WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary estimates show

  1. Preliminary cost estimating for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpar, I.V.; Soltz, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry has higher costs for personnel, equipment, construction, and engineering than conventional industry, which means that cost estimation procedures may need adjustment. The authors account for the special technical and labor requirements of the nuclear industry in making adjustments to equipment and installation cost estimations. Using illustrative examples, they show that conventional methods of preliminary cost estimation are flexible enough for application to emerging industries if their cost structure is similar to that of the process industries. If not, modifications can provide enough engineering and cost data for a statistical analysis. 9 references, 14 figures, 4 tables

  2. On Preliminary Test Estimator for Median

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Takeo; 岡崎, 威生

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss about estimation of median with a preliminary test. Two procedures are presented, one uses Median test and the other uses Wilcoxon two-sample test for the preliminary test. Sections 3 and 4 give mathematical formulations of such properties, including mean square errors with one specified case. Section 5 discusses their optimal significance levels of the preliminary test and proposes their numerical values by Monte Carlo method. In addition to mea...

  3. Preliminary Estimation of Kappa Parameter in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko, Davor; Markušić, Snježana; Ivančić, Ines; Mario, Gazdek; Gülerce, Zeynep

    2017-12-01

    Spectral parameter kappa κ is used to describe spectral amplitude decay “crash syndrome” at high frequencies. The purpose of this research is to estimate spectral parameter kappa for the first time in Croatia based on small and moderate earthquakes. Recordings of local earthquakes with magnitudes higher than 3, epicentre distances less than 150 km, and focal depths less than 30 km from seismological stations in Croatia are used. The value of kappa was estimated from the acceleration amplitude spectrum of shear waves from the slope of the high-frequency part where the spectrum starts to decay rapidly to a noise floor. Kappa models as a function of a site and distance were derived from a standard linear regression of kappa-distance dependence. Site kappa was determined from the extrapolation of the regression line to a zero distance. The preliminary results of site kappa across Croatia are promising. In this research, these results are compared with local site condition parameters for each station, e.g. shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m from geophysical measurements and with existing global shear wave velocity - site kappa values. Spatial distribution of individual kappa’s is compared with the azimuthal distribution of earthquake epicentres. These results are significant for a couple of reasons: to extend the knowledge of the attenuation of near-surface crust layers of the Dinarides and to provide additional information on the local earthquake parameters for updating seismic hazard maps of studied area. Site kappa can be used in the re-creation, and re-calibration of attenuation of peak horizontal and/or vertical acceleration in the Dinarides area since information on the local site conditions were not included in the previous studies.

  4. Preliminary ITER cost and schedule estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The cost, manpower requirements, and schedule estimates for the realization of the ITER tokamak have been studied during the Conceptual Design Activities, as a result of work by the ITER Management Committee. This work was completed during the January-March, 1990 joint work session, and is presented in this report. A possible schedule shows completion of the engineering design phase in 1995, with 180 professionals, at a cost of about $250M. The construction would be completed in 2004 with a rise in professional staff to 300, and a total cost of $4900M. The machine would be operable over an 18-year period, at an annual operating cost averaging $290M. 2 figs

  5. Preliminary Cost Estimates for Nuclear Hydrogen Production: HTSE System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    KAERI is now focusing on the research and development of the key technologies required for the design and realization of a nuclear hydrogen production system. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GTMHR and PBMR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4-ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production of HTSE (High Temperature Steam Electrolysis) process with VHTR (Very High Temperature nuclear Reactor) as a thermal energy source. The estimated costs presented in this paper show that hydrogen production by the VHTR could be competitive with current techniques of hydrogen production from fossil fuels if CO 2 capture and sequestration is required. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow large-scale production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding the release of CO 2 . Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The major factors that would affect the cost of hydrogen were also discussed

  6. Community males show multiple-perpetrator rape proclivity: development and preliminary validation of an interest scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Wood, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The literature on Multiple Perpetrator Rape (MPR) is scant; however, a significant proportion of sexual offending involves multiple perpetrators. In addition to the need for research with apprehended offenders of MPR, there is also a need to conduct research with members of the general public. Recent advances in the forensic literature have led to the development of self-report proclivity scales. These scales have enabled researchers to conduct evaluative studies sampling from members of the general public who may be perpetrators of sexual offenses and have remained undetected, or at highest risk of engaging in sexual offending. The current study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Multiple-Perpetrator Rape Interest Scale (M-PRIS), a vignette-based measure assessing community males' sexual arousal to MPR, behavioral propensity toward MPR and enjoyment of MPR. The findings show that the M-PRIS is a reliable measure of community males' sexual interest in MPR with high internal reliability and temporal stability. In a sample of university males we found that a large proportion (66%) did not emphatically reject an interest in MPR. We also found that rape-supportive cognitive distortions, antisocial attitudes, and high-risk sexual fantasies were predictors of sexual interest in MPR. We discuss these findings and the implications for further research employing proclivity measures referencing theory development and clinical practice.

  7. Preliminary Analyses Showed Short-Term Mental Health Improvements after a Single-Day Manager Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Elena; Schiller, Birgitta; Mörtl, Kathrin; Gündel, Harald; Hölzer, Michael

    2018-01-10

    Psychosocial working conditions attract more and more attention when it comes to mental health in the workplace. Trying to support managers to deal with their own as well as their employees' psychological risk factors, we conducted a specific manager training. Within this investigation, we wanted to learn about the training's effects and acceptance. A single-day manager training was provided in a large industrial company in Germany. The participants were asked to fill out questionnaires regarding their own physical and mental health condition as well as their working situation. Questionnaires were distributed at baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up. At this point of time the investigation is still ongoing. The current article focuses on short-term preliminary effects. Analyses only included participants that already completed baseline and three months follow-up. Preliminary results from three-month follow-up survey ( n = 33, nmale = 30, Mage = 47.5) indicated positive changes in the manager's mental health condition measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9: Mt1 = 3.82, Mt2 = 3.15). Training managers about common mental disorders and risk factors at the workplace within a single-day workshop seems to promote positive effects on their own mental health. Especially working with the managers on their own early stress symptoms might have been an important element.

  8. Cost analysis of small hydroelectric power plants components and preliminary estimation of global cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, C.; Olive, W.J.; Antunes, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of cost for each components of Small Hydroelectric Power Plant, taking into account the real costs of these projects is shown. It also presents a global equation which allows a preliminary estimation of cost for each construction. (author)

  9. Plant Distribution Data Show Broader Climatic Limits than Expert-Based Climatic Tolerance Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A Curtis

    Full Text Available Although increasingly sophisticated environmental measures are being applied to species distributions models, the focus remains on using climatic data to provide estimates of habitat suitability. Climatic tolerance estimates based on expert knowledge are available for a wide range of plants via the USDA PLANTS database. We aim to test how climatic tolerance inferred from plant distribution records relates to tolerance estimated by experts. Further, we use this information to identify circumstances when species distributions are more likely to approximate climatic tolerance.We compiled expert knowledge estimates of minimum and maximum precipitation and minimum temperature tolerance for over 1800 conservation plant species from the 'plant characteristics' information in the USDA PLANTS database. We derived climatic tolerance from distribution data downloaded from the Global Biodiversity and Information Facility (GBIF and corresponding climate from WorldClim. We compared expert-derived climatic tolerance to empirical estimates to find the difference between their inferred climate niches (ΔCN, and tested whether ΔCN was influenced by growth form or range size.Climate niches calculated from distribution data were significantly broader than expert-based tolerance estimates (Mann-Whitney p values << 0.001. The average plant could tolerate 24 mm lower minimum precipitation, 14 mm higher maximum precipitation, and 7° C lower minimum temperatures based on distribution data relative to expert-based tolerance estimates. Species with larger ranges had greater ΔCN for minimum precipitation and minimum temperature. For maximum precipitation and minimum temperature, forbs and grasses tended to have larger ΔCN while grasses and trees had larger ΔCN for minimum precipitation.Our results show that distribution data are consistently broader than USDA PLANTS experts' knowledge and likely provide more robust estimates of climatic tolerance, especially for

  10. Preliminary evaluation of vector flow and spectral velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    Spectral estimation is considered as the golden standard in ultrasound velocity estimation. For spectral velocity estimation the blood flow angle is set by the ultrasound operator. Vector flow provides temporal and spatial estimates of the blood flow angle and velocity. A comparison of vector flow...... line covering the vessel diameter. A commercial ultrasound scanner (ProFocus 2202, BK Medical, Denmark) and a 7.6 MHz linear transducer was used (8670, BK Medical). The mean vector blood flow angle estimations were calculated {52(18);55(23);60(16)}°. For comparison the fixed angles for spectral...... estimation were obtained {52;56;52}°. The mean vector velocity estimates at PS {76(15);95(17);77(16)}cm/s and at end diastole (ED) {17(6);18(6);24(6)}cm/s were calculated. For comparison spectral velocity estimates at PS {77;110;76}cm/s and ED {18;18;20}cm/s were obtained. The mean vector angle estimates...

  11. Benefits of dynamic mobility applications : preliminary estimates from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This white paper examines the available quantitative information on the potential mobility benefits of the connected vehicle Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA). This work will be refined as more and better estimates of benefits from mobility applica...

  12. Preliminary Estimate of Gypsum Deposit Based on Wenner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogara M. D. and Aloa J. O.

    estimating the quantity of some possible deposits of gypsum. Just ... exploitation is an everyday activity that is currently going on, but, on a 'wild cat' ... important source of wealth for a nation, but before they are harnessed ..... REFERENCES.

  13. Preliminary estimate of CO2 budget discharged from Vulcano island

    OpenAIRE

    Inguaggiato, S.; Mazot, A.; Diliberto, I. S.; Rowet, D.; Vita, F.; Capasso, G.; Bobrowski, N.; Inguaggiato, C.; Grassa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Total CO2 output from fumaroles, soil gases, bubbling and water dissolved gases were estimated at Vulcano Island, Italy. The fumaroles output has been estimated from SO2 plume flux, while soil flux emission has been carried out through 730 CO2 fluxes measured on the island surface, performed by means of accumulation chamber method. Vulcano Island, located in the Aeolian Archipelago, is an active volcano that has been in state of solphataric activity, since the last eruption (1888-1890). At p...

  14. A preliminary model for estimating the first wall lifetime of a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daenner, W.

    1975-02-01

    The estimation of the first wall lifetime is a necessary basis for predicting the availability of a fusion power plant. In order to do this, an analytical model was prepared and programmed for the computer which calculates the temperature and stress load of the first wall from the principal design parameters and quotes them against the relevant material properties. Neither the analytical model nor the information about the material performance is yet complete so that the answers obtained from the program are very preliminary. This situation is underlined by the results of sample calculations performed for the CTRD blanket module cell. The results obtained for vanadium and vanadium alloys show a strong dependence of the lifetime on the irradiation creep and the ductility of these materials. Completion of this model is envisaged as soon as the missing information becomes available. (orig.) [de

  15. Noise exposure in movie theaters: a preliminary study of sound levels during the showing of 25 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawa, Anna; Sataloff, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The harmful effects of noise exposure during leisure-time activities are beginning to receive some scrutiny. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the noise levels during the showings of 25 different films. During each screening, various sound measurements were made with a dosimeter. The movies were classified on the basis of both their Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and their genre, and the size of the theater and the size of the audience were taken into consideration in the final analysis. Our findings suggest that the sound levels of many movies might be harmful to hearing, although we can draw no definitive conclusions. We did not discern any relationship between noise levels and either MPAA rating or genre. Further studies are recommended.

  16. 12 CFR 611.1250 - Preliminary exit fee estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... independently audited by a qualified public accountant. We may, in our discretion, waive the audit requirement... termination. Related expenses include, but are not limited to, legal services, accounting services, tax... institution and its stockholders. (ii) Subtract the dollar amount of estimated current and deferred tax...

  17. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113: Project cost estimate. Preliminary design report. Volume IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains Volume IV of the Preliminary Design Report for the Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113 which is the Project Cost Estimate and construction schedule. The estimate was developed based upon Title 1 material take-offs, budgetary equipment quotes and Raytheon historical in-house data. The W-113 project cost estimate and project construction schedule were integrated together to provide a resource loaded project network

  18. The estimated cost of "no-shows" in an academic pediatric neurology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Lindsay M; Gentry, Shelley D; Golomb, Meredith R

    2015-02-01

    Missed appointments ("no-shows") represent an important source of lost revenue for academic medical centers. The goal of this study was to examine the costs of "no-shows" at an academic pediatric neurology outpatient clinic. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who missed appointments at an academic pediatric neurology outpatient clinic during 1 academic year. Revenue lost was estimated based on average reimbursement for different insurance types and visit types. The yearly "no-show" rate was 26%. Yearly revenue lost from missed appointments was $257,724.57, and monthly losses ranged from $15,652.33 in October 2013 to $27,042.44 in January 2014. The yearly revenue lost from missed appointments at the academic pediatric neurology clinic represents funds that could have been used to improve patient access and care. Further work is needed to develop strategies to decrease the no-show rate to decrease lost revenue and improve patient care and access. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimating carbon and showing impacts of drought using satellite data in regression-tree models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Danny; Dahal, Devendra; Gilmanov, Tagir G.

    2018-01-01

    Integrating spatially explicit biogeophysical and remotely sensed data into regression-tree models enables the spatial extrapolation of training data over large geographic spaces, allowing a better understanding of broad-scale ecosystem processes. The current study presents annual gross primary production (GPP) and annual ecosystem respiration (RE) for 2000–2013 in several short-statured vegetation types using carbon flux data from towers that are located strategically across the conterminous United States (CONUS). We calculate carbon fluxes (annual net ecosystem production [NEP]) for each year in our study period, which includes 2012 when drought and higher-than-normal temperatures influence vegetation productivity in large parts of the study area. We present and analyse carbon flux dynamics in the CONUS to better understand how drought affects GPP, RE, and NEP. Model accuracy metrics show strong correlation coefficients (r) (r ≥ 94%) between training and estimated data for both GPP and RE. Overall, average annual GPP, RE, and NEP are relatively constant throughout the study period except during 2012 when almost 60% less carbon is sequestered than normal. These results allow us to conclude that this modelling method effectively estimates carbon dynamics through time and allows the exploration of impacts of meteorological anomalies and vegetation types on carbon dynamics.

  20. Preliminary design of offshore wind turbine support structures : The importance of proper mode shape estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Male, P.

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are highly exposed to timevarying loads. For support structures, estimation of the fatigue damage during the lifetime of the structure is an essential design aspect. This already applies for the preliminary design stage. In determining the dynamic amplification in the

  1. Analytical estimation show low depth-independent water loss due to vapor flux from deep aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selker, John S.

    2017-06-01

    Recent articles have provided estimates of evaporative flux from water tables in deserts that span 5 orders of magnitude. In this paper, we present an analytical calculation that indicates aquifer vapor flux to be limited to 0.01 mm/yr for sites where there is negligible recharge and the water table is well over 20 m below the surface. This value arises from the geothermal gradient, and therefore, is nearly independent of the actual depth of the aquifer. The value is in agreement with several numerical studies, but is 500 times lower than recently reported experimental values, and 100 times larger than an earlier analytical estimate.

  2. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  3. A Nonlinear Dynamics-Based Estimator for Functional Electrical Stimulation: Preliminary Results From Lower-Leg Extension Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marcus; Zhong, Qiang; Kirsch, Nicholas; Dani, Ashwin; Clark, William W; Sharma, Nitin

    2017-12-01

    Miniature inertial measurement units (IMUs) are wearable sensors that measure limb segment or joint angles during dynamic movements. However, IMUs are generally prone to drift, external magnetic interference, and measurement noise. This paper presents a new class of nonlinear state estimation technique called state-dependent coefficient (SDC) estimation to accurately predict joint angles from IMU measurements. The SDC estimation method uses limb dynamics, instead of limb kinematics, to estimate the limb state. Importantly, the nonlinear limb dynamic model is formulated into state-dependent matrices that facilitate the estimator design without performing a Jacobian linearization. The estimation method is experimentally demonstrated to predict knee joint angle measurements during functional electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle. The nonlinear knee musculoskeletal model was identified through a series of experiments. The SDC estimator was then compared with an extended kalman filter (EKF), which uses a Jacobian linearization and a rotation matrix method, which uses a kinematic model instead of the dynamic model. Each estimator's performance was evaluated against the true value of the joint angle, which was measured through a rotary encoder. The experimental results showed that the SDC estimator, the rotation matrix method, and EKF had root mean square errors of 2.70°, 2.86°, and 4.42°, respectively. Our preliminary experimental results show the new estimator's advantage over the EKF method but a slight advantage over the rotation matrix method. However, the information from the dynamic model allows the SDC method to use only one IMU to measure the knee angle compared with the rotation matrix method that uses two IMUs to estimate the angle.

  4. Preliminary Estimates of Specific Discharge and Transport Velocities near Borehole NC-EWDP-24PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifeld, Barry; Doughty, Christine; Finsterle, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes fluid electrical conductivity (FEC) and thermal logging data collected in Borehole NC-EWDP-24PB, located approximately 15 km south of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Preliminary analyses of a small fraction of the FEC and temperature data indicate that relatively large, localized fluid fluxes are likely to exist at this location. The implication that considerable flow is induced by small gradients, and that flow is highly localized, is significant for the estimation of groundwater transport velocities and radionuclide travel times. The sensitivity of the data to potential perturbations during testing (i.e., internal wellbore flow in the case of FEC data, and buoyancy effects in the case of thermal logging data) make it difficult to conclusively derive fluid fluxes and transport velocities without a detailed analysis of all data and processes involved. Such a comprehensive analysis has not yet been performed. However, the preliminary results suggest that the ambient component of the estimated flow rates is significant and on the order of liters per minute, yielding groundwater transport velocities in the range of kilometers per year. One particular zone in the Bullfrog tuff exhibits estimated velocities on the order of 10 km/yr. Given that the preliminary estimates of ambient flow rates and transport velocities are relatively high, and considering the potential impact of high rates and velocities on saturated-zone flow and transport behavior, we recommend that a comprehensive analysis of all the available data be performed. Moreover, additional data sets at other locations should be collected to examine whether the current data set is representative of the regional flow system near Yucca Mountain

  5. Preliminary liver dose estimation in the new facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadan, M.; Crawley, V.; Thorp, S.; Miller, M.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the project concerning the irradiation of a section of the human liver left lobe, a preliminary estimation of the expected dose was performed. To obtain proper input values for the calculation, neutron flux and gamma dose rate characterization were carried out using adequate portions of cow or pig liver covered with demineralized water simulating the preservation solution. Irradiations were done inside a container specially designed to fulfill temperature preservation of the organ and a reproducible irradiation position (which will be of importance for future planification purposes). Implantable rhodium based self-powered neutron detectors were developed to obtain neutron flux profiles both external and internal. Implantation of SPND was done along the central longitudinal axis of the samples, where lowest flux is expected. Gamma dose rate was obtained using a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber moved along external surfaces of the samples. The internal neutron profile resulted uniform enough to allow for a single and static irradiation of the liver. For dose estimation, irradiation condition was set in order to obtain a maximum of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. Additionally, literature reported boron concentrations of 47 ppm in tumor and 8 ppm in healthy tissue and a more conservative relationship (30/10 ppm) were used. To make a conservative estimation of the dose the following considerations were done: (i).Minimum measured neutron flux inside the sample (∼5x10 9 n cm -2 s -1 ) was considered to calculate dose in tumor. (ii).Maximum measured neutron flux (considering both internal as external profiles) was used to calculate dose in healthy tissue (∼8.7x10 9 n cm -2 s -1 ). (iii).Maximum measured gamma dose rate (∼13.5 Gy h -1 ) was considered for both tumor and healthy tissue. Tumor tissue dose was ∼69 Gy-eq for 47 ppm of 10 B and ∼42 Gy-eq for 30 ppm, for a maximum dose of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. As can be seen from these results

  6. Experiments, conceptual design, preliminary cost estimates and schedules for an underground research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbin, G.; Wollenberg, H.; Wilson, C.; Strisower, B.; Chan, T.; Wedge, D.

    1981-09-01

    Plans for an underground research facility are presented, incorporating techniques to assess the hydrological and thermomechanical response of a rock mass to the introduction and long-term isolation of radioactive waste, and to assess the effects of excavation on the hydrologic integrity of a repository and its subsequent backfill, plugging, and sealing. The project is designed to utilize existing mine or civil works for access to experimental areas and is estimated to last 8 years at a total cost for contruction and operation of $39.0 million (1981 dollars). Performing the same experiments in an existing underground research facility would reduce the duration to 7-1/2 years and cost $27.7 million as a lower-bound estimate. These preliminary plans and estimates should be revised after specific sites are identified which would accommodate the facility

  7. Gas geochemistry and preliminary CO2 output estimation from the island of Kos (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Longo, Manfredi; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Gagliano, Antonina Lisa

    2017-04-01

    Several gas samples have been collected from natural gas manifestations at the island of Kos. Most of them are found underwater along the southern coast of the island. On land two anomalous degassing areas have been recognized. These are characterised by lack of vegetation and after long dry periods by the presence of sulfate salts efflorescences. Almost all the gases are CO2-dominated (CO2 ranging from 88 to 99%) with minor amounts of N2 (up to 7%) and CH4 (up to 2.6%). Only the on-land manifestations have also significant contents of H2 (up to 0.2%) and H2S (up to 0.3%). Only one underwater manifestation is N2-dominated (61-99%) with CH4 (0.6-11%) and low CO2 (0.1-26%). The isotopic composition of He shows values ranging from 0.84 to 6.72 R/RA indicating a sometimes strong mantle contribution with the highest values measured in two of the most strongly degassing areas (Paradise Beach and Volcania). C-isotopic composition of CO2 is in the range from -3.6 to 0.6 ‰ vs V-PDB with most of the values around -1‰ indicating a mixed mantle - limestones origin. Isotopic composition of CH4, ranging from -21.5 to 2.8‰ for C and from -143 to 36‰ for H, points to a geothermal origin with sometimes evident secondary oxidation processes. CO2-flux measurements showed values up to about 10,000 g/m2/day in the areas of Volcania and Kokkino Nero and up to about 50,000 g/m2/day at Paradise beach. Preliminary CO2 output estimations gave values of 8.8 and 4 tons/day for the first two areas respectively and of 2.7 tons/day for the latter. The total output of the island (15.5 tons/day) should be considered a minimum estimation because of the incomplete coverage of the area and is comparable to the other active volcanic/geothermal systems of Greece (Nisyros, Nea Kameni and Methana).

  8. Preliminary estimates of cost savings for defense high level waste vitrification options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.

    1993-09-01

    The potential for realizing cost savings in the disposal of defense high-level waste through process and design modificatins has been considered. Proposed modifications range from simple changes in the canister design to development of an advanced melter capable of processing glass with a higher waste loading. Preliminary calculations estimate the total disposal cost (not including capital or operating costs) for defense high-level waste to be about $7.9 billion dollars for the reference conditions described in this paper, while projected savings resulting from the proposed process and design changes could reduce the disposal cost of defense high-level waste by up to $5.2 billion

  9. Preliminary comparative estimate of the environmental externalities of the electrical generation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtos Carbonell, L.

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the externalises associated with the electrical generation and fundamentally its atmospherically environmental impact, win greater importance nowadays, with the objective that to medium term these could be incorporated into the economy of electricity production as the surest way to reduce this impact. In the work is accomplished a comparative preliminary estimate of the externalises of the electrical generation in Cuba based in the results obtained in the External Project (Externalises of Energy) and the emissions of the domestic Power Plant. Different processes to reduce these emissions are proposed. The economic feasibility of installing Abatement Emissions Technologies based on the calculated externalises is analyzed

  10. DEMO maintenance scenarios: scheme for time estimations and preliminary estimates for blankets arranged in multi-module-segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, D.

    2007-01-01

    Previous conceptual studies made clear that the ITER blanket concept and segmentation is not suitable for the environment of a potential fusion power plant (DEMO). One promising concept to be used instead is the so-called Multi-Module-Segment (MMS) concept. Each MMS consists of a number of blankets arranged on a strong back plate thus forming ''banana'' shaped in-board (IB) and out-board (OB) segments. With respect to port size, weight, or other limiting aspects the IB and OB MMS are segmented in toroidal direction. The number of segments to be replaced would be below 100. For this segmentation concept a new maintenance scenario had to be worked out. The aim of this paper is to present a promising MMS maintenance scenario, a flexible scheme for time estimations under varying boundary conditions and preliminary time estimates. According to the proposed scenario two upper, vertical arranged maintenance ports have to be opened for blanket maintenance on opposite sides of the tokamak. Both ports are central to a 180 degree sector and the MMS are removed and inserted through both ports. In-vessel machines are operating to transport the elements in toroidal direction and also to insert and attach the MMS to the shield. Outside the vessel the elements have to be transported between the tokamak and the hot cell to be refurbished. Calculating the maintenance time for such a scenario is rather challenging due to the numerous parallel processes involved. For this reason a flexible, multi-level calculation scheme has been developed in which the operations are organized into three levels: At the lowest level the basic maintenance steps are determined. These are organized into maintenance sequences that take into account parallelisms in the system. Several maintenance sequences constitute the maintenance phases which correspond to a certain logistics scenario. By adding the required times of the maintenance phases the total maintenance time is obtained. The paper presents

  11. A Preliminary Comparison of Motor Learning Across Different Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Paradigms Shows No Consistent Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Lopez-Alonso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1 on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI. We compared anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, paired associative stimulation (PAS25, and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, along with a sham tDCS control condition. Stimulation was applied prior to motor learning. Participants (n = 28 were randomized into one of the four groups and were trained on a skilled motor task. Motor learning was measured immediately after training (online, 1 day after training (consolidation, and 1 week after training (retention. We did not find consistent differential effects on motor learning or cortical excitability across groups. Within the boundaries of our small sample sizes, we then assessed effect sizes across the NIBS groups that could help power future studies. These results, which require replication with larger samples, are consistent with previous reports of small and variable effect sizes of these interventions on motor learning.

  12. A Preliminary Comparison of Motor Learning Across Different Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Paradigms Shows No Consistent Modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Liew, Sook-Lei; Fernández del Olmo, Miguel; Cheeran, Binith; Sandrini, Marco; Abe, Mitsunari; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1) on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task) and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI). We compared anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), paired associative stimulation (PAS25), and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), along with a sham tDCS control condition. Stimulation was applied prior to motor learning. Participants (n = 28) were randomized into one of the four groups and were trained on a skilled motor task. Motor learning was measured immediately after training (online), 1 day after training (consolidation), and 1 week after training (retention). We did not find consistent differential effects on motor learning or cortical excitability across groups. Within the boundaries of our small sample sizes, we then assessed effect sizes across the NIBS groups that could help power future studies. These results, which require replication with larger samples, are consistent with previous reports of small and variable effect sizes of these interventions on motor learning. PMID:29740271

  13. Application of Boosting Regression Trees to Preliminary Cost Estimation in Building Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonseok Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the recent data mining techniques available, the boosting approach has attracted a great deal of attention because of its effective learning algorithm and strong boundaries in terms of its generalization performance. However, the boosting approach has yet to be used in regression problems within the construction domain, including cost estimations, but has been actively utilized in other domains. Therefore, a boosting regression tree (BRT is applied to cost estimations at the early stage of a construction project to examine the applicability of the boosting approach to a regression problem within the construction domain. To evaluate the performance of the BRT model, its performance was compared with that of a neural network (NN model, which has been proven to have a high performance in cost estimation domains. The BRT model has shown results similar to those of NN model using 234 actual cost datasets of a building construction project. In addition, the BRT model can provide additional information such as the importance plot and structure model, which can support estimators in comprehending the decision making process. Consequently, the boosting approach has potential applicability in preliminary cost estimations in a building construction project.

  14. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF ESTIMATING SOIL MOISTURE OVER BARE SOIL USING FULL-POLARIMETRIC ALOS-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sekertekin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imaging system is one of the most effective way for Earth observation. The aim of this study is to present the preliminary results about estimating soil moisture using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data. Full-polarimetric (HH, HV, VV, VH ALOS-2 data, acquired on 22.04.2016 with the incidence angle of 30.4o, were used in the study. Simultaneously with the SAR acquisition, in-situ soil moisture samples over bare agricultural lands were collected and evaluated using gravimetric method. Backscattering coefficients for all polarizations were obtained and linear regression analysis was carried out with in situ moisture measurements. The best correlation coefficient was observed with VV polarization. Cross-polarized backscattering coefficients were not so sensitive to soil moisture content. In the study, it was observed that soil moisture maps can be retrieved with the accuracy about 14% (RMSE.

  15. Antenatal surveillance through estimates of the sources underlying the abdominal phonogram: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-González, A; James, C J

    2013-01-01

    Today, it is generally accepted that current methods for biophysical antenatal surveillance do not facilitate a comprehensive and reliable assessment of foetal well-being and that continuing research into alternative methods is necessary to improve antenatal monitoring procedures. In our research, attention has been paid to the abdominal phonogram, a signal that is recorded by positioning an acoustic sensor on the maternal womb and contains valuable information about foetal status, but which is hidden by maternal and environmental sources. To recover such information, previous work has used single-channel independent component analysis (SCICA) on the abdominal phonogram and successfully retrieved estimates of the foetal phonocardiogram, the maternal phonocardiogram, the maternal respirogram and noise. The availability of these estimates made it possible for the current study to focus on their evaluation as sources for antenatal surveillance purposes. To this end, the foetal heart rate (FHR), the foetal heart sounds morphology, the maternal heart rate (MHR) and the maternal breathing rate (MBR) were collected from the estimates retrieved from a dataset of 25 abdominal phonograms. Next, these parameters were compared with reference values to quantify the significance of the physiological information extracted from the estimates. As a result, it has been seen that the instantaneous FHR, the instantaneous MHR and the MBR collected from the estimates consistently followed the trends given by the reference signals, which is a promising outcome for this preliminary study. Thus, as far as this study has gone, it can be said that the independent traces retrieved by SCICA from the abdominal phonogram are likely to become valuable sources of information for well-being surveillance, both foetal and maternal. (paper)

  16. Preliminary Results from Powell Research Group on Integrating GRACE Satellite and Ground-based Estimates of Groundwater Storage Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Reitz, M.; Rodell, M.; Sanford, W. E.; Save, H.; Wiese, D. N.; Croteau, M. J.; McGuire, V. L.; Pool, D. R.; Faunt, C. C.; Zell, W.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater storage depletion is a critical issue for many of the major aquifers in the U.S., particularly during intense droughts. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite-based estimates of groundwater storage changes have attracted considerable media attention in the U.S. and globally and interest in GRACE products continues to increase. For this reason, a Powell Research Group was formed to: (1) Assess variations in groundwater storage using a variety of GRACE products and other storage components (snow, surface water, and soil moisture) for major aquifers in the U.S., (2) Quantify long-term trends in groundwater storage from ground-based monitoring and regional and national modeling, and (3) Use ground-based monitoring and modeling to interpret GRACE water storage changes within the context of extreme droughts and over-exploitation of groundwater. The group now has preliminary estimates from long-term trends and seasonal fluctuations in water storage using different GRACE solutions, including CSR, JPL and GSFC. Approaches to quantifying uncertainties in GRACE data are included. This work also shows how GRACE sees groundwater depletion in unconfined versus confined aquifers, and plans for future work will link GRACE data to regional groundwater models. The wealth of ground-based observations for the U.S. provides a unique opportunity to assess the reliability of GRACE-based estimates of groundwater storage changes.

