum across the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Philosophy programs, as well as the programs that were under development, Clinical Nurse Leader and Doctor of Nursing Practice, at the University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing. Expected research competencies were identified for each level or academic year within each program. Based on these competencies, recommendations on how to modify the curriculum into one that would support students' acquisition and development of the skills necessary to be successful in matriculating through an EBP curriculum were developed. Evaluation mechanisms for the achievement of these competencies vary across the academic programs and will include performance on capstone projects, comprehensive examinations, and program milestones for doctoral students. The establishment of evidence-based competencies provided a foundation for the development of new teaching approaches and the curricular revisions across the three academic programs. Thus, the University of Pittsburgh model of educating for EBP is based on a sequential layering of research competencies throughout the curriculum.

  1. Size, Diversification and Risk: Preliminary Evidence from Commercial Banks in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Afzal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide some preliminary evidence on relation between size, diversification and risk in commercial banks of Pakistan. Using a panel of Pakistani banks, we investigated whether bigger banks are better diversified than smaller banks.The results suggested that larger banks were more diversified than their smaller counterparts mainly on account of their outreach and size of credit portfolio. On the risk side, based on accounting and market based risk measures, we explored if there is any impact of diversification on risk. We could not deduce significant result in favor of accounting risk measure of impaired lending signaling that banks find no incentive in diversification of credit books. The market based measures of VaR and Default indicator were significantly related to diversification signifying that market participants consider diversification as a relevant tool for risk mitigation. These findings have policy implications for regulators and risk management to ensure stability in financial system.

  2. Teaching strategies to support evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Charlene A; Echeverri, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is an expected core competency of all health care clinicians regardless of discipline. Use of evidence-based practice means integrating the best research with clinical expertise and patient values to achieve optimal health outcomes. Evidence-based practice requires nurses to access and appraise evidence rapidly before integrating it into clinical practice. Role modeling and integrating the skills necessary to develop evidence-based practice into clinical and nonclinical courses is an important part in developing positive attitudes toward evidence-based practice, an essential first step to using evidence to guide practice decisions. The step-by-step approach to evidence-based practice proposed by Melnyk and colleagues provides an excellent organizing framework for teaching strategies specifically designed to facilitate nurses' knowledge and skill development in evidence-based practice.

  3. Design of a Regenerative Life Support System for a Moon Base. Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duatis Juarez, Jordi; Guirado, Víctor; Lasseur, Christophe

    NTE-SENER has finalised a study under an ESA contract, to define a preliminary system design of an European Module to provide Environmental Control and Life Support to a potential Moon base. The design is based on current Life Support System technologies under development in Europe (MELiSSA, GWRU, Sabatier Reactor and UTU) along with contamination and microbial detection technologies (ANITA, MIDASS). The ECLSS is sized to provide water, air and up to the 40 As a support to the study a simulator has been developed to analyse the energy, volume and mass and the flow rates and efficiencies of the different components. The study applied the basics of the ALISSE criteria to evaluate the technologies taking as a source the results of the simulations. Detailed models of the different technologies have been developed including feedback from the pilot designs. The results of the study have showed up opportunities of improvement and many points that need to be further investigated. The technologies used in the study are based on the MELiSSA Pilot Plant reactors implementation and the results could affect their design in the near fu-ture in aspects such as carbon recycling, irrigation methods, energy consumption, technologies involved, etc.

  4. Integrated Bio-ISRU and Life Support Systems at the Lunar Outpost: Concept and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Garrison, D. H.; Allen, C. C.; Pickering, K.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Galindo, C., Jr.; Pan, D.; Foraker, E.; Mckay, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    We continue the development of our concept of a biotechnological loop for in-situ resource extraction along with propellant and food production at a future lunar outpost, based on the cultivation of litholytic cyanobacteria (LCB) with lunar regolith (LR) in a geobioreactor energized by sunlight. Our preliminary studies have shown that phototropic cultivation of LCB with simulants of LR in a low-mineralized medium supplemented with CO2 leads to rock dissolution (bioweathering) with the resulting accumulation of Fe, Mg and Al in cyanobacterial cells and in the medium. LCB cultivated with LR simulants produces more O2 than the same organisms cultivated in a high-mineralized medium. The loss of rock mass after bioweathering with LCB suggests the release of O from regolith. Further studies of chemical pathways of released O are required. The bioweathering process is limited by the availability of CO2, N, and P. Since lunar regolith is mainly composed of O, Si, Ca, Al and Mg, we propose to use organic waste to supply a geobioreactor with C, N and P. The recycling of organic waste, including urine, through a geobioreactor will allow for efficient element extraction as well as oxygen and biomass production. The most critical conclusion is that a biological life support system tied to a geobioreactor might be more efficient for supporting an extraterrestrial outpost than a closed environmental system.

  5. American Dental Association's Resources to Support Evidence-Based Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, K; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie

    2009-09-01

    Time and access have often been cited as barriers to implementing Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD). This paper describes a new web-based resource launched by the American Dental Association to enable practitioners to incorporate evidence into treatment planning. The website offers a database of systematic reviews, critical summaries of systematic reviews, evidence-based clinical recommendations and links to external resources to enable practitioners to access evidence at the point of care. In addition the site offers an online space for clinicians to suggest clinical scenarios where evidence is lacking. This could potentially be a source of topics to drive future research. With the explosion in the use of information technology within a dental office, this web-site will serve as the one-stop resource for credible scientific information for practitioners.

  6. The Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (ASFQ): preliminary evidence for reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Marrit K; Castelein, Stynke; Bous, Johan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the psychometric properties of the Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (ASFQ). Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, validity and sensitivity to change were calculated in a sample of 30 patients with schizophrenia or a schizophrenia spectrum disorder using antipsychotics. The ASFQ is a semistructured interview, with good face validity and content validity, that takes on average about 10min to complete. The ASFQ has good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.84) and good test-retest reliability (mean Spearman's rho=.76). The inter-rater reliability is good for questions about libido, orgasm, erection and ejaculation. Correlation coefficients for calculating convergent validity were modest to good when comparing the ASFQ with the corresponding items on the Subject's Response to Antipsychotics (SRA) questionnaire and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). Based on preliminary evidence, it can be concluded that the Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire has reasonable reliability and is available for clinical use and research.

  7. Preliminary Evidence for the Enhancement of Self-Conducted Exposures for OCD using Cognitive Bias Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nader; Kuckertz, Jennie M.; Najmi, Sadia; Conley, Sara L.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) is the most effective treatment for OCD but it is not accessible to most patients. Attempts to increase the accessibility of ERP via self-directed ERP (sERP) programs such as computerized delivery and bibliotherapy have met with noncompliance, presumably because patients find the exposure exercises unacceptable. Previous research suggests that Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) interventions may help individuals approach feared situations. The goal of the current study was to test the efficacy of a treatment program for OCD that integrates sERP with CBM. Twenty-two individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for OCD enrolled in our 7-week treatment program. Results suggest that sERP with CBM led to significant reduction of OCD symptoms and functional impairment. Indeed, the magnitude of the effect of this novel treatment, that requires only an initial session with a clinician trained in ERP for OCD, was comparable to that of the gold standard clinician-administered ERP. Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that CBM interventions targeting interpretation bias may be most effective, whereas those targeting attention and working memory bias may not be so. PMID:26366021

  8. Preliminary Evidence of Increased Hippocampal Myelin Content in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Tosun, Duygu; Woodward, Steven H; Kaufer, Daniela; Neylan, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings suggest the formation of myelin in the central nervous system by oligodendrocytes is a continuous process that can be modified with experience. For example, a recent study showed that immobilization stress increased oligodendrogensis in the dentate gyrus of adult rat hippocampus. Because changes in myelination represents an adaptive form of brain plasticity that has a greater reach in the adult brain than other forms of plasticity (e.g., neurogenesis), the objective of this "proof of concept" study was to examine whether there are differences in myelination in the hippocampi of humans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We used the ratio of T1-weighted/T2-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) intensity to estimate the degree of hippocampal myelination in 19 male veterans with PTSD and 19 matched trauma-exposed male veterans without PTSD (mean age: 43 ± 12 years). We found that veterans with PTSD had significantly more hippocampal myelin than trauma-exposed controls. There was also found a positive correlation between estimates of hippocampal myelination and PTSD and depressive symptom severity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine hippocampal myelination in humans with PTSD. These results provide preliminary evidence for stress-induced hippocampal myelin formation as a potential mechanism underlying the brain abnormalities associated with vulnerability to stress.

  9. Preliminary evidence indicating Dome A(Antarctica) satisfying preconditions for drilling the oldest ice core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Lowest temperature and snow accumulation rate are preconditions for retrieving the oldest ice core from the polar ice sheets.The 10-m depth firn temperature at Dome A,the summit of the Antaretie Ice Sheet,recorded by an automatic weather station(AWS)was-58.3℃in 2005 and-58.2℃in 2006,respectively.The 10-m firn temperature is an approximation of the annual mean air temperature(AMAT),and this is the lowest AMAT that has been recorded on the surface of the Earth.The stable isotopic ratios(δ18O and δD)of surface snow at Dome A are also lower than at other ice sheet domes along the East Antarctic Ice Divide such as Dome C,Dome F,Dome B and Vostok.These facts indicate that Dome A is the"pole of cold"on the Earth.The total amount of snow accumulation rate in 2005 and 2006 was only 0.16 cm,equaling 0.016 m water equivalent per year,the lowest precipitation ever recorded from Antarctica.Preliminary evidences indicate that Dome A is a candidate site for recovering the oldest ice core.

  10. Preliminary evidence for deficits in multisensory integration in autism spectrum disorders: the mirror neuron hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a complex disorder, characterized by social, cognitive, communicative, and motor symptoms. One suggestion, proposed in the current study, to explain the spectrum of symptoms is an underlying impairment in multisensory integration (MSI) systems such as a mirror neuron-like system. The mirror neuron system, thought to play a critical role in skills such as imitation, empathy, and language can be thought of as a multisensory system, converting sensory stimuli into motor representations. Consistent with this, we report preliminary evidence for deficits in a task thought to tap into MSI--"the bouba-kiki task" in children with ASD. The bouba-kiki effect is produced when subjects are asked to pair nonsense shapes with nonsense "words". We found that neurotypical children chose the nonsense "word" whose phonemic structure corresponded with the visual shape of the stimuli 88% of the time. This is presumably because of mirror neuron-like multisensory systems that integrate the visual shape with the corresponding motor gestures used to pronounce the nonsense word. Surprisingly, individuals with ASD only chose the corresponding name 56% of the time. The poor performance by the ASD group on this task suggests a deficit in MSI, perhaps related to impaired MSI brain systems. Though this is a behavioral study, it provides a testable hypothesis for the communication impairments in children with ASD that implicates a specific neural system and fits well with the current findings suggesting an impairment in the mirror systems in individuals with ASD.

  11. Preliminary evidence for biologic activity of toceranib phosphate (Palladia®) in solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Cheryl; Mathie, Tamra; Stingle, Nicole; Clifford, Craig; Haney, Siobhan; Klein, Mary K.; Beaver, Linda; Vickery, Kate; Vail, David M.; Hershey, Betsey; Ettinger, Susan; Vaughan, Andrew; Alvarez, Francisco; Hillman, Lorin; Kiselow, Mike; Thamm, Doug; Higginbotham, Mary Lynn; Gauthier, Meredith; Krick, Erika; Phillips, Brenda; LaDue, Tracy; Jones, Pam; Bryan, Jeffery; Gill, Virginia; Novasad, Andrew; Fulton, Lisa; Carreras, Janet; McNeill, Conor; Henry, Carolyn; Gillings, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the potential biologic activity of toceranib phosphate (Palladia®) in select solid tumors in dogs. Cases in which toceranib was used to treat dogs with anal sac anal gland adenocarcinoma, metastatic osteosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, head and neck carcinoma, and nasal carcinoma were included. Clinical benefit (CB) was observed in 63/85 (74%) dogs including 28/32 anal sac tumors (8PR, 20SD), 11/23 osteosarcomas (1PR, 10SD), 12/15 thyroid carcinomas (4PR, 8SD), 7/8 head and neck carcinomas (1CR, 5PR, 1SD) and 5/7 (1CR, 4SD) nasal carcinomas. For dogs experiencing CB, the median dose of toceranib was 2.8 mg/kg, 36/63 (58.7%) were dosed on a Monday/Wednesday/Friday basis, and 47/63 (74.6%) were treated 4 months or longer. While these data povide preliminary evidence that toceranib exhibits CB in dogs with certain solid tumors, future prospective studies are necessary to define its true activity. PMID:22236194

  12. The Influence of Sleep on the Consolidation of Positive Emotional Memories: Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis M. Chambers

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have not only shown that a period of sleep following learning offers greater benefits to later memory than a period of wakefulness, but also that sleep actively promotes those components of memories that are emotionally salient. However, sleep's role in emotional memory consolidation has largely been investigated with memories that are specifically negative in content, such as memory for negative images or texts, leaving open the question of whether sleep influences positive memories in a similar manner. The current study investigated the emotional memory trade-off effect for positive versus neutral information. Scenes in which a positive or neutral object was placed on a neutral background were encoded prior to a period of polysomnographically-monitored nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness. Recognition memory was tested for the objects and backgrounds separately following the delay using the Remember/Know paradigm. Compared to wake participants, those who slept during the delay had increased recollection memory performance for positive objects, but not the neutral components of the studied scenes. Further, familiarity of positive objects was negatively correlated with REM latency. These results provide preliminary evidence that sleep contributes to the selective processing of positive memories, and point toward a role for REM sleep in positive memory formation.

  13. New Evidence: Data Documenting Parental Support for Earlier Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele J.; Johnson, Tammie; Forrest, Jamie; Jordan, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education to be taught in high school, and often, in middle school. However, little research has been conducted addressing support for sexuality education in elementary schools. Methods: As part of the state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey administration, the…

  14. Evidence supporting biologically mediated sulfide oxidation in hot spring ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A. D.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    The sulfide concentration of fluids in hydrothermal ecosystems is one of several factors determining the transition to microbial photosynthesis (Cox et al., 2011, Chem. Geol. 280, 344-351). To investigate the loss of sulfide in Yellowstone hot spring systems, measurements of total dissolved sulfide with respect to time were made in incubation experiments conducted on 0.2-micron filtered (killed controls) vs. unfiltered hot spring water at locations with three different pH:sulfide combinations (pH 2.5 with 50 μM sulfide, 5.2 with 5.6 μM sulfide, and 8.3 with 86 μM sulfide). At the higher pH values, the experiments yielded similar rates of sulfide loss in filtered and unfiltered water of approximately 0.8 (pH 5.2) and 7.6 nmol sulfide L-1s-1 (pH 8.3). At the acidic spring, the unfiltered water lost sulfide at a rate 1.6 times that of the filtered water (8.2 vs. 5 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). These results suggest that the pelagic biomass at the pH 5.2 and 8.3 springs may not affect sulfide loss, whereas in the pH 2.5 spring there appears to be an effect. In addition, the incubation of filamentous biomass with unfiltered water increased the rate of sulfide loss by approximately two-fold at a pH of 2.5 (59 vs. 31 nmol L-1s-1; Cox et al., 2011), five-fold at a pH of 5.2 (3.9 vs. 0.8 nmol sulfide L-1s-1), and barely increased the rate of sulfide loss at a pH of 8.3 (9.1 vs. 8.4 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). Sulfide is predominately present as HS- at a pH of 8.3, which may not be taken up as easily by microorganisms as the H2S (aq) that dominates sulfide speciation at pH 2.5 and 5.2. That the loss of sulfide at acidic pH is due to biotic rather than abiotic factors is further supported by studies with whole mat samples that show greater sulfide consumption than killed controls (D'Imperio et al., 2008, AEM 74, 5802-5808). Taken together, the results of these experiments suggest that the majority of sulfide oxidation occurs in the filamentous biomass of hot spring ecosystems, although

  15. Development of a decision support system for residential construction using panellised walls: approach and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Maury A; Shewchuk, John P; Kim, Sunwook; Seol, Hyang; Guo, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among residential construction workers, yet control in this industry can be difficult for a number of reasons. A decision support system (DSS) is described here to allow early assessment of both ergonomic and productivity concerns, specifically by designers. Construction using prefabricated walls (panels) is the focus of current DSS development and is based conceptually on an existing 'Safety in Construction Design' model. A stepwise description of the development process is provided, including input from end users, taxonomy development and task analysis, construction worker input, detailed laboratory-based simulations and modelling/solution approaches and implementation. Preliminary results are presented for several steps. These results suggest that construction activities using panels can be efficiently represented, that some of these activities involve exposure to high levels of WMSD risk and that several assumptions are required to allow for ease of mathematical and computational implementation of the DSS. Successful development of such tools, which allow for proactive control of exposures, is argued as having substantial potential benefit.

  16. Biomarkers of Eating Disorders Using Support Vector Machine Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Data: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Castiglioni, Isabella; Salvatore, Christian; Funaro, Angela; Martino, Iolanda; Alfano, Stefania; Donzuso, Giulia; Perrotta, Paolo; Gioia, Maria Cecilia; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Quattrone, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Presently, there are no valid biomarkers to identify individuals with eating disorders (ED). The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of a machine learning method for extracting reliable neuroimaging features allowing individual categorization of patients with ED. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique, combined with a pattern recognition method, was employed utilizing structural magnetic resonance images. Seventeen females with ED (six with diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and 11 with bulimia nervosa) were compared against 17 body mass index-matched healthy controls (HC). Machine learning allowed individual diagnosis of ED versus HC with an Accuracy ≥ 0.80. Voxel-based pattern recognition analysis demonstrated that voxels influencing the classification Accuracy involved the occipital cortex, the posterior cerebellar lobule, precuneus, sensorimotor/premotor cortices, and the medial prefrontal cortex, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of ED. Although these findings should be considered preliminary given the small size investigated, SVM analysis highlights the role of well-known brain regions as possible biomarkers to distinguish ED from HC at an individual level, thus encouraging the translational implementation of this new multivariate approach in the clinical practice.

  17. Biomarkers of Eating Disorders Using Support Vector Machine Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Data: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cerasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, there are no valid biomarkers to identify individuals with eating disorders (ED. The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of a machine learning method for extracting reliable neuroimaging features allowing individual categorization of patients with ED. Support Vector Machine (SVM technique, combined with a pattern recognition method, was employed utilizing structural magnetic resonance images. Seventeen females with ED (six with diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and 11 with bulimia nervosa were compared against 17 body mass index-matched healthy controls (HC. Machine learning allowed individual diagnosis of ED versus HC with an Accuracy ≥ 0.80. Voxel-based pattern recognition analysis demonstrated that voxels influencing the classification Accuracy involved the occipital cortex, the posterior cerebellar lobule, precuneus, sensorimotor/premotor cortices, and the medial prefrontal cortex, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of ED. Although these findings should be considered preliminary given the small size investigated, SVM analysis highlights the role of well-known brain regions as possible biomarkers to distinguish ED from HC at an individual level, thus encouraging the translational implementation of this new multivariate approach in the clinical practice.

  18. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Testimony and Evidence To Support Small Classes, K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    This testimonial presents evidence that reduced class size (CSR) has positive effects on student learning in grades K-3. Student achievement is improved in the areas of academics, behavior and discipline, citizenship and participation in and outside school, and development into competent and productive adults. The paper emphasizes that class size…

  20. Vaccines and autism: evidence does not support a causal association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, F

    2007-12-01

    A suggested association between certain childhood vaccines and autism has been one of the most contentious vaccine safety controversies in recent years. Despite compelling scientific evidence against a causal association, many parents and parent advocacy groups continue to suspect that vaccines, particularly measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs), can cause autism.

  1. Professional Knowledge of Child Support Staff: Evidence from the New Jersey Child Support Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Blake, Allison; Edwards, Richard L.; Liu, Chieh-Wen; Nolan, Robert B.; Rusen, Barbara; Thompson, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Child support enforcement (CSE) has experienced dramatic changes in the last decade; however, it is not clear whether child support staff is fully aware of the development. Using data from the New Jersey child support training program (n = 530), this article aims to evaluate the professional knowledge of child support staff. The results show that…

  2. Standardized Nursing Documentation Supports Evidence-Based Nursing Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykkänen, Minna; Miettinen, Merja; Saranto, Kaija

    2016-01-01

    Nursing documentation is crucial to high quality, effective and safe nursing care. According to earlier studies nursing documentation practices vary and nursing classifications used in electronic patient records (EPR) are not yet standardized internationally nor nationally. A unified national model for documenting patient care improves information flow in nursing practice, management, research and development toward evidence-based nursing care. Nursing documentation quality, accuracy and development requires follow-up and evaluation. An audit instrument is used in the Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) when evaluating nursing documentation. The results of the auditing process suggest that the national nursing documentation model fulfills nurses' expectations of electronic tools, facilitating their important documentation duty. This paper discusses the importance of using information about nursing documentation and how we can take advantage of structural information in evidence-based nursing management.

  3. Play and Divergent Problem Solving: Evidence Supporting a Reciprocal Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1999-01-01

    Three studies examined the relationship between specific forms of preschoolers' social and pretend play and divergent/convergent problem solving. Naturalistic and experimental designs were used to provide clearer account of relationship and to challenge assumption of single direction of influence. Results support complex reciprocal causality model…

  4. Preliminary Results of Ancillary Safety Analyses Supporting TREAT LEU Conversion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fei, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Strons, P. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Papadias, D. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kontogeorgakos, D. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Connaway, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wright, A. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Report (FSAR) [3]. Depending on the availability of historical data derived from HEU TREAT operation, results calculated for the LEU core are compared to measurements obtained from HEU TREAT operation. While all analyses in this report are largely considered complete and have been reviewed for technical content, it is important to note that all topics will be revisited once the LEU design approaches its final stages of maturity. For most safety significant issues, it is expected that the analyses presented here will be bounding, but additional calculations will be performed as necessary to support safety analyses and safety documentation. It should also be noted that these analyses were completed as the LEU design evolved, and therefore utilized different LEU reference designs. Preliminary shielding, neutronic, and thermal hydraulic analyses have been completed and have generally demonstrated that the various LEU core designs will satisfy existing safety limits and standards also satisfied by the existing HEU core. These analyses include the assessment of the dose rate in the hodoscope room, near a loaded fuel transfer cask, above the fuel storage area, and near the HEPA filters. The potential change in the concentration of tramp uranium and change in neutron flux reaching instrumentation has also been assessed. Safety-significant thermal hydraulic items addressed in this report include thermally-induced mechanical distortion of the grid plate, and heating in the radial reflector.

  5. Glycine Transporter Inhibitor Attenuates the Psychotomimetic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Males: Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Singh, Nagendra; Elander, Jacqueline; Carbuto, Michelle; Pittman, Brian; de Haes, Joanna Udo; Sjogren, Magnus; Peeters, Pierre; Ranganathan, Mohini; Schipper, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing glutamate function by stimulating the glycine site of the NMDA receptor with glycine, -serine, or with drugs that inhibit glycine reuptake may have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. The effects of a single oral dose of cis-N-methyl-N-(6-methoxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-ylmethyl) amino-methylcarboxylic acid hydrochloride (Org 25935), a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitor, and placebo pretreatment on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects were evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects in a randomized, counter-balanced, within-subjects, crossover design. At 2.5 h after administration of the Org 25935 or placebo, subjects received a ketamine bolus and constant infusion lasting 100 min. Psychotic symptoms, perceptual, and a number of subjective effects were assessed repeatedly before, several times during, and after completion of ketamine administration. A cognitive battery was administered once per test day. Ketamine produced behavioral, subjective, and cognitive effects consistent with its known effects. Org 25935 reduced the ketamine-induced increases in measures of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)) and perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)). The magnitude of the effect of Org 25935 on ketamine-induced increases in Total PANSS and CADSS Clinician-rated scores was 0.71 and 0.98 (SD units), respectively. None of the behavioral effects of ketamine were increased by Org 25935 pretreatment. Org 25935 worsened some aspects of learning and delayed recall, and trended to improve choice reaction time. This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that a GlyT1 inhibitor reduces the effects induced by NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings provide preliminary support for further study of the antipsychotic potential of GlyT1 inhibitors. PMID:22113087

  6. Self Directed Support and People with Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Published Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkes, Mary Anne; Brown, Michael; Horsburgh, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    A systematic literature review was undertaken to determine the evidence base underpinning the strategy of Self Directed Support and whether evidence demonstrates that this policy is accessible to everyone with a learning disability. It also sought to identify whether there were any barriers to Self Directed Support for people with severe or…

  7. Work Rehabilitation Questionnaire (WORQ): development and preliminary psychometric evidence of an ICF-based questionnaire for vocational rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Monika E; Escorpizo, Reuben; Bostan, Cristina; De Bie, Rob

    2014-09-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has proven to be a valuable framework for vocational rehabilitation (VR). No reliable and valid ICF-based instruments to capture work functioning is known, hence, the aims of this study were: (1) to outline the process for developing an ICF-based questionnaire, the Work Rehabilitation Questionnaire (WORQ) to assess functioning in VR and (2) to report preliminary psychometric evidence. ICF categories were selected from the ICF Core Sets for VR using explorative Rasch-analysis and VR literature review. Questions were worded to assess identified ICF categories. WORQ was translated from English to German. Psychometrics for the German version of WORQ was examined in one VR centre in Switzerland. 44 ICF categories were selected which resulted in 36 questions related to functioning. The psychometric evaluation of WORQ showed high test-retest reliability (Spearman correlation 0.79) (n = 53) and good internal consistency (Cronbachs Alpha 0.88) (n = 74) WORQ showed moderate correlation with Beck Depression Inventory II (Spearman correlation 0.511) and low correlation (Spearman correlation -0.353) with SF-36. WORQ appears to be a reliable, ICF-based questionnaire to evaluate functioning in VR, easy to administer by health or vocational professionals. The additional information gained when using WORQ would contribute to improving interdisciplinary understanding of the patient's situation and therefore support the integrative planning of the return-to-work process or engagement in gainful employment. However, further studies are needed to further examine its use in clinical practice and research, when validated in other patient populations and settings.

  8. Ketamine augmentation for outpatients with treatment-resistant depression: Preliminary evidence for two-step intravenous dose escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusin, Cristina; Ionescu, Dawn Flosnik; Pavone, Kara Jean; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Cassano, Paolo; Taylor, Norman; Eikermann, Matthias; Durham, Kelley; Swee, Michaela Ballentyne; Chang, Trina; Dording, Christina; Soskin, David; Kelley, John; Mischoulon, David; Brown, Emery Neal; Fava, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evidence supports the safety and efficacy of subanesthetic ketamine as an experimental antidepressant, although its effects are often not sustained beyond one week. Studies are lacking that have examined the sustained effects of escalating ketamine doses as augmentation in outpatients with treatment-resistant depression. Therefore, the aims of this study were twofold: (1) to assess the safety and antidepressant efficacy of two-step, repeated-dose ketamine augmentation and (2) to assess the duration of ketamine's antidepressant efficacy as augmentation to ongoing antidepressant pharmacotherapy for 3 months after the final infusion. Fourteen patients with treatment-resistant depression were eligible to receive augmentation with six open-label intravenous ketamine infusions over 3 weeks. For the first three infusions, ketamine was administered at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg over 45 minutes; the dose was increased to 0.75 mg/kg over 45 minutes for the subsequent three infusions. The primary outcome measure was response (as measured on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-28 items). After the completion of three ketamine infusions, 7.1% (1/14) responded; after all six ketamine infusions, 41.7% (5/12) completers responded and 16.7% (2/12) remitted. Intent-to-treat response and remission rates at the end of the final infusion were 35.7% (5/14) and 14.3% (2/14), respectively. However, all but one responder relapsed within 2 weeks after the final infusion. Repeated, escalating doses of intravenous ketamine augmentation were preliminarily found to be feasible, efficacious and well tolerated. Interaction with concomitant medications and elevated level of treatment resistance are possible factors for non-response.

  9. Changing behavior: evidence based practice supporting hair removal with clippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Evidence based practice demonstrates using clippers immediately before surgery, when perioperative hair removal is necessary, results in the fewest surgical site infections (Kjonniksen, Andersen, Sondenaa, & Segadal, 2002). In addition, one of The Joint Commission's national patient safety goals for 2008 is "to reduce the risk of healthcare associated infections" (The Joint Commission, 2008, Goal 7). Therefore, a project was undertaken to change perioperative nursing care in a large teaching hospital from using razors for hair removal in the perioperative setting to using clippers. Change is difficult and encompasses many interdisciplinary areas. A description of the process of utilizing evidence to change behavior in the perioperative setting and its outcomes will be provided in this paper. Klevens, et al., (2007) reported that 22% of healthcare associated infections were the result of surgical site infections (SSIs). Changing practice to utilizing clippers for hair removal is an extrinsic factor of SSIs that can be easily modified. Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) patients that require hair removal before surgery (i.e., acoustic neuroma, cranial-facial resections, and head and neck reconstruction) may benefit from this change in practice. Perioperative nurses are in a prime position to reduce the incidence of SSIs in ORL patients.

  10. Health facilities humanisation: design guidelines supported by statistical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, Daniela; Marino, Donatella; Peretti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare building humanisation is currently a widely debated issue and the development of patient centered and evidence based design is growing worldwide. Many international health organizations and researchers understand the importance of Patient Centred Design and leading architects incorporate it into the design process. In Italy this design approach is still at an early stage. The article refers to research commissioned by the Italian Health Ministry and carried out by R. Del Nord (Università degli Studi di Firenze) and G. Peretti (Politecnico di Torino) with their collaborators. The scope of the research was the definition of design guidelines for healthcare facilities humanisation. The methodology framework adopted is the well established need and performance approach in architectural design. The article deals with the results of statistical investigations for the definition and ranking of users' needs and the consistent expression of their requirements. The investigations were carried out with the cooperation of psychologists of the Università degli Studi di Torino and researchers of the Università degli Studi di Cagliari. The proposed evaluation system allows ranking of health facilities according to the level of humanisation achieved. The statistical investigation evidence collected allowed the definition of humanisation design guidelines for health-care facilities and for the assessment of their specific level of humanisation.

  11. Communicating statin evidence to support shared decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Ricco, Jason; Wallace, Margaret; Kiefer, David; Rakel, Dave

    2016-04-06

    The practice of clinical medicine rests on a foundation of ethical principles as well as scientific knowledge. Clinicians must artfully balance the principle of beneficence, doing what is best for patients, with autonomy, allowing patients to make their own well-informed health care decisions. The clinical communication process is complicated by varying degrees of confidence in scientific evidence regarding patient-oriented benefits, and by the fact that most medical options are associated with possible harms as well as potential benefits. Evidence-based clinical guidelines often neglect patient-oriented issues involved with the thoughtful practice of shared decision-making, where individual values, goals, and preferences should be prioritized. Guidelines on the use of statin medications for preventing cardiovascular events are a case in point. Current guidelines endorse the use of statins for people whose 10-year risk of cardiovascular events is as low as 7.5%. Previous guidelines set the 10-year risk benchmark at 20%. Meta-analysis of randomized trials suggests that statins can reduce cardiovascular event rates by about 25%, bringing 10-year risk from 7.5 to 5.6%, for example, or from 20 to 15%. Whether or not these benefits should justify the use of statins for individual patients depends on how those advantages are valued in comparison with disadvantages, such as side effect risks, and with inconveniences associated with taking a pill each day and visiting clinicians and laboratories regularly. Whether or not the overall benefit-harm balance justifies the use of a medication for an individual patient cannot be determined by a guidelines committee, a health care system, or even the attending physician. Instead, it is the individual patient who has a fundamental right to decide whether or not taking a drug is worthwhile. Researchers and professional organizations should endeavor to develop shared decision-making tools that provide up-to-date best evidence in

  12. Perioperative glucocorticosteroid supplementation is not supported by evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Dylan W; Kars, Marleen

    2008-10-01

    Ever since the first descriptions of adrenal insufficiency following exogenous supplementation physicians dread to abolish perioperative glucocorticosteroid supplementation. Now, 55 years after the first publications we can challenge those first reports. However, these cases have resulted in the supplementation of supraphysiological doses of glucocorticosteroids to patients that use exogenous corticosteroids: the so-called perioperative glucocorticosteroid supplementation or "(gluco)corticosteroid stress scheme". It is very questionable whether a dose that exceeds the normal daily production of 5.7 mg cortisol per square meter of body surface area is necessary to prevent perioperative hypotension. Retrospective, prospective and randomised studies, though all methodologically flawed, are discussed and show that continuation of the "basal" amount of glucocorticosteroids is sufficient to counterbalance surgical stress. The current and rather defensive strategy of perioperative supraphysiological glucocorticosteroid supplementation is not embedded in medical evidence. Additionally, high doses of glucocorticosteroids have disadvantages that should not be ignored.

  13. Evidence for Evolution as Support for Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal-Krishna

    1997-12-01

    With the exception of ZERO, the concept of BIG BANG is by far the most bizarre creation of the human mind. Three classical pillars of the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe are generally thought to be: (i) The abundances of the light elements; (ii) the microwave back-ground radiation; and (iii) the change with cosmic epoch in the average properties of galaxies (both active and non-active types). Evidence is also mounting for redshift dependence of the intergalactic medium, as discussed elsewhere in this volume in detail. In this contribution, I endeavour to highlight a selection of recent advances pertaining to the third category. The widely different levels of confidence in the claimed observational constraints in the field of cosmology can be guaged from the following excerpts from two leading astrophysicists: "I would bet odds of 10 to 1 on the validity of the general 'hot Big Bang' concept as a description of how our universe has evolved since it was around 1 sec. old" -M. Rees (1995), in 'Perspectives in Astrophysical Cosmology' CUP. "With the much more sensitive observations available today, no astrophysical property shows evidence of evolution, such as was claimed in the 1950s to disprove the Steady State theory" -F. Hoyle (1987), in 'Fifty years in cosmology', B. M. Birla Memorial Lecture, Hyderabad, India. The burgeoning multi-wavelength culture in astronomy has provided a tremendous boost to observational cosmology in recent years. We now proceed to illustrate this with a sequence of examples which reinforce the picture of an evolving universe. Also provided are some relevant details of the data used in these studies so that their scope can be independently judged by the readers.

  14. Periodontal self-care: evidence-based support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, Connie L

    2013-06-01

    The focus of this review on periodontal self-care will be based primarily on the results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Based on the evidence gleaned from systematic reviews, it is notable that most authors of these reviews commented on the relatively small number of trials that could pass the quality-assessment inclusion in the systematic review. Interproximal devices, namely interproximal brushes, are more effective for reducing interproximal plaque and gingivitis than are flossing or brushing alone. Some added benefit may be attributed to the use of rotational oscillation powered toothbrushes over manual toothbrushes. Recommendations by the dentist and dental hygienist to add one or more chemotherapeutic agents to the typical oral hygiene regimen has been shown, in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, to reduce the level of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients. Oral irrigation does not seem to reduce visible plaque but does tend to reduce inflammation, determined by the presence of bleeding on probing, the gingival index score and probing depth measurements. To date, high-quality evidence is either lacking or weak in some areas regarding the efficacy of self-care and periodontal disease. Low educational attainment, smoking and socio-economic status are related to adverse periodontal health outcomes. Variation in self-esteem, self-confidence and perfectionism are associated with oral health status and oral health behaviors. Better understanding of the psychological factors associated with oral hygiene would be of benefit in further developing strategies to help patients improve their oral hygiene in addition to helping professionals design better programs on prevention and education.

  15. Health Awareness Days: Sufficient Evidence to Support the Craze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Leah A.

    2015-01-01

    Health awareness initiatives are a ubiquitous intervention strategy. Nearly 200 health awareness days, weeks, and months are on the US National Health Observances calendar, and more than 145 awareness day bills have been introduced in Congress since 2005. We contend that health awareness days are not held to appropriate scrutiny given the scale at which they have been embraced and are misaligned with research on the social determinants of health and the tenets of ecological models of health promotion. We examined health awareness days from a critical public health perspective and offer empirically supported recommendations to advance the intervention strategy. If left unchecked, health awareness days may do little more than reinforce ideologies of individual responsibility and the false notion that adverse health outcomes are simply the product of misinformed behaviors. PMID:25879148

  16. Supporting the education evidence portal via text mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Thompson, Paul; Thomas, James; Mu, Tingting; Oliver, Sandy; Rickinson, Mark; Sasaki, Yutaka; Weissenbacher, Davy; McNaught, John

    2010-01-01

    The UK Education Evidence Portal (eep) provides a single, searchable, point of access to the contents of the websites of 33 organizations relating to education, with the aim of revolutionizing work practices for the education community. Use of the portal alleviates the need to spend time searching multiple resources to find relevant information. However, the combined content of the websites of interest is still very large (over 500 000 documents and growing). This means that searches using the portal can produce very large numbers of hits. As users often have limited time, they would benefit from enhanced methods of performing searches and viewing results, allowing them to drill down to information of interest more efficiently, without having to sift through potentially long lists of irrelevant documents. The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)-funded ASSIST project has produced a prototype web interface to demonstrate the applicability of integrating a number of text-mining tools and methods into the eep, to facilitate an enhanced searching, browsing and document-viewing experience. New features include automatic classification of documents according to a taxonomy, automatic clustering of search results according to similar document content, and automatic identification and highlighting of key terms within documents. PMID:20643679

  17. Automatic classification of sentences to support Evidence Based Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Given a set of pre-defined medical categories used in Evidence Based Medicine, we aim to automatically annotate sentences in medical abstracts with these labels. Method We constructed a corpus of 1,000 medical abstracts annotated by hand with specified medical categories (e.g. Intervention, Outcome. We explored the use of various features based on lexical, semantic, structural, and sequential information in the data, using Conditional Random Fields (CRF for classification. Results For the classification tasks over all labels, our systems achieved micro-averaged f-scores of 80.9% and 66.9% over datasets of structured and unstructured abstracts respectively, using sequential features. In labeling only the key sentences, our systems produced f-scores of 89.3% and 74.0% over structured and unstructured abstracts respectively, using the same sequential features. The results over an external dataset were lower (f-scores of 63.1% for all labels, and 83.8% for key sentences. Conclusions Of the features we used, the best for classifying any given sentence in an abstract were based on unigrams, section headings, and sequential information from preceding sentences. These features resulted in improved performance over a simple bag-of-words approach, and outperformed feature sets used in previous work.

  18. Evidence supporting vertical transmission of Salmonella in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D L; Loneragan, G H; Brown, T R; Nisbet, D J; Hume, M E; Edrington, T S

    2016-04-01

    We set out to investigate whether Salmonella enterica could be recovered from various tissues of viable neonatal calves immediately following parturition. Eleven samples were aseptically collected from each of 20 calves and consisted of both left and right subiliac and prescapular lymph nodes (LN), mesenteric LN, spleen and liver, as well as intestinal tissue (including luminal contents) from the small intestine, caecum, spiral colon and rectum. In addition, a faecal sample was collected from 19 of the dams. Salmonella was recovered from at least one sample from 10 of the 20 neonates. Across all calves, Salmonella was recovered from 12·7% of all samples and from LN in particular, Salmonella was recovered from 10·0%, 5·0%, and 5·0% of subiliac, prescapular, and mesenteric LN, respectively. Within calves, Salmonella was recovered from 0% to 73% of samples and across tissues, estimates of Salmonella prevalence were greatest in the caecum (30%) but was never recovered from the right pre-scapular LN. These data provide evidence of vertical transmission from a dam to her fetus such that viable calves are born already infected and thereby not requiring faecal-oral exposure for transmission. This new knowledge ought to challenge - or at least add to - existing paradigms of Salmonella transmission dynamics within cattle herds.

  19. Broad support evident for the emerging specialty of orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, R L; Fricton, J R; Okeson, J P

    2000-01-01

    The emerging field of Orofacial Pain is being considered by the American Dental Association for full status as a new dental specialty. Many recent advances in the neuroscience of orofacial pain have lead to treatments by orofacial pain dentists that provide significant relief for patients with chronic orofacial pain disorders. However, access to this care has been limited leaving many patients to continue to suffer. Subsequently, recent efforts to improve this by developing the field into a specialty have shown broad support among dentists and increased awareness of the benefits this field can provide for dentists and their patients. A recent survey of 805 individuals in the general population who reported having a persistent pain disorder revealed that more than four out of 10 people have yet to find adequate relief, saying their pain is out of control-despite having the pain for more than 5 years and switching doctors at least once. "This survey suggests that there are millions of people living with severe uncontrolled pain," says Russell Portenoy, MD, President of the American Pain Society. "This is a great tragedy. Although not everyone can be helped, it is very likely that most of these patients could benefit if provided with state-of-the-art therapies and improved access to pain specialists when needed." (1). Development of the field of Orofacial Pain into a dental specialty has been motivated primarily by this issue; patients with complex chronic orofacial pain disorders have not been historically treated well by any discipline of health care. Recent studies of chronic orofacial pain patients have found that these patients have a high number of previous clinicians and have endured many years with pain prior to seeing an orofacial pain dentist (2) (Fig. 1). Complex pain patients and the clinicians who see them are often confused about whom they should consult for relief of the painful disorder. Treatment for these patients within the existing structure of

  20. Russians in treatment: the evidence base supporting cultural adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcik, Tomas; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Solopieieva-Jurcikova, Ielyzaveta; Ryder, Andrew G

    2013-07-01

    Despite large waves of westward migration, little is known about how to adapt services to assist Russian-speaking immigrants. In an attempt to bridge the scientist-practitioner gap, the current review synthesizes diverse literatures regarding what is known about immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. Relevant empirical studies and reviews from cross-cultural and cultural psychology, sociology, psychiatric epidemiology, mental health, management, linguistics, history, and anthropology literature were synthesized into three broad topics: culture of origin issues, common psychosocial challenges, and clinical recommendations. Russian speakers probably differ in their form of collectivism, gender relations, emotion norms, social support, and parenting styles from what many clinicians are familiar with and exhibit an apparent paradoxical mix of modern and traditional values. While some immigrant groups from the Former Soviet Union are adjusting well, others have shown elevated levels of depression, somatization, and alcoholism, which can inform cultural adaptations. Testable assessment and therapy adaptations for Russians were outlined based on integrating clinical and cultural psychology perspectives. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Ganong paradigm: Converging evidence supporting initial phoneme weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Erik C.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2003-10-01

    In the present experiment we investigate whether the initial phoneme is given more weight in word recognition [W. D. Marslen-Wilson and A. Welsh, Cognit. Psych. 10, 29-63 (1978)] or if all phonemes in a word are weighted equally [C. M. Connine, D. G. Blasko, and D. Titone, J. Mem. Lang. 32, 193-210 (1993)]. Using the Ganong paradigm [W. F. Ganong, JEP:HPP. 6, 110-125 (1980)], participants were instructed to categorize a final ambiguous fricative in the target items, which included both words and pseudowords. Pseudowords were created by changing either the initial or a medial phoneme within the words. For example, the word diminish was altered to create the pseudowords timinish and dimimish. In addition, initial and medial phonemes were altered by either one or three distinctive features. The differences in the labeling of the final ambiguous fricative in the target items led to the conclusion that the initial phoneme is weighted more heavily. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  2. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  3. The theories underpinning rational emotive behaviour therapy: where's the supportive evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Douglas

    2004-08-01

    This paper examines the underlying theoretical philosophy of one of the most widely used cognitive behaviour therapies, rational emotive behaviour therapy. It examines whether two central theoretical principles are supported by research evidence: firstly, that irrational beliefs lead to dysfunctional emotions and inferences and that rational beliefs lead to functional emotions and inferences and, secondly, that demand beliefs are the primary core irrational belief. The established criteria for evaluating the efficacy of the theories are detailed and used to evaluate the strength of evidence supporting these two assumptions. The findings indicate there is limited evidence to support these theories. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Clinical utility of color-form naming in Alzheimer's disease: preliminary evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Peter; Wiig, Elisabeth H; Warkentin, Siegbert

    2004-01-01

    Performances on Alzheimer's Quick Test color-form naming and Mini-Mental State Examination were compared for 38 adults with Alzheimer's disease and 38 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Group means differed significantly and indicated longer naming times by adults with Alzheimer's disease...... associated with Alzheimer's disease, are preliminary given the relatively small sample....

  5. Supporting Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices through Practice-Based Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Patricia A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Fox, Lise

    2015-01-01

    In active implementation science frameworks, coaching has been described as an important competency "driver" to ensure evidence-based practices are implemented as intended. Empirical evidence also has identified coaching as a promising job-embedded professional development strategy to support implementation of quality teaching practices.…

  6. Is telemonitoring useful for supporting persons with consciousness disorders and caregivers? A preliminary observational study in a real-life population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchella, Chiara; Di Santis, Massimo; Ciccone, Biagio; Pelella, Massimiliano; Scappaticci, Marina; Badalassi, Giovanna; Lavezzi, Susanna; Bartolo, Michelangelo

    2016-10-12

    Preliminary evidences showed that telemedicine may allow a reduction of costs and an enhancement of patients' satisfaction and quality of life (QoL), with the same effectiveness of conventional methods of healthcare delivery. Literature is quite absent in relation to the use of telemedicine for patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) whose management is delegated almost entirely to the family. In order to promote an alternative setting to manage persons affected by DoC, also supporting their families, a pilot project was designed to test the feasibility of home-care assistance based on a system of telemonitoring. In total, 11 patients were supported by a telemonitoring system via a workstation installed at the patients' homes. All patients underwent a clinical and functional evaluation at enrolment, after two months, after six months and at the end of the project, after 12 months by means of clinical scales (Glasgow Coma Scale, Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale, Disability Rating Scale), while the World Health Organization (WHO) QoL, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and a satisfaction score were completed by caregivers. Patients' scores at the clinical scales did not show statistically significant differences from T0 to T3. A trend toward the improvement of caregivers' QoL, anxiety and depression, as well as a high degree of satisfaction with regard to the intervention, were reported. The economic evaluation showed an average cost/day for a patient of about €70. Preliminary data suggest that the use of telemonitoring services in the management of persons affected by DoC is feasible and well accepted by caregivers, with a potential positive effect on their mood and QoL. Therefore, telemonitoring should be considered in the management of DoC patients to favour discharge from acute care and to support families in home care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Effectiveness of a Peer-Delivered and Technology Supported Self-Management Intervention for Older Adults with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Karen L; DiMilia, Peter R; Lohman, Matthew C; Bruce, Martha L; Zubritsky, Cynthia D; Halaby, Mitch R; Walker, Robert M; Brooks, Jessica M; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-09-26

    To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of a peer-delivered and technology supported integrated medical and psychiatric self-management intervention for older adults with serious mental illness. Ten older adults with serious mental illness (i.e., schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder) and medical comorbidity (i.e., cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and/or high cholesterol) aged 60 years and older received the PeerTECH intervention in their homes. Three certified peer specialists were trained to deliver PeerTECH. Data were collected at baseline, one-month, and three-month. The pilot study demonstrated that a three-month, peer-delivered and technology-supported integrated medical and psychiatric self-management intervention ("PeerTECH") was experienced by peer specialists and participants as feasible and acceptable. PeerTECH was associated with statistically significant improvements in psychiatric self-management. In addition, pre/post, non-statistically significant improvements were observed in self-efficacy for managing chronic health conditions, hope, quality of life, medical self-management skills, and empowerment. This pre/post pilot study demonstrated it is possible to train peers to use technology to deliver an integrated psychiatric and medical self-management intervention in a home-based setting to older adults with serious mental illness with fidelity. These findings provide preliminary evidence that a peer-delivered and technology-supported intervention designed to improve medical and psychiatric self-management is feasible, acceptable, and is potentially associated with improvements in psychiatric self-management, self-efficacy for managing chronic health conditions, hope, quality of life, medical self-management skills, and empowerment with older adults with serious mental illness and chronic health conditions.

  8. The Portuguese formal social support for autonomy and dependence in pain inventory (FSSADI_PAIN): a preliminary validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F

    2013-09-01

    Development and preliminary validation of a Portuguese measure of perceived Formal Social Support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain (FSSADI_PAIN). One hundred and fifty-one older adults (88.1% women), between 56 and 94 years of age (M = 75.41; SD = 9.11), who attended one of the following institutions--day care centre (33.1%), nursing home (36.4%) and senior university (30.5%)--were recruited for this study. Along with the FSSADI_PAIN, participants filled out the Portuguese versions of the Brief Pain Inventory (Azevedo et al., 2007, Dor, 15, 6) and the Social Support Scale of Medical Outcomes Survey (Pais-Ribeiro & Ponte, 2009, Psicologia, Saúde & Doença, 10, 163). The factorial structure reflected the functions of perceived promotion of (1) dependence and (2) autonomy, showing good internal consistency (α > .70) and sensitivity indices. The FSSADI_PAIN showed good content, discriminant and criterion validity; it differentiated the perceptions of promotion of dependence/autonomy according to individual's pain severity and disability, as well as the type of institution. These preliminary findings suggest that the FSSADI_PAIN is an innovative and promising measure of perceived formal social support adapted to pain-related contexts. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. 5 CFR 630.403 - Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leave. 630.403 Section 630.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.403 Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave. (a) An agency may grant sick leave only when the need for sick leave is supported by administratively...

  10. Preliminary Evidence Supporting a Framework of Psychological Adjustment to Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebles, Jennifer L.; Doerfler, Bethany; Keefer, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Background Adjustment to chronic disease is a multidimensional construct described as successful adaptation to disease-specific demands, preservation of psychological well-being, functional status, and quality of life. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be particularly challenging due to the unpredictable, relapsing and remitting course of the disease. Methods All participants were patients being treated in an outpatient gastroenterology clinic at a university medical center. Participants completed a survey of questionnaires assessing illness perceptions, stress, emotional functioning, disease acceptance, coping, disease impact, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Adjustment was measured as a composite of perceived disability, psychological functioning, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Results Participants were 38 adults with a diagnosis of either Crohn’s disease (45%) or ulcerative colitis (55%). We observed that our defined adjustment variables were strongly correlated with disease characteristics (r = 0.33–0.80, all P < 0.05), an emotional representation of illness (r = 0.44–0.58, P < 0.01), disease acceptance (r = 0.34–0.74, P < 0.05), coping (r = 0.33–0.60, P < 0.05), and frequency of gastroenterologist visits (r = 0.39–0.70, P < 0.05). Better adjustment was associated with greater bowel and systemic health, increased activities engagement and symptom tolerance, less pain, less perceived stress, and fewer gastroenterologist visits. All adjustment variables were highly correlated (r = 0.40–0.84, P < 0.05) and demonstrated a cohesive composite. Conclusions The framework presented and results of this study underscore the importance of considering complementary pathways of disease management including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral factors beyond the traditional medical and psychological (depression and anxiety) components. PMID:20155849

  11. A Preliminary Validation on Strategies that Support the Transition from School to Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn; Hwang, Bogseon; Kim, Jim-Ho; Killian, Daniel J.; Harmer, Melinda L.; Alcantara, Paulo R.

    1997-01-01

    A study that reviewed 113 transition articles, developed a candidate list of all support strategies, conducted a survey of 54 transition researchers, and corroborated multiple strategies that support students with disabilities in transition to adult life, including family and peer support, student choice and preference, and student…

  12. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  13. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  14. Twelve evidence-based principles for implementing self-management support in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Malcolm; Von Korff, Michael; Schaefer, Judith; Davis, Connie; Ludman, Evette; Greene, Sarah M; Parkerton, Melissa; Wagner, Edward H

    2010-12-01

    Recommendations to improve self-management support and health outcomes for people with chronic conditions in primary care settings are provided on the basis of expert opinion supported by evidence for practices and processes. Practices and processes that could improve self-management support in primary care were identified through a nominal group process. In a targeted search strategy, reviews and meta-analyses were then identifed using terms from a wide range of chronic conditions and behavioral risk factors in combination with Self-Care, Self-Management, and Primary Care. On the basis of these reviews, evidence-based principles for self-management support were developed. The evidence is organized within the framework of the Chronic Care Model. Evidence-based principles in 12 areas were associated with improved patient self-management and/or health outcomes: (1) brief targeted assessment, (2) evidence-based information to guide shared decision-making, (3) use of a nonjudgmental approach, (4) collaborative priority and goal setting, (5) collaborative problem solving, (6) self-management support by diverse providers, (7) self-management interventions delivered by diverse formats, (8) patient self-efficacy, (9) active followup, (10) guideline-based case management for selected patients, (11) linkages to evidence-based community programs, and (12) multifaceted interventions. A framework is provided for implementing these principles in three phases of the primary care visit: enhanced previsit assessment, a focused clinical encounter, and expanded postvisit options. There is a growing evidence base for how self-management support for chronic conditions can be integrated into routine health care.

  15. Evidence-informed health policy 2 – Survey of organizations that support the use of research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous surveys of organizations that support the development of evidence-informed health policies have focused on organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines (CPGs or undertake health technology assessments (HTAs. Only rarely have surveys focused at least in part on units that directly support the use of research evidence in developing health policy on an international, national, and state or provincial level (i.e., government support units, or GSUs that are in some way successful or innovative or that support the use of research evidence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods We drew on many people and organizations around the world, including our project reference group, to generate a list of organizations to survey. We modified a questionnaire that had been developed originally by the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation in Europe (AGREE collaboration and adapted one version of the questionnaire for organizations producing CPGs and HTAs, and another for GSUs. We sent the questionnaire by email to 176 organizations and followed up periodically with non-responders by email and telephone. Results We received completed questionnaires from 152 (86% organizations. More than one-half of the organizations (and particularly HTA agencies reported that examples from other countries were helpful in establishing their organization. A higher proportion of GSUs than CPG- or HTA-producing organizations involved target users in the selection of topics or the services undertaken. Most organizations have few (five or fewer full-time equivalent (FTE staff. More than four-fifths of organizations reported providing panels with or using systematic reviews. GSUs tended to use a wide variety of explicit valuation processes for the research evidence, but none with the frequency that organizations producing CPGs, HTAs, or both prioritized evidence by its quality. Between one-half and two-thirds of organizations

  16. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 14: Organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Boyko, Jennifer A; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy dialogues allow research evidence to be considered together with the views, experiences and tacit knowledge of those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions about a high-priority issue. Increasing interest in the use of policy dialogues has been fuelled by a number of factors: 1. The recognition of the need for locally contextualised 'decision support' for policymakers and other stakeholders 2. The recognition that research evidence is only one input into the decision-making processes of policymakers and other stakeholders 3. The recognition that many stakeholders can add significant value to these processes, and 4. The recognition that many stakeholders can take action to address high-priority issues, and not just policymakers. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the dialogue address a high-priority issue? 2. Does the dialogue provide opportunities to discuss the problem, options to address the problem, and key implementation considerations? 3. Is the dialogue informed by a pre-circulated policy brief and by a discussion about the full range of factors that can influence the policymaking process? 4. Does the dialogue ensure fair representation among those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions related to the issue? 5. Does the dialogue engage a facilitator, follow a rule about not attributing comments to individuals, and not aim for consensus? 6. Are outputs produced and follow-up activities undertaken to support action?

  17. Design, Implementation, Use, and Preliminary Evaluation of SEBASTIAN, a Standards-Based Web Service for Clinical Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lobach, David F.

    2005-01-01

    Despite their demonstrated ability to improve care quality, clinical decision support systems are not widely used. In part, this limited use is due to the difficulty of sharing medical knowledge in a machine-executable format. To address this problem, we developed a decision support Web service known as SEBASTIAN. In SEBASTIAN, individual knowledge modules define the data requirements for assessing a patient, the conclusions that can be drawn using that data, and instructions on how to generate those conclusions. Using standards-based XML messages transmitted over HTTP, client decision support applications provide patient data to SEBASTIAN and receive patient-specific assessments and recommendations. SEBASTIAN has been used to implement four distinct decision support systems; an architectural overview is provided for one of these systems. Preliminary assessments indicate that SEBASTIAN fulfills all original design objectives, including the re-use of executable medical knowledge across diverse applications and care settings, the straightforward authoring of knowledge modules, and use of the framework to implement decision support applications with significant clinical utility. PMID:16779066

  18. Social Support and Well-Being: Preliminary Indicators Based on Two Samples of the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Mary J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compared structure of social support and its relation to health, affect, and life satisfaction for national representative sample of elderly and a distressed sample from South Miami Beach. Stronger relationships were found between support network size and affect and between affect, life satisfaction, and health in the South Miami Beach sample.…

  19. Workplace social support in job satisfaction among veterans with posttraumatic stress symptoms: A preliminary correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J I; Strom, Thad Q; Ferrier-Auerbach, Amanda G; Kaler, Matthew E; Hansen, Lucas P; Erbes, Christopher R

    2017-01-01

    For Veterans managing PTSD symptoms, returning to vocational functioning is often challenging; identifying modifiable variables that can contribute to positive vocational adjustment is critical to improved vocational rehabilitation services. Workplace social support has proven to be important in vocational adjustment in both general population and vocational rehabilitation samples, but this area of inquiry has received little attention among Veterans with PTSD symptoms. In this small correlational study, employed Veterans (N = 63) presenting for outpatient PTSD treatment at a VA Health Care System completed surveys assessing demographic variables, PTSD symptoms, workplace social support, and job satisfaction. Workplace social support contributed to the prediction of job satisfaction. It is of note that workplace social support predicted a larger proportion of the variance in employment satisfaction than PTSD symptoms. Further research on workplace social support as a vocational rehabilitation resource for Veterans with PTSD is indicated.

  20. Building a knowledge translation platform in Malawi to support evidence-informed health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Joshua; Mitambo, Collins; Matanje-Mwagomba, Beatrice; Khan, Shiraz; Kachimanga, Chiyembekezo; Wroe, Emily; Mwape, Lonia; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Chindebvu, Getrude; van Schoor, Vanessa; Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M; Panisset, Ulysses; Kathyola, Damson

    2015-12-08

    With the support of the World Health Organization's Evidence-Informed Policy Network, knowledge translation platforms have been developed throughout Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and Asia to further evidence-informed national health policy. In this commentary, we discuss the approaches, activities and early lessons learned from the development of a Knowledge Translation Platform in Malawi (KTPMalawi). Through ongoing leadership, as well as financial and administrative support, the Malawi Ministry of Health has strongly signalled its intention to utilize a knowledge translation platform methodology to support evidence-informed national health policy. A unique partnership between Dignitas International, a medical and research non-governmental organization, and the Malawi Ministry of Health, has established KTPMalawi to engage national-level policymakers, researchers and implementers in a coordinated approach to the generation and utilization of health-sector research. Utilizing a methodology developed and tested by knowledge translation platforms across Africa, a stakeholder mapping exercise and initial capacity building workshops were undertaken and a multidisciplinary Steering Committee was formed. This Steering Committee prioritized the development of two initial Communities of Practice to (1) improve data utilization in the pharmaceutical supply chain and (2) improve the screening and treatment of hypertension within HIV-infected populations. Each Community of Practice's mandate is to gather and synthesize the best available global and local evidence and produce evidence briefs for policy that have been used as the primary input into structured deliberative dialogues. While a lack of sustained initial funding slowed its early development, KTPMalawi has greatly benefited from extensive technical support and mentorship by an existing network of global knowledge translation platforms. With the continued support of the Malawi Ministry of Health and the

  1. Preliminary Stress Analysis of an IHX Tube Support Plate in Prototype SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Koo, Gyeong Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the structural integrity about the conceptual design of IHX tube support plate was reviewed and the design should be changed because of its high stress concentration at the outer rim area. For reducing its maximum stress, two alternatives were proposed and reviewed for the structural integrity point of view. In both proposing support designs, the maximum stress decreases up to the stress design limit. Tube support plates (TSPs) of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in Prototype GenIV Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) act to horizontally support IHX tubes against hydraulic loadings and they have numerous flow holes where a primary sodium flows downward and secondary sodium flows upward. Due to its many penetrations, its geometric shape is quite complex and structurally its integrity is quite weaker than other parts. In this study, we investigated the structural integrity of the conceptually designed IHX tube support plate. In addition, TSP's supporting concepts were proposed to increase its structural integrity, and confirmed its integrity by using a finite element analysis.

  2. Empirically supported treatments in psychotherapy: towards an evidence-based or evidence-biased psychology in clinical settings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Castelnuovo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of research and practice in psychotherapy has been deeply influenced by two different approaches: the empirically supported treatments (ESTs movement, linked with the evidence-based medicine (EBM perspective and the “Common Factors” approach, typically connected with the “Dodo Bird Verdict”. About the first perspective, since 1998 a list of ESTs has been established in mental health field. Criterions for “well-established” and “probably efficacious” treatments have arisen. The development of these kinds of paradigms was motivated by the emergence of a “managerial” approach and related systems for remuneration also for mental health providers and for insurance companies. In this article ESTs will be presented underlining also some possible criticisms. Finally complementary approaches, that could add different evidence in the psychotherapy research in comparison with traditional EBM approach, are presented.

  3. Comparison between two different modes of non-invasive ventilatory support in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome mild to moderate: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as a better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. HFNC may be effective in the treatment of some neonatal respiratory conditions while being more user-friendly for care-givers than conventional NCPAP. Limited evidence is available to support the specific role, efficacy and safety of HFNC in newborns and to demonstrate efficacy compared with NCPAP; some studies suggest a potential role for HFNC in respiratory care of the neonate as a distinct non invasive ventilatory support. We present the preliminary data of a randomized clinical trial; the aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of HFNC compared to NCPAP in preterm newborns with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.

  4. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  5. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  6. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowski, Autumn; McKinney, Richard; Ayvazian, Suzanne; Hanson, Alana; Wigand, Cathleen; Markham, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m), nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010-2012) seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change.

  7. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn Oczkowski

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m, nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010-2012 seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change.

  8. Are advertisements in dental journals supported by an appropriate evidence-base?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnutt, Ivor G; Hardy, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Dental professionals are constantly exposed to advertisements in the dental literature. These promote products, either for use in the operatory or to recommend to patients. In an era of evidence-based practice, what references are provided to support claims made by the advertisers? This study aimed to determine if advertisements in four major dental journals, whose target audience is general dental practitioners, were supported by an appropriate evidence-base, readily accessible to readers. The 2010 printed volumes of the Australian Dental Journal, British Dental Journal, Dental Update and the Journal of the American Dental Association were hand searched to identify advertisements which made a claim of clinical benefit or superiority to competing products. Advertisements were categorized according to type of product being promoted and the availability, nature and number of any supporting references was recorded. Repeated advertisements were analyzed only once. A total of 390 advertisements were identified and 369 made a claim of benefit or superiority. When the 222 duplicates of the same advertisement were removed, 147 unique advertisements remained. Of these: 54 (37%) were advertisements related to dental devices for in-surgery use; 44 (30%) for dental materials, and 27 (18%) for dentifrices/medicaments. 113 (76.9%) advertisements offered no evidential support for claims made. Of the 34 advertisements that provided evidential support, only 20 provided a complete reference that could readily be sourced by an interested reader: 15 articles in refereed journals; 5 data on file; 3 in-house studies and combinations thereof. Four references were not accessible due to incomplete referencing. Two advertisements provided evidence that was not relevant to the product being advertised. The majority of advertisements in the dental literature do not provide an adequate evidence-base, readily available to readers, to support the claims being made. If evidence-based practice is

  9. 22 CFR 1423.4 - Contents of the charge; supporting evidence and documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RELATIONS AUTHORITY UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.4 Contents of the charge; supporting evidence... alleged unfair labor practice, a statement of the section(s) and subsection(s) of chapter 41 of title 22... Disputes Panel or the Foreign Service Grievance Board for consideration or action; or (iii) involves...

  10. Evidence Supporting an Early as Well as Late Heavy Bombardment on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supporting an intense early bombardment on the Moon in addition to the traditional Late Heavy Bombardment at approx. 4 BY ago include the distribution of N(50) Crater Retention Ages (CRAs) for candidate basins, a variety of absolute age scenarios for both a "young" and an "old" Nectaris age, and the decreasing contrasts in both topographic relief and Bouguer gravity with increasing CRA.

  11. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the "Theory of Mind Inventory" ("ToMI"). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report…

  12. Addressing Interpersonal Violence in the School Context: Awareness and Use of Evidence-Supported Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was completed by 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America. This article addresses the research-practice gap in the delivery of mental health services in the school setting by examining the extent to which evidence-supported school violence intervention programs (ESPs) are known and used by…

  13. Barriers to the Use of Evidence-Supported Programs to Address School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have argued that there is a research-practice gap in the delivery of prevention and mental health services in the school setting. This national survey addresses that gap by identifying the barriers confronted by school social workers in implementing evidence-supported programs to address interpersonal violence in the school context. A…

  14. [Evidence in support of Florence Nightingale's theories. 100 years after her death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapico Yáñez, Florentina

    2010-05-01

    This article has been written to pay homage to Florence Nightingale as a pioneer and beacon for scientific curiosity which should serve as the nursing professional's guide for fine praxis. For this purpose, the author studied the evidence regarding Ms Nightingale's supposed theories; these have been arranged into four large groups in order to make those findings which support her theories easier to understand.

  15. Analysis of Evidence Supporting the Educational Leadership Constituent Council 2011 Educational Leadership Program Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Pamela D.; Anderson, Erin; Reynolds, Amy L.; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This document analysis provides a summary of the research from high-impact journals published between 2008 and 2013 with the explicit purpose of determining the extent to which the current empirical evidence supports the individual 2011 Educational Leadership Constituent Council Program Standards and their elements. We found that the standards are…

  16. The use of preliminary scientific evidence in public health: a case study of XMRV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumanan Wilson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kumanan Wilson and colleagues explain how the rapid response to XMRV as a novel pathogen has highlighted some challenges pertaining to policy-making and editorial responsibilities. The impact on policy and the propagation of the initial scientific information may not cease if the evidence is disproven and retracted from the peer-reviewed literature, which creates a challenge for regulators and scientific journals. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  17. The use of preliminary scientific evidence in public health: a case study of XMRV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Atkinson, Katherine; Keelan, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    Kumanan Wilson and colleagues explain how the rapid response to XMRV as a novel pathogen has highlighted some challenges pertaining to policy-making and editorial responsibilities. The impact on policy and the propagation of the initial scientific information may not cease if the evidence is disproven and retracted from the peer-reviewed literature, which creates a challenge for regulators and scientific journals. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  18. SEX-RELATED FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY OF THE AMGDALA: PRELIMINARY EVIDENCE USING A CASE-MATCHED LESION APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    We have reported previously that there appears to be an intriguing sex-related functional asymmetry of the prefrontal cortices, especially the ventromedial sector, in regard to social conduct, emotional processing, and decision-making, whereby the right-sided sector is important in men but not women and the left-sided sector is important in women but not men. The amygdala is another structure that has been widely implicated in emotion processing and social decision-making, and the question arises as to whether the amygdala, in a manner akin to what has been observed for the prefrontal cortex, might have sex-related functional asymmetry in regard to social and emotional functions. A preliminary test of this question was carried out in the current study, where we used a case-matched lesion approach and contrasted a pair of men cases and a pair of women cases, where in each pair one patient had left amygdala damage and the other had right amygdala damage. We investigated the domains of social conduct, emotional processing and personality, and decision-making. The results provide support for the notion that there is sex-related functional asymmetry of the amygdala in regard to these functions— in the men pair, the patient with right-sided amygdala damage was impaired in these functions, and the patient with left-sided amygdala damage was not, whereas in the women pair, the opposite pattern obtained, with the left-sided woman being impaired and the right-sided woman being unimpaired. These data provide preliminary support for the notion that sex-related functional asymmetry of the amygdala may entail functions such as social conduct, emotional processing, and decision-making, a finding that in turn could reflect (as either a cause or effect) differences in the manner in which men and women apprehend, process, and execute emotion-related information. PMID:19308794

  19. Knowledge of evidence-based dentistry among academic dental practitioners of Bhopal, India: a preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the knowledge of evidence-based dentistry (EBD among dental faculty members in the city of Bhopal in central India. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered at two dental colleges in Bhopal City. All dental faculty members who were present on the day of the study and who agreed to participate were included in the study. A total of 50 dental faculty members returned the questionnaire. Six Likert-type questions were asked, and the percentages of various responses were used for analysis. Sixteen faculty members (32.0% strongly agreed that EBD is a process of making decisions based on scientifically proven evidence. Fifteen faculty members (30.0% strongly disagreed or disagreed with the item stating that the best and quickest way to find evidence is by reading textbooks or asking experienced colleagues. Thirteen faculty members (26.0% strongly agreed that EBD allows dentists to improve their scientific knowledge and clinical skills. It is recommended that EBD be included in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula and in intensive continuing dental education programs that are conducted for dental faculty members.

  20. Knowledge of evidence-based dentistry among academic dental practitioners of Bhopal, India: a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aishwarya; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Tiwari, Vidhatri; Tiwari, Utkarsh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the knowledge of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) among dental faculty members in the city of Bhopal in central India. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered at two dental colleges in Bhopal City. All dental faculty members who were present on the day of the study and who agreed to participate were included in the study. A total of 50 dental faculty members returned the questionnaire. Six Likert-type questions were asked, and the percentages of various responses were used for analysis. Sixteen faculty members (32.0%) strongly agreed that EBD is a process of making decisions based on scientifically proven evidence. Fifteen faculty members (30.0%) strongly disagreed or disagreed with the item stating that the best and quickest way to find evidence is by reading textbooks or asking experienced colleagues. Thirteen faculty members (26.0%) strongly agreed that EBD allows dentists to improve their scientific knowledge and clinical skills. It is recommended that EBD be included in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula and in intensive continuing dental education programs that are conducted for dental faculty members.

  1. Evidence for peer support in rehabilitation for individuals with acquired brain injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobma, Ruth; Nijland, Rinske H M; Ket, Johannes C F; Kwakkel, Gert

    2016-11-11

    To systematically review the literature on evidence for the application of peer support in the rehabilitation of persons with acquired brain injury. PubMed, Embase.com, Ebsco/Cinahl, Ebsco/PsycInfo and Wiley/Cochrane Library were searched from inception up to 19 June 2015. Randomized controlled trials were included describing participants with acquired brain injury in a rehabilitation setting and peer supporters who were specifically assigned to this role. Two independent reviewers assessed metho-dological quality using the PEDro scale. Cohen's kappa was calculated to assess agreement between the reviewers. Two randomized controlled trials could be included, both focussing on patients with traumatic brain injury. The randomized controlled trials included a total of 126 participants with traumatic brain injury and 62 care-givers and suggest a positive influence of peer support for traumatic brain injury survivors and their caregivers in areas of social support, coping, behavioural control and physical quality of life. The evidence for peer support is limited and restricted to traumatic brain injury. Randomized controlled trials on peer support for patients with other causes of acquired brain injury are lacking. It is important to gain more insight into the effects of peer support and the influence of patient and peer characteristics and the intervention protocol.

  2. Functional MRI evidence for language plasticity in adult epileptic patients: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Cousin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Emilie Cousin1, Monica Baciu1, Cédric Pichat1, Philippe Kahane2, Jean-François Le Bas31UMR CNRS/UPMF 5105, Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition; 2Laboratoire de Neurophysiopathologie de l’Epilepsie, CHU Grenoble; 3Unité IRM, CHU Grenoble, FranceAbstract: The present fMRI study explores the cerebral reorganisation of language in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, according to the age of seizures onset (early or late and the hippocampal sclerosis (associated or not. Seven right-handed control volunteers and seven preoperative adult epileptic patients performed a rhyme decision (language condition and a visual detection (control condition tasks in visually presented words and unreadable characters, respectively. All patients were left hemisphere dominant for language. Appropriate statistical analyses provided the following preliminary results: (1 patients compared with healthy subjects showed lower degree of hemispheric lateralization with supplementary involvement of the right hemisphere; (2 the degree of hemispheric specialization depends on the considered region; (3 patients with early seizures show signs of temporal and parietal reorganization more frequently than patients with late onset of seizures; (4 patients with early seizures show a tendency for intra-hemispheric frontal reorganisation; (5 associated hippocampal sclerosis facilitates the inter-hemispheric shift of temporal activation. Although our patients were left hemisphere predominant for language, the statistical analyses indicated that the degree of lateralization was significantly lower than in healthy subjects. This result has been considered as the indication of atypical lateralization of language.Keywords: language, fMRI, plasticity, temporal epilepsy, age, hippocampal sclerosis

  3. Effects of Tai Chi in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: preliminary evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, several studies assessed the role of Tai Chi (TC in management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but these studies have wide variation of sample and convey inconclusive results. We therefore undertook a meta-analysis to assess the effects of TC. METHODS: A computerized search through electronic databases was performed to obtain sample studies. The primary outcomes were 6-min walking distance (6MWD and dyspnea. Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life and pre-bronchodilator spirometry. Weighted mean differences (WMDs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed with the I(2 test. A random-effects meta-analysis model was applied. RESULTS: Eight randomized controlled trials involving 544 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled WMDs were 34.22 m (95% CI 21.25-47.20, P<0.00001 for 6 MWD, -0.86 units (95% CI -1.44--0.28, P = 0.004 for dyspnea, 70 ml (95% CI 0.02-0.13, P = 0.01 for FEV1, 120 ml (95% CI 0.00-0.23, P = 0.04 for FVC. TC significantly improved the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire total score, and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire score except impact score. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that TC may provide an effective alternative means to achieve results similar to those reported following participation in pulmonary rehabilitation programs. Further studies are needed to substantiate the preliminary findings and investigate the long-term effects of TC.

  4. Preliminary evidence for good psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Brief Problems Monitor (BPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Methods to assess intervention progress and outcome for frequent use are needed. To provide preliminary information about psychometric properties for the Norwegian version of the Brief Problems Monitor. Cronbach's alpha scores and intra-class correlation coefficients as indicators for internal consistency (reliability) and Pearson correlation coefficients between corresponding subscales of the long and short ASEBA form versions as well as multiple regression coefficients to explore the predictive power of the reduced item-set related to the corresponding scale-scores of the long version were calculated in large, representative data sets of Norwegian children and adolescents. Cronbach's alpha scores of the Norwegian version of the BPM subscales varied between 0.67 (attention BPM-youth) and 0.88 (attention BPM-teacher) and between 0.90 (BPM-youth) and 0.96 (BPM-teacher) for its total problem score. Corresponding subscales from the long versions and the BPM as well as the total problems scores were closely correlated with coefficients of high effect size (all r > 0.80). The variance of the items of the BPM explained about three-quarters or more of the variance in the corresponding subscales of the long version. The Norwegian BPM has good psychometric properties in terms of 1) being acceptable to good internal consistency and in terms of 2) regression coefficients of high effect size from the BPM items to the problem-scale scores of the long versions as validity indicators. Its use in clinical practice and research can be recommended.

  5. PRELIMINARY EVIDENCE OF AN OXIDATIVE STRESS SYSTEM IN FRESHWATER CRAYFISH AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES ITALICUS

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    LIBERATO C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage reflects an imbalance between the production of oxidants and removal or scavenging of those oxidants. The antioxidants neutralize via enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms the toxic effects of the free radicals, acting at different levels both within the cell and in the extra cellular fluids. A study on the oxidative defenses under conditions of stress temperature was carried out in the freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes italicus, an endangered species now distributed in scattered areas in Italy and a few Europeans countries. Glutatione peroxidase (GPX and Glutatione reductase (GR activity have been measured in the hemolymph, hepatopancreas and muscle tissue by an enzymatic assay in male individuals exposed, for seven days, to three different temperature: 4 °C, 15 °C and 25 °C. Antioxidative enzyme activity was found in the hemolymph, but not in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle tissue. The enzyme activity varied in the hemolymph according to the temperature the animals were exposed to. As far as the GPX is concerned we found the activity only in the hemolymph of animals exposed to the temperature of 15 °C. On the contrary, GR activity was detected in the hemolymph at the three considered temperatures. Although the highest level of GR activity was found at 25 °C, followed by 4 °C and 15 °C, it was nonetheless very low and much lower than the level of GPX activity. Very little is known on oxidative stress in crustaceans and virtually nothing in the freshwater crayfish A. pallipes italicus. Our data, although preliminary, indicate that the antioxidant defenses provide a useful criterion for the thermal tolerance in studies on natural distribution and suitability of aquacultural environments.

  6. Parental Autonomy Support and Student Learning Goals: A Preliminary Examination of an Intrinsic Motivation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark

    2011-01-01

    In a seven week quasi-experimental study, parents (n = 15) of elementary school students (n = 15) learned autonomy supportive communication techniques that included helping their children set learning goals for homework assignments. Treatment vs. comparison group (n = 30) ANCOVA analyses revealed that the parents in the treatment group perceived…

  7. Automatic indexing and retrieval of encounter-specific evidence for point-of-care support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dympna M; Wilk, Szymon A; Michalowski, Wojtek J; Farion, Ken J

    2010-08-01

    Evidence-based medicine relies on repositories of empirical research evidence that can be used to support clinical decision making for improved patient care. However, retrieving evidence from such repositories at local sites presents many challenges. This paper describes a methodological framework for automatically indexing and retrieving empirical research evidence in the form of the systematic reviews and associated studies from The Cochrane Library, where retrieved documents are specific to a patient-physician encounter and thus can be used to support evidence-based decision making at the point of care. Such an encounter is defined by three pertinent groups of concepts - diagnosis, treatment, and patient, and the framework relies on these three groups to steer indexing and retrieval of reviews and associated studies. An evaluation of the indexing and retrieval components of the proposed framework was performed using documents relevant for the pediatric asthma domain. Precision and recall values for automatic indexing of systematic reviews and associated studies were 0.93 and 0.87, and 0.81 and 0.56, respectively. Moreover, precision and recall for the retrieval of relevant systematic reviews and associated studies were 0.89 and 0.81, and 0.92 and 0.89, respectively. With minor modifications, the proposed methodological framework can be customized for other evidence repositories.

  8. Evidence-informed health policy 4 – Case descriptions of organizations that support the use of research evidence

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    Oxman Andrew D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous efforts to produce case descriptions have typically not focused on the organizations that produce research evidence and support its use. External evaluations of such organizations have typically not been analyzed as a group to identify the lessons that have emerged across multiple evaluations. Case descriptions offer the potential for capturing the views and experiences of many individuals who are familiar with an organization, including staff, advocates, and critics. Methods We purposively sampled a subgroup of organizations from among those that participated in the second (interview phase of the study and (once from among other organizations with which we were familiar. We developed and pilot-tested a case description data collection protocol, and conducted site visits that included both interviews and documentary analyses. Themes were identified from among responses to semi-structured questions using a constant comparative method of analysis. We produced both a brief (one to two pages written description and a video documentary for each case. Results We conducted 51 interviews as part of the eight site visits. Two organizational strengths were repeatedly cited by individuals participating in the site visits: use of an evidence-based approach (which was identified as being very time-consuming and existence of a strong relationship between researchers and policymakers (which can be challenged by conflicts of interest. Two organizational weaknesses – a lack of resources and the presence of conflicts of interest – were repeatedly cited by individuals participating in the site visits. Participants offered two main suggestions for the World Health Organization (and other international organizations and networks: 1 mobilize one or more of government support, financial resources, and the participation of both policymakers and researchers; and 2 create knowledge-related global public goods. Conclusion The findings from

  9. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 12: Finding and using research evidence about resource use and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, Andrew D; Fretheim, Atle; Lavis, John N; Lewin, Simon

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address considerations about resource use and costs. The consequences of a policy or programme option for resource use differ from other impacts (both in terms of benefits and harms) in several ways. However, considerations of the consequences of options for resource use are similar to considerations related to other impacts in that policymakers and their staff need to identify important impacts on resource use, acquire and appraise the best available evidence regarding those impacts, and ensure that appropriate monetary values have been applied. We suggest four questions that can be considered when assessing resource use and the cost consequences of an option. These are: 1. What are the most important impacts on resource use? 2. What evidence is there for important impacts on resource use? 3. How confident is it possible to be in the evidence for impacts on resource use? 4. Have the impacts on resource use been valued appropriately in terms of their true costs?

  10. Opportunity of objective account of the colorimetric procedure using benzidine indicative at establishing the preliminary presence of blood on the material evidences

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    A. V. Konovalenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a modification of the colorimetric method for the preliminary establishment of presence of blood in the stainson the material evidences using benzidine test. The proposed modification is accompanied by photometric accounting and computer processing of the results. Performance, objectivity, as well as other features and advantages of this method when used in forensic practice are described in detail.

  11. Preliminary design study of a regenerative life support system information management and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, C. D.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The instrumentation requirements for a regenerative life support systems were studied to provide the earliest possible indication of a malfunction that will permit degradation of the environment. Four categories of parameters were investigated: environmental parameters that directly and immediately influence the health and safety of the cabin crew; subsystems' inputs to the cabin that directly maintain the cabin environmental parameters; indications for maintenance or repair; and parameters useful as diagnostic indicators. A data averager concept is introduced which provides a moving average of parameter values that is not influenced by spurious changes, and is convenient for detecting parameter rates of change. A system is included to provide alarms at preselected parameter levels.

  12. Preliminary evidence of motor impairment among polysubstance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine users with intact neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, Chad A; Cherner, Mariana; Emory, Kristen T; Barron, Daniel; Grebenstein, Patricia; Atkinson, J Hampton; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Neuropsychological disturbances have been reported in association with use of the recreational drug "ecstasy," or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but findings have been inconsistent. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological testing examining seven ability domains in 21 MDMA users (MDMA+) and 21 matched control participants (MDMA-). Among MDMA+ participants, median [interquartile range] lifetime MDMA use was 186 [111, 516] doses, with 120 [35-365] days of abstinence. There were no significant group differences in neuropsychological performance, with the exception of the motor speed/dexterity domain in which 43% of MDMA+ were impaired compared with 5% of MDMA- participants (p = .004). Motor impairment differences were not explained by use of other substances and were unrelated to length of abstinence or lifetime number of MDMA doses. Findings provide limited evidence for neuropsychological differences between MDMA+ and MDMA- participants with the exception of motor impairments observed in the MDMA+ group. However, replication of this finding in a larger sample is warranted.

  13. Project management office in health care: a key strategy to support evidence-based practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Richer, Marie-Claire; Aubry, Monique; Vezina, Michel; Deme, Mariama

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the contribution of a Transition Support Office (TSO) in a health care center in Canada to supporting changes in practice based on evidence and organizational performance in the early phase of a major organizational change. Semistructured individual interviews were conducted with 11 members of the TSO and 13 managers and clinicians from an ambulatory sector in the organization who received support from the TSO. The main themes addressed in the interviews were the description of the TSO, the context of implementation, and the impact. Using the Competing Value Framework by Quinn and Rohrbaugh [Public Product Rev. 1981;5(2):122-140], results revealed that the TSO is a source of expertise that facilitates innovation and implementation of change. It provides material support and human expertise for evidence-based projects. As a single organizational entity responsible for managing change, it gives a sense of cohesiveness. It also facilitates communication among human resources of the entire organization. The TSO is seen as an expertise provider that promotes competency development, training, and evidence-based practices. The impact of a TSO on change in practices and organizational performance in a health care system is discussed.

  14. Community interventions providing care and support to orphans and vulnerable children: a review of evaluation evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Katie D

    2009-07-01

    Children affected by HIV in their families and communities face multiple risks to their health, education and psychosocial wellbeing. Community interventions for children who have been orphaned or rendered vulnerable take many forms, including educational assistance, home-based care, legal protection and psychosocial support. Despite a recent influx of funding for programme implementation, there exists little evidence to inform policymakers about whether their investments are improving the lives of vulnerable children and meeting key benchmarks including the Millennium Development Goals. This paper reviews the current evidence base on evaluations of community interventions for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in high HIV-prevalence African settings, focusing on studies' methodologies. Sources reviewed include published research studies and evidence from the unpublished programmatic "grey literature" located through database and internet searches. A total of 21 studies, varying in scope and generalisability, were identified. Interventions reviewed address children's wellbeing through various strategies within their communities. Evaluation methodologies reflect quantitative and qualitative approaches, including surveys (with and without baseline or comparison data), costing studies, focus groups, interviews, case studies, and participatory review techniques. Varied study methodologies reflect diverse research questions, various intervention types, and the challenges associated with evaluating complex interventions; highlighting the need to broaden the research paradigm in order to build the evidence base by including quasi-experimental and process evaluation approaches, and seeking further insights through participatory qualitative methodologies and costing studies. Although findings overall indicate the value of community interventions in effecting measurable improvements in child and family wellbeing, the quality and rigour of evidence is varied. A strategic

  15. Evidence-informed health policy 3 – Interviews with the directors of organizations that support the use of research evidence

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    Moynihan Ray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a small number of previous efforts to describe the experiences of organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines (CPGs, undertake health technology assessments (HTAs, or directly support the use of research evidence in developing health policy (i.e., government support units, or GSUs have relied on interviews and then only with HTA agencies. Interviews offer the potential for capturing experiences in great depth, particularly the experiences of organizations that may be under-represented in surveys. Methods We purposively sampled organizations from among those who completed a questionnaire in the first phase of our three-phase study, developed and piloted a semi-structured interview guide, and conducted the interviews by telephone, audio-taped them, and took notes simultaneously. Binary or categorical responses to more structured questions were counted when possible. Themes were identified from among responses to semi-structured questions using a constant comparative method of analysis. Illustrative quotations were identified to supplement the narrative description of the themes. Results We interviewed the director (or his or her nominee in 25 organizations, of which 12 were GSUs. Using rigorous methods that are systematic and transparent (sometimes shortened to 'being evidence-based' was the most commonly cited strength among all organizations. GSUs more consistently described their close links with policymakers as a strength, whereas organizations producing CPGs, HTAs, or both had conflicting viewpoints about such close links. With few exceptions, all types of organizations tended to focus largely on weaknesses in implementation, rather than strengths. The advice offered to those trying to establish similar organizations include: 1 collaborate with other organizations; 2 establish strong links with policymakers and stakeholders; 3 be independent and manage conflicts of interest; 4 build capacity; 5 use good

  16. Multiple Lines Of Evidence Supporting Natural Attenuation: Lines Of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation And Enhanced Attenuatin Of Chlorinated Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Widemeirer, T. H.; Barden, M.J.; Dickson, W. Z.; Major, David

    2004-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Attenuation (EA) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management (EM) ''Alternative Project,'' focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EA. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EA Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, the DOE is publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry (see listing). The following report--documenting our evaluation of the state of the science for the lines of evidence for supporting decision-making for MNA--is one of those supplemental documents.

  17. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  18. Preliminary Evidence for the Off-Label Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa With Psychostimulants: Six Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshen, Aaron; Helson, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Psychostimulants have been assessed in bulimia nervosa patients with comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few studies have examined the impact of psychostimulants on bulimia nervosa patients without comorbid ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine psychostimulants as a potential treatment for bulimia nervosa and to assess the concern of weight loss, given the medication's appetite-suppressing effects. This retrospective study describes 6 case reports of outpatients who were prescribed a psychostimulant specifically for their bulimia nervosa. The number of binge/purge days per months and body mass index were assessed. All patients demonstrated reductions in the number of binge/purge days per month, and 1 patient experienced total remission of bulimic symptoms. Minor fluctuations in weight were observed, but no clinically significant reductions in weight were noted. These findings support the need for clinical trials to examine the efficacy and safety of this potential treatment. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Preliminary evidence of association between EFHC2, a gene implicated in fear recognition, and harm avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Carolina; Moorjani, Priya; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gonçalves, Leonardo; Weiss, Lauren A; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Manfro, Gisele G; Smoller, Jordan W

    2009-03-06

    Genetic variation at the EF-hand domain containing 2 gene (EFHC2) locus has been associated with fear recognition in Turner syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine whether EFHC2 variants are associated with non-syndromic anxiety-related traits [harm avoidance (HA) and behavioral inhibition (BI)] and with panic disorder (PD). Our sample comprised 127 PD patients and 132 controls without psychiatric disorder. We genotyped nine SNPs within the EFHC2 locus and used PLINK to perform association analyses. An intronic SNP (rs1562875) was associated with HA (permuted p=0.031) accounting alone for over 3% of variance in this trait. This same SNP was nominally, but not empirically, associated with BI (r(2)=0.022; nominal p=0.022) and PD (OR=2.64; nominal p=0.009). The same association was found in a subsample of only females. In sum, we observed evidence of association between a variant in EFHC2, a gene previously associated with the processing of fear and social threat, and HA. Larger studies are warranted to confirm this association.

  20. Preliminary evidence for a role of the adrenergic nervous system in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Norton, Joanna; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ryan, Joanne; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2017-02-15

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common chronic condition that is understudied compared to other psychiatric disorders. An altered adrenergic function has been reported in GAD, however direct evidence for genetic susceptibility is missing. This study evaluated the associations of gene variants in adrenergic receptors (ADRs) with GAD, with the involvement of stressful events. Data were obtained from 844 French community-dwelling elderly aged 65 or over. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatry Interview, according to DSM-IV criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved with adrenergic function were genotyped; adrenergic receptors alpha(1A) (ADRA1A), alpha(2A) (ADRA2A), and beta2 (ADRB2) and transcription factor TCF7L2. Questionnaires evaluated recent stressful life events as well as early environment during childhood and adolescence. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses four SNPs were significantly associated with GAD. A 4-fold modified risk was found with ADRA1A rs17426222 and rs573514, and ADRB2 rs1042713 which remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Certain variants may moderate the effect of adverse life events on the risk of GAD. Replication in larger samples is needed due to the small case number. This is the first study showing that ADR variants are susceptibility factors for GAD, further highlighting the critical role of the adrenergic nervous system in this disorder.

  1. Preliminary evidence for a role of the adrenergic nervous system in generalized anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Norton, Joanna; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ryan, Joanne; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common chronic condition that is understudied compared to other psychiatric disorders. An altered adrenergic function has been reported in GAD, however direct evidence for genetic susceptibility is missing. This study evaluated the associations of gene variants in adrenergic receptors (ADRs) with GAD, with the involvement of stressful events. Data were obtained from 844 French community-dwelling elderly aged 65 or over. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatry Interview, according to DSM-IV criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved with adrenergic function were genotyped; adrenergic receptors alpha(1A) (ADRA1A), alpha(2A) (ADRA2A), and beta2 (ADRB2) and transcription factor TCF7L2. Questionnaires evaluated recent stressful life events as well as early environment during childhood and adolescence. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses four SNPs were significantly associated with GAD. A 4-fold modified risk was found with ADRA1A rs17426222 and rs573514, and ADRB2 rs1042713 which remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Certain variants may moderate the effect of adverse life events on the risk of GAD. Replication in larger samples is needed due to the small case number. This is the first study showing that ADR variants are susceptibility factors for GAD, further highlighting the critical role of the adrenergic nervous system in this disorder. PMID:28198454

  2. Precursors to natural grammar learning: preliminary evidence from 4-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L; Oberecker, Regine

    2011-03-22

    When learning a new language, grammar--although difficult--is very important, as grammatical rules determine the relations between the words in a sentence. There is evidence that very young infants can detect rules determining the relation between neighbouring syllables in short syllable sequences. A critical feature of all natural languages, however, is that many grammatical rules concern the dependency relation between non-neighbouring words or elements in a sentence i.e. between an auxiliary and verb inflection as in is singing. Thus, the issue of when and how children begin to recognize such non-adjacent dependencies is fundamental to our understanding of language acquisition. Here, we use brain potential measures to demonstrate that the ability to recognize dependencies between non-adjacent elements in a novel natural language is observable by the age of 4 months. Brain responses indicate that 4-month-old German infants discriminate between grammatical and ungrammatical dependencies in auditorily presented Italian sentences after only brief exposure to correct sentences of the same type. As the grammatical dependencies are realized by phonologically distinct syllables the present data most likely reflect phonologically based implicit learning mechanisms which can serve as a precursor to later grammar learning.

  3. Recruiting for values in healthcare: a preliminary review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Prescott-Clements, Linda; Zibarras, Lara; Edwards, Helena; Kerrin, Maire; Cousans, Fran

    2016-10-01

    Displaying compassion, benevolence and respect, and preserving the dignity of patients are important for any healthcare professional to ensure the provision of high quality care and patient outcomes. This paper presents a structured search and thematic review of the research evidence relating to values-based recruitment within healthcare. Several different databases, journals and government reports were searched to retrieve studies relating to values-based recruitment published between 1998 and 2013, both in healthcare settings and other occupational contexts. There is limited published research related to values-based recruitment directly, so the available theoretical context of values is explored alongside an analysis of the impact of value congruence. The implications for the design of selection methods to measure values is explored beyond the scope of the initial literature search. Research suggests some selection methods may be appropriate for values-based recruitment, such as situational judgment tests (SJTs), structured interviews and multiple-mini interviews (MMIs). Personality tests were also identified as having the potential to compliment other methods (e.g. structured interviews), as part of a values-based recruitment agenda. Methods including personal statements, references and unstructured/'traditional' interviews were identified as inappropriate for values-based recruitment. Practical implications are discussed in the context of values-based recruitment in the healthcare context. Theoretical implications of our findings imply that prosocial implicit trait policies, which could be measured by selection tools such as SJTs and MMIs, may be linked to individuals' values via the behaviours individuals consider to be effective in given situations. Further research is required to state this conclusively however, and methods for values-based recruitment represent an exciting and relatively unchartered territory for further research.

  4. Trace evidence characteristics of DNA: A preliminary investigation of the persistence of DNA at crime scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jennifer J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Gunn, Peter R; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2009-12-01

    The successful recovery of trace or contact DNA is highly variable. It is seemingly dependent on a wide range of factors, from the characteristics of the donor, substrate and environment, to the delay between contact and recovery. There is limited research on the extent of the effect these factors have on trace DNA analysis. This study investigated the persistence of trace DNA on surfaces relevant to the investigation of burglary and robbery offences. The study aimed to limit the number of variables involved to solely determine the effect of time on DNA recovery. Given that it is difficult to control the quantity of DNA deposited during a hand contact, human buffy coat and DNA control solution were chosen as an alternative to give a more accurate measure of quantity. Set volumes of these solutions were deposited onto outdoor surfaces (window frames and vinyl material to mimic burglary and 'bag snatch' offences) and sterile glass slides stored in a closed environment in the laboratory, for use as a control. Trace DNA casework data was also scrutinised to assess the effect of time on DNA recovery from real samples. The amount of DNA recovered from buffy coat on the outdoor surfaces declined by approximately half over two weeks, to a negligible amount after six weeks. Profiles could not be obtained after two weeks. The samples stored in the laboratory were more robust, and full profiles were obtained after six weeks, the longest time period tested in these experiments. It is possible that profiles may be obtained from older samples when kept in similarly favourable conditions. The experimental results demonstrate that the ability to recover DNA from human cells on outdoor surfaces decreases significantly over two weeks. Conversely, no clear trends were identified in the casework data, indicating that many other factors are involved affecting the recovery of trace DNA. Nevertheless, to ensure that valuable trace evidence is not lost, it is recommended that crime scenes

  5. Supporting grocery shopping for students with intellectual disability:a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C; Satsangi, Rajiv; Bartlett, Whitney

    2017-08-01

    Decades of research exist supporting various types of self-operating prompting systems, including picture, audio and video to help students with disabilities acquire skills, especially to teach life skills. While many facets of life skills are important to target for instruction for secondary students with intellectual disability, one receiving declining attention is grocery shopping. Using a single subject alternating treatment design with two high school students with intellectual disability, the authors analysed the impact of three self-operating prompts systems - picture, audio and video - on students' successful selection of grocery items, independence in completing the task (i.e., percent of steps not prompted), and task completion time. Results showed video prompting to be most successful prompting system for both students for selecting grocery items. However, independence and task completion time varied significantly for the students across the prompting systems. It is important to match the correct prompting system to individual students' skills, needs and preference, but also to balance efficiency - both for educators and students. Implications for Rehabilitation Video prompting is an effective instructional strategy, but must be considered in light of time and skill to create the video prompts as well as social stigmatization of use in natural community settings. It is important to match the correct prompting system to each student, but also to balance efficiency - both for educators and students.

  6. Supporting fingerprint identification assessments using a skin stretch model - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca; Comber, Bruce; Abraham, Joshua; Wagner, Michael; Lennard, Chris; Spindler, Xanthe; Roux, Claude

    2017-03-01

    To support fingerprint expert opinion, this research proposes an approach that combines subjective human analysis (as currently applied by fingerprint practitioners) with a statistical test of the result. This approach relies on the hypothesis that there are limits to the distortion caused by skin stretch. Such limits can be modelled by applying a multivariate normal probability density function to the distances and angle formed by a marked ridge characteristic and the two closest neighbouring minutiae. This study presents a model tested on 5 donors in total. The "expected range" of distortion in a within-source comparison using 10 minutiae was determined and compared to between-source comparisons. The expected range of log probability densities for within-source comparisons marked with 10 minutiae was determined to be from -33.4 to -60.0, with all between-source data falling outside this range, between -83 and -305. These results suggest that the proposed generated metric could be a powerful tool for the assessment of fingerprint expert opinion in operational casework.

  7. Preliminary test results in support of integrated EPP and SMT design methods development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanli [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, Robert I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-09

    The proposed integrated Elastic Perfectly-Plastic (EPP) and Simplified Model Test (SMT) methodology consists of incorporating a SMT data-based approach for creep-fatigue damage evaluation into the EPP methodology to avoid using the creep-fatigue interaction diagram (the D diagram) and to minimize over-conservatism while properly accounting for localized defects and stress risers. To support the implementation of the proposed code rules and to verify their applicability, a series of thermomechanical tests have been initiated. One test concept, the Simplified Model Test (SMT), takes into account the stress and strain redistribution in real structures by including representative follow-up characteristics in the test specimen. The second test concept is the two-bar thermal ratcheting tests with cyclic loading at high temperatures using specimens representing key features of potential component designs. This report summaries the previous SMT results on Alloy 617, SS316H and SS304H and presents the recent development on SMT approach on Alloy 617. These SMT specimen data are also representative of component loading conditions and have been used as part of the verification of the proposed integrated EPP and SMT design methods development. The previous two-bar thermal ratcheting test results on Alloy 617 and SS316H are also summarized and the new results from two bar thermal ratcheting tests on SS316H at a lower temperature range are reported.

  8. Getting the right information to the table: using technology to support evidence-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, Lynda; Gignac, Patrick; Anderson, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare executives report that it is difficult to access the research literature and once found, it is frequently not relevant. A study was conducted to explore ways in which healthcare executives, enrolled in the EXTRA program, used a virtual desktop environment. Despite some design and function limitations, the desktop was perceived positively by most participants and was effective in supporting evidence-informed practice and decision making.

  9. The information infrastructure that supports evidence-based veterinary medicine: a comparison with human medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    In human medicine, the information infrastructure that supports the knowledge translation processes of exchange, synthesis, dissemination, and application of the best clinical intervention research has developed significantly in the past 15 years, facilitating the uptake of research evidence by clinicians as well as the practice of evidence-based medicine. Seven of the key elements of this improved information infrastructure are clinical trial registries, research reporting standards, systematic reviews, organizations that support the production of systematic reviews, the indexing of clinical intervention research in MEDLINE, clinical search filters for MEDLINE, and point-of-care decision support information resources. The objective of this paper is to describe why these elements are important for evidence-based medicine, the key developments and issues related to these seven information infrastructure elements in human medicine, how these 7 elements compare with the corresponding infrastructure elements in veterinary medicine, and how all of these factors affect the translation of clinical intervention research into clinical practice. A focused search of the Ovid MEDLINE database was conducted for English language journal literature published between 2000 and 2010. Two bibliographies were consulted and selected national and international Web sites were searched using Google. The literature reviewed indicates that the information infrastructure supporting evidence-based veterinary medicine practice in all of the 7 elements reviewed is significantly underdeveloped in relation to the corresponding information infrastructure in human medicine. This lack of development creates barriers to the timely translation of veterinary medicine research into clinical practice and also to the conduct of both primary clinical intervention research and synthesis research.

  10. Additional Interventions to Enhance the Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support: A Rapid Evidence Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Boycott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic. Additional interventions used to enhance the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS. Aim. To establish whether additional interventions improve the vocational outcomes of IPS alone for people with severe mental illness. Method. A rapid evidence assessment of the literature was conducted for studies where behavioural or psychological interventions have been used to supplement standard IPS. Published and unpublished empirical studies of IPS with additional interventions were considered for inclusion. Conclusions. Six published studies were found which compared IPS alone to IPS plus a supplementary intervention. Of these, three used skills training and three used cognitive remediation. The contribution of each discrete intervention is difficult to establish. Some evidence suggests that work-related social skills and cognitive training are effective adjuncts, but this is an area where large RCTs are required to yield conclusive evidence.

  11. Pickles and Ice Cream! Food Cravings in Pregnancy: Hypotheses, Preliminary Evidence, and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Orloff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, 1 perimenstrually and 2 prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of 1 hormonal changes, 2 nutritional deficits, 3 pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and 4 cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: 1 validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, 2 use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, 3 implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and gestational weight gain, and 4 development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess

  12. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Natalia C; Hormes, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, (1) perimenstrually and (2) prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of (1) hormonal changes, (2) nutritional deficits, (3) pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and (4) cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: (1) validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, (2) use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, (3) implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and GWG, and (4) development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG.

  13. Balance impairment in people with multiple sclerosis: preliminary evidence for the Balance Evaluation Systems Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jesse V; Kasser, Susan L

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) to identify balance impairments in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) by evaluating differences in BESTest performance between people with and without MS. We also assessed the BESTest's validity by correlation with objective measures of postural performance as well as with disease severity and fall status. Thirteen subjects with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS: 0-4.5) and 13 matched subjects without MS were evaluated on the BESTest, asked about fall history, and assessed by force plates and motion capture as they performed laboratory tasks of step initiation, forward leaning to the limits of stability, and postural responses to rotations of the support surface. Compared to subjects without MS, subjects with MS exhibited lower total BESTest scores (mean (95%) score for subjects with MS=91 (83-99); subjects without MS=105 (104-107)) as well as section scores pertaining to mechanical constraints, limits of stability, anticipatory postural adjustments, and gait. BESTest scores significantly correlated with objective laboratory measures of step velocity during step initiation (Pearson r(2)=0.48, P<0.01) as well as center-of-pressure displacements during both the leaning (Pearson r(2)=0.55, P<0.005) and postural-response tasks (Pearson r(2)=0.76, P<0.0001). BESTest total scores were 92% accurate to identify fallers and non-fallers, and BESTest scores significantly correlated with EDSS scores (Spearman's rho=0.85, P<0.0005). Thus, the BESTest provides a valid clinical assessment of balance impairments in people with MS.

  14. Preliminary evidence that different mechanisms underlie the anger superiority effect in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eIsomura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that angry faces capture humans’ attention more rapidly than emotionally positive faces. This phenomenon is referred to as the anger superiority effect (ASE. Despite atypical emotional processing, adults and children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD have been reported to show ASE as well as typically developed (TD individuals. So far, however, few studies have clarified whether or not the mechanisms underlying ASE are the same for both TD and ASD individuals. Here, we tested how TD and ASD children process schematic emotional faces during detection by employing a recognition task in combination with a face-in-the-crowd task. Results of the face-in-the-crowd task revealed the prevalence of ASE both in TD and ASD children. However, the results of the recognition task revealed group differences: In TD children, detection of angry faces required more configural face processing and disrupted the processing of local features. In ASD children, on the other hand, it required more feature-based processing rather than configural processing. Despite the small sample sizes, these findings provide preliminary evidence that children with ASD, in contrast to TD children, show quick detection of angry faces by extracting local features in faces.

  15. Preliminary evidence that sub-chronic citalopram triggers the re-evaluation of value in intimate partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilderbeck, Amy C; Wakeley, Judi; Godlewska, Beata R; McGlone, Francis; Harris, Tirril; Cowen, Phillip J; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Depression frequently involves disrupted inter-personal relationships, while treatment with serotonergic anti-depressants can interfere with libido and sexual function. However, little is known about how serotonin activity influences appraisals of intimate partnerships. Learning more could help to specify how serotonergic mechanisms mediate social isolation in psychiatric illness. Forty-four healthy heterosexual adults, currently in romantic relationships, received 8 days treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (N = 21; 10 male) or placebo (N = 23; 12 male). Participants viewed photographs of unknown, heterosexual couples and made a series of judgements about their relationships. Participants also indicated the importance of relationship features in their own close partnerships, and close partnerships generally. Citalopram reduced the rated quality of couples' physical relationships and the importance attributed to physical and intimate aspects of participants' own relationships. In contrast, citalopram also enhanced the evaluated worth of mutual trust in relationships. Amongst males, citalopram was associated with judgements of reduced turbulence and bickering in others' relationships, and increased male dominance. These data constitute preliminary evidence that enhancing serotonin activity modulates cognitions about sexual activity as part of a re-appraisal of sources of value within close intimate relationships, enhancing the judged importance of longer-term benefits of trust and shared experiences.

  16. Seismic heating signatures in the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone: evidence from a preliminary rock magnetic `geothermometer'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Dekkers, Mark J.; Zhang, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Frictional heating during earthquake rupture reveals important information on earthquake mechanisms and energy dissipation. The amount of annealing varies widely and is, as yet, poorly constrained. Here we use magnetic susceptibility versus temperature measurements during cycling to increasingly elevated temperatures to constrain the maximum temperature a slip zone has experienced. The case study comprises sheared clay cored from the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone (décollement), which accommodated the large slip of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The décollement was cored during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 343, the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). Heating signatures with estimated maximum temperatures ranging from ˜300 to over 500 °C are determined close to the multiple slip surfaces within the décollement. Since it is impossible to tie a specific slip surface to a certain earthquake, thermal evidence for the cumulative effect of several earthquakes is unveiled. This as yet preliminary rock magnetic `geothermometer' would be a useful tool to detect seismic heating along faults that experienced medium temperature rise, a range which is difficult to assess with other approaches.

  17. Pine mouth (pine nut) syndrome: description of the toxidrome, preliminary case definition, and best evidence regarding an apparent etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David

    2012-11-01

    Pine mouth syndrome (PMS), otherwise known as pine nut syndrome, is a relatively new condition. At least several thousand cases have now been described in the literature. The author describes the PMS toxidrome, offers a preliminary case definition, and discusses current best evidence regarding the etiology and risk factors related to the development of PMS.A clinically compatible case of PMS must include taste disturbance, usually characterized as bitter or metallic, following the ingestion of affected pine nuts by 1 to 3 days. Affected nuts would appear to include all, or some portion, of nuts harvested from species Pinus armandii (Chinese white pine), but could include nuts from other species. The specific toxin that is apparently present in affected nuts has not yet been isolated, and the mechanism of toxicity and factors determining PMS susceptibility need to be further detailed. There are no proven therapies for PMS. The only treatment is to cease ingesting implicated nuts and to wait for symptoms to abate.