  17. FN-curves: preliminary estimation of severe accident risks after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: soaresw@cdtn.br, E-mail: aclc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Doubts of whether the risks related to severe accidents in nuclear reactors are indeed very low were raised after the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in 2011. Risk estimations of severe accidents in nuclear power plants involve both probability and consequence assessment of such events. Among the ways to display risks, risk curves are tools that express the frequency of exceeding a certain magnitude of consequence. Societal risk is often represented graphically in a FN-curve, a type of risk curve, which displays the probability of having N or more fatalities per year, as a function of N, on a double logarithmic scale. The FN-curve, originally introduced for the assessment of the risks in the nuclear industry through the U.S.NRC Reactor Safety Study WASH-1400 (1975), is used in various countries to express and limit risks of hazardous activities. This first study estimated an expected rate of core damage equal to 5x10{sup -5} by reactor-year and suggested an upper bound of 3x10{sup -4} by reactor-year. A more recent report issued by Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI (2008) estimates a figure of the order of 2x10{sup -5} by reactor-year. The Fukushima nuclear accident apparently implies that the observed core damage frequency is higher than that predicted by these probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, this paper presents a preliminary analyses of the FN-curves related to severe nuclear reactor accidents, taking into account a combination of available data of past accidents, probability modelling to estimate frequencies, and expert judgments. (author)

  18. FN-curves: preliminary estimation of severe accident risks after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da

    2015-01-01

    Doubts of whether the risks related to severe accidents in nuclear reactors are indeed very low were raised after the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in 2011. Risk estimations of severe accidents in nuclear power plants involve both probability and consequence assessment of such events. Among the ways to display risks, risk curves are tools that express the frequency of exceeding a certain magnitude of consequence. Societal risk is often represented graphically in a FN-curve, a type of risk curve, which displays the probability of having N or more fatalities per year, as a function of N, on a double logarithmic scale. The FN-curve, originally introduced for the assessment of the risks in the nuclear industry through the U.S.NRC Reactor Safety Study WASH-1400 (1975), is used in various countries to express and limit risks of hazardous activities. This first study estimated an expected rate of core damage equal to 5x10 -5 by reactor-year and suggested an upper bound of 3x10 -4 by reactor-year. A more recent report issued by Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI (2008) estimates a figure of the order of 2x10 -5 by reactor-year. The Fukushima nuclear accident apparently implies that the observed core damage frequency is higher than that predicted by these probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, this paper presents a preliminary analyses of the FN-curves related to severe nuclear reactor accidents, taking into account a combination of available data of past accidents, probability modelling to estimate frequencies, and expert judgments. (author)

  19. Preliminary estimations on the heat recovery method for hydrogen production by the high temperature steam electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Duck Joo

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the project 'development of hydrogen production technologies by high temperature electrolysis using very high temperature reactor', we have developed an electrolyzer model for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) system and carried out some preliminary estimations on the effects of heat recovery on the HTSE hydrogen production system. To produce massive hydrogen by using nuclear energy, the HTSE process is one of the promising technologies with sulfur-iodine and hybrid sulfur process. The HTSE produces hydrogen through electrochemical reaction within the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), which is a reverse reaction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The HTSE system generally operates in the temperature range of 700∼900 .deg. C. Advantages of HTSE hydrogen production are (a) clean hydrogen production from water without carbon oxide emission, (b) synergy effect due to using the current SOFC technology and (c) higher thermal efficiency of system when it is coupled nuclear reactor. Since the HTSE system operates over 700 .deg. C, the use of heat recovery is an important consideration for higher efficiency. In this paper, four different heat recovery configurations for the HTSE system have been investigated and estimated

  20. Non-invasive approach towards the in vivo estimation of 3D inter-vertebral movements: methods and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveri, P; Pedotti, A; Ferrigno, G

    2004-12-01

    A kinematical model of the lower spine was designed and used to obtain a robust estimation of the vertebral rotations during torso movements from skin-surface markers recorded by video-cameras. Markers were placed in correspondence of the anatomical landmarks of the pelvic bone and vertebral spinous and transverse processes, and acquired during flexion, lateral bending and axial motions. In the model calibration stage, a motion-based approach was used to compute the rotation axes and centres of the functional segmental units. Markers were mirrored into virtual points located on the model surface, expressed in the local reference system of coordinates. The spine motion assessment was solved into the domain of extended Kalman filters: at each frame of the acquisition, the model pose was updated by minimizing the distances between the measured 2D marker projections on the cameras and the corresponding back-projections of virtual points located on the model surface. The novelty of the proposed technique rests on the fact that the varying location of the rotation centres of the functional segmental units can be tracked directly during motion computation. In addition, we show how the effects of skin artefacts on orientation data can be taken into account. As a result, the kinematical estimation of simulated motions shows that orientation artefacts were reduced by a factor of at least 50%. Preliminary experiments on real motion confirmed the reliability of the proposed method with results in agreement with classical studies in literature.

  1. Preliminary experiments to estimate the PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) offshore behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Marta; Piermattei, Viviana; Stefanì, Chiara; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The phytoplankton community is controlled not only by local environmental conditions but also by physical processes occurring on different temporal and spatial scales. Hydrodynamic local conditions play an important role in marine ecosystems. Several studies have shown that hydrodynamic conditions can influence the phytoplankton settling velocity, vertical and horizontal distribution and formation of cyanobacterial blooms. Mesocosms are useful structures to simulate marine environment at mesoscale resolution; allowing to closely approximate biotic or abiotic parameters of interest directly in nature. In this work an innovative structure named PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) is presented and tested. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to observe seasonal variations of biomass behaviour in two different hydrodynamic conditions: outside as well as whithin the PE.MA.M. We have evaluated whether it is possible to isolate a natural system from external water mass hydrodynamic exchanges and to assume that phytoplankton cells' transition is limited at the net and sea interface. Preliminary experiments test the isolating capacity of the net, to determine the currents' attenuation rate and to estimate the possible PE.MA.M. offshore behaviour. In the first investigation, we monitored the diffusion of phytoplankton cells. The PE.MA.M. exterior and interior were simulated using a plexiglass tank divided into two half-tanks (Aout-Bin) by a septum consisting of a net like a PE.MA.M. The tank was filled up with 10 L of water and only the half-tank Aout was filled up with 10 ml of phytoplankton culture (Clorella sp.). We monitored the chlorophyll concentrations for 24 hours. The two tanks had similar concentrations after 4 hours (2.70322 mg/m³ Aout and 2.37245 mg/m3 Bin) and this constant relationship was maintened until the end of the test. In the second investigation we used clod cards to measure water motions.We conducted two experiments within tank, the first

  2. Preliminary estimation of minimum target dose in intracavitary radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Oishi-Tanaka, Yumiko; Sugahara, Shinji; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2001-08-01

    In intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT) for cervical cancer, minimum target dose (D{sub min}) will pertain to local disease control more directly than will reference point A dose (D{sub A}). However, ICRT has been performed traditionally without specifying D{sub min} since the target volume was not identified. We have estimated D{sub min} retrospectively by identifying tumors using magnetic resonance (MR) images. Pre- and posttreatment MR images of 31 patients treated with high-dose-rate ICRT were used. ICRT was performed once weekly at 6.0 Gy D{sub A}, and involved 2-5 insertions for each patient, 119 insertions in total. D{sub min} was calculated arbitrarily simply at the point A level using the tumor width (W{sub A}) to compare with D{sub A}. W{sub A} at each insertion was estimated by regression analysis with pre- and posttreatment W{sub A}. D{sub min} for each insertion varied from 3.0 to 46.0 Gy, a 16-fold difference. The ratio of total D{sub min} to total D{sub A} for each patient varied from 0.5 to 6.5. Intrapatient D{sub min} difference between the initial insertion and final insertion varied from 1.1 to 3.4. Preliminary estimation revealed that D{sub min} varies widely under generic dose prescription. Thorough D{sub min} specification will be realized when ICRT-applicator insertion is performed under MR imaging. (author)

  3. Circumpolar assessment of rhizosphere priming shows limited increase in carbon loss estimates for permafrost soils but large regional variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, B.; Keuper, F.; Kummu, M.; Beer, C.; Blume-Werry, G.; Fontaine, S.; Gavazov, K.; Gentsch, N.; Guggenberger, G.; Hugelius, G.; Jalava, M.; Koven, C.; Krab, E. J.; Kuhry, P.; Monteux, S.; Richter, A.; Shazhad, T.; Dorrepaal, E.

    2017-12-01

    Predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) losses in the northern circumpolar permafrost area converge around 15% (± 3% standard error) of the initial C pool by 2100 under the RCP 8.5 warming scenario. Yet, none of these estimates consider plant-soil interactions such as the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE). While laboratory experiments have shown that the input of plant-derived compounds can stimulate SOC losses by up to 1200%, the magnitude of RPE in natural ecosystems is unknown and no methods for upscaling exist so far. We here present the first spatial and depth explicit RPE model that allows estimates of RPE on a large scale (PrimeSCale). We combine available spatial data (SOC, C/N, GPP, ALT and ecosystem type) and new ecological insights to assess the importance of the RPE at the circumpolar scale. We use a positive saturating relationship between the RPE and belowground C allocation and two ALT-dependent rooting-depth distribution functions (for tundra and boreal forest) to proportionally assign belowground C allocation and RPE to individual soil depth increments. The model permits to take into account reasonable limiting factors on additional SOC losses by RPE including interactions between spatial and/or depth variation in GPP, plant root density, SOC stocks and ALT. We estimate potential RPE-induced SOC losses at 9.7 Pg C (5 - 95% CI: 1.5 - 23.2 Pg C) by 2100 (RCP 8.5). This corresponds to an increase of the current permafrost SOC-loss estimate from 15% of the initial C pool to about 16%. If we apply an additional molar C/N threshold of 20 to account for microbial C limitation as a requirement for the RPE, SOC losses by RPE are further reduced to 6.5 Pg C (5 - 95% CI: 1.0 - 16.8 Pg C) by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Although our results show that current estimates of permafrost soil C losses are robust without taking into account the RPE, our model also highlights high-RPE risk in Siberian lowland areas and Alaska north of the Brooks Range. The small overall impact of

  4. Preliminary radiological consequence estimates for a reference LEU core for PARR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Khan, L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiological consequence analysis of a reference LEU core for Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR) has been carried out using mathematical models. It was assumed that 20% of the fuel, having an average burn-up of 50% achieved by continuously operating the reactor for 300 days at 10 MW, fails. It was further assumed that 100% of the noble gases and a fraction of iodine are released. Three modes of leakage from reactor building have been considered. These are exhaust through the normal ventilation system, through emergency ventilation system and leakage from the building. The whole body and thyroid doses have been calculated for 2 hours and 30 days at the boundaries of the exclusion zone at 450m and the low population zone at 1000m. For the releases at stack height through normal and emergency ventilation system, doses at both the boundaries remain within emergency dose limits of 300 rem for thyroid and 25 rem for the whole body. However, in the case of direct release from the containment building, the limiting thyroid dose of 300 rem, at 1000m, for 30 days exposure is achieved for a leak rate of 27% per day under Pasquill condition E. The results presented in this report are only preliminary estimates. A more accurate detailed analysis for various burnups will be carried out using standard computer codes

  5. Preliminary radiological consequence estimate for a reference LEU core for PARR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younus, M.; Khan, L.A.; Akhtar, K.M.; Pervez, S.

    1988-07-01

    Radiological consequence analysis of a reference LEU core for Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR) has been carried out using mathematical models. Three modes of leakage from reactor building have been considered. These are exhaust through the normal ventilation system, through emergency ventilation system and leakage from the building. The whole body and thyroid does have been calculated for the duration of 2 hours and 30 days at the boundaries of exclusion zone at 450m and low population zone at 100m. For the releases at stack height through normal and emergency ventilation systems, does at both the boundaries remain within relevant emergency does limits of 300 rem for thyroid and 25 rem for whole body. However, in case of direct release from the containment building, limiting thyroid does of 300 rem, at 1000m, for 30 days exposure is achieved for a leak rate of 27% per day under Pasquill condition E. The results presented in this report are only preliminary estimates. A more accurate detailed analysis, for various burnups, will be carried using standard computer codes. (orig./A.B)

  6. The burden of chronic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining in Zimbabwe: data availability and preliminary estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Nadine; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Pinheiro, Paulo; Plass, Dietrich; Shoko, Dennis; Drasch, Gustav; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Siebert, Uwe; Hornberg, Claudia

    2014-12-13

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a poverty-driven activity practiced in over 70 countries worldwide. Zimbabwe is amongst the top ten countries using large quantities of mercury to extract gold from ore. This analysis was performed to check data availability and derive a preliminary estimate of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to mercury use in ASGM in Zimbabwe. Cases of chronic mercury intoxication were identified following an algorithm using mercury-related health effects and mercury in human specimens. The sample prevalence amongst miners and controls (surveyed by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization in 2004 and the University of Munich in 2006) was determined and extrapolated to the entire population of Zimbabwe. Further epidemiological and demographic data were taken from the literature and missing data modeled with DisMod II to quantify DALYs using the methods from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2004 update published by the World Health Organization (WHO). While there was no disability weight (DW) available indicating the relative disease severity of chronic mercury intoxication, the DW of a comparable disease was assigned by following the criteria 1) chronic condition, 2) triggered by a substance, and 3) causing similar health symptoms. Miners showed a sample prevalence of 72% while controls showed no cases of chronic mercury intoxication. Data availability is very limited why it was necessary to model data and make assumptions about the number of exposed population, the definition of chronic mercury intoxication, DW, and epidemiology. If these assumptions hold, the extrapolation would result in around 95,400 DALYs in Zimbabwe's total population in 2004. This analysis provides a preliminary quantification of the mercury-related health burden from ASGM based on the limited data available. If the determined assumptions hold, chronic mercury intoxication is likely to have been one of the top 20 hazards for population

  7. Preliminary conceptual design and cost estimation for Korea Advanced Pyroprocessing Facility Plus (KAPF+)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il, E-mail: nwiko@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Hee, E-mail: nhhlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sungyeol, E-mail: csy@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ki, E-mail: sgkim1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Heung, E-mail: b.h.park@ut.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, 50 Daehak-ro, Chungju-si, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Jik, E-mail: hyojik@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Tae, E-mail: nitkim@kaeri.re.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, 50 Daehak-ro, Chungju-si, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Han Soo, E-mail: hslee5@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Conceptual design is created for a pilot pyroprocessing plant treating PWR spent fuel. • Pilot-scale design is based on a capacity of 400 tHM/yr with 60 years lifetime. • All individual processes are integrated into a single system from feed to products. • Overall facility design is developed for a pilot pyroprocessing plant. • Unit process cost is estimated for pyroprocessing with uncertainties. - Abstract: Korea has developed pyroprocessing technology as a potential option for recycling spent fuels (SFs) from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The pyroprocessing consists of various key unit processes and a number of research activities have been focused on each process. However, to realize the whole pyroprocessing concept, there is a critical need for integrating the individual developments and addressing a material flow from feed to final products. In addition, the advancement on overall facility design is an indispensable aspect for demonstration and commercialization of the pyroprocessing. In this study, a facility named as Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility Plus (KAPF+) is conceptualized with a capacity of 400 tHM/yr. The process steps are categorized based on their own characteristics while the capacities of process equipment are determined based on the current technical levels. The facility concept with a site layout of 104,000 m{sup 2} is developed by analyzing the operation conditions and materials treated in each process. As an economic approach to the proposed facility, the unit cost (781 $/kgHM denominated in 2009 USD) for KAPF+ is also analyzed with the conceptual design with preliminary sensitivity assessments including decontamination and decommissioning costs, a discount rate, staffing costs, and plant lifetime. While classifying and describing cost details of KAPF+, this study compares the unit cost of KAPF+ treating PWR SF to that of the pyroprocessing facility treating sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) SF.

  8. Monitoring of German Fertility: Estimation of Monthly and Yearly Total Fertility Rates on the Basis of Preliminary Monthly Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Doblhammer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a set of methods for estimating fertility indicators in the absence of recent and short-term birth statistics. For Germany, we propose a set of straightforward methods that allow for the computation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates (mTFR on the basis of preliminary monthly data, including a confidence interval. The method for estimating most current fertility rates can be applied when no information on the age structure and the number of women exposed to childbearing is available. The methods introduced in this study are useful for calculating monthly birth indicators, with minimal requirements for data quality and statistical effort. In addition, we suggest an approach for projecting the yearly TFR based on preliminary monthly information up to June.

  9. Preliminary estimates of the abundance and fidelity of dolphins associating with a demersal trawl fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon J; Pollock, Kenneth H; Bouchet, Phil J; Kobryn, Halina T; McElligott, Deirdre B; Nicholson, Krista E; Smith, Joshua N; Loneragan, Neil R

    2017-07-10

    The incidental capture of wildlife in fishing gear presents a global conservation challenge. As a baseline to inform assessments of the impact of bycatch on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) interacting with an Australian trawl fishery, we conducted an aerial survey to estimate dolphin abundance across the fishery. Concurrently, we carried out boat-based dolphin photo-identification to assess short-term fidelity to foraging around trawlers, and used photographic and genetic data to infer longer-term fidelity to the fishery. We estimated abundance at ≈ 2,300 dolphins (95% CI = 1,247-4,214) over the ≈ 25,880-km 2 fishery. Mark-recapture estimates yielded 226 (SE = 38.5) dolphins associating with one trawler and some individuals photographed up to seven times over 12 capture periods. Moreover, photographic and genetic re-sampling over three years confirmed that some individuals show long-term fidelity to trawler-associated foraging. Our study presents the first abundance estimate for any Australian pelagic dolphin community and documents individuals associating with trawlers over days, months and years. Without trend data or correction factors for dolphin availability, the impact of bycatch on this dolphin population's conservation status remains unknown. These results should be taken into account by management agencies assessing the impact of fisheries-related mortality on this protected species.

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Intelligent Intention Estimation Algorithms for an Actuated Lower-Limb Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin Chandrapal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experimental testing of an actuated lower-limb exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is designed to alleviate the loading at the knee joint by supplying assistive torque. It is hypothesized that the support provided will reduce the muscular effort required to perform activities of daily living and thus facilitate the execution of these movements by those who previously had limited mobility. The exoskeleton is actuated by four pneumatic artificial muscles, each providing 150N of pulling force to assist in the flexion and extension of the knee joint. The exoskeleton system estimates the user's intended motion using muscle activity information recorded from five thigh muscles, together with the knee angle. To experimentally evaluate the performance of the device, the exoskeleton was worn by an able-bodied user, whilst performing the sit-to-stand-to-sit movement. In addition, the three intention estimation algorithms were also tested to determine the influence of the various algorithms on the support provided. The results show a significant reduction in the user's muscle activity (≈ 20% when assisted by the exoskeleton in a predictable manner.

  11. Preliminary study on helical CT algorithms for patient motion estimation and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Vannier, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    Helical computed tomography (helical/spiral CT) has replaced conventional CT in many clinical applications. In current helical CT, a patient is assumed to be rigid and motionless during scanning and planar projection sets are produced from raw data via longitudinal interpolation. However, rigid patient motion is a problem in some cases (such as in the skull base and temporal bone imaging). Motion artifacts thus generated in reconstructed images can prevent accurate diagnosis. Modeling a uniform translational movement, the authors address how patient motion is ascertained and how it may be compensated. First, mismatch between adjacent fan-beam projections of the same orientation is determined via classical correlation, which is approximately proportional to the patient displacement projected onto an axis orthogonal to the central ray of the involved fan-beam. Then, the patient motion vector (the patient displacement per gantry rotation) is estimated from its projections using a least-square-root method. To suppress motion artifacts, adaptive interpolation algorithms are developed that synthesize full-scan and half-scan planar projection data sets, respectively. In the adaptive scheme, the interpolation is performed along inclined paths dependent upon the patient motion vector. The simulation results show that the patient motion vector can be accurately and reliably estimated using their correlation and least-square-root algorithm, patient motion artifacts can be effectively suppressed via adaptive interpolation, and adaptive half-scan interpolation is advantageous compared with its full-scale counterpart in terms of high contrast image resolution

  12. Analytical Approach for Estimating Preliminary Mass of ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Structural Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pravin

    2007-01-01

    electrical power functions to other Elements of the CLV, is included as secondary structure. The MSFC has an overall responsibility for the integrated US element as well as structural design an thermal control of the fuel tanks, intertank, interstage, avionics, main propulsion system, Reaction Control System (RCS) for both the Upper Stage and the First Stage. MSFC's Spacecraft and Vehicle Department, Structural and Analysis Design Division is developing a set of predicted mass of these elements. This paper details the methodology, criterion and tools used for the preliminary mass predictions of the upper stage structural assembly components. In general, weight of the cylindrical barrel sections are estimated using the commercial code Hypersizer, whereas, weight of the domes are developed using classical solutions. HyperSizer is software that performs automated structural analysis and sizing optimization based on aerospace methods for strength, stability, and stiffness. Analysis methods range from closed form, traditional hand calculations repeated every day in industry to more advanced panel buckling algorithms. Margin-of-safety reporting for every potential failure provides the engineer with a powerful insight into the structural problem. Optimization capabilities include finding minimum weight panel or beam concepts, material selections, cross sectional dimensions, thicknesses, and lay-ups from a library of 40 different stiffened and sandwich designs and a database of composite, metallic, honeycomb, and foam materials. Multiple different concepts (orthogrid, isogrid, and skin stiffener) were run for multiple loading combinations of ascent design load with and with out tank pressure as well as proof pressure condition. Subsequently, selected optimized concept obtained from Hypersizer runs was translated into a computer aid design (CAD) model to account for the wall thickness tolerance, weld land etc for developing the most probable weight of the components. The flow diram

  13. Preliminary Modeling of Permanent Magnet Probe Flowmeter for Voltage Signal Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Uiju; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Tae Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    An experimental study on performance analysis of the flowmeter has been performed. The study shows that sodium flow rate is linearly proportional to the induced voltage signal from the flowmeter under the turbulent flow condition. The experimental results support its availability in the PDRC system. But, the flowmeter should be able to measure sodium flow at low Reynolds number as well. That is because the PDRC system uses sodium natural convection for its operation. Thus, calibration of the flowmeter should be done at very low sodium flow rates. However, Von Weissenfluh et al. showed that the relationship between flow rate and measured voltage signal from the flowmeter may become non-linear at very low flow rates. The nonlinearity restricts the utilization of level sensor which provide reference flow rate in the calibration experiment. The primary objective of this study is to predict the sodium flow rate range where the induced voltage signals are linearly proportional to flow rates by estimating the induced voltage signals against sodium flow rates for a wide range of flows numerically. A commercial code FLUENT is adopted for the analysis of flow field. And MAXWELL which is an electromagnetic analysis software using a finite volume method has been used to analyze the magnetic field generated by permanent magnet of the flowmeter. The induced voltage signals have been estimated by coupling the sodium flow field and the magnetic field using FLUENT MHD module. It is expected that the PMPF voltage signals are linearly proportional to flow rates range of 0.0059 to 1.96 lps. This suggests that simple calibration technique using the linearity between flow rate and the voltage signal can be adopted in calibration of the PMPF.

  14. The Greenville Fault: preliminary estimates of its long-term creep rate and seismic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienkaemper, James J.; Barry, Robert G.; Smith, Forrest E.; Mello, Joseph D.; McFarland, Forrest S.

    2013-01-01

    Once assumed locked, we show that the northern third of the Greenville fault (GF) creeps at 2 mm/yr, based on 47 yr of trilateration net data. This northern GF creep rate equals its 11-ka slip rate, suggesting a low strain accumulation rate. In 1980, the GF, easternmost strand of the San Andreas fault system east of San Francisco Bay, produced a Mw5.8 earthquake with a 6-km surface rupture and dextral slip growing to ≥2 cm on cracks over a few weeks. Trilateration shows a 10-cm post-1980 transient slip ending in 1984. Analysis of 2000-2012 crustal velocities on continuous global positioning system stations, allows creep rates of ~2 mm/yr on the northern GF, 0-1 mm/yr on the central GF, and ~0 mm/yr on its southern third. Modeled depth ranges of creep along the GF allow 5-25% aseismic release. Greater locking in the southern two thirds of the GF is consistent with paleoseismic evidence there for large late Holocene ruptures. Because the GF lacks large (>1 km) discontinuities likely to arrest higher (~1 m) slip ruptures, we expect full-length (54-km) ruptures to occur that include the northern creeping zone. We estimate sufficient strain accumulation on the entire GF to produce Mw6.9 earthquakes with a mean recurrence of ~575 yr. While the creeping 16-km northern part has the potential to produce a Mw6.2 event in 240 yr, it may rupture in both moderate (1980) and large events. These two-dimensional-model estimates of creep rate along the southern GF need verification with small aperture surveys.

  15. An in vivo investigation of photoplethysmographic signals and preliminary pulse oximetry estimation from the bowel using a new fiberoptic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Michelle; Samuels, Neal; Randive, Nilesh; Langford, Richard M; Kyriacou, Panayiotis A

    2011-05-01

    The continuous monitoring of splanchnic organ oxygen saturation could make the early detection of inadequate tissue oxygenation feasible, reducing the risk of hypoperfusion, severe ischemia, multiple organ failure, and, ultimately, death. Current methods for assessing splanchnic perfusion have not been widely accepted for use in the clinical care environment. In an attempt to overcome the limitations of the current techniques, a new fiberoptic photoplethysmographic (PPG)/pulse oximetry sensor was developed as a means of assessing splanchnic organ perfusion during surgery in humans. A new fiberoptic splanchnic pulse oximeter and an optically identical fiberoptic finger pulse oximeter have been developed. Simultaneous PPG signals and preliminary estimates of arterial oxygen saturation from the bowel (small and large) and finger were obtained in 17 patients (3 men and 14 women) undergoing open laparotomy. Good quality PPG signals were obtained from the small and large bowel and from the finger in all patients (lower 95% confidence limit for the proportion was 0.64). Comparisons of blood oxygen saturation values acquired when using the splanchnic and the finger fiberoptic sensors and a commercial finger pulse oximeter indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between them (all P>0.454). A Bland and Altman plot of the difference between blood oxygen saturation values from the bowel fiberoptic pulse oximeter and the fiberoptic finger pulse oximeter against their mean showed that the limits of agreement between the 2 pulse oximeters were -3.8% and 4.2% for small bowel measurements, and -3.4% and 4.3% for large bowel measurements. The 95% prediction interval for the difference between the 2 devices was between -4.2% and 4.7%. This study demonstrated that good quality PPG signals can be obtained from the bowel using a new fiberoptic sensor. Further evaluation is required to determine whether fiberoptic pulse oximetry of the bowel may provide a

  16. A preliminary estimate of the EUVE cumulative distribution of exposure time on the unit sphere. [Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary study of an all-sky coverage of the EUVE mission is given. Algorithms are provided to compute the exposure of the celestial sphere under the spinning telescopes, taking into account that during part of the exposure time the telescopes are blocked by the earth. The algorithms are used to give an estimate of exposure time at different ecliptic latitudes as a function of the angle of field of view of the telescope. Sample coverage patterns are also given for a 6-month mission.

  17. Preliminary estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge for the Death Valley region, Nevada-California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional ground-water flow model has been developed to evaluate the Death Valley regional flow system, which includes ground water beneath the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge are needed to define upper boundary conditions. This study presents a preliminary application of a conceptual and numerical model of net infiltration. The model was developed in studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located in the approximate center of the Death Valley ground-water flow system. The conceptual model describes the effects of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and redistribution of water in the shallow unsaturated zone on predicted rates of net infiltration; precipitation and soil depth are the two most significant variables. The conceptual model was tested using a preliminary numerical model based on energy- and water-balance calculations. Daily precipitation for 1980 through 1995, averaging 202 millimeters per year over the 39,556 square kilometers area of the ground-water flow model, was input to the numerical model to simulate net infiltration ranging from zero for a soil thickness greater than 6 meters to over 350 millimeters per year for thin soils at high elevations in the Spring Mountains overlying permeable bedrock. Estimated average net infiltration over the entire ground-water flow model domain is 7.8 millimeters per year. To evaluate the application of the net-infiltration model developed on a local scale at Yucca Mountain, to net-infiltration estimates representing the magnitude and distribution of recharge on a regional scale, the net-infiltration results were compared with recharge estimates obtained using empirical methods. Comparison of model results with previous estimates of basinwide recharge suggests that the net-infiltration estimates obtained using this model may overestimate recharge because of uncertainty in modeled precipitation, bedrock permeability, and soil properties for

  18. The scientific activities of CERN and budget estimates for the years 2003-2010 - preliminary orientations

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary orientations for the Long-Term Plan 2003-2010. It focuses on choices in the scientific programme, savings, organisational measures and financial scenarios to deal with the cost increase of the LHC project. The paper is presented for discussion. The outcome of this discussion, as well as the observations and recommendations of the External Review Committee, which started its work while this paper was in preparation, will be taken into account for the plan which the Management is preparing for June 2002.

  19. The scientific activities of CERN and budget estimates for the years 2003-2010 - Preliminary orientations

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary orientations for the Long-Term Plan 2003-2010. It focuses on choices in the scientific programme, savings, organisational measures and financial scenarios to deal with the cost increase of the LHC project. The paper is presented for discussion. The outcome of this discussion, as well as the observations and recommendations of the External Review Committee, which started its work while this paper was in preparation, will be taken into account for the plan which the Management is preparing for June 2002.

  20. Preliminary comparison between real-time in-vivo spectral and transverse oscillation velocity estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    Spectral velocity estimation is considered the gold standard in medical ultrasound. Peak systole (PS), end diastole (ED), and resistive index (RI) are used clinically. Angle correction is performed using a flow angle set manually. With Transverse Oscillation (TO) velocity estimates the flow angle......, peak systole (PSTO), end diastole (EDTO), and resistive index (RITO) are estimated. This study investigates if these clinical parameters are estimated equally good using spectral and TO data. The right common carotid arteries of three healthy volunteers were scanned longitudinally. Average TO flow...

  1. Volcanic fluxes of volatiles. Preliminary estimates based on rare gas and major volatile calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, B.

    1992-01-01

    New estimates for volatile fluxes into the atmosphere and hydrosphere through volcanism have been computed using the measured fluxes of 3 He in oceans and SO 2 in the atmosphere, and the ratios between the volatiles in Mid-Ocean Ridge basalts and in high temperature volcanic gases. These estimates have been checked using independent estimates of the volcanic fluxes. This method provides a reliable means of tracing volatile fluxes, although its precision is restricted by the limited amount of data currently available. (author). 19 refs, 1 tab

  2. Preliminary Estimation of Local Bypass Flow Gap Sizes for a Prismatic VHTR Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Jo, Chang Keun; Lee, Won Jae

    2009-01-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected for the Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) project. In the VHTR design, core bypass flow has been one of key issues for core thermal margins and target temperature of the core outlet. The core bypass flow in the prismatic VHTR varies with the core life due to the irradiation shrinkage/ swelling and thermal expansion of the graphite blocks, which could be a significant proportion of the total core flow. Thus, accurate prediction of the bypass flow is of major importance in assuring the core thermal margin. To predict the bypass flow, first of all, local gap sizes between graphite blocks in the core should be determined. The objectives of this work are to develop a methodology for determining the gap sizes and to perform a preliminary evaluation for a reference reactor

  3. Preliminary estimation of the dose rates of the operation room of the RPR radioisotope cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S.; Silva, J.J.G.; Pina, J.L.S. de; Fajardo, P.W.

    1986-07-01

    During the preliminary studies, about the installations layout of a radioisotope production reactor, the possibility of construction of a radioisotope cell at the reactor building has been investigated. The decisions about that construction has considered mainly the level of the radiation dose over the cell operator. The dose rate has been calculated based on: neutron flux and gamma radiation from fission products and activation materials inside the reactor; volatile fission products such as noble gases and iodides; tritium form ternary fission. The objective was calculate the radiation dose over the cell operator during a journey of 8 hours of work per day. For those calculations some data have been obtained from the Angra-3 reactor. (author)

  4. Evaluating clinically meaningful change on the ITP-PAQ: preliminary estimates of minimal important differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Susan D; Gao, Sue K; Rutstein, Mark; Snyder, Claire F; Wu, Albert W; Cella, David

    2009-02-01

    Interpretation of data from health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires can be enhanced with the availability of minimally important difference (MID) estimates. This information will aid clinicians in interpreting HRQoL differences within patients over time and between treatment groups. The Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)-Patient Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ) is the only comprehensive HRQoL questionnaire available for adults with ITP. Forty centers from within the US and Europe enrolled ITP patients into one of two multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 6-month, phase III clinical trials of romiplostim. Patients enrolled in these studies self-administered the ITP-PAQ and two items assessing global change (anchors) at baseline and weeks 4, 12, and 24. Using data from the ITP-PAQ and these two anchors, an anchor-based estimate was computed and combined with the standard error of measurement and standard deviation to compute a distribution-based estimate in order to provide an MID range for each of the 11 scales of the ITP-PAQ. A total of 125 patients participated in these clinical trials and provided data for use in these analyses. Combining results from anchor- and distribution-based approaches, MID values were computed for 9 of the 11 scales. MIDs ranged from 8 to 12 points for Symptoms, Bother, Psychological, Overall QOL, Social Activity, Menstrual Symptoms, and Fertility, while the range was 10 to 15 points for the Fatigue and Activity scales of the ITP-PAQ. These estimates, while slightly higher than other published MID estimates, were consistent with moderate effect sizes. These MID estimates will serve as a useful tool to researchers and clinicians using the ITP-PAQ, providing guidance for interpretation of baseline scores as well as changes in ITP-PAQ scores over time. Additional work should be done to finalize these initial estimates using more appropriate anchors that correlate more highly with the ITP-PAQ scales.

  5. In-vivo validation of fast spectral velocity estimation techniques – preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Gran, Fredrik; Pedersen, Mads Møller

    2008-01-01

    Spectral Doppler is a common way to estimate blood velocities in medical ultrasound (US). The standard way of estimating spectrograms is by using Welch's method (WM). WM is dependent on a long observation window (OW) (about 100 transmissions) to produce spectrograms with sufficient spectral...... resolution and contrast. Two adaptive filterbank methods have been suggested to circumvent this problem: the Blood spectral Power Capon method (BPC) and the Blood Amplitude and Phase Estimation method (BAPES). Previously, simulations and flow rig experiments have indicated that the two adaptive methods can...... was scanned using the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS and a B-K Medical 5 MHz linear array transducer with an angle of insonation not exceeding 60deg. All 280 spectrograms were then randomised and presented to a radiologist blinded for method and OW for visual evaluation: useful or not useful. WMbw...

  6. Renewable energy technologies for irrigation water pumping in India: A preliminary attempt towards potential estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Atul [Policy Analysis Division, The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kandpal, Tara C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2007-05-15

    Simple frameworks have been developed for estimating the utilization potential of: (a) solar photovoltaic (SPV) pumps; (b) windmill pumps; (c) producer gas based dual fuel engine pumps; and (d) biogas based dual fuel engine pumps for irrigation water pumping in India. The approach takes into account factors such as: solar radiation intensity, wind speed, availability of bovine dung and agri-residues, and their alternative uses, ground water requirements for irrigation and its availability, affordability, and propensity of the users to invest in renewable energy devices, etc. SPV pumps are estimated to have the maximum utilization potential in India, followed by windmill pumps. (author)

  7. Renewable energy technologies for irrigation water pumping in India: A preliminary attempt towards potential estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Atul; Kandpal, Tara C.

    2007-01-01

    Simple frameworks have been developed for estimating the utilization potential of: (a) solar photovoltaic (SPV) pumps; (b) windmill pumps; (c) producer gas based dual fuel engine pumps; and (d) biogas based dual fuel engine pumps for irrigation water pumping in India. The approach takes into account factors such as: solar radiation intensity, wind speed, availability of bovine dung and agri-residues, and their alternative uses, ground water requirements for irrigation and its availability, affordability, and propensity of the users to invest in renewable energy devices, etc. SPV pumps are estimated to have the maximum utilization potential in India, followed by windmill pumps

  8. Preliminary shielding estimates for the proposed Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.; Lillie, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has proposed designing and implementing a new target-ion source for production and injection of negative radioactive ion beams into the Hollifield tandem accelerator. This new facility, referred to as the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF), will primarily be used to advance the scientific communities' capabilities for performing state-of-the-art cross-section measurements. Beams of protons or other light, stable ions from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) will be stopped in the RIBF target ion source and the resulting radioactive atoms will be ionized, charge exchanged, accelerated, and injected into the tandem accelerator. The ORIC currently operates with proton energies up to 60 MeV and beam currents up to 100 microamps with a maximum beam power less than 2.0 kW. The proposed RIBF will require upgrading the ORIC to generate proton energies up to 200 MeV and beam currents up to 200 microamps for optimum performance. This report summarizes the results of a preliminary one-dimensional shielding analysis of the proposed upgrade to the ORIC and design of the RIBF. The principal objective of the shielding analysis was to determine the feasibility of such an upgrade with respect to existing shielding from the facility structure, and additional shielding requirements for the 200 MeV ORIC machine and RIBF target room

  9. Preconception care: preliminary estimates of costs and effects of smoking cessation and folic acid supplementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, S. de; Polder, J.J.; Cohen-Overbeek, T.E.; Zimmermann, L.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess costs and effectiveness of preconception counseling for all women planning pregnancy in The Netherlands with regard to folic acid supplementation and smoking cessation counseling. STUDY DESIGN: Costs and effects were estimated based on 200,000 women approached yearly and uptake

  10. Forensic age estimation from the clavicle using 1.0 T MRI—Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Jensen, Karl Erik; Villa, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: As forensic age estimations in the living are performed without medical indication, there is a need for the development of non-ionizing methods. This study investigates the use of 1.0T MRI to visualize the ossification status of the medial end of the clavicle. MATERIAL AND METHODS: T2...

  11. Preliminary flood-duration frequency estimates using naturalized streamflow records for the Willamette River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Greg D.; Stonewall, Adam J.

    2018-02-13

    In this study, “naturalized” daily streamflow records, created by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, were used to compute 1-, 3-, 7-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-day annual maximum streamflow durations, which are running averages of daily streamflow for the number of days in each duration. Once the annual maximum durations were computed, the floodduration frequencies could be estimated. The estimated flood-duration frequencies correspond to the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent probabilities of their occurring or being exceeded each year. For this report, the focus was on the Willamette River Basin in Oregon, which is a subbasin of the Columbia River Basin. This study is part of a larger one encompassing the entire Columbia Basin.

  12. Preliminary estimation of Lake El'gygytgyn water balance and sediment income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fedorov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern process studies of the hydrologic balance of Lake El'gygytgyn, central Chukotka, and the sediment income from the catchment were carried out during a field campaign in spring and summer 2003. Despite high uncertainties due to the limited data, the results provide important first estimates for better understanding the modern and past sedimentation processes in this basin. Formed ca. 3.6 million years ago as a result of a meteorite impact, the basin contains one of the longest paleoclimate records in the terrestrial Arctic. Fluvial activity is concentrated over the short snowmelt period (about 20 days in second part of June. Underground outflow plays a very important role in the water balance and predominates over surface outflow. The residence time of the lake water is estimated to be about 100 yr.

  13. Preliminary investigation on reliability of genomic estimated breeding values in the Danish and Swedish Holstein Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Gregersen, V R

    2010-01-01

    or no effects, and a single prior distribution common for all SNP. It was found that, in general, the model with a common prior distribution of scaling factors had better predictive ability than any mixture prior models. Therefore, a common prior model was used to estimate SNP effects and breeding values......Abstract This study investigated the reliability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in the Danish Holstein population. The data in the analysis included 3,330 bulls with both published conventional EBV and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After data editing, 38,134 SNP markers...... were available. In the analysis, all SNP were fitted simultaneously as random effects in a Bayesian variable selection model, which allows heterogeneous variances for different SNP markers. The response variables were the official EBV. Direct GEBV were calculated as the sum of individual SNP effects...

  14. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget model II: Properties and preliminary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kearney, Michael R.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    The covariation method for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model provides a single-step method of accessing all the core DEB parameters from commonly available empirical data. In this study, we assess the robustness of this parameter estimation procedure and analyse the role of pseudo-data using elasticity coefficients. In particular, we compare the performance of Maximum Likelihood (ML) vs. Weighted Least Squares (WLS) approaches and find that the two approaches tend to converge in performance as the number of uni-variate data sets increases, but that WLS is more robust when data sets comprise single points (zero-variate data). The efficiency of the approach is shown to be high, and the prior parameter estimates (pseudo-data) have very little influence if the real data contain information about the parameter values. For instance, the effects of the pseudo-value for the allocation fraction κ is reduced when there is information for both growth and reproduction, that for the energy conductance is reduced when information on age at birth and puberty is given, and the effects of the pseudo-value for the maturity maintenance rate coefficient are insignificant. The estimation of some parameters (e.g., the zoom factor and the shape coefficient) requires little information, while that of others (e.g., maturity maintenance rate, puberty threshold and reproduction efficiency) require data at several food levels. The generality of the standard DEB model, in combination with the estimation of all of its parameters, allows comparison of species on the basis of parameter values. We discuss a number of preliminary patterns emerging from the present collection of parameter estimates across a wide variety of taxa. We make the observation that the estimated value of the fraction κ of mobilised reserve that is allocated to soma is far away from the value that maximises reproduction. We recognise this as the reason why two very different

  15. Practical models to estimate horizontal irradiance in clear sky conditions: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, German A.; Hernandez, Alejandro L.; Saravia, Luis R. [Department of Physics, School of Exact Sciences, National University of Salta, Bolivia Avenue 5150, 4400 Salta Capital (Argentina); INENCO (Institute of Non Conventional Energy Research), Bolivia Avenue 5150, 4400 Salta Capital (Argentina)

    2010-11-15

    The Argentinean Northwest (ANW) is a high altitude region located alongside Los Andes Mountains. The ANW is also one of the most insolated regions in the world due to its altitude and particular climate. However, the characterization of the solar resource in the region is incomplete as there are no stations to measure solar radiation continuously and methodically. With irradiance data recently having been measured at three sites in the Salta Province, a study was carried out that resulted in a practical model to quickly and efficiently estimate the horizontal irradiance in high altitude sites in clear sky conditions. This model uses the altitude above sea level (A) as a variable and generates a representative clearness index as a result (k{sub t-R}) that is calculated for each site studied. This index k{sub t-R} is then used with the relative optical air mass and the extraterrestrial irradiance to estimate the instantaneous clearness index (k{sub t}). Subsequently, the index k{sub t-R} is corrected by introducing the atmospheric pressure in the definition of relative optical air mass proposed by Kasten. The results are satisfactory as errors in the irradiance estimations with respect to measured values do not exceed 5% for pressure corrected air masses AM{sub c} < 2. This model will be used in a feasibility study to locate sites for the installation of solar thermal power plants in the ANW. A prototype of a CLFR solar power plant is being built in the INENCO Campus, at the National University of Salta. (author)

  16. A preliminary estimate of the economic impact of the energy amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, R; Rubbia, Carlo; Rubio, Juan Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The basic concept and the applicability of the Energy Amplifier (EA) have been exhaustively described elsewhere (Refs. [1] to [4]). The EA is essentially a source of high quality heat, produced by the nuclear cascades induced by a high intensity proton beam inside an appropriate ³beam dump² arrangement. A fraction of such ³heat² has to be transformed into electricity to run the accelerator, the rest being available for a number of different industrial applications, and in particular commercial electricity production. In this paper the economic aspects are further explored and we attempt a first order estimate of the cost of such an energy source, comparing it critically with more conventional sources. In this task we have been greatly helped by a number of people2) who have specific competence in the industrial aspects of the application. We conclude that in agreement to our previous estimates, the practical cost of high quality heat is about US /GJ, namely and times lower than the one of Coal and Natural...

  17. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF ITO CELLS FROM RAT LIVER USING THE OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR - A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marcos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, much light has been shed on hepatic fibrosis, and the activation / proliferation of Ito cells (IC emerged to play a central role. Therefore, it is essential to have solid quantitative data in nonpathological statuses; yet, this data is scarce and confined to "number per area" or semiquantitative information. Moreover, the supposed heterogeneous distribution of IC in the hepatic lobule was never analysed with design-based (unbiased stereology. In the present study, the total number (N of IC in rat liver was estimated for the first time, by combining immunocytochemistry with the optical fractionator. Quantification was extended to the hepatocytes, to disclose the IC index, an often-used ratio in hepatology. Systematic uniform random liver sections were obtained from male Wistar rats (n = 3, and immunostained against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a known specific marker for hepatic IC. For the first time, these were marked against GFAP in thick (30 μm paraffin sections. The estimated N of IC was 224E06; with a coefficient of error of 0.04 or 0.06, depending on the particular equation used (based on the so-called "quadratic approximation". The IC index was 91 IC/1000 hepatocytes. Concerning the lobular heterogeneity, it was proved the liver harbours a larger total number of periportal IC and hepatocytes.

  18. Preliminary Estimation of Radioactive Cesium Concentration due to Hypothetical Accident in East Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung-Il; Kim, Sora; Park, Kihyun; Suh, Kyung-suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The sea has no large islands, bays or capes. Its water balance is mostly determined by the inflow (Korea Strait) and outflow (Tsugaru Strait and Soya Strait) through the straits connecting it to the neighboring seas and Pacific Ocean. All of the Korean nuclear power plants are located in the coastal area, 3 sites in the east coast and 1 site in the west coast. So the Korean nuclear power plants there may be possibility that such dangerous substances spread out of the East Sea. The East Sea is a fertile fishing ground for surrounding counties. The environmental radionuclides concentration estimation is important for fish and sea plants may be contaminated by those radioactive materials. In order to simplify the problem, the experiment has been considered the many simplifying assumptions. The bed sediments are uniform over all the model domain, using the monthly mean ocean current data set and ignored effect of the facilities for damage preventions.

  19. Preliminary estimates of the charge for spent-fuel storage and disposal services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to stimulate discussion among a wide range of interested parties concerning a one-time charge by the U.S. Government for disposal, or interim storage and disposal, of spent unreprocessed nuclear fuel. The report contains a set of estimates of the charge based on current cost figures and a variety of demand, logistical, institutional, and cost overrun assumptions. The services are to be offered to domestic utilities by the U.S. Government in connection with the spent fuel policy approved by the President and announced by the Department of Energy (DOE) on October 18, 1977. This policy is a direct result of the indefinite deferral of all commercial reprocessing of spent fuel announced by President Carter on April 7, 1977. The services will also be offered to foreign governments on a limited basis in cases where this action would contribute to U.S. goals for nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. The report does not establish new policy and it does not commit DOE to any specific program, schedule or charge. No scenario or case is to be considered most important, no methodology is to be considered definitive, and no charge is to be considered most likely or to represent a proposed charge. The report describes basic principles and methodologies for calculating the charge and highlights primary cost centers. Current estimates of program and facility costs are used. Various aspects of the DOE Spent Fuel Storage Program are brought into focus through this analysis. Interested parties should find these assessment criteria helpful for their planning and useful in discussions concerning the program

  20. Nuclear war: preliminary estimates of the climatic effects of a nuclear exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1983-10-01

    The smoke rising from burning cities, industrial areas, and forests if such areas are attacked as part of a major nuclear exchange is projected to increase the hemispheric average atmospheric burden of highly absorbent carbonaceous material by 100 to 1000 times. As the smoke spreads from these fires, it would prevent sunlight from reaching the surface, leading to a sharp cooling of land areas over a several day period. Within a few weeks, the thick smoke would spread so as to largely cover the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, cooling mid-continental smoke-covered areas by, perhaps, a few tens of degrees Celsius. Cooling of near coastal areas would be substantially less, since oceanic heat capacity would help to buffer temperature changes in such regions. The calculations on which these findings are based contain many assumptions, shortcomings and uncertainties that affect many aspects of the estimated response. It seems, nonetheless, quite possible that if a nuclear exchange involves attacks on a very large number of cities and industrial areas, thereby starting fires that generate as much smoke as is suggested by recent studies, substantial cooling could be expected that would last weeks to months over most continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but which may have relatively little direct effect on the Southern Hemisphere

  1. The groundwater budget: A tool for preliminary estimation of the hydraulic connection between neighboring aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaroli, Stefano; Mastrorillo, Lucia; Lotti, Francesca; Paolucci, Vittorio; Mazza, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater management authorities usually use groundwater budget calculations to evaluate the sustainability of withdrawals for different purposes. The groundwater budget calculation does not always provide reliable information, and it must often be supported by further aquifer monitoring in the case of hydraulic connections between neighboring aquifers. The Riardo Plain aquifer is a strategic drinking resource for more than 100,000 people, water storage for 60 km2 of irrigated land, and the source of a mineral water bottling plant. Over a long period, the comparison between the direct recharge and the estimated natural outflow and withdrawals highlights a severe water deficit of approximately 40% of the total groundwater outflow. A groundwater budget deficit should be a clue to the aquifer depletion, but the results of long-term water level monitoring allowed the observation of the good condition of this aquifer. In fact, in the Riardo Plain, the calculated deficit is not comparable to the aquifer monitoring data acquired in the same period (1992-2014). The small oscillations of the groundwater level and the almost stable streambed spring discharge allows the presumption of an additional aquifer recharge source. The confined carbonate aquifer locally mixes with the above volcanic aquifer, providing an externally stable recharge that reduces the effects of the local rainfall variability. The combined approach of the groundwater budget results and long-term aquifer monitoring (spring discharge and/or hydraulic head oscillation) provides information about significant external groundwater exchanges, even if unidentified by field measurements, and supports the stakeholders in groundwater resource management.

  2. Preliminary uncertainty analysis for the doses estimated using the Techa River dosimetry system - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Shagina, N B.; Degteva, M O.; Tolstykh, E I.; Vorobiova, M I.; Anspaugh, L R.

    2000-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was the first facility in the former Soviet Union for the production of plutonium. As a result of failures in the technological processes in the late 1940's and early 1950's, members of the public were exposed via discharge of about 1017 Bq of liquid wastes into the Techa River (1949-1956). Residents of many villages downstream on the Techa River were exposed via a variety of pathways; the more significant included drinking of water from the river and external gamma exposure due to proximity to sediments and shoreline. The specific aim of this project is to enhance the reconstruction of external and internal radiation doses for individuals in the Extended Techa River Cohort. The purpose of this paper is to present the approaches being used to evaluate the uncertainty in the calculated individual doses and to provide example and representative results of the uncertainty analyses. The magnitude of the uncertainties varies depending on location and time of individual exposure, but the results from reference-individual calculations indicate that for external doses, the range of uncertainty is about factors of four to five. For internal doses, the range of uncertainty depends on village of residence, which is actually a surrogate for source of drinking water. For villages with single sources of drinking water (river or well), the ratio of the 97.5th percentile-to 2.5th percentile estimates can be a factor of 20 to 30. For villages with mixed sources of drinking water (river and well), the ratio of the range can be over two orders of magnitude

  3. Source-Sink Estimates of Genetic Introgression Show Influence of Hatchery Strays on Wild Chum Salmon Populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Jasper, James R.; Habicht, Christopher; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Rich; Marsh, Jennifer; Lewis, Bert; Creelman Fox, Elisabeth; Grauvogel, Zac; Rogers Olive, Serena D.; Grant, W. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. H...

  4. Energetic balance and air pollutant emissions estimates in the Aburra Valley, 1999: A preliminary approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Perez; Francisco; Saavedra Duque, Marcela; Obregon Cardona Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    Based on the application of Material Fluxes Analysis, this paper presents the composition of the energetic basket in Valle de Aburra during 1999 and the atmospheric emissions caused by the consumption of those energetic materials. Basically, it was found that the daily energetic consumption of the system was 43,2 Tcal that generated 716 ton. by day of atmospheric contaminants as an output. The results show that the main energetic materials that participate in the global metabolism of the system, was those consumed in the transportation sector (gasoline and diesel). Therefore transportation sector contributes with the principal load of contaminants represented by carbon monoxide that overtake the 77,6% of the whole emissions

  5. Quantitative assessment of the microbial risk of leafy greens from farm to consumption: preliminary framework, data, and risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-05-01

    This project was undertaken to relate what is known about the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under laboratory conditions and integrate this information to what is known regarding the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak in the context of a quantitative microbial risk assessment. The risk model explicitly assumes that all contamination arises from exposure in the field. Extracted data, models, and user inputs were entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and the modeling software @RISK was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations. The model predicts that cut leafy greens that are temperature abused will support the growth of E. coli O157:H7, and populations of the organism may increase by as much a 1 log CFU/day under optimal temperature conditions. When the risk model used a starting level of -1 log CFU/g, with 0.1% of incoming servings contaminated, the predicted numbers of cells per serving were within the range of best available estimates of pathogen levels during the outbreak. The model predicts that levels in the field of -1 log CFU/g and 0.1% prevalence could have resulted in an outbreak approximately the size of the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. This quantitative microbial risk assessment model represents a preliminary framework that identifies available data and provides initial risk estimates for pathogenic E. coli in leafy greens. Data gaps include retail storage times, correlations between storage time and temperature, determining the importance of E. coli O157:H7 in leafy greens lag time models, and validation of the importance of cross-contamination during the washing process.

  6. Joint U.S./Russian Study on the Development of a Preliminary Cost Estimate of the SAFSTOR Decommissioning Alternative for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant Unit #1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Garrett

    1998-09-28

    The objectives of the two joint Russian/U.S. Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit #1 studies were the development of a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable decom missioning strategy, and the preliminary cost evaluation of the developed strategy. The first study, resulting in the decommissioning strategy, was performed in 1996 and 1997. The preliminary cost estimation study, described in this report, was performed in 1997 and 1998. The decommissioning strategy study included the analyses of three basic RBM.K decommission- ing alternatives, refined for the Leningrad NPP Unit #1. The analyses included analysis of the requirements for the planning and preparation as well as the decommissioning phases.

  7. Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure much-lt external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ''sling shot'' that is ''loaded'' to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10 -5 --10 -6 are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted

  8. Preliminary estimate of the costs involved in the implantation of a low and medium level radioactive waste repository in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Otavio E.A.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Alves, Paulo R.R.

    2009-01-01

    One relevant subject in the decision making process linked to the implantation of a low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository in Brazil is regarding to the project expected costs. It is important to estimate in a solid way the total and partial costs expected, considering each one of the enterprise implantation phases. This work shows an initial estimative of these costs, based on reports and papers that evaluate the implantation, operation, closure and post closure costs of radioactive LILW waste repositories. In the development of this research only the costs regarding to near surface repositories, or similar ones, were considered. The total cost was estimated as approximately 115 million dollars, considering the whole project lifetime as 300 years. Considering the repository start-up costs (site selection, licensing, project and construction), the total value is estimated as 48 million dollars (1600 dollars/m 3 ). It is important to emphasize that some cares should be taken when costs obtained from the acquired experience by another countries in the repositories development are analyzed. As example, the costs for disposal 1 m 3 of low and medium level radioactive waste vary significantly from one country to another, even when repositories with similar projects are compared. Also the total costs of construction and licensing are significantly higher when compared those ones from 'conventional' facilities with similar technological characteristics. Finally, although about a dozen low and medium level radioactive waste repository are operating in Europe, new projects should be faced, as the international practice demonstrate, as original developments. (author)

  9. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Jasper

    Full Text Available The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta in Prince William Sound (PWS, Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982 with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010 and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  10. Estimation of tumour dose enhancement due to gold nanoparticles during typical radiation treatments: a preliminary Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S H

    2005-01-01

    A recent mice study demonstrated that gold nanoparticles could be safely administered and used to enhance the tumour dose during radiation therapy. The use of gold nanoparticles seems more promising than earlier methods because of the high atomic number of gold and because nanoparticles can more easily penetrate the tumour vasculature. However, to date, possible dose enhancement due to the use of gold nanoparticles has not been well quantified, especially for common radiation treatment situations. Therefore, the current preliminary study estimated this dose enhancement by Monte Carlo calculations for several phantom test cases representing radiation treatments with the following modalities: 140 kVp x-rays, 4 and 6 MV photon beams, and 192 Ir gamma rays. The current study considered three levels of gold concentration within the tumour, two of which are based on the aforementioned mice study, and assumed either no gold or a single gold concentration level outside the tumour. The dose enhancement over the tumour volume considered for the 140 kVp x-ray case can be at least a factor of 2 at an achievable gold concentration of 7 mg Au/g tumour assuming no gold outside the tumour. The tumour dose enhancement for the cases involving the 4 and 6 MV photon beams based on the same assumption ranged from about 1% to 7%, depending on the amount of gold within the tumour and photon beam qualities. For the 192 Ir cases, the dose enhancement within the tumour region ranged from 5% to 31%, depending on radial distance and gold concentration level within the tumour. For the 7 mg Au/g tumour cases, the loading of gold into surrounding normal tissue at 2 mg Au/g resulted in an increase in the normal tissue dose, up to 30%, negligible, and about 2% for the 140 kVp x-rays, 6 MV photon beam, and 192 Ir gamma rays, respectively, while the magnitude of dose enhancement within the tumour was essentially unchanged. (note)

  11. A preliminary investigation of radar rainfall estimation in the Ardennes region and a first hydrological application for the Ourthe catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first assessment of the hydrometeorological potential of a C-band doppler weather radar recently installed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium near the village of Wideumont in the southern Ardennes region. An analysis of the vertical profile of reflectivity for two contrasting rainfall events confirms the expected differences between stratiform and convective precipitation. The mean areal rainfall over the Ourthe catchment upstream of Tabreux estimated from the Wideumont weather radar using the standard Marshall-Palmer reflectivity-rain rate relation shows biases between +128% and –42% for six selected precipitation events. For two rainfall events the radar-estimated mean areal rainfall is applied to the gauge-calibrated (lumped HBV-model for the Ourthe upstream of Tabreux, resulting in a significant underestimation with respect to the observed discharge for one event and a closer match for another. A bootstrap analysis using the radar data reveals that the uncertainty in the hourly discharge from the ~1600km2} catchment associated with the sampling uncertainty of the mean areal rainfall estimated from 10 rain gauges evenly spread over the catchment amounts to ±25% for the two events analyzed. This uncertainty is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as that associated with the model variables describing the initial state of the model.

  12. Age estimation by pulp-to-tooth area ratio using cone-beam computed tomography: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arpita; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2016-01-01

    Age estimation of living or deceased individuals is an important aspect of forensic sciences. Conventionally, pulp-to-tooth area ratio (PTR) measured from periapical radiographs have been utilized as a nondestructive method of age estimation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new method to acquire three-dimensional images of the teeth in living individuals. The present study investigated age estimation based on PTR of the maxillary canines measured in three planes obtained from CBCT image data. Sixty subjects aged 20-85 years were included in the study. For each tooth, mid-sagittal, mid-coronal, and three axial sections-cementoenamel junction (CEJ), one-fourth root level from CEJ, and mid-root-were assessed. PTR was calculated using AutoCAD software after outlining the pulp and tooth. All statistical analyses were performed using an SPSS 17.0 software program. Linear regression analysis showed that only PTR in axial plane at CEJ had significant age correlation ( r = 0.32; P < 0.05). This is probably because of clearer demarcation of pulp and tooth outline at this level.

  13. Preliminary study on the rate of broncho-pulmonary cancer in a Romanian department (Bihor) for the estimation of radon risk exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaida, T.; Maghiar, F.; Cosma, C.; Ristoiu, D.; Ramboiu, S.; Pacurar, V.; Poffijn, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is a retrospective estimation on the rate of lung cancer at the population in the Bihor district (Romania) in two years (1993 -1994) and the potential bronchopulmonary cancer risk from indoor radon. In this time were found 473 cases with primary bronchopulmonary cancer: 400 men (84.5%) and 73 women (15.4%). Most cases ( 64.4%) were from rural environment while the other 35.5% were from urban environment. Preliminary study on the potential lung cancer risk from indoor radon encompassed 40 cases and 66 non-cancer controls in the period March-July 1995. (author)

  14. Preliminary Approach on the Estimation of Ponto-Sarmatic Habitats’ Preservation in NE Romania via Herpetological Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Laurentiu STOICA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present scientific approach proposes a preliminary study on habitat suitability and factors’ influence using the herpetological indicator Vipera ursinii moldavica and is intended to depict well adapted preservation measures for the Ponto-Sarmatic ecosystems in the context of increased human pressure. The primary goal is to establish an impact hierarchy for the controlling factors. The study incorporates various natural and human related factors via correspondence analysis in order to mark out for the most influential ones. The goal is to enhance understanding of variables’ contribution to the process and find appropriate intervention measures as far as the Natura 2000 Management Plans are concerned

  15. Preliminary estimation of Vulcano of CO2 budget and continuous monitoring of summit soil CO2 flux

    OpenAIRE

    Inguaggiato, S.; Mazot, A.; Diliberto, I. S.; Rouwet, D.; Vita, F.; Capasso, G.; Bobrowski, N.; Inguaggiato, C.; Grassa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Total CO2 output from fumaroles, soil gases, bubbling and water dissolved gases were estimated at Vulcano Island, Italy. The fumaroles output has been estimated from SO2 plume flux, while soil flux emission has been carried out through 730 CO2 fluxes measured on the island surface, performed by means of accumulation chamber method. Vulcano Island, located in the Aeolian Archipelago, is an active volcano that has been in state of solphataric activity, since the last eru...

  16. A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction approach for estimating processed animal proteins in feed: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cesarina Abete

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifting of the ban on the use of processed animal proteins (PAPs from non-ruminants in non-ruminant feed is in the wind, avoiding intraspecies recycling. Discrimination of species will be performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR, which is at a moment a merely qualitative method. Nevertheless, quantification of PAPs in feed is needed. The aim of this study was to approach the quantitative determination of PAPs in feed through Real Time (RT-PCR technique; three different protocols picked up from the literature were tested. Three different kind of matrices were examined: pure animal meals (bovine, chicken and pork; one feed sample certified by the European reference laboratory on animal proteins (EURL AP in feed spiked with 0.1% bovine meal; and genomic DNAs from bovine, chicken and pork muscles. The limit of detection (LOD of the three protocols was set up. All the results obtained from the three protocols considered failed in the quantification process, most likely due to the uncertain copy numbers of the analytical targets chosen. This preliminary study will allow us to address further investigations, with the purpose of developing a RT-PCR quantitative method.

  17. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: AN UPDATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents estimates of performance levels and related costs associated with controlling mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants using either powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection or multipollutant control in which Hg capture is enhanced in existing and ne...

  18. Monitoring of German fertility: Estimation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates on the basis of preliminary monthly data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Doblhammer (Gabriele); Milewski, N. (Nadja); F. Peters (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a set of methods for estimating fertility indicators in the absence of recent and short-term birth statistics. For Germany, we propose a set of straightforward methods that allow for the computation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates (mTFR) on the basis of

  19. Preliminary Findings of Serum Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsieh, Molly; Lin, Pei-Ying

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the kidney function profile--serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and to examine the relationships of predisposing factors to abnormal serum creatinine in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Data were collected by a cross-sectional study of 827 aged 15-18 years adolescents…

  20. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach-ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of past sea-level variations based on different methods and techniques have been presented in a range of studies, including interpretation of beach ridge characteristics. In Denmark, Holocene beach ridge plains have been formed during the last c. 7700 years, a period characterised by both...... isostatic uplift and changes in eustatic sea-level, and therefore represent an archive of past relative sea-level variations. Here, we present preliminary results from investigation of beach ridges from Feddet, a small peninsula located in Faxe Bay (Baltic Sea) in the eastern part of Denmark. Feddet has...... been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet...

  1. A preliminary assessment of the potential for using caesium-137 to estimate rates of soil erosion in the Loess Plateau of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinbao

    1990-01-01

    The potential for using the radionuclide caesium-137 as an environmental tracer to indicate sources of soil erosion in the Chinese Loess Plateau is introduced. The caesium-137 contents of soil profiles have been used to estimate soil erosion losses from different topographic and land use conditions at Lishi, Shanxi Province, and Luochuan, Shaanxi Province. At uncultivated sites the caesium-137 has accumulated in the upper soil profile, whilst it has been mixed within the plough layer of cultivated soils. Eroded soils contain relatively less caesium-137, and simple calibration techniques are applied to quantify soil loss. Preliminary results suggest that caesium-137 may be of considerable value in assembling data on the rates and spatial distribution of soil loss and in identifying the source areas of eroded sediment. (author)

  2. Preliminary assessment of the potential for using cesium-137 technique to estimate rates of soil erosion on cultivated land in La Victoria I, Camaguey province of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, F.O.; Gandarilla Benitez, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a growing awareness that erosion on cultivated land in Cuba is a potential hazard to long term productivity, there is still only limited information on the rates involved, particularly long term values. The potential for using the radionuclide Caesium-137 as an environmental tracer to indicate sources of soil erosion on cultivated soils in La Victoria catchment is introduced. Use of Caesium-137 measurements to estimate rates of erosion and deposition is founded on comparison of the Caesium-137 inventories at individual sampling points with a reference inventory representing the local Caesium fallout input and thus the inventory to be expected at the site experiencing neither erosion nor deposition. Two models for converting Caesium-137 measurements to estimates of soil redistribution rates on studied site have been used, the Proportional Model and Mass Balance Model. Using the first one net soil erosion was calculated to be 17.6 t. Ha 1 - .year 1 - . Estimates of soil loss using a Mass Balance Model (Simplified Model 1 and Model 2) were found to be 30.2 and 30.6 t. Ha 1 - .year 1 - ,respectively. Preliminary results suggest that Caesium-137 technique may be of considerable value in assembling data on the rates and spatial distribution of soil loss and a reliable tool for developing of soil conservation program

  3. Population dose and health impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. Preliminary estimates for the period March 28, 1979--April 7, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battist, L.; Congel, F.; Buchanan, J.; Peterson, H.