  18. What is the evidence to support the use of therapeutic gardens for the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Mark B; Sharma, Taral; Detweiler, Jonna G; Murphy, Pamela F; Lane, Sandra; Carman, Jack; Chudhary, Amara S; Halling, Mary H; Kim, Kye Y

    2012-06-01

    Horticulture therapy employs plants and gardening activities in therapeutic and rehabilitation activities and could be utilized to improve the quality of life of the worldwide aging population, possibly reducing costs for long-term, assisted living and dementia unit residents. Preliminary studies have reported the benefits of horticultural therapy and garden settings in reduction of pain, improvement in attention, lessening of stress, modulation of agitation, lowering of as needed medications, antipsychotics and reduction of falls. This is especially relevant for both the United States and the Republic of Korea since aging is occurring at an unprecedented rate, with Korea experiencing some of the world's greatest increases in elderly populations. In support of the role of nature as a therapeutic modality in geriatrics, most of the existing studies of garden settings have utilized views of nature or indoor plants with sparse studies employing therapeutic gardens and rehabilitation greenhouses. With few controlled clinical trials demonstrating the positive or negative effects of the use of garden settings for the rehabilitation of the aging populations, a more vigorous quantitative analysis of the benefits is long overdue. This literature review presents the data supporting future studies of the effects of natural settings for the long term care and rehabilitation of the elderly having the medical and mental health problems frequently occurring with aging.

  19. Preliminary evidence for cue-induced alcohol craving modulated by serotonin transporter gene polymorphism rs1042173

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima eAit-Daoud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously have shown that cue-induced alcohol craving and propensity for higher drinking are modulated by allelic differences in SLC6A4. In an independent study, we characterized a functional polymorphism, rs1042173 (G/T, in the SLC6A4 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR; the T allele was associated with lower mRNA and protein levels, and the alcohol-dependent (AD individuals carrying the TT genotype showed higher drinking intensity compared with G-allele carriers. Building upon these findings, we hypothesized that the low-expressing TT genotype associated with intense drinking would predict higher craving for alcohol in AD individuals. In this pilot study, we sought to test our hypothesis by examining 34 Hispanic AD volunteers (mean age, 34.8 years for rs1042173 genotype-based (i.e., TT vs. TG/GG (Gx differences in subjective response to alcohol. We employed a human laboratory paradigm and analyzed the data using a linear mixed-effects model to assess treatment, cue procedures, and genotype main effects as well as the two-way interaction effects between them. On subjective urge to drink and crave for a drink, we found a significant main effect of the cue experiment (p ≤ 0.01 and an interaction effect between genotype and cue effects (p < 0.05. TT genotype was associated with higher intensity of drinking and craving for alcohol. Our results not only support the hypothesis that rs1042173 is a genetic marker for cue-induced alcohol craving among AD males but also are suggestive of a neurobiological mechanism associated with the rs1042173-TT genotype that triggers a disproportionate craving in response to alcohol consumption, which in turn may lead to more intense drinking. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to characterize the interactive effects of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5′-HTTLPR-L-allele reported in our previous study and of the rs1042173-TT genotype on cue-induced alcohol craving.

  20. The parental antagonism theory of language evolution: preliminary evidence for the proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M

    2011-04-01

    not maternally silenced Alu elements are positively correlated with language diversity. Furthermore, there is a much higher than expected frequency of Alu elements inserted into the protein-coding machinery of imprinted and X-chromosomal language loci compared with nonimprinted language loci. Taken together these findings provide some support for parental antagonism theory. Unlike previous theories for language evolution, parental antagonism theory generates testable predictions at the proximate (e.g., neurocognitive areas important for social transmission and language capacities), ontogenetic (e.g., the function of language at different points of development), ultimate (e.g., inclusive fitness), and phylogenetic levels (e.g., the spread of maternally derived brain components in mammals, particularly in the hominin lineage), thus making human capacities for culture more tractable than previously thought.

  1. Preliminary evidence that both blue and red light can induce alertness at night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plitnick Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of studies have demonstrated that retinal light exposure can increase alertness at night. It is now well accepted that the circadian system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength (blue light and is quite insensitive to long-wavelength (red light. Retinal exposures to blue light at night have been recently shown to impact alertness, implicating participation by the circadian system. The present experiment was conducted to look at the impact of both blue and red light at two different levels on nocturnal alertness. Visually effective but moderate levels of red light are ineffective for stimulating the circadian system. If it were shown that a moderate level of red light impacts alertness, it would have had to occur via a pathway other than through the circadian system. Methods Fourteen subjects participated in a within-subject two-night study, where each participant was exposed to four experimental lighting conditions. Each night each subject was presented a high (40 lx at the cornea and a low (10 lx at the cornea diffuse light exposure condition of the same spectrum (blue, λmax = 470 nm, or red, λmax = 630 nm. The presentation order of the light levels was counterbalanced across sessions for a given subject; light spectra were counterbalanced across subjects within sessions. Prior to each lighting condition, subjects remained in the dark ( Results Exposures to red and to blue light resulted in increased beta and reduced alpha power relative to preceding dark conditions. Exposures to high, but not low, levels of red and of blue light significantly increased heart rate relative to the dark condition. Performance and sleepiness ratings were not strongly affected by the lighting conditions. Only the higher level of blue light resulted in a reduction in melatonin levels relative to the other lighting conditions. Conclusion These results support previous findings that alertness may be mediated by the circadian system

  2. Aortic valve biomechanics during LVAD support: Implementation in a bioreactor design and preliminary testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Madiha

    Although Left Ventricle Assist Device (LVAD) support has enhanced the quality of life for many heart failure patients, its prolonged in-vivo implantation causes change in hemodynamics and biomechanics of the aortic heart valve eventually leading to development of aortic insufficiency (AI). The LVAD decreases pressure in the left ventricle, leading to high transvalvular pressure and reduced aortic valve opening. Our hypothesis is that the increased pressure leads to increased mechanical stretch in the aortic valve leaflets, inducing a cascade of responses that ultimately result in local tissue fibrosis and AI. The goal of this study is to investigate the mechanism behind this hypothesis using the methods of tissue engineering. A bioreactor has been built that imparts cyclic stretch and flow to small 3-D constructs of living cells cultured in a silicone membrane. The approach is to use this device for in vitro tissue culture of vascular interstitial cells (VICs) embedded in a collagen gel, which will be subjected to normal and altered stretch and shear representative of the in vivo valve biomechanics. The bioreactor was validated to measure the amount of stretch and shear it can impart to closely replicate in-vivo conditions using PIV technique and ImageJ software. Mean longitudinal strain of 0.037cm (SD= +/-0.013cm) was recorded with mean perpendicular strain being 0.0046cm (SD= +/-0.0169cm). Measured average shear stress imparted at 100ml/min was 2.735 dynes/cm2 (SD= +/-2.25 dynes/cm2) with 6.21 dynes/cm2 (SD= +/-3.35 dynes/cm2) at 200ml/min. The cells that underwent cycles of stretch and shear in the bioreactor were screened for formation of myofibroblast using techniques of immunohistochemistry. The marker used was ? smooth muscle actin (SMA) which identifies pathological differentiation of the CPCs to myofibroblast. Yhe expression of the myofibroblast phenotype is a feature of valvupathy. In case of Shear Vs Static control, the mean value for SMA expression for

  3. GWAS-identified risk variants for major depressive disorder: Preliminary support for an association with late-life depressive symptoms and brain structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joanne; Artero, Sylvaine; Carrière, Isabelle; Maller, Jerome J; Meslin, Chantal; Ritchie, Karen; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    A number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have investigated risk factors for major depressive disorder (MDD), however there has been little attempt to replicate these findings in population-based studies of depressive symptoms. Variants within three genes, BICC1, PCLO and GRM7 were selected for replication in our study based on the following criteria: they were identified in a prior MDD GWAS study; a subsequent study found evidence that they influenced depression risk; and there is a solid biological basis for a role in depression. We firstly investigated whether these variants were associated with depressive symptoms in our population-based cohort of 929 elderly (238 with clinical depressive symptoms and 691 controls), and secondly to investigate associations with structural brain alterations. A number of nominally significant associations were identified, but none reached Bonferroni-corrected significance levels. Common SNPs in BICC1 and PCLO were associated with a 50% and 30% decreased risk of depression, respectively. PCLO rs2522833 was also associated with the volume of grey matter (p=1.6×10(-3)), and to a lesser extent with hippocampal volume and white matter lesions. Among depressed individuals rs9870680 (GRM7) was associated with the volume of grey and white matter (p=10(-4) and 8.3×10(-3), respectively). Our results provide some support for the involvement of BICC1 and PCLO in late-life depressive disorders and preliminary evidence that these genetic variants may also influence brain structural volumes. However effect sizes remain modest and associations did not reach corrected significance levels. Further large imaging studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  4. Young infants view physically possible support events as unexpected: New evidence for rule learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Baillargeon, Renée

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that one of the mechanisms by which infants acquire their physical knowledge is rule learning: Infants generate rules about the likely outcomes of events and revise these rules when confronted with discrepant outcomes. This approach predicts that when infants' rules are only partially correct, they will view as unexpected events that are physically possible and even ordinary but happen to contradict their faulty rules. Here we provide evidence for this prediction in young infants' responses to support events. According to prior findings, by 6.5months of age, most infants expect an object to be stable if released with half or more of its bottom surface on a support; by 8months, most infants have refined this rule and realize that an object can be stable with less support as long as the middle of the object's bottom surface is supported. In line with these findings, 7.5- but not 8.5-month-olds viewed as unexpected a possible event in which a wide box remained stable when released with only the middle third of its bottom surface resting on a narrow platform. These results provide new evidence that young infants, like older children and adults, generate and revise rules to make sense of physical events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence of slope failure in the Sines Contourite Drift area (SW Portuguese Continental Margin) - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Manuel; Roque, Cristina; Terrinha, Pedro; Rodrigues, Sara; Ercilla, Gemma; Casas, David

    2017-04-01

    scar is 7.63 km2, while the minimum is 0.14 km2. About 43% of the scars present areas below 2 km2 and 63% below 3 km2. Only 3.9% of the scars present areas higher than 7 km2. There is a total volume of displaced material of 4.46 km3 with a mean volume of 0.1 km3. The maximum volume recorded on a scar is 0.45 km3, while the minimum is 0.01 km3. The volume of material removed is quite variable, although the major part of the scars corresponds to a very small volume of removed material, with 69% of the scars presenting less than 0.1 km3. About 55% of the scars are located in slopes <=7° and 20% in slopes between 0 and 2°, while 24% of the scars belong to the class of slope gradient between 1.5 and 3°. We may conclude that there is, apparently, a reverse relationship between slope angle and scar area, meaning that slope is not the main condition for big landslide scars and that the areas with steep slopes, such as fault escarpments, favour continuous fast retrograde erosion. Publication supported by FCT- project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz

  6. A critical evaluation of the evidence supporting the practice of behavioural vision therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brendan T

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, the UK's College of Optometrists commissioned a report to critically evaluate the theory and practice of behavioural optometry. The report which followed Jennings (2000; Behavioural optometry--a critical review. Optom. Pract. 1: 67) concluded that there was a lack of controlled clinical trials to support behavioural management strategies. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the evidence in support of behavioural approaches as it stands in 2008. The available evidence was reviewed under 10 headings, selected because they represent patient groups/conditions that behavioural optometrists are treating, or because they represent approaches to treatment that have been advocated in the behavioural literature. The headings selected were: (1) vision therapy for accommodation/vergence disorders; (2) the underachieving child; (3) prisms for near binocular disorders and for producing postural change; (4) near point stress and low-plus prescriptions; (5) use of low-plus lenses at near to slow the progression of myopia; (6) therapy to reduce myopia; (7) behavioural approaches to the treatment of strabismus and amblyopia; (8) training central and peripheral awareness and syntonics; (9) sports vision therapy; (10) neurological disorders and neuro-rehabilitation after trauma/stroke. There is a continued paucity of controlled trials in the literature to support behavioural optometry approaches. Although there are areas where the available evidence is consistent with claims made by behavioural optometrists (most notably in relation to the treatment of convergence insufficiency, the use of yoked prisms in neurological patients, and in vision rehabilitation after brain disease/injury), a large majority of behavioural management approaches are not evidence-based, and thus cannot be advocated.

  7. Sustainability of evidence-based healthcare: research agenda, methodological advances, and infrastructure support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Enola; Luke, Douglas; Calhoun, Annaliese; McMillen, Curtis; Brownson, Ross; McCrary, Stacey; Padek, Margaret

    2015-06-11

    Little is known about how well or under what conditions health innovations are sustained and their gains maintained once they are put into practice. Implementation science typically focuses on uptake by early adopters of one healthcare innovation at a time. The later-stage challenges of scaling up and sustaining evidence-supported interventions receive too little attention. This project identifies the challenges associated with sustainability research and generates recommendations for accelerating and strengthening this work. A multi-method, multi-stage approach, was used: (1) identifying and recruiting experts in sustainability as participants, (2) conducting research on sustainability using concept mapping, (3) action planning during an intensive working conference of sustainability experts to expand the concept mapping quantitative results, and (4) consolidating results into a set of recommendations for research, methodological advances, and infrastructure building to advance understanding of sustainability. Participants comprised researchers, funders, and leaders in health, mental health, and public health with shared interest in the sustainability of evidence-based health care. Prompted to identify important issues for sustainability research, participants generated 91 distinct statements, for which a concept mapping process produced 11 conceptually distinct clusters. During the conference, participants built upon the concept mapping clusters to generate recommendations for sustainability research. The recommendations fell into three domains: (1) pursue high priority research questions as a unified agenda on sustainability; (2) advance methods for sustainability research; (3) advance infrastructure to support sustainability research. Implementation science needs to pursue later-stage translation research questions required for population impact. Priorities include conceptual consistency and operational clarity for measuring sustainability, developing evidence

  8. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  9. Cancer Multidisciplinary Team Meetings: Evidence, Challenges, and the Role of Clinical Decision Support Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Patkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary team (MDT model in cancer care was introduced and endorsed to ensure that care delivery is consistent with the best available evidence. Over the last few years, regular MDT meetings have become a standard practice in oncology and gained the status of the key decision-making forum for patient management. Despite the fact that cancer MDT meetings are well accepted by clinicians, concerns are raised over the paucity of good-quality evidence on their overall impact. There are also concerns over lack of the appropriate support for this important but overburdened decision-making platform. The growing acceptance by clinical community of the health information technology in recent years has created new opportunities and possibilities of using advanced clinical decision support (CDS systems to realise full potential of cancer MDT meetings. In this paper, we present targeted summary of the available evidence on the impact of cancer MDT meetings, discuss the reported challenges, and explore the role that a CDS technology could play in addressing some of these challenges.

  10. Social support, volunteering and health around the world: cross-national evidence from 139 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Calvo, Rocio; Avendano, Mauricio; Sivaramakrishnan, Kavita; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-03-01

    High levels of social capital and social integration are associated with self-rated health in many developed countries. However, it is not known whether this association extends to non-western and less economically advanced countries. We examine associations between social support, volunteering, and self-rated health in 139 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Data come from the Gallup World Poll, an internationally comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 and over. Volunteering was measured by self-reports of volunteering to an organization in the past month. Social support was based on self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends. We started by estimating random coefficient (multi-level) models and then used multivariate logistic regression to model health as a function of social support and volunteering, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, and religiosity. We found statistically significant evidence of cross-national variation in the association between social capital variables and self-rated health. In the multivariate logistic model, self-rated health were significantly associated with having social support from friends and relatives and volunteering. Results from stratified analyses indicate that these associations are strikingly consistent across countries. Our results indicate that the link between social capital and health is not restricted to high-income countries but extends across many geographical regions regardless of their national-income level.

  11. Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Béatrice Forel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1 problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, where proposed marine dissolution surfaces may be subaerial. Sedimentary evidence that the extinction was partly due to ocean acidification is therefore inconclusive; (2 Fossils of marine animals potentially affected by ocean acidification are imperfect records of past conditions; selective extinction of hypercalcifying organisms is uncertain evidence for acidification; (3 The current high rates of acidification may not reflect past rates, which cannot be measured directly, and whose temporal resolution decreases in older rocks. Thus large increases in CO2 in the past may have occurred over a long enough time to have allowed assimilation into the oceans, and acidification may not have stressed ocean biota to the present extent. Although we acknowledge the very likely occurrence of past ocean acidification, obtaining support presents a continuing challenge for the Earth science community.

  12. Force That Increases at Larger Distance Has Some Psychological and Astronomical Evidence Supporting its Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, James

    2011-09-01

    Force that Increases with distance is different than dark energy as I am arguing for existence of force based on psychological and astronomical bases. Hubble shift, doppler shift, comet return, quasar zoo and quasars and psychological evidence of interest in distant objects lends support to a force like gravity, nuclear, weak, strong, virtual, decay, biological, growth forces which increases its intensity with distance unlike gravity which decreases in intensity with distance. Jane Frances Back Struck contributed to this finding with her request that her grandparents have "perfect justice" even though her grandparents had died before she was born; interest increasing with distance from grandparents.

  13. Supporting evidence-based medicine: a survey of U.S. medical librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Wu, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify medical librarians' roles in supporting evidence-based medicine (EBM) practice; determine whether medical librarians' work settings, work experiences, or job titles made a difference in their EBM responsibilities; and find out medical librarians' perceptions of their roles in EBM practice. An online survey was distributed to U.S. medical librarians. The results showed that medical librarians had positive perceptions of their EBM-related responsibilities, which were diverse and specific. Their work experience, work settings, and job title categories related to some of their EBM responsibilities, as well as the nature of some of the responsibilities.

  14. Financial Decision-making Abilities and Financial Exploitation in Older African Americans: Preliminary Validity Evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Ficker, Lisa J.; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cogn...

  15. Evidence does not support absorption of intact solid lipid nanoparticles via oral delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiongwei; Fan, Wufa; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Xiaochun; Zhao, Weili; Wu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Whether and to what extent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be absorbed integrally via oral delivery should be clarified because it is the basis for elucidation of absorption mechanisms. To address this topic, the in vivo fate of SLNs as well as their interaction with biomembranes is investigated using water-quenching fluorescent probes that can signal structural variations of lipid-based nanocarriers. Live imaging indicates prolonged retention of SLNs in the stomach, whereas in the intestine, SLNs can be digested quickly. No translocation of intact SLNs to other organs or tissues can be observed. The in situ perfusion study shows bioadhesion of both SLNs and simulated mixed micelles (SMMs) to intestinal mucus, but no evidence of penetration of integral nanocarriers. Both SLNs and SMMs exhibit significant cellular uptake, but fail to penetrate cell monolayers. Confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that nanocarriers mainly concentrate on the surface of the monolayers, and no evidence of penetration of intact vehicles can be obtained. The mucous layer acts as a barrier to the penetration of both SLNs and SMMs. Both bile salt-decoration and SMM formulation help to strengthen the interaction with biomembranes. It is concluded that evidence does not support absorption of intact SLNs via oral delivery.Whether and to what extent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be absorbed integrally via oral delivery should be clarified because it is the basis for elucidation of absorption mechanisms. To address this topic, the in vivo fate of SLNs as well as their interaction with biomembranes is investigated using water-quenching fluorescent probes that can signal structural variations of lipid-based nanocarriers. Live imaging indicates prolonged retention of SLNs in the stomach, whereas in the intestine, SLNs can be digested quickly. No translocation of intact SLNs to other organs or tissues can be observed. The in situ perfusion study shows bioadhesion of both SLNs and

  16. Evidence supporting the use of recombinant activated factor VII in congenital bleeding disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär I Johansson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pär I Johansson, Sisse R OstrowskiCapital Region Blood Bank, Section for Transfusion Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven® was introduced in 1996 for the treatment of hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factor VIII or IX.Objective: To review the evidence supporting the use of rFVIIa for the treatment of patients with congenital bleeding disorders.Patients and methods: English-language databases were searched in September 2009 for reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating the ability of rFVIIa to restore hemostasis in patients with congenital bleeding disorders.Results: Eight RCTs involving 256 hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factors, also known as inhibitors, were identified. The evidence supporting the use of rFVIIa in these patients was weak with regard to dose, clinical setting, mode of administration, efficacy, and adverse events, given the limited sample size of each RCT and the heterogeneity of the studies.Conclusion: The authors suggest that rFVIIa therapy in hemophilic patients with inhibitors should be based on the individual’s ability to generate thrombin and form a clot, and not on the patient’s weight alone. Therefore, assays for thrombin generation, such as whole-blood thromboelastography, have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of these patients.Keywords: hemophilia, inhibitors, coagulation factor VIII, coagulation factor IX, rFVIIa, NovoSeven, FEIBA, hemostasis, RCT

  17. Extracting physician group intelligence from electronic health records to support evidence based medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin M Weber

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine employs expert opinion and clinical data to inform clinical decision making. The objective of this study is to determine whether it is possible to complement these sources of evidence with information about physician "group intelligence" that exists in electronic health records. Specifically, we measured laboratory test "repeat intervals", defined as the amount of time it takes for a physician to repeat a test that was previously ordered for the same patient. Our assumption is that while the result of a test is a direct measure of one marker of a patient's health, the physician's decision to order the test is based on multiple factors including past experience, available treatment options, and information about the patient that might not be coded in the electronic health record. By examining repeat intervals in aggregate over large numbers of patients, we show that it is possible to 1 determine what laboratory test results physicians consider "normal", 2 identify subpopulations of patients that deviate from the norm, and 3 identify situations where laboratory tests are over-ordered. We used laboratory tests as just one example of how physician group intelligence can be used to support evidence based medicine in a way that is automated and continually updated.

  18. Building an evidence-based multitiered system of supports for high-risk youth and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Beverly E; Mihalic, Sharon F; Sigel, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    The mental, emotional and behavioral health problems of high-risk youth and youth living in high-risk communities are not inevitable and can be prevented. A shift from the nation's focus on treating disease and illness after it occurs to a concentrated effort on preventing the root causes of these problems is needed. Prevention science suggests a comprehensive multitiered approach that provides evidence-based prevention supports for children and youth at each developmental stage and across multiple social contexts is likely to result in the greatest health impact and return on investment. However, actually implementing this approach at a neighborhood level has remained a challenge and an ongoing research gap especially in high-risk communities. This article describes a process and provides a case study example for implementing a comprehensive, multitiered approach in a high-risk community. This includes assessing and prioritizing the specific needs of individuals and communities; selecting evidence-based programs based upon assessed needs; and creating a continuum of programs to improve the health and well-being of youth across developmental age spans, social contexts, and levels of risk. Operational details and challenges for organizing and implementing this comprehensive approach are also described. We estimate that the collective impact of a multitiered evidence-based approach, implemented with fidelity, could conservatively result in a 30 to 40% reduction in problem behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Does evidence support physiotherapy management of adult Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type One? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Anne E; Bialocerkowski, Andrea E

    2009-04-01

    To source and critically evaluate the evidence on the effectiveness of Physiotherapy to manage adult CRPS-1. Systematic literature review. Electronic databases, conference proceedings, clinical guidelines and text books were searched for quantitative studies on CRPS-1 in adults where Physiotherapy was a sole or significant component of the intervention. Data were extracted according to predefined criteria by two independent reviewers. Methodological quality was assessed using the Critical Review Form. The search strategy identified 1320 potential articles. Of these, 14 articles, representing 11 studies, met inclusion criteria. There were five randomised controlled trials, one comparative study and five case series. Methodological quality was dependent on study type, with randomised controlled trials being higher in quality. Physiotherapy treatments varied between studies and were often provided in combination with medical management. This did not allow for the 'stand-alone' value of Physiotherapy to be determined. Heterogeneity across the studies, with respect to participants, interventions evaluated and outcome measures used, prevented meta-analysis. Narrative synthesis of the results, based on effect size, found there was good to very good quality level II evidence that graded motor imagery is effective in reducing pain in adults with CRPS-1, irrespective of the outcome measure used. No evidence was found to support treatments frequently recommended in clinical guidelines, such as stress loading. Graded motor imagery should be used to reduce pain in adult CRPS-1 patients. Further, the results of this review should be used to update CRPS-1 clinical guidelines.

  20. Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia do Carmo Silva Parreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions: Is Kinesio Taping more effective than a sham taping/placebo, no treatment or other interventions in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Is the addition of Kinesio Taping to other interventions more effective than other interventions alone in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal conditions. Intervention: Kinesio Taping was compared with sham taping/placebo, no treatment, exercises, manual therapy and conventional physiotherapy. Outcome measures: Pain intensity, disability, quality of life, return to work, and global impression of recovery. Results: Twelve randomised trials involving 495 participants were included in the review. The effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping was tested in participants with: shoulder pain in two trials; knee pain in three trials; chronic low back pain in two trials; neck pain in three trials; plantar fasciitis in one trial; and multiple musculoskeletal conditions in one trial. The methodological quality of eligible trials was moderate, with a mean of 6.1 points on the 10-point PEDro Scale score. Overall, Kinesio Taping was no better than sham taping/placebo and active comparison groups. In all comparisons where Kinesio Taping was better than an active or a sham control group, the effect sizes were small and probably not clinically significant or the trials were of low quality. Conclusion: This review provides the most updated evidence on the effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping for musculoskeletal conditions. The current evidence does not support the use of this intervention in these clinical populations. PROSPERO registration: CRD42012003436. [Parreira PdCS, Costa LdCM, Hespanhol Junior LC, Lopes AD, Costa LOP (2014 Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 31–39

  1. How is research evidence used to support claims made in advertisements for wound care products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumville, Jo C; Petherick, Emily S; O'Meara, Susan; Raynor, Pauline; Cullum, Nicky

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the amount, type and accuracy of citations use in support of product related claims from advertisements of wound care products. Although articles submitted to most medical journals are subjected to peer review, such scrutiny is often not required for the content of advertisements. A contents survey of advertisements from two wound care journals (Journal of Wound Care and Ostomy Wound Management) from 2002-2003 and the British Medical Journal, 2002-2003. Data collected from advertisements included identification of product related claims made and any corresponding citations. Where journal articles were cited to support claims, the articles were obtained. Where data on file were cited, this material was requested. In each case the accuracy of claims in relation to the content of the supporting citation was assessed. The use of citations to support product related claims was infrequent in advertisements from wound care journals, where 35% of advertisements containing a product related claim also contained at least one citation, compared with 63% of advertisements from the British Medical Journal. Of citations that were supplied, journal articles were less common in the wound journals (40% vs. 73% in the British Medical Journal) and data on file more common (38% vs. 6% in the British Medical Journal). Where journal articles were obtained, 56% of claims in the wound care journals advertisements were not supported by the cited article, compared with 12% of claims in the British Medical Journal. The wound journals advertised predominantly medical devices. The use and accuracy of referencing in advertisements from wound care journals was poor. Nurses have increasing responsibilities for the prescribing of both drugs and devices, which must be accompanied by the ability to interpret marketing materials and research evidence critically. Nurse educators must ensure that nurse education generally and nurse prescriber training particularly, builds skills of

  2. Life support decision making in critical care: Identifying and appraising the qualitative research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Mita; Cook, Deborah; DeJean, Deirdre

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to identify and appraise qualitative research evidence on the experience of making life-support decisions in critical care. In six databases and supplementary sources, we sought original research published from January 1990 through June 2008 reporting qualitative empirical studies of the experience of life-support decision making in critical care settings. Fifty-three journal articles and monographs were included. Of these, 25 reported prospective studies and 28 reported retrospective studies. We abstracted methodologic characteristics relevant to the basic critical appraisal of qualitative research (prospective data collection, ethics approval, purposive sampling, iterative data collection and analysis, and any method to corroborate findings). Qualitative research traditions represented include grounded theory (n = 15, 28%), ethnography or naturalistic methods (n = 15, 28%), phenomenology (n = 9, 17%), and other or unspecified approaches (n = 14, 26%). All 53 documents describe the research setting; 97% indicate purposive sampling of participants. Studies vary in their capture of multidisciplinary clinician and family perspectives. Thirty-one (58%) report research ethics board review. Only 49% report iterative data collection and analysis, and eight documents (15%) describe an analytically driven stopping point for data collection. Thirty-two documents (60%) indicated a method for corroborating findings. Qualitative evidence often appears outside of clinical journals, with most research from the United States. Prospective, observation-based studies follow life-support decision making directly. These involve a variety of participants and yield important insights into interactions, communication, and dynamics. Retrospective, interview-based studies lack this direct engagement, but focus on the recollections of fewer types of participants (particularly patients and physicians), and typically address specific issues (communication and

  3. A preliminary investigation of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (EC/LSS) for the space construction base manufacturing modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H. B.

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary data of the environmental control and life support subsystem for a space construction base manufacturing module was reported. A space processing module, which is capable of performing production biological experiments, was chosen as a baseline configuration. The primary assemblies and components considered for use were humidity and temperature control, ventilation fan, cabin fan, water separator, condensate storage, overboard dumping, distribution system, contaminant monitoring, cabin sensors, and fire and smoke detection.

  4. Evidence supporting the use of cone-beam computed tomography in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vlijmen, Olivier J C; Kuijpers, Mette A R; Bergé, Stefaan J; Schols, Jan G J H; Maal, Thomas J J; Breuning, Hero; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2012-03-01

    The authors conducted a systematic review of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) applications in orthodontics and evaluated the level of evidence to determine whether the use of CBCT is justified in orthodontics. The authors identified articles by searching the Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases. They searched the articles' reference lists manually for additional articles and had no language limitations. They did not search the gray literature. Inclusion criteria were CBCT use in orthodontics and that the participants be human. The lowest level of evidence accepted for inclusion was a case series with five or more participants. The authors evaluated the studies' methodological quality according to 13 criteria related to study design, measurements and statistical analysis. The authors identified 550 articles, and 50 met the inclusion criteria. Study topics included temporary anchorage devices, cephalometry, combined orthodontic and surgical treatment, airway measurements, root resorption and tooth impactions, and cleft lip and palate. The methodological quality averaged 53 percent (range, 15-77 percent) of the maximum score. The authors found no high-quality evidence regarding the benefits of CBCT use in orthodontics. Limited evidence shows that CBCT offers better diagnostic potential, leads to better treatment planning or results in better treatment outcome than do conventional imaging modalities. Only the results of studies on airway diagnostics provided sound scientific data suggesting that CBCT use has added value. The additional radiation exposure should be weighed against possible benefits of CBCT, which have not been supported in the literature. In future studies, investigators should evaluate the effects of CBCT on treatment procedures, progression and outcome quantitatively.

  5. Sustained Implementation of Evidence-based Programs in Disadvantaged Communities: A Conceptual Framework of Supporting Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a review of the empirical literature for studies evaluating factors that facilitate and create barriers to sustained program implementation in disadvantaged communities. It outlines study methodology and sustainment outcomes and proposes a conceptual model that involves implementation sustainment support for providers delivering evidence-based health and family services in disadvantaged communities. Sustained program implementation in the community setting is a significant issue as only 43% of studies reported successfully sustained programs. The review identified 18 factors that facilitate success and create barriers to program sustainment. The factors are synthesized into three themes; program characteristics, workplace capacity, and process and interaction factors. The majority of factors map onto commonly cited sustainability influences in implementation science. However, there was an additional focus for studies included in this review on the importance of factors such as program burden, program familiarity and perceived competence in program skills, workplace support for the program, staff mobility and turnover, supervision and peer support, and ongoing technical assistance. The need to use a conceptual framework and develop measures to guide and evaluate capacity building in EBP implementation and sustainment in low-resource community settings is highlighted.

  6. The Evidence Information Service as a New Platform for Supporting Evidence-Based Policy: A Consultation of UK Parliamentarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalia S.; Chambers, Jemma C.; Morrison, Sinead M.; Bestmann, Sven; O'Grady, Gerard; Chambers, Christopher D.; Kythreotis, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The value of evidence-based policy is well established, yet major hurdles remain in connecting policymakers with the wider research community. Here we assess whether a UK Evidence Information Service (EIS) could facilitate interaction between parliamentarians and research professionals. Fifty-six UK parliamentarians were interviewed to gauge the…

  7. Development and preliminary evaluation of the Child Feeding Guide website and app: A tool to support caregivers with promoting healthy eating in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Haycraft

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fussy eating in young children is very common, with at least 50% of parents reporting having a fussy child. Eating behaviours established early in life tend to remain throughout childhood and into adulthood, so ensuring that children develop healthy eating behaviours from their earliest years is vital. Fussy children often refuse to eat healthy foods, like fruit and vegetables, but favour high-calorie foods instead. Diets low in fruit and vegetables have been linked to a number of preventable health conditions, such as diabetes and cancers, as well as to overweight and obesity. Fussy child eating behaviours can also cause anxiety and stress in caregivers, which can perpetuate the problem. Despite an abundance of available support for introducing complementary foods, practical advice about child feeding once weaning has occurred is lacking. Moreover, caregivers find available resources about feeding young children and promoting healthy eating to be “too basic” and have called for evidence-based, credible resources to help them manage children’s difficult or fussy eating behaviours. Empowering caregivers to effectively manage fussy eating behaviours and improve health in their children will likely prevent these eating behaviours from becoming engrained and reduce the number of children eating unhealthy or limited diets. Aim: To address the lack of child feeding support for caregivers by developing an evidence-based, credible and accessible support resource to promote healthy eating habits in young children and healthy feeding practices in caregivers. Method: Following a review of the literature and consultation with caregivers, the Child Feeding Guide was developed. The Child Feeding Guide is a website and free mobile app which offers information, advice and tools to help caregivers manage fussy eating behaviours. An online format was used to ensure the Child Feeding Guide is accessible and that a diverse range of caregivers can

  8. Facilitating the implementation of evidence-based practice through contextual support and nursing leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kueny A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Kueny,1 Leah L Shever,2 Melissa Lehan Mackin,3 Marita G Titler4 1Luther College, Decorah, IA, 2The University of Michigan Hospital and Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 3University of Iowa College of Nursing, Iowa City, IA, 4University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background/purpose: Nurse managers (NMs play an important role promoting evidence-based practice (EBP on clinical units within hospitals. However, there is a dearth of research focused on NM perspectives about institutional contextual factors to support the goal of EBP on the clinical unit. The purpose of this article is to identify contextual factors described by NMs to drive change and facilitate EBP at the unit level, comparing and contrasting these perspectives across nursing units. Methods: This study employed a qualitative descriptive design using interviews with nine NMs who were participating in a large effectiveness study. To stratify the sample, NMs were selected from nursing units designated as high or low performing based on implementation of EBP interventions, scores on the Meyer and Goes research use scale, and fall rates. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes that reflect the complex nature of infrastructure described by NMs and contextual influences that supported or hindered their promotion of EBP on the clinical unit. Results: NMs perceived workplace culture, structure, and resources as facilitators or barriers to empowering nurses under their supervision to use EBP and drive change. A workplace culture that provides clear communication of EBP goals or regulatory changes, direct contact with CEOs, and clear expectations supported NMs in their promotion of EBP on their units. High-performing unit NMs described a structure that included nursing-specific committees, allowing nurses to drive change and EBP from within the unit. NMs from high-performing units were more likely to articulate internal resources, such as quality

  9. Decision support for evidence-based pharmacotherapy detects adherence problems but does not impact medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Janese M; Edwards, Rex; Anstrom, Kevin J; Johnson, Fred S; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lapointe, Nancy M Allen; Eisenstein, Eric L; Lobach, David F

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence-based pharmacotherapies are a principal component of patient care, 30-50% of patients do not take their medications as prescribed. We conducted a randomized trial of two clinical decision support (CDS) interventions in 2219 patients: patient adherence reports to providers (n=744), patient adherence reports to providers + email notices to care managers (n=736), and controls (739). At 18-month follow-up, there were no treatment-related differences in patient medication adherence (overall, by medication class, and by medical condition). There also were no treatment-related differences in patient clinical and economic outcomes. Thus, while this study's CDS information interventions were successfully delivered to providers and care managers, and were effective in identifying medication adherence deficits and in increasing care manager responses to medication adherences issues, these interventions were not able to alter patient medication behavior.

  10. Support as a complement, intrusion and right--evidence from ageing and disability support service users in Sweden and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laragy, Carmel; Fisher, Karen R; Cedersund, Elisabet; Campbell-McLean, Carolyn

    2011-12-01

    How service users conceptualise their personal support services is under researched, even though this understanding is important for responsive policy development and service implementation. This paper tests the proposition that service users understand formal support in three ways: support is a complement to their other arrangements, an intrusion into their personal life and a right. These three concepts were identified using discourse analysis in a Swedish study of older people wanting in-home support services. To test generalisability of these concepts, they were applied to data from an Australian study of people using disability personal support. The analysis found that the three concepts were core to people's views of their support, although the construction of the concepts differed in the two countries. Service users in Sweden asserted their right to services more forcefully than those in Australia, and they had higher expectations that their support needs would be met. These differences reflect the impact of each country's social policy environment on service users' expectations. The analysis suggests that service users and their families want to control their formal support arrangements to complement their informal care and their life preferences and to minimise the intrusive aspects of formal support. The findings imply that the three concepts have utility for theorising service users' perspectives, informing policy and developing implementation strategies which enhance peoples' quality of life.

  11. 20 CFR 10.502 - How does OWCP evaluate evidence in support of continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... continuing receipt of compensation benefits? 10.502 Section 10.502 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Continuing Benefits Rules and Evidence § 10.502 How does OWCP evaluate evidence in support of continuing receipt of compensation benefits? In...

  12. 20 CFR 10.501 - What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... continuing receipt of compensation benefits? 10.501 Section 10.501 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Continuing Benefits Rules and Evidence § 10.501 What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits? (a) The...

  13. Evidence - competence - discourse: the theoretical framework of the multi-centre clinical ethics support project METAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter-Theil, Stella; Mertz, Marcel; Schürmann, Jan; Stingelin Giles, Nicola; Meyer-Zehnder, Barbara

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we assume that 'theory' is important for Clinical Ethics Support Services (CESS). We will argue that the underlying implicit theory should be reflected. Moreover, we suggest that the theoretical components on which any clinical ethics support (CES) relies should be explicitly articulated in order to enhance the quality of CES. A theoretical framework appropriate for CES will be necessarily complex and should include ethical (both descriptive and normative), metaethical and organizational components. The various forms of CES that exist in North-America and in Europe show their underlying theory more or less explicitly, with most of them referring to some kind of theoretical components including 'how-to' questions (methodology), organizational issues (implementation), problem analysis (phenomenology or typology of problems), and related ethical issues such as end-of-life decisions (major ethical topics). In order to illustrate and explain the theoretical framework that we are suggesting for our own CES project METAP, we will outline this project which has been established in a multi-centre context in several healthcare institutions. We conceptualize three 'pillars' as the major components of our theoretical framework: (1) evidence, (2) competence, and (3) discourse. As a whole, the framework is aimed at developing a foundation of our CES project METAP. We conclude that this specific integration of theoretical components is a promising model for the fruitful further development of CES. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Structuring a life support program using evidence-based practice and the Magnet model for successful patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Mary; Paston, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating life support activities into an acute care academic hospital structure using evidence-based practice and the Magnet Model framework provides program operations and outcomes that are cost effective, link quality to life support professional development, and demonstrate excellence patient safety outcomes.

  15. Preliminary evidence of within-subject changes in gray matter density associated with remission of bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John O; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Thompson, Paul M; Altshuler, Lori L

    2011-07-30

    A preliminary within-subjects MRI study of seven patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder revealed that, compared to remission, depression was associated with gray matter density increases in subgenual prefrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and inferior temporal gyri. Decreases were observed in superior and inferior frontal gyri and anterior cingulate.

  16. Evidence-based management of ambulatory electronic health record system implementation: an assessment of conceptual support and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Hefner, Jennifer L; Sieck, Cynthia; Rizer, Milisa; Huerta, Timothy R

    2014-07-01

    While electronic health record (EHR) systems have potential to drive improvements in healthcare, a majority of EHR implementations fall short of expectations. Shortcomings in implementations are often due to organizational issues around the implementation process rather than technological problems. Evidence from both the information technology and healthcare management literature can be applied to improve the likelihood of implementation success, but the translation of this evidence into practice has not been widespread. Our objective was to comprehensively study and synthesize best practices for managing ambulatory EHR system implementation in healthcare organizations, highlighting applicable management theories and successful strategies. We held 45 interviews with key informants in six U.S. healthcare organizations purposively selected based on reported success with ambulatory EHR implementation. We also conducted six focus groups comprised of 37 physicians. Interview and focus group transcripts were analyzed using both deductive and inductive methods to answer research questions and explore emergent themes. We suggest that successful management of ambulatory EHR implementation can be guided by the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) quality improvement (QI) model. While participants did not acknowledge nor emphasize use of this model, we found evidence that successful implementation practices could be framed using the PDSA model. Additionally, successful sites had three strategies in common: 1) use of evidence from published health information technology (HIT) literature emphasizing implementation facilitators; 2) focusing on workflow; and 3) incorporating critical management factors that facilitate implementation. Organizations seeking to improve ambulatory EHR implementation processes can use frameworks such as the PDSA QI model to guide efforts and provide a means to formally accommodate new evidence over time. Implementing formal management strategies and incorporating

  17. The Evidence in Support of Physicians and Health Care Providers as Physical Activity Role Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; de Quevedo, Isabel Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity constitutes the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) should play a key role in counseling and appropriately referring their patients to adopt physical activity (PA). Previous reports suggest that active HCPs are more likely to provide better, more credible, and motivating preventive counseling to their patients. This review summarizes the available evidence on the association between HCPs’ personal PA habits and their related PA counseling practices. Based on relevant studies, a snowball search strategy identified, out of 196 studies screened, a total of 47 pertinent articles published between 1979 and 2012. Of those, 23 described HCPs’ PA habits and/or their counseling practices and 24 analytic studies evaluated the association between HCPs’ personal PA habits and their PA counseling practices. The majority of studies came from the United States (n = 33), and 9 studies included nonphysicians (nurses, pharmacists, and other HCPs). PA levels were mostly self-reported, and counseling was typically assessed as self-reported frequency or perceived self-efficacy in clinical practice. Most (19 out of 24) analytic studies reported a significant positive association between HCPs’ PA habits and counseling frequency, with odds ratios ranging between 1.4 and 5.7 (P < .05), in 6 studies allowing direct comparison. This review found consistent evidence supporting the notion that physically active physicians and other HCPs are more likely to provide PA counseling to their patients and can indeed become powerful PA role models. This evidence appears sufficient to justify randomized trials to determine if adding interventions to promote PA among HCPs, also results in improvements in the frequency and quality of PA preventive counseling and referrals, delivered by HCPs, to patients in primary care settings. Future studies should also aim at objectively quantifying the effect of HCPs’ PA role-modeling and how it

  18. Preliminary evidence for a matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-dependent shedding of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) from activated platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinboldt, Stephan; Wenzel, Folker; Rauch, Bernhard H; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Grandoch, Maria; Fischer, Jens W; Weber, Artur-Aron

    2009-09-01

    Platelets are the major source of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in the blood. It has been demonstrated that CD40L is cleaved from the surface of activated platelets to release sCD40L. However, the enzyme involved in sCD40L shedding has not been identified yet. Using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors of serine, cysteine, aspartate, or metalloproteinases, preliminary evidence is presented for the hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) might be the protease, primarily responsible for CD40L cleavage from platelet surface.

  19. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  20. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P G; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-08-19

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  1. Further evidence supporting a role for gs signal transduction in severe malaria pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Auburn

    Full Text Available With the functional demonstration of a role in erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum parasites, implications in the aetiology of common conditions that prevail in individuals of African origin, and a wealth of pharmacological knowledge, the stimulatory G protein (Gs signal transduction pathway presents an exciting target for anti-malarial drug intervention. Having previously demonstrated a role for the G-alpha-s gene, GNAS, in severe malaria disease, we sought to identify other important components of the Gs pathway. Using meta-analysis across case-control and family trio (affected child and parental controls studies of severe malaria from The Gambia and Malawi, we sought evidence of association in six Gs pathway candidate genes: adenosine receptor 2A (ADORA2A and 2B (ADORA2B, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (ADRBK1, adenylyl cyclase 9 (ADCY9, G protein beta subunit 3 (GNB3, and regulator of G protein signalling 2 (RGS2. Our study amassed a total of 2278 cases and 2364 controls. Allele-based models of association were investigated in all genes, and genotype and haplotype-based models were investigated where significant allelic associations were identified. Although no significant associations were observed in the other genes, several were identified in ADORA2A. The most significant association was observed at the rs9624472 locus, where the G allele (approximately 20% frequency appeared to confer enhanced risk to severe malaria [OR = 1.22 (1.09-1.37; P = 0.001]. Further investigation of the ADORA2A gene region is required to validate the associations identified here, and to identify and functionally characterize the responsible causal variant(s. Our results provide further evidence supporting a role of the Gs signal transduction pathway in the regulation of severe malaria, and request further exploration of this pathway in future studies.

  2. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of the Utility of the "Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II" for Use in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Lynne S.; McVilly, Keith R.; Fester, Tarryn; Zazelis, Telly

    2011-01-01

    Background: The quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) can be an important influence on the quality of the support provided to people with disability who show challenging behaviours. The Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II (BSP-QE II) is one tool that may be useful in assessing the quality of behaviour support plans. It has…

  4. Evidence-based practice implementation: the impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sommerfeld, David H; Walrath-Greene, Christine M

    2009-12-31

    The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private) and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170). Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in community settings.

  5. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommerfeld David H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170. Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in

  6. Population-based public health interventions: practice-based and evidence-supported. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Linda Olson; Strohschein, Susan; Lia-Hoagberg, Betty; Schaffer, Marjorie A

    2004-01-01

    The Intervention Wheel is a population-based practice model that encompasses three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual/family) and 17 public health interventions. Each intervention and practice level contributes to improving population health. The Intervention Wheel, previously known as the Public Health Intervention Model, was originally introduced in 1998 by the Minnesota Department of Health, Section of Public Health Nursing. The model has been widely disseminated and used throughout the United States since that time. The evidence supporting the Intervention Wheel was recently subjected to a rigorous critique by regional and national experts. This critical process, which involved hundreds of public health nurses, resulted in a more robust Intervention Wheel and established the validity of the model. The critique also produced basic steps and best practices for each of the 17 interventions. Part I describes the Intervention Wheel, defines population-based practice, and details the recommended modifications and validation process. Part II provides examples of the innovative ways that the Intervention Wheel is being used in public health/public health nursing practice, education, and administration. The two articles provide a foundation and vision for population-based public health nursing practice and direction for improving population health.

  7. Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal infections and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eMiklossy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Following previous observations a statistically significant association between various types of spirochetes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD fulfilled Hill’s criteria in favor of a causal relationship. If spirochetal infections can indeed cause AD, the pathological and biological hallmarks of AD should also occur in syphilitic dementia. To answer this question, observations and illustrations on the detection of spirochetes in the atrophic form of general paresis, which is known to be associated with slowly progressive dementia, were reviewed and compared with the characteristic pathology of AD. Historic observations and illustrations published in the first half of the 20th Century indeed confirm that the pathological hallmarks, which define AD, are also present in syphilitic dementia. Cortical spirochetal colonies are made up by innumerable tightly spiraled Treponema pallidum spirochetes, which are morphologically indistinguishable from senile plaques, using conventional light microscopy. Local brain amyloidosis also occurs in general paresis and, as in AD, corresponds to amyloid beta. These historic observations enable us to conclude that chronic spirochetal infections can cause dementia and reproduce the defining hallmarks of AD. They represent further evidence in support a causal relationship between various spirochetal infections and AD. They also indicate that local invasion of the brain by these helically shaped bacteria reproduce the filamentous pathology characteristic of AD. Chronic infection by spirochetes, and co-infection with other bacteria and viruses should be included in our current view on the etiology of AD. Prompt action is needed as AD might be prevented.

  8. Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal infections and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklossy, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Following previous observations a statistically significant association between various types of spirochetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) fulfilled Hill's criteria in favor of a causal relationship. If spirochetal infections can indeed cause AD, the pathological and biological hallmarks of AD should also occur in syphilitic dementia. To answer this question, observations and illustrations on the detection of spirochetes in the atrophic form of general paresis, which is known to be associated with slowly progressive dementia, were reviewed and compared with the characteristic pathology of AD. Historic observations and illustrations published in the first half of the 20th Century indeed confirm that the pathological hallmarks, which define AD, are also present in syphilitic dementia. Cortical spirochetal colonies are made up by innumerable tightly spiraled Treponema pallidum spirochetes, which are morphologically indistinguishable from senile plaques, using conventional light microscopy. Local brain amyloidosis also occurs in general paresis and, as in AD, corresponds to amyloid beta. These historic observations enable us to conclude that chronic spirochetal infections can cause dementia and reproduce the defining hallmarks of AD. They represent further evidence in support a causal relationship between various spirochetal infections and AD. They also indicate that local invasion of the brain by these helically shaped bacteria reproduce the filamentous pathology characteristic of AD. Chronic infection by spirochetes, and co-infection with other bacteria and viruses should be included in our current view on the etiology of AD. Prompt action is needed as AD might be prevented.

  9. Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karavokiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

  10. Confirmatory factor analysis for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire: Evidence supporting a three-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jennifer; Prescott, Tim; Muncer, Steven

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the goodness-of-fit of a one factor model with the four factor model proposed by Fairburn (2008) and the three factor model proposed by Peterson and colleagues (2007) for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q 6.0) (Fairburn and Beglin, 1994). Using a cross-sectional design, the EDE-Q was completed by 569 adults recruited from universities and eating disorder charities in the UK. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out for both the student and non-student groups. CFA indicated that Peterson et al.'s (2007) three factor model was the best fit for both groups within the current data sample. Acceptable levels of internal reliability were observed and there was clear evidence for a hierarchical factor of eating disorder. The results of this study provide support for the three factor model of the EDE-Q suggested by Peterson and colleagues (2007) in that this model was appropriate for both the student and non-student sample populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing symptoms during cancer treatments: evaluating the implementation of evidence-informed remote support protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Dawn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of cancer treatment-related symptoms is an important safety issue given that symptoms can become life-threatening and often occur when patients are at home. With funding from the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, a pan-Canadian steering committee was established with representation from eight provinces to develop symptom protocols using a rigorous methodology (CAN-IMPLEMENT©. Each protocol is based on a systematic review of the literature to identify relevant clinical practice guidelines. Protocols were validated by cancer nurses from across Canada. The aim of this study is to build an effective and sustainable approach for implementing evidence-informed protocols for nurses to use when providing remote symptom assessment, triage, and guidance in self-management for patients experiencing symptoms while undergoing cancer treatments. Methods A prospective mixed-methods study design will be used. Guided by the Knowledge to Action Framework, the study will involve (a establishing an advisory knowledge user team in each of three targeted settings; (b assessing factors influencing nurses’ use of protocols using interviews/focus groups and a standardized survey instrument; (c adapting protocols for local use, ensuring fidelity of the content; (d selecting intervention strategies to overcome known barriers and implementing the protocols; (e conducting think-aloud usability testing; (f evaluating protocol use and outcomes by conducting an audit of 100 randomly selected charts at each of the three settings; and (g assessing satisfaction with remote support using symptom protocols and change in nurses’ barriers to use using survey instruments. The primary outcome is sustained use of the protocols, defined as use in 75% of the calls. Descriptive analysis will be conducted for the barriers, use of protocols, and chart audit outcomes. Content analysis will be conducted on interviews/focus groups and usability testing

  12. Preliminary evidence of a noncausal association between the X-chromosome inactivation pattern and thyroid autoimmunity: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2009-01-01

    ; regression coefficient (beta)=1.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-2.38), P=0.003. The association remained significant in the within-pair analysis; beta=1.74 (0.79-2.69), Pbeta=0.57 (-0.78-1.92), P=0.405), whereas the association...... was significant in the 77 dizygotic pairs (beta=2.17 (0.81-3.53), P=0.002). This preliminary finding of a significant association between TPOAb concentrations and XCI within cohort and within dizygotic but not within monozygotic twin pairs may indicate that XCI per se does not have a major role...

  13. Medical School Librarians Need More Training to Support their Involvement in Evidence Based Medicine Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn Conway

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To describe the self-perceived role of librarians in developing evidence based medicine (EBM curricula and identify their current and desired level of training to support these activities. Design – Multi-institutional qualitative study. Setting – Nine medical schools in Canada and the United States of America. Subjects – Nine librarians identified by medical school faculty as central to the provision of EBM training for medical students at their institution. Methods – The researchers designed a semi-structured interview schedule based on a review of the literature and their own experiences as librarians teaching EBM. The topics covered were; librarians’ perceptions of their roles in relation to the curriculum, the training required to enable them to undertake these roles, and their professional development needs. The interviews were conducted by telephone and then audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The authors present five main themes; curricular design, curricular deployment, curricular assessment, educational training, and professional development. Profiles were developed for each participant based on the latter two themes and from this information common characteristics were identified. Main Results – The participants described the importance of collaboration with faculty and student bodies when designing a curriculum. Information literacy instruction and specifically literature searching and forming a research question were taught by all of the participants to facilitate curricular deployment. Some of the librarians were involved or partly involved in curricular assessment activities such as formulating exam questions or providing feedback on assignments. Educational training of participants varied from informal observation to formal workshops offered by higher education institutions. All librarians indicated a willingness to partake in professional development focused on teaching and EBM. The subjects

  14. Teacher Self-Assessment of Evidence-Based Classroom Practices: Preliminary Findings across Primary, Intermediate and Secondary Level Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmeier, Chris; Loman, Sheldon L.; Hara, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    The limited implementation of evidence-based classroom practices and ways to provide effective professional development to address this challenge remain enduring concerns in education. Despite these concerns, there exists a well-established research literature on evidence-based practices for effective classroom management and instructional…

  15. Mother Reports of Maternal Support Following Child Sexual Abuse: Preliminary Psychometric Data on the Maternal Self-Report Support Questionnaire (MSSQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W.; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Jones, Lisa M.; Cross, Theodore; McCart, Michael R.; Ralston, M. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Maternal support is an important factor in predicting outcomes following disclosure of child sexual abuse; however, definition of the construct has been unclear and existing measures of maternal support are utilized inconsistently and have limited psychometric data. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid…

  16. New sedimentological evidence supporting a catastrophic meltwater discharge event along the Beaufort margin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotsko, S.; Driscoll, N. W.; Keigwin, L. D.; Mendenhall, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, a cruise on the USCGC Healy mapped the Beaufort margin from Barrow, AK into the Amundsen Gulf using a towed CHIRP subbottom profiler and a hull-mounted Knudsen CHIRP subbottom profiler to study the deglaciation of the margin. Sediment cores were also acquired. New grain size analyses for three sediment cores will be presented. These records help constrain the flooding events captured in the existing grain size data from JPC 15, just east of the Mackenzie trough. This core shows evidence of multiple ice rafted debris events that were likely sourced from the retreat of the Amundsen ice stream. These layers have peaks in grain size around ~20 microns compared to the ~5 micron average for the rest of the core. The grain size peaks correlate to the high amplitude reflectors observed in the seismic CHIRP data. Similar reflectors are observed in the seismic data from two of the new core locations, one in the Mackenzie trough and one east of the trough. The seismic data from these stations also record a thick sediment package that is ~7 meters thick at its depocenter. This layer is interpreted to record a massive meltwater discharge event that entered the Arctic via the Mackenzie River. Oxygen isotope data from JPC 15 support an event at this location based on the covarying benthic and planktonic records. In our conceptual model, the pulses of freshwater from the Amundsen Gulf likely freshened the margin sufficiently that the major discharge event was then able to push the system over the edge. This catastrophic glacial lake draining out the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea and export out of the Arctic into the North Atlantic caused diminished meridional overturning circulation - slowing of the conveyor belt thermohaline circulation - which, in turn, potentially caused the Younger Dryas cold period.

  17. Evidence-informed health policy 1 – Synthesis of findings from a multi-method study of organizations that support the use of research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moynihan Ray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations have been established in many countries and internationally to support the use of research evidence by producing clinical practice guidelines, undertaking health technology assessments, and/or directly supporting the use of research evidence in developing health policy on an international, national, and state or provincial level. Learning from these organizations can reduce the need to 'reinvent the wheel' and inform decisions about how best to organize support for such organizations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods We undertook a multi-method study in three phases – a survey, interviews, and case descriptions that drew on site visits – and in each of the second and third phases we focused on a purposive sample of those involved in the previous phase. We used the seven main recommendations that emerged from the advice offered in the interviews to organize much of the synthesis of findings across phases and methods. We used a constant comparative method to identify themes from across phases and methods. Results Seven recommendations emerged for those involved in establishing or leading organizations that support the use of research evidence in developing health policy: 1 collaborate with other organizations; 2 establish strong links with policymakers and involve stakeholders in the work; 3 be independent and manage conflicts of interest among those involved in the work; 4 build capacity among those working in the organization; 5 use good methods and be transparent in the work; 6 start small, have a clear audience and scope, and address important questions; and 7 be attentive to implementation considerations, even if implementation is not a remit. Four recommendations emerged for the World Health Organization (WHO and other international organizations and networks: 1 support collaborations among organizations; 2 support local adaptation efforts; 3 mobilize support; and 4 create

  18. Preliminary test results from a free-piston Stirling engine technology demonstration program to support advanced radioisotope space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2000-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature, proven, long-life technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. Contracts from DOE and NASA are being conducted by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for the purpose of demonstrating the Stirling technology in a configuration and power level that is representative of an eventual space power system. The long-term objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for up to 15 years on deep space missions. The current technology demonstration convertors (TDC's) are completing shakedown testing and have recently demonstrated performance levels that are virtually identical to projections made during the preliminary design phase. This paper describes preliminary test results for power output, efficiency, and vibration levels. These early results demonstrate the ability of the free-piston Stirling technology to exceed objectives by approximately quadrupling the efficiency of conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). .

  19. Supporting Evidence-Informed Teaching in Biomedical and Health Professions Education Through Knowledge Translation: An Interdisciplinary Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Gordon, Morris

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: The purpose of "systematic" reviews/reviewers of medical and health professions educational research is to identify best practices. This qualitative article explores the question of whether systematic reviews can support "evidence informed" teaching and contrasts traditional systematic reviewing with a knowledge translation (KT) approach to this objective. Degrees of freedom analysis (DOFA) is used to examine the alignment of systematic review methods with educational research and the pedagogical strategies and approaches that might be considered with a decision-making framework developed to support valid assessment. This method is also used to explore how KT can be used to inform teaching and learning. The nature of educational research is not compatible with most (11/14) methods for systematic review. The inconsistency of systematic reviewing with the nature of educational research impedes both the identification and implementation of "best-evidence" pedagogy and teaching. This is primarily because research questions that do support the purposes of review do not support educational decision making. By contrast to systematic reviews of the literature, both a DOFA and KT are fully compatible with informing teaching using evidence. A DOFA supports the translation of theory to a specific teaching or learning case, so could be considered a type of KT. The DOFA results in a test of alignment of decision options with relevant educational theory, and KT leads to interventions in teaching or learning that can be evaluated. Examples of how to structure evaluable interventions are derived from a KT approach that are simply not available from a systematic review. Insights: Systematic reviewing of current empirical educational research is not suitable for deriving or supporting best practices in education. However, both "evidence-informed" and scholarly approaches to teaching can be supported as KT projects, which are inherently evaluable and can generate

  20. Coherence of evidence from systematic reviews as a basis for evidence strength - a case study in support of an epistemological proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickenautsch Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article aims to offer, on the basis of Coherence theory, the epistemological proposition that mutually supportive evidence from multiple systematic reviews may successfully refute radical, philosophical scepticism. Methods A case study including seven systematic reviews is presented with the objective of refuting radical philosophical scepticism towards the belief that glass-ionomer cements (GIC are beneficial in tooth caries therapy. The case study illustrates how principles of logical and empirical coherence may be applied as evidence in support of specific beliefs in healthcare. Results The results show that radical scepticism may epistemologically be refuted on the basis of logical and empirical coherence. For success, several systematic reviews covering interconnected beliefs are needed. In praxis, these systematic reviews would also need to be of high quality and its conclusions based on reviewed high quality trials. Conclusions A refutation of radical philosophical scepticism to clinical evidence may be achieved, if and only if such evidence is based on the logical and empirical coherence of multiple systematic review results. Practical application also requires focus on the quality of the systematic reviews and reviewed trials.

  1. Preliminary analysis of an integrated logistics system for OSSA payloads. Volume 2: OSSA integrated logistics support strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palguta, T.; Bradley, W.; Stockton, T.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose is to outline an Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) integrated logistics support strategy that will ensure effective logistics support of OSSA payloads at an affordable life-cycle cost. Program objectives, organizational relationships, and implementation of the logistics strategy are discussed.

  2. Potential flow calculations and preliminary wing design in support of an NLF variable sweep transition flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, E. G.; Phillips, P. S.; Viken, J. K.; Davis, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    NASA Langley and NASA Ames-Dryden have defined a variable-sweep transition-flight experiment utilizing the F-14 aircraft to enhance understanding of the interaction of crossflow and Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities on a laminar-boundary-layer transition. The F-14 wing outer panel will be modified to generate favorable pressure gradients on the upper wing surface over a wide range of flight conditions. Extensive computations have been performed using two-dimensional and three-dimensional transonic analysis codes. Flight-test and computational data are compared and shown to validate the applicability of the three-dimensional codes (WBPPW and TAWFIVE). In addition, results from two preliminary glove designs derived from two different approaches to the design problem are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of each approach are identified, and it is concluded that coupling an analysis code with an automated design procedure yields a powerful code with distinct advantages over a 'cut-and-dry' approach.

  3. Legalising medical use of cannabis in South Africa: Is the empirical evidence sufficient to support policy shifts in this direction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H; Myers, Bronwyn J

    2014-03-12

    Inkatha Freedom Party MP Mario Oriani-Ambrosini's impassioned plea to legalise the medical use of cannabis must be understood in the context of his own condition as well as legislative changes in at least ten countries. This article argues that any decisions to shift policy must be based on a consideration of the evidence on the risks and benefits associated with the medical use of cannabis for the individual and broader society. It concludes that there are important gaps in the evidence base, particularly in human trials supporting the efficacy of cannabis use for treating and preventing medical conditions and alleviating negative symptoms associated with these conditions. South African researchers should be enabled actively to support development of the necessary evidence base actively by conducting preclinical and clinical research in this area. Human trials to establish the efficacy of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in addressing AIDS wasting syndrome and other negative sequelae of HIV and AIDS are especially needed.

  4. Research to support evidence-based practice in COPD community nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Pamela; Wilson, Ethel; Wimpenny, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a requirement of nurses through the generation of evidence to implementing it, in a bid to to improve clinical practice. However, EBP is difficult to achieve. This paper highlights an approach to generating evidence for enhancing community nursing services for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a collaborative partnership. A district nurse and two nursing lecturers formed a partnership to devise a systematic review protocol and perform a systematic review to enhance COPD practice. This paper illustrates the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) systematic review process, the review outcomes and the practitioner learning. Collaborative partnerships between academics, researchers and clinicians are a potentially useful model to facilitate enhanced outcomes in evidence-based practice and evidence application.

  5. A Preliminary Research Plan for Development of a Photosynthetic Link in a Closed Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, P. W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of higher plants in a closed ecological life support system for long duration space missions involving large numbers of people is considered. The approach to planning and developing both the habitat for a long term space mission and closed ecological life support systems are discussed with emphasis on environmental compatibility and integrated systems design. The requirements of photosynthetic processes are summarized and evaluated in terms of their availability within a closed ecological life support environment. Specific references are recommended as a data base for future research on this topic.

  6. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China.

  7. Financial Decision-making Abilities and Financial Exploitation in Older African Americans: Preliminary Validity Evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficker, Lisa J.; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Financially exploited individuals, and non-exploited individuals, showed mean group differences on the Mini Mental State Exam, Financial Situational Awareness, Psychological Vulnerability, Current Decisional Ability, and Susceptibility to undue influence subscales, and Total Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale Score. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool for measuring both decisional abilities and financial exploitation. PMID:26285038

  8. Preliminary findings of an adapted evidence-based woman-focused HIV intervention on condom use and negotiation among at-risk women in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Luseno, Winnie K; Kline, Tracy L; Browne, Felicia A; Zule, William A

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized trial in South Africa of an adapted evidence-based Woman-Focused intervention on condom use with primary sex partners. The preliminary findings show that regardless of HIV status, condom negotiation was significantly associated with condom use at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. By intervention group, significant intervention effects were found at 6-month follow-up for HIV-positive and HIV-unknown status women in the Woman-Focused intervention who were more likely than women in the Standard intervention to report condom use with a primary male partner. Among HIV-positive women, those in the Woman-Focused group and those with greater sexual control were more likely to report condom use at the 6-month follow-up. The findings indicate that gender-based interventions for women may result in increased condom negotiation skills.

  9. Is Social Categorization the Missing Link Between Weak Central Coherence and Mental State Inference Abilities in Autism? Preliminary Evidence from a General Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorich, Daniel P; May, Adrienne R; Talipski, Louisa A; Hall, Marnie H; Dolstra, Anita J; Gash, Tahlia B; Gunningham, Beth H

    2016-03-01

    We explore the relationship between the 'theory of mind' (ToM) and 'central coherence' difficulties of autism. We introduce covariation between hierarchically-embedded categories and social information--at the local level, the global level, or at both levels simultaneously--within a category confusion task. We then ask participants to infer the mental state of novel category members, and measure participants' autism-spectrum quotient (AQ). Results reveal a positive relationship between AQ and the degree of local/global social categorization, which in turn predicts the pattern of mental state inferences. These results provide preliminary evidence for a causal relationship between central coherence and ToM abilities. Implications with regard to ToM processes, social categorization, intervention, and the development of a unified account of autism are discussed.

  10. Preliminary analysis of an integrated logistics system for OSSA payloads. Volume 3: OSSA integrated logistics support planning document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palguta, T.; Bradley, W.; Stockton, T.

    1988-01-01

    Guidance in preparing and updating an integrated logistics support plan (ILSP) is given. Clear, concise, and detailed instructions are provided on the preparation and content of an ILSP in order to ensure a quality document that reflects total program requirements.

  11. Design, Implementation, Use, and Preliminary Evaluation of an UMLS-Enabled Terminology Web Service for Clinical Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lobach, David F.

    2006-01-01

    To facilitate the provision of clinical decision support (CDS), the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) was leveraged to implement a terminology Web service. Supported functions include inter-vocabulary translation and the identification of concepts subsumed by a parent concept. Currently, the service is being used to aid the specification of clinical concepts within CDS knowledge modules. Insights gained from this process are discussed, including the limitations of using the UMLS to fulfill CDS terminology needs. PMID:17238598

  12. Effects of Training on the Use of the Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide with Autism Educators: A Preliminary Investigation Examining Positive Behavior Support Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Bonnie R.; Cook, Clayton R.; Browning-Wright, Diana; Mayer, G. Roy; Wallace, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) plans are required practice for students whose behaviors impede their learning or that of others. Educators of children and youth with autism and other developmental disorders represent a subgroup of special educators who are frequently involved in the development of PBS plans. The goal of this research was to…

  13. Discovering the dementia evidence base: Tools to support knowledge to action in dementia care (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Sarah L; Tieman, Jennifer J

    2016-09-01

    Dementia requires expert care and decision making, based on sound evidence. Reliable evidence is difficult for busy dementia care professionals to find quickly. This study developed an experimentally tested search filter as an innovative tool to retrieve literature on dementia. It has a known retrieval performance and can be provided as an open access web link directly to current literature. The Dementia Search Filter was developed using validated methodology. An Expert Advisory Group of dementia care practitioners and researchers ratified a representative set of relevant studies and undertook post hoc relevance assessment, to ensure the usefulness of the search filter. The Dementia Search Filter is published on two websites and combined with expert searches to link to evidence on dementia, at end of life in aged care settings and more generally. Evidence accessed by the Dementia Search Filter will help overcome barriers to finding current relevant research in the field, for practitioners, researchers and decision makers.

  14. How mothers allocate support among adult children: evidence from a multiactor survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Using a within-family perspective, we examine how mothers allocate support among their adult children, and we test alternative theories about support exchange. Method. We use a large-scale multiactor survey from the Netherlands in which mothers and children were interviewed independently

  15. The Efficacy of Positive Behavioural Support with the Most Challenging Behaviour: The Evidence and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigna, Gary W.; Willis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positive behaviour support (PBS) is behaviour analysis applied in support of people with challenging behaviour. Questions have been raised as to PBS effectiveness, costs, and accessibility. Method: Outcome studies meeting specified criteria for PBS were selected for review. All told, 12 outcome studies encompassing 423 cases were…

  16. Gender, social support, and well-being: Evidence from a Greek community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kafetsios

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of social support for psychological well-being has been aptly highlighted in epidemiological and psychological research. However, it is not clear from the existing research whether gender differences in structural (relationship status, network size, frequency of interactions with friends and functional (support satisfaction aspects of social support exist and -if they do- to what extent they affect males’ and females’ well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses of crossectional data from a Greek community sample showed that support satisfaction was an important predictor of well-being outcomes in males whereas several structural indicators were predictors of different well-being outcomes in females. Females’ anxiety, perceived stress, and loneliness were adversely affected by frequency of interaction with acquaintances. The results are discussed with regard to gender-role differences that may be underlying the social support effects on well-being, as well as related cultural values.

  17. Preliminary Evidence of Reduced Urge to Cough and Cough Response in Four Individuals following Remote Traumatic Brain Injury with Tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Silverman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough and swallow protect the lungs and are frequently impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI. This project examined cough response to inhaled capsaicin solution challenge in a cohort of four young adults with a history of TBI within the preceding five years. All participants had a history of tracheostomy with subsequent decannulation and dysphagia after their injuries (resolved for all but one participant. Urge to cough (UTC and cough response were measured and compared to an existing database of normative cough response data obtained from 32 healthy controls (HCs. Participants displayed decreased UTC and cough responses compared to HCs. It is unknown if these preliminary results manifest as a consequence of disrupted sensory (afferent projections, an inability to perceive or discriminate cough stimuli, disrupted motor (efferent response, peripheral weakness, or any combination of these factors. Future work should attempt to clarify if the observed phenomena are borne out in a larger sample of individuals with TBI, determine the relative contributions of central versus peripheral nervous system structures to cough sensory perceptual changes following TBI (should they exist, and formulate recommendations for systematic screening and assessment of cough sensory perception in order to facilitate rehabilitative efforts. This project is identified with the National Clinical Trials NCT02240329.

  18. Preliminary Evidence of Reduced Urge to Cough and Cough Response in Four Individuals following Remote Traumatic Brain Injury with Tracheostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sarah; Carnaby, Giselle; Tsai, Hsiu-Wen; Davenport, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Cough and swallow protect the lungs and are frequently impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This project examined cough response to inhaled capsaicin solution challenge in a cohort of four young adults with a history of TBI within the preceding five years. All participants had a history of tracheostomy with subsequent decannulation and dysphagia after their injuries (resolved for all but one participant). Urge to cough (UTC) and cough response were measured and compared to an existing database of normative cough response data obtained from 32 healthy controls (HCs). Participants displayed decreased UTC and cough responses compared to HCs. It is unknown if these preliminary results manifest as a consequence of disrupted sensory (afferent) projections, an inability to perceive or discriminate cough stimuli, disrupted motor (efferent) response, peripheral weakness, or any combination of these factors. Future work should attempt to clarify if the observed phenomena are borne out in a larger sample of individuals with TBI, determine the relative contributions of central versus peripheral nervous system structures to cough sensory perceptual changes following TBI (should they exist), and formulate recommendations for systematic screening and assessment of cough sensory perception in order to facilitate rehabilitative efforts. This project is identified with the National Clinical Trials NCT02240329.

  19. What supports do health system organizations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making? a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions regarding health systems are sometimes made without the input of timely and reliable evidence, leading to less than optimal health outcomes. Healthcare organizations can implement tools and infrastructures to support the use of research evidence to inform decision-making. Objectives The purpose of this study was to profile the supports and instruments (i.e., programs, interventions, instruments or tools) that healthcare organizations currently have in place and which ones were perceived to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with individuals in three different types of positions (i.e., a senior management team member, a library manager, and a ‘knowledge broker’) in three types of healthcare organizations (i.e., regional health authorities, hospitals and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (i.e., Ontario and Quebec). The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Results A total of 57 interviews were conducted in 25 organizations in Ontario and Quebec. The main findings suggest that, for the healthcare organizations that participated in this study, the following supports facilitate evidence-informed decision-making: facilitating roles that actively promote research use within the organization; establishing ties to researchers and opinion leaders outside the organization; a technical infrastructure that provides access to research evidence, such as databases; and provision and participation in training programs to enhance staff’s capacity building. Conclusions This study identified the need for having a receptive climate, which laid the foundation for the implementation of other tangible initiatives and supported the use of research in decision-making. This study adds to the literature on organizational efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in decision

  20. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  1. Elderly demand for family-based care and support: evidence from a social intervention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour; Tjerbo, Trond

    2013-12-06

    This paper examines the influence of the national health insurance scheme on elderly demand for family-based care and support. It contributes to the growing concern on the rapid increase in the elderly population globally using micro-level social theory to examine the influence the health insurance has on elderly demand for family support. A qualitative case study approach is applied to construct a comprehensive and thick description of how the national health insurance scheme influences the elderly in their demand for family support.Through focused interviews and direct observation of six selected cases, in-depth information on primary carers, living arrangement and the interaction between the health insurance as structure and elders as agents are analyzed. The study highlights that the interaction between the elderly and the national health insurance scheme has produced a new stratum of relationship between the elderly and their primary carers. Consequently, this has created equilibrium between the elderly demand for support and support made available by their primary carers. As the demand of the elderly for support is declining, supply of support by family members for the elderly is also on the decline.

  2. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603 Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG & Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2012-04-09

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  4. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the ..Section..1603 Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Porro, G.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the Section 1603 grant program.

  5. [Online information service: the library support for evidence-based practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markulin, Helena; Petrak, Jelka

    2014-01-01

    It frequently happens that physicians do not have adequate skills or enough time for searching and evaluating evidence needed in their everyday practice. Medical librarian can serve as a mediator in enabling physicians to utilize the potential offered by contemporary evidence-based medicine. The Central Medical Library (CML) at University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, designed a web-based information service aimed at the promotion of evidence-based practice in the Croatian medical community. The users can ask for a help in finding information on their clinical problems. A responsible librarian will analyse the problem, search information resources and evaluate the evidence. The answer is returned to the user by an e-mail. In the 2008-2012 period 166 questions from 12 clinical fields were received and most of them (36.1%) came from internal medicine doctors. The share of treatment-related questions was 70.5%. In the setting of underdeveloped ICT infrastructure and inadequate EBM resources availability, such information service can help in transfer of scientific evidence into the everyday clinical practice.

  6. Preliminary evidence of altered steroidogenesis in women with Alzheimer's disease: Have the patients "OLDER" adrenal zona reticularis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaňková, Markéta; Hill, Martin; Velíková, Marta; Včelák, Josef; Vacínová, Gabriela; Dvořáková, Kateřina; Lukášová, Petra; Vejražková, Daniela; Rusina, Robert; Holmerová, Iva; Jarolímová, Eva; Vaňková, Hana; Kancheva, Radmila; Bendlová, Běla; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents more than half of total dementias. Various factors including altered steroid biosynthesis may participate in its pathophysiology. We investigated how the circulating steroids (measured by GC-MS and RIA) may be altered in the presence of AD. Sixteen women with AD and 22 age- and BMI-corresponding controls aged over 65 years were enrolled in the study. The steroid levels (47 steroids and steroid polar conjugates) and their ratios in AD female patients indicated increased CYP11A1 activity, weakened activity of the CYP17A1C17,20 lyase metabolic step and attenuated sulfotransferase SULT2A1 activity at higher activity of the CYP17A1 17-hydroxylase step. The patients showed diminished HSD3B2 activity for C21 steroids, abated conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to cortisol, and significantly elevated cortisol. The women with AD had also attenuated steroid 7α-hydroxylation forming immunoprotective Δ(5)-C19 steroids, attenuated aromatase activity forming estradiol that induces autoimmunity and a shift from the 3β-hydroxy-5α/β-reduced C19 steroids to their neuroinhibitory and antiinflammatory GABAergic 3α-hydroxy- counterparts and showed higher levels of the 3α-hydroxy-5α/β-reduced C21 steroids and pregnenolone sulfate (improves cognitive abilities but may be both protective and excitotoxic). Our preliminary data indicated functioning of alternative "backdoor" pathway in women with AD showing higher levels of both 5α/β-reduced C21 steroids but reduced levels of both 5α/β-reduced C21 steroids, which implied that the alternative "backdoor" pathway might include both 5α- and 5β-reduced steroids. Our study suggested relationships between AD status in women based on the age of subjects and levels of 10 steroids measured by GC-MS.

  7. Nutrition and Osteoporosis: Preliminary data of Campania Region of European PERsonalised ICT Supported Service for Independent Living and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, L.; Barrea, L.; Savanelli, MC; Savastano, S.; Rubino, M.; Scarano, E.; Soprano, M.; Illario, M.; Colao, A.; Di Somma, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bone impairment and malnutrition are associated with significant disability and mortality. PERSSILAA is an European project developing health services to detect and prevent frailty in older adults by addressing cognitive, physical and nutritional. Methods: Subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) scan and PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) questionnaire. Aim: To investigate the association between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and bone health. Results: 87 subjects (4 males and 83 females) 70.1±4.9 aged, were examined. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 28.7±4.7(kg/m2): in particular 28 subjects (32.2%) resulted obese, 42 (48.3%) overweight, and only 17 (19.5%) with normal weight. Mean T score was −1.2±1.2: in particular 13 subjects (14.9%) resulted osteoporotic; 43 (49.5%) osteopenic; and 31 (35.6%) with normal bone mineral density. Regarding adherence to MD, 9 subjects (10.3%) were poorly adherent; 41 (47.2%) average adherent; 37 (42.5%) highly adherent. T-score was associated with PREDIMED score and osteoporotic subjects presented the lowest PREDIMED score (5.8±2.2). Conclusions: These preliminary data show a significant correlation between the adherence to the MD and bone health parameters. The association between MD and bone health highlights the potential beneficial effects of nutritional interventions promoting a Mediterranean food pattern, as safe adjuvant treatment in ageing. PMID:27042428

  8. Danish evidence-based clinical guideline for use of nutritional support in pulmonary rehabilitation of undernourished patients with stable COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Topperup, Randi;

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Disease-related under-nutrition is a common problem in individuals with COPD. The rationale for nutritional support in pulmonary rehabilitation therefore seems obvious. However there is limited evidence regarding the patient-relevant outcomes i.e. activities of daily living (ADL......, or meta-analyses from existing guidelines or systematic reviews were adapted. The results were used for labeling and wording of the recommendations. Results Data from 12 randomized controlled trials were included in a systematic review, which formed the basis for our recommendations as no new primary...... studies had been published. There were evidence of moderate quality that nutritional support for undernourished patients with COPD lead to a weight gain of 1.7 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 2.2 kg), but the effect was quantified as a mean change from baseline, which is less reliable. There were...

  9. Counterpoint: The evidence does not support universal screening and treatment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belamarich, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Few pediatric guidelines have generated the amount or intensity of controversy that the pediatric lipid guidelines have. In the following article, I will synthesize the arguments against universal lipid screening and treatment in childhood. Direct evidence that relates the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in childhood to cardiovascular disease outcomes in adulthood is unavailable, and as a consequence, the guidelines were formulated based on a chain of indirect evidence. The debate centers on the strength of the indirect evidence that links risk factors present in childhood to adult disease outcomes. The arguments against universal lipid screening and treatment of children include (1) a history of unanticipated harms caused by screening tests or treatments that were enacted based on indirect evidence, (2) the poor test performance characteristics of lipid profiles in childhood when used as a screening test, (3) problems with the effectiveness of lipid testing done in the office setting, and (4) concerns regarding the safety of statins when used in children. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Education Resources Needed to Support the Teaching of Evidence-Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Eldon; Gallon, Steve; Porter, John

    2007-01-01

    The Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer Center surveyed addiction educators, providers and policy makers in Northwest states and Hawaii to define teaching resources and barriers in the teaching of evidence-based practices for the preparation of addiction professionals. The top three teaching resource needs were example student…

  11. Validity-Supporting Evidence of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Jennifer R.; Wang, Chuang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide evidence of reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument (SETMI). Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest provided insights into the…

  12. Is There Evidence to Support the Use of Social Skills Interventions for Students with Emotional Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Sadeh, Shanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners advocate for the use of social skills interventions for students with emotional disabilities because significant social skills deficits are common among these students. Yet contemporary practices must be vetted for empirical evidence of their efficacy and effectiveness to ensure students are provided appropriate…

  13. Evidence supporting the use of cone-beam computed tomography in orthodontics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, O.J.C. van; Kuijpers, M.A.R.; Berge, S.J.; Schols, J.G.J.H.; Maal, T.J.J.; Breuning, H.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors conducted a systematic review of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) applications in orthodontics and evaluated the level of evidence to determine whether the use of CBCT is justified in orthodontics. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors identified articles by searching th

  14. Three PubMed skills to support evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahl, S Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The National Library of Medicine's PubMed database can powerfully assist dentists in evidence-based practice. Three useful PubMed skills can improve the efficiency of the clinician's search: (1) Use of MeSH terms; (2) Use of Limits; (3) Use of Clinical Queries.

  15. Make the Case for Coaching: Bolster Support with Evidence That Coaching Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Ellen; Medrich, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers want to see evidence that coaching makes a difference for teachers and students. To this group, making a difference means improving performance on standardized tests. In the current fiscal climate, leaders want to know not only that their investments are based on firm grounds theoretically, but also that instructional coaching works.…

  16. Evidence supporting the use of cone-beam computed tomography in orthodontics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, O.J.C. van; Kuijpers, M.A.R.; Berge, S.J.; Schols, J.G.J.H.; Maal, T.J.J.; Breuning, H.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors conducted a systematic review of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) applications in orthodontics and evaluated the level of evidence to determine whether the use of CBCT is justified in orthodontics. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors identified articles by searching

  17. Current Evidence Supporting the Link Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Shatha; Pu, Shuaihua; Jones, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Lack of consensus exists pertaining to the scientific evidence regarding effects of various dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this article is to review current evidence concerning cardiovascular health effects of the main dietary fatty acid types; namely, trans (TFA), saturated (SFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA; n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Accumulating evidence shows negative health impacts of TFA and SFA; both may increase CVD risk. Policies have been proposed to reduce TFA and SFA consumption to less than 1 and 7 % of energy intake, respectively. Cardiovascular health might be promoted by replacing SFA and TFA with n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, or MUFA; however, the optimal amount of PUFA or MUFA that can be used to replace SFA and TFA has not been defined yet. Evidence suggests of the potential importance of restricting n-6 PUFA up to 10 % of energy and obtaining an n-6/n-3 ratio as close as possible to unity, along with a particular emphasis on consuming adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. The latest evidence shows cardioprotective effects of MUFA-rich diets, especially when MUFA are supplemented with essential fatty acids; namely, docosahexaenoic acid. MUFA has been newly suggested to be involved in regulating fat oxidation, energy metabolism, appetite sensations, weight maintenance, and cholesterol metabolism. These favorable effects might implicate MUFA as the preferable choice to substitute for other fatty acids, especially given the declaration of its safety for up to 20 % of total energy.

  18. Community Support and Adolescent Girls' Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Evidence From Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Carol; Schwandt, Hilary M

    2015-01-01

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to support and protect them. The goal of this research was to develop a viable supportive community index and test its association with intermediate variables associated with HIV risk across 16 communities in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. This cross-sectional survey with separate samples randomly drawn in each country (2010) yielded a total sample of 1,418 adolescent girls (aged 11-18). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression, while controlling for vulnerability, age, religion, and residence, found that an increase in supportive community index is positively associated with the odds of indicating improved community support for girls and with the confidence to refuse unwanted sex with a boyfriend across the three countries, as well as with self-efficacy to insist on condom use in Botswana and Mozambique. Program implementers and decision makers alike can use the supportive community index to identify and measure structural factors associated with girls' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; this will potentially contribute to judicious decision making regarding resource allocation to enhance community-level, protective factors for adolescent girls.

  19. N-Acetyl Cysteine May Support Dopamine Neurons in Parkinson's Disease: Preliminary Clinical and Cell Line Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Monti

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the biological and clinical effects of n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC in Parkinson's disease (PD.The overarching goal of this pilot study was to generate additional data about potentially protective properties of NAC in PD, using an in vitro and in vivo approach. In preparation for the clinical study we performed a cell tissue culture study with human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived midbrain dopamine (mDA neurons that were treated with rotenone as a model for PD. The primary outcome in the cell tissue cultures was the number of cells that survived the insult with the neurotoxin rotenone. In the clinical study, patients continued their standard of care and were randomized to receive either daily NAC or were a waitlist control. Patients were evaluated before and after 3 months of receiving the NAC with DaTscan to measure dopamine transporter (DAT binding and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS to measure clinical symptoms.The cell line study showed that NAC exposure resulted in significantly more mDA neurons surviving after exposure to rotenone compared to no NAC, consistent with the protective effects of NAC previously observed. The clinical study showed significantly increased DAT binding in the caudate and putamen (mean increase ranging from 4.4% to 7.8%; p<0.05 for all values in the PD group treated with NAC, and no measurable changes in the control group. UPDRS scores were also significantly improved in the NAC group (mean improvement of 12.9%, p = 0.01.The results of this preliminary study demonstrate for the first time a potential direct effect of NAC on the dopamine system in PD patients, and this observation may be associated with positive clinical effects. A large-scale clinical trial to test the therapeutic efficacy of NAC in this population and to better elucidate the mechanism of action is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02445651.

  20. Fostering integrity in postgraduate research: an evidence-based policy and support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Saadia; Bretag, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Postgraduate research students have a unique position in the debate on integrity in research as students and novice researchers. To assess how far policies for integrity in postgraduate research meet the needs of students as "research trainees," we reviewed online policies for integrity in postgraduate research at nine particular Australian universities against the Australian Code for Responsible Conduct of Research (the Code) and the five core elements of exemplary academic integrity policy identified by Bretag et al. (2011 ), i.e., access, approach, responsibility, detail, and support. We found inconsistency with the Code in the definition of research misconduct and a lack of adequate detail and support. Based on our analysis, previous research, and the literature, we propose a framework for policy and support for postgraduate research that encompasses a consistent and educative approach to integrity maintained across the university at all levels of scholarship and for all stakeholders.

  1. Sources of support for learning words in conversation: evidence from mealtimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, D E

    1997-10-01

    This study examines mealtimes of preschoolers' families to determine whether rare words are used in informative ways so that a child could learn their meanings. Is there an association between informative use of rare words and the child's later vocabulary? Each use of rare words in 160 transcripts was coded for whether it was informative or uninformative. Each informative exchange was coded for type of strategy used to provide support: physical or social context, prior knowledge, and semantic support. There were 1,631 exchanges around rare words. About two-thirds of these exchanges were informative uses from which the child could learn the word's meaning. The most frequent strategy used was semantic support, accounting for two-thirds of strategies used. The frequency of use of rare words was positively correlated with age-five and age-seven PPVT scores.

  2. Survivor-Defined Practice in Domestic Violence Work: Measure Development and Preliminary Evidence of Link to Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Lisa A; Thomas, Kristie; Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; Heimel, Deborah; Woulfe, Julie; Chong, Siu Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Survivor-defined practice, characterized by an emphasis on client choice, partnership, and sensitivity to the unique needs, contexts, and coping strategies of individual survivors, is an aspirational goal of the domestic violence (DV) movement, assumed to be a key contributor to empowerment and other positive outcomes among survivors. Despite its central role in DV program philosophy, training, and practice, however, our ability to assess its presence and its presumed link to well-being has been hampered by the absence of a way to measure it from survivors' perspectives. As part of a larger university-community collaboration, this study had two aims: (a) to develop a measure of survivor-defined practice from the perspective of participants, and (b) to assess its relationship to safety-related empowerment after controlling for other contributors to survivor well-being (e.g., financial stability and social support). Results supported the reliability and validity of the Survivor-Defined Practice Scale (SDPS), a nine-item measure that assesses participants' perception of the degree to which their advocates help them achieve goals they set for themselves, facilitate a spirit of partnership, and show sensitivity to their individual needs and styles. The items combined to form one factor indicating that the three theoretical aspects of survivor-defined practice may be different manifestations of one underlying construct. Results also support the hypothesized link between survivor-defined practice and safety-related empowerment. The SDPS offers DV programs a mechanism for process evaluation that is rigorous and rooted in the feminist empowerment philosophy that so many programs espouse.

  3. Social support and leisure-time physical activity: longitudinal evidence from the Brazilian Pró-Saúde cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Guilherme L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social support has been observed to exert a beneficial influence on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, multidimensional approaches examining social support and prospective evidence of its importance are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate how four dimensions of social support affect LTPA engagement, maintenance, type, and time spent by adults during a two-year follow-up. Methods This paper reports on a longitudinal study of 3,253 non-faculty public employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro (the Pró-Saúde study. LTPA was evaluated using a dichotomous question with a two-week reference period, and further questions concerning LTPA type (individual or group and time spent on the activity. Social support was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale (MOS-SSS. To assess the association between social support and LTPA, two different statistical models were used: binary and multinomial logistic regression models for dichotomous and polytomous outcomes, respectively. Models were adjusted separately for those who began LTPA in the middle of the follow up (engagement group and for those who had maintained LTPA since the beginning of the follow up (maintenance group. Results After adjusting for confounders, statistically significant associations (p Conclusions All dimensions of social support influenced LTPA type or the time spent on the activity. However, our findings suggest that social support is more important in engagement than in maintenance. This finding is important, because it suggests that maintenance of LTPA must be associated with other factors beyond the individual's level of social support, such as a suitable environment and social/health policies directed towards the practice of LTPA.

  4. Does evidence support physiotherapy management of adult female chronic pelvic pain? A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loving, Sys; Nordling, Jørgen; Jaszczak, Poul

    2012-01-01

    dysfunction is frequently cited as a possible aetiology. Physiotherapy is therefore recommended as one treatment modality. The aim of this systematic review was to source and critically evaluate the evidence for an effect of physiotherapy on pain, physical activity and quality of life in the treatment...... of female CPP. Methods Electronic databases, conference proceedings, text books and clinical guidelines were searched for quantitative, observational, and prospective clinical intervention studies of female chronic pelvic pain where physiotherapy was a sole or significant component of the intervention...... potential articles. Of these, 11 articles, representing 10 studies, met the inclusion criteria. There were 6 randomised clinical trials, 1 cohort study and 3 case series. Methodological quality was dependent on study type. Accordingly, level of evidence was judged higher in randomised clinical trials than...

  5. Current evidence supporting fertility and pregnancy among young survivors of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Karen; Holland, Aimee Chism

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 6% of invasive breast cancer is diagnosed in women younger than age 40 of age childbearing potential. Cancer-directed therapies can cause hormonal and anatomical changes that negatively affect the reproductive potential of young survivors of breast cancer. Recent national guidelines on fertility preservation are widely available. However, gaps in care exist in the interdisciplinary evidence-based management of young survivors of breast cancer with fertility and parenting concerns after cancer treatment.

  6. Plantar fasciitis – to jab or to support? A systematic review of the current best evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uden H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hayley Uden1, Eva Boesch1, Saravana Kumar1,21Division of Health Sciences, 2International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaBackground: Plantar fasciitis is a common condition routinely managed by podiatrists in the community and is widely treated conservatively. Two commonly used treatments for plantar fasciitis are customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections. While common to clinical practice, the evidence base underpinning these treatment strategies is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections in the treatment of plantar fasciitis.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted. Experimental studies, in English, from 1998 to 2010 were accepted for inclusion in this review. The PEDro quality assessment tool and the National Health and Medical Research Council's hierarchy of evidence were used to assess the quality of the included studies.Results: Six randomized controlled trials which met the selection criteria were included in this review. Four reported on customized functional foot orthoses and 2 on corticosteroid injections. Current best available evidence highlights that both customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections can lead to a decrease in pain associated with plantar fasciitis. Additionally, customized functional foot orthoses may also provide an additional benefit in terms of increased functional ability in patients with plantar fasciitis. Corticosteroid injections may have side effects, especially pain (from the injection.Conclusion: Both customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections can lead to reduction in pain associated with plantar fasciitis. While customized functional foot orthoses may increase the functional outcomes in patients with plantar fasciitis

  7. EQUIPT: supporting European stakeholders to make decisions about investment in evidence-based tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Evers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available EQUIPT brings together expertise from multiple disciplines and aims to provide policy makers and wider stakeholders with bespoke information about the economic and wider returns that investing in evidence-based tobacco control including smoking cessation agendas can generate. Led by Health Economics Research Group (HERG at Brunel University, London, EQUIPT is a partnership of 11 consortium members from 7 member states – Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK.

  8. An Evidence Based Approach to Designing Medical Support for Long Duration, Interplanetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, S. D.; McGrath, T. L.; Bauman, D. K.; Wu, J. H.; Barsten, K. N.; Barr, Y. R.; Kerstman, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements under NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). The goal of the ExMC element is to address the risk of the "inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crewmember." This poster highlights the evidence-based approach that the ExMC element has taken to address this goal, and the ExMC element's current areas of interest.

  9. Evidence-based architectural and space design supports Magnet® empirical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecoff, Laurie; Brown, Caroline E

    2010-12-01

    This department expands nursing leaders' knowledge and competencies in health facility design. The editor of this department, Dr Jaynelle Stichler, asked guest authors, Drs Ecoff and Brown, to describe the process of using the conceptual models of a nursing evidence-based practice model and the Magnet Recognition Program® as a structured process to lead decision making in the planning and design processes and to achieve desired outcomes in hospital design.

  10. Asset Management Planning – providing the evidence to support robust and risk-based investment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Chrissy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the UK’s joint Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management Research and Development programme has been developing methods to support a move to a risk-based approach to flood defence asset management. Looking to ensure investment is less ‘find and fix’ and made to those assets where the biggest risk reduction can be made for the money available. In addition, providing the capability to articulate the benefits of investing in these assets quantitatively and transparently. This paper describes how the Asset Performance Tools (APT project [1] is delivering practical methods, prototype tools and supporting guidance which, together with related initiatives such as the Environment Agency’s Creating Asset Management Capacity (CAMC strategic programme [2] and the ‘State of the Nation’ (SoN [3] supportive datasets, will enable a risk-based, ‘predict and protect’ approach to asset management. A key advance is the ability to bring in local knowledge to make national generic datasets locally relevant. The paper also highlights existing outputs that can already be used to support a more proactive approach to asset management. It will summarise the ongoing work which will further develop and fine tune performance assessment and investment decision processes within an integrated conceptual framework aligned with ISO55000, deliverable via CAMC and whose concepts can be used by all risk management authorities.

  11. Sources of Support for Learning Words in Conversation: Evidence from Mealtimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Diane E.

    1997-01-01

    Examines mealtimes of preschoolers' families to determine whether rare words are used in informative ways so that a child could learn their meanings. Each use was coded for whether it was informative or uninformative; each informative exchange was coded for type of strategy used to provide support. Frequency of use was positively correlated with…

  12. Teacher Support and Engagement in Math and Science: Evidence from the High School Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Supportive teacher-student relationships are associated with increased levels of engagement and higher levels of achievement. Yet, studies also show that higher achieving students typically receive the most encouragement. Moreover, many studies of teacher-student relationships pertain to elementary and middle school students; by the time students…

  13. Who Supports the English-Only Movement? Evidence for Misconceptions About Latino Group Vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie; Giles, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Using vitality theory as a framework, investigates whether support for English-only policies among Anglo-Americans is related to perceptions about growing Latino group vitality and the presence of Spanish in the linguistic landscape. Conducted a telephone survey in Santa Barbara, California. Found Anglo-Americans' perceptions of growing latino…

  14. The McGill ingestive skills assessment predicts time to death in an elderly population with neurogenic dysphagia: preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Heather C; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Groher, Michael; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Gisel, Erika G

    2005-01-01

    The McGill Ingestive Skills Assessment (MISA) is a new assessment tool which quantifies the ingestive process by scoring a meal observation. The reliability and the construct validity of the MISA have been documented. However, establishment of the ability of the MISA to predict health outcomes related to feeding difficulties would support its applicability in research and in clinical settings. Seventy-three participants of a large-scale reliability and validity study were followed for up to 563 days following evaluation with the MISA. The date of the first pulmonary infection and the date and cause of death where applicable were obtained from medical records. Individuals with no incident of pulmonary infection and who were not deceased were "censored" at the date of followup. Survival analyses revealed that the MISA scores are predictive of death using a Cox proportional hazards model, and of time to pulmonary infection using a flexible model. Scores on the Solid Ingestion and Self-feeding scales are predictive of death using the Cox model, and the Texture Management scale is predictive of death using the flexible model. This effect remains statistically significant even when MISA scores are adjusted for the participant's age. These findings support the validity of the MISA for use with elderly individuals with neurogenic ingestive skill loss residing in long-term care facilities.

  15. Decentering the self? Preliminary evidence for changes in self- vs. other related processing as a long-term outcome of loving-kindness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fynn-Mathis Trautwein

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractResearch in social neuroscience provides increasing evidence that self and other are interconnected, both on a conceptual and on an affective representational level. Moreover, the ability to recognize the other as ‘like the self’ is thought to be essential for social phenomena like empathy and compassion. Meditation practices such as loving-kindness meditation (LKM have been found to enhance these capacities. Therefore, we investigated whether LKM is associated to an increased integration of self-other-representations. As an indicator, we assessed the P300 event-related potential elicited by oddball stimuli of the self-face and a close other’s face in twelve long-term practitioners of LKM and twelve matched controls. In line with previous studies, the self elicited larger P300 amplitudes than close other. This effect was reduced in the meditation sample at parietal but not frontal midline sites. Within this group, smaller differences between self- and other-related P300 were associated with increasing meditation practice. Across groups, smaller P300 differences correlated with self-reported compassion. In meditators we also investigated the effect of a short LKM compared to a control priming procedure in order to test whether the state induction would additionally modulate self- versus other-related P300. However, no effect of the priming conditions was observed. Overall, our findings provide preliminary evidence that prolonged meditation practice may modulate self- versus other-related processing, accompanied by an increase in compassion. Further evidence is needed, however, to show if this is a direct outcome of loving-kindness meditation.

  16. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support Evidence-Based Practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on Evidence-Based Medicine courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores the facilities in the knowledge infrastructure being used by OPs in different countries, and their perceived importance for EBM practice. Methods Thirty-six OPs from ten countries, planning to attend an EBM course and to a large extent recruited via the European Association of Schools of Occupational Medicine (EASOM, participated in a cross-sectional study. Results Research and development institutes, and knowledge products and tools are used by respectively more than 72% and more than 80% of the OPs and they are rated as being important for EBM practice (more than 65 points (range 0–100. Conventional knowledge access facilities, like traditional libraries, are used often (69% but are rated as less important (46.8 points (range 0–100 compared to the use of more novel facilities, like question-and-answer facilities (25% that are rated as more important (48.9 points (range 0–100. To solve cases, OPs mostly use non evidence-based sources. However, they regard the evidence-based sources that are not often used, e.g. the Cochrane library, as important enablers for practising EBM. The main barriers are lack of time, payment for full-text articles, language barrier (most texts are in English, and lack of skills and support. Conclusion This first exploratory study shows that OPs use many knowledge infrastructure facilities and rate them as being important for their EBM practice. However, they are not used to use evidence-based sources in their practice and face many barriers that are comparable to the barriers physicians face in primary health care.

  17. THE PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF TREATMENT OFADVANCED AND RECURRENT MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA BY BEAC REGIMEN SUPPORTED WITH AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧强; 姜文奇; 何友兼; 孙晓非; 刘冬耕; 徐瑞华; 张力; 周中梅; 林桐榆; 李宇红; 管忠震

    2002-01-01

    Objective: High dose chemotherapy supported by autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (AHSCT) has developed dramaticly in recent years and become the most effective approach to improve radical treatment for the chemo-sensitive lymphoma. The purposes of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of preparative regimen BEAC and hematopoietic reconsti- tution after high dose chemotherapy in Chinese patients with advanced and recurrent lymphoma. Methods: After confirmed complete or partial remission from conventional chemotherapy, 24 patients with advanced or recurrent lymphoma including 1 recurrent HD and 23 NHL, 16 male and 8 female with median age of 29 (13(50) years, were enrolled into this study and treated by BEAC regimen (CTX 3600(4000 mg/m2, VP-16 1200 mg/m2. BCNU 300 mg/m2 and Ara-C 1500(2000 mg/m2). 3 patients were supported by ABMT and 21 by APBSCT. Mobilization regimen for APBSCT was CTX 3500 mg/m2 + G-CSF 3.5(5 (g/kg + Dexamethasone 10 mg. Autologous hematopoietic stem cells was re-infused 24(48 h after completion of high dose chemotherapy. Results: MNC 1.3 (1.0(1.7) (108/kg and MNC 1.8 (1.0(4.4) (108, CFU-GM 5.1 (1.9(9.6) (105/kg plus CD34 + cells 2.9 (1.9(8.7) (106/kg were re-infused in the ABMT group and APBSCT group respectively. All patients obtained prompt and sustained hematopoietic reconstitution. ANC (0.5 (109/L and Pt (2.0 (109/L were at day 9 (6(17) and day 10 (0(31) respectively. 16 patients were alive with median 21 (2(69) months follow-up till end of May, 2001. 1, 2 and 3 years survival rate were 60.5%, 50.1% and 50.1%, respectively. Non-hematologic toxicity was mild and tolerable. Conclusions: High dose chemotherapy supported by AHSCT in the treatment of previously-untreated poor- prognostic and recurrent lymphoma was a safe and effective modality. Further investigation was warranted.

  18. Randomized clinical trial of implant-supported ceramic-ceramic and metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F; Clark, Arthur E; Shuster, Jonathan J; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the survival rates over time of implant-supported ceramic-ceramic and metal-ceramic prostheses as a function of core-veneer thickness ratio, gingival connector embrasure design, and connector height. An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study involving 55 patients missing three teeth in either one or two posterior areas. These patients (34 women; 21 men; age range 52-75 years) were recruited for the study to receive a three-unit implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Two implants were placed for each of the 72 FDPs in the study. The implants (Osseospeed, Astra Tech), which were made of titanium, were grit blasted. A gold-shaded, custom-milled titanium abutment (Atlantis, Astra Tech), was secured to each implant body. Each of the 72 FDPs in 55 patients were randomly assigned based on one of the following options: (1) A. ceramic-ceramic (Yttria-stabilized zirconia core, pressable fluorapatite glass-ceramic, IPS e.max ZirCAD, and ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent) B. metal-ceramic (palladium-based noble alloy, Capricorn, Ivoclar Vivadent, with press-on leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic veneer, IPS InLine POM, Ivoclar Vivadent); (2) occlusal veneer thickness (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm); (3) curvature of gingival embrasure (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mm diameter); and (4) connector height (3, 4, and 5 mm). FDPs were fabricated and cemented with dual-cure resin cement (RelyX, Universal Cement, 3M ESPE). Patients were recalled at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. FDPs were examined for cracks, fracture, and general surface quality. Recall exams of 72 prostheses revealed 10 chipping fractures. No fractures occurred within the connector or embrasure areas. Two-sided Fisher's exact tests showed no significant correlation between fractures and type of material system (p = 0.51), veneer thickness (p = 0.75), radius of curvature of gingival embrasure (p = 0.68), and connector height (p = 0

  19. Randomized Clinical Trial of Implant-Supported Ceramic-Ceramic and Metal-Ceramic Fixed Dental Prostheses: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F.; Clark, Arthur E.; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Anusavice, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the survival rates over time of implant-supported ceramic-ceramic and metal-ceramic prostheses as a function of core-veneer thickness ratio, gingival connector embrasure design, and connector height. Materials and Methods An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study involving 55 patients missing three teeth in either one or two posterior areas. These patients (34 women; 21 men; age range 52–75 years) were recruited for the study to receive a 3-unit implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Two implants were placed for each of the 72 FDPs in the study. The implants (Osseospeed, Astra Tech), which were made of titanium, were grit blasted. A gold-shaded, custom-milled titanium abutment (Atlantis, Astra Tech), was secured to each implant body. Each of the 72 FDPs in 55 patients were randomly assigned based on one of the following options: (1) A. Material: ceramic-ceramic (Yttria-stabilized zirconia core, pressable fluorapatite glass-ceramic, IPS e.max ZirCAD and ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent) B. metal-ceramic (palladium-based noble alloy, Capricorn, Ivoclar Vivadent, with press-on leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic veneer, IPS InLine POM, Ivoclar Vivadent); (2) occlusal veneer thickness (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm); (3) curvature of gingival embrasure (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mm diameter); and (4) connector height (3, 4, and 5 mm). FDPs were fabricated and cemented with dual-cure resin cement (RelyX, Universal Cement, 3M ESPE). Patients were recalled at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. FDPs were examined for cracks, fracture, and general surface quality. Results Recall exams of 72 prostheses revealed 10 chipping fractures. No fractures occurred within the connector or embrasure areas. Two-sided Fisher’s exact tests showed no significant correlation between fractures and type of material system (p = 0.51), veneer thickness (p = 0.75), radius of curvature of gingival embrasure

  20. Regional brain activation supporting cognitive control in the context of reward is associated with treated adolescents’ marijuana problem severity at follow-up: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study examined the extent to which regional brain activation during a reward cue antisaccade (AS task was associated with 6-month treatment outcome in adolescent substance users. Antisaccade performance provides a sensitive measure of executive function and cognitive control, and generally improves with reward cues. We hypothesized that when preparing to execute an AS, greater activation in regions associated with cognitive and oculomotor control supporting AS, particularly during reward cue trials, would be associated with lower substance use severity at 6-month follow-up. Adolescents (n = 14, ages 14–18 recruited from community-based outpatient treatment completed an fMRI reward cue AS task (reward and neutral conditions, and provided follow-up data. Results indicated that AS errors decreased in reward, compared to neutral, trials. AS behavioral performance, however, was not associated with treatment outcome. As hypothesized, activation in regions of interest (ROIs associated with cognitive (e.g., ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and oculomotor control (e.g., supplementary eye field during reward trials were inversely correlated with marijuana problem severity at 6-months. ROI activation during neutral trials was not associated with outcomes. Results support the role of motivational (reward cue factors to enhance cognitive control processes, and suggest a potential brain-based correlate of youth treatment outcome.