    1979-05-01

    This report contains a preliminary assessment of the radiation dose and potential health impact of the accident on March 28, 1979 at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. This assessment was prepared by a task group composed of technical staff members from The Environmental Protection Agency, The Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and The Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The estimated dose that might have been received by an individual is less than 100 mrem. The collective dose received by the 2,164,000 people estimated to live within 50 miles of the reactor site is calculated to be 3,300 person-rem (with a range of 1600 to 5300 person-rem). This corresponds to an average dose of approximately 1.5 mrem. The potential number of fatal cancers that is projected to occur as a result of the accident is less than 1. This potential impact would be undetectable compared to the 325,000 cancer deaths that would normally be expected to occur in a population of 2,164,000. The estimated total health impact, including fatal and non-fatal cancers and genetic effects to all future generations is approximately 2 health effects

  4. Preliminary estimates of residence times and apparent ages of ground water in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and water-quality data from a survey of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John K.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Bachman, L. Joseph; Powars, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the residence times of the ground-water systems in Chesapeake Bay watershed helps resource managers anticipate potential delays between implementation of land-management practices and any improve-ments in river and estuary water quality. This report presents preliminary estimates of ground-water residence times and apparent ages of water in the shallow aquifers of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. A simple reservoir model, published data, and analyses of spring water were used to estimate residence times and apparent ages of ground-water discharge. Ranges of aquifer hydraulic characteristics throughout the Bay watershed were derived from published literature and were used to estimate ground-water residence times on the basis of a simple reservoir model. Simple combinations of rock type and physiographic province were used to delineate hydrogeomorphic regions (HGMR?s) for the study area. The HGMR?s are used to facilitate organization and display of the data and analyses. Illustrations depicting the relation of aquifer characteristics and associated residence times as a continuum for each HGMR were developed. In this way, the natural variation of aquifer characteristics can be seen graphically by use of data from selected representative studies. Water samples collected in September and November 1996, from 46 springs throughout the watershed were analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFC?s) to estimate the apparent age of ground water. For comparison purposes, apparent ages of water from springs were calculated assuming piston flow. Additi-onal data are given to estimate apparent ages assuming an exponential distribution of ages in spring discharge. Additionally, results from previous studies of CFC-dating of ground water from other springs and wells in the watershed were compiled. The CFC data, and the data on major ions, nutrients, and nitrogen isotopes in the water collected from the 46 springs are included in this report. The apparent ages of water

  5. Preliminary estimates of dose and residual activation of selected components in ring collimation straight of the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Simos, N.; Walker, J.; Mallen, A.; Wei, J.; Todosow, M.

    2000-01-01

    The highest doses to components in the SNS ring are expected to be to those located in the collimation straight section. In this paper the authors present estimated doses to magnets and cable located between collimators. In addition the buildup of relatively long half-life radioactive isotopes is estimated, following machine operation and shutdown. Finally, the potential dose to operators approaching the machine following operation and shutdown for four hours is made. The results indicate that selected components might require replacement after several years of full power operation. In addition, the reflection of gamma-rays from the tunnel walls contribute a non-negligible amount to the dose of an operator in the tunnel following machine shutdown

  6. Preliminary Upper Estimate of Peak Currents in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation at Distant Locations From a TMS Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Sergey N; Yanamadala, Janakinadh; Piazza, Matthew W; Helderman, Alex M; Thang, Niang S; Burnham, Edward H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of TMS might cause whole-body exposure to undesired induced currents in patients and TMS operators. The aim of this study is to test and justify a simple analytical model known previously, which may be helpful as an upper estimate of eddy current density at a particular distant observation point for any body composition and any coil setup. We compare the analytical solution with comprehensive adaptive mesh refinement-based FEM simulations of a detailed full-body human model, two coil types, five coil positions, about 100 000 observation points, and two distinct pulse rise times; thus, providing a representative number of different datasets for comparison, while also using other numerical data. Our simulations reveal that, after a certain modification, the analytical model provides an upper estimate for the eddy current density at any location within the body. In particular, it overestimates the peak eddy currents at distant locations from a TMS coil by a factor of 10 on average. The simple analytical model tested in this study may be valuable as a rapid method to safely estimate levels of TMS currents at different locations within a human body. At present, safe limits of general exposure to TMS electric and magnetic fields are an open subject, including fetal exposure for pregnant women.

  7. Preliminary estimation of infantile exposure to BPA based on the standard quality of baby bottles distributed in Isfahan urban society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abdi Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to estimate the bisphenol A (BPA intake from baby bottles, considering the diversity and the standard quality of the baby bottles distributed in an Isfahan urban society. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Isfahan in 2011. Baby shops ( n = 33 and drug stores ( n = 7 in four district areas were included in the study. The distribution of baby bottles was investigated regarding their brand, origin, and being labeled "BPA free." Estimation of exposure to BPA from baby bottles was made based on the national and international representative data. Results: The products marked as "BPA free" were found among the western products and limited to two of the selected areas. No "BPA free" marked baby bottle was distinguished among the Iranian made products. Of the 8% exclusively formula-fed infants, 90% may be the high consumers of BPA from polycarbonate baby bottles, with an intake of 1.5-2 μg/kg b.w./day for the moderate and 7.5-10 μg/kg b.w./day in case of worse condition. Conclusion: Considering the current globally accepted threshold daily intake (TDI for BPA, primary exposure estimation is that feeding using non-BPA-free baby bottles is not a serious health concern in Iran. Thought that threshold level of TDI is discussed to be reduced in future, improvement and revision of the national standards can be effective in reducing the exposure to BPA in Iranian infants so as to provide large margin of safety for them.

  8. Preliminary results of the ice_sheet_CCI round robin activity on the estimation of surface elevation changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ticconi, F.; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovsky, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the first results of a research activity aiming to compare estimates of Surface Elevation Changes (SEC) over the Jakobshavn Isbræ basin (Greenland) using different repeat altimetry techniques and different sensors (laser vs. radar altimetry). The goal of this comparison...... is the identification of the best performing algorithm, in terms of accuracy, coverage and processing effort, for the generation of surface elevation change maps. The methods investigated here are the cross-over and repeat-track. The results of the inter-comparison are here reported and, from a first analysis...

  9. Another look at the Grubbs estimators

    KAUST Repository

    Lombard, F.; Potgieter, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    of the estimate is to be within reasonable bounds and if negative precision estimates are to be avoided. We show that the two instrument Grubbs estimator can be improved considerably if fairly reliable preliminary information regarding the ratio of sampling unit

  10. [The estimation of systemic chemotherapy treatment administered in breast cancer on lysozyme activity in tears--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Jurowski, Piotr; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Rózalska, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of cytostatics influence used in breast cancer treatment on lysozyme activity in human tears depend on time of treatment. 8 women were treated at the base of chemotherapy schema: docetaxel with doxorubicin and 4 women treated with schema CMF: cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil. Lysozyme activity in tears was assessed by measurement of diameter zone of Micrococcus lysodeicticus growth inhibition. It was revealed that both chemotherapy schema caused statistically significant reduction of diameter zone of M. lysodeicticus growth inhibition, after first and second course of chemotherapy treatment. After second chemotherapy course CMF schema induced loss of lysozyme activity in patient's tears (zero mm of M. lysodeicticus diameter zone growth inhibition). Systemic chemotherapy administered in breast cancer induce reduction of lysozyme activity in tears, that may cause higher morbidity of ocular surface infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Preliminary methodological proposal for estimating environmental flows in projects approved by the ministry of environment and sustainable development (MADS), Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla Agudelo, Gabriel A; Rodriguez Sandoval, Erasmo A; Camacho Botero, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    A methodological proposal for estimating environmental flows in large projects approved by Agencia Nacional de Licencias Ambientales (ANLA) in Colombian rivers was developed. The project is the result of an agreement between the MADS and the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (UNC). The proposed method begins with an evaluation of hydrological criteria, continues with a hydraulic and water quality validation, and follows with the determination of habitat integrity. This is an iterative process that compares conditions before and after the project construction and allows to obtain the magnitude of a monthly flow that, besides preserving the ecological functions of the river, guarantees the water uses downstream. Regarding to the biotic component, the proposal includes the establishment and monitoring of biotic integrity indices for four aquatic communities (periphyton, macro invertebrates, riparian vegetation, and fish). The effects that flow reduction may produce in the medium and long term can be assessed by these indices. We present the results of applying the methodology to several projects licensed by the MADS.

  12. Estimation of the Levelised Electricity Generation Cost for a PWR-Power Plant and Preliminary Evaluation of National Participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, G; Hainoun, A

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with the detailed economic evaluation of the Levelised discounted electricity generation costs (LDEGC) for a nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor (PWR). The total generation costs are splited in base construction costs, supplementary costs, owner's costs, financial costs, fuel cycle costs and operation and maintenance costs. The evaluation covers also the sensitivity of the estimated energy unit cost to various factors (real annual discount rate, escalation rate, interest rate, load factor, ..) including the role of national participation, that depends upon the development of national infrastructure. For performing this study the IAEA's program package for economic bid evaluation (Bideval-3) has been employed. The program is designed to assist the user in the economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plant (NPP). It follows the recommended method of determining the present worth value of all costs components for generated electricity unit. The performed study aims at developing national expertise in the field of bid evaluation for electric power plants with main emphasis on NPP. Additional goal is to convoying the technical and economic development of NPP technology that can help in supporting the decision maker with adequate information related to the future development of energy supply system and measures required for ensuring national energy supply security. (author)

  13. A preliminary study to estimate contact rates between free-roaming domestic dogs using novel miniature cameras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtenay B Bombara

    Full Text Available Information on contacts between individuals within a population is crucial to inform disease control strategies, via parameterisation of disease spread models. In this study we investigated the use of dog-borne video cameras-in conjunction with global positioning systems (GPS loggers-to both characterise dog-to-dog contacts and to estimate contact rates. We customized miniaturised video cameras, enclosed within 3D-printed plastic cases, and attached these to nylon dog collars. Using two 3400 mAh NCR lithium Li-ion batteries, cameras could record a maximum of 22 hr of continuous video footage. Together with a GPS logger, collars were attached to six free roaming domestic dogs (FRDDs in two remote Indigenous communities in northern Australia. We recorded a total of 97 hr of video footage, ranging from 4.5 to 22 hr (mean 19.1 per dog, and observed a wide range of social behaviours. The majority (69% of all observed interactions between community dogs involved direct physical contact. Direct contact behaviours included sniffing, licking, mouthing and play fighting. No contacts appeared to be aggressive, however multiple teeth baring incidents were observed during play fights. We identified a total of 153 contacts-equating to 8 to 147 contacts per dog per 24 hr-from the videos of the five dogs with camera data that could be analysed. These contacts were attributed to 42 unique dogs (range 1 to 19 per video which could be identified (based on colour patterns and markings. Most dog activity was observed in urban (houses and roads environments, but contacts were more common in bushland and beach environments. A variety of foraging behaviours were observed, included scavenging through rubbish and rolling on dead animal carcasses. Identified food consumed included chicken, raw bones, animal carcasses, rubbish, grass and cheese. For characterising contacts between FRDD, several benefits of analysing videos compared to GPS fixes alone were identified in

  14. Some preliminary results of a worldwide seismicity estimation: a case study of seismic hazard evaluation in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Christova

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Global data have been widely used for seismicity and seismic hazard assessment by seismologists. In the present study we evaluate worldwide seismicity in terms of maps of maximum observed magnitude (Mmax, seismic moment (M 0 and seismic moment rate (M 0S. The data set used consists of a complete and homogeneous global catalogue of shallow (h £ 60 km earthquakes of magnitude MS ³ 5.5 for the time period 1894-1992. In order to construct maps of seismicity and seismic hazard the parameters a and b derived from the magnitude-frequency relationship were estimated by both: a the least squares, and b the maximum likelihood, methods. The values of a and b were determined considering circles centered at each grid point 1° (of a mesh 1° ´1° and of varying radius, which starts from 30 km and moves with a step of 10 km. Only a and b values which fulfill some predefined conditions were considered in the further procedure for evaluating the seismic hazard maps. The obtained worldwide M max distribution in general delineates the contours of the plate boundaries. The highest values of M max observed are along the circum-Pacific belt and in the Himalayan area. The subduction plate boundaries are characterized by the largest amount of M 0 , while areas of continental collision are next. The highest values of seismic moment rate (per 1 year and per equal area of 10 000 km 2 are found in the Southern Himalayas. The western coasts of U.S.A., Northwestern Canada and Alaska, the Indian Ocean and the eastern rift of Africa are characterized by high values of M 0 , while most of the Pacific subduction zones have lower values of seismic moment rate. Finally we analyzed the seismic hazard in South America comparing the predicted by the NUVEL1 model convergence slip rate between Nazca and South America plates with the average slip rate due to earthquakes. This consideration allows for distinguishing between zones of high and low coupling along the studied convergence

  15. PRELIMINARY METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR ESTIMATING ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS IN PROJECTS APPROVED BY THE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (MADS, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Pinilla Agudelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A methodological proposal for estimating environmental flows in large projects approved by Agencia Nacional de Licencias Ambientales (ANLA in Colombian rivers was developed. The project is the result of an agreement between the MADS and the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (UNC. The proposed method begins with an evaluation of hydrological criteria,continues with a hydraulic and water quality validation, and follows with the determination of habitat integrity. This is an iterative process that compares conditions before and after the project construction and allows to obtain the magnitude of a monthly flow that, besides preserving the ecological functions of the river, guarantees the water uses downstream. Regarding to the biotic component, the proposal includes the establishment and monitoring of biotic integrity indices for four aquatic communities (periphyton, macroinvertebrates, riparian vegetation, and fish. The effects that flow reduction may produce in the medium and long term can be assessed by these indices. We present the results of applying the methodology to several projects licensed by the MADS. RESUMEN Se presenta una propuesta metodológica para estimar los caudales ambientales en grandes proyectos licenciados por la Agencia Nacional de Licencias Ambientales (ANLA de Colombia, resultado de un convenio interadministrativo suscrito entre el ahora Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible (MADS de Colombia y la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (UNC. El método propuesto parte de garantizar criterios hidrológicos, continúa con una validación hidráulica y de calidad del agua, sigue con la determinación de la integridad del hábitat, en un proceso iterativo que requiere evaluación para las condiciones antes y después de la construcción del proyecto y que permite establecer un caudal que, además de conservar las funciones ecológicas del río, garantiza los usos del recurso aguas abajo. Espec

  16. Preliminary evaluation of an algorithm to minimize the power error selection of an aspheric intraocular lens by optimizing the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Piñero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the refractive predictability achieved with an aspheric intraocular lens(IOLand to develop a preliminary optimized algorithm for the calculation of its power(PIOL.METHODS: This study included 65 eyes implanted with the aspheric IOL LENTIS L-313(Oculentis GmbHthat were divided into 2 groups: 12 eyes(8 patientswith PIOL≥23.0 D(group A, and 53 eyes(35 patientswith PIOLIOLadjwas calculated considering a variable refractive index for corneal power estimation, the refractive outcome obtained, and an adjusted effective lens position(ELPadjaccording to age and anatomical factors. RESULTS: Postoperative spherical equivalent ranged from -0.75 to +0.75 D and from -1.38 to +0.75 D in groups A and B, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in groups A(P=0.64and B(P=0.82between PIOLadj and the IOL power implanted(PIOLReal. The Bland and Altman analysis showed ranges of agreement between PIOLadj and PIOLReal of +1.11 to -0.96 D and +1.14 to -1.18 D in groups A and B, respectively. Clinically and statistically significant differences were found between PIOLadj and PIOL obtained with Hoffer Q and Holladay I formulas(PCONCLUSION: The refractive predictability of cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric IOL can be optimized using paraxial optics combined with linear algorithms to minimize the error associated to the estimation of corneal power and ELP.

  17. Selective Photothermolysis to target Sebaceous Glands: Theoretical Estimation of Parameters and Preliminary Results Using a Free Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernanda Sakamoto, Apostolos Doukas, William Farinelli, Zeina Tannous, Michelle D. Shinn, Stephen Benson, Gwyn P. Williams, H. Dylla, Richard Anderson

    2011-12-01

    The success of permanent laser hair removal suggests that selective photothermolysis (SP) of sebaceous glands, another part of hair follicles, may also have merit. About 30% of sebum consists of fats with copious CH2 bond content. SP was studied in vitro, using free electron laser (FEL) pulses at an infrared CH2 vibrational absorption wavelength band. Absorption spectra of natural and artificially prepared sebum were measured from 200 nm to 3000 nm, to determine wavelengths potentially able to target sebaceous glands. The Jefferson National Accelerator superconducting FEL was used to measure photothermal excitation of aqueous gels, artificial sebum, pig skin, human scalp and forehead skin (sebaceous sites). In vitro skin samples were exposed to FEL pulses from 1620 to 1720 nm, spot diameter 7-9.5 mm with exposure through a cold 4C sapphire window in contact with the skin. Exposed and control tissue samples were stained using H and E, and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride staining (NBTC) was used to detect thermal denaturation. Natural and artificial sebum both had absorption peaks near 1210, 1728, 1760, 2306 and 2346 nm. Laser-induced heating of artificial sebum was approximately twice that of water at 1710 and 1720 nm, and about 1.5x higher in human sebaceous glands than in water. Thermal camera imaging showed transient focal heating near sebaceous hair follicles. Histologically, skin samples exposed to {approx}1700 nm, {approx}100-125 ms pulses showed evidence of selective thermal damage to sebaceous glands. Sebaceous glands were positive for NBTC staining, without evidence of selective loss in samples exposed to the laser. Epidermis was undamaged in all samples. Conclusions: SP of sebaceous glands appears to be feasible. Potentially, optical pulses at {approx}1720 nm or {approx}1210 nm delivered with large beam diameter and appropriate skin cooling in approximately 0.1 s may provide an alternative treatment for acne.

  18. Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

  19. Preliminary study on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal properties of mobile phone components for dose estimation in radiation accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byeong Ryong; Ha, Wi Ho; Park, Sun Hoo; Lee, Jin Kyeong; Lee, Seung Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We have investigated the EPR signal properties in 12 components of two mobile phones (LCD, OLED) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer in this study.EPR measurements were performed at normal atmospheric conditions using Bruker EXEXSYS-II E500 spectrometer with X-band bridge, and samples were irradiated by {sup 137}C{sub s} gamma-ray source. To identify the presence of radiation-induced signal (RIS), the EPR spectra of each sample were measured unirradiated and irradiated at 50 Gy. Then, dose-response curve and signal intensity variating by time after irradiation were measured. As a result, the signal intensity increased after irradiation in all samples except the USIM plastic and IC chip. Among the samples, cover glass(CG), lens, light guide plate(LGP) and diffusion sheet have shown fine linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.99). Especially, the LGP had ideal characteristics for dosimetry because there were no signal in 0 Gy and high rate of increase in RIS. However, this sample showed weakness in fading. Signal intensity of LGP and Diffusion Sheet decreased by 50% within 72 hours after irradiation, while signals of Cover Glass and Lens were stably preserved during the short period of time. In order to apply rapidly EPR dosimetry using mobile phone components in large-scale radiation accidents, further studies on signal differences for same components of the different mobile phone, fading, pretreatment of samples and processing of background signal are needed. However, it will be possible to do dosimetry by dose-additive method or comparative method using unirradiated same product in small-scale accident.

  20. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing from Combined A-Train Observations - Preliminary Comparisons with AeroCom Models and Pathways to Observationally Based All-sky Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Russell, P. B.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Rogers, R. R.; Burton, S. P.; Torres, O.; Remer, L. A.; Stier, P.; Schutgens, N.

    2014-12-01

    We describe a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) retrievals for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Use of the recently released MODIS Collection 6 data for aerosol optical depths derived with the dark target and deep blue algorithms has extended the coverage of the multi-sensor estimates towards higher latitudes. Initial calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals compare well with over-ocean and top of the atmosphere IPCC-2007 model-based results, and with more recent assessments in the "Climate Change Science Program Report: Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts" (2009). For the first time, we present comparisons of our multi-sensor aerosol direct radiative forcing estimates to values derived from a subset of models that participated in the latest AeroCom initiative. We discuss the major challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed.

  1. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size

  2. Poster abstract: Water level estimation in urban ultrasonic/passive infrared flash flood sensor networks using supervised learning

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    floods occur very rarely, we use a supervised learning approach to estimate the correction to the ultrasonic rangefinder caused by temperature fluctuations. Preliminary data shows that water level can be estimated with an absolute error of less than 2 cm

  3. A-Train Aerosol Observations Preliminary Comparisons with AeroCom Models and Pathways to Observationally Based All-Sky Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Russell, P.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Rogers, R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) retrievals for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Use of the recently released MODIS Collection 6 data for aerosol optical depths derived with the dark target and deep blue algorithms has extended the coverage of the multi-sensor estimates towards higher latitudes. We compare the spatio-temporal distribution of our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals and calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on the aerosol retrievals to values derived from four models that participated in the latest AeroCom model intercomparison initiative. We find significant inter-model differences, in particular for the aerosol single scattering albedo, which can be evaluated using the multi-sensor A-Train retrievals. We discuss the major challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed.

  4. A brief review on newborn screening methods for hemoglobinopathies and preliminary results selecting beta thalassemia carriers at birth by quantitative estimation of the HbA fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantikou, Eleni; Arkesteijn, Sandra G; Beckhoven van, Jaqueline M; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Giordano, Piero Carlo

    2009-12-01

    We present in a brief summary the basic aspects of the most rational technologies used for new born screening (NBS) of the hemoglobinopathies and we report the preliminary results for the identification of beta-thalassemia carriers at birth by measuring the expression of the HbA fraction. Separation and measurement of the Hb fractions in 1.500 cord blood samples collected among the multi-ethnic Dutch population using different methods. By using a cut of thalassemia can be preselected at birth with a reasonable degree of sensitivity and be confirmed by parent analysis.

  5. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  6. Estimation of the Relative Severity of Floods in Small Ungauged Catchments for Preliminary Observations on Flash Flood Preparedness: A Case Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

    2012-01-01

    An increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration has caused significant danger and loss of life and property in Korea as well as many other parts of the World. Since such floods usually accompanied by rapid runoff and debris flow rise quite quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage, this study presents a new flash flood indexing methodology to promptly provide preliminary observations regarding emergency preparedness and response to flash flood disasters in small ungauged catchments. Flood runoff hydrographs are generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the annual maximum rainfall series of long-term observed data in the two selected small ungauged catchments. The relative flood severity factors quantifying characteristics of flood runoff hydrographs are standardized by the highest recorded maximum value, and then averaged to obtain the flash flood index only for flash flood events in each study catchment. It is expected that the regression equations between the proposed flash flood index and rainfall characteristics can provide the basis database of the preliminary information for forecasting the local flood severity in order to facilitate flash flood preparedness in small ungauged catchments. PMID:22690208

  7. The value of estimating serum apoptotic marker concentrations in the monitoring and prognosis of 131I -therapy in Graves disease. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogowski, F.; Parfienczyk, A.; Sopotyk, A.; Budlewski, T.; Szumowski, P.; Jablonska, E.; Kiersnowska-Rogowska, B.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of radioiodine ( 131I ) in Graves disease (GD) is probably due to the direct physical destruction of thyrocytes by beta radiation, and by the indirect action through stimulation of apoptosis in these cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes in serum concentrations of sFas and sFasL as stimulators of apoptosis, and Bcl-2 as an inhibitor of apoptosis in patients with GD following 131I administration. The study was performed on 30 patients with GD (29 female and 1 male aged 25-45). All patients were euthyroid (biochemical and clinical) prior to radioiodine therapy. The target absorbed dose ranged between 90 and 160 Gy. We assessed markers of apoptosis and hormone concentrations (fT3, fT4 and TSH) in the following manner: before 131I administration, then two weeks, one month, two, three, four, and five months after 131I administration. After four months, the concentrations of sFas and sFasL rose by 50% and decreased during the next month. Pretherapeutic concentrations of Bcl-2 were elevated, and peaked two weeks after ingestion, showing a gradual decrease with time. We found a significant increase in serum TSH, and a decrease of fT3 and fT4 concentrations by the end of the third month of radioiodine therapy. Decreases in serum levels of sFas and sFasL and increases of Bcl-2 are regarded as characteristic for GD patients before radioiodine therapy. Radioiodine therapy reverses the ratio of estimated markers after four months. The concentrations of hormones reflect actual thyroid function, whereas concentrations of markers of apoptosis may suggest morphological changes. (author)

  8. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta,, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of the Effects of Buried Volcanoes on Estimates of Volcano Probability for the Proposed Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B. E.; La Femina, P. C.; Stamatakos, J.; Connor, C. B.

    2002-12-01

    Probability models that calculate the likelihood of new volcano formation in the Yucca Mountain (YM) area depend on the timing and location of past volcanic activity. Previous spatio-temporal patterns indicated a 10-4 to 10-3 probability of volcanic disruption of the proposed radioactive waste repository site at YM during the 10,000 year post-closure performance period (Connor et al. 2000, JGR 105:1). A recent aeromagnetic survey (Blakely et al. 2000, USGS OFR 00-188), however, identified up to 20 anomalies in alluvium-filled basins, which have characteristics indicative of buried basalt (O'Leary et al. 2002, USGS OFR 02-020). Independent evaluation of these data, combined with new ground magnetic surveys, shows that these anomalies may represent at least ten additional buried basaltic volcanoes, which have not been included in previous probability calculations. This interpretation, if true, nearly doubles the number of basaltic volcanoes within 30 km [19 mi] of YM. Moreover, the magnetic signature of about half of the recognized basaltic volcanoes in the YM area cannot be readily identified in areas where bedrock also produces large amplitude magnetic anomalies, suggesting that additional volcanoes may be present but undetected in the YM area. In the absence of direct age information, we evaluate the potential effects of alternative age assumptions on spatio-temporal probability models. Interpreted burial depths of >50 m [164 ft] suggest ages >2 Ma, based on sedimentation rates typical for these alluvial basins (Stamatakos et al., 1997, J. Geol. 105). Defining volcanic events as individual points, previous probability models generally used recurrence rates of 2-5 volcanoes/million years (v/Myr). If the identified anomalies are buried volcanoes that are all >5 Ma or uniformly distributed between 2-10 Ma, calculated probabilities of future volcanic disruption at YM change by <30%. However, a uniform age distribution between 2-5 Ma for the presumed buried volcanoes

  10. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  11. Preliminary Estimates of 1972-73 Full-Time Instructional Faculty in Institutions of Higher Education. Bulletin. Advanced Statistics for Management. No. 14, March 1, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Educational Statistics (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to needs expressed by the community of higher education institutions, the National Center for Educational Statistics has produced early estimates of a selected group of mean salaries of instructional faculty in institutions of higher education in 1972-73. The number and salaries of male and female instructional staff by rank are of…

  12. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...... and flexure and show that localized cable bending has a pronounced influence on the fatigue resistance of cables under dynamic excitations....

  13. A hydrogen production experiment by the thermo-chemical and electrolytic hybrid hydrogen production in lower temperature range. System viability and preliminary thermal efficiency estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Toshihide; Nakagiri, Toshio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2008-10-01

    A new experimental apparatus by the thermo-chemical and electrolytic Hybrid-Hydrogen production in Lower Temperature range (HHLT) was developed and hydrogen production experiment was performed to confirm the system operability. Hydrogen production efficiency was estimated and technical problems were clarified through the experimental results. Stable operation of the SO 3 electrolysis cell and the sulfur dioxide solution electrolysis cell were confirmed during experimental operation and any damage which would be affected solid operation was not detected under post operation inspection. To improve hydrogen production efficiency, it was found that the reduction of sulfuric acid circulation and the decrease in the cell voltage were key issues. (author)

  14. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  15. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  16. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  18. A CT-ultrasound-coregistered augmented reality enhanced image-guided surgery system and its preliminary study on brain-shift estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C H; Hsieh, C H; Lee, J D; Huang, W C; Lee, S T; Wu, C T; Sun, Y N; Wu, Y T

    2012-01-01

    With the combined view on the physical space and the medical imaging data, augmented reality (AR) visualization can provide perceptive advantages during image-guided surgery (IGS). However, the imaging data are usually captured before surgery and might be different from the up-to-date one due to natural shift of soft tissues. This study presents an AR-enhanced IGS system which is capable to correct the movement of soft tissues from the pre-operative CT images by using intra-operative ultrasound images. First, with reconstructing 2-D free-hand ultrasound images to 3-D volume data, the system applies a Mutual-Information based registration algorithm to estimate the deformation between pre-operative and intra-operative ultrasound images. The estimated deformation transform describes the movement of soft tissues and is then applied to the pre-operative CT images which provide high-resolution anatomical information. As a result, the system thus displays the fusion of the corrected CT images or the real-time 2-D ultrasound images with the patient in the physical space through a head mounted display device, providing an immersive augmented-reality environment. For the performance validation of the proposed system, a brain phantom was utilized to simulate brain-shift scenario. Experimental results reveal that when the shift of an artificial tumor is from 5mm ∼ 12mm, the correction rates can be improved from 32% ∼ 45% to 87% ∼ 95% by using the proposed system.

  19. 商標侵權案件定暫時狀態處分審酌因素之釋明──以eBay案後美國法發展與我國判決實務為中心 The Preliminary Showing on the Factors of Preliminary Injunction in Trademark Infringement Cases─Focusing on American Law after the eBay Case and Taiwan Court Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    范智達 Jr-Da Fan

    2015-12-01

    要求原告花費額外資源去釋明本案勝訴可能性以外之其他因素事實。 In eBay v. MercExchange (2006, the U.S. Supreme Court held that courts must apply the traditional four-factor test for injunctive relief in every case. These “principles of equity” required courts to employ the traditional four-factor test under which the plaintiff must demonstrate (1 a likelihood of success of the merits; (2 the existence of irreparable harm; (3 that the balance of hardships tilts in favor of injunctive relief; and (4 that granting an injunction would not harm the public interest. But when assessing whether a particular instance of trademark infringement resulted in “irreparable harm” U.S. federal courts almost uniformly presumed such irreparable harm upon a finding of likelihood of confusion. In fact, the eBay rules should not be used to eviscerate the normal presumption of irreparable harm that attaches upon a showing of liability in trademark cases. In our country when granting or denying preliminary injunction of trademark infringement cases, the plaintiff often provides a preliminary showing with regard to the existence of legal relation and trademark infringement documentary evidence, not actively providing the existence of irreparable harm, that the balance of hardships tilts in favor of injunctive relief and that an injunction is in the public interest. The court reviewing an application for preliminary injunction deliberates on the likelihood of success on the merits as the most important consideration. Compared with patent and copyright cases of the discretion of the preliminary injunction, the court mainly deliberates on the likelihood of success and the existence of irreparable harm as the most important factor. It is clear intellectual property cases, especially trademark cases on the set of preliminary injunction claim, do not require the plaintiff to take the burden of all factors of trial discretion in Taiwan. Because these harms to

  20. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  1. Estimation of kidneys and urinary bladder doses based on the region of interest in 18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography examination: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Farida Aimi; Bashah, Farahnaz Ahmad Anwar; Yassin, Ihsan M; Fathinul Fikri, Ahmad Saad; Nordin, Abdul Jalil; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal

    2017-06-01

    Kidneys and urinary bladder are common physiologic uptake sites of 18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) causing increased exposure of low energy ionizing radiation to these organs. Accurate measurement of organ dose is vital as 18 F-FDG is directly exposed to the organs. Organ dose from 18 F-FDG PET is calculated according to the injected 18 F-FDG activity with the application of dose coefficients established by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). But this dose calculation technique is not directly measured from these organs; rather it is calculated based on total injected activity of radiotracer prior to scanning. This study estimated the 18 F-FDG dose to the kidneys and urinary bladder in whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination by comparing dose from total injected activity of 18 F-FDG (calculated dose) and dose from organs activity based on the region of interest (ROI) (measured dose). Nine subjects were injected intravenously with the mean 18 F-FDG dose of 292.42 MBq prior to whole body PET/CT scanning. Kidneys and urinary bladder doses were estimated by using two approaches which are the total injected activity of 18 F-FDG and organs activity concentration of 18 F-FDG based on drawn ROI with the application of recommended dose coefficients for 18 F-FDG described in the ICRP 80 and ICRP 106. The mean percentage difference between calculated dose and measured dose ranged from 98.95% to 99.29% for the kidneys based on ICRP 80 and 98.96% to 99.32% based on ICRP 106. Whilst, the mean percentage difference between calculated dose and measured dose was 97.08% and 97.27% for urinary bladder based on ICRP 80 while 96.99% and 97.28% based on ICRP 106. Whereas, the range of mean percentage difference between calculated and measured organ doses derived from ICRP 106 and ICRP 80 for kidney doses were from 17.00% to 40.00% and for urinary bladder dose was 18.46% to 18.75%. There is a significant

  2. TU-F-CAMPUS-I-03: Preliminary Study of Size-Specific Dose Estimates in Adult Abdomenal CT Examinations in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, H; Hu, Y; Hwang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to investigate size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) for routine adult abdominal CT examinations in Taiwan. Methods: A national survey was conducted in Taiwan in 2014 to investigate SSDEs for routine adult abdominal CT examinations. The hospitals involved in this study provided CT images of their typical patients. The CT image in the level of the middle liver was selected to record the corresponding tube current, slice mAs or effective mAs. The image was also used to estimate the dimensions of patient as measuring the lengths in the anterior to posterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) directions. The effective diameter was then calculated from AP and LAT, and used to look up conversion factors in the AAPM 204 report. The volume CTDI (CTDIvol) for each CT unit was measured on sites using a 32-cm cylindrical standard dose phantom and a calibrated pencil-type ionization chamber. Individual patient’s SSDEs were then calculated from the corresponding SSDE conversion factor and the CTDIvol. Results: The study cohort included 111 CT units. The ratio of turning on automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) or not is 88:23. Effective diameters are 258.7±25.1 mm (167–366 mm). 99.3% of typical patients selected by each hospital have smaller effective diameter than the 32-cm dosimetry phantom. Adult abdomenal SSDE is 17.5 ± 8.8 mGy (1.9-58 mGy). The SSDE seems to decrease as the effective diameter increases as the ATCM turns off, and independent with the effective diameter as the ATCM turns on. Conclusion: The SSDE for typical patients in Taiwan was investigated. We continue to complete this investigation in 2015 to include more valid data to establish SSDE reference level in Taiwan. This study was financially supported by the Atomic Energy Council in Taiwan

  3. Preliminary estimates of the total-system cost for the restructured program: An addendum to the May 1989 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 - a fee levied on electricity generated and sold by commercial nuclear power plants - is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The costs contained in this report represent a preliminary analysis of the cost impacts associated with the Secretary of Energy's Report to Congress on Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program issued in November 1989. The major elements of the restructured program announced in this report which pertain to the program's life-cycle costs are: a prioritization of the scientific investigations program at the Yucca Mountain candidate site to focus on identification of potentially adverse conditions, a delay in the start of repository operations until 2010, the start of limited waste acceptance at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in 1998, and the start of waste acceptance at the full-capability MRS facility in 2,000. Based on the restructured program, the total-system cost for the system with a repository at the candidate site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $26 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $34 to $35 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) requiring disposal. 17 figs., 17 tabs

  4. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  5. Estimate of the Costs Caused by Adverse Effects in Hospitalised Patients Due to Hip Fracture: Design of the Study and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cuesta-Peredo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hip fracture is a health problem that presents high morbidity and mortality, negatively influencing the patient’s quality of life and generating high costs. Structured analysis of quality indicators can facilitate decision-making, cost minimization, and improvement of the quality of care. Methods: We studied 1571 patients aged 70 years and over with the diagnosis of hip fracture at Hospital Universitario de la Ribera in the period between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2016. Demographic, clinical, functional, and quality indicator variables were studied. An indirect analysis of the costs associated with adverse events arising during hospital admission was made. A tool based on the “Minimum Basic Data Set (CMBD” was designed to monitor the influence of patient risk factors on the incidence of adverse effects (AE and their associated costs. Results: The average age of the patients analysed was 84.15 years (SD 6.28, with a length of stay of 8.01 days (SD 3.32, a mean preoperative stay of 43.04 h (SD 30.81, and a mortality rate of 4.2%. Likewise, the percentage of patients with AE was 41.44%, and 11.01% of patients changed their cost as a consequence of these AEs suffered during hospital admission. The average cost of patients was €8752 (SD: 1,864 and the average cost increase in patients with adverse events was €2321 (SD: 3,164. Conclusions: Through the analysis of the main clinical characteristics and the indirect estimation of the complexity of the patients, a simple calculation of the average cost of the attention and its adverse events can be designed in patients who are admitted due to hip fracture. Additionally, this tool can fit the welfare quality indicators by severity and cost.