  1. A text-based data mining and toxicity prediction modeling system for a clinical decision support in radiation oncology: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Hyeon; Lee, Suk; Shim, Jang Bo; Chang, Kyung Hwan; Yang, Dae Sik; Yoon, Won Sup; Park, Young Je; Kim, Chul Yong; Cao, Yuan Jie

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is an integrated research for text-based data mining and toxicity prediction modeling system for clinical decision support system based on big data in radiation oncology as a preliminary research. The structured and unstructured data were prepared by treatment plans and the unstructured data were extracted by dose-volume data image pattern recognition of prostate cancer for research articles crawling through the internet. We modeled an artificial neural network to build a predictor model system for toxicity prediction of organs at risk. We used a text-based data mining approach to build the artificial neural network model for bladder and rectum complication predictions. The pattern recognition method was used to mine the unstructured toxicity data for dose-volume at the detection accuracy of 97.9%. The confusion matrix and training model of the neural network were achieved with 50 modeled plans (n = 50) for validation. The toxicity level was analyzed and the risk factors for 25% bladder, 50% bladder, 20% rectum, and 50% rectum were calculated by the artificial neural network algorithm. As a result, 32 plans could cause complication but 18 plans were designed as non-complication among 50 modeled plans. We integrated data mining and a toxicity modeling method for toxicity prediction using prostate cancer cases. It is shown that a preprocessing analysis using text-based data mining and prediction modeling can be expanded to personalized patient treatment decision support based on big data.

  2. Spectroscopic evidence for origins of size and support effects on selectivity of Cu nanoparticle dehydrogenation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzke, M. E.; Dietrich, P. J.; Ibrahim, M. Y. S.; Al-Bardan, K.; Triezenberg, M. D.; Flaherty, D. W.

    2016-12-12

    Selective dehydrogenation catalysts that produce acetaldehyde from bio-derived ethanol can increase the efficiency of subsequent processes such as C–C coupling over metal oxides to produce 1-butanol or 1,3-butadiene or oxidation to acetic acid. Here, we use in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and steady state kinetics experiments to identify Cuδ+ at the perimeter of supported Cu clusters as the active site for esterification and Cu0 surface sites as sites for dehydrogenation. Correlation of dehydrogenation and esterification selectivities to in situ measures of Cu oxidation states show that this relationship holds for Cu clusters over a wide-range of diameters (2–35 nm) and catalyst supports and reveals that dehydrogenation selectivities may be controlled by manipulating either.

  3. Preliminary evidence of early bone resorption in a sheep model of acute burn injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gordon L; Xie, Yixia; Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Liangjun; Hu, Minyi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2014-03-01

    Treatment with bisphosphonates within the first 10 days of severe burn injury completely prevents bone loss. We therefore postulated that bone resorption occurs early post burn and is the primary explanation for acute bone loss in these patients. Our objective was to assess bone for histological and biomechanical evidence of early resorption post burn. We designed a randomized controlled study utilizing a sheep model of burn injury. Three sheep received a 40 % total body surface area burn under isoflurane anesthesia, and three other sheep received cotton-smoke inhalation and served as control. Burned sheep were killed 5 days post procedure and controls were killed 2 days post procedure. Backscatter scanning electron microscopy was performed on iliac crests obtained immediately postmortem along with quantitative histomorphometry and compression testing to determine bone strength (Young's modulus). Blood ionized Ca was also determined in the first 24 h post procedure as was urinary CTx. Three of three sheep killed at 5 days had evidence of scalloping of the bone surface, an effect of bone resorption, whereas none of the three sheep killed at 2 days post procedure had scalloping. One of the three burned sheep killed at 5 days showed quantitative doubling of the eroded surface and halving of the bone volume compared to sham controls. Mean values of Young's modulus were approximately one third lower in the burned sheep killed at 5 days compared to controls, p = 0.08 by unpaired t test, suggesting weaker bone. These data suggest early post-burn bone resorption. Urine CTx normalized to creatinine did not differ between groups at 24 h post procedure because the large amounts of fluids received by the burned sheep may have diluted urine creatinine and CTx and because the urine volume produced by the burned sheep was threefold that of the controls. We calculated 24 h urinary CTx excretion, and with this calculation CTx excretion/24 h in the burned sheep was

  4. Systems engineering aspects of a preliminary conceptual design of the space station environmental control and life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. H.; Meyer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systems engineering aspects of developing a conceptual design of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) are discussed. Topics covered include defining system requirements and groundrules for approach, formulating possible cycle closure options, and establishing a system-level mass balance on the essential materials processed in oxygen and water cycles. Consideration is also given to the performance of a system trade-off study to determine the best degree of cycle closure for the ECLSS, and the construction of a conceptual design of the ECLSS with subsystem performance specifications and candidate concepts. For the optimum balance between development costs, technological risks, and resupply penalties, a partially closed cycle ECLSS option is suggested.

  5. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide. PUBMED search using: (("waterpipe" or "narghile" or "arghile" or "shisha" or "goza" or "narkeela" or "hookah" or "hubble bubble")) AND ("dependence" or "addiction"). Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources. WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO. WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Democratic Values and Support for Militancy: Evidence from a National Survey of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    freedom in Urdu (as well as Hindi , Dari, Persian, Pashto among other related languages), with explicit reference to political self-determination of...decisions came about as a result of what we learned during pretesting. Measuring Support for Islamist Militant Organizations: The Endorsement...feelings (as we learned during pretesting) and works as follows: - Respondents are randomly assigned to treatment or control groups (one-half of the

  7. ProVac Global Initiative: a vision shaped by ten years of supporting evidence-based policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Barbara; Janusz, Cara Bess; Clark, Andrew D; Sinha, Anushua; Garcia, Ana Gabriela Felix; Resch, Stephen; Toscano, Cristiana M; Sanderson, Colin; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2015-05-07

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) created the ProVac Initiative in 2004 with the goal of strengthening national technical capacity to make evidence-based decisions on new vaccine introduction, focusing on economic evaluations. In view of the 10th anniversary of the ProVac Initiative, this article describes its progress and reflects on lessons learned to guide the next phase. We quantified the output of the Initiative's capacity-building efforts and critically assess its progress toward achieving the milestones originally proposed in 2004. Additionally, we reviewed how country studies supported by ProVac have directly informed and strengthened the deliberations around new vaccine introduction. Since 2004, ProVac has conducted four regional workshops and supported 24 health economic analyses in 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries. Five Regional Centers of Excellence were funded, resulting in six operational research projects and nine publications. Twenty four decisions on new vaccine introductions were supported with ProVac studies. Enduring products include the TRIVAC and CERVIVAC cost-effectiveness models, the COSTVAC program costing model, methodological guides, workshop training materials and the OLIVES on-line data repository. Ten NITAGs were strengthened through ProVac activities. The evidence accumulated suggests that initiatives with emphasis on sustainable training and direct support for countries to generate evidence themselves, can help accelerate the introduction of the most valuable new vaccines. International and Regional Networks of Collaborators are necessary to provide technical support and tools to national teams conducting analyses. Timeliness, integration, quality and country ownership of the process are four necessary guiding principles for national economic evaluations to have an impact on policymaking. It would be an asset to have a model that offers different levels of complexity to choose from depending on the vaccine being

  8. Preliminary Screening of Infertility by Evidence-Based Medicine%不孕症循证初筛病因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯帆

    2011-01-01

    不孕症是一类集医疗、社会心理及经济层面的复杂社会问题.本研究通过对不孕症初筛临床路径循证依据进行综述,提出与妊娠结局直接与不直接相关的检查项目,旨在指导临床医师对不孕症患者进行科学、规范的初步筛查,遏制在不孕症诊治中的过度检查、高额成本,让患者花最小的代价,即可获得满意疗效.%Infertility is a complex disorder with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic aspects. The study reviewed the initial screening evaluation of infertility which based on evidence-based medicine. This review questioned some tests which directly or indirectly related to pregnancy outcomes, which can guide clinicians to check patients by a scientific and standardized way and stop excessive examination, so that infertility couple will get a satisfied treatment at the minimum cost.

  9. Intracranial volume and dementia: some evidence in support of the cerebral reserve hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, D F; Neeley, E S; Norton, M C; Tschanz, J T; Miller, M J; Wolfson, L; Hulette, C; Leslie, C; Welsh-Bohmer, K A; Plassman, B; Bigler, Erin D

    2011-04-18

    The brain reserve hypothesis has been posited as being one important mediating factor for developing dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence for this hypothesis is mixed though different methodologies have made these findings difficult to interpret. We examined imaging data from a large cohort (N=194) of mixed dementia patients and controls, 65years old and older from the Cache County, Utah Study of Memory and Aging for evidence of the brain reserve hypothesis using total intracranial volume (TICV) as a quantitative measure of pre-morbid brain size and a vicarious indicator of reserve. A broader spectrum of non-demented elderly control subjects from previous studies was also included for comparison (N=423). In addition, non-parametric Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analyses were performed to model group heterogeneity and identify any subgroups of patients where TICV might be an important predictor of dementia. Parametrically, no main effect was found for TICV when predicting a dementia diagnosis; however, the CART analysis did reveal important TICV subgroups, including a sex differential wherein ε4 APOE allele presence in males and low TICV predicted AD classification. TICV, APOE, and other potential mediator/moderator variables are discussed in the context of the brain reserve hypothesis.

  10. Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Christine D; Silvestro, Daniele; Jaramillo, Carlos; Smith, Brian Tilston; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2015-05-12

    The linking of North and South America by the Isthmus of Panama had major impacts on global climate, oceanic and atmospheric currents, and biodiversity, yet the timing of this critical event remains contentious. The Isthmus is traditionally understood to have fully closed by ca. 3.5 million years ago (Ma), and this date has been used as a benchmark for oceanographic, climatic, and evolutionary research, but recent evidence suggests a more complex geological formation. Here, we analyze both molecular and fossil data to evaluate the tempo of biotic exchange across the Americas in light of geological evidence. We demonstrate significant waves of dispersal of terrestrial organisms at approximately ca. 20 and 6 Ma and corresponding events separating marine organisms in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at ca. 23 and 7 Ma. The direction of dispersal and their rates were symmetrical until the last ca. 6 Ma, when northern migration of South American lineages increased significantly. Variability among taxa in their timing of dispersal or vicariance across the Isthmus is not explained by the ecological factors tested in these analyses, including biome type, dispersal ability, and elevation preference. Migration was therefore not generally regulated by intrinsic traits but more likely reflects the presence of emergent terrain several millions of years earlier than commonly assumed. These results indicate that the dramatic biotic turnover associated with the Great American Biotic Interchange was a long and complex process that began as early as the Oligocene-Miocene transition.

  11. Promoting Mentalizing in Pupils by Acting on Teachers: Preliminary Italian Evidence of the “Thought in Mind” Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Bracaglia, Edoardo; Marchetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Mentalization research focuses on different aspects of this topic, highlighting individual differences in mentalizing and proposing programs of intervention for children and adults to increase this ability. The “Thought in Mind Project” (TiM Project) provides training targeted to adults—teachers or parents—to increase their mentalization and, consequently, to obtain mentalization improvement in children. The present research aimed to explore for the first time ever the potential of training for teachers based on the TiM Project, regarding the enhancement of mentalizing of an adult who would have interacted as a teacher with children. For this reason, two teachers – similar for meta-cognitive and meta-emotional skills - and their classes (N = 46) were randomly assigned to the training or control condition. In the first case, the teacher participated in training on the implementation of promotion of mentalizing in everyday school teaching strategies; in the second case the teacher participated in a control activity, similar to training for scheduling and methods, but without promoting the implementation of mentalization (in both conditions two meetings lasting about 3 h at the beginning of the school year and two supervisions during the school year were conducted). The children were tested by tasks assessing several aspects of mentalization (second and third-order false belief understanding, Strange Stories, Reading the mind in the Eyes, Mentalizing Task) both before and after the teacher participate in the TiM or control training (i.e., at the beginning and at the end of the school year). The results showed that, although some measured components of mentalization progressed over time, only the TiM Project training group significantly improved in third order false belief understanding and changed - in a greater way compared to the control group – in two of the three components of the Mentalizing Task. These evidences are promising about the idea that the

  12. Promoting Mentalizing in Pupils by Acting on Teachers: Preliminary Italian Evidence of the "Thought in Mind" Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Bracaglia, Edoardo; Marchetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Mentalization research focuses on different aspects of this topic, highlighting individual differences in mentalizing and proposing programs of intervention for children and adults to increase this ability. The "Thought in Mind Project" (TiM Project) provides training targeted to adults-teachers or parents-to increase their mentalization and, consequently, to obtain mentalization improvement in children. The present research aimed to explore for the first time ever the potential of training for teachers based on the TiM Project, regarding the enhancement of mentalizing of an adult who would have interacted as a teacher with children. For this reason, two teachers - similar for meta-cognitive and meta-emotional skills - and their classes (N = 46) were randomly assigned to the training or control condition. In the first case, the teacher participated in training on the implementation of promotion of mentalizing in everyday school teaching strategies; in the second case the teacher participated in a control activity, similar to training for scheduling and methods, but without promoting the implementation of mentalization (in both conditions two meetings lasting about 3 h at the beginning of the school year and two supervisions during the school year were conducted). The children were tested by tasks assessing several aspects of mentalization (second and third-order false belief understanding, Strange Stories, Reading the mind in the Eyes, Mentalizing Task) both before and after the teacher participate in the TiM or control training (i.e., at the beginning and at the end of the school year). The results showed that, although some measured components of mentalization progressed over time, only the TiM Project training group significantly improved in third order false belief understanding and changed - in a greater way compared to the control group - in two of the three components of the Mentalizing Task. These evidences are promising about the idea that the creation of

  13. Promoting Mentalizing in Pupils by Acting on Teachers: Preliminary Italian Evidence of the "Thought in Mind" Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Valle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mentalization research focuses on different aspects of this topic, highlighting individual differences in mentalizing and proposing programs of intervention for children and adults to increase this ability. The Thought in Mind Project (TiM Project provides training targeted to adults―teachers or parents―to increase their mentalization and, consequently, to obtain mentalization improvement in children. The present research aimed to explore for the first time ever the potential of training for teachers based on the TiM Project, regarding the enhancement of mentalizing of an adult who would have interacted as a teacher with children. For this reason, two teachers – similar for meta-cognitive and meta-emotional skills - and their classes (N=46 were randomly assigned to the training or control condition. In the first case, the teacher participated in training on the implementation of promotion of mentalizing in everyday school teaching strategies; in the second case the teacher participated in a control activity, similar to training for scheduling and methods, but without promoting the implementation of mentalization (in both conditions two meetings lasting about three hours at the beginning of the school year and two supervisions during the school year were conducted. The children were tested by tasks assessing several aspects of mentalization (2nd and 3rd order false belief understanding, Strange Stories, Reading the mind in the Eyes, Mentalizing Task both before and after the teacher participate in the TiM or control training (i.e. at the beginning and at the end of the school year. The results showed that, although some measured components of mentalization progressed over time, only the TiM training group significantly improved in 3rd order false belief understanding and changed - in a greater way compared to the control group - in two of the three components of the Mentalizing Task. These evidences are promising about the idea that the

  14. Preliminary evidence that exercise dependence is associated with blunted cardiac and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Ginty, Annie T; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2011-02-01

    Low or blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress have been shown to characterise those with a tobacco or alcohol dependency. The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise dependency would be similarly associated with blunted reactivity. Young female exercisers (N=219) were screened by questionnaire for exercise dependence. Ten women with probable exercise dependence and 10 non dependent controls were selected for laboratory stress testing. Cardiovascular activity and salivary cortisol were measured at rest and in response to a 10-min mental arithmetic stress task. The exercise dependent women showed blunted cardiac reactions to the stress task and blunted cortisol at 10, 20, and 30 minute post stress exposure. These effects could not be accounted for in terms of group differences in stress task performance, nor could the cardiac effects be attributed to group differences in cardio-respiratory fitness. It would seem that low stress reactivity is characteristic of a wide range of dependencies, and is not confined to substance dependence. Our results offer further support for the hypothesis that blunted stress reactivity may be a peripheral marker of a central motivational dysregulation.

  15. Preliminary evidence for the evolution in complexity of heart rate dynamics during autonomic maturation in neonatal swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitz, L A; Pincus, S M; Morin, R J; Tong, S; Eberle, L P; Gootman, P M

    1997-07-14

    Previous studies suggest that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the generation of complex heart rate dynamics. Therefore, we hypothesized that the complexity (irregularity) of cardiac interbeat intervals would evolve with the maturation of autonomic innervation to the heart. Twelve healthy newborn piglets were implanted with ECG transmitters and studied at one or more different ages up to 33 days of age, the period during which pigs develop functional sympathetic innervation of the heart from the stellate ganglia. Three animals underwent right stellate ganglionectomy, two a left stellate ganglionectomy, two a right cardiac vagotomy and five a sham procedure. The statistic, approximate entropy (ApEn), was used to quantify the regularity of interbeat interval fluctuations. Sham-operated animals showed an increase in the standard deviation (SD) and irregularity (ApEn) of cardiac interval fluctuations with increasing age. Right stellate ganglionectomized piglets had lower interbeat interval ApEn values, but similar SD's by 26-27 days of age compared to sham-operated animals. Left stellate ganglionectomy, which affects cardiac inotropy rather than chronotropy, had no effect on cardiac interval irregularity, while vagotomy had an indeterminant effect. The increasing irregularity of interbeat interval dynamics during autonomic maturation and the apparent attenuation of heartbeat irregularity when right stellate ganglion innervation is interrupted, provides empirical support for the notion that complex heartbeat dynamics in the mature animal are the result of a network of autonomic neural pathways that enables an organism to adapt to stress.

  16. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007) [2], and in particular the authors' paper `The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement' [1]. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  17. Evidence to support IL-13 as a risk locus for psoriatic arthritis but not psoriasis vulgaris.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bowes, John

    2011-06-01

    There is great interest in the identification of genetic factors that differentiate psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from psoriasis vulgaris (PsV), as such discoveries could lead to the identification of distinct underlying aetiological pathways. Recent studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interleukin 13 (IL-13) gene region as risk factors for PsV. Further investigations in one of these studies found the effect to be primarily restricted to PsA, thus suggesting the discovery of a specific genetic risk factor for PsA. Given this intriguing evidence, association to this gene was investigated in large collections of PsA and PsV patients and healthy controls.

  18. Does the evidence support population-wide screening for type 2 diabetes? No.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jonathan E

    2017-08-23

    Large-scale, centrally-coordinated screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes is an attractive option to reduce the mortality and morbidity resulting from inadequately controlled diabetes. However, there is limited research examining the direct consequences of such screening programmes on outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and death. Two papers published in this edition of Diabetologia (DOIs: 10.1007/s00125-017-4323-2 and 10.1007/s00125-017-4299-y ) examine data from one of the very few trials conducted in this area. Overall, there was little benefit that could be directly related to the screening programme. In part, this was due to the high levels of opportunistic screening in the control group. Thus, when there are high levels of opportunistic screening for type 2 diabetes, there remains no clear evidence of benefit of centrally-coordinated screening programmes that approach individuals outside usual healthcare settings.

  19. Where is the evidence supporting public service announcements to eliminate mental illness stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2012-01-01

    Advocates and social marketers have used substantial resources to develop public service announcements (PSAs) as a lead strategy in public education and awareness campaigns meant to eliminate stigma associated with mental illness. Evaluations of PSAs are needed to determine whether this is a good investment. The author notes that very few studies have been reported in the peer-reviewed medical and psychological research literature addressing this question. Reports of government contractors suggest that PSAs have some effect as measured by population penetration, but such data provide no meaningful evidence about the impact of PSAs, such as real-world change in prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviors. The author considers reasons for the limited impact of PSAs and proposes that social marketing campaigns could enhance their impact by targeting local groups.

  20. Permanent El Niño during the Pliocene warm period not supported by coral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kawashima, Tatsunori; Kameo, Koji; Minoshima, Kayo; Aguilar, Yolanda M; Wani, Ryoji; Kawahata, Hodaka; Sowa, Kohki; Nagai, Takaya; Kase, Tomoki

    2011-03-10

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) system during the Pliocene warm period (PWP; 3-5 million years ago) may have existed in a permanent El Niño state with a sharply reduced zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. This suggests that during the PWP, when global mean temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were similar to those projected for near-term climate change, ENSO variability--and related global climate teleconnections-could have been radically different from that today. Yet, owing to a lack of observational evidence on seasonal and interannual SST variability from crucial low-latitude sites, this fundamental climate characteristic of the PWP remains controversial. Here we show that permanent El Niño conditions did not exist during the PWP. Our spectral analysis of the δ(18)O SST and salinity proxy, extracted from two 35-year, monthly resolved PWP Porites corals in the Philippines, reveals variability that is similar to present ENSO variation. Although our fossil corals cannot be directly compared with modern ENSO records, two lines of evidence suggest that Philippine corals are appropriate ENSO proxies. First, δ(18)O anomalies from a nearby live Porites coral are correlated with modern records of ENSO variability. Second, negative-δ(18)O events in the fossil corals closely resemble the decreases in δ(18)O seen in the live coral during El Niño events. Prior research advocating a permanent El Niño state may have been limited by the coarse resolution of many SST proxies, whereas our coral-based analysis identifies climate variability at the temporal scale required to resolve ENSO structure firmly.

  1. What is the Best Strategy to Obtain Legislative Support? Survey Evidence from Brazilian State Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The legislative success of governments in Latin America has been explained by two main theories. For some authors, the main explanation involves the proactive and reactive powers of the chief executive. Other scholars argue that negotiations with deputies for portfolios and pork are the most important factors behind success in approving legislation. This paper proposes an innovative methodological strategy to test the mechanisms behind each of these theories. Original survey data of 12 Brazilian state-level assemblies is examined to assess elites' attitudes in regard to governors' strategies to obtain legislative support. Results suggest that there is not a unique equilibrium to the problem of coalition formation in multiparty settings. Deputies with concentrated constituencies, from more decentralized parties, and from conservative parties, tend to believe that the most efficient way a governor can obtain legislative support is to negotiate amendments with deputies. On the other hand, the more scattered a legislator's constituency and the more liberal or centralized his or her party, the more likely a deputy is to think that governors achieve better legislative success when they negotiate cabinet positions.

  2. Evidence to Support the Pike's Peak Model: The UA Geropsychology Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tracy; Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest R; Allen, Rebecca S

    2013-05-01

    The University of Alabama's Graduate Geropsychology Education program (GGE) was conceived and implemented in the years prior to the design of the Pike's Peak Model (PPM) of geropsychology training. The GGE program provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the PPM, and this paper outlines the GGE program in the framework of the model. Three primary goals defined the GGE program: recruitment and retention of students in the geropsychology program, a doctoral level interdisciplinary class, and a set of clinical rotations in urban and rural sites. Outcomes were promising, indicating that geropsychology students were able to provide services with positive outcomes to underserved older adults in primary care settings and in a legal clinic, students from several disciplines rated the course very highly, and psychology students indicated that they were likely to continue in the field of geriatric care. Participating students have gone on to careers in geropsychology. Findings from this program support the design of the Pike's Peak Model, and provide support for broader implementation of similar training programs.

  3. Evidence to Support the Pike’s Peak Model: The UA Geropsychology Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tracy; Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest R.; Allen, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    The University of Alabama’s Graduate Geropsychology Education program (GGE) was conceived and implemented in the years prior to the design of the Pike’s Peak Model (PPM) of geropsychology training. The GGE program provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the PPM, and this paper outlines the GGE program in the framework of the model. Three primary goals defined the GGE program: recruitment and retention of students in the geropsychology program, a doctoral level interdisciplinary class, and a set of clinical rotations in urban and rural sites. Outcomes were promising, indicating that geropsychology students were able to provide services with positive outcomes to underserved older adults in primary care settings and in a legal clinic, students from several disciplines rated the course very highly, and psychology students indicated that they were likely to continue in the field of geriatric care. Participating students have gone on to careers in geropsychology. Findings from this program support the design of the Pike’s Peak Model, and provide support for broader implementation of similar training programs. PMID:24883167

  4. Community Engagement Strategies for Implementation of a Policy Supporting Evidence-Based Practices: A Case Study of Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Gabrielle; Pullmann, Michael D; Lyon, Aaron R

    2017-01-01

    After nearly two decades of cultivating an evidence based practice milieu in Washington State, the 2012 legislature passed House Bill 2536 (HB 2536) to promote the increased uptake and use of evidence based practices in the child welfare, juvenile justice and child behavioral health systems. The current paper examines stakeholder participation and engagement in HB 2536 during the first year of its implementation. The current paper describes the community response, influence, and engagement during the drafting of the bill language. It then describes initial policy implementation and community engagement efforts within a framework of implementation strategies (Powell et al. in Medical Care Research and Review 69:123-57, 2012). Analysis includes common concerns, statements of support, and suggestions from diverse stakeholder groups. Discussion reviews the lessons learned and future directions, including opportunities for additional collaborations with community stakeholders in the subsequent years of HB 2536 implementation.

  5. Rethinking the role of worry in generalized anxiety disorder: evidence supporting a model of emotional contrast avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llera, Sandra J; Newman, Michelle G

    2014-05-01

    The Contrast Avoidance model (Newman & Llera, 2011) proposes that individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are hypersensitive to sharp upward shifts in negative emotion that typically accompany negative events, and use worry to maintain sustained intrapersonal negativity in an attempt to avoid these shifts. Although research shows that worry increases negative emotionality and mutes further emotional reactivity to a stressor when compared to the worry period (e.g., Llera & Newman, 2010), no study has tracked changes in negative emotionality from baseline to worry inductions followed by a range of emotional exposures. Further, no study has yet assessed participants' subjective appraisals of prior worry on helping to cope with such exposures. The present study tested the main tenets of the Contrast Avoidance model by randomly assigning participants with GAD (n=48) and nonanxious controls (n=47) to experience worry, relaxation, and neutral inductions prior to sequential exposure to fearful, sad, and humorous film clips. Both physiological (nonspecific skin conductance responses [NS-SCRs]) and self-reported emotional changes were observed. Results indicated that worry boosted negative emotionality from baseline, which was sustained across negative exposures, whereas low negative emotionality during relaxation and neutral inductions allowed for sharp increases in response to exposures. Furthermore, GAD participants found worry to be more helpful than other conditions in coping with exposures, whereas control participants reported the opposite pattern. Results provide preliminary support for the Contrast Avoidance model. This suggests that treatment should focus on underlying avoidance patterns before attempting to reduce worry behavior.

  6. "On the other hand ...": the evidence does not support the use of hand-carried ultrasound by hospitalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mitchell D; Petersen, Amy Jean; Tice, Jeffrey A

    2010-03-01

    In the right hands, ultrasound is a safe and helpful diagnostic imaging tool. However, evidence supporting the use of hand-carried ultrasound (HCU) by hospitalist physicians has not kept pace with expanding application of these devices. In spite of its strategic point-of-care benefit, use of this technology by hospitalists may not ultimately translate into improved efficiency and better clinical outcomes. Optimal levels of training in image acquisition and interpretation remain to be established. Novelty, availability, and the results of a few small studies lacking patient-centered outcomes remain insufficient grounds to justify the expanded clinical utilization of these medical imaging devices by nonspecialists.

  7. Trial protocol and preliminary results for a cluster randomised trial of behavioural support versus brief advice for smoking cessation in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Alan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many young people report they want to stop smoking and have tried to do so, but most of their quit attempts fail. For adult smokers, there is strong evidence that group behavioural support enhances quit rates. However, it is uncertain whether group behavioural support enhances abstinence in young smokers trying to quit. Findings A cluster randomised trial for young people trying to stop smoking to compare the efficacy of a school-based 9 week intensive group behavioural support course versus a school-based 7 week brief advice only course. Participants were assessed for evidence of tobacco addiction and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT was used if it was deemed appropriate by the therapist. Both types of course aimed to recruit approximately one hundred participants from approximately ten schools. The primary outcome was successful quitting at 4 weeks after quit day judged according to the Russell standard. Had the trial been completed, abstinence at 6 months after quit day and the relationships between successful quit attempts and 1 psychological assessments of dependence prior to quitting 2 salivary cotinine concentration prior to quitting and 3 sociodemographic characteristics would also have been assessed. The proportion of participants who stopped smoking in each arm of the trial were compared using Chi square tests. The trial was stopped shortly after it had started because funding to support the therapists running the stop smoking group behavioural support programme was withdrawn. Only three stop smoking courses were completed (two group support courses and one brief advice pharmacotherapy course. Seventeen participants in total entered the trial. At the end of the courses, one participant (10% attending the group support programme had stopped smoking and no participant attending the brief advice programme had stopped smoking. Discussion The trial was stopped so we were unable to determine whether group support helped

  8. The California Health Policy Research Program - supporting policy making through evidence and responsive research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Dylan H; Jacobs, Ken; Kertzner, Alex E; Kominski, Gerald F

    2014-08-01

    This article explores the creation, design, and execution of a university-based collaboration to provide responsive research and evidence to a group of diverse health care, labor, and consumer stakeholders through convening a funded series of deliberative meetings, research briefs, peer-reviewed journal articles, ad hoc data analyses, and policy analyses. Funded by the California Endowment, the California Health Policy Research Program was created by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley Center for Labor Research and Education, and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. The collaboration not only allowed new research and analyses to be used by stakeholders and policy makers in decision making but also allowed university researchers to receive input on the important health policy issues of the day. The guidance of stakeholders in the research and policy analysis process was vital in driving meaningful results during an important time in health policy making in California. The manuscript discusses lessons learned in building relationships with stakeholders; meeting research and analytic needs; engaging stakeholders and policy makers; building capacity for quick-turnaround data collection and analysis, dissemination and publication; and maintaining the collaboration.

  9. Evidence supporting radiation hormesis in atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Mohan

    2012-12-01

    A recent update on the atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data has concluded that excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancers increases linearly with dose and that zero dose is the best estimate for the threshold, apparently validating the present use of the linear no threshold (LNT) model for estimating the cancer risk from low dose radiation. A major flaw in the standard ERR formalism for estimating cancer risk from radiation (and other carcinogens) is that it ignores the potential for a large systematic bias in the measured baseline cancer mortality rate, which can have a major effect on the ERR values. Cancer rates are highly variable from year to year and between adjacent regions and so the likelihood of such a bias is high. Calculations show that a correction for such a bias can lower the ERRs in the atomic bomb survivor data to negative values for intermediate doses. This is consistent with the phenomenon of radiation hormesis, providing a rational explanation for the decreased risk of cancer observed at intermediate doses for which there is no explanation based on the LNT model. The recent atomic bomb survivor data provides additional evidence for radiation hormesis in humans.

  10. Knowledge Brokering: An Innovative Model for Supporting Evidence-Informed Practice in Respiratory Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Hoens

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of adopting research findings in the clinical setting is challenging, regardless of the area of practice. One strategy to facilitate this process is the use of knowledge brokering. Knowledge brokers (KBs are individuals who work to bridge the gap between researchers and knowledge users. In the health care setting, KBs work closely with clinicians to facilitate enhanced uptake of research findings into clinical practice. They also work with researchers to ensure research findings are translatable and meaningful to clinical practice. The present article discusses a KB’s role in a respiratory care setting. Working closely with both researchers and clinicians, the KB has led teams in the process of conceptualizing, developing, testing, disseminating and evaluating several projects related to respiratory care, including projects related to mobility in critical care settings and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; inspiratory muscle training; and the use of incentive spirometry in postsurgical populations. The KB role has provided an important communication link between researcher and knowledge user that has facilitated evidence-informed practice to improve patient care.

  11. The color of a Dalmatian's spots: Linkage evidence to support the TYRP1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strain George M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distinctive coat pattern of a Dalmatian is the result of the interaction of several loci. While the encoded function of these genes is not fully understood, it is known the Piebald, Ticking, and Flecking loci interact to produce the Dalmatian's classic pigmented spots on a white background. The color of the pigmented spots in purebred Dalmatians can either be black or liver, but the locus responsible for color determination is unknown. Studies have been conducted to determine the underlying genes involved in coat color determination in the dog, e.g., in the Labrador Retriever, but none to date have addressed black versus liver in the Dalmatian. Results A genome scan was conducted in a multi-generational kindred of Dalmatians segregating black and liver spot color. Linkage analysis was performed using a total of 113 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the kindred. Linkage was found between spot color and a single microsatellite marker, FH2319 (LOD = 12.5 on chromosome 11. Conclusion The TYRP1 (Brown locus is located at position 50.1 Mb on chromosome 11, which is approximately 0.4 Mb from marker FH2319. Given the recent characterization of TYRP1 genetic variations in the dog and the linkage evidence reported here, TYRP1 is likely responsible for the spot color variation of black versus liver seen in the Dalmatian.

  12. Examining mutual suppression effects in the assessment of perfectionism cognitions: evidence supporting multidimensional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Kobori, Osamu; Brown, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Perfectionism cognitions capture automatic perfectionistic thoughts and have explained variance in psychological adjustment and maladjustment beyond trait perfectionism. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether a multidimensional assessment of perfectionism cognitions has advantages over a unidimensional assessment. To this aim, we examined in a sample of 324 university students how the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (PCI) and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (MPCI) explained variance in positive affect, negative affect, and depressive symptoms when factor or subscale scores were used as predictors compared to total scores. Results showed that a multidimensional assessment (PCI factor scores, MPCI subscale scores) explained more variance than a unidimensional assessment (PCI and MPCI total scores) because, when the different dimensions were entered simultaneously as predictors, perfectionistic strivings cognitions and perfectionistic concerns cognitions acted as mutual suppressors thereby increasing each others' predictive validity. With this, the present findings provide evidence that--regardless of whether the PCI or the MPCI is used--a multidimensional assessment of perfectionism cognitions has advantages over a unidimensional assessment in explaining variance in psychological adjustment and maladjustment.

  13. Blobs versus bars: psychophysical evidence supports two types of orientation response in human color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheiratmand, Mina; Meese, Tim S; Mullen, Kathy T

    2013-01-02

    The classic hypothesis of Livingstone and Hubel (1984, 1987) proposed two types of color pathways in primate visual cortex based on recordings from single cells: a segregated, modular pathway that signals color but provides little information about shape or form and a second pathway that signals color differences and so defines forms without the need to specify their colors. A major problem has been to reconcile this neurophysiological hypothesis with the behavioral data. A wealth of psychophysical studies has demonstrated that color vision has orientation-tuned responses and little impairment on form related tasks, but these have not revealed any direct evidence for nonoriented mechanisms. Here we use a psychophysical method of subthreshold summation across orthogonal orientations for isoluminant red-green gratings in monocular and dichoptic viewing conditions to differentiate between nonoriented and orientation-tuned responses to color contrast. We reveal nonoriented color responses at low spatial frequencies (0.25-0.375 c/deg) under monocular conditions changing to orientation-tuned responses at higher spatial frequencies (1.5 c/deg) and under binocular conditions. We suggest that two distinct pathways coexist in color vision at the behavioral level, revealed at different spatial scales: one is isotropic, monocular, and best equipped for the representation of surface color, and the other is orientation-tuned, binocular, and selective for shape and form. This advances our understanding of the organization of the neural pathways involved in human color vision and provides a strong link between neurophysiological and behavioral data.

  14. Ontology supported system for searching evidence of wild animals trafficking in social network posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Silva Carrasco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O comércio ilegal de animais silvestres é uma das atividades criminais mais lucrativas da atualidade. No Brasil, a grande variedade de fauna nativa tem alimentado o mercado ilegal, o que gera sérias implicações ambientais e sociais. A luta contra o comércio ilegal de animais silvestres é crucial para ajudar a proteger os recursos naturais e evitar a disseminação de outras formas de crime. Esse tipo de comércio ilegal usa cada vez mais, a internet para realizar suas atividades. A fim de combater tal crime, um sistema automático de monitorização é essencial. No entanto, para realizar essa tarefa de forma eficaz, o sistema deve ser capaz de analisar as mensagens trocadas durante essa prática. Para isso, é necessário o conhecimento dos conceitos e relações que ocorrem nesse domínio. Este artigo apresenta um sistema multiagente apoiado por ontologia de domínio e frames semânticos para buscar evidências de comércio ilegal de animais silvestres. No artigo, é mostrado como o sistema pode ser usado na tarefa de rastreamento do comércio ilegal de animais silvestres, além de apresentar os resultados da aplicação do sistema em um pequeno corpus.

  15. Evidence to support IL-13 as a risk locus for psoriatic arthritis but not psoriasis vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, John; Eyre, Steve; Flynn, Edward; Ho, Pauline; Salah, Salma; Warren, Richard B; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Coates, Laura; McManus, Ross; Ryan, Anthony W; Kane, David; Korendowych, Eleanor; McHugh, Neil; FitzGerald, Oliver; Packham, Jonathan; Morgan, Ann W; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Bruce, Ian N; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Objective There is great interest in the identification of genetic factors that differentiate psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from psoriasis vulgaris (PsV), as such discoveries could lead to the identification of distinct underlying aetiological pathways. Recent studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interleukin 13 (IL-13) gene region as risk factors for PsV. Further investigations in one of these studies found the effect to be primarily restricted to PsA, thus suggesting the discovery of a specific genetic risk factor for PsA. Given this intriguing evidence, association to this gene was investigated in large collections of PsA and PsV patients and healthy controls. Methods Two SNPs (rs20541 and rs1800925) mapping to the IL-13 gene were genotyped in 1057 PsA and 778 type I PsV patients using the Sequenom genotyping platform. Genotype frequencies were compared to those of 5575 healthy controls. Additional analyses were performed in phenotypic subgroups of PsA (type I or II PsV and in those seronegative for rheumatoid factor). Results Both SNPs were found to be highly associated with susceptibility to PsA (rs1800925 ptrend = 6.1×10−5 OR 1.33, rs20541 ptrend = 8.0×10−4 OR 1.27), but neither SNP was significantly associated with susceptibility to PsV. Conclusions This study confirms that the effect of IL-13 risk locus is specific for PsA, thus highlighting a key biological pathway that differentiates PsA from PsV. The identification of markers that differentiate the two diseases raises the possibility in future of allowing screening of PsV patients to identify those at risk of developing PsA. PMID:21349879

  16. Peripheral Faulting of Eden Patera: Potential Evidence in Support of a New Volcanic Construct on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arabia Terra's (AT) pock-marked topography in the expansive upland region of Mars Northern Hemisphere has been assumed to be the result of impact crater bombardment. However, examination of several craters by researchers revealed morphologies inconsistent with neighboring craters of similar size and age. These 'craters' share features with terrestrial super-eruption calderas, and are considered a new volcanic construct on Mars called `plains-style' caldera complexes. Eden Patera (EP), located on the northern boundary of AT is a reference type for these calderas. EP lacks well-preserved impact crater morphologies, including a decreasing depth to diameter ratio. Conversely, Eden shares geomorphological attributes with terrestrial caldera complexes such as Valles Caldera (New Mexico): arcuate caldera walls, concentric fracturing/faulting, flat-topped benches, irregular geometric circumferences, etc. This study focuses on peripheral fractures surrounding EP to provide further evidence of calderas within the AT region. Scaled balloon experiments mimicking terrestrial caldera analogs have showcased fracturing/faulting patterns and relationships of caldera systems. These experiments show: 1) radial fracturing (perpendicular to caldera rim) upon inflation, 2) concentric faulting (parallel to sub-parallel to caldera rim) during evacuation, and 3) intersecting radial and concentric peripheral faulting from resurgence. Utilizing Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX) imagery, peripheral fracturing is analyzed using GIS to study variations in peripheral fracture geometries relative to the caldera rim. Visually, concentric fractures dominate within 20 km, radial fractures prevail between 20 and 50 km, followed by gradation into randomly oriented and highly angular intersections in the fretted terrain region. Rose diagrams of orientation relative to north expose uniformly oriented mean regional stresses, but do not illuminate localized caldera stresses. Further

  17. Mitochondrial DNA evidence supports northeast Indian origin of the aboriginal Andamanese in the Late Paleolithic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Wang; Bikash Mitra; Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri; Malliya gounder Palanichamy; Qing-Peng Kong; Ya-Ping Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In view of the geographically closest location to Andaman archipelago,Myanmar was suggested to be the origin place of aboriginal Andamanese.However,for lacking any genetic information from this region,which has prevented to resolve the dispute on whether the aboriginal Andamanese were originated from mainland India or Myanmar.To solve this question and better understand the origin of the aboriginal Andamanese,we screened for haplogroups M31(from which Andaman-specific lineage M31a1 branched off)and M32 among 846mitochondrial DNAs(mtDNAs)sampled across Myanmar.As a result,two Myanmar individuals belonging to haplogroup M31 were identified,and completely sequencing the entire mtDNA genomes of both samples testified that the two M31 individuals observed in Myanmar were probably attributed to the recent gene flow from northeast India populations.Since no root lineages of haplogroup M31 or M32 were observed in Myanmar,it is unlikely that Myanmar may serve as the source place of the aboriginal Andamanese.To get further insight into the origin of this unique population,the detailed phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed by including additional 7 new entire mtDNA genomes and 113 M31 mtDNAs pinpointed from South Asian populations,and the results suggested that Andaman-specific M31a1 could in fact trace its origin to northeast India.Time estimation results further indicated that the Andaman archipelago was likely settled by modern humans from northeast India via the land-bridge which connected the Andaman archipelago and Myanmar around the Last Glacial Maximum(LGM),a scenario in well agreement with the evidence from linguistic and palaeoclimate studies.

  18. Field evidence that ecosystem service projects support biodiversity and diversify options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Rebecca L; Tallis, Heather; Kareiva, Peter; Daily, Gretchen C

    2008-07-08

    Ecosystem service approaches to conservation are being championed as a new strategy for conservation, under the hypothesis that they will broaden and deepen support for biodiversity protection. Where traditional approaches focus on setting aside land by purchasing property rights, ecosystem service approaches aim to engage a much wider range of places, people, policies, and financial resources in conservation. This is particularly important given projected intensification of human impacts, with rapid growth in population size and individual aspirations. Here we use field research on 34 ecosystem service (ES) projects and 26 traditional biodiversity (BD) projects from the Western Hemisphere to test whether ecosystem service approaches show signs of realizing their putative potential. We find that the ES projects attract on average more than four times as much funding through greater corporate sponsorship and use of a wider variety of finance tools than BD projects. ES projects are also more likely to encompass working landscapes and the people in them. We also show that, despite previous concern, ES projects not only expand opportunities for conservation, but they are no less likely than BD projects to include or create protected areas. Moreover, they do not draw down limited financial resources for conservation but rather engage a more diverse set of funders. We also found, however, that monitoring of conservation outcomes in both cases is so infrequent that it is impossible to assess the effectiveness of either ES or BD approaches.

  19. Mobile DNA and the TE-Thrust hypothesis: supporting evidence from the primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are increasingly being recognized as powerful facilitators of evolution. We propose the TE-Thrust hypothesis to encompass TE-facilitated processes by which genomes self-engineer coding, regulatory, karyotypic or other genetic changes. Although TEs are occasionally harmful to some individuals, genomic dynamism caused by TEs can be very beneficial to lineages. This can result in differential survival and differential fecundity of lineages. Lineages with an abundant and suitable repertoire of TEs have enhanced evolutionary potential and, if all else is equal, tend to be fecund, resulting in species-rich adaptive radiations, and/or they tend to undergo major evolutionary transitions. Many other mechanisms of genomic change are also important in evolution, and whether the evolutionary potential of TE-Thrust is realized is heavily dependent on environmental and ecological factors. The large contribution of TEs to evolutionary innovation is particularly well documented in the primate lineage. In this paper, we review numerous cases of beneficial TE-caused modifications to the genomes of higher primates, which strongly support our TE-Thrust hypothesis. PMID:21627776

  20. Mobile DNA and the TE-Thrust hypothesis: supporting evidence from the primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Keith R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposable elements (TEs are increasingly being recognized as powerful facilitators of evolution. We propose the TE-Thrust hypothesis to encompass TE-facilitated processes by which genomes self-engineer coding, regulatory, karyotypic or other genetic changes. Although TEs are occasionally harmful to some individuals, genomic dynamism caused by TEs can be very beneficial to lineages. This can result in differential survival and differential fecundity of lineages. Lineages with an abundant and suitable repertoire of TEs have enhanced evolutionary potential and, if all else is equal, tend to be fecund, resulting in species-rich adaptive radiations, and/or they tend to undergo major evolutionary transitions. Many other mechanisms of genomic change are also important in evolution, and whether the evolutionary potential of TE-Thrust is realized is heavily dependent on environmental and ecological factors. The large contribution of TEs to evolutionary innovation is particularly well documented in the primate lineage. In this paper, we review numerous cases of beneficial TE-caused modifications to the genomes of higher primates, which strongly support our TE-Thrust hypothesis.

  1. Multivoxel Pattern Analysis Does Not Provide Evidence to Support the Existence of Basic Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Johnson, Timothy D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-03-01

    Saarimaki et al. (2015) published a paper claiming to find the neural "fingerprints" for anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise using multivariate pattern analysis. There are 2 ways in which Saarimaki et al.'s interpretation mischaracterizes their actual findings. The first is statistical: a pattern that successfully distinguishes the members of one category from the members of another (with an accuracy greater than that which might be expected by chance) is not a "fingerprint" (i.e., an essence); it is an abstract, statistical summary of a variable population of instances. The second way in which Saarimaki et al.'s interpretation mischaracterizes their results is conceptual: their findings do not actually meet the specific criteria for basic emotion theory. Instead, their findings are more consistent with a theory of constructed emotion. In our view, Saarimaki et al. is elegant in method and important in that it demonstrates empirical support for a theory of emotion that relies on population thinking; it is also an example of how essentialism-the belief that all instances of a category possesses necessary features that define what is, and what is not, a category member-contributes to a fundamental misunderstanding of the neural basis of emotion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. RAPE SUPPORTIVE ATTITUDE SCALE: FIRST EVIDENCE ON ITS RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN THE SALVADORIAN SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sierra

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The tolerant attitudes towards sexual violence on women are important risk factor which should be considered whileexplaining this type of aggressive behaviour. One of the instruments to evaluate these attitudes is Rape SupportiveAttitude Scale (RSAS by Lottes. The scale has showed good indexes of reliability and validity in both American andSpanish university students. The purpose of the study is to explore the psychometric characteristics in El Salvador asit has been applied together with the Double Standard Scale by Caron, Davis, Haltelman and Stickle (1993 and Crowneand Marlowe (1960 Social Desirability Scale in two samples which consisted of 505 and 1499 students, respectively.The results indicate that the one-dimensional structure of the scale stays stable in the two samples reaching thecoefficients of internal consistence higher than .80, although it includes two items which requires to be reviewed infuture studies. Concerning the validity, the RSAS differentiates men and women in these types of attitudes and showssignificant positive correlation with double sexual standard.

  3. Evidence to support karyotypic variation of the mosquito, Anopheles peditaeniatus in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choochote, Wej

    2011-01-01

    Eight isoline colonies of Anopheles peditaeniatus Leicester (Diptera: Culicidae) were established from wild-caught females collected from buffalo-baited traps at 8 localities in Thailand. They showed 2 types of X (X(2), X(3)) and 4 types of Y (Y(2), Y(3), Y(4), Y(5)) chromosomes based on the number and amount of major block(s) of heterochromatin present in the heterochromatic arm, and were tentatively designated as Forms B (X(2), X(3), Y(2)), C (X(3), Y(3)), D (X(3), Y(4)) and E (X(2), X(3), Y(5)). Form B was found in Nan, Ratchaburi, and Chumphon provinces; Form C was obtained in Chon Buri province; Form D was recovered in Kamphaeng Phet province; and Form E was acquired in Chiang Mai, Udon Thani, and Ubon Ratchathani provinces. Crossing studies among the 8 isoline colonies, which were representative of 4 karyotypic forms of An. peditaeniatus, revealed genetic compatibility in providing viable progenies and synaptic salivary gland polytene chromosomes through F(2)-generations, thus suggesting the conspecific nature of these karyotypic forms. These results were supported by the very low intraspecific sequence variations (0.0 - 1.1%) of the nucleotide sequences in ribosomal DNA (ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA (COI and COII) of the 4 forms.

  4. Systems management support for ERCDC study of undergrounding and berm containment. Interim report. Preliminary program assessment and follow-on program development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    Interim results of a study being conducted with respect to the technological aspects of the costs and benefits of underground nuclear power plant construction in direct support of the California Energy Commission's legislative mandate in this area are presented. The program was directed towards problem scoping, methodology evaluation, program definition and planning for subsequent, more detailed investigations of underground facility designs and their potential advantages and disadvantages. The material presented describes the results of (a) systems analyses which were conducted to determine logical requirements for determination of those elements of a nuclear power plant which should be constructed underground; (b) bounding estimates of incremental plant costs for a variety of underground concepts; (c) applicable prior experience in underground facility design and construction which could be used to identify potential sources of strength and weaknessees of underground nuclear power plants; (d) estimates of seismic environments for underground construction in California; (e) preliminary descriptions of underground reactor accident scenarios; (f) bounding estimates of the consequences of such accidents, in terms of comparisons of relative emissions of radioactivity with respect to similar accidents for surface-sited nuclear power plants and (g) results of analyses of several other important technological aspects of the problem. A description is also provided of the program development work performed to provide planning and criteria for subsequent investigations to determine: (a) definitive underground nuclear power plant designs and costs, and (b) estimates of accident consequences in underground nuclear power plants.

  5. Systems management support for ERCDC study of undergrounding and berm containment. Interim report. Preliminary program assessment and follow-on program development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    Interim results of a study being conducted with respect to the technological aspects of the costs and benefits of underground nuclear power plant construction in direct support of the California Energy Commission's legislative mandate in this area are presented. The program was directed towards problem scoping, methodology evaluation, program definition and planning for subsequent, more detailed investigations of underground facility designs and their potential advantages and disadvantages. The material presented describes the results of (a) systems analyses which were conducted to determine logical requirements for determination of those elements of a nuclear power plant which should be constructed underground; (b) bounding estimates of incremental plant costs for a variety of underground concepts; (c) applicable prior experience in underground facility design and construction which could be used to identify potential sources of strength and weaknessees of underground nuclear power plants; (d) estimates of seismic environments for underground construction in California; (e) preliminary descriptions of underground reactor accident scenarios; (f) bounding estimates of the consequences of such accidents, in terms of comparisons of relative emissions of radioactivity with respect to similar accidents for surface-sited nuclear power plants and (g) results of analyses of several other important technological aspects of the problem. A description is also provided of the program development work performed to provide planning and criteria for subsequent investigations to determine: (a) definitive underground nuclear power plant designs and costs, and (b) estimates of accident consequences in underground nuclear power plants.

  6. Targeting binge eating through components of dialectical behavior therapy: preliminary outcomes for individually supported diary card self-monitoring versus group-based DBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined two condensed adaptations of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for binge eating. Women with full- or sub-threshold variants of either binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to individually supported self-monitoring using adapted DBT diary cards (DC) or group-based DBT, each 15 sessions over 16 weeks. DC sessions focused on problem-solving diary card completion issues, praising diary card completion, and supporting nonjudgmental awareness of eating-related habits and urges, but not formally teaching DBT skills. Group-based DBT included eating mindfulness, progressing through graded exposure; mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills; and coaching calls between sessions. Both treatments evidenced large and significant improvements in binge eating, bulimic symptoms, and interoceptive awareness. For group-based DBT, ineffectiveness, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and perfectionism also decreased significantly, with medium to large effect sizes. For DC, results were not significant but large in effect size for body dissatisfaction and medium in effect size for ineffectiveness and drive for thinness. Retention for both treatments was higher than recent trends for eating disorder treatment in fee-for-service practice and for similar clinic settings, but favored DC, with the greater attrition of group-based DBT primarily attributed to its more intensive and time-consuming nature, and dropout overall associated with less pretreatment impairment and greater interoceptive awareness. This preliminary investigation suggests that with both abbreviated DBT-based treatments, substantial improvement in core binge eating symptoms is possible, enhancing potential avenues for implementation beyond more time-intensive DBT.

  7. Support for an auto-associative model of spoken cued recall: evidence from fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie; Eastburn, Mathew; Pringle, Alan J; Lorenz, Lina; Humphreys, Michael S

    2007-03-02

    Cued recall and item recognition are considered the standard episodic memory retrieval tasks. However, only the neural correlates of the latter have been studied in detail with fMRI. Using an event-related fMRI experimental design that permits spoken responses, we tested hypotheses from an auto-associative model of cued recall and item recognition [Chappell, M., & Humphreys, M. S. (1994). An auto-associative neural network for sparse representations: Analysis and application to models of recognition and cued recall. Psychological Review, 101, 103-128]. In brief, the model assumes that cues elicit a network of phonological short term memory (STM) and semantic long term memory (LTM) representations distributed throughout the neocortex as patterns of sparse activations. This information is transferred to the hippocampus which converges upon the item closest to a stored pattern and outputs a response. Word pairs were learned from a study list, with one member of the pair serving as the cue at test. Unstudied words were also intermingled at test in order to provide an analogue of yes/no recognition tasks. Compared to incorrectly rejected studied items (misses) and correctly rejected (CR) unstudied items, correctly recalled items (hits) elicited increased responses in the left hippocampus and neocortical regions including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC), left mid lateral temporal cortex and inferior parietal cortex, consistent with predictions from the model. This network was very similar to that observed in yes/no recognition studies, supporting proposals that cued recall and item recognition involve common rather than separate mechanisms.

  8. Evidence to support a food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyn Nelia P

    2012-07-01

    as sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion Based on the evidence provided the current DOH food-based dietary guideline on sugar intake should remain as is.

  9. Evidence to support a food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    -sweetened beverages. Conclusion Based on the evidence provided the current DOH food-based dietary guideline on sugar intake should remain as is. PMID:22762394

  10. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A.; Manzanilla, Linda R.; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció; Montiel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla), and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco’s history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase) compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa) as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan) of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the

  11. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda A Álvarez-Sandoval

    Full Text Available Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla, and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco's history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the

  12. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Manzanilla, Linda R; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció; Montiel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla), and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco's history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase) compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa) as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan) of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the "Teotihuacan corridor

  13. Medical ethics and screening: on what evidence should we support ourselves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Henrique Norman

    2014-05-01

    neutral, of simple understanding, culturally accessible, so that the users of the health system can better decide about their own health.3From the perspective of public health, distributive ethic justice, and limited healthcare budget - that any health system faces - screening programmes diverts financial resources - which should primarily be allocated to the treatment and care of sick individuals - towards healthy people, with the potential to produce new real patients, due to the damage of the interventions on healthy bodies, generating more costs to the health system and society in general.Fortunately, screening programmes are increasingly losing their strength, especially in Europe. For instance, the Swiss Medical Board10 found no scientific rational for the maintenance of breast screening programmes in light of current available scientific evidence. In Denmark, the rate of mortality attributable to breast cancer have not reduced due to the implementation of systematic breast cancer screening programme with mammography over 17 years follow up,11 however, it has produced an overdiagnosis rate of 33%.12 Similar trends in mortality over the last 30 years were also observed in the United States,13 as well as in Canada, the accumulated 25 years monitoring of the effects of breast cancer screening, did not render reduction in mortality from breast cancer, but resulted in 22% of overdiagnosis.14 Thus, to Peter C. Gotzsche,1 one of the world ‘s leading authorities on the subject, the best method we have to reduce the occurrence of breast cancer is to stop screening with mammography.From an ethical and scientific point of view,10 screening programmes should be discontinued or restricted to high-risk groups or very specific situations, and the focus of prevention should be redirected towards interventions on early-symptomatic patients, since breast cancer treatment has improved considerably in recent decades, and this is likely to be the responsible for improving the quality

  14. Medical ethics and screening: on what evidence should we support ourselves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Henrique Norman

    2014-04-01

    neutral, of simple understanding, culturally accessible, so that the users of the health system can better decide about their own health.3From the perspective of public health, distributive ethic justice, and limited healthcare budget - that any health system faces - screening programmes diverts financial resources - which should primarily be allocated to the treatment and care of sick individuals - towards healthy people, with the potential to produce new real patients, due to the damage of the interventions on healthy bodies, generating more costs to the health system and society in general.Fortunately, screening programmes are increasingly losing their strength, especially in Europe. For instance, the Swiss Medical Board10 found no scientific rational for the maintenance of breast screening programmes in light of current available scientific evidence. In Denmark, the rate of mortality attributable to breast cancer have not reduced due to the implementation of systematic breast cancer screening programme with mammography over 17 years follow up,11 however, it has produced an overdiagnosis rate of 33%.12 Similar trends in mortality over the last 30 years were also observed in the United States,13 as well as in Canada, the accumulated 25 years monitoring of the effects of breast cancer screening, did not render reduction in mortality from breast cancer, but resulted in 22% of overdiagnosis.14 Thus, to Peter C. Gotzsche,1 one of the world ‘s leading authorities on the subject, the best method we have to reduce the occurrence of breast cancer is to stop screening with mammography.From an ethical and scientific point of view,10 screening programmes should be discontinued or restricted to high-risk groups or very specific situations, and the focus of prevention should be redirected towards interventions on early-symptomatic patients, since breast cancer treatment has improved considerably in recent decades, and this is likely to be the responsible for improving the quality

  15. Network analysis to support research management: evidence from the Fiocruz Observatory in Science, Technology and Innovation in Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, B.; Sampaio, R.B.; Silva, M.V.; Dos Santos, P.X.

    2016-07-01

    Brazil has been encouraging the establishment of research networks to address strategic health issues in response to social demands, creating an urgent need to develop indicators for their evaluation. The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), a national research, training and production institution, has initiated the development of an “Observatory in Science, Technology and Innovation in Health” to monitor and evaluate research and technological development for the formulation of institutional policies. In this context, we are proposing the use of social network analysis to map cooperation in strategic areas of research, identify prominent researchers and support internal research networks. In this preliminary study, coauthorship analysis was used to map the cooperative relations of Fiocruz in tuberculosis (TB) research, an important public health issue for which diagnosis and adequate treatment are still challenging. Our findings suggest that Brazilian research organizations acting in TB research are embedded in highly connected networks. The large number of international organizations present in the Brazilian network reflects the global increase in scientific collaboration and Brazil’s engagement in international collaborative research efforts. Fiocruz frequent cooperation with high-income countries demonstrates its concern in benefiting from the access to facilities, funding, equipment and networks that are often limited in its research setting. Collaboration with high burden countries has to be strengthened, as it could improve access to local knowledge and better understanding of the disease in different endemic contexts. Centrality analysis consolidated information on the importance of Fiocruz in connecting TB research institutions in Brazil. Fiocruz Observatory intends to advance this analysis by looking into the mechanisms of collaboration, identifying priority themes and assessing comparative advantages of the network members, an important contribution

  16. Habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting: Measurement test–retest reliability for the LUMOback device and preliminary evidence for slouched posture in individuals with low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: It has been difficult to monitor the pelvic position during actual daily life. However, recent developments in wearable device technologies, such as the LUMOback device, provide the possibility to evaluate habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting during daily life. The current study aimed (1) to investigate test–retest reliability for habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting with the LUMOback in individuals with prolonged low back pain (low back pain group) and without low back pain (control group), and (2) to preliminarily investigate differences in those measures between groups. Methods: Fifteen individuals in each group wore the LUMOback daily for 2 weeks. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated in each group by comparing the mean from the first week with the mean from the second week: (1) for the posture score, which is a proportion of time with neutral posture, and (2) for time spent sitting. The two measures for the first week were compared between the low back pain and control groups. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficients for the posture score were .82 in the low back pain group and .91 in the control group. The intraclass correlation coefficients for time spent sitting were .75 in the low back pain group and .85 in the control group. The posture score in the low back pain group (mean ± SD: 37.5% ± 10.3%) was less than that in the control group (49.6% ± 6.0%; p  .05). Conclusions: The current study found (1) acceptable test–retest reliability for the posture score and time spent sitting evaluated by the LUMOback device, and (2) preliminary evidence of a difference in the posture score, indicating a more slouched lumbopelvic posture in individuals with prolonged low back pain than those without low back pain. PMID:28951781

  17. Habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting: Measurement test-retest reliability for the LUMOback device and preliminary evidence for slouched posture in individuals with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    It has been difficult to monitor the pelvic position during actual daily life. However, recent developments in wearable device technologies, such as the LUMOback device, provide the possibility to evaluate habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting during daily life. The current study aimed (1) to investigate test-retest reliability for habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting with the LUMOback in individuals with prolonged low back pain (low back pain group) and without low back pain (control group), and (2) to preliminarily investigate differences in those measures between groups. Fifteen individuals in each group wore the LUMOback daily for 2 weeks. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated in each group by comparing the mean from the first week with the mean from the second week: (1) for the posture score, which is a proportion of time with neutral posture, and (2) for time spent sitting. The two measures for the first week were compared between the low back pain and control groups. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the posture score were .82 in the low back pain group and .91 in the control group. The intraclass correlation coefficients for time spent sitting were .75 in the low back pain group and .85 in the control group. The posture score in the low back pain group (mean ± SD: 37.5% ± 10.3%) was less than that in the control group (49.6% ± 6.0%; p  .05). The current study found (1) acceptable test-retest reliability for the posture score and time spent sitting evaluated by the LUMOback device, and (2) preliminary evidence of a difference in the posture score, indicating a more slouched lumbopelvic posture in individuals with prolonged low back pain than those without low back pain.

  18. Double-Edged Roles of Nitric Oxide Signaling on APP Processing and Amyloid-β Production In Vitro: Preliminary Evidence from Sodium Nitroprusside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zheng-Xu; Guo, Hui-Shu; Wang, Che; Wei, Min; Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Zhao-Fei; Chen, Yin-Wang; Le, Wei-Dong; Li, Song

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is thought to be caused in part by the age-related accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Recent findings have revealed that nitric oxide (NO) modulates the processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and alters Aβ production; however, the previously presented data are contradictory and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still incomplete. Here, using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells stably transfected with wild-type APPwt695, we found that NO, derived from NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), bi-directionally modulates APP processing in vitro. The data from ELISA and Western blot (WB) tests indicated that SNP at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 μM) inhibits BACE1 expression, thus consequently suppresses APP β-cleavage and decreases Aβ production. In contrast, SNP at higher concentrations (10 and 20 μM) biases the APP processing toward the amyloidogenic pathway as evidenced by an increased BACE1 but a decreased ADAM10 expression, together with an elevated Aβ secretion. This bi-directional modulating activity of SNP on APP processing was completely blocked by specific NO scavenger c-PTIO, indicating NO-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, the anti-amyloidogenic activity of SNP is sGC/cGMP/PKG-dependent as evidenced by its reversal by sGC/PKG inhibitions, whereas the amyloidogenic activity of SNP is peroxynitrite-related and can be reversed by peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid. In summary, these present findings predict a double-edged role of NO in APP processing in vitro. Low (physiological) levels of NO inhibit the amyloidogenic processing of APP, whereas extra-high (pathological) concentrations of NO favor the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing. This preliminary study may provide further evidence to clarify the molecular roles of NO and NO-related signaling in AD and supply potential molecular targets for AD treatment.

  19. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  20. Ethnography, fidelity, and the evidence that anthropology adds: supplementing the fidelity process in a clinical trial of supported employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Lopez, Gilberto; Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance; Dixon-Lawson, Kimberly

    2014-06-01

    This discussion considers the role and findings of ethnographic research within a clinical trial of supported employment for veterans with spinal cord injury. Contributing to qualitative evaluation research and to debates over anthropological evidence vis-à-vis clinical trials, we demonstrate how enactors of a randomized controlled trial can simultaneously attend to both the trial's evidentiary and procedural requirements and to the lived experiences and needs of patients and clinicians. Three major findings are described: (1) contextual information essential to fidelity efforts within the trial; (2) the role of human interrelationships and idiosyncratic networks in the trial's success; and (3) a mapping of the power and authority structures relevant to the staff's ability to perform the protocol. We emphasize strengths of anthropological ethnography in clinical trials that include the provision of complementary, qualitative data, the capture of otherwise unmeasured parts of the trial, and the realization of important information for the translation of the clinical findings into new settings.

  1. Mental Health Clinicians' Participation in Web-Based Training for an Evidence Supported Intervention: Signs of Encouragement and Trouble Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, J Curtis; Hawley, Kristin M; Proctor, Enola K

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive scalable clinician training is needed to increase the impact of evidence-supported psychotherapies. This study was designed to ascertain clinician participation in different low-cost training activities, what predicts their training participation, and how participation can be increased. The study enrolled 163 clinicians. Of these, 105 completed a follow-up survey and 20 completed a more in-depth qualitative interview. Some activities (web training) attracted greater participation than others (e.g., discussion boards, role playing). Key findings include the desirability of self-paced learning and the flexibility it afforded practicing clinicians. However, some found the lack of accountability insurmountable. Many desired in-person training as a way to introduce accountability and motivation. While low-cost, relevant, self-paced learning appeals to practicing clinicians, it may need to be combined with opportunities for in-person training and accountability mechanisms in order to encourage large numbers of clinicians to complete training.

  2. SINFONI/VLT 3D spectroscopy of massive galaxies: evidence of rotational support at z ˜ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Fernando; Conselice, Christopher J.; Epinat, Benoît; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2014-04-01

    There is cumulative evidence showing that, for the most massive galaxies, the fraction of disc-like objects compared to those with spheroidal properties increases with redshift. However, this evolution is thus far based on the surface brightness study of these objects. To explore the consistency of this scenario, it is necessary to measure the dynamical status of these galaxies. With this aim, we have obtained seeing-limited near-infrared integral-field spectra in the H-band for 10 massive galaxies (M_{*}≥ 10^{11} h_{70}^{-2} M_{⊙}) at z ˜ 1.4 with SINFONI at the VLT. Our sample is selected by their stellar mass and EW[O II] > 15 Å, to secure their kinematic measurements, but without accounting for any morphological or flux criteria a priori. Through this 3D kinematic spectroscopy analysis, we find that half (i.e. 50 ± 7 per cent) of our galaxies are compatible with being rotationally supported discs, in agreement with previous morphological expectations. This is a factor of approximately 2 higher than what is observed in the present Universe for objects of the same stellar mass. Strikingly, the majority of our sample of massive galaxies show extended and fairly high rotational velocity maps, implying that massive galaxies acquire rapidly rotational support and hence gravitational equilibrium. Our sample also show evidence for ongoing interactions and mergers. Summarizing, massive galaxies at high-z show a significant diversity and must have continued evolution beyond the fading of stellar populations, to become their present-day counterparts.

  3. Evidence Supporting the Uptake and Genomic Incorporation of Environmental DNA in the “Ancient Asexual” Bdelloid Rotifer Philodina roseola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that bdelloid rotifers regularly undergo horizontal gene transfer, apparently as a surrogate mechanism of genetic exchange in the absence of true sexual reproduction, in part because of their ability to withstand desiccation. We provide empirical support for this latter hypothesis using the bdelloid Philodina roseola, which we demonstrate to readily internalize environmental DNA in contrast to a representative monogonont rotifer (Brachionus rubens, which, like other monogononts, is facultative sexual and cannot withstand desiccation. In addition, environmental DNA that was more similar to the host DNA was retained more often and for a longer period of time. Indirect evidence (increased variance in the reproductive output of the untreated F1 generation suggests that environmental DNA can be incorporated into the genome during desiccation and is thus heritable. Our observed fitness effects agree with sexual theory and also occurred when the animals were desiccated in groups (thereby acting as DNA donors, but not individually, indicating the mechanism could occur in nature. Thus, although DNA uptake and its genomic incorporation appears proximally related to anhydrobiosis in bdelloids, it might also facilitate accidental genetic exchange with closely related taxa, thereby maintaining higher levels of genetic diversity than is otherwise expected for this group of “ancient asexuals”.

  4. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Mathieu; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Supporting Better Evidence Generation and Use within Social Innovation in Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Madeleine; Tran, Jenny; Hersch, Fred; Lockwood, Amy; Hartigan, Pamela; Montgomery, Paul

    2017-01-01

    While several papers have highlighted a lack of evidence to scale social innovations in health, fewer have explored decision-maker understandings of the relative merit of different types of evidence, how such data are interpreted and applied, and what practical support is required to improve evidence generation. The objectives of this paper are to understand (1) beliefs and attitudes towards the value of and types of evidence in scaling social innovations for health, (2) approaches to evidence generation and evaluation used in systems and policy change, and (3) how better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health. Thirty-two one-on-one interviews were conducted between July and November 2015 with purposively selected practitioners, policymakers, and funders from low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Data were analysed using a Framework Analysis Approach. While practitioners, funders, and policymakers said they held outcome evidence in high regard, their practices only bear out this assertion to varying degrees. Few have given systematic consideration to potential unintended consequences, in particular harm, of the programs they implement, fund, or adopt. Stakeholders suggest that better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health by supporting the research efforts of emerging community organizations; creating links between practitioners and academia; altering the funding landscape for evidence-generation; providing responsive technical education; and creating accountability for funders, practitioners, and policymakers. How better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health is a previously under-operationalised aspect of the policy-making process that remains essential in order to refrain from causing harm, enable the optimization of existing interventions, and ultimately, to scale and fund what works.

  6. Supporting Better Evidence Generation and Use within Social Innovation in Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jenny; Hersch, Fred; Lockwood, Amy; Montgomery, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background While several papers have highlighted a lack of evidence to scale social innovations in health, fewer have explored decision-maker understandings of the relative merit of different types of evidence, how such data are interpreted and applied, and what practical support is required to improve evidence generation. The objectives of this paper are to understand (1) beliefs and attitudes towards the value of and types of evidence in scaling social innovations for health, (2) approaches to evidence generation and evaluation used in systems and policy change, and (3) how better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health. Methods Thirty-two one-on-one interviews were conducted between July and November 2015 with purposively selected practitioners, policymakers, and funders from low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Data were analysed using a Framework Analysis Approach. Results While practitioners, funders, and policymakers said they held outcome evidence in high regard, their practices only bear out this assertion to varying degrees. Few have given systematic consideration to potential unintended consequences, in particular harm, of the programs they implement, fund, or adopt. Stakeholders suggest that better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health by supporting the research efforts of emerging community organizations; creating links between practitioners and academia; altering the funding landscape for evidence-generation; providing responsive technical education; and creating accountability for funders, practitioners, and policymakers. Conclusion How better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health is a previously under-operationalised aspect of the policy-making process that remains essential in order to refrain from causing harm, enable the optimization of existing interventions, and ultimately, to scale and fund what

  7. Implementing supported self-management for asthma: a systematic review and suggested hierarchy of evidence of implementation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Hilary; Epiphaniou, Eleni; Pearce, Gemma; Parke, Hannah; Greenhalgh, Trish; Sheikh, Aziz; Griffiths, Chris J; Taylor, Stephanie J C

    2015-06-01

    Asthma self-management remains poorly implemented in clinical practice despite overwhelming evidence of improved healthcare outcomes, reflected in guideline recommendations over three decades. To inform delivery in routine care, we synthesised evidence from implementation studies of self-management support interventions. We systematically searched eight electronic databases (1980 to 2012) and research registers, and performed snowball and manual searches for studies evaluating implementation of asthma self-management in routine practice. We included, and adapted systematic review methodology to reflect, a broad range of implementation study designs. We extracted data on study characteristics, process measures (for example, action plan ownership), asthma control (for example, patient reported control questionnaires, days off school/work, symptom-free days) and use of health services (for example, admissions, emergency department attendances, unscheduled consultations). We assessed quality using the validated Downs and Black checklist, and conducted a narrative synthesis informed by Kennedy's whole systems theoretical approach (considering patient, practitioner and organisational components and the interaction between these). We included 18 studies (6 randomised trials, 2 quasi-experimental studies, 8 with historical controls and 3 with retrospective comparators) from primary, secondary, community and managed care settings serving a total estimated asthma population of 800,000 people in six countries. In these studies, targeting professionals (n = 2) improved process, but had no clinically significant effect on clinical outcomes. Targeting patients (n = 6) improved some process measures, but had an inconsistent impact on clinical outcomes. Targeting the organisation (n = 3) improved process measures, but had little/no effect on clinical outcomes. Interventions that explicitly addressed patient, professional and organisational factors (n = 7) showed the most

  8. Do community pharmacists have the attitudes and knowledge to support evidence based self-management of low back pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waddell Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, community pharmacists can be consulted without appointment in a large number of convenient locations. They are in an ideal position to give advice to patients at the onset of low back pain and also reinforce advice given by other healthcare professionals. There is little specific information about the quality of care provided in the pharmacy for people with back pain. The main objectives of this survey were to determine the attitudes, knowledge and reported practice of English pharmacists advising people who present with acute or chronic low back pain. Methods A questionnaire was designed for anonymous self-completion by pharmacists attending continuing education sessions. Demographic questions were designed to allow comparison with a national pharmacy workforce survey. Attitudes were measured with the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ and questions based on the Working Backs Scotland campaign. Questions about the treatment of back pain in the community pharmacy were written (or adapted to reflect and characterise the nature of practice. In response to two clinical vignettes, respondents were asked to select proposals that they would recommend in practice. Results 335 responses from community pharmacists were analysed. Middle aged pharmacists, women, pharmacy managers and locums were over-represented compared to registration and workforce data. The mean (SD BBQ score for the pharmacists was 31.37 (5.75, which was slightly more positive than in similar surveys of other groups. Those who had suffered from back pain seem to demonstrate more confidence (fewer negative feelings, more advice opportunities and better advice provision in their perception of advice given in the pharmacy. Awareness of written information that could help to support practice was low. Reponses to the clinical vignettes were generally in line with the evidence base. Pharmacists expressed some caution about recommending activity. Most

  9. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 3 : Detailed guidance for explanatory footnotes supports creating and understanding GRADE certainty in the evidence judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santesso, Nancy; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Langendam, Miranda; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Mustafa, Reem A.; Heus, Pauline; Lasserson, Toby; Opiyo, Newton; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul; Treweek, Shaun; Tovey, David; Akl, Elie A.; Tugwell, Peter; Brozek, Jan L.; Guyatt, Gordon; Schünemann, Holger J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) is widely used and reliable and accurate for assessing the certainty in the body of health evidence. The GRADE working group has provided detailed guidance for assessing the certainty in the body of evidence in

  10. Examining the use of evidence-based and social media supported tools in freely accessible physical activity intervention websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kirwan, Morwenna; Rebar, Amanda; Alley, Stephanie; Short, Camille; Fallon, Luke; Buzza, Gavin; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Maher, Carol; Duncan, Mitch J

    2014-08-17

    It has been shown that physical activity is more likely to increase if web-based interventions apply evidence-based components (e.g. self-monitoring) and incorporate interactive social media applications (e.g. social networking), but it is unclear to what extent these are being utilized in the publicly available web-based physical activity interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether freely accessible websites delivering physical activity interventions use evidence-based behavior change techniques and provide social media applications. In 2013, a systematic search strategy examined 750 websites. Data was extracted on a wide range of variables (e.g. self-monitoring, goal setting, and social media applications). To evaluate website quality a new tool, comprising three sub-scores (Behavioral Components, Interactivity and User Generated Content), was developed to assess implementation of behavior change techniques and social media applications. An overall website quality scored was obtained by summing the three sub-scores. Forty-six publicly available websites were included in the study. The use of self-monitoring (54.3%), goal setting (41.3%) and provision of feedback (46%) was relatively low given the amount of evidence supporting these features. Whereas the presence of features allowing users to generate content (73.9%), and social media components (Facebook (65.2%), Twitter (47.8%), YouTube (48.7%), smartphone applications (34.8%)) was relatively high considering their innovative and untested nature. Nearly all websites applied some behavioral and social media applications. The average Behavioral Components score was 3.45 (±2.53) out of 10. The average Interactivity score was 3.57 (±2.16) out of 10. The average User Generated Content Score was 4.02 (±2.77) out of 10. The average overall website quality score was 11.04 (±6.92) out of 30. Four websites (8.7%) were classified as high quality, 12 websites (26.1%) were classified as moderate

  11. Can scientific evidence support using Bangladeshi traditional medicinal plants in the treatment of diarrhoea? A review on seven plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B C; Malterud, Karl E

    2013-05-22

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety.

  12. Feasibility Study on an Evidence-Based Decision-Support System for Hospital Site Selection for an Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung In Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An aging population has significant, dynamic and complex healthcare needs. Meeting such needs in a sustainable manner requires the capability to prioritize and project multiple relevant criteria (e.g., dynamic population health, treatment preferences, resources, technological changes and location of facilities. Most current decision-making processes for urban hospital site selection rely on a combination of experience and statistical data, yet they lack robustness and trending capabilities. This leads to tremendous efficiency implications, as it is not uncommon for hospitals to have a lifespan of more than 100 years after they are built. Our research team has developed an evidence-based decision-support system, enhanced with a Geographic Information System (GIS, that has the potential to overcome these limitations. This paper presents a feasibility demonstration of our framework through a retrospective case study of hospital site selection in Dallas, Texas, demonstrating its positive value in providing a foundation for informed healthcare resource allocation in the context of an aging population.

  13. Morphological and molecular evidence supports the occurrence of a single species ofZebriaszebrinus along the coastal waters of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongming; KONG Xiaoyu; HUANG Liangmin; WANG Shuying; SHI Wei; KANG Bin

    2014-01-01

    The so-called zebra sole includes a group of small flatfishes characterized by transverse band pairs on the ocular side and distributed throughout shallow waters along the coast of the Indo-West Pacific Ocean. Sev-eral species of the zebra sole have been recorded from the coastal waters of China. Morphological analysis of 1 107 specimens of the zebra sole from 15 successive localities along the China’s coast demonstrated that no significant variations among these localities were found on the basis of meristic counts and morphometric characters. Phylogenetic analysis based onCOI gene sequences of 14 individuals and D-loop of 22 indi-viduals from eight localities showed that they were indistinguishable among these localities. Therefore, both morphological and molecular evidence supported the occurrence of a single species of the zebra sole along the China’s coast. The available name for this species isZebriaszebrinus (Temminck and Schlegel, 1846) in-stead ofZ.zebra (Bloch, 1787).Zebrias fasciatus(Basilewsky, 1855) andSolea ommatura (Richardson, 1846) are considered here as two synonyms ofZ. zebrinus.

  14. Evaluation of Organizational Readiness in Clinical Settings for Social Supporting Evidence-Based Information Seeking Behavior after Introducing IT in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahouei, Mehdi; Alaei, Safollah; Panahi, Sohaila Sadat Ghazavi Shariat; Zadeh, Jamileh Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The health sector of Iran has endeavored to encourage physicians and medical students to use research findings in their practice. Remarkable changes have occurred, including: holding computer skills courses, digital library workshops for physicians and students, and establishing websites in hospitals. The findings showed that a small number of the participants completely agreed that they were supported by supervisors and colleagues to use evidence-based information resources in their clinical decisions. Health care organizations in Iran need other organizational facilitators such as social influences, organizational support, leadership, strong organizational culture, and climate in order to implement evidence-based practice.

  15. Barriers, facilitators and views about next steps to implementing supports for evidence-informed decision-making in health systems: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah E; Léon, Grégory; Bouchard, Gisèle; Ouimet, Mathieu; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Lavis, John N

    2014-12-05

    Mobilizing research evidence for daily decision-making is challenging for health system decision-makers. In a previous qualitative paper, we showed the current mix of supports that Canadian health-care organizations have in place and the ones that are perceived to be helpful to facilitate the use of research evidence in health system decision-making. Factors influencing the implementation of such supports remain poorly described in the literature. Identifying the barriers to and facilitators of different interventions is essential for implementation of effective, context-specific, supports for evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) in health systems. The purpose of this study was to identify (a) barriers and facilitators to implementing supports for EIDM in Canadian health-care organizations, (b) views about emerging development of supports for EIDM, and (c) views about the priorities to bridge the gaps in the current mix of supports that these organizations have in place. This qualitative study was conducted in three types of health-care organizations (regional health authorities, hospitals, and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Quebec). Fifty-seven in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with senior managers, library managers, and knowledge brokers from health-care organizations that have already undertaken strategic initiatives in knowledge translation. The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Limited resources (i.e., money or staff), time constraints, and negative attitudes (or resistance) toward change were the most frequently identified barriers to implementing supports for EIDM. Genuine interest from health system decision-makers, notably their willingness to invest money and resources and to create a knowledge translation culture over time in health-care organizations, was the most frequently identified facilitator to

  16. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information

  17. In vitro evidence supports the presence of glucokinase-independent glucosensing mechanisms in hypothalamus and hindbrain of rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-06-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms based on liver X receptor (LXR), mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus, and on sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in hindbrain. However, these effects of glucose might be indirect. Therefore, we evaluated the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms in a first experiment using pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4 or 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose. The responses observed in some cases were consistent with glucosensing capacity. In a second experiment, pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain were incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1 mmol l(-1) phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20 µmol l(-1) genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1 µmol l(-1) trolox (ROS scavenger), 100 µmol l(-1) bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor) and 50 µmol l(-1) geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The response observed in the presence of these specific inhibitors/antagonists further supports the proposal that critical components of the different glucosensing mechanisms are functioning in rainbow trout hypothalamus and hindbrain. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Modeling the Construct of an Expert Evidence-Adaptive Knowledge Base for a Pressure Injury Clinical Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peck Chui Betty Khong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate wound products for the treatment of pressure injuries is paramount in promoting wound healing. However, nurses find it difficult to decide on the most optimal wound product(s due to limited live experiences in managing pressure injuries resulting from successfully implemented pressure injury prevention programs. The challenges of effective decision-making in wound treatments by nurses at the point of care are compounded by the yearly release of wide arrays of newly researched wound products into the consumer market. A clinical decision support system for pressure injury (PI-CDSS was built to facilitate effective decision-making and selection of optimal wound treatments. This paper describes the development of PI-CDSS with an expert knowledge base using an interactive development environment, Blaze Advisor. A conceptual framework using decision-making and decision theory, knowledge representation, and process modelling guided the construct of the PI-CDSS. This expert system has incorporated the practical and relevant decision knowledge of wound experts in assessment and wound treatments in its algorithm. The construct of the PI-CDSS is adaptive, with scalable capabilities for expansion to include other CDSSs and interoperability to interface with other existing clinical and administrative systems. The algorithm was formatively evaluated and tested for usability. The treatment modalities generated after using patient-specific assessment data were found to be consistent with the treatment plan(s proposed by the wound experts. The overall agreement exceeded 90% between the wound experts and the generated treatment modalities for the choice of wound products, instructions, and alerts. The PI-CDSS serves as a just-in-time wound treatment protocol with suggested clinical actions for nurses, based on the best evidence available.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolomics identifies a key role of isocitrate dehydrogenase in bipolar disorder: evidence in support of mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, N; Futamura, T; Bergen, S E; Iwayama, Y; Ishima, T; Sellgren, C; Ekman, C J; Jakobsson, J; Pålsson, E; Kakumoto, K; Ohgi, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Landén, M; Hashimoto, K

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) has been reported, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. In this study, we performed metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from male BD patients (n=54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n=40). Subsequently, post-mortem brain analyses, genetic analyses, metabolomics of CSF samples from rats treated with lithium or valproic acid were also performed. After multivariate logistic regression, isocitric acid (isocitrate) levels were significantly higher in the CSF from BD patients than healthy controls. Furthermore, gene expression of two subtypes (IDH3A and IDH3B) of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from BD patients was significantly lower than that of controls, although the expression of other genes including, aconitase (ACO1, ACO2), IDH1, IDH2 and IDH3G, were not altered. Moreover, protein expression of IDH3A in the cerebellum from BD patients was higher than that of controls. Genetic analyses showed that IDH genes (IDH1, IDH2, IDH3A, IDH3B) and ACO genes (ACO1, ACO2) were not associated with BD. Chronic (4 weeks) treatment with lithium or valproic acid in rats did not alter CSF levels of isocitrate, and mRNA levels of Idh3a, Idh3b, Aco1 and Aco2 genes in the rat brain. These findings suggest that abnormality in the metabolism of isocitrate by IDH3A in the mitochondria plays a key role in the pathogenesis of BD, supporting the mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis of BD. Therefore, IDH3 in the citric acid cycle could potentially be a novel therapeutic target for BD. PMID:26782057

  20. Educational support for research utilization and capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills: a national survey of senior nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Jan; Ehrenberg, Anna; Wallin, Lars; Gustavsson, Petter

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate Swedish university nursing students' experience of educational support for research utilization and capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills. Nursing programmes are offered at 26 universities in Sweden and even though there are common regulations for nursing education at the national level, substantial variations are found in local curricula. Little is known about students' capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills, particularly in comparison across universities. A cross-sectional survey design using self-administered postal questionnaires was conducted in 2006. A total of 1440 students (from 26 different universities) participated, constituting 68% of the national population of nursing students in their 6th and final semester. Campus education supported the students to a greater extent than clinical education in following the development of knowledge in an area of interest, using research findings, and acquiring knowledge on how to pursue changes in clinical practice. Perceived support during campus education varied between universities. Students reported high capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills, but large differences were found between universities for: stating a searchable question, seeking out relevant knowledge and critically appraising and compiling best knowledge. The identified differences between universities concerning the students' perceived support for research utilization and their capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills have implications for curricula, pedagogical perspectives in nursing education and the potential to implement evidence-based practice in healthcare settings. Further studies are warranted to investigate students' individual characteristics and organizational characteristics as determinants of research utilization support and capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of

  1. A Qualitative Assessment of the Evidence Utilization for Health Policy-Making on the Basis of SUPPORT Tools in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan Imani-Nasab, Mohammad; Seyedin, Hesam; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2017-01-08

    SUPPORT tools consist of 18 articles addressing the health policy-makers so that they can learn how to make evidence-informed health policies. These tools have been particularly recommended for developing countries. The present study tries to explain the process of evidence utilization for developing policy documents in the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) and to compare the findings with those of SUPPORT tools. A qualitative research was conducted, using the framework analysis approach. Participants consisted of senior managers and technicians in MoHME. Purposeful sampling was done, with a maximum variety, for the selection of research participants: individuals having at least 5 years of experience in preparing evidence-based policy documents. Face-to-face interviews were conducted for data collection. As a guideline for the interviews, 'the Utilization of Evidence in Policy-Making Organizations' procedure was used. The data were analyzed through the analysis of the framework method using MAXQDA 10 software. The participants acquired the research evidence in a topic-based form, and they were less likely to search on the basis of the evidence pyramid. To assess the quality of evidence, they did not use standard critical tools; to adapt the evidence and interventions with the local setting, they did not use the ideas and experiences of all stakeholders, and in preparing the evidence-based policy documents, they did not take into consideration the window of opportunity, did not refrain from using highly technical terms, did not write user-friendly summaries, and did not present alternative policy options. In order to develop health policies, however, they used the following innovations: attention to the financial burden of policy issues on the agenda, sensitivity analysis of the preferred policy option on the basis of technical, sociopolitical, and economic feasibility, advocacy from other scholars, using the multi-criteria decision

  2. A Qualitative Assessment of the Evidence Utilization for Health Policy-Making on the Basis of SUPPORT Tools in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background SUPPORT tools consist of 18 articles addressing the health policy-makers so that they can learn how to make evidence-informed health policies. These tools have been particularly recommended for developing countries. The present study tries to explain the process of evidence utilization for developing policy documents in the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME and to compare the findings with those of SUPPORT tools. Methods A qualitative research was conducted, using the framework analysis approach. Participants consisted of senior managers and technicians in MoHME. Purposeful sampling was done, with a maximum variety, for the selection of research participants: individuals having at least 5 years of experience in preparing evidence-based policy documents. Face-to-face interviews were conducted for data collection. As a guideline for the interviews, ‘the Utilization of Evidence in Policy Making Organizations’ procedure was used. The data were analyzed through the analysis of the framework method using MAXQDA 10 software. Results The participants acquired the research evidence in a topic-based form, and they were less likely to search on the basis of the evidence pyramid. To assess the quality of evidence, they did not use standard critical tools; to adapt the evidence and interventions with the local setting, they did not use the ideas and experiences of all stakeholders, and in preparing the evidence-based policy documents, they did not take into consideration the window of opportunity, did not refrain from using highly technical terms, did not write user-friendly summaries, and did not present alternative policy options. In order to develop health policies, however, they used the following innovations: attention to the financial burden of policy issues on the agenda, sensitivity analysis of the preferred policy option on the basis of technical, sociopolitical, and economic feasibility, advocacy from other

  3. Electronic Clinic Journaling: The Use of Weblogs to Support Evidence-Based Practice in Doctor of Audiology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldon, Gayle B.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a strategy for the provision of high quality health care. The use of journals to document clinical experiences and reflection has been used in speech-language pathology as well as nursing and psychology. This study uses qualitative analysis to study what AuD students learn about evidence-based practice from writing…

  4. Just in Time: How Evidence-on-Demand Services Support Decision Making in Ontario's Child and Youth Mental Health Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarianni, Maryann; Sundar, Purnima; Carter, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Using the best available evidence to inform decision making is important for the design or delivery of effective health-related services and broader public policy. Several studies identify barriers and facilitators to evidence-informed decision making in Canadian health settings. This paper describes how the Ontario Centre of Excellence for Child…

  5. Electronic Clinic Journaling: The Use of Weblogs to Support Evidence-Based Practice in Doctor of Audiology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldon, Gayle B.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a strategy for the provision of high quality health care. The use of journals to document clinical experiences and reflection has been used in speech-language pathology as well as nursing and psychology. This study uses qualitative analysis to study what AuD students learn about evidence-based practice from writing…

  6. Using a training-of-trainers approach and proactive technical assistance to bring evidence based programs to scale: an operationalization of the interactive systems framework's support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Marilyn L; Wilson, Mary Martha; Wandersman, Abraham; Meyers, Duncan C; Katz, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Bringing evidence based programs to scale was a major initial impetus for the development of the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF). The ISF demonstrates the importance of the Support System in facilitating the uptake of innovations in the community (the Delivery System). Two strategies that members of the Support System commonly use are training-of-trainers (TOT) models and technical assistance (TA). In this article, we focus on the role of the Support System in bringing evidence-based programs (EBPs) to scale in the Delivery System using a case example, with special attention on two strategies employed by Support Systems-training-of-trainers (TOT) and proactive technical assistance. We then report on findings from a case example from the Promoting Science Based Approaches to Teen Pregnancy Prevention project that furthers our conceptualization of these strategies and the evidence base for them. We also report on the limitations in the literature regarding research on TOTs and proactive TA and provide suggestions for future research on TOTs and proactive TA that will enhance the science and practice of support in the ISF.

  7. Methodological exemplar of integrating quantitative and qualitative evidence - supportive care for men with prostate cancer: what are the most important components?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Alyson L; King, Anna J L; Moore, Theresa H M; Paterson, Charlotte; Persad, Raj; Sharp, Debbie; Evans, Maggie

    2017-01-01

    To present a methodological exemplar of integrating findings from a quantitative and qualitative review on the same topic to provide insight into components of care that contribute to supportive care that is acceptable to men with prostate cancer. Men with prostate cancer are likely to live a long time with the disease, experience side effects from treatment and therefore have ongoing supportive care needs. Quantitative and qualitative reviews have been published but the findings have yet to be integrated. Integration of quantitative and qualitative synthesized evidence. Two previously published systematic reviews. Synthesized evidence on supportive care for men with prostate cancer was integrated from two previously published systematic reviews: a narrative quantitative review and a qualitative review with thematic synthesis. These two streams of synthesized evidence were synthesized using concurrent narrative summary. Data from both reviews were used to develop a set of propositions from which a summary of components of care that likely to contribute to supportive care acceptable to men with prostate cancer were identified. Nine propositions were developed which covered men's supportive care focusing on the role of health professionals. These propositions were used to compose nine components of care likely to lead to supportive care that is acceptable to men with prostate cancer. Some of these components are no/low cost such as developing a more empathic personalized approach, but more specific approaches need further investigation in randomized controlled trials, for example, online support. This methodological exemplar demonstrates the integration of quantitative and qualitative synthesized data to determine components of care likely to lead to provision of supportive care acceptable to men with prostate cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Long-Term Effects of Evidence-Based Supported Employment on Earnings and on SSI and SSDI Participation Among Individuals With Psychiatric Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Judith A; Burke-Miller, Jane K; Roessel, Emily

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the long-term effects of evidence-based supported employment services on three vocational outcomes: labor force participation, earnings, and attainment of Social Security Administration (SSA) nonbeneficiary status through suspension or termination of disability cash payments due to work (NSTW). Data from 449 individuals with psychiatric disabilities who participated in a multisite controlled trial of supported employment were matched to SSA data over a 13-year period (2000-2012) following supported employment services. Long-term outcomes were analyzed using random effects regression models comparing participants in the experimental and control conditions on measures of employment, earnings, and attainment of NSTW. The authors adjusted for time, age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, schizophrenia diagnosis, substance abuse history, and geographic region. Overall outcomes were modest across the 13-year follow-up, with 32.9% of participants having any earned income and 13.1% ever attaining NSTW. Supported employment recipients were almost three times as likely as control subjects to be employed over 13 years (odds ratio=2.89). Although earnings were low, supported employment participants had significantly higher earnings per month than control subjects over time (parameter estimate=$23.82) and were more likely than control subjects to attain NSTW (odds ratio=12.99). The supported employment effect diminished and was completely attenuated over time. The study's findings indicate a small but significant vocational advantage accruing to recipients of evidence-based supported employment in the decade following service delivery, adding to the evidence on the durability of supported employment effects. Results can inform policies designed to help workers enhance economic security and reduce dependence on Social Security disability benefits.

  9. Working group reports: evaluation of the evidence to support practice guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants-the Pre-B Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Steiber, Alison L; Carlson, Susan E; Griffin, Ian; Anderson, Diane; Hay, William W; Robins, Sandra; Neu, Josef; Georgieff, Michael K; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Fenton, Tanis R

    2016-02-01

    The "Evaluation of the Evidence to Support Practice Guidelines for the Nutritional Care of Preterm Infants: The Pre-B Project" is the first phase in a process to present the current state of knowledge and to support the development of evidence-informed guidance for the nutritional care of preterm and high-risk newborn infants. The future systematic reviews that will ultimately provide the underpinning for guideline development will be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Library (EAL). To accomplish the objectives of this first phase, the Pre-B Project organizers established 4 working groups (WGs) to address the following themes: 1) nutrient specifications for preterm infants, 2) clinical and practical issues in enteral feeding of preterm infants, 3) gastrointestinal and surgical issues, and 4) current standards of infant feeding. Each WG was asked to 1) develop a series of topics relevant to their respective themes, 2) identify questions for which there is sufficient evidence to support a systematic review process conducted by the EAL, and 3) develop a research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of the role of nutrition in health and development of preterm/neonatal intensive care unit infants. This article is a summary of the reports from the 4 Pre-B WGs.

  10. Informal support networks of low-income senior women living alone: evidence from Fort St. John, BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of an aging Canadian rural and small-town landscape, there is a growing trend of low-income senior women living alone. While there is a perception that rural seniors have well-developed social networks to meet their daily needs, some research suggests that economic and social restructuring processes have impacted the stability of seniors' support networks in small places. While much of the research on seniors' informal networks focuses upon small towns in decline, booming resource economies can also produce challenges for low-income senior women living alone due to both a higher cost of living and the retrenchment of government and service supports. Under such circumstances, an absence of informal supports can impact seniors' health and quality of life and may lead to premature institutionalization. Drawing upon a household survey in Fort St. John, British Columbia, we explore informal supports used by low-income senior women living alone in this different context of the Canadian landscape. Our findings indicate that these women not only have a support network that is comparable to other groups, but that they are also more likely to draw upon such supports to meet their independent-living needs. These women rely heavily on family support, however, and greater efforts are needed to diversify both their formal and informal sources of support as small family networks can quickly become overwhelmed.

  11. Supply chain relationships, supplier support programs and stimulating on-farm investment: evidence from the Armenian dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, L.K.E.; Gorton, M.; Urutyan, V.; White, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the determinants of supply chain relationships, the provision of supplier support measures and the role that support measures play in stimulating investment by suppliers in emerging economies. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on survey

  12. Regulators as agents: Modelling personality and power as evidence is brokered to support decisions on environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, G.J. [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Kendall, G. [University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Nottingham NG8 1BB (United Kingdom); University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Soane, E. [London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Management, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Li, J. [University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Nottingham NG8 1BB (United Kingdom); Rocks, S.A.; Jude, S.R. [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Pollard, S.J.T., E-mail: s.pollard@cranfield.ac.uk [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Complex regulatory decisions about risk rely on the brokering of evidence between providers and recipients, and involve personality and power relationships that influence the confidence that recipients may place in the sufficiency of evidence and, therefore, the decision outcome. We explore these relationships in an agent-based model; drawing on concepts from environmental risk science, decision psychology and computer simulation. A two-agent model that accounts for the sufficiency of evidence is applied to decisions about salt intake, animal carcass disposal and radioactive waste. A dynamic version of the model assigned personality traits to agents, to explore their receptivity to evidence. Agents with ‘aggressor’ personality sets were most able to imbue fellow agents with enhanced receptivity (with ‘avoider’ personality sets less so) and clear confidence in the sufficiency of evidence. In a dynamic version of the model, when both recipient and provider were assigned the ‘aggressor’ personality set, this resulted in 10 successful evidence submissions in 71 days, compared with 96 days when both agents were assigned the ‘avoider’ personality set. These insights suggest implications for improving the efficiency and quality of regulatory decision making by understanding the role of personality and power. - Highlights: •The role of personality and power in regulatory decision-making is poorly represented. •We built a rudimentary two-agent model to explore environmental risk decisions. •Our two agent model accounted for decisions about the sufficiency of evidence. •We examined the influence personality and power has on confidence gained. •By giving agents personality we might predict the time taken to reach consensus.

  13. Preliminary evidence for an association of a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the MAOA gene with early onset alcoholism/substance abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanyukov, M.M.; Moss, H.B.; Tarter, R.E. [Univ. of Pittsburg, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    An association between the liability to early onset alcoholism/substance abuse and a recently discovered dinucleotide repeat length polymorphism at the MAOA gene (MAOCA-1) was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A significant correlation between the presence/absence of the disorder and the length of the MAOCA-1 repeat was found in males, but not females, with {open_quotes}long{close_quotes} alleles (repeat length above 115 bp) associated with both increased risk for the disorder and lower age of onset of substance abuse. These preliminary data suggest that further exploration of the relationship between the MAOA gene and behavioral traits in an expanded sample is warranted. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Assessing the need for an online decision-support tool to promote evidence-based practices of psychosocial counseling in HIV care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukafka, Rita; Millery, Mari; Chan, Connie; LaRock, William; Bakken, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial counselors have a vital and challenging role in supporting persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH/A) to better manage their disease. However, gaps in training, education, and skills limit the effectiveness of counselors' efforts. We propose that the use of a decision-support tool for counselors at the point of care can support them in their work as well as help alleviate many training and practice gaps. Decision-support tools aimed at reducing knowledge and practice gaps are used extensively to assist clinical providers at the point of care; however, there is a need for decision-support tools designed specifically for HIV/AIDS counselors. To identify requirements for such a tool, we conducted a needs assessment through interviews of 19 HIV/AIDS clinic counselors who provide 20 or more hours per week of psychosocial support to PLWH/A. The assessment explored their education and training backgrounds, the extent to which evidence-based practices are implemented, and how a decision-support tool can support counselor work practices. Qualitative analysis was organized around seven main categories: counselor characteristics, patient characteristics, barriers, definitions of key concepts, use of guidelines, client assessments, and resources. The resulting coding schemes revealed knowledge and practice gaps among the interviewees, as well as barriers and challenges of counseling. Education and training background of the counseling staff varied widely. When asked to define five key concepts related to HIV counseling, 26-47% of respondents were unable to articulate an adequate definition. Less than half of the interviewees recalled sources of guidelines used in their work and specific models of care introduced during trainings. Interviews identified environmental barriers, language and literacy, patient education, and patient communication as the most prominent challenges to counseling work. The results from this study inform the need for and development of a

  15. Does Evidence Support the American Heart Association's Recommendation to Screen Patients for Depression in Cardiovascular Care? An Updated Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Roseman, Michelle; Coyne, James C.; de Jonge, Peter; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Arthurs, Erin; Levis, Brooke; Ziegelstein, Roy C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review evidence on depression screening in coronary heart disease (CHD) by assessing the (1) accuracy of screening tools; (2) effectiveness of treatment; and (3) effect of screening on depression outcomes. Background: A 2008 American Heart Association (AHA) Science Advi

  16. Evidence on Inclusion and Support for Learners with Disabilities in Mainstream Schools in South Africa: Off the Policy Radar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pather, Sulochini

    2011-01-01

    Since the move towards inclusion in line with international trends and South Africa's attempts to address issues of marginalisation and discrimination amongst all learners, including those with special needs and disabilities, it has become evident on perusal of various research studies and reviews that there is an obsession with how far we have…

  17. Evidence on Inclusion and Support for Learners with Disabilities in Mainstream Schools in South Africa: Off the Policy Radar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pather, Sulochini

    2011-01-01

    Since the move towards inclusion in line with international trends and South Africa's attempts to address issues of marginalisation and discrimination amongst all learners, including those with special needs and disabilities, it has become evident on perusal of various research studies and reviews that there is an obsession with how far we have…

  18. Supporting Use of Evidence in Argumentation through Practice in Argumentation and Reflection in the Context of SOCRATES Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanou, Kalypso; Constantinou, Costas P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how students used evidence in argumentation while they engaged in argumentive and reflective activities in the context of a designed learning environment. A Web-based learning environment, SOCRATES, was developed, which included a rich data base on the topic of climate change. Sixteen 11th graders, working with…

  19. SUPPORT Tools for Evidence-informed policymaking in health 6: Using research evidence to address how an option will be implemented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavis John N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. After a policy decision has been made, the next key challenge is transforming this stated policy position into practical actions. What strategies, for instance, are available to facilitate effective implementation, and what is known about the effectiveness of such strategies? We suggest five questions that can be considered by policymakers when implementing a health policy or programme. These are: 1. What are the potential barriers to the successful implementation of a new policy? 2. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary behavioural changes among healthcare recipients and citizens? 3. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary behavioural changes in healthcare professionals? 4. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary organisational changes? 5. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary systems changes?

  20. Supporting employees' work-family needs improves health care quality: Longitudinal evidence from long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Kelly, Erin L; Bacic, Janine; DePasquale, Nicole; Hurtado, David; Kossek, Ellen; Sembajwe, Grace

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from U.S.-based employees in 30 long-term care facilities. Analysis of semi-structured interviews from 154 managers informed quantitative analyses. Quantitative data include 1214 employees' scoring of their supervisors and their organizations on family supportiveness (individual scores and aggregated to facility level), and three outcomes: (1), care quality indicators assessed at facility level (n = 30) and collected monthly for six months after employees' data collection; (2), employees' dichotomous survey response on having additional off-site jobs; and (3), proportion of employees with additional jobs at each facility. Thematic analyses revealed that managers operate within the constraints of an industry that simultaneously: (a) employs low-wage employees with multiple work-family challenges, and (b) has firmly institutionalized goals of prioritizing quality of care and minimizing labor costs. Managers universally described providing work-family support and prioritizing care quality as antithetical to each other. Concerns surfaced that family-supportiveness encouraged employees to work additional jobs off-site, compromising care quality. Multivariable linear regression analysis of facility-level data revealed that higher family-supportive supervision was associated with significant decreases in residents' incidence of all pressure ulcers (-2.62%) and other injuries (-9.79%). Higher family-supportive organizational climate was associated with significant decreases in all falls (-17.94%) and falls with injuries (-7.57%). Managers' concerns about additional jobs were not entirely unwarranted: multivariable logistic regression of employee-level data revealed that among employees with children, having family-supportive supervision was associated with significantly higher likelihood of additional off-site jobs (RR 1.46, 95%CI 1.08-1.99), but family-supportive organizational climate was associated with lower likelihood

  1. Rhizolith evidence in support of a late Holocene sea-level highstand at least 0.5 m higher than present at Key Biscayne, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froede, Carl R., Jr.

    2002-03-01

    R. Fairbridge and F. Shepard proposed different sea-level curves for the late Holocene. South Florida, as a tectonically stable platform, provides a key locale from which late Quaternary sea-level measurements have been attempted. Previous studies supporting Holocene sea-level curves have focused on mangrove peat deposits, barrier ridges, and archaeological sites. However, in situ biological indicators provide the best evidence in support of varying sea-level positions during the late Holocene. The northeastern side of Key Biscayne, Florida, has two areas of rock reef where rhizoliths (i.e., fossilized root casts) are exposed within the intertidal zone. They have previously been interpreted as the fossilized roots of a former black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forest. However, the morphology, size, orientation, and areal extent of the rhizoliths is best understood if they are interpreted as the former root casts of turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum). This interpretation would constitute in situ biological evidence of a late Holocene sea-level position at least 0.5 m higher than at present. Previously published 14C dating of the calcareous paste inside the rhizoliths suggests that they formed 1 2 k.y. before present. This corresponds to a higher than present sea-level highstand supported by independent evidence from other areas in south Florida.

  2. A Preliminary Discussion on the Theory and Method of Evidence - based Novelty Assessment%循证查新的理论与方法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙向东; 何炜; 胡德华

    2012-01-01

    介绍医药卫生科技项目查新与循证医学的内涵,简要分析目前的查新方法存在的问题,初步提出循证查新中证据的收集方案、检索策略、分级、相关性分析以及运用,以促进传统科技查新逐步走向循证查新。%The paper introduces the connotation of medical sci -tech novelty assessment and evidence -based medicine. By simple analysis of the problems existed in present novelty assessment methods it provides a set of methods in evidence collection, retrieval strategy, classification, correlation analysis and utilization, which is to promote traditional novelty assessment transfer to evidence - based nov- elty assessment.

  3. A universal velocity dispersion profile for pressure supported systems: evidence for MONDian gravity across 12 orders of magnitude in mass

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, X; Cervantes-Sodi, B; Ibarra-Medel, H J; Lopez-Cruz, O

    2015-01-01

    For any MONDian extended theory of gravity where the rotation curves of spiral galaxies are explained through a change in physics rather than the hypothesis of dark matter, a generic dynamical behaviour is expected for pressure supported systems: an outer flattening of the velocity dispersion profile occurring at a characteristic radius, where both the amplitude of this flat velocity dispersion and the radius at which it appears are predicted to show distinct scalings with the total mass of the system. By carefully analysing dynamics of globular clusters, elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters, we are able to significantly extend the astronomical scales over which MONDian gravity has been tested, from those of spiral galaxies, to the much larger range covered by pressure supported systems. We show that a universal projected velocity dispersion profile accurately describes various classes of pressure supported systems, and further, that the expectations of extended gravity are met, across twelve orders of mag...