  6. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RELAP5 SIMULATION OF DVI LINE BREAK ACCIDENT IN THE ATLAS FACILITY USING BEST ESTIMATE PLUS UNCERTAINTY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah

    2017-03-01

    STUDI AWAL SIMULASI KECELAKAAN PUTUSNYA JALUR DVI PADA FASILITAS ATLAS MENGGUNAKAN RELAP5 DENGAN METODE ESTIMASI TERBAIK DAN KETIDAKPASTIAN. Metode Best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU adalah metode analisis keselamatan deterministik yang bertujuan untuk melakukan evaluasi keterbatasan program perhitungan dalam mensimulasikan sifat-sifat fisis instalasi secara realistik dengan mengkuantifikasi rentang ketidakpastian dari hasil perhitungan. Metode tersebut telah diterima secara luas dalam perijinan PLTN oleh badan pengatur dunia seperti di Amerika (USNRC, di Argentina, dan Kanada. Evaluasi ketidakpastian dalam metode BEPU dilakukan dengan beberapa metode yang berbeda seperti GRS, IRSN, ENUSA, AEAT, dan UNIPI. Atas dasar kompleksitas metode-metode yang lain, tujuan makalah ini adalah untuk menggambarkan aspek penting dari proses BEPU dengan metode GRS dengan melakukan simulasi putusnya jalur DVI sebesar 50% luasan pada fasilitas ATLAS karena analisis keselamatan yang dilakukan selama ini baru berupa perkiraan terbaik secara deterministik. Sebagai perbandingan dari simulasi perkiraan terbaik yang dilakukan dengan RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.4 digunakan data-data eksperimen yang telah terdokumentasi. Setelah dilakukan 100 simulasi, rentang ketidakpastian dari transien temperatur puncak kelongsong pemanas dan tekanan primer hanya mendekati data eksperimen pada 250 detik di periode awal. Oleh karena itu keakuratan dari simulasi perkiraan terbaik secara keseluruhan memiliki peranan penting pada hasil akhir dari analisis ketidakpastian karena perambatan perbedaan dengan data eksperimen akan terus terjadi selama simulasi. Setelah itu, pemilihan parameter yang penting untuk dikembangkan secara random harus dilakukan secara cermat dengan mempelajari fenomena-fenomena penting yang terkait dengan kejadian yang dianalisis dan model instalasinya. Kata kunci: perkiraan terbaik dan ketidakpastian, putusnya jalur DVI, fasilitas ATLAS, RELAP5, simulasi

  7. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Gulf Interior Region, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility on the Richton Dome, Mississippi. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description and Construction Cost Estimate

  8. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Paradox Basin. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Paradox Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Paradox Basin, Utah. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling Method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers is included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references

  9. Another look at the Grubbs estimators

    KAUST Repository

    Lombard, F.

    2012-01-01

    We consider estimation of the precision of a measuring instrument without the benefit of replicate observations on heterogeneous sampling units. Grubbs (1948) proposed an estimator which involves the use of a second measuring instrument, resulting in a pair of observations on each sampling unit. Since the precisions of the two measuring instruments are generally different, these observations cannot be treated as replicates. Very large sample sizes are often required if the standard error of the estimate is to be within reasonable bounds and if negative precision estimates are to be avoided. We show that the two instrument Grubbs estimator can be improved considerably if fairly reliable preliminary information regarding the ratio of sampling unit variance to instrument variance is available. Our results are presented in the context of the evaluation of on-line analyzers. A data set from an analyzer evaluation is used to illustrate the methodology. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  11. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  12. Preliminary Outcomes from an Integrated Pediatric Mental Health Outpatient Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Banny, Adrienne; Pollock, McLean; Stefureac, Kristen; Rosa, Kendra; Walter, Barbara Keith; Hobbs Knutson, Katherine; Lucas, Joseph; Heilbron, Nicole

    2017-10-01

    An estimated 1 in 5 children in the United States meet criteria for a diagnosable mental disorder, yet fewer than 20% receive mental health services. Unmet need for psychiatric treatment may contribute to patterns of increasing use of the emergency department. This article describes an integrated pediatric evaluation center designed to prevent the need for treatment in emergency settings by increasing access to timely and appropriate care for emergent and critical mental health needs. Preliminary results showed that the center provided rapid access to assessment and treatment services for children and adolescents presenting with a wide range of psychiatric concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  14. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  15. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  16. Preliminary GRS Measurement of Chlorine Distribution on Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Boynton, W. V.; Taylor, G. J.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K.

    2003-12-01

    Ongoing measurements with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard Mars Odyssey provide preliminary detection of chlorine at the surface of Mars. Summing all data since boom deployment and using a forward calculation model, we estimate values for chlorine concentration at 5° resolution. Rebinning this data and smoothing with a 15-degree-radius boxcar filter reveal regions of noticeable chlorine enrichment at scales larger than the original 5° resolution and allow for preliminary comparison with previous Mars datasets. Analyzing chlorine concentrations within 30 degrees of the equator, we find a negative correlation with thermal inertia (R2=0.55) and positive correlation with albedo (R2=0.52), indicating that chlorine is associated with fine, non-rock surface materials. Although possibly a smoothing artifact, the spatial correlation is more noticeable in the region covering Tharsis and Amazonis than around Arabia and Elysium. Additionally, a noticeable region of chlorine enrichment appears west of Tharsis Montes ( ˜0 to 20N, ˜110 to 150W) and chlorine concentration is estimated to vary in the equatorial region by over a factor of two. A simplified two-component model involving chlorine-poor rocks and a homogenous chlorine-rich fine material requires rock abundance to vary from zero to over 50%, a result inconsistent with previous measurements and models. In addition to variations in rock composition and distribution, substantial variations in chlorine content of various types of fine materials including dust, sand, and duricrust appear important in explaining this preliminary observation. Surprisingly, visual comparison of surface units mapped by Christensen and Moore (1992) does not show enrichment in chlorine associated with regions of indurated surfaces, where cementation has been proposed. Rather, Tharsis, a region of active deposition with proposed mantling of 0.1 to 2 meters of recent dust (Christensen 1986), shows the greatest chlorine signal. In light of

  17. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  18. Preliminary deformation model for National Seismic Hazard map of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Sarsito, Dina; Prijatna, Kosasih; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z. [Geodesy Research Division, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Susilo,; Efendi, Joni [Agency for Geospatial Information (BIG) (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Preliminary deformation model for the Indonesia’s National Seismic Hazard (NSH) map is constructed as the block rotation and strain accumulation function at the elastic half-space. Deformation due to rigid body motion is estimated by rotating six tectonic blocks in Indonesia. The interseismic deformation due to subduction is estimated by assuming coupling on subduction interface while deformation at active fault is calculated by assuming each of the fault‘s segment slips beneath a locking depth or in combination with creeping in a shallower part. This research shows that rigid body motion dominates the deformation pattern with magnitude more than 15 mm/year, except in the narrow area near subduction zones and active faults where significant deformation reach to 25 mm/year.

  19. Variance Function Estimation. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    UNLSIFIED RFOSR-TR-87-±112 F49620-85-C-O144 F/C 12/3 NL EEEEEEh LOUA28~ ~ L53 11uLoo MICROOP REOUINTS-’HR ------ N L E U INARF-% - IS %~1 %i % 0111...and 9 jointly. If 7,, 0. and are any preliminary estimators for 71, 6. and 3. define 71 and 6 to be the solutions of (4.1) N1 IN2 (7., ’ Td " ~ - / =0P

  20. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  1. Preliminary Experiments for the Assessment of VW-Band Links for Space-Earth Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Roberto J.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2013-01-01

    Since September 2012, NASA Glenn Research Center has deployed a microwave profiling radiometer at White Sands, NM, to estimate atmospheric propagation effects on communications links in the V and W bands (71-86GHz). Estimates of attenuation statistics in the millimeter wave due to gaseous and cloud components of the atmosphere show good agreement with current ITU-R models, but fail to predict link performance in the presence of moderate to heavy rain rates, due to the inherent limitations of passive radiometry. Herein, we discuss the preliminary results of these measurements and describe a design for a terrestrial link experiment to validaterefine existing rain attenuation models in the VW-bands.

  2. Bayesian Simultaneous Estimation for Means in k Sample Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Ryo; Kubokawa, Tatsuya; Ghosh, Malay

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the simultaneous estimation of k population means when one suspects that the k means are nearly equal. As an alternative to the preliminary test estimator based on the test statistics for testing hypothesis of equal means, we derive Bayesian and minimax estimators which shrink individual sample means toward a pooled mean estimator given under the hypothesis. Interestingly, it is shown that both the preliminary test estimator and the Bayesian minimax shrinkage esti...

  3. Preliminary pharmacognostic screening of Achyranthes coynei stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Upadhya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyranthes coynei is a rare, endemic perennial shrub reported from Karnataka and Maharashtra states of India. The plant is used to treat various disorders by folk healers and was proven to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate microscopic and macroscopic characters of A. coynei stem, along with its physicochemical parameters. ProgRes ® CapturePro and Microsoft Excel were used for statistical analysis. Perennial, shrubby nature and woody stem were the distinguishing morphological characters observed. Transverse section (TS illustrated quadrangular outline of the stem and showed the presence of two types of trichomes on the thick-walled epidermis. TS also showed number of rosette calcium oxalates crystals; prismatic and microsphenoid crystals; conjoint, collateral open secondary vascular bundles; and two amphixylic medullary bundles in the pith. Ash and extractive values, micro and macro elements and nutritive factors were estimated in the present study. The presence of alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were observed in preliminary phytochemical screening. High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis yielded different bands and also indicated the presence of oleanolic acid. The studied parameters for A. coynei stem will be useful for identification and authentication of the plant material.

  4. Preliminary pharmacognostic screening of Achyranthes coynei stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M; Pai, Sandeep R; Hegde, Shruti V; Hegde, Harsha V

    2015-01-01

    Achyranthes coynei is a rare, endemic perennial shrub reported from Karnataka and Maharashtra states of India. The plant is used to treat various disorders by folk healers and was proven to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate microscopic and macroscopic characters of A. coynei stem, along with its physicochemical parameters. ProgRes(®) CapturePro and Microsoft Excel were used for statistical analysis. Perennial, shrubby nature and woody stem were the distinguishing morphological characters observed. Transverse section (TS) illustrated quadrangular outline of the stem and showed the presence of two types of trichomes on the thick-walled epidermis. TS also showed number of rosette calcium oxalates crystals; prismatic and microsphenoid crystals; conjoint, collateral open secondary vascular bundles; and two amphixylic medullary bundles in the pith. Ash and extractive values, micro and macro elements and nutritive factors were estimated in the present study. The presence of alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were observed in preliminary phytochemical screening. High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis yielded different bands and also indicated the presence of oleanolic acid. The studied parameters for A. coynei stem will be useful for identification and authentication of the plant material.

  5. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  6. Preliminary results of an oilspill risk analysis for the Bombay High Region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Gouveia, A.D.; Sitaraman, R.

    oil were analysed, covering estimates of the time between spill occurrence and contact with resources. The combined results yielded estimates of the overall risks associated with production within the developmental area. Preliminary results...

  7. A preliminary DTI study showing no brain structural change associated with adolescent cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Kyle

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses were performed on brain MRI scans from individuals who were frequent cannabis users (N = 10; 9 males, 1 female, mean age 21.1 ± 2.9, range: 18–27 in adolescence and similar age and sex matched young adults who never used cannabis (N = 10; 9 males, 1 female, mean age of 23.0 ± 4.4, range: 17–30. Cerebral atrophy and white matter integrity were determined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to quantify the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and the fractional anisotropy (FA. Whole brain volumes, lateral ventricular volumes, and gray matter volumes of the amygdala-hippocampal complex, superior temporal gyrus, and entire temporal lobes (excluding the amygdala-hippocampal complex were also measured. While differences existed between groups, no pattern consistent with evidence of cerebral atrophy or loss of white matter integrity was detected. It is concluded that frequent cannabis use is unlikely to be neurotoxic to the normal developing adolescent brain.

  8. Preliminary Investigations Showing Venous Thromboembolism Recurrence in Patients with Residual Venous Obstruction in Singaporean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Ashish Anil; Er, Chaozer; Chong, Claudia Y X; Chin, Han Xin; Chin, Tay Jam

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to determine the association of residual venous obstruction (RVO) with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). A retrospective cohort study was conducted determining if RVO on ultrasonography is associated with recurrent VTE in a Singaporean population. The subjects were identified from the Vascular Diagnostic Laboratory patients' record of Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), Singapore between 2008 and 2013. All the patients included had RVO after 3 months of anticoagulation. Data such as age, gender, race, thrombus location, etiology, history of malignancy, thrombophilia screen, treatment duration, and follow-up were recorded for analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata/SE 13.1 (StataCorp LLC). The study was approved by the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB), Singapore. Out of the 34 patients who had RVO, 6 (17.6%) developed VTE recurrence. Patients were treated with anticoagulation for a mean time of 24.5 months. The mean follow-up time for VTE recurrence was 25.4 months. Out of the six patients who had VTE recurrence, one had common iliac vein involvement, four had superficial femoral vein and common femoral vein involvement, zero had popliteal vein involvement, and one had calf veins involvement. There was a significant association between thrombophilia ( p  = 0.0195) and malignancy ( p  = 0.020) at inclusion with the risk of recurrent VTE. The presence of RVO after 3 months of anticoagulation is likely to increase the risk of VTE recurrence. Larger studies with RVO are needed to evaluate if there is an increased risk of VTE recurrence in the Asian population.

  9. Preliminary results from NOAMP deep drifting floats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollitrault, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a very brief and preliminary outline of first results obtained with deep SOFAR floats in the NOAMP area. The work is now going toward more precise statistical estimations of mean and variable currents, together with better tracking to resolve submesoscales and estimate diffusivities due to mesoscale and smaller scale motions. However the preliminary results confirm that the NOAMP region (and surroundings) has a deep mesoscale eddy field that is considerably more energetic that the mean field (r.m.s. velocities are of order 5 cm s -1 ), although both values are diminished compared to the western basin. A data report containing trajectories and statistics is scheduled to be published by IFREMER in the near future. The project main task is to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  10. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  11. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned

  12. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries. Pathway #1: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass-to-Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars-to-Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the sugars-to-hydrocarbon (HC) biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the sugars-to-HC biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the sugars-to-HC biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  13. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries, Pathway #2: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the fast pyrolysis biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the fast pyrolysis biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the fast pyrolysis biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  14. Preliminary estimating the contemporary sedimentation trend in dry valley bottoms of first-order catchments of different landscape zones of the Russian Plain using the 137Cs as a chronomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifullin, A.; Gusarov, A.; Gafurov, A.; Essuman-Quainoo, B.

    2018-01-01

    A general trend of erosion processes over the last 50-60 years can be estimated by dating sediments washed off from arable lands and accumulated in the first-order dry valleys bottoms. Three small (first-order) catchments were chosen as objects of the study. They are located, respectively, in the southern part of the taiga zone, the zone of temperate broad-leaf forests and the forest-steppe zone of the Russian Plain. To date the sediments accumulated in the bottoms the radioactive caesium-137 (137Cs) of global (since 1954) and Chernobyl origin (1986) had been used as a chronomarker. The average (for all the catchments) sedimentation rates during the global 137Cs fallout period (1963(1954)-1986) are at least 0.88-2.71 cm per year.For the period that has passed since the Chernobyl accident (1986-2015(2016)) the average rates were 0.15-1.07 cm per year. The greatest reduction in the sedimentation rates is observed in the subzone of the southern taiga, the lowest one is in the forest-steppe zone of the Russian Plain. The main reason for such significant reduction in the rates of sedimentation of the soil erosion products in the dry valley bottoms was a reduction of surface runoff within the catchments during a snowmelt period, as well as crop-rotation changes there.

  15. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  16. Original Article PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, ... the seeds are used in the treatment of skin infections. ... Screening with DPPH showed prominent antioxidant spots on silica at Rf 0.8, 0.5, 0.4 .... underpins conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, ..... As a follow-up to the preliminary TLC studies.

  17. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  18. Preliminary bathymetry; approaches to Unakwik Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Austin

    1980-01-01

    A map, scale 1:20,000, shows water depths, rocks, and hazards to navigation. These data are noted on track lines run by the Research Vessel Growler in Alaskan waters, where data on navigation shown on published charts are nonexistant, preliminary, or out dated. (USGS)

  19. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJANS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T. IV; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Cutri, R.; Wright, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos, and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than ∼10 km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of 0.07 ± 0.03. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of 0.88 ± 0.13. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows that our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) ∼ 1.4 ± 0.2, lower than the 1.6 ± 0.1 value derived by Szabó et al.

  20. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  1. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  2. The synthesis of fluorine-18 lomefloxacin and its preliminary use in human studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewson, T.J.; Yang, D.; Wong, G.; Macy, D.; Jesus, O.J. de; Nickles, R.J.; Perlman, S.B.; Taylor, M.; Frank, P.

    1996-01-01

    Lomefloxacin is a new fluorine-containing antibiotic that has recently been approved for general use. Fluorine-18 lomefloxacin has been prepared by fluoride exchange between fluorine-18 fluoride and lomefloxacin in DMSO. Both time and temperature of the reaction have been optimized and conditions developed for the isolation and purification of the labeled product in a form suitable for oral administration. The exchange reaction provides sufficient labeled material for human studies with pharmacologically relevant quantities of the drug. We have performed preliminary human studies with this compound using positron emission tomography to estimate the tissue distribution of the compound and show the distribution of the compound into the liver and lungs

  3. D-shaped configurations in FTU for testing liquid lithium limiter: Preliminary studies and experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ramogida

    2017-08-01

    A possible alternative connection of the poloidal field coils in FTU is here proposed, with the aim of achieving a true X-point configuration with a magnetic single null well inside the plasma chamber and strike points on the lithium limiter. A preliminary assessment of this design allowed estimating the required power supply upgrade and showed its compatibility with the existing mechanical structure and cooling system, at least for plasmas with current up to 300 kA and flat-top duration up to 4s.

  4. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  5. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  6. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  7. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  8. Preliminary estimates of population size and capture rates of mature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-06-06

    Jun 6, 1997 ... Oceanographic Research Institute, P.O. Box 10712, Marine Parade. ... The Kosi lakes system is situated on the east coast of South. Africa just ... campsite tourism office infonned recreational anglers of the .... Several factors could depress the number of tagged fish avail- ... berda was very difficult to remove.

  9. Preliminary Load Estimations for DEXA Wave Energy Device - Hanstholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    by DEXA Wave Energy ApS, in regular and irregular wave states, as described in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The length scale of the model was 1:20 compared to a full scale device suitable fro the Danish part of the North Sea, according...... to DEXA Wave Energy ApS. The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The displacement and force applied to a power take off system, provided by DEXA Wave Energy ApS, were measured and used for calculation of power available...... to the power take-off....

  10. The development of a preliminary regression equation for estimating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atrophy and a loss of lean body mass. ... to the risk for diseases of lifestyle, obesity is known to increase the ... weight forms part of the routine evaluation of nutritional status since ... on the basis of strength and practicality and included the following variables: circumferences of the calf, chest, and neck as well as the supine.

  11. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  12. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  13. Fast noise level estimation algorithm based on principal component analysis transform and nonlinear rectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoping; Zeng, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Yinnan; Tang, Yiling

    2018-01-01

    We proposed a noniterative principal component analysis (PCA)-based noise level estimation (NLE) algorithm that addresses the problem of estimating the noise level with a two-step scheme. First, we randomly extracted a number of raw patches from a given noisy image and took the smallest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix of the raw patches as the preliminary estimation of the noise level. Next, the final estimation was directly obtained with a nonlinear mapping (rectification) function that was trained on some representative noisy images corrupted with different known noise levels. Compared with the state-of-art NLE algorithms, the experiment results show that the proposed NLE algorithm can reliably infer the noise level and has robust performance over a wide range of image contents and noise levels, showing a good compromise between speed and accuracy in general.

  14. Preliminary Analysis of Google+'s Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Shah; Desmedt, Yvo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a preliminary analysis of Google+ privacy. We identified that Google+ shares photo metadata with users who can access the photograph and discuss its potential impact on privacy. We also identified that Google+ encourages the provision of other names including maiden name, which may help criminals performing identity theft. We show that Facebook lists are a superset of Google+ circles, both functionally and logically, even though Google+ provides a better user interfac...

  15. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  16. A Preliminary Analysis of Reactor Performance Test (LOEP) for a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeonil; Park, Su-Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The final phase of commissioning is reactor performance test, which is to prove the integrated performance and safety of the research reactor at full power with fuel loaded such as neutron power calibration, Control Absorber Rod/Second Shutdown Rod drop time, InC function test, Criticality, Rod worth, Core heat removal with natural mechanism, and so forth. The last test will be safety-related one to assure the result of the safety analysis of the research reactor is marginal enough to be sure about the nuclear safety by showing the reactor satisfies the acceptance criteria of the safety functions such as for reactivity control, maintenance of auxiliaries, reactor pool water inventory control, core heat removal, and confinement isolation. After all, the fuel integrity will be ensured by verifying there is no meaningful change in the radiation levels. To confirm the performance of safety equipment, loss of normal electric power (LOEP), possibly categorized as Anticipated Operational Occurrence (AOO), is selected as a key experiment to figure out how safe the research reactor is before turning over the research reactor to the owner. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the reactor performance test (LOEP) for a research reactor. The results showed how different the transient between conservative estimate and best estimate will look. Preliminary analyses have shown all probable thermal-hydraulic transient behavior of importance as to opening of flap valve, minimum critical heat flux ratio, the change of flow direction, and important values of thermal-hydraulic parameters.

  17. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We develop a methodology to estimate the potential economic benefits from new investments in regional coastal ocean observing systems in US waters, and apply this methodology to generate preliminary...

  18. Estimation of wind and solar resources in Mali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, J.; Kamissoko, F.; Olander Rasmussen, M.; Larsen, Soeren; Guidon, N.; Boye Hansen, L.; Dewilde, L.; Alhousseini, M.; Noergaard, P.; Nygaard, I.

    2012-11-15

    The wind resource has been estimated for all of Mali at 7.5 km resolution using the KAMM/WAsP numerical wind atlas methodology. Three domains were used to cover entire country and three sets of wind classes used to capture change in large scale forcing over country. The final output includes generalized climate statistics for any location in Mali, giving wind direction and wind speed distribution. The modelled generalized climate statistics can be used directly in the WAsP software. The preliminary results show a wind resource, which is relatively low, but which under certain conditions may be economically feasible, i.e. at favourably exposed sites, giving enhanced winds, and where practical utilization is possible, given consideration to grid connection or replacement or augmentation of diesel-based electricity systems. The solar energy resource for Mali was assessed for the period between July 2008 and June 2011 using a remote sensing based estimate of the down-welling surface shortwave flux. The remote sensing estimates were adjusted on a month-by-month basis to account for seasonal differences between the remote sensing estimates and in situ data. Calibration was found to improve the coefficient of determination as well as decreasing the mean error both for the calibration and validation data. Compared to the results presented in the ''Renewable energy resources in Mali - preliminary mapping''-report that showed a tendency for underestimation compared to data from the NASA PPOWER/SSE database, the presented results show a very good agreement with the in situ data (after calibration) with no significant bias. Unfortunately, the NASA-database only contains data up until 2005, so a similar comparison could not be done for the time period analyzed in this study, although the agreement with the historic NASA data is still useful as reference. (LN)

  19. Preliminary Experiments for the Assessment of V/W-band Links for Space-Earth Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Roberto J.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2013-01-01

    Since September 2012, NASA Glenn Research Center has deployed a microwave profiling radiometer at White Sands, NM, to estimate atmospheric propagation effects on communications links in the V and W bands (71-86GHz). Estimates of attenuation statistics in the millimeter wave due to gaseous and cloud components of the atmosphere show good agreement with current ITU-R models, but fail to predict link performance in the presence of moderate to heavy rain rates, due to the inherent limitations of passive radiometry. Herein, we discuss the preliminary results of these measurements and describe a design for a terrestrial link experiment to validate/refine existing rain attenuation models in the V/Wbands.

  20. Project Rulison: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Miles Jr [Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States); Bray, Bruce G; Mann, Robert L [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Project Rulison was designed to use underground nuclear technology to determine the potential of this technique for commercial development of the deep, thick, lenticular, low permeability, Mesaverde Formation of the Rulison Field in Garfield County, Colorado. Since discovery in 1952, this reservoir has been tested by nine widely-spaced conventionally completed wells. A method of stimulation, far greater in magnitude and efficiency than conventional hydraulic fracturing, is needed to recover this gas at economic rates. A feasibility study completed in July 1966 indicated that nuclear explosives were a potentially economic method of stimulating recovery of natural gas from the reservoir. The gas-in-place, estimated to be between 90-125 billion cubic feet per 640 acres from earlier wells, was confirmed from information obtained on two conventional wells completed in 1966. The Project Rulison exploratory well, R-EX, was completed in May 1968. Detailed testing of this well provided data on geology, hydrology and reservoir characteristics. The data obtained from the testing have been used to determine the flow capacity of the Mesaverde reservoir. The reservoir characteristics were then used as input data to make predictions of post-shot reservoir performance in the nuclear stimulated well, using a radial, unsteady state gas flow computer model. A nuclear explosive with a design yield of 40 kilotons was emplaced in a 10-3/4 inch hole at a depth of 8426 feet below ground surface and detonated on September 10, 1969. A preliminary appraisal of the data taken at shot time indicate that the explosive behaved as predicted. The explosion was completely contained underground as predicted and no major seismic damage occurred. The post-shot drilling program, to reenter the chimney, will congruence in March 1970, approximately six months after detonation. A test program will be initiated at that time to determine the degree of reservoir stimulation achieved. (author)

  1. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  2. Coherence in quantum estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Paolo; Allegra, Michele

    2018-01-01

    The geometry of quantum states provides a unifying framework for estimation processes based on quantum probes, and it establishes the ultimate bounds of the achievable precision. We show a relation between the statistical distance between infinitesimally close quantum states and the second order variation of the coherence of the optimal measurement basis with respect to the state of the probe. In quantum phase estimation protocols, this leads to propose coherence as the relevant resource that one has to engineer and control to optimize the estimation precision. Furthermore, the main object of the theory i.e. the symmetric logarithmic derivative, in many cases allows one to identify a proper factorization of the whole Hilbert space in two subsystems. The factorization allows one to discuss the role of coherence versus correlations in estimation protocols; to show how certain estimation processes can be completely or effectively described within a single-qubit subsystem; and to derive lower bounds for the scaling of the estimation precision with the number of probes used. We illustrate how the framework works for both noiseless and noisy estimation procedures, in particular those based on multi-qubit GHZ-states. Finally we succinctly analyze estimation protocols based on zero-temperature critical behavior. We identify the coherence that is at the heart of their efficiency, and we show how it exhibits the non-analyticities and scaling behavior proper of a large class of quantum phase transitions.

  3. Training Methods for Image Noise Level Estimation on Wavelet Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Stefano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the standard deviation of noise contaminating an image is a fundamental step in wavelet-based noise reduction techniques. The method widely used is based on the mean absolute deviation (MAD. This model-based method assumes specific characteristics of the noise-contaminated image component. Three novel and alternative methods for estimating the noise standard deviation are proposed in this work and compared with the MAD method. Two of these methods rely on a preliminary training stage in order to extract parameters which are then used in the application stage. The sets used for training and testing, 13 and 5 images, respectively, are fully disjoint. The third method assumes specific statistical distributions for image and noise components. Results showed the prevalence of the training-based methods for the images and the range of noise levels considered.

  4. A preliminary examination of genetic diversity in the Indian false vampire bat Megaderma lyra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuvel Rajan, K.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation have serious consequences for species extinction as well as genetic diversity within a species. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was employed to assess the genetic diversity within and between four natural populations of M. lyra. Our results suggest that the genetic diversity varied from 0.21 to 0.26 with a mean of 0.11 to 0.13 (± SD. The mean Gst value of 0.15 was obtained from all four populations and estimated average Nm (1.41 showing gene flow between the populations. AMOVA analysis showed 88.96% within and 11.04% among the studied populations. Cluster analyses of RAPD phenotypes showed that specimens were not grouped by geographical origin. The genetic diversity found in the M. lyra population may be explained by its breeding behaviors. Though preliminary, the results indicate that all four populations should be considered to maintain the genetic diversity.

  5. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement

  6. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity

  7. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  8. IEA Shows Concerns Over China's Oil Stockpiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reportedly, China's oil imports accounted for nearly one third of the world's total oil supply in 2003. The country's oil imports are estimated at 110~120 million tons in 2004,equal to 2.2~2.4 million barrels per day, much higher than 91 million tons in 2003. International Energy Agency has helped the Chinese government with the country's strategic oil stockpiling plan by offering the training. The Paris-based IEA has urged China to take into consideration how to operate and maintain the national strategic oil stockpiling system and clarify the roles of the enterprises and the State in oil stockpiling.

  9. Pickering safeguards: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L.; Hodgkinson, J.G.

    1977-05-01

    A summary is presented of thoughts relative to a systems approach for implementing international safeguards. Included is a preliminary analysis of the Pickering Generating Station followed by a suggested safeguards system for the facility

  10. Cell emulation and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report details preliminary results of the testing plan implemented by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV battery cells ar...

  11. A Survey of Cost Estimating Methodologies for Distributed Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Veronica L.; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; de Weck, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Satellite constellations present unique capabilities and opportunities to Earth orbiting and near-Earth scientific and communications missions, but also present new challenges to cost estimators. An effective and adaptive cost model is essential to successful mission design and implementation, and as Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM) become more common, cost estimating tools must become more representative of these types of designs. Existing cost models often focus on a single spacecraft and require extensive design knowledge to produce high fidelity estimates. Previous research has examined the limitations of existing cost practices as they pertain to the early stages of mission formulation, for both individual satellites and small satellite constellations. Recommendations have been made for how to improve the cost models for individual satellites one-at-a-time, but much of the complexity in constellation and DSM cost modeling arises from constellation systems level considerations that have not yet been examined. This paper constitutes a survey of the current state-of-theart in cost estimating techniques with recommendations for improvements to increase the fidelity of future constellation cost estimates. To enable our investigation, we have developed a cost estimating tool for constellation missions. The development of this tool has revealed three high-priority shortcomings within existing parametric cost estimating capabilities as they pertain to DSM architectures: design iteration, integration and test, and mission operations. Within this paper we offer illustrative examples of these discrepancies and make preliminary recommendations for addressing them. DSM and satellite constellation missions are shifting the paradigm of space-based remote sensing, showing promise in the realms of Earth science, planetary observation, and various heliophysical applications. To fully reap the benefits of DSM technology, accurate and relevant cost estimating capabilities

  12. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  13. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  14. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  15. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  16. A preliminary analysis of the groundwater recharge to the Karoo formations, mid-Zambesi basin, Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Owen, R.; Dahlin, T.

    2002-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary study is being carried out on recharge to the Karoo sandstone aquifer in the western part of Zimbabwe, where recharge is controlled by the presence of a thick, confining basalt layer. The aquifer is geographically extensive, and has been identified throughout the southern part......, before it dips below an impervious basalt cover. However, resistivity profiling shows that the basalt at the basin margin is weathered and fractured, and probably permeable, while the basalt deeper into the basin is fresh, solid and impermeable. Field and laboratory analysis of 22 groundwater samples......–130 mm/yr, with an average value of 25 mm/yr. Preliminary results of recharge estimate using 36Cl data suggests lower direct infiltration rates, but further studies are needed. The combination of hydro-chemical, isotopic and geophysical investigations show that the recharge area extends well beyond...

  17. Digital assessment of preliminary impression accuracy for edentulous jaws: Comparisons of 3-dimensional surfaces between study and working casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takashi; Goto, Takaharu; Kurahashi, Kosuke; Kashiwabara, Toshiya; Watanabe, Megumi; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Nagao, Kan; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 3-dimensional surfaces of study and working casts for edentulous jaws and to evaluate the accuracy of preliminary impressions with a view to the future application of digital dentistry for edentulous jaws. Forty edentulous volunteers were serially recruited. Nine dentists took preliminary and final impressions in a routine clinical work-up. The study and working casts were digitized using a dental 3-dimensional scanner. The two surface images were superimposed through a least-square algorithm using imaging software and compared qualitatively. Furthermore, the surface of each jaw was divided into 6 sections, and the difference between the 2 images was quantitatively evaluated. Overall inspection showed that the difference around residual ridges was small and that around borders were large. The mean differences in the upper and lower jaws were 0.26mm and 0.45mm, respectively. The maximum values of the differences showed that the upward change mainly occurred in the anterior residual ridge, and the downward change mainly in the posterior border seal, and the labial and buccal vestibules, whereas every border of final impression was shortened in the lower jaw. The accuracy in all areas except the border, which forms the foundation, was estimated to be less than 0.25mm. Using digital technology, we here showed the overall and sectional accuracy of the preliminary impression for edentulous jaws. In our clinic, preliminary impressions have been made using an alginate material while ensuring that the requisite impression area was covered. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  19. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  20. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  1. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  2. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  3. Business System Planning Project, Preliminary System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-01-01

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is currently performing many core business functions including, but not limited to, work control, planning, scheduling, cost estimating, procurement, training, and human resources. Other core business functions are managed by or dependent on Project Hanford Management Contractors including, but not limited to, payroll, benefits and pension administration, inventory control, accounts payable, and records management. In addition, CHG has business relationships with its parent company CH2M HILL, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and other River Protection Project contractors, government agencies, and vendors. The Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project, under the sponsorship of the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Chief Information Officer (CIO), have recommended information system solutions that will support CHG business areas. The Preliminary System Design was developed using the recommendations from the Alternatives Analysis, RPP-6499, Rev 0 and will become the design base for any follow-on implementation projects. The Preliminary System Design will present a high-level system design, providing a high-level overview of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules and identify internal and external relationships. This document will not define data structures, user interface components (screens, reports, menus, etc.), business rules or processes. These in-depth activities will be accomplished at implementation planning time

  4. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  5. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  6. Plasma brake model for preliminary mission analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Leonardo; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.

    2018-03-01

    Plasma brake is an innovative propellantless propulsion system concept that exploits the Coulomb collisions between a charged tether and the ions in the surrounding environment (typically, the ionosphere) to generate an electrostatic force orthogonal to the tether direction. Previous studies on the plasma brake effect have emphasized the existence of a number of different parameters necessary to obtain an accurate description of the propulsive acceleration from a physical viewpoint. The aim of this work is to discuss an analytical model capable of estimating, with the accuracy required by a preliminary mission analysis, the performance of a spacecraft equipped with a plasma brake in a (near-circular) low Earth orbit. The simplified mathematical model is first validated through numerical simulations, and is then used to evaluate the plasma brake performance in some typical mission scenarios, in order to quantify the influence of the system parameters on the mission performance index.

  7. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, F.

    2008-05-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  8. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    phlobatannins when petroleum ether, methanol and water extracts were used. Petroleum ether extract show the ... forests for fuel wood production and in front of schools or college .... alkaloids were shown to inhibit cell division, changes in ...

  9. Preliminary design county plan Zeeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary design 'Streekplan Zeeland' (Country plan Zeeland, with regard to the location of additional nuclear power plants in Zeeland, the Netherlands) has passed through a consultation and participation round. Thereupon 132 reactions have been received. These have been incorporated and answered in two notes. This proposal deals with the principal points of the preliminary design and treats also the remarks of the committees Environmental (town and country) Planning (RO), Provincial (town and country) Planning Committee (PPC) and Association of Communities of Zeeland (VZG), on the reply notes. The preliminary design with the modifications, collected in appendix 3, is proposed to be the starting point in the drawing-up of the design-country-plan. This design subsequently will pass the formal country-plan procedure. (author). 1 fig

  10. Preliminary genetic linkage map of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohua; Guo, Ximing; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2010-05-01

    Haliotis diversicolor Reeve is one of the most important mollusks cultured in South China. Preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 2 596 AFLP markers were obtained from 28 primer combinations in two parents and 78 offsprings. Among them, 412 markers (15.9%) were polymorphic and segregated in the mapping family. Chi-square tests showed that 151 (84.4%) markers segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio ( P<0.05) in the female parent, and 200 (85.8%) in the male parent. For the female map, 179 markers were used for linkage analysis and 90 markers were assigned to 17 linkage groups with an average interval length of 25.7 cm. For the male map, 233 markers were used and 94 were mapped into 18 linkage groups, with an average interval of 25.0 cm. The estimated genome length was 2 773.0 cm for the female and 2 817.1 cm for the male map. The observed length of the linkage map was 1 875.2 cm and 1 896.5 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. When doublets were considered, the map length increased to 2 152.8 cm for the female and 2 032.7 cm for the male map, corresponding to genome coverage of 77.6% and 72.2%, respectively.

  11. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  12. Space reactor preliminary mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis was performed on the SABRE reactor space power system to determine the effect of the number and size of heat pipes on the design parameters of the nuclear subsystem. Small numbers of thin walled heat pipes were found to give a lower subsystem mass, but excessive fuel swelling resulted. The SP-100 preliminary design uses 120 heat pipes because of acceptable fuel swelling and a minimum nuclear subsystem mass of 1875 kg. Salient features of the reactor preliminary design are: individual fuel modules, ZrO 2 block core mounts, bolted collar fuel module restraints, and a BeO central plug

  13. Preliminary evaluation of uranium deposits. A geostatistical study of drilling density in Wyoming solution fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandefur, R.L.; Grant, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Studies of a roll-front uranium deposit in Shirley Basin Wyoming indicate that preliminary evaluation of the reserve potential of an ore body is possible with less drilling than currently practiced in industry. Estimating ore reserves from sparse drilling is difficult because most reserve calculation techniques do not give the accuracy of the estimate. A study of several deposits with a variety of drilling densities shows that geostatistics consistently provides a method of assessing the accuracy of an ore reserve estimate. Geostatistics provides the geologist with an additional descriptive technique - one which is valuable in the economic assessment of a uranium deposit. Closely spaced drilling on past properties provides both geological and geometric insight into the occurrence of uranium in roll-front type deposits. Just as the geological insight assists in locating new ore bodies and siting preferential drill locations, the geometric insight can be applied mathematically to evaluate the accuracy of a new ore reserve estimate. By expressing the geometry in numerical terms, geostatistics extracts important geological characteristics and uses this information to aid in describing the unknown characteristics of a property. (author)

  14. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  15. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  16. Poster abstract: Water level estimation in urban ultrasonic/passive infrared flash flood sensor networks using supervised learning

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a machine learning approach to water level estimation in a dual ultrasonic/passive infrared urban flood sensor system. We first show that an ultrasonic rangefinder alone is unable to accurately measure the level of water on a road due to thermal effects. Using additional passive infrared sensors, we show that ground temperature and local sensor temperature measurements are sufficient to correct the rangefinder readings and improve the flood detection performance. Since floods occur very rarely, we use a supervised learning approach to estimate the correction to the ultrasonic rangefinder caused by temperature fluctuations. Preliminary data shows that water level can be estimated with an absolute error of less than 2 cm. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. Error estimates for ice discharge calculated using the flux gate approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, F. J.; Sánchez Gámez, P.

    2017-12-01

    Ice discharge to the ocean is usually estimated using the flux gate approach, in which ice flux is calculated through predefined flux gates close to the marine glacier front. However, published results usually lack a proper error estimate. In the flux calculation, both errors in cross-sectional area and errors in velocity are relevant. While for estimating the errors in velocity there are well-established procedures, the calculation of the error in the cross-sectional area requires the availability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles transverse to the ice-flow direction. In this contribution, we use IceBridge operation GPR profiles collected in Ellesmere and Devon Islands, Nunavut, Canada, to compare the cross-sectional areas estimated using various approaches with the cross-sections estimated from GPR ice-thickness data. These error estimates are combined with those for ice-velocities calculated from Sentinel-1 SAR data, to get the error in ice discharge. Our preliminary results suggest, regarding area, that the parabolic cross-section approaches perform better than the quartic ones, which tend to overestimate the cross-sectional area for flight lines close to the central flowline. Furthermore, the results show that regional ice-discharge estimates made using parabolic approaches provide reasonable results, but estimates for individual glaciers can have large errors, up to 20% in cross-sectional area.

  18. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  19. Method of preliminary localization of the iris in biometric access control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minacova, N.; Petrov, I.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a method of preliminary localization of the iris, based on the stable brightness features of the iris in images of the eye. In tests on images of eyes from publicly available databases method showed good accuracy and speed compared to existing methods preliminary localization.

  20. Seismic Hazard Maps for the Maltese Archipelago: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, S.; Panzera, F.; Galea, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    activity rate, the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship and an estimate of the maximum magnitude. In this article we also defined a new seismogenic zones in the central Mediterranean never considered before. In order to determine the ground motion parameters related to a specified probability of exceedance, the above statistical parameters are combined with ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard computations have been performed within the island boundaries. The preliminary maps for PGA distribution on rock site obtained for a 10% probability of exceedance shows values ranging between 0.09-0.18 g whereas, SA for 0.2, 04, 1.0 s show values of about 0.21-0.40 g, 0.14-0.24 g and 0.05-0.08 g respectively.

  1. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  2. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  3. Preliminary HECTOR analysis by Dragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presser, W; Woloch, F

    1972-06-02

    From the different cores measured in HECTOR, only ACH 4/B-B was selected for the Dragon analysis, since it presented the largest amount of uniform fuel loading in the central test region and is therefore nearest to an infinite lattice. Preliminary results are discussed.

  4. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish biomass and spatial distributions in shallow lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yuxi; Huang, Geng; Godlewska, Małgorzata; Cai, Xingwei; Li, Chang; Ye, Shaowen; Liu, Jiashou; Li, Zhongjie

    2018-03-01

    We conducted acoustical surveys with a horizontal beam transducer to detect fish and with a vertical beam transducer to detect depth and macrophytes in two typical shallow lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River in November 2013. Both lakes are subject to active fish management with annual stocking and removal of large fish. The purpose of the study was to compare hydroacoustic horizontal beam estimates with fish landings. The preliminary results show that the fish distribution patterns differed in the two lakes and were affected by water depth and macrophyte coverage. The hydroacoustically estimated fish biomass matched the commercial catch very well in Niushan Lake, but it was two times higher in Kuilei Lake. However, acoustic estimates included all fish, whereas the catch included only fish >45 cm (smaller ones were released). We were unable to determine the proper regression between acoustic target strength and fish length for the dominant fish species in the two lakes.

  5. A preliminary safety evaluation of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac Julius; Mahmood, Seidu Abdulai; Awortwe, Charles; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo

    2014-01-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMGH) is used worldwide as an antimicrobial agent with broad spectra of activity and also for treating pool water. This non-GLP preliminary study aims at investigating in a subchronic toxicity study possible effects at supra-optimal doses of this biocide. Both acute and subchronic toxicity studies were conducted. LD(50) for PHMGH was estimated to be 600 mg/kg (ie LC(50) 2 ml of 7.5% solution) when administered as a single dose by gavage via a stomach tube in accordance with the expected route of administration. The acute studies showed that the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of 600 mg/kg was accompanied by signs of neurotoxicity. Haematological and biochemical parameters of subchronic toxicity studies were non-significant. Subchronic doses of 0.006 mg/kg, 0.012 mg/kg and 0.036 mg/kg were administered. 20% of the animals at a dose of 0.006 mg/kg and 0.036 mg/kg showed mild degrees of hydropic changes in proximal tubules while 10% of animals at all the doses had their liver tissues showing local areas of mild pericentral hepatocytes degeneration. PHMGH did not produce any major organ defect with regard to the kidney, heart, and liver. The LD(50) was much higher than the recommended dosage by a factor of about 50,000. The recommended residual concentration is far less than the median lethal dose using rats as test subjects. These results could serve as a basis for investigating the full toxicological profile if it is to be used for the treatment of raw water to make it potable. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. BIPS-FS preliminary design, miscellaneous notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A compendium of flight system preliminary design internal memos and progress report extracts for the Brayton Isotope Power System Preliminary Design Review to be held July 20, 21, and 22, 1975 is presented. The purpose is to bring together those published items which relate only to the preliminary design of the Flight System, Task 2 of Phase I. This preliminary design effort was required to ensure that the Ground Demonstration System will represent the Flight System as closely as possible

  7. Multicollinearity and maximum entropy leuven estimator

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhanshu Mishra

    2004-01-01

    Multicollinearity is a serious problem in applied regression analysis. Q. Paris (2001) introduced the MEL estimator to resolve the multicollinearity problem. This paper improves the MEL estimator to the Modular MEL (MMEL) estimator and shows by Monte Carlo experiments that MMEL estimator performs significantly better than OLS as well as MEL estimators.

  8. Stabilizing impacts in force-reflecting teleoperation using distance-to-impact estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAree, P.R.; Daniel, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    The level of force that can be stably reflected to the human operator in a force-reflecting teleoperator is constrained by the dynamics of impact between the slave arm and its environment. This paper models the underlying dynamics of impact and describes how the impact effects can be minimized using estimates of the distance between the slave and objects in its workspace. The approach is based on stochastic variational principles and seeks to limit the momentum of the slave arm at impact. Preliminary experimental results show that the approach allows extension of the range of frequencies that can be stably reflected to the human operator

  9. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary determination. 150.217 Section 150.217... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... designees). (b) Notifies the State of CMS's preliminary determination that the State has failed to...

  10. Preliminary analysis of surface radiation measurements recorded at the Nansen ice sheet (Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonafe', U.; Dalpane, E.; Georgiadis, T.; Pitacco, A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment on radiation and surface energy balance was conducted during the 9. Italian expedition in Antarctica at the Nancen ice sheet, a glacier situated close to the Italian base at Terra Nova Bay, to correlate surface balances to the formation and development of katabatic winds. Measurements were taken by radiometers covering the whole spectra of solar and terrestrial emissions and by fast sensors of atmospheric wind velocity and humidity for the application of the eddy correlation technique. A preliminary analysis of the radiometric data collected in order to quantify the major components of radiative energy balance during the Antarctic summer in clear sky conditions is reported and discussed. The findings show the very low available energy (mean about 1 W/m 2 ), in terms of net radiation, for the physical processes such as sensible- and latent-heat fluxes. Long-wave radiation balance was applied to estimate the reliability of the Swinbank's parametrization, relative to general conditions of the atmosphere

  11. Preliminary results of measurement of natural environmental radiation levels and doses to population in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiliang; He Miaoting; Shu Qi

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the preliminary results of measurement of natural environmental radiation levels in China with RSS-111 high pressure ionization chamber and estimated doses to population are reported. A total of 2,723 indoor locales throughout China were measured. The results showed that the average absorbed dose rates in air due to gamma radiation for indoors and outdoors were 11.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 and 7.4 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively, and those due to cosmic rays were 3.2 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 and 3.7 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively. The annual average effective dose equivalent to population was 919 μSv, including 630 μSv from natural gamma radiation and 289 μSv from cosmic rays

  12. Preliminary lifetime predictions for 304 stainless steel as the LANL ABC blanket material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.J.; Buksa, J.J.; Houts, M.G.; Arthur, E.D.

    1997-11-01

    The prediction of materials lifetime in the preconceptual Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Accelerator-Based Conversion of Plutonium (ABC) is of utmost interest. Because Hastelloy N showed good corrosion resistance to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Molten Salt Reactor Experiment fuel salt that is similar to the LANL ABC fuel salt, Hastelloy N was originally proposed for the LANL ABC blanket material. In this paper, the possibility of using 304 stainless steel as a replacement for the Hastelloy N is investigated in terms of corrosion issues and fluence-limit considerations. An attempt is made, based on the previous Fast Flux Test Facility design data, to predict the preliminary lifetime estimate of the 304 stainless steel used in the blanket region of the LANL ABC

  13. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  14. Thermoluminescent dosemeters characterization for patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, William J.; Squair, Peterson L.; Gonzaga, Natalia B.; Nogueira, Maria S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2009-01-01

    The determination of the metrological characteristics of thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters plays an important role in dosimetry of patients submitted to x-ray examinations for diagnostic purpose. Entrance surface doses can be measured with TL dosimeters to verify the compliance with the diagnostic reference levels. Organ doses can be estimated through TL measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom which it allows the radiation risk assessment. In this work, LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) rod and chip thermoluminescent dosimeters were characterized considering their use for patient dosimetry in computerized tomography and mammography. Preliminary results showed that TL dosimeters have a response reproducibility of 7.8% and 4.8% and homogeneity of 18.4% and 6.5% for rod and chip shapes, respectively. (author)

  15. Practical Recommendations for the Preliminary Design Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interior-to-exterior shear ratios for equal and unequal bay frames, as well as column inflection points were obtained to serve as practical aids for preliminary analysis/design of fixed-feet multistory sway frames. Equal and unequal bay five story frames were analysed to show the validity of the recommended design ...

  16. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY OF RHEUM EMODI

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Ashfaq Ahmad; K. W. Shah; Showkat Ahmad Wani

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical investigation of aqueous and methanolic rhizome extracts of Rheum emodi followed by their TLC profiling were carried out. Phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of diverse groups of phytoconstituents in two different extracts (aqueous and methanolic rhizome extracts). Chemical constituents also show different Rf values in two different solvent systems.

  17. Preliminary bathymetry; Ester Passage to Eaglek Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Austin

    1980-01-01

    A map, scale 1:20,000, shows water depths, rocks, and hazards to navigation. These data are noted on track lines run by the Research Vessel Growler in Alaskan waters, where data on navigation shown on published charts are nonexistant, preliminary, or out dated. (USGS)

  18. Development and preliminary validation of the Opioid Abuse Risk Screener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Henrie-Barrus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prescription opioid drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions. Individuals with chronic pain represent a large population at considerable risk of abusing opioids. The Opioid Abuse Risk Screener was developed as a comprehensive self-administered measure of potential risk that includes a wide range of critical elements noted in the literature to be relevant to opioid risk. The creation, refinement, and preliminary modeling of the item pool, establishment of preliminary concurrent validity, and the determination of the factor structure are presented. The initial development and validation of the Opioid Abuse Risk Screener shows promise for effective risk stratification.

  19. Single snapshot DOA estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, P.; Yang, B.

    2010-10-01

    In array signal processing, direction of arrival (DOA) estimation has been studied for decades. Many algorithms have been proposed and their performance has been studied thoroughly. Yet, most of these works are focused on the asymptotic case of a large number of snapshots. In automotive radar applications like driver assistance systems, however, only a small number of snapshots of the radar sensor array or, in the worst case, a single snapshot is available for DOA estimation. In this paper, we investigate and compare different DOA estimators with respect to their single snapshot performance. The main focus is on the estimation accuracy and the angular resolution in multi-target scenarios including difficult situations like correlated targets and large target power differences. We will show that some algorithms lose their ability to resolve targets or do not work properly at all. Other sophisticated algorithms do not show a superior performance as expected. It turns out that the deterministic maximum likelihood estimator is a good choice under these hard conditions.

  20. Preliminary experiments on quantification of skin condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kenzo; Iyatomi, Hitoshi

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated a preliminary assessment method for skin conditions such as a moisturizing property and its fineness of the skin with an image analysis only. We captured a facial images from volunteer subjects aged between 30s and 60s by Pocket Micro (R) device (Scalar Co., Japan). This device has two image capturing modes; the normal mode and the non-reflection mode with the aid of the equipped polarization filter. We captured skin images from a total of 68 spots from subjects' face using both modes (i.e. total of 136 skin images). The moisture-retaining property of the skin and subjective evaluation score of the skin fineness in 5-point scale for each case were also obtained in advance as a gold standard (their mean and SD were 35.15 +/- 3.22 (μS) and 3.45 +/- 1.17, respectively). We extracted a total of 107 image features from each image and built linear regression models for estimating abovementioned criteria with a stepwise feature selection. The developed model for estimating the skin moisture achieved the MSE of 1.92 (μS) with 6 selected parameters, while the model for skin fineness achieved that of 0.51 scales with 7 parameters under the leave-one-out cross validation. We confirmed the developed models predicted the moisture-retaining property and fineness of the skin appropriately with only captured image.

  1. Remote sensing using hydroacoustics preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.; Patrick, P.H.; Sim, B.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the capability and accuracy of a dual beam sonar system in classifying various targets. The ability to classify fish and/or distinguish fish from debris is essential if hydroacoustics are ever to be used truly remotely for hydroelectric power plant fish passage facilities. Preliminary results indicated that considerable filtering was occurring in the sonar sounder which limited its use in target classification. A wideband sonar detection module was developed which allowed for a more detailed reflected signal which probably will be necessary for fish identification. Another advantage that this modification appears to have over the existing system is an improved spatial resolution of targets, which can be significant if biomass estimates are based on echo counting techniques rather than echo integration ones. Based on the results, it may be possible to filter out or remove the influence of air bubbles in echo returns. As a result echo counts could more accurately be defined as fish counts. Target strengths of sturgeon were estimated using both the modified and original sounder. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Preliminary design of a tandem mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmayer, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the TARA mirror experiment as a possible tandem mirror reactor configuration. This is a preliminary study to size the coil structure based on using the smallest end cell axial length that physics and engineering allow, zeroing the central cell parallel currents and having interchange stability. The input powers are estimated for the final reactor design so a Q value may be estimated. The Q value is defined as the fusion power divided by the total injected power absorbed by the plasma. A computer study was performed on the effect of the transition size, the transition vertical spacing and transition current. These parameters affect the central cell parallel currents, the recircularization of the flux tube and the ratio of central cell beta to anchor beta needed for marginal stability. Two designs were identified. The first uses 100 keV and 13 keV neutral beams to pump the ions that trap in the thermal barrier. The Q value of this reactor is 11.3. The second reactor uses a pump beam at 40 keV. This energy is chosen because there is a resonance for the charge exchange cross section between D 0 and He 2+ at this energy, thus the alpha ash will be pumped along with the deuterium and tritium. The Q value of this reactor is 11.6

  3. National uranium resource evaluation, preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The results of the initial phase of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) are reported. NURE is a comprehensive nationwide program to evaluate uranium resources and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. Part I presents estimates of uranium ore reserves and potential resources available at costs (not prices) of $10, $15, and $30 per pound U 3 O 8 (uranium oxide). These estimates comprise the national uranium resource position. They are, however, preliminary because limitations of time and available geologic data prevented adequate assessment of some areas that may be favorable for potential resources. Part II presents the potential uranium resources for each of 13 regions, whose boundaries have been drawn chiefly on geologic considerations. The general geology is summarized, and the types of uranium deposits are described. Although limited geologic reconnaissance was done in various parts of the country, the report is based primarily on the compilation and evaluation of data in ERDA files. Mining companies furnished a substantial amount of information on exploration results, development, production, and future plans. Published, manuscript, and open-file reports by government agencies, universities, and research organizations were reviewed. In addition, many individuals affiliated with universities and with state and federal agencies provided supplemental geologic information. This was particularly helpful in the eastern and central states and in Alaska, where information on uranium occurrences is limited

  4. Economic valuation of acidic deposition damages: Preliminary results from the 1985 NAPAP [National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program] damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies methods used to evaluate the economic damages of acid deposition in the 1985 Damage Assessment being coordinated by the National Acid Precipitation Program. It also presents the preliminary estimates of economic damages for the Assessment. Economic damages are estimated for four effect areas: commercial agriculture and forests, recreational fishing and selected types of materials. In all but the last area, methods are used which incorporate the behavioral responses of individuals and firms or simulated physical damages to resources at risk. The preliminary nature of the estimated damages in each area is emphasized. Over all, the damage estimates should be interpreted with caution. 44 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Approaches to estimating decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.I.

    1990-07-01

    The chronological development of methodology for estimating the cost of nuclear reactor power station decommissioning is traced from the mid-1970s through 1990. Three techniques for developing decommissioning cost estimates are described. The two viable techniques are compared by examining estimates developed for the same nuclear power station using both methods. The comparison shows that the differences between the estimates are due largely to differing assumptions regarding the size of the utility and operating contractor overhead staffs. It is concluded that the two methods provide bounding estimates on a range of manageable costs, and provide reasonable bases for the utility rate adjustments necessary to pay for future decommissioning costs. 6 refs

  6. Digital Quantum Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Majid; Macchiavello, Chiara; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    Quantum metrology calculates the ultimate precision of all estimation strategies, measuring what is their root-mean-square error (RMSE) and their Fisher information. Here, instead, we ask how many bits of the parameter we can recover; namely, we derive an information-theoretic quantum metrology. In this setting, we redefine "Heisenberg bound" and "standard quantum limit" (the usual benchmarks in the quantum estimation theory) and show that the former can be attained only by sequential strategies or parallel strategies that employ entanglement among probes, whereas parallel-separable strategies are limited by the latter. We highlight the differences between this setting and the RMSE-based one.

  7. Preliminary Examination of Particles Recovered from the Surface of the Asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Ebihara, M.; Kimura, M.; Kitajima, F.; Kotsugi, M.; Ito, S.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura, T.; Naraoka, H.; Noguchi, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Hayabusa spacecraft arrived at S-type Asteroid 25143 Itokawa in November 2006, and reveal astounding features of the small asteroid (535 x 294 x 209 m). Near-infrared spectral shape indicates that the surface of this body has an olivinerich mineral assemblage potentially similar to that of LL5 or LL6 chondrites with different degrees of space weathering. Based on the surface morphological features observed in high-resolution images of Itokawa s surface, two major types of boulders were distinguished: rounded and angular boulders. Rounded boulders seem to be breccias, while angular boulders seem to have severe impact origin. Although the sample collection did not be made by normal operations, it was considered that some amount of samples, probably small particles of regolith, was collected from MUSES-C regio on the Itokawa s surface. The sample capsule was successfully recovered on the earth on June 13, 2010, and was opened at curation facility of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), Sagamihara, Japan. A large number of small particles were found in the sample container. Preliminary analysis with SEM/EDX at the curation facility showed that at least more than 1500 grains were identified as rocky particles, and most of them were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin, and definitely from Asteroid Itokawa. Minerals (olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, high-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe sulfide, Fe-Ni metal, chromite, Ca phosphate), roughly estimated mode the minerals and rough measurement of the chemical compositions of the silicates show that these particles are roughly similar to LL chondrites. Although their size are mostly less than 10 m, some larger particles of about 100 m or larger were also identified. A part of the sample (probably several tens particles) will be selected by Hayabusa sample curation team and examined preliminary in Japan within one year after the sample recovery in prior to detailed analysis phase. Hayabusa Asteroidal Sample Preliminary

  8. A novel nonpharmacological intervention – breathing-controlled electrical stimulation for neuropathic pain management after spinal cord injury – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shengai Li,1,2 Matthew Davis,1 Joel E Frontera,1 Sheng Li1,2 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 2TIRR Memorial Hermann Research Center, TIRR Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a novel nonpharmacological intervention – breathing-controlled electrical stimulation (BreEStim – for neuropathic pain management in spinal cord injury (SCI patients. Subjects and methods: There were two experiments: 1 to compare the effectiveness between BreEStim and conventional electrical stimulation (EStim in Experiment (Exp 1 and 2 to examine the dose–response effect of BreEStim in Exp 2. In Exp 1, 13 SCI subjects (6 males and 7 females, history of SCI: 58.2 months, from 7 to 150 months, impairments ranging from C4 AIS B to L1 AIS B received both BreEStim and EStim in a randomized order with at least 3 days apart. A total of 120 electrical stimuli to the median nerve transcutaneously were triggered by voluntary inhalation during BreEStim or were randomly delivered during EStim. In Exp 2, a subset of 7 subjects received BreEStim120 and 240 stimuli randomly on two different days with 7 days apart (BreEStim120 vs BreEStim240. The primary outcome variable was the visual analog scale (VAS score. Results: In Exp 1, both BreEStim and EStim showed significant analgesic effects. Reduction in VAS score was significantly greater after BreEStim (2.6±0.3 than after EStim (0.8±0.3 (P<0.001. The duration of analgesic effect was significantly longer after BreEStim (14.2±6 hours than after EStim (1.9±1 hours (P=0.04. In Exp 2, BreEStim120 and BreEStim240 had similar degree and duration of analgesic effects. Conclusion: The findings from this preliminary study suggest that BreEStim is an effective alternative nonpharmacological treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in patients suffering from SCI. Keywords

  9. Cost estimate for electrostatically plugged cusp reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design of an electrostatically plugged cusp reactor was presented in (UCRL-52142(1976)). The capital costs of the various components of this reactor are estimated and totaled for two different blanket configurations: one having an energy multiplication factor M = 1.2, and the other having M = 1.68. The unoptimized direct capital costs for these cases are found to be about 1400 and 950 $/kWe, respectively

  10. Estimating Western U.S. Reservoir Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensching, L.; Livneh, B.; Greimann, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    Reservoir sedimentation is a long-term problem for water management across the Western U.S. Observations of sedimentation are limited to reservoir surveys that are costly and infrequent, with many reservoirs having only two or fewer surveys. This work aims to apply a recently developed ensemble of sediment algorithms to estimate reservoir sedimentation over several western U.S. reservoirs. The sediment algorithms include empirical, conceptual, stochastic, and processes based approaches and are coupled with a hydrologic modeling framework. Preliminary results showed that the more complex and processed based algorithms performed better in predicting high sediment flux values and in a basin transferability experiment. However, more testing and validation is required to confirm sediment model skill. This work is carried out in partnership with the Bureau of Reclamation with the goal of evaluating the viability of reservoir sediment yield prediction across the western U.S. using a multi-algorithm approach. Simulations of streamflow and sediment fluxes are validated against observed discharges, as well as a Reservoir Sedimentation Information database that is being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Specific goals of this research include (i) quantifying whether inter-algorithm differences consistently capture observational variability; (ii) identifying whether certain categories of models consistently produce the best results, (iii) assessing the expected sedimentation life-span of several western U.S. reservoirs through long-term simulations.

  11. Separating Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Respiration in Streams and the Importance for Carbon Cycling: a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, M.; Raymond, P.