  4. Preliminary evidence for association of genetic variants in pri-miR-34b/c and abnormal miR-34c expression with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martínez, I; Sánchez-Mora, C; Pagerols, M; Richarte, V; Corrales, M; Fadeuilhe, C; Cormand, B; Casas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Ribasés, M

    2016-08-30

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment to sustain attention and inability to control impulses and activity level. The etiology of ADHD is complex, with an estimated heritability of 70-80%. Under the hypothesis that alterations in the processing or target binding of microRNAs (miRNAs) may result in functional alterations predisposing to ADHD, we explored whether common polymorphisms potentially affecting miRNA-mediated regulation are involved in this psychiatric disorder. We performed a comprehensive association study focused on 134 miRNAs in 754 ADHD subjects and 766 controls and found association between the miR-34b/c locus and ADHD. Subsequently, we provided preliminary evidence for overexpression of the miR-34c-3p mature form in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ADHD subjects. Next, we tested the effect on gene expression of single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the ADHD-associated region and found that rs4938923 in the promoter of the pri-miR-34b/c tags cis expression quantitative trait loci for both miR-34b and miR-34c and has an impact on the expression levels of 681 transcripts in trans, including genes previously associated with ADHD. This gene set was enriched for miR-34b/c binding sites, functional categories related to the central nervous system, such as axon guidance or neuron differentiation, and serotonin biosynthesis and signaling canonical pathways. Our results provide preliminary evidence for the contribution to ADHD of a functional variant in the pri-miR-34b/c promoter, possibly through dysregulation of the expression of mature forms of miR-34b and miR-34c and some target genes. These data highlight the importance of abnormal miRNA function as a potential epigenetic mechanism contributing to ADHD.

  5. The Need to Support of Data Flow Graph Visualization of Forensic Lucid Programs, Forensic Evidence, and their Evaluation by GIPSY

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, Serguei A; Debbabi, Mourad

    2010-01-01

    Lucid programs are data-flow programs and can be visually represented as data flow graphs (DFGs) and composed visually. Forensic Lucid, a Lucid dialect, is a language to specify and reason about cyberforensics cases. It includes the encoding of the evidence (representing the context of evaluation) and the crime scene modeling in order to validate claims against the model and perform event reconstruction, potentially within large swaths of digital evidence. To aid investigators to model the scene and evaluate it, instead of typing a Forensic Lucid program, we propose to expand the design and implementation of the Lucid DFG programming onto Forensic Lucid case modeling and specification to enhance the usability of the language and the system.

  6. Preliminary Evidence of the Effects of High-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Swallowing Functions in Post-Stroke Individuals with Chronic Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivy K. Y.; Chan, Karen M. K.; Wong, C. S.; Cheung, Raymond T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. However, the site and frequency of stimulation for optimal effects are not clear. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the short-term effects of high-frequency 5 Hz rTMS applied to…

  7. Preliminary Evidence of the Effects of High-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Swallowing Functions in Post-Stroke Individuals with Chronic Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivy K. Y.; Chan, Karen M. K.; Wong, C. S.; Cheung, Raymond T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. However, the site and frequency of stimulation for optimal effects are not clear. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the short-term effects of high-frequency 5 Hz rTMS applied to…

  8. Development of a Website Providing Evidence-Based Information About Nutrition and Cancer: Fighting Fiction and Supporting Facts Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Merel Rebecca; Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-09-08

    Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors' questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. The website provides access to evidence- and eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. As can be

  9. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  10. The Effects of Principal's Leadership Style on Support for Innovation: Evidence from Korean Vocational High School Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A climate of innovation and principal leadership in schools are regarded as significant factors in successfully implementing school change or innovation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the school climate supportive of innovation and the principal's leadership has rarely been addressed to determine whether schools successfully perform their…

  11. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project 2005", this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…

  12. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  13. The Effects of Principal's Leadership Style on Support for Innovation: Evidence from Korean Vocational High School Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A climate of innovation and principal leadership in schools are regarded as significant factors in successfully implementing school change or innovation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the school climate supportive of innovation and the principal's leadership has rarely been addressed to determine whether schools successfully perform their…

  14. Translation of Evidence-Based Practices in a Behaviour Support Implementation Model for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Linda Miller describes a model for the practical implementation of behaviour supports. This model, the "5P approach", attempts to delineate a comprehensive and sequentially-stepped model of the assessment and treatment of challenging behaviour with consistent colour-coded themes. The 5Ps include profiling the child, prioritising the challenging…

  15. Use of Evidence-Based Practice Resources and Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among University Counseling Center Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Morgen Joray

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to determine the degree to which psychologists at college and university counseling centers (UCCs) utilized empirically supported treatments with their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clients. In addition, an attempt was made to determine how frequently UCC psychologists utilized a number of…

  16. Preliminary Development of an Informational Media Use Measure for Patients with Implanted Defibrillators: Toward a Model of Social-Ecological Assessment of Patient Education and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepke, Christopher E; Matlock, Daniel D

    2017-05-31

    Social work interventions in health care, particularly those that involve working with people being treated for chronic and life-threatening conditions, frequently involve efforts to educate patients about their disease, treatment options, safety planning, medical adherence, and other associated issues. Despite an intuitive notion that patients access information about all of these issues through a variety of media-both inside and outside the clinical encounter, created by professionals and by others-there currently exists no validated means of assessing patients' use of these forms of information. To address this gap, authors first created candidate item measures with input from both physicians and a small group of diverse patients who currently have an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), a sophisticated cardiac device for which a trajectory model of social work intervention was recently outlined. Authors then surveyed a group of 205 individuals who have these devices, assessing their use of various media to learn about ICDs. They then conducted factor and item analysis to refine and remove poorly performing items while delineating forms of media use by type. The resultant preliminary measure of informational media use can be further refined and adapted for use with any clinical population. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  17. Field Test Report: Preliminary Aquifer Test Characterization Results for Well 299-W15-225: Supporting Phase I of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2009-09-23

    This report examines the hydrologic test results for both local vertical profile characterization and large-scale hydrologic tests associated with a new extraction well (well 299-W15-225) that was constructed during FY2009 for inclusion within the future 200-West Area Groundwater Treatment System that is scheduled to go on-line at the end of FY2011. To facilitate the analysis of the large-scale hydrologic test performed at newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225 (C7017; also referred to as EW-1 in some planning documents), the existing 200-ZP-1 interim pump-and-treat system was completely shut-down ~1 month before the performance of the large-scale hydrologic test. Specifically, this report 1) applies recently developed methods for removing barometric pressure fluctuations from well water-level measurements to enhance the detection of hydrologic test and pump-and-treat system effects at selected monitor wells, 2) analyzes the barometric-corrected well water-level responses for a preliminary determination of large-scale hydraulic properties, and 3) provides an assessment of the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225. The hydrologic characterization approach presented in this report is expected to have universal application for meeting the characterization needs at other remedial action sites located within unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  18. The influence of social support on quality of life of men who have sex with men in China: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available The quality of life (QOL of men who have sex with men (MSM has received increasing attention in recent years. Our study surveyed the QOL and explored the influence of social support on QOL in Chinese MSM. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2013 to March 2014 of 438 MSM in Huludao and Zhengzhou City, China. The results of univariate analysis showed that higher QOL scores were associated with receiving psychosocial counseling, higher health education, younger age and marital status of being single or unmarried p < 0.05. The structural equation model fitted well, with χ2 = 2083.47 (p < 0.05, RMSEA = 0.07, and GFI = 0.88. Among the latent factors, social support, with a factor load of 0.47, had greater impact on QOL than demographic characteristics. Within social support, the item loads for psychosocial counseling and health education were 0.17 and 0.29, respectively. Basic demographic characteristics also influenced social support, with a factor load of -0.65. For demographic characteristics, the greatest item loads were for marital status and age (0.77 and 0.71, respectively. These findings suggest that strengthening social support, especially for older and married individuals, would improve QOL in MSM in China.

  19. Royal College of Physicians Intercollegiate Stroke Working Party evidence-based guidelines for the nutritional support of patients who have had a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, F; Hookway, C; Weekes, C E

    2014-04-01

    Stroke affects 15 million people each year worldwide and is one of the world's leading causes of death and physical disability. Stroke can result in a decline in nutritional status and this is associated with increased mortality and poor outcomes. The present work aimed to systematically review key aspects of the nutritional support of stroke patients at risk of malnutrition and to provide evidence-based guidelines for use in clinical practice. The work was conducted as part of the process to develop the 4th edition of the Royal College of Physicians' (RCP) 'National Clinical Guideline (NCG) for Stroke'. Questions were generated by the search team, together with contributions from members of the Virtual Stroke Group and the RCP Intercollegiate Stroke Working Party Guideline Development Group. Six questions covering several areas of nutritional support after stroke were defined and searches were conducted through to 31 October 2011 using five electronic databases (Embase, Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Web of Science). All included studies were assessed for quality and risk of bias using the van Tulder criteria for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and the Quorum criteria for systematic reviews. In total, 4215 abstracts were identified, 24 papers were reviewed and 13 systematic reviews and RCTs were included to provide evidence for the nutritional support components of the guidelines. For each question, evidence statements, recommendations and practical considerations were developed. This systematic review process has resulted in the development of evidence-based guidelines for use in clinical practice and has identified areas for further research. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Narrative and evidence. How can case studies from the history of science support claims in the philosophy of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Katherina

    2015-02-01

    A common method for warranting the historical adequacy of philosophical claims is that of relying on historical case studies. This paper addresses the question as to what evidential support historical case studies can provide to philosophical claims and doctrines. It argues that in order to assess the evidential functions of historical case studies, we first need to understand the methodology involved in producing them. To this end, an account of historical reconstruction that emphasizes the narrative character of historical accounts and the theory-laden character of historical facts is introduced. The main conclusion of this paper is that historical case studies are able to provide philosophical claims with some evidential support, but that, due to theory-ladenness, their evidential import is restricted.

  1. Multi-criteria clinical decision support: A primer on the use of multiple criteria decision making methods to promote evidence-based, patient-centered healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James G

    2010-01-01

    Current models of healthcare quality recommend that patient management decisions be evidence-based and patient-centered. Evidence-based decisions require a thorough understanding of current information regarding the natural history of disease and the anticipated outcomes of different management options. Patient-centered decisions incorporate patient preferences, values, and unique personal circumstances into the decision making process and actively involve both patients along with health care providers as much as possible. Fundamentally, therefore, evidence-based, patient-centered decisions are multi-dimensional and typically involve multiple decision makers.Advances in the decision sciences have led to the development of a number of multiple criteria decision making methods. These multi-criteria methods are designed to help people make better choices when faced with complex decisions involving several dimensions. They are especially helpful when there is a need to combine "hard data" with subjective preferences, to make trade-offs between desired outcomes, and to involve multiple decision makers. Evidence-based, patient-centered clinical decision making has all of these characteristics. This close match suggests that clinical decision support systems based on multi-criteria decision making techniques have the potential to enable patients and providers to carry out the tasks required to implement evidence-based, patient-centered care effectively and efficiently in clinical settings.The goal of this paper is to give readers a general introduction to the range of multi-criteria methods available and show how they could be used to support clinical decision-making. Methods discussed include the balance sheet, the even swap method, ordinal ranking methods, direct weighting methods, multi-attribute decision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

  2. Evidence supporting primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases with statins: Gaps between updated clinical results and actual practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Eric; Ferrières, Jean

    2014-03-01

    The use of pharmacological lipid-lowering intervention in individuals with hypercholesterolaemia and known cardiovascular disease or diabetes/chronic kidney disease is well established. Current European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend immediate initiation of drugs in adjunct to lifestyle intervention in these patients at high or very high cardiovascular risk. In these clinical settings, statins are generally chosen as the first-choice drug intervention, in consideration of the robust evidence showing a reduction in all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). In contrast, primary prevention with statins, even in the subset of patients at high-risk of cardiovascular events, is not well implemented. This might be related to a lack of public awareness regarding the actual risk associated with prolonged exposure to high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and uncertainties in the clinical evidence coming from the earliest trials in this patient subset. However, recent observational studies suggest that lowering LDL-C earlier in life and for a longer duration can substantially decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Moreover, results from recent well-conducted large meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials showed that primary prevention with statins reduced all-cause mortality by 14% and MACE by > 20% - findings similar to those observed for the use of statins in secondary prevention. Recently published American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol emphasize that primary prevention using high-dose statins in individuals with LDL-C ≥ 190 mg/dL induces a benefit in atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk reduction that clearly exceeds the potential for adverse effects. We aim in this review to discuss the new data that advocate the use of statins in primary prevention earlier and more frequently, putting the efficacy evidence into

  3. Evidence of the paradoxical effect of social network support: A study among Filipino domestic workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Norman B; Mordeno, Imelu G; Latkin, Carl A; Hall, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    Labor migrants are at an increased risk for poor mental health. Post-migration stressors contribute significantly to this risk. Social network supports are vitally important to protect health but little is known about the role of social network supports among labor migrants. The current study evaluated the role of migration stressors on poor mental health among Filipino female domestic workers (FDW) and whether family and friend social network support (SNS) modified this relationship. Data were collected from 261 FDWs in Macau, China from May to September 2013. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to test for direct and moderating effects of social networks on psychological distress. Post-migration stress was associated with increased anxiety, depression, somatization, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. SNS from family was not associated with the four psychological symptoms nor did it modify the association between stress and these symptoms. SNS from friends was positively associated with these symptoms, and significantly moderated the relationship between stress and these symptoms. Counterintuitive to the known buffering effects of SNS, greater SNS was associated with greater psychological symptoms among FDWs exposed to post-migration stressors. The present findings suggest that reliance on SNS to cope with post-migration stressors may worsen psychological distress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A Universal Velocity Dispersion Profile for Pressure Supported Systems: Evidence for MONDian Gravity across Seven Orders of Magnitude in Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazo, R.; Hernandez, X.; Cervantes Sodi, B.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2017-03-01

    For any MONDian extended theory of gravity where the rotation curves of spiral galaxies are explained through a change in physics rather than the hypothesis of dark matter, a generic dynamical behavior is expected for pressure supported systems: an outer flattening of the velocity dispersion profile occurring at a characteristic radius, where both the amplitude of this flat velocity dispersion and the radius at which it appears are predicted to show distinct scalings with the total mass of the system. By carefully analyzing the dynamics of globular clusters and elliptical galaxies, we are able to significantly extend the astronomical diversity of objects in which MONDian gravity has been tested, from spiral galaxies to the much larger mass range covered by pressure supported systems. We show that a universal projected velocity dispersion profile accurately describes various classes of pressure supported systems, and further, that the expectations of extended gravity are met across seven orders of magnitude in mass. These observed scalings are not expected under dark matter cosmology, and would require particular explanations tuned at the scales of each distinct astrophysical system.

  5. Preliminary Evidence for Rootstock Effects on HLB Infection Frequency and Disease Severity in Sweet Orange and ‘SugarBelle’ Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Grosser, J. W.; Das, S.; Gmitter, Jr., F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that root system collapse is involved with HLB-induced tree decline, especially with trees on Swingle and Carrizo.  Phytophthora resistance appears to be breaking down in HLB-infected trees on Swingle.  Other stresses caused by blight, nematodes, cold, etc. also appear to be interacting with HLB to increase HLB disease frequency and severity.  Improved rootstocks could help to mitigate these problems, allowing for sustainable production under appropriate nutrition. We...

  6. Preliminary Findings of a South Texas Elderly Needs Assessment Survey: A Rural-Urban Comparison of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Elderly Family Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Rumaldo Z.; And Others

    Elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural and urban noninstitutionalized residents of three Texas counties (Hidalgo, Cameron, and Willacy) which border Mexico showed significant differences in educational attainment, income, occupation, and family support. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by mostly bilingual elderly volunteers. Age…

  7. Research on improved evidence combination method based on support degree%基于支持度的改进证据合成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜礼平; 刘杨; 胡伟文; 周尧

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problem of the unrealistic results arising in using Dempster’s method for the combi-nation of highly conflicting evidences,an improved evidence combination method is presented which is based on support degree.First of all,the similarities between evidences are used as an approach to judge whether con-flicts exist.If there are more than 3 evidence combinations with conflicts,the characteristic vector correspon-ding to the maximum characteristic value of the support matrix is used so as to obtain the evidences’support de-gree coefficients.Then,BPA functions are transformed by means of the support degree coefficients.Finally, the Dempster’s method is used for the combination.The stimulation results show that the proposed method can deal with conflicting evidence solve the problem caused by one vote veto effectively,combinations calculate faster than other improved algorithms,reduce uncertainty in recognizing results,and retain the advantages of Dempster’s method.%针对 Dempster 方法在合成高度冲突的证据时结果与直观结论相悖的问题,提出了一种基于支持度的改进证据合成方法。首先根据证据之间的相似性程度判断是否存在证据冲突,对于总数在3条以上且存在冲突的证据组合,应用各证据的支持矩阵,通过其最大特征值对应的特征向量导出各证据的支持度系数,由此对基本概率分配(basic probability assignation,BPA)函数进行转化,再采用 Dempster 方法进行合成。仿真计算结果表明,该方法能有效处理冲突证据组合,克服了一票否决问题,相对于其它几种典型改进算法具有更快的识别速度,能进一步减小识别结果的不确定性,并保留了 Dempster 方法满足交换律、结合律的良好特性。

  8. The Weight of Evidence Does Not Support the Listing of Styrene as “Reasonably Anticipated to be a Human Carcinogen” in NTP's Twelfth Report on Carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R.; Goodman, Julie E.; Prueitt, Robyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Styrene was listed as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen” in the twelfth edition of the National Toxicology Program's Report on Carcinogens based on what we contend are erroneous findings of limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans, sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals, and supporting mechanistic data. The epidemiology studies show no consistent increased incidence of, or mortality from, any type of cancer. In animal studies, increased incidence rates of mostly benign tumors have been observed only in certain strains of one species (mice) and at one tissue site (lung). The lack of concordance of tumor incidence and tumor type among animals (even within the same species) and humans indicates that there has been no particular cancer consistently observed among all available studies. The only plausible mechanism for styrene-induced carcinogenesis—a non-genotoxic mode of action that is specific to the mouse lung—is not relevant to humans. As a whole, the evidence does not support the characterization of styrene as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen,” and styrene should not be listed in the Report on Carcinogens. PMID:23335843

  9. Evidence-based radiology (part 1): Is there sufficient research to support the use of therapeutic injections for the spine and sacroiliac joints?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Cynthia; Hodler, Juerg [Orthopaedic University Hospital of Balgrist, Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    This review article addresses the best evidence currently available for therapeutic injection therapy for conditions targeting the spine and sacroiliac joints. The article is presented by spinal region. Controversies and areas of interest for further studies are identified. There is conclusive evidence supporting the effectiveness of the caudal approach for the administration of epidural steroid injections for patients with low back pain from a variety of causes. In general, there is moderate-to-strong evidence supporting the use of transforaminal therapeutic epidural injections for lumbar nerve-root compression and facet injections for joint pain arising from these joints in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, but further subgroup analysis is needed to help predict which specific patients may receive the most benefit from these procedures. No randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses or systematic reviews addressing the effectiveness of therapeutic sacroiliac joint injections have been found. For some injections, corticosteroids may not provide better outcomes compared to local anesthetic injections alone. (orig.)

  10. Preliminary designs: passive solar manufactured housing. Technical status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-12

    The criteria established to guide the development of the preliminary designs are listed. Three preliminary designs incorporating direct gain and/or sunspace are presented. Costs, drawings, and supporting calculations are included. (MHR)

  11. Flat and complex temperate reefs provide similar support for fish: Evidence for a unimodal species-habitat relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Avery B; Pickering, Emily A; Adler, Alyssa M; Taylor, J Christopher; Peterson, Charles H

    2017-01-01

    Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat surveys of thirty warm-temperate reefs on the southeastern US continental shelf to quantify how structural complexity influences fish communities. We found that intermediate complexity maximizes fish abundance on natural and artificial reefs, as well as species richness on natural reefs, challenging the current paradigm that abundance and other fish community metrics increase with increasing complexity. Naturally occurring rocky reefs of flat and complex morphologies supported equivalent abundance, biomass, species richness, and community composition of fishes. For flat and complex morphologies of rocky reefs to receive equal consideration as essential fish habitat (EFH), special attention should be given to detecting pavement type rocky reefs because their ephemeral nature makes them difficult to detect with typical seafloor mapping methods. Artificial reefs of intermediate complexity also maximized fish abundance, but human-made structures composed of low-lying concrete and metal ships differed in community types, with less complex, concrete structures supporting lower numbers of fishes classified largely as demersal species and metal ships protruding into the water column harboring higher numbers of fishes, including more pelagic species. Results of this study are essential to the process of evaluating habitat function provided by different types and shapes of reefs on the seafloor

  12. Recovery entails bridging the multiple realms of best practice: towards a more integrated approach to evidence-based clinical treatment and psychosocial disability support for mental health recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, A; O'Halloran, P

    2014-09-01

    While mental health recovery is a very personal process, the approach also offers possibilities as a meta-framework for improving quality of services to support people with severe and enduring mental illness. This paper explores how a recovery paradigm offers opportunities to better understand how efforts within the personal, clinical, and psychosocial disability domains of well-being relate and need bridging and integration with an evidence-based framework of practice to optimise outcomes. Recovery from a severe and persisting mental illness such as schizophrenia is optimised by a holistic approach integrating the domains of clinical treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation with the personal efforts of individuals. For service providers, a monolithic or single paradigm approach with an exclusive or predominant biological, psychological, social, or cultural focus is unable to offer effective guidance on the treatment and rehabilitation support needed to enable community participation and ameliorate the impact which problems associated with mental illness have on individuals, their families, and their wider communities. Moreover, recovery-oriented services need to be effective, embracing evidence-based policy, practice and service delivery by providing treatment and support which actually work to improve outcomes for consumers and families.

  13. Connecting terror management and dissonance theory: Evidence that mortality salience increases the preference for supporting information after decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Eva; Greenberg, Jeff; Frey, Dieter

    2003-09-01

    From the perspective of terror management theory, reminders of mortality should intensify the desire to pursue cognitive consistency. The authors investigated this notion with regard to dissonance theory starting from the finding of research on "selective exposure to information" that after having made a decision, people prefer consonant over dissonant information. The authors found that following mortality salience, people indeed showed an increased preference for information that supported their decision compared to information conflicting with it. However, this only occurred with regard to a worldview-relevant decision case. For a fictitious decision scenario, mortality salience did not affect information seeking. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  14. Is EBE theory supported by the evidence? Is it androcentric? A reply to Peplau et al. (1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bem, D J

    1998-04-01

    In their critique of the author's Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orientation (D. J. Bem, 1996), L. A. Peplau, L. D. Garnets, L. R. Spalding, T. D. Conley, and R. C. Veniegas (1998) challenge his reading of the evidence concerning the antecedents of sexual orientation; they also contend that the theory neglects women's experiences. In reply, the author argues that L. A. Peplau et al. have misunderstood the critical antecedent variable of the theory and, hence, have misidentified the particular empirical findings that would serve to confirm or disconfirm its central contentions. The author also argues that the sex differences they cite are not relevant to the theory, whereas an important sex difference they do not cite is actually anticipated by it.

  15. FCJ-201 Visual Evidence from Above: Assessing the Value of Earth Observation Satellites for Supporting Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Notley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Public access to data collected by remote sensing Earth Observation Satellites has, until recently, been very limited. Now, citizens and rights advocacy groups are increasingly utilising satellite-collected images to interrogate justice issues; to document, prevent and verify rights abuses; and to imagine and propose social change. Yet while other communication technologies have received substantial critical analysis regarding their value as tools of social justice, activism and resistance, satellites have received comparatively scant attention. This article examines the uses of satellite-collected images in human rights contexts including the opportunities, challenges and risks they pose. We conclude this examination by arguing that if satellites are to be used effectively to collect evidence from above by rights advocates, greater attention to and capacity for ensuring accountability from below is required.

  16. Contributing to a Quality Patient Experience: Applying Evidence Based Practice to Support Changes in Nursing Dress Code Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Margaret Mary; Wantz, Debra; Campbell, Patricia; Rosler, Greta; Troutman, Dawn; Muthler, Crystal

    2016-01-31

    The public image of nurse professionalism is important. Attributes of a professional nurse, such as caring, attentive, empathetic, efficient, knowledgeable, competent, and approachable, or lack thereof, can contribute positively or negatively to the patient experience. Nurses at a hospital in central northeast Pennsylvania offer their story as they considered the impact of a wide variety of individual uniform and dress choices. This article describes an evidence based practice project and survey created to increase understanding of patient perceptions regarding the professional image of nurses in this facility. Exploring patient perception of nurse image provided insight into what patients view as important. A team approach included the voice of nurses at different levels in the process. Ultimately, this work informed a revision of the health system nursing dress code. The study team also reflects on challenges, next steps in the process, and offers recommendations based on their experiences.

  17. Iron isotopes in ancient and modern komatiites: Evidence in support of an oxidised mantle from Archean to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, K. E. J.; Williams, H. M.; Kerr, A. C.; Puchtel, I. S.

    2012-03-01

    The mantle of the modern Earth is relatively oxidised compared to the initially reducing conditions inferred for core formation. The timing of the oxidation of the mantle is not conclusively resolved but has important implications for the timing of the development of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. In order to examine the timing of this oxidation event, we present iron isotope data from three exceptionally well preserved komatiite localities, Belingwe (2.7 Ga), Vetreny (2.4 Ga) and Gorgona (0.089 Ga). Measurements of Fe isotope compositions of whole-rock samples are complemented by the analysis of olivine, spinel and pyroxene separates. Bulk-rock and olivine Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) define clear linear correlations with indicators of magmatic differentiation (Mg#, Cr#). The mean Fe isotope compositions of the 2.7-2.4 Ga and 0.089 Ga samples are statistically distinct and this difference can be explained by greater extent of partial melting represented by the older samples and higher mantle ambient temperatures in the Archean and early Proterozoic relative to the present day. Significantly, samples of all ages define continuous positive linear correlations between bulk rock δ57Fe and V/Sc and δ57Fe and V, and between V/Sc and V with TiO2, providing evidence for the incompatible behaviour of V (relative to Sc) and of isotopically heavy Fe. Partial melting models calculated using partition coefficients for V at oxygen fugacities (fO2s) of 0 and + 1 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ) best match the data arrays, which are defined by all samples, from late Archean to Tertiary. These data, therefore, provide evidence for komatiite generation under moderately oxidising conditions since the late Archean, and argue against a change in mantle fO2 concomitant with atmospheric oxygenation at ~ 2.4 Ga.

  18. A review of the evidence to support influenza vaccine introduction in countries and areas of WHO's Western Pacific Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Samaan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunization against influenza is considered an essential public health intervention to control both seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, there are five key policy and three key programmatic issues that decision-makers should consider before introducing a vaccine. These are (a public health priority, (b disease burden, (c efficacy, quality and safety of the vaccine, (d other inventions, (e economic and financial issues, (f vaccine presentation, (g supply availability and (h programmatic strength. We analyzed the body of evidence currently available on these eight issues in the WHO Western Pacific Region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studies indexed in PubMed and published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 from the 37 countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region were screened for keywords pertaining to the five policy and three programmatic issues. Studies were grouped according to country income level and vaccine target group. There were 133 articles that met the selection criteria, with most (90% coming from high-income countries. Disease burden (n = 34, vaccine efficacy, quality and safety (n = 27 and public health priority (n = 27 were most frequently addressed by studies conducted in the Region. Many studies assessed influenza vaccine policy and programmatic issues in the general population (42%, in the elderly (24% and in children (17%. Few studies (2% addressed the eight issues relating to pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The evidence for vaccine introduction in countries and areas in this Region remains limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries that do not currently have influenza vaccination programmes. Surveillance activities and specialized studies can be used to assess the eight issues including disease burden among vaccine target groups and the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccine. Multi-country studies should

  19. 新时期军医大学教学保障工作初探%Preliminary Exploration on Teaching Support for Military Medical University in New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云; 罗刚; 凌冠华

    2014-01-01

    Since higher requirements of teaching support for military medical personnel training is put forward in new era, there are many problems in the current support model in teaching conditions, teaching equipment, and teaching resources. In order to fulfill education and training at high quality, innovation and breakthrough should be made for teaching support in terms of ideas, staffs, platform, and regulations based on what there exist.%新时期军事医学人才培养对教学保障工作提出更高要求,目前的保障模式在教学条件、教学设备、教学资源等方面暴露出诸多问题。为保障教育训练高质量完成,教学保障应该在现有基础上从观念、人员、平台、规章等方面有所创新和突破。

  20. Preliminary results from 28 cases of pilonidal cyst treated by excision and primary closure of the wound, reinforced with support suturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson de Souza Liboni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the results of the surgical technique of pilonidalcyst excision with margins and primary closure of the operative woundwith support suturing. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with pilonidaldisease admitted to a private clinic between 1999 and 2006 underwentsurgical treatment by means of an elliptical longitudinal medial incisionproportional to the palpable tumor size and excision of cyst with 2-cmmargins above, below and laterally, and primary closure of the wound.To reduce the tension in the operative wound, suturing was performed,with a single support stitch of horizontal U-shape. The patients werefollowed up for periods ranging from 6 months to 3 years. Results:Two patients developed abscesses at the surgical site (7.1%, andone required complete opening of the operative wound for drainage.Both underwent excision and primary closure again. The pathologicalexamination demonstrated that these were not cases of relapse, butof recurrent abscess. No cases of non-infected collection (seroma andhematoma, spontaneous dehiscence of the operative wound or diseaserecurrence were recorded. Conclusions: The technique of pilonidal cystexcision with margins and primary closure of the wound reinforcedwith support suturing seems to be attractive, since it is characterizedby low complexity and low infection rate. Studies with larger samplesare needed to validate this surgical technique.

  1. A lifespan observation of a novel mouse model: in vivo evidence supports aβ oligomer hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichi Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic mouse models are powerful tools in exploring the mechanisms of AD. Most current transgenic models of AD mimic the memory impairment and the main pathologic features, among which the formation of beta-amyloid (Aβ plaques is considered a dominant pathologic event. Recently, Aβ oligomers have been identified as more neurotoxic than Aβ plaques. However, no ideal transgenic mouse model directly support Aβ oligomers as a neurotoxic species due to the puzzling effects of amyloid plaques in the more widely-used models. Here, we constructed a single-mutant transgenic (Tg model harboring the PS1V97L mutation and used Non-Tg littermates as a control group. Employing the Morris water maze, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry, and electron microscopy, we investigated behavioral changes and pathology progression in our single-mutant transgenic model. We discovered the pathological alteration of intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ oligomers without Aβ plaques in the PS1V97L-Tg mouse model, which might be the result of PS1 gene mutation. Following Aβ oligomers, we detected synaptic alteration, tau hyperphosphorylation and glial activation. This model supports an initial role for Aβ oligomers in the onset of AD and suggests that Aβ plaques may not be the only prerequisite. This model provides a useful tool for studying the role of Aβ oligomers in AD pathogenesis.

  2. Flood Risk and Probabilistic Benefit Assessment to Support Management of Flood-Prone Lands: Evidence From Candaba Floodplains, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, A. M.; Kibler, K. M.; Sayama, T.; Ohara, M.

    2016-12-01

    Flood management decision-making is often supported by risk assessment, which may overlook the role of coping capacity and the potential benefits derived from direct use of flood-prone land. Alternatively, risk-benefit analysis can support floodplain management to yield maximum socio-ecological benefits for the minimum flood risk. We evaluate flood risk-probabilistic benefit tradeoffs of livelihood practices compatible with direct human use of flood-prone land (agriculture/wild fisheries) and nature conservation (wild fisheries only) in Candaba, Philippines. Located north-west to Metro Manila, Candaba area is a multi-functional landscape that provides a temporally-variable mix of possible land uses, benefits and ecosystem services of local and regional value. To characterize inundation from 1.3- to 100-year recurrence intervals we couple frequency analysis with rainfall-runoff-inundation modelling and remotely-sensed data. By combining simulated probabilistic floods with both damage and benefit functions (e.g. fish capture and rice yield with flood intensity) we estimate potential damages and benefits over varying probabilistic flood hazards. We find that although direct human uses of flood-prone land are associated with damages, for all the investigated magnitudes of flood events with different frequencies, the probabilistic benefits ( 91 million) exceed risks by a large margin ( 33 million). Even considering risk, probabilistic livelihood benefits of direct human uses far exceed benefits provided by scenarios that exclude direct "risky" human uses (difference of 85 million). In addition, we find that individual coping strategies, such as adapting crop planting periods to the flood pulse or fishing rather than cultivating rice in the wet season, minimize flood losses ( 6 million) while allowing for valuable livelihood benefits ($ 125 million) in flood-prone land. Analysis of societal benefits and local capacities to cope with regular floods demonstrate the

  3. Integration of Epidemiological Evidence in a Decision Support Model for the Control of Campylobacter in Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, Anders L.; Vigre, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    . The decision support systems are constructed as probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) which integrate knowledge and use Bayesian methods to deal with uncertainty. This paper presents a specific model designed to integrate epidemiological knowledge from the United Kingdom (UK model) in order to assist poultry...... will depend on the qualitative and quantitative data included in the models. Results from the UK model and sensitivity analyses indicated that the financial variables (cost/reward functions) and the effectiveness of the control strategies considered in the UK model were driving the results. In fact......) and the use of a hypothetical cost-effective vaccine C (able to reduce the level of Campylobacter from two to six logs in 90% of the chickens with a cost of 0.03 £/chicken). The flexibility of probabilistic graphical models allows for the inclusion of more than one Campylobacter vaccination strategy and more...

  4. Community Supported Agriculture in the Urban Fringe: Empirical Evidence for Project Feasibility in the Metropolitan Area of Naples (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Cicia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Urbanisation of city-side areas effects on farm land use and organisation are analysed in this study with the objective of seeking the most effective way to implement a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA scheme. Specifically, we used a theoretical framework to describe and assess the relationships between urbanization and farm-styles in the city belt. Our analysis is based on a case study in the protected area of the Campi Flegrei Regional Park situated in the north-western part of the Neapolitan metropolitan area, which is a peri-urban rural area with severe environmental management problems. Our results from the empirical analysis allowed us to distinguish the farms of the area into three behavioural-social groups on the basis of specific features, in order to identify the best suited type of farm for the strategic implementation of the CSA. A market scenario was predicted for each of them without any intervention

  5. SOURCES OF FINANCING EUROPEAN SMES AND NEW SUPPORTING EU POLICIES: EVIDENCE FROM THE NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELA ROMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The SMEs’ access to finance is crucial for the creation, survival and growth of these firms. In the light of the recent global crisis, the dramatic fall in demand for goods and services and the reduced availability of bank loans has led to the aggravation of the problems faced by SMEs when they prospect for purchasing financial resources. In this context, our paper aims to highlight the sources of financing used by the European SMEs and the new policies proposed by the European Commission to facilitate their access to finance. The analysis carried out in this paper is based on data and statistics provided mainly by the European Commission and the World Bank. Based on the methodology used, the paper mainly indicates, the major problems regarding the financing opportunities faced by SMEs and the indispensable necessity for the adoption of measures, especially at EU level, to support their access to finance.

  6. Molecular evidence indicates that subarctic willow communities in Scotland support a diversity of host-associated Melampsora rust taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Jeremy M; Helfer, Stephan; Kirk, Calum; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Ennos, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    Rare and threatened subarctic willow scrub communities in the UK are the subject of ongoing conservation programmes, yet little is known about the diversity of fungal taxa that they support. Isolates of the rust genus Melampsora were sampled from 112 leaves of eight subarctic willow (Salix) taxa and their hybrids from twelve sites in the UK. In order to determine the number of Melampsora taxa present in the samples, isolates were sequenced for the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of rDNA and data were subject to phylogenetic analysis. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis indicated that the isolates fell into three strongly supported host-associated clades. Clade I contained only isolates from Salix herbacea and was distinguished morphologically by dense urediniospore echinulation and thin cell walls. Clade II contained isolates from Salix arbuscula and Salix reticulata only. These could not be distinguished morphologically from isolates in Clade III which were found on Salix lapponum, Salix myrsinites, Salix myrsinifolia, Salix aurita, Salix lanata, and their hybrids. Clade II was most distinct in ITS sequence, differing by 50 bases from Clades I and III, while the latter clades differed in sequence by only 24 bases on average. Clades I and III are likely to represent the previously recognised taxa Melampsora alpina Juel 1894 and Melampsora epitea Thüm. 1879 respectively, but Clade II has not apparently been described before. Significant differences in the intensity of infection by isolates of Clade III were found among different Salix species at a single site, suggesting either differences in resistance among Salix taxa, or the presence of further cryptic taxa within Clade III. The study illustrates the power of molecular phylogenetic analysis to reveal cryptic biodiversity within Melampsora, and suggests that conserving Salix host diversity within subarctic willow communities will ensure that a diversity of associated Melampsora taxa is maintained.

  7. Evidence that interfibrillar load transfer in tendon is supported by small diameter fibrils and not extrafibrillar tissue components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesny, Spencer E; Fetchko, Kristen L; Dodge, George R; Elliott, Dawn M

    2017-01-10

    Collagen fibrils in tendon are believed to be discontinuous and transfer tensile loads through shear forces generated during interfibrillar sliding. However, the structures that transmit these interfibrillar forces are unknown. Various extrafibrillar tissue components (e.g., glycosaminoglycans, collagens XII and XIV) have been suggested to transmit interfibrillar loads by bridging collagen fibrils. Alternatively, collagen fibrils may interact directly through physical fusions and interfibrillar branching. The objective of this study was to test whether extrafibrillar proteins are necessary to transmit load between collagen fibrils or if interfibrillar load transfer is accomplished directly by the fibrils themselves. Trypsin digestions were used to remove a broad spectrum of extrafibrillar proteins and measure their contribution to the multiscale mechanics of rat tail tendon fascicles. Additionally, images obtained from serial block-face scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the three-dimensional fibrillar organization in tendon fascicles and identify any potential interfibrillar interactions. While trypsin successfully removed several extrafibrillar tissue components, there was no change in the macroscale fascicle mechanics or fibril:tissue strain ratio. Furthermore, the imaging data suggested that a network of smaller diameter fibrils (wind around and fuse with their neighboring larger diameter fibrils. These findings demonstrate that interfibrillar load transfer is not supported by extrafibrillar tissue components and support the hypothesis that collagen fibrils are capable of transmitting loads themselves. Conclusively determining how fibrils bear load within tendon is critical for identifying the mechanisms that impair tissue function with degeneration and for restoring tissue properties via cell-mediated regeneration or engineered tissue replacements. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  8. Supporting implementation of evidence-based behavioral interventions: the role of data liquidity in facilitating translational behavioral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Amy P; Wheeler, Jane L; Courtney, Paul K; Keefe, Francis J

    2011-03-01

    The advancement of translational behavioral medicine will require that we discover new methods of managing large volumes of data from disparate sources such as disease surveillance systems, public health systems, and health information systems containing patient-centered data informed by behavioral and social sciences. The term "liquidity," when applied to data, refers to its availability and free flow throughout human/computer interactions. In seeking to achieve liquidity, the focus is not on creating a single, comprehensive database or set of coordinated datasets, nor is it solely on developing the electronic health record as the "one-stop shopping" source of health-related data. Rather, attention is on ensuring the availability of secure data through the various methods of collecting and storing data currently existent or under development-so that these components of the health information infrastructure together support a liquid data system. The value of accessible, interoperable, high-volume, reliable, secure, and contextually appropriate data is becoming apparent in many areas of the healthcare system, and health information liquidity is currently viewed as an important component of a patient-centered healthcare system. The translation from research interventions to behavioral and psychosocial indicators challenges the designers of healthcare systems to include this new set of data in the correct context. With the intention of advancing translational behavioral medicine at the local level, "on the ground" in the clinical office and research institution, this commentary discusses data liquidity from the patient's and clinician's perspective, requirements for a liquid healthcare data system, and the ways in which data liquidity can support translational behavioral medicine.

  9. The toxicity of radiotherapy following high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood serum cell support in high-risk breast cancer: a preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, E. van der; Schaake-Koning, C.C.E.; Zandwijk, N. van [Nederlands Kanker Inst. `Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis`, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow and/or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) support is increasingly employed in the adjuvant treatment of high-risk breast cancer. Subsequent radiotherapy has been reported to be associated with morbidity and mortality resulting from pulmonary toxicity. In addition, the course of radiation therapy may be hampered by excess myelosuppression. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution to radiation-induced toxicity of a high-dose chemotherapy regimen (CTC) that incorporates cyclophosphamide, thiotepa and carboplatin, in patients with high-risk breast cancer. (author).

  10. How good are we at implementing evidence to support the management of birth related perineal trauma? A UK wide survey of midwifery practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bick Debra E

    2012-06-01

    .6% feeling confident to perform perineal repair all of the time. Two thirds of midwives (63.5% felt confident to perform an episiotomy. Midwives qualified for 20 years or longer and those on more senior clinical grades were most likely to implement evidence based recommendations and feel confident about perineal management. Conclusions There are considerable gaps with implementation of evidence to support management of perineal trauma.

  11. Paleopathological evidence of the cranial remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Description and preliminary inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, P J; Gracía, A; Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    The large Sima de los Huesos sample provides for the first time the opportunity of performing a paleopathological study of a Middle Pleistocene population. A high frequency of bilateral temporomandibular arthropathy has been observed. We found an ear hyperostosis in Cranium 4, that probably caused deafness that we consider to be of infectious origin. Three osteomata were found in the cranial collection. One severe trauma was evident on the left supraorbital torus of an immature individual. Many cranial vault erosions, mostly restricted to the external table, are found in the sample. Cranium 5 displays thirteen of these. Cranium 5 also shows an extensive maxillary osteitis associated with a dental apical abscess, as well as another dental apical abscess in its mandible. Most of the adult frontal bones show a worm-like pattern of vascular channelling in the orbital roof, also found in modern populations.

  12. Calcium-sensitive modulation of Ig capping: evidence supporting a cytoplasmic control of ligand-receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, G F; Unanue, E R

    1976-01-01

    Capping of anti-Ig-Ig complexes was studied in murine B lymphocytes. Morphological studies indicated that caps formed rapidly on cells before any changes in shape. The first changes in cell shape were evident as a contraction right under the cap area. The removal of extracellular calcium had no effect on cap formation. Furthermore, the introduction of calcium by the ionophore A-23187 stopped capping. The ionophere by itself in the absence of extracellular calcium had no effect. Caps were found to be disrupted, the complexes scattering over the entire cell surface if the cells were treated by A-23187 after the caps had formed. The disruptive effect of A-23187 as dependent on extracellular calcium and could be stopped by drugs that affected energy metabolism. The cytochalasins also disrupted the formed caps. Drugs that affect energy metabolism by themselves did not disrupt the caps. We interpret the effects of the ionophore as resulting from a systemic hypercontractility of microfilaments. A theory for explaining the formation and disruption of capping is discussed.

  13. Sclereids are strong enough to support the delicate corollas: experimental and computational data evidence from Camellia sinensis (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shuo; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Sclereids are a fundamental cell type that widely exist in higher plants and are generally thought to have a mechanical function. However, the occurrence of sclereids in the ephemeral corolla has rarely been documented and their biological significance is poorly understood. In this study, flower buds from Camellia sinensis at various ontogenetic stages were sampled, cleared, sectioned, stained, and examined using light microscopy to ascertain the morphology and distribution of sclereids and their variation. In addition, Camellia japonica plants with distinctive floral structures were investigated and compared to explore whether sclereid occurrence is associated with floral form. In particular, a computational simulation using finite element analysis was undertaken to investigate how corollas, with and without sclereids, responded to wind and rain. The results showed that sclereids have some mechanical properties that are based on their shape and distribution, which make the soft corolla strong enough to protect the inner ovary. Thus, corolla sclereids may explain how the seemingly delicate corolla performs its protective function in response to environmental stresses. These findings provide further evidence for the hypothesis that flower traits exhibit adaptive responses to abiotic factors in addition to their traditionally recognized pollinator-mediated selection. PMID:28252101

  14. Preclinical evidence supporting the clinical development of central pattern generator-modulating therapies for chronic spinal cord-injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eGuertin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambulation or walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion. In terrestrial animals, it may be defined as a series of rhythmic and bilaterally coordinated movement of the limbs which creates a forward movement of the body. This applies regardless of the number of limbs - from arthropods with six or more limbs to bipedal primates. These fundamental similarities among species may explain why comparable neural systems and cellular properties have been found, thus far, to control in similar ways locomotor rhythm generation in most animal models. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the known structural and functional features associated with central nervous system (CNS networks that are involved in the control of ambulation and other stereotyped motor patterns - specifically Central Pattern Generators (CPGs that produce basic rhythmic patterned outputs for locomotion, micturition, ejaculation, and defecation. Although there is compelling evidence of their existence in humans, CPGs have been most studied in reduced models including in vitro isolated preparations, genetically-engineered mice and spinal cord-transected animals. Compared with other structures of the CNS, the spinal cord is generally considered as being well-preserved phylogenetically. As such, most animal models of SCI should be considered as valuable tools for the development of novel pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating spinal activity and restoring corresponding functions in chronic spinal cord-injured patients.

  15. Use of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Support Topical Skin Adhesive for Wound Closure: A Preliminary Report from Animal In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Nowacki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the local and systemic effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs as a component of topical skin adhesive in an animal artificial wound closure model. In presented study the cosmetic effects, histological analysis, mechanical properties, and cell migration have been assessed to evaluate the usefulness of ADSCs as supporting factor for octyl blend cyanoacrylate adhesive. The total of 40 rats were used and divided into six groups. In the Study Group, ADSCs were administered by multipoint injection of the six surrounding intrawound areas with additional freely leaving procedure of the cells between the skin flaps just before applying adhesive to close the wound. Five control groups without using ADSCs, utilizing different types of standard wound closure, were created in order to check efficiency of experimental stem cell therapy. In our study, we proved that ADSCs could be used effectively also as a supportive tool in topical skin adhesive for wound closure. However we did not achieve any spectacular differences related to such aspects as better mechanical properties or special biological breakthroughs in wound healing properties. The use of stem cells, especially ADSCs for wound closure can provide an inspiring development in plastic and dermatologic surgery.

  16. Applying a soft-robotic glove as assistive device and training tool with games to support hand function after stroke: Preliminary results on feasibility and potential clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange-Lasonder, Gerdienke B; Radder, Bob; Kottink, Anke I R; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S

    2017-07-01

    Recent technological developments regarding wearable soft-robotic devices extend beyond the current application of rehabilitation robotics and enable unobtrusive support of the arms and hands during daily activities. In this light, the HandinMind (HiM) system was developed, comprising a soft-robotic, grip supporting glove with an added computer gaming environment. The present study aims to gain first insight into the feasibility of clinical application of the HiM system and its potential impact. In order to do so, both the direct influence of the HiM system on hand function as assistive device and its therapeutic potential, of either assistive or therapeutic use, were explored. A pilot randomized clinical trial was combined with a cross-sectional measurement (comparing performance with and without glove) at baseline in 5 chronic stroke patients, to investigate both the direct assistive and potential therapeutic effects of the HiM system. Extended use of the soft-robotic glove as assistive device at home or with dedicated gaming exercises in a clinical setting was applicable and feasible. A positive assistive effect of the soft-robotic glove was proposed for pinch strength and functional task performance 'lifting full cans' in most of the five participants. A potential therapeutic impact was suggested with predominantly improved hand strength in both participants with assistive use, and faster functional task performance in both participants with therapeutic application.

  17. Synthetic Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs: A Historical Appraisal of the Evidences Supporting Their Cytoprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Berlanga-Acosta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs constitute a group of small synthetic peptides that stimulate the growth hormone secretion and the downstream axis activity. Mounting evidences since the early 1980s delineated unexpected pharmacological cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties for the GHRPs. However, despite intense basic pharmacological research, alternatives to prevent cell and tissue demise before lethal insults have remained as an empty niche in the clinical armamentarium. Here, we have rigorously reviewed the investigational development of GHRPs and their clinical niching perspectives. Methodology: PubMed/MEDLINE databases, including original research and review articles, were explored. The search design was date escalated from 1980 and included articles in English only. Results and Conclusions: GHRPs bind to two different receptors (GHS-R1a and CD36, which redundantly or independently exert relevant biological effects. GHRPs’ binding to CD36 activates prosurvival pathways such as PI-3K/AKT1, thus reducing cellular death. Furthermore, GHRPs decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS spillover, enhance the antioxidant defenses, and reduce inflammation. These cytoprotective abilities have been revealed in cardiac, neuronal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic cells, representing a comprehensive spectrum of protection of parenchymal organs. Antifibrotic effects have been attributed to some of the GHRPs by counteracting fibrogenic cytokines. In addition, GHRP family members have shown a potent myotropic effect by promoting anabolia and inhibiting catabolia. Finally, GHRPs exhibit a broad safety profile in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these fragmented lines incite to envision multiple pharmacological uses for GHRPs, especially as a myocardial reperfusion damage-attenuating candidate, this family of “drugable” peptides awaits for a definitive clinical niche.

  18. Introducing the Adults with Chronic Healthcare Needs (ACHCN) definition and screening instrument: Rationale, supporting evidence and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Stephen P; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Altman, Barbara M; Bethell, Christina D; Carle, Adam C; Druss, Benjamin G; Houtrow, Amy J; Reichard, Amanda; Chan, Leighton

    2017-08-08

    Among working age adults in the United States, there is a large, heterogeneous population that requires ongoing and elevated levels of healthcare and related services. At present, there are conflicting approaches to the definition and measurement of this population in health services research. An expert panel was convened by the National Institutes of Health with the objective of developing a population-level definition of Adults with Chronic Healthcare Needs (ACHCN). In addition, the panel developed a screening instrument and methods for its use in health surveys to identify and stratify the population consistently. The panel employed multiple methods over the course of the project, including scoping literature reviews, quantitative analyses from national data sources and cognitive testing. The panel defined the ACHCN population as "Adults (age 18-65) with [1] ongoing physical, cognitive, or mental health conditions or difficulties functioning who [2] need health or related support services of a type or amount beyond that needed by adults of the same sex and similar age." The screener collects information on chronic health conditions, functional difficulties, and elevated use of or unmet need for healthcare services. Adapted from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau definition that identifies Children with Special Healthcare Needs, aligned with the ACS-6 disability measure, and consistent with the HHS Multiple Chronic Condition Framework, this definition and screener provide the research community with a common denominator for the identification of ACHCN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of combined radial velocities and activity of BD+20 1790: evidence supporting the existence of a planetary companion

    CERN Document Server

    Hernán-Obispo, M; Gálvez-Ortiz, M C; Golovin, A; Barnes, J R; Jones, H R A; Kane, S R; Pinfield, D; Jenkins, J S; Petit, P; Anglada-Escudé, G; Marsden, S C; Catalán, S; Jeffers, S V; de Castro, E; Cornide, M; Garcés, A; Jones, M I; Gorlova, N; Andreev, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the simultaneous Bayesian analysis of the radial velocity and activity indices for the K5Ve active star BD+20 1790, that was proposed to host a close-in massive planet by Hern\\'an-Obispo et al. (2010). The Bayesian analysis supports the hypothesis of a planetary companion. We present a new orbital solution after removing the two main contributions to the stellar jitter, one that varies with the photometric period and another that varies with the synodic period of the star+planet system. We use a new method to determine these jitter components, considering them as a second and third signals in the system. A discussion on possible magnetic star-planet-interaction is included, based on the Bayesian analysis of the activity indices. We propose two possible sources for flare events of this star: one related to the geometry of the system and the relative movement of the star+planet, and a second one purely stochastic source that is related to the evolution of stellar active regions. Also, we obs...

  20. Short-term memory for serial order supports vocabulary development: new evidence from a novel word learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Boukebza, Claire

    2013-12-01

    Although recent studies suggest a strong association between short-term memory (STM) for serial order and lexical development, the precise mechanisms linking the two domains remain to be determined. This study explored the nature of these mechanisms via a microanalysis of performance on serial order STM and novel word learning tasks. In the experiment, 6- and 7-year-old children were administered tasks maximizing STM for either item or serial order information as well as paired-associate learning tasks involving the learning of novel words, visual symbols, or familiar word pair associations. Learning abilities for novel words were specifically predicted by serial order STM abilities. A measure estimating the precision of serial order coding predicted the rate of correct repetitions and the rate of phoneme migration errors during the novel word learning process. In line with recent theoretical accounts, these results suggest that serial order STM supports vocabulary development via ordered and detailed reactivation of the novel phonological sequences that characterize new words.

  1. The Right Hemisphere Planum Temporale Supports Enhanced Visual Motion Detection Ability in Deaf People: Evidence from Cortical Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Shiell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After sensory loss, the deprived cortex can reorganize to process information from the remaining modalities, a phenomenon known as cross-modal reorganization. In blind people this cross-modal processing supports compensatory behavioural enhancements in the nondeprived modalities. Deaf people also show some compensatory visual enhancements, but a direct relationship between these abilities and cross-modally reorganized auditory cortex has only been established in an animal model, the congenitally deaf cat, and not in humans. Using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured cortical thickness in the planum temporale, Heschl’s gyrus and sulcus, the middle temporal area MT+, and the calcarine sulcus, in early-deaf persons. We tested for a correlation between this measure and visual motion detection thresholds, a visual function where deaf people show enhancements as compared to hearing. We found that the cortical thickness of a region in the right hemisphere planum temporale, typically an auditory region, was greater in deaf individuals with better visual motion detection thresholds. This same region has previously been implicated in functional imaging studies as important for functional reorganization. The structure-behaviour correlation observed here demonstrates this area’s involvement in compensatory vision and indicates an anatomical correlate, increased cortical thickness, of cross-modal plasticity.

  2. Preliminary Results of an On-Line, Multi-Spectrometer Fission Product Monitoring System to Support Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Testing and Qualification in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John B. Walter; Mark W. Drigert

    2007-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 (AGR-1) experiment is the first experiment in a series of eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments scheduled for placement in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The experiment began irradiation in the ATR with a cycle that reached full power on December 26, 2006 and will continue irradiation for about 2.5 years. During this time six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The goals of the irradiation experiment is to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. This paper presents the preliminary test details of the fuel performance, as measured by the control and acquisition software.