    2005-05-01

    Autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms confer different effects on nutrient cycling, especially on carbon (C). In stream ecosystems, net ecosystem production determines the amount and form of C exported; however any transformation due to different respiratory (R) mechanisms are not separated. These mechanisms highly influence the form and lability of the C transported. To understand the current state of knowledge and estimate the importance of autotrophic versus heterotrophic R, we obtained a range of respiratory rates from the literature and modeled effects of different balances of rates on bulk dissolved inorganic and organic C chemistry. Preliminary results show that a wide range of estimates of autotrophic R exist and that these can effect bulk properties of exported C. While specific effects are highly dependent upon physical structure of the study watershed, we offer that separating R mechanisms provides further insight into ecosystem C cycling. We also propose a method to measure autotrophic and heterotrophic R at the ecosystem scale and obtain watershed-level estimates of the importance of these processes on C cycling.

  12. Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.

  13. Hellenic Amateur Astronomy Association's activities: Preliminary results on Perseids 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, G.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary results on the Perseids 2010 are presented. Visual and video observations were obtained by the author and a first reduction of the visual data shows that a maximum of ZHR ~120 was reached during the night 12-13 of August 2010. Moreover, a video setup was tested (DMK camera and UFO Capture v2) and the results show that, under some limitations, valuable data can be obtained.

  14. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  16. Development of Cost Estimation Methodology of Decommissioning for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae; Lim, Yong Kyu; Chang, Hyeon Sik; Song, Geun Ho

    2013-01-01

    The permanent closure of nuclear power plant should be conducted with the strict laws and the profound planning including the cost and schedule estimation because the plant is very contaminated with the radioactivity. In Korea, there are two types of the nuclear power plant. One is the pressurized light water reactor (PWR) and the other is the pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) called as CANDU reactor. Also, the 50% of the operating nuclear power plant in Korea is the PWRs which were originally designed by CE (Combustion Engineering). There have been experiences about the decommissioning of Westinghouse type PWR, but are few experiences on that of CE type PWR. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop the cost estimation methodology and evaluate technical level of decommissioning for the application to CE type PWR based on the system engineering technology. The aim of present study is to develop the cost estimation methodology of decommissioning for application to PWR. Through the study, the following conclusions are obtained: · Based on the system engineering, the decommissioning work can be classified as Set, Subset, Task, Subtask and Work cost units. · The Set and Task structure are grouped as 29 Sets and 15 Task s, respectively. · The final result shows the cost and project schedule for the project control and risk management. · The present results are preliminary and should be refined and improved based on the modeling and cost data reflecting available technology and current costs like labor and waste data

  17. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Transplanting the Body: Preliminary Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lantz Fleming

    2017-11-01

    A dissociated area of medical research warrants bioethical consideration: a proposed transplantation of a donor's entire body, except head, to a patient with a fatal degenerative disease. The seeming improbability of such an operation can only underscore the need for thorough bioethical assessment: Not assessing a case of such potential ethical import, by showing neglect instead of facing the issue, can only compound the ethical predicament, perhaps eroding public trust in ethical medicine. This article discusses the historical background of full-body transplantation, documents the seriousness of its current pursuit, and builds an argument for why prima facie this type of transplant is bioethically distinct. Certainly, this examination can only be preliminary, indicating what should be a wide and vigorous discussion among practitioners and ethicists. It concludes with practical suggestions for how the medical and bioethics community may proceed with ethical assessment.

  20. The Majorana Demonstrator Status and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C.-H.; Alvis, S. I.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, C. J.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, T. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Haufe, C. R.; Hehn, L.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Lopez, A. M.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Myslik, J.; Othman, G.; Pettus, W.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Reine, A. L.; Rielage, K.; Ruof, N. W.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhu, B. Z.

    2018-05-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is using an array of high-purity Ge detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay are understood to be the only viable experimental method for testing the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Observation of this decay would imply violation of lepton number, that neutrinos are Majorana in nature, and provide information on the neutrino mass. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR comprises 44.1 kg of p-type point-contact Ge detectors (29.7 kg enriched in 76Ge) surrounded by a low-background shield system. The experiment achieved a high efficiency of converting raw Ge material to detectors and an unprecedented detector energy resolution of 2.5 keV FWHM at Qββ. The MAJORANA collaboration began taking physics data in 2016. This paper summarizes key construction aspects of the Demonstrator and shows preliminary results from initial data.

  1. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  2. A global mean ocean circulation estimation using goce gravity models - the DTU12MDT mean dynamic topography model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Ocean Circulation Experiment - GOCE satellite mission measure the Earth gravity field with unprecedented accuracy leading to substantial improvements in the modelling of the ocean circulation and transport. In this study of the performance of GOCE, a newer gravity model have been...... combined with the DTU10MSS mean sea surface model to construct a global mean dynamic topography model named DTU10MDT. The results of preliminary analyses using preliminary GOCE gravity models clearly demonstrated the potential of GOCE mission. Both the resolution and the estimation of the surface currents...... have been improved significantly compared to results obtained using pre-GOCE gravity field models. The results of this study show that geostrophic surface currents associated with the mean circulation have been further improved and that currents having speeds down to 5 cm/s have been recovered....

  3. Adjudication Decision Support (ADS) System Automated Approval Estimates for NACLC Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lang, Eric L; Youpa, Daniel G; Berman, Sandi; Leggitt, John S

    2007-01-01

    The present research is the second in a series of studies to test preliminary decision rules and provide automated approval estimates for a Department of Defense Adjudication Decision Support (ADS) system...

  4. Bayesian analysis of repairable systems showing a bounded failure intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Maurizio; Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The failure pattern of repairable mechanical equipment subject to deterioration phenomena sometimes shows a finite bound for the increasing failure intensity. A non-homogeneous Poisson process with bounded increasing failure intensity is then illustrated and its characteristics are discussed. A Bayesian procedure, based on prior information on model-free quantities, is developed in order to allow technical information on the failure process to be incorporated into the inferential procedure and to improve the inference accuracy. Posterior estimation of the model-free quantities and of other quantities of interest (such as the optimal replacement interval) is provided, as well as prediction on the waiting time to the next failure and on the number of failures in a future time interval is given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed inferential procedure

  5. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. J.; Borondo, J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  6. Preliminaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el jardín de Freud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud se encuentra indexada en el IBN-Publindex (Colciencias, en categoría C, y en Latindex. También se encuentra en las siguientes bases de datos y catálogos: ebsco, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj y e-Revistas.

  7. Preliminary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el Jardín de Freud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud is indexed in the IBN-Publindex (Colciencias in category C, and the following databases and catalogs: EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, CLASE, Latindex, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj, e-revistas and Library Luis Angel Arango virtual.

  8. On the relation between S-Estimators and M-Estimators of multivariate location and covariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopuhaa, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the relation between S-estimators and M-estimators of multivariate location and covariance. As in the case of the estimation of a multiple regression parameter, S-estimators are shown to satisfy first-order conditions of M-estimators. We show that the influence function IF (x;S F) of

  9. Variance estimation for generalized Cavalieri estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Ziegel; Eva B. Vedel Jensen; Karl-Anton Dorph-Petersen

    2011-01-01

    The precision of stereological estimators based on systematic sampling is of great practical importance. This paper presents methods of data-based variance estimation for generalized Cavalieri estimators where errors in sampling positions may occur. Variance estimators are derived under perturbed systematic sampling, systematic sampling with cumulative errors and systematic sampling with random dropouts. Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press.

  10. A MONTE-CARLO METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE CORRELATION EXPONENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MIKOSCH, T; WANG, QA

    We propose a Monte Carlo method for estimating the correlation exponent of a stationary ergodic sequence. The estimator can be considered as a bootstrap version of the classical Hill estimator. A simulation study shows that the method yields reasonable estimates.

  11. TCA High Lift Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G. H.; Polito, R. C.; Yeh, D. T.; Elzey, M. E.; Tran, J. T.; Meredith, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a TCA (Technology Concept Airplane) High lift Preliminary Assessment. The topics discussed are: 1) Model Description; 2) Data Repeatability; 3) Effect of Inboard L.E. (Leading Edge) Flap Span; 4) Comparison of 14'x22' TCA-1 With NTF (National Transonic Facility) Modified Ref. H; 5) Comparison of 14'x22' and NTF Ref. H Results; 6) Effect of Outboard Sealed Slat on TCA; 7) TCA Full Scale Build-ups; 8) Full Scale L/D Comparisons; 9) TCA Full Scale; and 10) Touchdown Lift Curves. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  12. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  13. Versator divertor experiment: preliminary designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Yang, T.F.

    1984-08-01

    The emergence of magnetic divertors as an impurity control and ash removal mechanism for future tokamak reactors bring on the need for further experimental verification of the divertor merits and their ability to operate at reactor relevant conditions, such as with auxiliary heating. This paper presents preliminary designs of a bundle and a poloidal divertor for Versator II, which can operate in conjunction with the existing 150 kW of LHRF heating or LH current drive. The bundle divertor option also features a new divertor configuration which should improve the engineering and physics results of the DITE experiment. Further design optimization in both physics and engineering designs are currently under way

  14. Preliminary tests of a high speed vertical axis windmill model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, P; Rangi, R S

    1971-01-01

    This report discusses a fixed-pitch vertical axis windmill that combines the inherent simplicity of this type of machine with a high aerodynamic efficiency and a high relative velocity. A three-bladed rotor was selected as the basic design, having constant chord symmetric airfoil blades configured in a catenary curve such that the rotor diameter is equal to the rotor height. In wind tunnel tests using a 30 inch scale model, it was found that once this rotor was given a very low rotational speed, it picked up speed and ran at a rotor tip velocity/wind speed ratio greater than 1. The number of blades was varied in the testing. A maximum power coefficient of 0.67 was achieved at 17 ft/s wind speed at a tip speed/wind speed ratio of 7.25 for a 2-bladed rotor. Increasing the number of blades above 3 did not result in higher power. The rotor could operate in gusts which double the mean wind velocity. Examination of Reynolds number effects, and taking into account the scale of the model, it was concluded that a full-scale windmill could run at lower velocity ratios than those predicted by the model tests, and that it could self-start under no-load conditions if the cut-in rpm are at least half the rpm for maximum power at the prevailing wind speed. Preliminary estimates show that a 15 ft diameter windmill of this design, designed to operate with a safety factor of 2.5 up to a maximum wind speed of 60 ft/s, would weigh ca 150 lb and could be marketed for ca $60.00, excluding the driven unit, if sufficient quantities were produced to make tooling costs negligible. Similarly, a 30 ft windmill would weigh ca 1000 lb and cost ca $400.00. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Estimating Stochastic Volatility Models using Prediction-based Estimating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Brix, Anne Floor

    to the performance of the GMM estimator based on conditional moments of integrated volatility from Bollerslev and Zhou (2002). The case where the observed log-price process is contaminated by i.i.d. market microstructure (MMS) noise is also investigated. First, the impact of MMS noise on the parameter estimates from......In this paper prediction-based estimating functions (PBEFs), introduced in Sørensen (2000), are reviewed and PBEFs for the Heston (1993) stochastic volatility model are derived. The finite sample performance of the PBEF based estimator is investigated in a Monte Carlo study, and compared...... to correctly account for the noise are investigated. Our Monte Carlo study shows that the estimator based on PBEFs outperforms the GMM estimator, both in the setting with and without MMS noise. Finally, an empirical application investigates the possible challenges and general performance of applying the PBEF...

  16. Preliminary seismic design cost-benefit assessment of the tuff repository waste-handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Abrahamson, N.; Hadjian, A.H.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary assessment of the costs and benefits associated with changes in the seismic design basis of waste-handling facilities. The objectives of the study are to understand the capability of the current seismic design of the waste-handling facilities to mitigate seismic hazards, evaluate how different design levels and design measures might be used toward mitigating seismic hazards, assess the costs and benefits of alternative seismic design levels, and develop recommendations for possible modifications to the seismic design basis. This preliminary assessment is based primarily on expert judgment solicited in an interdisciplinary workshop environment. The estimated costs for individual attributes and the assumptions underlying these cost estimates (seismic hazard levels, fragilities, radioactive-release scenarios, etc.) are subject to large uncertainties, which are generally identified but not treated explicitly in this preliminary analysis. The major conclusions of the report do not appear to be very sensitive to these uncertainties. 41 refs., 51 figs., 35 tabs

  17. Bayesian estimation of multicomponent relaxation parameters in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivney, Debra; Deshmane, Anagha; Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark

    2018-07-01

    To estimate multiple components within a single voxel in magnetic resonance fingerprinting when the number and types of tissues comprising the voxel are not known a priori. Multiple tissue components within a single voxel are potentially separable with magnetic resonance fingerprinting as a result of differences in signal evolutions of each component. The Bayesian framework for inverse problems provides a natural and flexible setting for solving this problem when the tissue composition per voxel is unknown. Assuming that only a few entries from the dictionary contribute to a mixed signal, sparsity-promoting priors can be placed upon the solution. An iterative algorithm is applied to compute the maximum a posteriori estimator of the posterior probability density to determine the magnetic resonance fingerprinting dictionary entries that contribute most significantly to mixed or pure voxels. Simulation results show that the algorithm is robust in finding the component tissues of mixed voxels. Preliminary in vivo data confirm this result, and show good agreement in voxels containing pure tissue. The Bayesian framework and algorithm shown provide accurate solutions for the partial-volume problem in magnetic resonance fingerprinting. The flexibility of the method will allow further study into different priors and hyperpriors that can be applied in the model. Magn Reson Med 80:159-170, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  19. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  20. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  1. Preliminary thermal sizing of intermediate heat exchanger for NHDD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Hong, Sung Deok; Kim, Yong Wan; Chang, Jongh Wa

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) system is a Very High Temperature gascooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled with hydrogen production systems. Intermediate heat exchanger transfers heat from the nuclear reactor to the hydrogen production system. This study presented the sensitivity analysis on a preliminary thermal sizing of the intermediate heat exchanger. Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) was selected for the thermal sizing because the printed circuit heat exchanger has the largest compactness among the heat exchanger types. The analysis was performed to estimate the effect of key parameters including the operating condition of the intermediate system, the geometrical factors of the PCHE, and the working fluid of the intermediate system.

  2. Preliminary design of RDE feedwater pump impeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, pumps are being widely used in the thermal power generation including nuclear power plants. Reaktor Daya Experimental (RDE) is a proposed nuclear reactor concept for the type of nuclear power plant in Indonesia. This RDE has thermal power 10 MW th , and uses a feedwater pump within its steam cycle. The performance of feedwater pump depends on size and geometry of impeller model, such as the number of blades and the blade angle. The purpose of this study is to perform a preliminary design on an impeller of feedwater pump for RDE and to simulate its performance characteristics. The Fortran code is used as an aid in data calculation in order to rapidly compute the blade shape of feedwater pump impeller, particularly for a RDE case. The calculations analyses is solved by utilizing empirical correlations, which are related to size and geometry of a pump impeller model, while performance characteristics analysis is done based on velocity triangle diagram. The effect of leakage, pass through the impeller due to the required clearances between the feedwater pump impeller and the volute channel, is also considered. Comparison between the feedwater pump of HTR-10 and of RDE shows similarity in the trend line of curve shape. These characteristics curves will be very useful for the values prediction of performance of a RDE feedwater pump. Preliminary design of feedwater pump provides the size and geometry of impeller blade model with 5-blades, inlet angle 14.5 degrees, exit angle 25 degrees, inside diameter 81.3 mm, exit diameter 275.2 mm, thickness 4.7 mm, and height 14.1 mm. In addition, the optimal values of performance characteristics were obtained when flow capacity was 4.8 kg/s, fluid head was 29.1 m, shaft mechanical power was 2.64 kW, and efficiency was 52 % at rotational speed 1750 rpm. (author)

  3. Preliminary Validation of a New Clinical Tool for Identifying Problem Video Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel Luke; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Zajac, Ian T.

    2011-01-01

    Research has estimated that between 6 to 13% of individuals who play video games do so excessively. However, the methods and definitions used to identify "problem" video game players often vary considerably. This research presents preliminary validation data for a new measure of problematic video game play called the Problem Video Game…

  4. Preliminary analysis of the transient overpower accident for CRBRP. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Frank, M.V.

    1975-07-01

    A preliminary analysis of the transient overpower accident for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is presented. Several uncertainties in the analysis and the estimation of ramp rates during the transition to disassembly are discussed. The major conclusions are summarized

  5. Technology of prognostication of sporting achievements of badminton players on the stage of preliminary base preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyyan V.N.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the technology of evaluation of potential capabilities of badminton players is displayed 12-14 years. The functional, pedagogical and psychophysiological criteria which became a component parts of the developed analytical models of sportsmen-badminton players are explored. The criterion for the quantitative estimation of perspective is offered, which allows on the 9-ti point scale to estimate perspective of badminton players on the stage of preliminary base preparation.

  6. Preliminary Products of Precise Orbit Determination Using Satellite Laser Ranging Observations for ILRS AAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rok Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present preliminary results of precise orbit determination (POD using satellite laser ranging (SLR observations for International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS Associate Analysis Center (AAC. Using SLR normal point observations of LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, ETALON-1, and ETALON-2, the NASA/GSFC GEODYN II software are utilized for POD. Weekly-based orbit determination strategy is applied to process SLR observations and the post-fit residuals check, and external orbit comparison are performed for orbit accuracy assessment. The root mean square (RMS value of differences between observations and computations after final iteration of estimation process is used for post-fit residuals check. The result of ILRS consolidated prediction format (CPF is used for external orbit comparison. Additionally, we performed the precision analysis of each ILRS station by post-fit residuals. The post-fit residuals results show that the precisions of the orbits of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 are 0.9 and 1.3 cm, and those of ETALON-1 and ETALON-2 are 2.5 and 1.9 cm, respectively. The orbit assessment results by ILRS CPF show that the radial accuracies of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 are 4.0 cm and 5.3 cm, and the radial accuracies of ETALON-1 and ETALON-2 are 30.7 cm and 7.2 cm. These results of station precision analysis confirm that the result of this study is reasonable to have implications as preliminary results for administrating ILRS AAC.

  7. Adaptive Estimation of Heteroscedastic Money Demand Model of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of estimation of Money demand model of Pakistan, money supply (M1 shows heteroscedasticity of the unknown form. For estimation of such model we compare two adaptive estimators with ordinary least squares estimator and show the attractive performance of the adaptive estimators, namely, nonparametric kernel estimator and nearest neighbour regression estimator. These comparisons are made on the basis standard errors of the estimated coefficients, standard error of regression, Akaike Information Criteria (AIC value, and the Durban-Watson statistic for autocorrelation. We further show that nearest neighbour regression estimator performs better when comparing with the other nonparametric kernel estimator.

  8. Preliminary Context Analysis of Community Informatics Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary context analysis is always part of the feasibility study phase in the development of information system for Community Development (CD) purposes. In this paper, a context model and a preliminary context analysis are presented for Social Network Web Application (SNWA) for CD in the Niger Delta region of ...

  9. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  10. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  11. Fishery characteristics and abundance estimates of the mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mud crab Scylla serrata is lightly exploited along the East African seaboard. This study reports on fishing practices and gives preliminary estimates of abundance and size structures of the mud crab populations in Utende, Chole Island and Juani Island, Tanzania, and west of Quirimba and Ibo Island, Moçambique.

  12. Estimate of neutrons event-by-event in DREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the contribution of neutrons to hadronic showers in the DREAM module event-by-event as a means to estimate the event-by-event fluctuations in binding energy losses by hadrons as they break up nuclei of the Cu absorber. We make a preliminary assessment of the consequences for hadronic energy resolution in dual-readout calorimeters.

  13. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report.

  14. Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    "Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues," begins an examination of slavery in the antebellum South. The paper suggests that how slavery and the group-fantasy of white male supremacy were perpetuated among slaveholders is a question of fundamental importance for psychohistorians. The family and childrearing are the focus of attention. Given the ferocity of slavery, it is argued that the psychological and emotional consequences of this barbarism were not limited to the slaves themselves, but had significant impact on the slaveholders as well-their parenting, their children, and their children's parenting of the next generation. In each generation the trauma of slavery was injected into slaveholder children and became a fundamental component of elite Southern personality.

  15. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report

  16. Preliminary verification of structure design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhou, E-mail: zhaozhou@swip.ac.cn; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Qijie; Cao, Qixiang; Feng, Kaiming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Guoshu

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • A new and simplification structural design scheme with 1 × 4 configuration is proposed for CN HCCB TBM. • The detail conceptual structural design for 1 × 4 TBM is completed. • The preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis for 1 × 4 TBM had been carried out. - Abstract: Based on the conceptual design of CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration, the preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis had been carried out for it. Hydraulic and thermo-hydraulic analyses show that the coolant manifold system could meet the fluid design requirement preliminarily and the temperature of RAFMs structural parts, Be and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble beds are within the allowable range, and no zone shows a stress higher than the allowable limit in the preliminary structural analysis. These results indicate the design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration is preliminary reasonable.

  17. Preliminary verification of structure design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhou; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Qijie; Cao, Qixiang; Feng, Kaiming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Guoshu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new and simplification structural design scheme with 1 × 4 configuration is proposed for CN HCCB TBM. • The detail conceptual structural design for 1 × 4 TBM is completed. • The preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis for 1 × 4 TBM had been carried out. - Abstract: Based on the conceptual design of CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration, the preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis had been carried out for it. Hydraulic and thermo-hydraulic analyses show that the coolant manifold system could meet the fluid design requirement preliminarily and the temperature of RAFMs structural parts, Be and Li_4SiO_4 pebble beds are within the allowable range, and no zone shows a stress higher than the allowable limit in the preliminary structural analysis. These results indicate the design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration is preliminary reasonable.

  18. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility's construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment

  19. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  20. Effects of Horticultural Therapy on Psychosocial Health in Older Nursing Home Residents: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Min; Ji, Jeng-Yi

    2015-09-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of horticultural therapy on psychosocial health in older nursing home residents. A combined quantitative and qualitative design was adopted. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 10 older residents from a nursing home in Taichung, Taiwan. Participants joined a 10-week indoor horticultural program once a week, with each session lasting for about 1.5 hours. A single-group design with multiple measurements was adopted for the quantitative component of this study. Interviews held 1-2 days before the intervention (T0) were used to collect baseline data. The two outcome variables of this study, depression and loneliness, were reassessed during the 5th (T1) and 10th (T2) weeks of the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the mean differences among T0, T1, and T2 measures. After the 10-week program, qualitative data were collected by asking participants to share their program participation experiences. The results of generalized estimating equation showed significant improvements in depression and loneliness. Four categories emerged from the qualitative data content analysis: social connection, anticipation and hope, sense of achievement, and companionship. Given the beneficial effects of the horticulture therapy, the inclusion of horticultural activities in nursing home activity programs is recommended.

  1. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  2. Variation in the peacock's train shows a genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Cotgreave, Peter; Pike, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Female peafowl (Pavo cristatus) show a strong mating preference for males with elaborate trains. This, however, poses something of a paradox because intense directional selection should erode genetic variation in the males' trains, so that females will no longer benefit by discriminating among males on the basis of these traits. This situation is known as the 'lek paradox', and leads to the theoretical expectation of low heritability in the peacock's train. We used two independent breeding experiments, involving a total of 42 sires and 86 of their male offspring, to estimate the narrow sense heritabilities of male ornaments and other morphometric traits. Contrary to expectation, we found significant levels of heritability in a trait known to be used by females during mate choice (train length), while no significant heritabilities were evident for other, non-fitness related morphological traits (tarsus length, body weight or spur length). This study adds to the building body of evidence that high levels of additive genetic variance can exist in secondary sexual traits under directional selection, but further emphasizes the main problem of what maintains this variation.

  3. Parameter estimation in plasmonic QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, H. Rangani

    2018-03-01

    We address the problem of parameter estimation in the presence of plasmonic modes manipulating emitted light via the localized surface plasmons in a plasmonic waveguide at the nanoscale. The emitter that we discuss is the nitrogen vacancy centre (NVC) in diamond modelled as a qubit. Our goal is to estimate the β factor measuring the fraction of emitted energy captured by waveguide surface plasmons. The best strategy to obtain the most accurate estimation of the parameter, in terms of the initial state of the probes and different control parameters, is investigated. In particular, for two-qubit estimation, it is found although we may achieve the best estimation at initial instants by using the maximally entangled initial states, at long times, the optimal estimation occurs when the initial state of the probes is a product one. We also find that decreasing the interqubit distance or increasing the propagation length of the plasmons improve the precision of the estimation. Moreover, decrease of spontaneous emission rate of the NVCs retards the quantum Fisher information (QFI) reduction and therefore the vanishing of the QFI, measuring the precision of the estimation, is delayed. In addition, if the phase parameter of the initial state of the two NVCs is equal to πrad, the best estimation with the two-qubit system is achieved when initially the NVCs are maximally entangled. Besides, the one-qubit estimation has been also analysed in detail. Especially, we show that, using a two-qubit probe, at any arbitrary time, enhances considerably the precision of estimation in comparison with one-qubit estimation.

  4. Preliminary design study of a large scale graphite oxidation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epel, L.G.; Majeski, S.J.; Schweitzer, D.G.; Sheehan, T.V.

    1979-08-01

    A preliminary design study of a large scale graphite oxidation loop was performed in order to assess feasibility and to estimate capital costs. The nominal design operates at 50 atmospheres helium and 1800 F with a graphite specimen 30 inches long and 10 inches in diameter. It was determined that a simple single walled design was not practical at this time because of a lack of commercially available thick walled high temperature alloys. Two alternative concepts, at reduced operating pressure, were investigated. Both were found to be readily fabricable to operate at 1800 F and capital cost estimates for these are included. A design concept, which is outside the scope of this study, was briefly considered

  5. Preliminary report about nuclear accident of Chernobylsk reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de.

    1986-07-01

    The preliminary report of nuclear accident at Chernobyl, in URSS is presented. The Chernobyl site is located geographically and the RBMK type reactors - initials of russian words which mean high power pressure tube reactors are described. The conditions of reactor operation in beginning of accident, the events which lead to reactor destruction, the means to finish the fire, the measurements adopted by Russian in the accident location, the estimative of radioactive wastes, the meteorological conditions during the accident, the victims and medical assistence, the sanitary aspects and consequences for population, the evaluation of radiation doses received at small and medium distance and the estimative of reffered doses by population attained are presented. The official communication of Russian Minister Council and the declaration of IAEA general manager during a collective interview in Moscou are annexed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Estimation of radiological consequences from accidental iodine releases at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovich, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the radiological consequences of a beyond design-basis accident at an NPP for a WWER-1000 reactor, a preliminary investigation was conducted. The scenario of the hypothetical accident was a fast loss of coolant as a result of a rupture in the primary circuit pipeline with diameter of 850 mm and minimum radiation consequences when containment integrity is preserved. Using the software code COSYMA and accounting for radioiodine activity release to the atmosphere at the early stage of the accident, the radionuclide concentration in air and ground deposition densities were estimated. Using modem knowledge about the risk of radiation-induced cancer, the radiological danger of radionuclides released is evaluated for different exposure pathways: (a) extemal exposure from radionuclides in air; (b) extemal exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground surface; (c) internal exposures from inhalation of radionuclides in air; and (d) internal exposure from ingestion of radionuclides with contaminated foodstuffs. Risk was estimated for populations living at different distances from the source. Preliminary results show that the methodology and models can be applied to the evaluation of radiological danger of an accident at an NPP. Experience from the Chernobyl accident has shown that the damage from a radiation accident can be vast. Expenditures on advanced simulations of the different accident scenarios are worth the cost because they allow radiation protection of populations for these low probability cases, but nevertheless possible accidents at an NPP. (authors)

  7. Preliminary Assessment of a Compliant Gait Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Manuel; Sanz-Merodio, Daniel; Garcia, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Current commercial wearable gait exoskeletons contain joints with stiff actuators that cannot adapt to unpredictable environments. These actuators consume a significant amount of energy, and their stiffness may not be appropriate for safe human-machine interactions. Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented because of their ability to minimize large forces due to shocks, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Introduction of such compliant actuation in gait exoskeletons, however, has been limited by the larger power-to-weight and volume ratio requirement. This article presents a preliminary assessment of the first compliant exoskeleton for children. Compliant actuation systems developed by our research group were integrated into the ATLAS exoskeleton prototype. The resulting device is a compliant exoskeleton, the ATLAS-C prototype. The exoskeleton is coupled with a special standing frame to provide balance while allowing a semi-natural gait. Experiments show that when comparing the behavior of the joints under different stiffness conditions, the inherent compliance of the implemented actuators showed natural adaptability during the gait cycle and in regions of shock absorption. Torque tracking of the joint is achieved, identifying the areas of loading response. The implementation of a state machine in the control of knee motion allowed reutilization of the stored energy during deflection at the end of the support phase to partially propel the leg and achieve a more natural and free swing.

  8. Radiolabelling of RC-160: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.; Balter Binsky, H.S.; Robles, A.M.; Rodriguez, G.; Souto, B.; Laiz, J.; Oliver, P.; Leon, E.

    1998-01-01

    Vapreotide (RC-160) was labelled with 125 I using Chloramine-T and Iodogen methods and with 99m Tc by a direct method with sodium ditionite as reducing agent in the presence of ascorbic acid. Several methods of purification and quality control were evaluated. Yields of the reactions and of purification steps were calculated. The results obtained for the radioiodination reactions showed higher yields when limiting Chloramine-T method was used. Labelling of RC-160 with 99m Tc indicated better yields when high radioactivity concentration of the radionuclide was used. Stability of the products obtained was assessed at different post-labelling times by selected quality control methods: Sep-Pak cartridge as purification method and chromatography by RP-HPLC and ITLC-SG using saline solution as solvent. It was demonstrated that I-125-RC-160 and Tc-99m-RC-160 were stable during five weeks (at -20 deg. C) and 6 hours (at room temperature) respectively. Preliminary biodistribution of Tc-99m-RC-160 in normal rats and mice were done showing different biological behaviour compared with control animals injected with pertechnetate. In conclusion, RC-160 was successfully labelled with both radionuclides, with radiochemical purity higher than 95%. These results encourage further research work in animal models as well as to investigate the biochemical behaviour of radiolabelled peptide. (author)

  9. Two preliminary studies on sleep and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, W; Hopper, M; Corriere, R; Hart, J; Switzer, A

    1977-09-01

    Two preliminary studies were conducted to assess the effects of an intensive outpatient psychotherapy, Feeling Therapy, on sleep. This therapy was chosen because of its demonstrated ability to affect its patients' dreams. In the first study a newly entering female patient was recorded across the first three weeks of intensive daily therapy. In contrast to two control subjects recorded across a similar time period, she demonstrated low REM times and short REM latencies on the average, and considerably greater variability in nearly every parameter. In the second study, two patients were recorded across three days (the middle of which was the day of a therapy session) first when new in therapy and then again after two and one-half years of therapy. It was found that when new in therapy both subjects spent nights of significantly altered sleep the day of the therapy session. One subject showed no REM sleep whatsoever while the other showed a 10 min REM latency and low REM time. The significance of these findings and the direction of future research is discussed.

  10. Estimating directional epistasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rouzic, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Epistasis, i.e., the fact that gene effects depend on the genetic background, is a direct consequence of the complexity of genetic architectures. Despite this, most of the models used in evolutionary and quantitative genetics pay scant attention to genetic interactions. For instance, the traditional decomposition of genetic effects models epistasis as noise around the evolutionarily-relevant additive effects. Such an approach is only valid if it is assumed that there is no general pattern among interactions—a highly speculative scenario. Systematic interactions generate directional epistasis, which has major evolutionary consequences. In spite of its importance, directional epistasis is rarely measured or reported by quantitative geneticists, not only because its relevance is generally ignored, but also due to the lack of simple, operational, and accessible methods for its estimation. This paper describes conceptual and statistical tools that can be used to estimate directional epistasis from various kinds of data, including QTL mapping results, phenotype measurements in mutants, and artificial selection responses. As an illustration, I measured directional epistasis from a real-life example. I then discuss the interpretation of the estimates, showing how they can be used to draw meaningful biological inferences. PMID:25071828

  11. SO 2 and NO x emissions due to fossil ruel combustion in Saudi Arabia: A preliminary inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azhari Fatahalla Mohamed

    Phenomenal economic growth during the last two decades, as a result of oil wealth, has led to a dramatic increase in the demand for fossil fuel in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). In this paper a preliminary inventory for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) emitted into the atmosphere as a result of fossil fuel combustion by various economic sectors in KSA in the year 1986 is presented. Emissions are discussed in relation to major source categories (major fuel consuming economic sectors) and on the basis of type of fuel combusted. The data are also geographically disaggregated according to major economic and population centers in KSA in order to show the spatial distribution of emissions. Also, SO 2 and NO x emission trends (1971-1990) were estimated from 1986 data and historical and projected fuel consumption figures.