  3. Immediate loading of 2 (all-on-2) versus 4 (all-on-4) implants placed with a flapless technique supporting mandibular cross-arch fixed prostheses: preliminary results from a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Gioacchino; Felice, Pietro; Soardi, Elisa; Ferri, Vittorio; Leone, Michele; Esposito, Marco

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of 2 implants versus 4 implants placed flapless in fully edentulous mandibles and immediately restored with metal-resin screw-retained cross-arch prostheses. Sixty patients from two different centres were randomised: 30 to the allon- 2 group and 30 to the all-on-4 group. To be immediately loaded, implants had to be inserted with a minimum torque of 40 Ncm. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant failures, and biological and biomechanical complications. Flaps were raised in 18 patients. Two implants in 2 patients did not reach the planned insertion torque and were immediately replaced by larger diameter ones. Four months after loading, no drop-out or implant failure occurred. One biomechanical complication occurred in the all-on-2 group versus 4 in the all-on-4 group. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for complications. There were no differences between centres. These very preliminary results, just 4 months after loading, suggest that immediately loaded mandibular cross-arch fixed dental prostheses can be supported by only 2 dental implants. Longer follow-ups (around 10 years) are needed to understand whether cross-arch mandibular prostheses can be successfully supported by only 2 dental implants.

  4. Emotional expression and diurnal cortisol slope in women with metastatic breast cancer in supportive-expressive group therapy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese-Davis, Janine; DiMiceli, Sue; Sephton, Sandra; Spiegel, David

    2006-08-01

    We examined coded emotional expression during an initial therapy session and its association with a known physiological risk factor for early death, aberrant diurnal cortisol slope, in women with metastatic breast cancer. Out of 64 women with metastatic breast cancer randomized to a multi-site clinical intervention trial of supportive-expressive group therapy (SET), a subsample of 29 met eligibility criteria for this study. We tested whether longer mean durations of primary negative affect (fear, sadness, and anger) expression were associated with steeper diurnal cortisol slopes after adjusting for speaking time, repressive-defensiveness, anxiety, and the interaction between repressive-defensiveness and anxiety. We found that steeper cortisol slopes were related to lower repressive-defensiveness and greater primary negative affect expression in line with a priori hypotheses. Additionally we explored whether coded positive affect, defensive/hostile affect, constrained anger, and the interaction between primary negative affect and repressive-defensiveness explained additional variance in diurnal cortisol patterns.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a low-cost bubble CPAP device in providing ventilatory support for neonates in Malawi - a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ariel; Deshmukh, Ashish A; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Kawaza, Kondwani; Cantor, Scott B

    2014-11-25

    A low-cost bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) device has been shown to be an excellent clinical alternative to nasal oxygen for the care of neonates with respiratory difficulty. However, the delivery of bCPAP requires more resources than the current routine care using nasal oxygen. We performed an economic evaluation to determine the cost-effectiveness of a low-cost bCPAP device in providing ventilatory support for neonates in Malawi. We used patient-level clinical data from a previously published non-randomized controlled study. Economic data were based on the purchase price of supplies and equipment, adjusted for shelf life, as well as hospital cost data from the World Health Organization. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3%. The outcomes were measured in terms of cost, discounted life expectancy, cost/life year gained and net benefits of using bCPAP or nasal oxygen. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net benefits determined the value of one intervention compared to the other. Subgroup analysis on several parameters (birth weight categories, diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome, and comorbidity of sepsis) was conducted to evaluate the effect of these parameters on the cost-effectiveness. Nasal oxygen therapy was less costly (US$29.29) than the low-cost bCPAP device ($57.78). Incremental effectiveness associated with bCPAP was 6.78 life years (LYs). In the base case analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for bCPAP relative to nasal oxygen therapy was determined to be $4.20 (95% confidence interval, US$2.29-US$16.67) per LY gained. The results were highly sensitive for all tested subgroups, particularly for neonates with birth weight 1- cost effective. The bCPAP is a highly cost-effective strategy in providing ventilatory support for neonates in Malawi.

  6. Evidence supporting the role of calpain in the α-processing of amyloid-β precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huey T; Sawmiller, Darrell R; Wu, Qi; Maleski, Jerome J; Chen, Ming

    2012-04-13

    Amyloid plaques are a hallmark of the aging and senile dementia brains, yet their mechanism of origins has remained elusive. A central issue is the regulatory mechanism and identity of α-secretase, a protease responsible for α-processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP). A remarkable feature of this enzyme is its high sensitivity to a wide range of cellular stimulators, many of which are agonists for Ca(2+) signaling. This feature, together with previous work in our laboratory, has suggested that calpain, a Ca(2+)-dependent protease, plays a key role in APP α-processing. In this study we report that overexpression of the μ-calpain gene in HEK293 cells resulted in a 2.7-fold increase of the protein levels. Measurements of intracellular calpain enzymatic activity revealed that the calpain overexpressing cells displayed a prominent elevation of the activity compared to wild-type cells. When the cells were stimulated by nicotine, glutamate or phorbol 12,13-dibutylester, the activity increase was even more remarkable and sensitive to calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor. Meanwhile, APP secretion from the calpain overexpressing cells was robustly increased under both resting and stimulated conditions over wild-type cells. Furthermore, cell surface biotinylation experiments showed that μ-calpain was clearly detected among the cell surface proteins. These data together support our view that calpain should be a reasonable candidate for α-secretase for further study. This model is discussed with an interesting fact that three other deposited proteins (tau, spectrin and crystalline) are also the known substrates of calpain. Finally we discuss some current misconceptions in senile dementia research.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of lake cisco (Coregonus artedi): evidence supporting extensive secondary contacts between two glacial races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, J; Bernatchez, L

    2001-04-01

    The comparative molecular phylogeography of regional fish fauna has revealed the wide distribution of young clades in freshwater fishes of formerly glaciated areas as well as interspecific incongruences in their refugial origins and recolonization routes. In this study, we employed single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analyses to describe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism among 27 populations of the lake cisco (Coregonus artedi) from its entire range of distribution in order to evaluate the hypothesis of dual glacial refuges proposed by Bernatchez & Dodson against the traditional view that this species is solely of Mississippian origin. Results indicate that this taxon is composed of two closely related groups that are widely distributed and intermixed over most of the sampled range. The estimated level of divergence (0.48%), the contrast in the geographical distribution of each group, as well as the general distribution of C. artedi in North America together support the hypothesis that one group dispersed from a Mississippian refuge via the proglacial lakes, while the other is of Atlantic origin and also took advantages of earlier dispersal routes towards eastern Hudson Bay drainages. However, the signal of past range fragmentation revealed by a nested clade analysis was weak, and did not allow to formally exclude the hypothesis of a single Mississippian origin for both lineages. Comparisons with the phylogeographic patterns of other Nearctic freshwater fishes suggest that the salinity tolerance and thermal sensitivity of lake cisco may have been determinant for its extensive postglacial dispersal. The presence or co-occurrence of sympatric or allopatric eco/morphotypes were not found to be necessarily associated with the presence of both haplotype groups.

  8. The management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an analysis of the evidence to support the development of global WHO guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balen, Adam H; Morley, Lara C; Misso, Marie; Franks, Stephen; Legro, Richard S; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Fauser, Bart C J M; Norman, Robert J; Teede, Helena

    2016-11-01

    Here we describe the consensus guideline methodology, summarise the evidence-based recommendations we provided to the World Health Organisation (WHO) for their consideration in the development of global guidance and present a narrative review on the management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this paper was to present an evidence base for the management of anovulatory PCOS. The evidence to support providing recommendations involved a collaborative process for: (i) identification of priority questions and critical outcomes, (ii) retrieval of up-to-date evidence and exiting guidelines, (iii) assessment and synthesis of the evidence and (iv) the formulation of draft recommendations to be used for reaching consensus with a wide range of global stakeholders. For each draft recommendation, the methodologist evaluated the quality of the supporting evidence that was then graded as very low, low, moderate or high for consideration during consensus. Evidence was synthesized and we made recommendations across the definition of PCOS including hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle regulation and ovarian assessment. Metabolic features and the impact of ethnicity were covered. Management includes lifestyle changes, bariatric surgery, pharmacotherapy (including clomiphene citrate (CC), aromatase inhibitors, metformin and gonadotropins), as well as laparoscopic surgery. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) was considered as were the risks of ovulation induction and of pregnancy in PCOS. Approximately 80% of women who suffer from anovulatory infertility have PCOS. Lifestyle intervention is recommended first in women who are obese largely on the basis of general health benefits. Bariatric surgery can be considered where the body mass index (BMI) is ≥35 kg/m(2) and lifestyle therapy has failed. Carefully conducted and monitored pharmacological ovulation induction can achieve good cumulative pregnancy rates and multiple pregnancy rates can be

  9. A review of empirical evidence on different uncanny valley hypotheses: support for perceptual mismatch as one road to the valley of eeriness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari eKätsyri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The uncanny valley hypothesis, proposed already in the 1970s, suggests that almost but not fully humanlike artificial characters will trigger a profound sense of unease. This hypothesis has become widely acknowledged both in the popular media and scientific research. Surprisingly, empirical evidence for the hypothesis has remained inconsistent. In the present article, we reinterpret the original uncanny valley hypothesis and review empirical evidence for different theoretically motivated uncanny valley hypotheses. The uncanny valley could be understood as the naïve claim that any kind of human-likeness manipulation will lead to experienced negative affinity at close-to-realistic levels. More recent hypotheses have suggested that the uncanny valley would be caused by artificial–human categorization difficulty or by a perceptual mismatch between artificial and human features. Original formulation also suggested that movement would modulate the uncanny valley. The reviewed empirical literature failed to provide consistent support for the naïve uncanny valley hypothesis or the modulatory effects of movement. Results on the categorization difficulty hypothesis were still too scarce to allow drawing firm conclusions. In contrast, good support was found for the perceptual mismatch hypothesis. Taken together, the present review findings suggest that the uncanny valley exists only under specific conditions. More research is still needed to pinpoint the exact conditions under which the uncanny valley phenomenon manifests itself.

  10. Evidence-based radiology (part 2): Is there sufficient research to support the use of therapeutic injections into the peripheral joints?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Cynthia; Hodler, Juerg [Orthopaedic University Hospital of Balgrist, Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    This review article addresses the best evidence currently available for the effectiveness of injection therapy for musculoskeletal conditions involving the peripheral joints. The research is presented by anatomical region and areas of controversy and the need for additional research are identified. Randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses and systematic reviews are lacking that address the effectiveness of therapeutic injections to the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, ankle and foot joints. No research studies of any kind have been reported for therapeutic injections of the sternoclavicular joint. With the exception of the knee, possibly the hip and patients with inflammatory arthropathies, research does not unequivocally support the use of therapeutic joint injections for most of the peripheral joints, including the shoulder. Additionally, controversy exists in some areas as to whether or not corticosteroids provide better outcomes compared to local anesthetic injections alone. When viscosupplementation injections are compared to corticosteroids in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, the evidence supports the use of viscosupplementation for more prolonged improvement in outcomes, with corticosteroids being good for short-term relief. (orig.)

  11. THE EMBEDDEDNESS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN THE CURRICULA OF NON-BUSINESS UNIVERSITY PROGRAMMES: PRELIMINARY EVIDENCE FROM SOUTH AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES OF TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson K. Tengeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The total early stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA in South Africa is said to be extremely low compared to those of other sub-Saharan countries. This is despite the concerted efforts of the government to establish, develop and nurture entrepreneurship at all levels, especially among the youths. This calls for concern given the current state of the economy and the challenges faced by South Africa’s future generation. This paper is anchored on two theoretical frameworks to substantiate our argument for the inclusion of entrepreneurship education in the curricula of non-business programmes at universities of technology. The theoretical frameworks are the contingency organizational theory and the magnet versus radiant model. The study adopted an exploratory cross sectional research design which allowed us to collect data from a cross-section of a population: the universities of technology in South Africa. The findings suggest that only fifteen (out of the 46 of the programmes showed visible evidence of entrepreneurship/business studies in their content. Such finding implies that there is a need for entrepreneurship to be integrated into the curricula of all non-business departments if not for the sake of its perceived employment generation attributes, but for its other attributes such as innovation, and more importantly employability.

  12. Bridging the Gap of Practice and Research: A Preliminary Investigation of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳寂絹 Chi-Chuan Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gap between practice and research is commonly found in disciplines with both ofprofessional practitioners and academic researchers. How to bridge the gap is also acontinuing concern in the field of Library and Information Studies. This article describes therecent development of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information ScienceResearch (EBLIP, and provides analysis of the journal EBLIP including its authors’backgrounds, methods, and topics. The results show that the United States and Canadaare the two major nations of contributors; more than 70% of first authors are librarians; 76%of the articles were contributed by one single institute, co-authorship by cross-nationinstitutes were rarely seen, and demonstrates local research interests; type of co-authoredagency is primarily among libraries; 60% methods employed include questionnaires,interviews and content analysis; the coverage of topics is rather broad, and the top threecategories of research topics include Information Literacy & Instruction, Information Needs& Seeking Behavior, and Reference Services / Digital Reference Services (15%, 10%, and8%; many datasets were obtained from real library practice, and 72% of articles provide specific implications for applications which highlight the value of implementation. Manylibrarians have the research capability, and this article serves as a purpose to introduce theevidence-based research and encourage more such research done in Taiwan. Hopefully itmay benefit and further enhance the quality of library decision-making and their professionalimage.

  13. Decision boxes for clinicians to support evidence-based practice and shared decision making: the user experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giguere Anik

    2012-08-01

    -making process were added with the intent of clarifying the tool’s purpose. Information about the risks and benefits according to risk levels was added to the Decision Boxes, to try to ease the adaptation of the information to individual patients. Conclusion Results will guide the development of the eight remaining Decision Boxes. A future study will evaluate the effect of Decision Boxes on the integration of evidence-based and shared decision making principles in clinical practice.

  14. Decision boxes for clinicians to support evidence-based practice and shared decision making: the user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Anik; Légaré, France; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Haynes, R Brian; Cauchon, Michel; Rousseau, François; Alvarez Argote, Juliana; Labrecque, Michel

    2012-08-03

    's purpose. Information about the risks and benefits according to risk levels was added to the Decision Boxes, to try to ease the adaptation of the information to individual patients. Results will guide the development of the eight remaining Decision Boxes. A future study will evaluate the effect of Decision Boxes on the integration of evidence-based and shared decision making principles in clinical practice.

  15. Jellyfish support high energy intake of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea: video evidence from animal-borne cameras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G Heaslip

    Full Text Available The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19 in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08-3:38 h, and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata was the dominant prey (83-100%, but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models. Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001. Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ • d(-1 but were as high as 167,797 kJ • d(-1 corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass • d(-1 (up to 840 kg • d(-1 or approximately 261 (up to 664 jellyfish • d(-1. Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass • d(-1 equating to an average energy intake of 3-7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to

  16. Supporting middle school students' construction of evidence-based arguments: Impact of and student interactions with computer-based argumentation scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belland, Brian Robert

    Middle school students have difficulty creating evidence-based arguments (EBAs) during problem-based learning (PBL) units due to challenges (a) adequately representing the unit's central problem (Ge & Land, 2004; Liu & Bera, 2005), (b) determining and obtaining the most relevant evidence (Pedersen & Liu, 2002-2003), and (c) synthesizing gathered information to construct a sound argument (Cho & Jonassen, 2002). I designed and developed the Connection Log to support middle school students in this process. This study addressed (1) the Connection Log's impact on (a) argument evaluation ability, and (b) group argument quality and (2) how and why middle school science students used the Connection Log. Four sections of a 7th-grade science class participated. Student groups selected a stakeholder position related to the Human Genome Project (HGP) and needed to decide on and promote a plan to use $3 million to further their position as pertains to the HGP. I randomly assigned one higher-achieving and one lower-achieving class to Connection Log or no Connection Log conditions. Students completed an argument evaluation test, and impact on argument evaluation ability was determined using nested ANOVA. Two graduate students, blind to treatment conditions, rated group arguments, and impact on group argument quality was determined using nested MANOVA. To determine how and why students used the Connection Log, I videotaped and interviewed one small group from each class in the experimental condition. I coded transcripts and generated themes, triangulating the two data sources with informal observations during all class sessions and what students wrote in the Connection Log. I detected no significant differences on claim, evidence, or connection of claim to evidence ratings of debate performances. However, students used the Connection Log to counter different difficulties, and I found a significant main effect of the Connection Log on argument evaluation ability, as well as a

  17. Executive summary: evaluation of the evidence to support practice guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants-the Pre-B Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Steiber, Alison L; Hand, Rosa K

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth (infants born at nutritional care of preterm infants. To address the current state of knowledge and to support systematic reviews that will be used to develop evidence-informed guidance, a consortium consisting of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the ASN, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Food and Drug Administration, the CDC, the USDA/Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ARS), and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/NIH initiated the Pre-B Project. The project included the constitution of 4 thematic working groups charged with the following tasks: 1) develop a series of topics/questions for which there is sufficient evidence to support a systematic review process to be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Library (EAL), leading to the development of new guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants, and 2) develop a targeted research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of the role of nutrition in the health and development of preterm/neonatal intensive care unit infants. This review consists of a project overview including a summary of a workshop hosted by the USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center and summary reports of the 4 working groups established to address the following themes: 1) nutrient specifications, 2) clinical/practical issues in enteral feeding, 3) gastrointestinal and surgical issues, and 4) current standards for assessing infant feeding outcomes. These reports will serve as the basis for the ultimate guideline development process to be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' EAL. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Using Getting To Outcomes to facilitate the use of an evidence-based practice in VA homeless programs: a cluster-randomized trial of an implementation support strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; McCarthy, Sharon; Hannah, Gordon; Byrne, Thomas Hugh; Smelson, David A

    2017-03-09

    Incorporating evidence-based integrated treatment for dual disorders into typical care settings has been challenging, especially among those serving Veterans who are homeless. This paper presents an evaluation of an effort to incorporate an evidence-based, dual disorder treatment called Maintaining Independence and Sobriety Through Systems Integration, Outreach, and Networking-Veterans Edition (MISSION-Vet) into case management teams serving Veterans who are homeless, using an implementation strategy called Getting To Outcomes (GTO). This Hybrid Type III, cluster-randomized controlled trial assessed the impact of GTO over and above MISSION-Vet Implementation as Usual (IU). Both conditions received standard MISSION-Vet training and manuals. The GTO group received an implementation manual, training, technical assistance, and data feedback. The study occurred in teams at three large VA Medical Centers over 2 years. Within each team, existing sub-teams (case managers and Veterans they serve) were the clusters randomly assigned. The trial assessed MISSION-Vet services delivered and collected via administrative data and implementation barriers and facilitators, via semi-structured interview. No case managers in the IU group initiated MISSION-Vet while 68% in the GTO group did. Seven percent of Veterans with case managers in the GTO group received at least one MISSION-Vet session. Most case managers appreciated the MISSION-Vet materials and felt the GTO planning meetings supported using MISSION-Vet. Case manager interviews also showed that MISSION-Vet could be confusing; there was little involvement from leadership after their initial agreement to participate; the data feedback system had a number of difficulties; and case managers did not have the resources to implement all aspects of MISSION-Vet. This project shows that GTO-like support can help launch new practices but that multiple implementation facilitators are needed for successful execution of a complex evidence

  19. In vitro evidence in rainbow trout supporting glucosensing mediated by sweet taste receptor, LXR, and mitochondrial activity in Brockmann bodies, and sweet taste receptor in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-10-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout peripheral tissues such as liver and Brockmann bodies (BB) for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms others than that mediated by glucokinase (GK). There were based on mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in liver and BB, and on liver X receptor (LXR) and sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in BB. We aimed in the present study to obtain further in vitro evidence for the presence and functioning of these systems. In a first experiment, pools of sliced liver and BB were incubated for 6h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4, or 8mM d-glucose, and we assessed the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms. In a second experiment, pools of sliced liver and BB were incubated for 6h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8mM d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1mM phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20μM genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1μM trolox (ROS scavenger), 100μM bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor), and 50μM geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The results obtained in both experiments support the presence and functioning of glucosensor mechanisms in liver based on sweet taste receptor whereas in BB the evidence support those based on LXR, mitochondrial activity and sweet taste receptor.

  20. Preliminary analysis of modeling of Pars and steam injectors to support long-term operation of LWR passive ECCS using a best estimate thermal-hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales S, J. B.; Sanchez J, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: jaimebmoraless@gmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    In order to control the amount of hydrogen produced, during the chemical reaction of steam and strongly overheated zirconium in a LWR severe accident, several control methos have been proposed. In a considerable number of nuclear power plants the initial preferred solution was either the use of an inert containment atmosphere or the use of igniters. However, the use of Pars (Passive autocatalytic recombiners) has been considered an important addition to this set of H{sub 2} controls. Pars have appealing features such as, low maintenance, do not require active components to start operation, and can initiate the H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} recombination at low concentrations. However, under certain conditions these Pars may trigger H{sub 2} ignition leading to deflagration s with possible containment damages. Combustions, poisons and liquid may inhibit or reduce the Pars operation. Advanced LWR designs (generation III + and IV) are also considering the use of Pars as a supporting system to the long term operation of their passive ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling Systems) because they may transport the energy of containment H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gases to external sinks. Even when the ECCS of modern nuclear power plants are designed to maintain containment conditions under established limits, there are small amounts of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} produced mainly by H{sub 2}O radiolysis, and after several days of containment isolation, these gases may accumulate in places where the possibility of a H{sub 2} deflagration increases. Therefore, the use of Pars looks initially as an interesting solution to long-term H{sub 2} control during a Dba. However, the H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} recombination is an exothermic process resulting in additional steam and energy releases to the containment. In order to avoid a direct deposition of the steam and energy (Pars produced) into the containment atmosphere, we propose to use them to operate steam injectors that can bring cold water to replenish ECCS

  1. Simulator sickness when performing gaze shifts within a wide field of view optic flow environment: preliminary evidence for using virtual reality in vestibular rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Susan L

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wide field of view virtual environments offer some unique features that may be beneficial for use in vestibular rehabilitation. For one, optic flow information extracted from the periphery may be critical for recalibrating the sensory processes used by people with vestibular disorders. However, wide FOV devices also have been found to result in greater simulator sickness. Before a wide FOV device can be used in a clinical setting, its safety must be demonstrated. Methods Symptoms of simulator sickness were recorded by 9 healthy adult subjects after they performed gaze shifting tasks to locate targets superimposed on an optic flow background. Subjects performed 8 trials of gaze shifting on each of the six separate visits. Results The incidence of symptoms of simulator sickness while subjects performed gaze shifts in an optic flow environment was lower than the average reported incidence for flight simulators. The incidence was greater during the first visit compared with subsequent visits. Furthermore, the incidence showed an increasing trend over the 8 trials. Conclusion The performance of head unrestrained gaze shifts in a wide FOV optic flow environment is tolerated well by healthy subjects. This finding provides rationale for testing these environments in people with vestibular disorders, and supports the concept of using wide FOV virtual reality for vestibular rehabilitation.

  2. 基于“中国创造”的创客教育支持生态研究%A Preliminary Study of Supporting Ecosystem for Maker Education Based on Chinese Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅骞

    2015-01-01

    随着创客教育在中国的逐步发展,创客教育支持生态的重要性日益凸显。但可惜的是,当前的创客教育支持生态完全被国外所垄断,尤其是与创意电子设计相关的创客教育领域,而中国的技术水平和生产能力实际上已经完全可以支持中国创客教育的发展。为此,该文在普及创客教育与发展“中国创造”的双重需求下,提出基于“中国创造”的全新创客教育支持生态架构,描述了该生态各个部分的初步实现,包括硬件工具、开源固件、开源软件、教学理论和课程体系等内容,并提出了该支持生态的推进策略。%With the development of maker education in China, its supporting ecosystem has become more and more important. However, the supporting ecosystem has been dominated by foreign countries, especially in the related ifelds of maker education in Creative Electronics. Meanwhile, China’s science and technology has grown to be able to create a new supporting ecosystem for maker education in China. Therefore, a new supporting ecosystem for maker education based on Chinese innovation was described here for popularizing maker education in china and spreading the idea of Chinese innovation. Moreover, the preliminary realization of supporting ecosystem is given, including the tools of hardware, open source ifrmware and software, industrial theory and curriculum system. Finally, a promoting strategy for the new supporting ecosystem was posted.

  3. Economic analysis of amifostine as adjunctive support for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: preliminary results from a randomized phase II clinical trial from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C L; Lane, D; Stinson, T; Glatzel, M; Buntzel, J

    2001-01-01

    In a randomized phase II trial in Germany, we investigated the clinical and economic impact of amifostine protection against the hematological and oral toxicities of carboplatin administered concurrently with standard fractions of radiotherapy. 28 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck received adjunctive or primary radiotherapy (5 days per week with daily fractions of 2 Gy, up to a total dose of 60 Gy) in conjunction with carboplatin (70 mg/m2) on days 1-5 and days 21-26. All patients received radiation encompassing at least 75% of the major salivary glands. Patients were randomized to receive radiation and carboplatin (RCT) alone or RCT preceded by rapid infusion of amifostine (500 mg) on days carboplatin was administered. The 14 patients who received amifostine, in comparison to 14 patients in the control arm, had significantly fewer episodes of grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia (p = 0.001), mucositis (p = 0.001), and xerostomia (p = 0.001). The patients receiving amifostine accrued significantly lower supportive care costs for resources related to infection ($241 vs. $1,275, p alimentation ($343 vs. $894, p = .01), and hospitalization ($286 vs. $2,429, p cancer receiving radiochemotherapy. Additional economic studies alongside randomized phase III trials and from other countries are needed.

  4. EBMPracticeNet: A Bilingual National Electronic Point-Of-Care Project for Retrieval of Evidence-Based Clinical Guideline Information and Decision Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Stijn; Vander Stichele, Robert; Fauquert, Benjamin; Geens, Siegfried; Heselmans, Annemie; Ramaekers, Dirk; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2013-07-10

    In Belgium, the construction of a national electronic point-of-care information service, EBMPracticeNet, was initiated in 2011 to optimize quality of care by promoting evidence-based decision-making. The collaboration of the government, health care providers, evidence-based medicine (EBM) partners, and vendors of electronic health records (EHR) is unique to this project. All Belgian health care professionals get free access to an up-to-date database of validated Belgian and nearly 1000 international guidelines, incorporated in a portal that also provides EBM information from other sources than guidelines, including computerized clinical decision support that is integrated in the EHRs. The objective of this paper was to describe the development strategy, the overall content, and the management of EBMPracticeNet which may be of relevance to other health organizations creating national or regional electronic point-of-care information services. Several candidate providers of comprehensive guideline solutions were evaluated and one database was selected. Translation of the guidelines to Dutch and French was done with translation software, post-editing by translators and medical proofreading. A strategy is determined to adapt the guideline content to the Belgian context. Acceptance of the computerized clinical decision support tool has been tested and a randomized controlled trial is planned to evaluate the effect on process and patient outcomes. Currently, EBMPracticeNet is in "work in progress" state. Reference is made to the results of a pilot study and to further planned research including a randomized controlled trial. The collaboration of government, health care providers, EBM partners, and vendors of EHRs is unique. The potential value of the project is great. The link between all the EHRs from different vendors and a national database held on a single platform that is controlled by all EBM organizations in Belgium are the strengths of EBMPracticeNet.

  5. Is there sufficient evidence to support the long-term efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for endodontic therapy in primary teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonappa, R P; King, N M; Martens, L C

    2013-03-01

    Several papers have been published to illustrate the effectiveness of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a pulpotomy medicament. Most of these reports do not offer a critical assessment on the data quality. Therefore, this review evaluated whether the currently available evidence is of an appropriate quality to support the long-term effectiveness of MTA as a pulpotomy medicament in primary molars using a standardized assessment criterion. A comprehensive literature search of human clinical outcome studies, which employed MTA as a pulpotomy medicament in primary teeth, was conducted using the MEDLINE database. Two independent observers rated these articles using the standardized assessment criteria. Furthermore, based on the initial sample mentioned in the individual studies and the sample included for the final analysis, the drop-out rates were calculated. Twenty-two studies were included for quality assessment with an excellent interobserver agreement. None of the 22 studies obtained grade A, four studies attained grade B1, five were graded B2 and 13 received grade C. Based on the assessment criteria employed, there was no evidence that MTA was better than present materials and techniques as a pulpotomy medicament. Furthermore, given the low quality of data, it is highly desirable to establish standard requisites for conducting and reporting on pulp therapy studies in primary teeth so as to benefit both researchers and clinicians to produce high-quality studies that are comparable and to prevent the misuse of clinical material and resources.

  6. An examination of the evidence supporting the association of dietary cholesterol and saturated fats with serum cholesterol and development of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Marion G

    2007-09-01

    The lipid hypothesis is the basis for much of the contemporary diet advice and drug therapy aimed at preventing coronary heart disease (CHD), and was developed from a sequential association of dietary lipids, cholesterol, and CHD nearly 100 years ago. The lipid hypothesis considers pathological changes that relate to the end stage of the complex chronic condition summarized as CHD, not to its genesis. Ongoing research provides only inconclusive evidence of the effects of modification of total, saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors or statins, the highest selling drugs in medical history, may provide evidence that the lipid hypothesis is based on erroneous assumptions, since some of the mechanisms of action of statins seem to be independent of cholesterol reduction. This article assesses the methodology and assumptions underlying the early studies that gave rise to the current assumption of a causal relationship between dietary fat consumption and CHD. It argues that flaws in methodology have led to inaccurate and highly debatable conclusions. It assesses research supporting criticism of these early studies and considers other factors that may influence CHD. It offers alternative interpretations of the use of statins in controlling CHD. Finally, it provides an historical context suggesting different causes of CHD that have no relation to fat intake.

  7. Confirmation of linkage of Hypokalemic periodic paralysis to chromosome 1q31-32: Further evidence supporting CACNL1A3 as a candidate gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.; Knouff, C.; Gaskell, P.C. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP; MIM 170400) is one entity of a series of periodic paralyses characterized by episodic bouts of weakness with onset in the second to third decades. The hypokalemic form is defined by decreased serum potassium during a paralytic attack. HOKPP can occur in both familial and sporadic forms; the familal form is autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance in female gene carriers. Recently, Fontaine et al. have localized HOKPP to 1q31-32 in three multigenerational HOKPP families. The region of sub-localization includes the CACNL1A3 gene, making it a potential candidate for the genetic defect in HOKPP. We have ascertained and sampled 2 large multigenerational HOKPP pedigrees (N = 55 individuals with DNA) for linkage analysis. The families were initially screened for linkage with over 150 marker loci located throughout the genome. Analysis of the chromosome 1 markers D1S412, D1S413 and F13B gave significant evidence for linkage. The peak two-point lod score realized was Z = 4.34 at theta = 0.0 (D1S413). A sex-dependent penetrance of 80% was assumed, although varying the penetrance did not significantly alter the results. There was no evidence for heterogeneity. Multipoint analysis of the data defined the region between D1S238 and D1S245 (which contains the CACNL1A3 gene) as the most likely region (> 1000 odds) for the location of the HOKPP gene. There were no obligate recombinants among males or affected females for the CACNL1A3 (Z = 3.19, theta = 0.0), although several potential non-penetrant females were identified. These studies confirm linkage of HOPKK to chromosome 1 in an independent data set, lend further support of CACNL1A3 as a potential candidate gene, and give evidence for homogeneity in this disease.

  8. Evidence from case-control and longitudinal studies supports associations of genetic variation in APOE, CETP, and IL6 with human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Mette; Dato, Serena; Tan, Qihua; Thinggaard, Mikael; Kleindorp, Rabea; Beekman, Marian; Suchiman, H Eka D; Jacobsen, Rune; McGue, Matt; Stevnsner, Tinna; Bohr, Vilhelm A; de Craen, Anton J M; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Schreiber, Stefan; Slagboom, P Eline; Nebel, Almut; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we investigated 102 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the common genetic variation in 16 genes recurrently regarded as candidates for human longevity: APOE; ACE; CETP; HFE; IL6; IL6R; MTHFR; TGFB1; APOA4; APOC3; SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. In a case-control study of 1,089 oldest-old (ages 92-93) and 736 middle-aged Danes, the minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs769449 (APOE) was significantly decreased in the oldest-old, while the MAF of rs9923854 (CETP) was significantly enriched. These effects were supported when investigating 1,613 oldest-old (ages 95-110) and 1,104 middle-aged Germans. rs769449 was in modest linkage equilibrium (R (2)=0.55) with rs429358 of the APOE-ε4 haplotype and adjusting for rs429358 eliminated the association of rs769449, indicating that the association likely reflects the well-known effect of rs429358. Gene-based analysis confirmed the effects of variation in APOE and CETP and furthermore pointed to HSPA14 as a longevity gene. In a longitudinal study with 11 years of follow-up on survival in the oldest-old Danes, only one SNP, rs2069827 (IL6), was borderline significantly associated with survival from age 92 (P-corrected=0.064). This advantageous effect of the minor allele was supported when investigating a Dutch longitudinal cohort (N=563) of oldest-old (age 85+). Since rs2069827 was located in a putative transcription factor binding site, quantitative RNA expression studies were conducted. However, no difference in IL6 expression was observed between rs2069827 genotype groups. In conclusion, we here support and expand the evidence suggesting that genetic variation in APOE, CETP, and IL6, and possible HSPA14, is associated with human longevity.

  9. A decision support system for preliminary design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, E.H. de; Mallory, S.M.; Zutphen, R.H.M. van; Vries, B. de

    1999-01-01

    The design of buildings is a complex task for a variety of reasons. In the conceptual stage, particularly in the inception phase, a small number of people make decisions that have far reaching impact on the final result in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Decision-making in the inception phase

  10. A decision support system for preliminary design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, E.H. de; Mallory, S.M.; Zutphen, R.H.M. van; Vries, B. de

    1999-01-01

    The design of buildings is a complex task for a variety of reasons. In the conceptual stage, particularly in the inception phase, a small number of people make decisions that have far reaching impact on the final result in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Decision-making in the inception phase

  11. Horticultural therapy as a measure for recovery support of regional community in the disaster area: a preliminary experiment for forty five women who living certain region in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotozaki, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    Three years have passed since the earthquake, in the coastal areas in the disaster area, by population transfer or the like from the temporary housing, the importance of the regeneration and revitalization of the local community has been pointed out. This study performed a preliminary study to aim at the psychological inspection about an effect of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction support of the disaster area. Forty five women who are living in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture participated in this study. They experienced the Great East Japan earthquake in 2011 and suffered some kind of damage caused by the earthquake. The participants were assigned to two groups, the intervention group and the control group, via a random draw using a computer. The HI group attended the horticultural therapy intervention (HT intervention) sessions for 16 weeks. The HT intervention was designed in collaboration with a horticultural therapist and clinical psychologists. This intervention comprised a total of 16 weekly sessions (120 min each) at the community center and 15 minutes per day at participants' homes. We used five psychological measures for an intervention evaluation. The HI group showed a significant increase in post- intervention SCI-2 total scores, post- intervention SCI-2 membership scores, post-intervention SCI-2 influence scores, post- intervention SCI-2 meeting needs scores, post- intervention SCI-2 shared emotional connection scores, and post- intervention RSES score. We believe that these results suggest the effectiveness of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction.

  12. Seeking evidence to support efforts to increase use of antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two states of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Khalid; Afi, Nshadi John; Baba, Moh'd Chadi; Adamu, Maijiddah; Malami, Sani Abubakar; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2014-11-20

    Antenatal care (ANC) attendance is a strong predictor of maternal outcomes. In Nigeria, government health planners at state level and below have limited access to population-based estimates of ANC coverage and factors associated with its use. A mixed methods study examined factors associated with the use of government ANC services in two states of Nigeria, and shared the findings with stakeholders. A quantitative household survey in Bauchi and Cross River states of Nigeria collected data from women aged 15-49 years on ANC use during their last completed pregnancy and potentially associated factors including socio-economic conditions, exposure to domestic violence and local availability of services. Bivariate and multivariate analysis examined associations with having at least four government ANC visits. We collected qualitative data from 180 focus groups of women who discussed the survey findings and recommended solutions. We shared the findings with state, Local Government Authority, and community stakeholders to support evidence-based planning. 40% of 7870 women in Bauchi and 46% of 7759 in Cross River had at least four government ANC visits. Women's education, urban residence, information from heath workers, help from family members, and household owning motorized transport were associated with ANC use in both states. Additional factors for women in Cross River included age above 18 years, being married or cohabiting, being less poor (having enough food during the last week), not experiencing intimate partner violence during the last year, and education of the household head. Factors for women in Bauchi were presence of government ANC services within their community and more than two previous pregnancies. Focus groups cited costly, poor quality, and inaccessible government services, and uncooperative partners as reasons for not attending ANC. Government and other stakeholders planned evidence-based interventions to increase ANC uptake. Use of ANC services

  13. Coarticulatory evidence in stuttered disfluencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbisi-Kelm, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    While the disfluencies produced in stuttered speech surface at a significantly higher rate than those found in normal speech, it is less clear from the previous stuttering literature how exactly these disfluency patterns might differ in kind [Wingate (1988)]. One tendency found in normal speech is for disfluencies to remove acoustic evidence of coarticulation patterns [Shriberg (1999)]. This appears attributable to lexical search errors which prevent a speaker from accessing a word's phonological form; that is, coarticulation between words will fail to occur when segmental material from the following word is not retrieved. Since stuttering is a disorder which displays evidence of phonological but not lexical impairment, it was predicted that stuttered disfluencies would differ from normal errors in that the former would reveal acoustic evidence of word transitions. Eight speakers four stutterers and four control subjects participated in a narrative-production task, spontaneously describing a picture book. Preliminary results suggest that while both stutterers and controls did produce similar rates of disfluencies occurring without coarticulatory evidence, only the stutterers regularly produced disfluencies reflecting this transitional evidence. These results support the argument that disfluencies proper to stuttering result from a phonological deficit, while normal disfluencies are generally lexically based.

  14. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part I-epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air pollution and effects of mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Sørensen, Mette; Gori, Tommaso; Schmidt, Frank P; Rao, Xiaoquan; Brook, Jeffrey; Chen, Lung Chi; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-07-26

    Traffic noise and air pollution together represent the two most important environmental risk factors in urbanized societies. The first of this two-part review discusses the epidemiologic evidence in support of the existence of an association between these risk factors with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. While independent effects of these risk factors have now clearly been shown, recent studies also suggest that the two exposures may interact with each other and with traditional risk factors such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes. From a societal and policy perspective, the health effects of both air pollution and traffic noise are observed for exposures well below the thresholds currently accepted as being safe. Current gaps in knowledge, effects of intervention and their impact on cardiovascular disease, will be discussed in the last section of this review. Increased awareness of the societal burden posed by these novel risk factors and acknowledgement in traditional risk factor guidelines may intensify the efforts required for effective legislation to reduce air pollution and noise.

  15. Using Graphing Software to Teach about Algebraic Forms: A Study of Technology-Supported Practice in Secondary-School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Kenneth; Deaney, Rosemary; Hennessy, Sara

    2009-01-01

    From preliminary analysis of teacher-nominated examples of successful technology-supported practice in secondary-school mathematics, the use of graphing software to teach about algebraic forms was identified as being an important archetype. Employing evidence from lesson observation and teacher interview, such practice was investigated in greater…

  16. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  17. A pragmatic study exploring the prevention of delirium among hospitalized older hip fracture patients: Applying evidence to routine clinical practice using clinical decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmaltz Heidi N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Delirium occurs in up to 65% of older hip fracture patients. Developing delirium in hospital has been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes. Trials have shown that multi-component preventive interventions can lower delirium rates. The objective of this study was to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of an evidence-based electronic care pathway, which incorporates multi-component delirium strategies, among older hip fracture patients. We conducted a pragmatic study using an interrupted time series design in order to evaluate the use and impact of the intervention. The target population was all consenting patients aged 65 years or older admitted with an acute hip fracture to the orthopedic units at two Calgary, Alberta hospitals. The primary outcome was delirium rates. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, in-hospital falls, in-hospital mortality, new discharges to long-term care, and readmissions. A Durbin Watson test was conducted to test for serial correlation and, because no correlation was found, Chi-square statistics, Wilcoxon test and logistic regression analyses were conducted as appropriate. At study completion, focus groups were conducted at each hospital to explore issues around the use of the order set. During the 40-week study period, 134 patients were enrolled. The intervention had no effect on the overall delirium rate (33% pre versus 31% post; p = 0.84. However, there was a significant interaction between study phase and hospital (p = 0.03. Although one hospital did not experience a decline in delirium rate, the delirium rate at the other hospital declined from 42% to 19% (p = 0.08. This difference by hospital was mirrored in focus group feedback. The hospital that experienced a decline in delirium rates was more supportive of the intervention. Overall, post-intervention there were no significant differences in mean length of stay (12 days post versus 14 days pre; p = 0.74, falls (6% post

  18. Evidence from enzymatic and meta-analyses does not support a direct association between USP26 gene variants and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Liu, T; Mi, Y-J; Yue, L-D; Wang, J-M; Liu, D-W; Yan, J; Tian, Q B

    2015-03-01

    Do men who carry mutations in USP26 have an increased risk of infertility? The association between mutations in USP26 gene and male infertility has been studied intensively. However, the results from different groups are controversial. In particular, biological function of the mutant proteins remains to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted a USP cleavage assay and a meta-analysis of the published literature (up to 31 May 2013) to evaluate the impact of five frequent mutations (NM_031907.1: c.363_364insACA, c.494T>C, c.1423C>T, c.1090C>T, c.1737G>A) on enzymatic activity of the USP26 and to assess the strength of the association between those mutations and male infertility. The USP cleavage assay showed that those mutations do not affect USP26 enzymatic activity. Moreover, the results of meta-analysis of ten case-control studies (in total 1716 patients and 2597 controls) revealed no significant association (P > 0.05) between USP26 mutations and male infertility. The pooled ORs were 1.58 (95% CI: 0.81, 3.10) for cluster mutations (c.363_364insACA, c.494T>C, c.1423C>T), 1.60 (95% CI: 0.93, 2.74) for c.1090 C>T and 2.64 (95% CI: 0.97, 7.20) for c.1737 G>A. Evidence from both enzymatic and meta-analyses does not support a direct association between USP26 variants and male infertility. Further research is necessary to study the biological function of USP26, which may provide clues as to the regulation of androgen receptor signalling. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. Demographic and Indication-Specific Characteristics Have Limited Association With Social Network Engagement: Evidence From 24,954 Members of Four Health Care Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Digital health social networks (DHSNs) are widespread, and the consensus is that they contribute to wellness by offering social support and knowledge sharing. The success of a DHSN is based on the number of participants and their consistent creation of externalities through the generation of new content. To promote network growth, it would be helpful to identify characteristics of superusers or actors who create value by generating positive network externalities. Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of developing predictive models that identify potential superusers in real time. This study examined associations between posting behavior, 4 demographic variables, and 20 indication-specific variables. Methods Data were extracted from the custom structured query language (SQL) databases of 4 digital health behavior change interventions with DHSNs. Of these, 2 were designed to assist in the treatment of addictions (problem drinking and smoking cessation), and 2 for mental health (depressive disorder, panic disorder). To analyze posting behavior, 10 models were developed, and negative binomial regressions were conducted to examine associations between number of posts, and demographic and indication-specific variables. Results The DHSNs varied in number of days active (3658-5210), number of registrants (5049-52,396), number of actors (1085-8452), and number of posts (16,231-521,997). In the sample, all 10 models had low R2 values (.013-.086) with limited statistically significant demographic and indication-specific variables. Conclusions Very few variables were associated with social network engagement. Although some variables were statistically significant, they did not appear to be practically significant. Based on the large number of study participants, variation in DHSN theme, and extensive time-period, we did not find strong evidence that demographic characteristics or indication severity sufficiently explain the variability in

  20. The 5% Lidocaine-Medicated Plaster: Its Inclusion in International Treatment Guidelines for Treating Localized Neuropathic Pain, and Clinical Evidence Supporting its Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ralf; Allegri, Massimo; Correa-Illanes, Gerardo; Hans, Guy; Serpell, Michael; Mick, Gerard; Mayoral, Victor

    2016-12-01

    When peripheral neuropathic pain affects a specific, clearly demarcated area of the body, it may be described as localized neuropathic pain (LNP). Examples include postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy, as well as post-surgical and post-traumatic pain. These conditions may respond to topical treatment, i.e., pharmaceutical agents acting locally on the peripheral nervous system, and the topical route offers advantages over systemic administration. Notably, only a small fraction of the dose reaches the systemic circulation, thereby reducing the risk of systemic adverse effects, drug-drug interactions and overdose. From the patient's perspective, the analgesic agent is easily applied to the most painful area(s). The 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster has been used for several years to treat LNP and is registered in approximately 50 countries. Many clinical guidelines recommend this treatment modality as a first-line option for treating LNP, particularly in frail and/or elderly patients and those receiving multiple medications, because the benefit-to-risk ratios are far better than those of systemic analgesics. However, some guidelines make only a weak recommendation for its use. This paper considers the positioning of the 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster in international treatment guidelines and how they may be influenced by the specific criteria used in developing them, such as the methodology employed by randomized, placebo-controlled trials. It then examines the body of evidence supporting use of the plaster in some prevalent LNP conditions. Common themes that emerge from clinical studies are: (1) the excellent tolerability and safety of the plaster, which can increase patients' adherence to treatment, (2) continued efficacy over long-term treatment, and (3) significant reduction in the size of the painful area. On this basis, it is felt that the 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster should be more strongly recommended for treating LNP, either as one component

  1. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 10: Taking equity into consideration when assessing the findings of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, Andrew D; Lavis, John N; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article we address considerations of equity. Inequities can be defined as "differences in health which are not only unnecessary and avoidable but, in addition, are considered unfair and unjust". These have been well documented in relation to social and economic factors. Policies or programmes that are effective can improve the overall health of a population. However, the impact of such policies and programmes on inequities may vary: they may have no impact on inequities, they may reduce inequities, or they may exacerbate them, regardless of their overall effects on population health. We suggest four questions that can be considered when using research evidence to inform considerations of the potential impact a policy or programme option is likely to have on disadvantaged groups, and on equity in a specific setting. These are: 1. Which groups or settings are likely to be disadvantaged in relation to the option being considered? 2. Are there plausible reasons for anticipating differences in the relative effectiveness of the option for disadvantaged groups or settings? 3. Are there likely to be different baseline conditions across groups or settings such that that the absolute effectiveness of the option would be different, and the problem more or less important, for disadvantaged groups or settings? 4. Are there important considerations that should be made when implementing the option in order to ensure that inequities are reduced, if possible, and that they are not increased?

  2. The importance of evidence-based supportive care practice guidelines in childhood cancer-a plea for their development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, E A H; Kremer, L C M; Mulder, R L; Font-Gonzalez, A; Dupuis, L L; Sung, L; Robinson, P D; van de Wetering, M D; Tissing, W J E

    2017-04-01

    As cure rates in pediatric oncology have improved substantially over the last decades, supportive care has become increasingly important to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life in children with cancer. Currently, large variations exist in pediatric oncology supportive care practice, which might negatively influence care. This plea underlines the importance of development and implementation of trustworthy supportive care clinical practice guidelines, which we believe is the essential next step towards better supportive care practice, and thus a higher quality of care. To facilitate international development and endorsement, the International Pediatric Oncology Guidelines in Supportive Care Network has been established.

  3. Phylogeny of nodulation and nitrogen-fixation genes in Bradyrhizobium: supporting evidence for the theory of monophyletic origin, and spread and maintenance by both horizontal and vertical transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Pâmela; Hungria, Mariangela

    2011-12-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium are capable of establishing symbiotic relationships with a broad range of plants belonging to the three subfamilies of the family Leguminosae (=Fabaceae), with the formation of specialized structures on the roots called nodules, where fixation of atmospheric nitrogen takes place. Symbiosis is under the control of finely tuned expression of common and host-specific nodulation genes and also of genes related to the assembly and activity of the nitrogenase, which, in Bradyrhizobium strains investigated so far, are clustered in a symbiotic island. Information about the diversity of these genes is essential to improve our current poor understanding of their origin, spread and maintenance and, in this study, we provide information on 40 Bradyrhizobium strains, mostly of tropical origin. For the nodulation trait, common (nodA), Bradyrhizobium-specific (nodY/K) and host-specific (nodZ) nodulation genes were studied, whereas for fixation ability, the diversity of nifH was investigated. In general, clustering of strains in all nod and nifH trees was similar and the Bradyrhizobium group could be clearly separated from other rhizobial genera. However, the congruence of nod and nif genes with ribosomal and housekeeping genes was low. nodA and nodY/K were not detected in three strains by amplification or hybridization with probes using Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii type strains, indicating the high diversity of these genes or that strains other than photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium must have alternative mechanisms to initiate the process of nodulation. For a large group of strains, the high diversity of nod genes (with an emphasis on nodZ), the low relationship between nod genes and the host legume, and some evidence of horizontal gene transfer might indicate strategies to increase host range. On the other hand, in a group of five symbionts of Acacia mearnsii, the high congruence between nod and ribosomal

  4. Assessing the need for an online decision-support tool to promote evidence-based practices of psychosocial counseling in HIV care

    OpenAIRE

    Kukafka, Rita; Millery, Mari; Chan, Connie; LaRock, William; Bakken, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial counselors have a vital and challenging role in supporting persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH/A) to better manage their disease. However, gaps in training, education, and skills limit the effectiveness of counselors’ efforts. We propose that the use of a decision-support tool for counselors at the point of care can support them in their work as well as help alleviate many training and practice gaps. Decision-support tools aimed at reducing knowledge and practice gaps are used ext...

  5. Purification and immunochemical properties of Escherichia coli B polysaccharide cross-reacting with Salmonella typhi Vi antigen: preliminary evidence for cross-reaction of the polysaccharide with Escherichia coli K1 antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Szewczyk, B; Taylor, A

    1983-01-01

    An acidic polysaccharide of Escherichia coli B was isolated by a mild procedure and purified to homogeneity. The polysaccharide was found to react in Salmonella typhi Vi antisera and E. coli K1 antisera. Serological analysis and preliminary chemical characterization of the polysaccharide indicated that it is an aminouronic acid polymer which, although not structurally identical to either Vi or K1, appears more like the Vi antigen, both immunochemically and chemically.

  6. 基于证据支持矩阵的特征权重融合的风电机组故障诊断%Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Based on Feature Weight Fusion Method with Evidence Support Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国初; 苗锐; 徐余法

    2012-01-01

    In view of uncertainty, complexity and diversity in the fault characteristics of the wind power unit's gearbox, a method of feature weight fusion based on evidence support matrix is proposed to construct the model. Two factors, the conflict coefficient and evidence distance, are analyzed, which affect the evidence conflict. An evidence support matrix is constructed. The char- acteristic vector related to the maximum eigenvalue of the matrix is calculated as an evidence weight. The evidence weights are fused using the evidence combination formula. The method is applied to fault diagnosis of a wind turbine gearbox. The results show that the proposed method can enhance efficiency and accuracy of the fault diagnosis of wind turbine gearbox.%针对风电机组齿轮箱故障特征的不确定性、复杂性和多元性的特点,提出基于证据支持矩阵特征权重的融合新方法,建立故障诊断模型。分析了影响证据冲突的冲突因子和证据距离,利用这两个因子构造证据支持度矩阵;求解了该证据支持度矩阵最大特征值对应的特征向量,并将此作为证据的权重,利用证据组合公式进行融合;最后将其用于风电机组齿轮箱故障诊断。实验结果表明,该方法可较好提高风电机组齿轮箱故障诊断的效率和准确率。

  7. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  8. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  9. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support Evidence-Based Practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on EBM courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, N.I.R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Sluiter, J.K.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs) to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores

  10. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support Evidence-Based Practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on EBM courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, N.I.R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Sluiter, J.K.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs) to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores th

  11. Assessing Social Validity of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Plans: Evidence for the Reliability and Structure of the Primary Intervention Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Driscoll, Steven A.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence for the reliability and structural validity of scores from the Primary Intervention Rating Scale (Lane, Robertson, & Wehby, 2002), an adapted version of the Intervention Rating Profile-15 (Witt & Elliott, 1985) designed to assess faculty's perceptions of social validity of primary prevention plans prior…

  12. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support Evidence-Based Practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on EBM courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.I.R. Hugenholtz; K. Nieuwenhuijsen; J.K. Sluiter; F.J.H. van Dijk

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs) to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores th

  13. The management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome : an analysis of the evidence to support the development of global WHO guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, Adam H; Morley, Lara C; Misso, Marie; Franks, Stephen; Legro, Richard S; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Fauser, Bart C J M; Norman, Robert J; Teede, Helena

    BACKGROUND: Here we describe the consensus guideline methodology, summarise the evidence-based recommendations we provided to the World Health Organisation (WHO) for their consideration in the development of global guidance and present a narrative review on the management of anovulatory infertility

  14. The management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome : an analysis of the evidence to support the development of global WHO guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, Adam H; Morley, Lara C; Misso, Marie; Franks, Stephen; Legro, Richard S; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Fauser, Bart C J M; Norman, Robert J; Teede, Helena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Here we describe the consensus guideline methodology, summarise the evidence-based recommendations we provided to the World Health Organisation (WHO) for their consideration in the development of global guidance and present a narrative review on the management of anovulatory infertility

  15. Evidence synthesis and decision modelling t