  12. Estimation of transversely isotropic material properties from magnetic resonance elastography using the optimised virtual fields method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Renee; Kolipaka, Arunark; Nash, Martyn P; Young, Alistair A

    2018-03-12

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been used to estimate isotropic myocardial stiffness. However, anisotropic stiffness estimates may give insight into structural changes that occur in the myocardium as a result of pathologies such as diastolic heart failure. The virtual fields method (VFM) has been proposed for estimating material stiffness from image data. This study applied the optimised VFM to identify transversely isotropic material properties from both simulated harmonic displacements in a left ventricular (LV) model with a fibre field measured from histology as well as isotropic phantom MRE data. Two material model formulations were implemented, estimating either 3 or 5 material properties. The 3-parameter formulation writes the transversely isotropic constitutive relation in a way that dissociates the bulk modulus from other parameters. Accurate identification of transversely isotropic material properties in the LV model was shown to be dependent on the loading condition applied, amount of Gaussian noise in the signal, and frequency of excitation. Parameter sensitivity values showed that shear moduli are less sensitive to noise than the other parameters. This preliminary investigation showed the feasibility and limitations of using the VFM to identify transversely isotropic material properties from MRE images of a phantom as well as simulated harmonic displacements in an LV geometry. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Preliminary parameter assessments of a spiral FFAG accelerator for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.; Azaryan, N.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerator was invented in the 1950-60s but never progressed beyond the model stage. Starting from 2000, new interest in this type of accelerator arose. Given advantages of the FFAG over the synchrotron, cyclotron and linac, there are many possible applications of the accelerator. Among them, we are mostly interested in acceleration of protons and light ions for hadron therapy. In this connection a preliminary set of parameters of the facility was estimated and, in particular, the magnetic sector shape and corresponding dynamical properties of the magnetic field of the accelerator were calculated. In addition, preliminary considerations about the RF system design are given.

  14. Preliminary study to characterize plastic polymers using elemental analyser/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Daniela; Rampazzo, Federico; Gion, Claudia; Noventa, Seta; Ronchi, Francesca; Traldi, Umberto; Giorgi, Giordano; Cicero, Anna Maria; Giovanardi, Otello

    2017-06-01

    Plastic waste is a growing global environmental problem, particularly in the marine ecosystems, in consideration of its persistence. The monitoring of the plastic waste has become a global issue, as reported by several surveillance guidelines proposed by Regional Sea Conventions (OSPAR, UNEP) and appointed by the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Policy responses to plastic waste vary at many levels, ranging from beach clean-up to bans on the commercialization of plastic bags and to Regional Plans for waste management and recycling. Moreover, in recent years, the production of plant-derived biodegradable plastic polymers has assumed increasing importance. This study reports the first preliminary characterization of carbon stable isotopes (δ 13 C) of different plastic polymers (petroleum- and plant-derived) in order to increase the dataset of isotopic values as a tool for further investigation in different fields of polymers research as well as in the marine environment surveillance. The δ 13 C values determined in different packaging for food uses reflect the plant origin of "BIO" materials, whereas the recycled plastic materials displayed a δ 13 C signatures between plant- and petroleum-derived polymers source. In a preliminary estimation, the different colours of plastic did not affect the variability of δ 13 C values, whereas the abiotic and biotic degradation processes that occurred in the plastic materials collected on beaches and in seawater, showed less negative δ 13 C values. A preliminary experimental field test confirmed these results. The advantages offered by isotope ratio mass spectrometry with respect to other analytical methods used to characterize the composition of plastic polymers are: high sensitivity, small amount of material required, rapidity of analysis, low cost and no limitation in black/dark samples compared with spectroscopic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in disorders of consciousness: preliminary results of an innovative analysis of brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Francesco; Caravasso, Chiara Falletta; Péran, Patrice; Catani, Sheila; Tuovinen, Noora; Sabatini, Umberto; Formisano, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to present a new approach for connectivity analysis in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) that overcomes some of the difficulties created by anatomical abnormalities due to the brain injury. Using a data-driven approach, resting-state structural MRI (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) data from three severe ABI patients - two with disorders of consciousness (DOC) and one who had recovered consciousness (non-DOC) - were integrated and analyzed. Parameters extracted from the distribution of the connectivity values, such as mean, standard deviation and skeweness, were considered. The distribution parameters estimated seem to provide an accurate multivariate classification of the considered cases that can be summarized as follows: connectivity in the severe ABI patients with DOC was on average lower than in the severe ABI non-DOC patient and healthy subjects. The dispersion of connectivity values of the severe ABI patients, non-DOC and DOC, was comparable, however the shape of the distribution was different in the non-DOC patient. Eventually, seed-based connectivity maps of the default mode Functional magnetic resonance imaging in disorders of consciousness: preliminary results of an innovative analysis of brain connectivity network show a pattern of increasing disruption of this network from the healthy subjects to non-DOC and DOC patients. Consistent results are obtained using an ICA-based approach..

  16. Preliminary design study of a steady state tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, Naoyuki; Nakajima, Shinji; Ushigusa, Kenkichi; and athors)

    1992-09-01

    Preliminary design study has been made for a steady tokamak with the plasma current of 10MA, as the next to the JT-60U experimental programs. The goal of the research program is the integrated study of steady state, high-power physics and technology. Present candidate design is to use superconducting TF and PF magnet systems and long pulse operation of 100's-1000's of sec with non inductive current drive mainly by 500keV negative ion beam injection of 60MW. Low activation material such as titanium alloy is chosen for the water tank type vacuum vessel, which is also the nuclear shield for the superconducting coils. The present preliminary design study shows that the device can meet the existing JT-60U facility capability. (author)

  17. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  18. Preliminary geologic map of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Harrington, C.; McFadden, L.; Perry, F.; Wells, S.; Turrin, B.; Champion, D.

    1988-12-01

    A preliminary geologic map has been compiled for the bedrock geology of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. The map was completed through use of a combination of stereo photographic interpretation and field mapping on color aerial photographs. These photographs (scale 1:4000) were obtained from American Aerial Surveys, Inc. They were flown on August 18, 1987, at the request of the Yucca Mountain Project (then Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations). The photographs are the Lathrop Wells VC-Area 25 series, numbers 1--32. The original negatives for these photographs are on file with American Aerial Surveys, Inc. Copies of the negatives have been archived at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Group N-5. The preliminary geologic map is a bedrock geologic map. It does not show alluvial deposits, eolian sands, or scoria fall deposits from the youngest eruptive events. The units will be compiled on separate maps when the geomorphic and soils studies are more advanced

  19. TREE STEM RECONSTRUCTION USING VERTICAL FISHEYE IMAGES: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berveglieri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  20. Preliminary results of statistical dynamic experiments on a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.

    1962-10-01

    The inherent noise signals present in a heat exchanger have been recorded and analysed in order to determine some of the statistical dynamic characteristics of the heat exchanger. These preliminary results show that the primary side temperature frequency response may be determined by analysing the inherent noise. The secondary side temperature frequency response and cross coupled temperature frequency responses between primary and secondary are poorly determined because of the presence of a non-stationary noise source in the secondary circuit of this heat exchanger. This may be overcome by correlating the dependent variables with an externally applied noise signal. Some preliminary experiments with an externally applied random telegraph type of signal are reported. (author)

  1. Risk estimation using probability machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Logistic regression has been the de facto, and often the only, model used in the description and analysis of relationships between a binary outcome and observed features. It is widely used to obtain the conditional probabilities of the outcome given predictors, as well as predictor effect size estimates using conditional odds ratios. Results We show how statistical learning machines for binary outcomes, provably consistent for the nonparametric regression problem, can be used to provide both consistent conditional probability estimation and conditional effect size estimates. Effect size estimates from learning machines leverage our understanding of counterfactual arguments central to the interpretation of such estimates. We show that, if the data generating model is logistic, we can recover accurate probability predictions and effect size estimates with nearly the same efficiency as a correct logistic model, both for main effects and interactions. We also propose a method using learning machines to scan for possible interaction effects quickly and efficiently. Simulations using random forest probability machines are presented. Conclusions The models we propose make no assumptions about the data structure, and capture the patterns in the data by just specifying the predictors involved and not any particular model structure. So they do not run the same risks of model mis-specification and the resultant estimation biases as a logistic model. This methodology, which we call a “risk machine”, will share properties from the statistical machine that it is derived from. PMID:24581306

  2. Analysis for preliminary evaluation of discrete fracture flow and large-scale permeability in sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.Y.; Lai, C.H.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-05-01

    Conceptual models for sedimentary rock settings that could be used in future evaluation and suitability studies are being examined through the DOE Repository Technology Program. One area of concern for the hydrologic aspects of these models is discrete fracture flow analysis as related to the estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume, evaluation of the appropriateness of continuum assumptions and estimation of the large-scale permeabilities of sedimentary rocks. A basis for preliminary analysis of flow in fracture systems of the types that might be expected to occur in low permeability sedimentary rocks is presented. The approach used involves numerical modeling of discrete fracture flow for the configuration of a large-scale hydrologic field test directed at estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume and large-scale permeability. Analysis of fracture data on the basis of this configuration is expected to provide a preliminary indication of the scale at which continuum assumptions can be made

  3. Efficient, Differentially Private Point Estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Differential privacy is a recent notion of privacy for statistical databases that provides rigorous, meaningful confidentiality guarantees, even in the presence of an attacker with access to arbitrary side information. We show that for a large class of parametric probability models, one can construct a differentially private estimator whose distribution converges to that of the maximum likelihood estimator. In particular, it is efficient and asymptotically unbiased. This result provides (furt...

  4. Relationship Between Dual Time Point FDG PET and Immunohistochemical Parameters in Preoperative Colorectal Cancer: Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Lee, Won Ae; Park, Seok Gun; Park, Dong Kook; Namgung, Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The clinical availability of 2 deoxy 2 [18F] fluoro D glucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (DTPP) has been investigated in diverse oncologic fields. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the relationship between various immunohistopathologic markers reflecting disease progression of colorectal cancer and parameters extracted from FDG DTPP in colorectal cancer patients. Forty seven patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer were analyzed in this preliminary study. FDG DTPP consisted of an early scan 1 h after FDG injection and a delayed scan 1.5 h after the early scan. Based on an analysis of FDG DTPP, we estimated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of tumors on the early and delayed scans (SUV earlya nd SUV delayed, respectively). The retention index (RI) was calculated as follows: (SUV delayed- SUV early) x 100/ SUV early. The clinicopathological findings (size and T and N stages) and immunohistochemical factors [glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1), hexokinase 2 (HK 2), p53, P504S, and β catenin] were analyzed by visual analysis. The RIs calculated from the SUVs ranged from -1.8 to 73.4 (31.8±15.5). The RIs were significantly higher in patients with high T stages (T3 and T4) than with low T stages (T1 and T2; P earlya nd SUV delayeda nd clinicopathologic parameters in this study. The RIs obtained from preoperative colorectal cancers had a significant relationship to tumor size, T staging, GLUT 1, and p53, in contrast to SUV earlyo r SUV delayed. Compared with previous reports, our results showed that RI can better predict GLUT 1 expression than HK 2 and other immunohistochemical markers. This study demonstrated that the RI might have the potential to be applied as a prognostic marked in preoperative colorectal cancer

  5. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A.; Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B.; Grigsby, J.M.; Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J.

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended

  6. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Grigsby, J.M. [G & P Consulting, Inc. (United States); Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended.

  7. Bayesian estimates of linkage disequilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abad-Grau María M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maximum likelihood estimator of D' – a standard measure of linkage disequilibrium – is biased toward disequilibrium, and the bias is particularly evident in small samples and rare haplotypes. Results This paper proposes a Bayesian estimation of D' to address this problem. The reduction of the bias is achieved by using a prior distribution on the pair-wise associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that increases the likelihood of equilibrium with increasing physical distances between pairs of SNPs. We show how to compute the Bayesian estimate using a stochastic estimation based on MCMC methods, and also propose a numerical approximation to the Bayesian estimates that can be used to estimate patterns of LD in large datasets of SNPs. Conclusion Our Bayesian estimator of D' corrects the bias toward disequilibrium that affects the maximum likelihood estimator. A consequence of this feature is a more objective view about the extent of linkage disequilibrium in the human genome, and a more realistic number of tagging SNPs to fully exploit the power of genome wide association studies.

  8. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  9. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  10. Preliminary design of smart fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Ha, D.; Park, S.; Nahm, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.

    2007-01-01

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a novel light water rector with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept has been developing a 660 MWt by Korean Nuclear Power Industry Group with KAERI. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as enhanced safety, and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment -friendly. In this paper described the preliminary design of the nuclear Fuel for this SMART, the design concept and the characteristics of SMART Fuel. In specially this paper describe the optimization of grid span adjustment to improve the thermal performance of the SMART Fuel as well as to improve the seismic resistance performance of the SMART Fuel, it is not easy to improve the both performance simultaneously because of design parameter of each performance inversely proportional. SMART Fuel enable to extra-long extended fuel cycle length and resistance of proliferation, enhanced safety, improved economics and reduced nuclear waste

  11. Preliminary heat flow map of Europe. Explanatory text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermak, V.; Hurtig, E.

    1977-08-08

    A preliminary heat flow map of Europe was prepared, based on data contained in 401 references. The map was prepared on a scale of 1:5,000,000 and shows broad-scale geological structure (e.g., platforms, shields, foredeeps) and specialized rock suites (ophiolites, volcanites). Primary faults and thrust faults are indicated, and contours showing the depth of crystalline basement are given. Heat flow is plotted using 10.0 mW/m/sup 2/ isotherms. The accompanying explanatory text describes data acquisition and techniques of correction, and discusses some implications of the results.

  12. Authentication by Keystroke Timing: Some Preliminary Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaines, R. S; Lisowski, William; Press, S. J; Shapiro, Norman

    1980-01-01

    ... of an individual seeking access to the computer. This report summarizes preliminary efforts to establish whether an individual can be identified by the statistical characteristics of his or her typing...

  13. Preliminary Phytochemical and Physicochemical Characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out phytochemical and physicochemical studies on the leaves of Gynura segetum. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical studies using chromatographic techniques,were carried out, Parameters evaluated include ash value, loss on drying and extractive value, amongst others.

  14. Original Article PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE SEEDS OF GLYPHAEA BREVIS. (SPRENG) MONACHINO FOR ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL PRINCIPLES. Michael Lahai1, Tiwalade Adewale Olugbade2. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Medicine ...

  15. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  16. Preliminary Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Waffle Walls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shugar, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary analytical method based upon modified plate bending theory is offered for structural analysis of a promising new construction method for walls of small buildings and residential housing...

  17. Preliminary design data package. Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-25

    The design requirements, design philosophy, method and assumptions, and preliminary computer-aided design of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle including its electric and heat power units, control equipment, transmission system, body, and overall vehicle characteristics are presented. (LCL)

  18. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariwite, Roderick [Fallon Paiute Shoshone Tribe, NV (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  19. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  20. Preliminary Slope Stability Study Using Slope/ W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazran Harun; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Muzamil Mohd Hashim; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the stability of earth structures is the oldest type of numerical analysis in geotechnical engineering. Limit equilibrium types of analyses for assessing the stability of earth slopes have been in use in geotechnical engineering for many decades. Modern limit equilibrium software is making it possible to handle ever-increasing complexity within an analysis. It is being considered as the potential method in dealing with complex stratigraphy, highly irregular pore-water pressure conditions, various linear and nonlinear shear strength models and almost any kind of slip surface shape. It allows rapid decision making by providing an early indication of the potential suitability of sites based on slope stability analysis. Hence, a preliminary slope stability study has been developed to improve the capacity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in assessing potential sites for Borehole Disposal for Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources. The results showed that geometry of cross section A-A ' , B-B ' , C-C ' and D-D ' achieved the factor of safety not less than 1.4 and these are deemed acceptable. (author)

  1. Activation analysis by filtered neutrons. Preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarnemark, G.; Rodinson, T.; Skaalberg, M.; Tokay, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate if measuring sensibility and precision by epithermal neutron activation analysis may be improved, different types of geological and biologic test samples were radiated. The test samples were enclosed in an extra filter of tungsten or sodium in order to reduce the flux of those neutrons that otherwise would induce interfering activity in the sample. The geological test samples consist of granites containing lanthanides which had been crushed in tung- sten carbide grinder. Normally such test samples show a interferins 1 87W-activity. By use of a tungsten filter the activity was reduced by up to 60%, which resulted in a considerable improvement of sensibility and precision of the measurement. The biologic test samples consisted of evaporated urine from patients treated with the cell poison cis-platinol. A reliable method to measure the platinum content has not existed so far. This method, however, enables platinum contents as low as about 0.1 ppm to be determined which is quite adequate. To sum up this preliminary study has demonstrated that activation analysis using filtered neutrons, correctly applied, is a satisfactory method of reducing interferences without complicated and time-consuming chemical separation procedures. (O.S.)

  2. Preliminary geological suitability assessment for LILW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomse, P.; Mele, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the growing need for a final disposal of LILW, the final solution for the short-lived LILW is the key issue of radioactive waste management in Slovenia at the moment. ARAO - the Slovenian Agency for Radwaste Management - is intensely involved in the re-initiated site selection process for a LILW repository. In this new process we are trying to combine as best as possible the technical, geologically-led and the advocacy-site selection processes. By a combination of technical and volunteer approach to the site selection we wish to guarantee high public involvement and sufficient flexibility of the process to adapt to specific conditions or new circumstances while the project is ongoing. In the technical phase, our tendency is to retain a larger number of potential areas/sites. We also keep open the possibility of choosing the type of repository. The decision between the surface and underground option will be made only once the site has been defined. In accordance with the IAEA recommendations the site selection process is divided into four stages: the conceptual and planning stage, area survey stage, site characterisation stage and site confirmation stage. Last year the area survey stage was started. In the preliminary geological suitability assessment the required natural predisposition of Slovene territory was assessed in order to locate geologically suitable formations. The assessment of natural conditions of the system was based on consideration of the main geological, hydro-geological and seismotectonic conditions. It was performed with ARC/INFO technology. The results are compiled in a map, showing potential areas for underground and surface disposal of LILW in Slovenia. It has been established that there is a potential suitability for both surface and underground disposal on about 10 000 km 2 of the Slovenian territory, which represents almost half of the entire Slovenian territory. These preliminary results are now being carefully re-examined. As an

  3. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establ......This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary...

  4. Preliminary Feasibility Study of the Solar Observation Payloads for STSAT-CLASS Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jae Moon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present preliminary feasibility studies on three types of solar observation payloads for future Korean Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT programs. The three candidates are (1 an UV imaging telescope, (2 an UV spectrograph, and (3 an X-ray spectrometer. In the case of UV imaging telescope, the most important constraint seems to be the control stability of a satellite in order to obtain a reasonably good spatial resolution. Considering that the current pointing stability estimated from the data of the Far ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FIMS onboard the Korean STSAT-1, is around 1 arc minutes/sec, we think that it is hard to obtain a spatial resolution sufficient for scientific research by such an UV Imaging Telescope. For solar imaging missions, we realize that an image stabilization system, which is composed of a small guide telescope with limb sensor and a servo controller of secondary mirror, is quite essential for a very good pointing stability of about 0.1 arcsec. An UV spectrograph covering the solar full disk seems to be a good choice in that there is no risk due to poor pointing stability as well as that it can provide us with valuable UV spectral irradiance data valuable for studying their effects on the Earth's atmosphere and satellites. The heritage of the FIMS can be a great advantage of developing the UV spectrograph. Its main disadvantage is that two major missions are in operation or scheduled. Our preliminary investigations show that an X-ray spectrometer for the full disk Sun seems to be the best choice among the three candidates. The reasons are : (1 high temporal and spectral X-ray data are very essential for studying the acceleration process of energetic particles associated with solar flares, (2 we have a good heritage of X-ray detectors including a rocket-borne X-ray detector, (3 in the case of developing countries such as India and Czech, solar X-ray spectrometers were selected as their early stage

  5. Project schedule and cost estimate report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    All cost tables represent obligation dollars, at both a constant FY 1987 level and an estimated escalation level, and are based on the FY 1989 DOE Congressional Budget submittal of December 1987. The cost tables display the total UMTRA Project estimated costs, which include both Federal and state funding. The Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the UMTRA Project is approximately $992.5 million (in 1987 escalated dollars). Project schedules have been developed that provide for Project completion by September 1994, subject to Congressional approval extending DOE's authorization under Public Law 95-604. The report contains site-specific demographic data, conceptual design assumptions, preliminary cost estimates, and site schedules. A general project overview is also presented, which includes a discussion of the basis for the schedule and cost estimates, contingency assumptions, work breakdown structure, and potential project risks. The schedules and cost estimates will be revised as necessary to reflect appropriate decisions relating to relocation of certain tailings piles, or other special design considerations or circumstances (such as revised EPA groundwater standards), and changes in the Project mission. 27 figs', 97 tabs

  6. Reactivity estimation using digital nonlinear H∞ estimator for VHTRC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuo; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Yamane, Tsuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    On-line and real-time estimation of time-varying reactivity in a nuclear reactor in necessary for early detection of reactivity anomaly and safe operation. Using a digital nonlinear H ∞ estimator, an experiment of real-time dynamic reactivity estimation was carried out in the Very High Temperature Reactor Critical Assembly (VHTRC) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Some technical issues of the experiment are described, such as reactivity insertion, data sampling frequency, anti-aliasing filter, experimental circuit and digitalising nonlinear H ∞ reactivity estimator, and so on. Then, we discussed the experimental results obtained by the digital nonlinear H ∞ estimator with sampled data of the nuclear instrumentation signal for the power responses under various reactivity insertions. Good performances of estimated reactivity were observed, with almost no delay to the true reactivity and sufficient accuracy between 0.05 cent and 0.1 cent. The experiment shows that real-time reactivity for data sampling period of 10 ms can be certainly realized. From the results of the experiment, it is concluded that the digital nonlinear H ∞ reactivity estimator can be applied as on-line real-time reactivity meter for actual nuclear plants. (author)

  7. Economics show CO2 EOR potential in central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Pancake, R.E.; Willhite, G.P.; Schoeling, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that CO2 EOR should provide an internal rate of return (IRR) greater than 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for \\$20/bbl, CO2 costs \\$1/Mcf, and gross utilization is 10 Mcf of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 cost is reduced to \\$0.75/Mcf, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling indicates that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost. A project requires a minimum recovery of 1,500 net bbl/acre (about 1 million net bbl/1-mile section) under a best-case scenario. Less important variables to the economics are capital costs and non-CO2 related lease operating expenses.

  8. Text Mining of the Classical Medical Literature for Medicines That Show Potential in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1 identification of candidate ancient terms; (2 systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3 preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae.

  9. Preliminary tests to determine the fatigue curve of the Ibis ACSR (Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced) conductor; Ensaios preliminares para determinacao da curva de fadiga do cabo condutor ACSR Ibis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Daniel M. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Gama), DF (Brazil)], E-mail: danielrosa@unb.br; Fadel, Aida A.; Araujo, Jose Alexander; Ferreira, Jorge Luiz A.; Henriques, Antonio Manoel D. [Universidade de Brasilia (EnM/UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: aida@unb.br, alex07@unb.br, jorge@unb.br, Henriques@unb.br; Hortencio, Tania M.O.S. [Companhia Energetica de Goias Distribuicao S.A. (CELG D), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: tania.hortencio@celg.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to present a fretting fatigue experimental rig for overhead conductors and to carry out a set of experiments to obtain life estimative for a standard Ibis ACSR, Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced. A preliminary S-N (Wohler) Curve was obtained in the medium high cycle fatigue regime. Experiments considered the occurrence of at least two wire breaks to obtain each point of the S-N curve, which was compared to CIGRE's Safe Border Line (CSBL). The experimental results showed five to ten times large lives than the ones provided by CSBL adoption. (author)

  10. Preliminary studies of the plasma focus as an opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Gerdin, G.

    1983-01-01

    Sharp current interruption at pinch time suggests the possible application of the plasma focus as an opening switch. Switch impedances on the order of 0.5 ohms or greater would be of interest to pulsed power applications if the rise time for the impedance is sufficiently short. The experimental determination of the magnitude of the plasma focus impedance at pinch time and its nature (R or L) are obviously important in assessing the feasibility of this application. An experimental estimate of the Spitzer resistance of the plasma focus based on soft-X-ray measurements indicates a Spitzer resistance of 9 mΩ. Estimates of resistance based on the maximum particle energy observed 4 (V about E /sub MAX/ /e) and the current at pinch time (R about E /sub MAX/ /eI /sub p/ ) would indicate an effective resistance of about one ohm. Estimates of resistance based on circuit parameters (L, I, q/C) yield about one third of an ohm. To resolve these discrepancies a exclamationBexclamation probe 5 is being developed to get a better estimate of L(t), L(t) and I(t) through spatially resolved measurements. Preliminary results are reported

  11. On Estimating Quantiles Using Auxiliary Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Yves G.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a transformation-based approach for estimating quantiles using auxiliary information. The proposed estimators can be easily implemented using a regression estimator. We show that the proposed estimators are consistent and asymptotically unbiased. The main advantage of the proposed estimators is their simplicity. Despite the fact the proposed estimators are not necessarily more efficient than their competitors, they offer a good compromise between accuracy and simplicity. They can be used under single and multistage sampling designs with unequal selection probabilities. A simulation study supports our finding and shows that the proposed estimators are robust and of an acceptable accuracy compared to alternative estimators, which can be more computationally intensive.

  12. Dissociation - a preliminary contextual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Krüger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM system has certain limitations when applied to two South African examples of dissociation, because it is descriptive (non-explanatory and focuses on intrapsychic (non-communal processes. Even the existing Western explanatory models of dissociation fail to accommodate fully the communal aspects of dissociation in our South African context. Objectives and methods. The aim was to explore an expanded perspective on dissociation that does not limit it to an intrapsychic phenomenon, but that accounts for the interrelatedness of individuals within their social context. Auto-ethnography was used. In this article a collective, socially orientated, contextual hermeneutic was applied to two local examples of dissociation. Three existing Western models were expanded along multicontextual, collective lines, for them to be more useful in the pluralistic South African context. Results. This preliminary contextual model of dissociation includes a person’s interpersonal, socio-cultural, and spiritual contexts, in addition to the intrapsychic context. Dissociation is considered to be a normal information-processing tool that maintains balanced, coherent selves-in-society, i.e. individuals connected to each other. In the South African context dissociation appears mostly as a normal phenomenon and seldom as a sign of mental illness. Dissociation is pivotal for the normal construction of individual and communal identities in the face of conflicting sets of information from various contexts. Dissociation may help individuals or communities to survive in a world of conflicting messages, where conflict is often interpersonal/cultural/societal in nature, rather than primarily intrapsychic. Conclusions. This model should be developed and evaluated further. Such evaluation would require suitable new local terminology.

  13. LOW COST POTENTIAL INFILTRATION ESTIMATION FOR WET TROPICAL WATERSHEDS FOR TERRITORIAL PLANNING SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Mendonça dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed at Caçula stream watershed of Ilha Solteira (Brazil for potential infiltration estimation based on digital cartography. These methods aim at low-cost and quick analysis processes in order to support the territorial planning. The preliminary potential infiltration chart was produced using ArcHydro and pedological information of the study area. The curve-number method (Soil Conservation Service was used to determine the potential infiltration combining information related to landuse and soil types in the watershed. We also used a methodology that assumes being possible to evaluate potential infiltration of a watershed combining average annual rainfall, land-use and watershed natural attributes (geomorphology, geology and pedology. Results show that ArcHydro is efficient for a preliminary characterization because it shows flow accumulation areas, allowing higher potential of degradation areas in terms of floods, mass movement and erosion. As land-use classes have significant weight in Soil Conservation Service method assessing potential infiltration, this method allow us to evaluate how land-use changes affect water dynamic in the watershed. The propose based on natural environment attributes enables to determine the homologous infiltration areas based on a higher number of natural characteristics of the area, and thereby obtain a result that is closer to the local conditions and, consequently for degradation surface processes identification.

  14. A preliminary conceptual design study for Korean fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keeman, E-mail: kkeeman@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Chan; Oh, Sangjun; Lee, Young Seok; Yeom, Jun Ho; Im, Kihak; Lee, Gyung-Su [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neilson, George; Kessel, Charles; Brown, Thomas; Titus, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Perform a preliminary conceptual study for a steady-state Korean DEMO reactor. ► Present design guidelines and requirements of Korean DEMO reactor. ► Present a preliminary design of TF (toroidal field) and CS (central solenoid) magnet. ► Present a preliminary result of the radial build scheme of Korean DEMO reactor. -- Abstract: As the ITER is being constructed, there is a growing anticipation for an earlier realization of fusion energy, so called fast-track approach. Korean strategy for fusion energy can be regarded as a fast-track approach and one special concept discussed in this paper is a two-stage development plan. At first, a steady-state Korean DEMO Reactor (K-DEMO) is designed not only to demonstrate a net electricity generation and a self-sustained tritium cycle, but also to be used as a component test facility. Then, at its second stage, a major upgrade is carried out by replacing in-vessel components in order to show a net electric generation on the order of 300 MWe and the competitiveness in cost of electricity (COE). The major radius is designed to be just below 6.5 m, considering practical engineering feasibilities. By using high performance Nb{sub 3}Sn-based superconducting cable currently available, high magnetic field at the plasma center above 8 T can be achieved. A design concept for TF magnets and radial builds for the K-DEMO considering a vertical maintenance scheme, are presented together with preliminary design parameters.

  15. Preliminary Result of Geophysical Some Studieson the Nariinsukhait Coal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norov, B.; Purevjav, N.; Roy, D. K., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Nariinsukhait coal deposit has a strategic importance on Mongolian national economic development. The deposit is located in Gurvan-tes of the Umnu-gobi province, as 849 km south-west away from Ulaanbaatar. The deposit in geographically, belongs to Gobi Altai region region of the Altai mountain region. The area contains Permian, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic age of sediments. Sediments are red or sedimentary cover on some part of area (Minjin. Ch., Batnyam. D., Rentsendorj. S (Baatarkhuyag. A., Altantsetseg. D., 2015). The coal deposit is located in the center portion of the Nariinsukhait basin. The age of coal hosted sedimentary rock is Jurassic estimated by Paleo-botanic methodology, using examination of a total 59 kind of plants, 288 pollen grains (Baatarkhuyag. A., Altantsetseg. D., 2015). The thickness of coal hosted sedimentary sequence is approximately 1105.5m and named as Orgilohbulag formation. In case of geophysical exploration, preliminary interpretation of the coal basin has been done by 3 geophysical methodologies which commonly applying during exploration stage of coal. The interpretations are given below. Natural Gamma Sonde /NGRS 4140/: use to determine natural gamma activation on rock by radionuclides content (238U; 235U; 232Th; 40K). During measurements well contrasted coal bedding and, value indicate between 0-15cps. And depending on the rock type it has been changed, in case of siltstone, argillite, conglomerate value fluctuated between 15-40cps. However, those rocks natural gamma values are difference little, therefore not showing much contrast between rock types. Formation Density Sonde Version B /FDSB 4036/: The Nariinsukhait coal deposit Open holes and protective pipes of density is 0.5-1.5 g/cm3, 1.2-2.3 g/cm3 respectively. Not well contrasted during measurement due to some of sedimentary rock density range is so low as such sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate. Therefore, applied resistivity methodology and done interpretation. DLL3

  16. Explicit estimating equations for semiparametric generalized linear latent variable models

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan; Genton, Marc G.

    2010-01-01

    which is similar to that of a sufficient complete statistic, which enables us to simplify the estimating procedure and explicitly to formulate the semiparametric estimating equations. We further show that the explicit estimators have the usual root n

  17. A QUANTITATIVE METHOD FOR ANALYSING 3-D BRANCHING IN EMBRYONIC KIDNEYS: DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNIQUE AND PRELIMINARY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fricout

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The normal human adult kidney contains between 300,000 and 1 million nephrons (the functional units of the kidney. Nephrons develop at the tips of the branching ureteric duct, and therefore ureteric duct branching morphogenesis is critical for normal kidney development. Current methods for analysing ureteric branching are mostly qualitative and those quantitative methods that do exist do not account for the 3- dimensional (3D shape of the ureteric "tree". We have developed a method for measuring the total length of the ureteric tree in 3D. This method is described and preliminary data are presented. The algorithm allows for performing a semi-automatic segmentation of a set of grey level confocal images and an automatic skeletonisation of the resulting binary object. Measurements of length are automatically obtained, and numbers of branch points are manually counted. The final representation can be reconstructed by means of 3D volume rendering software, providing a fully rotating 3D perspective of the skeletonised tree, making it possible to identify and accurately measure branch lengths. Preliminary data shows the total length estimates obtained with the technique to be highly reproducible. Repeat estimates of total tree length vary by just 1-2%. We will now use this technique to further define the growth of the ureteric tree in vitro, under both normal culture conditions, and in the presence of various levels of specific molecules suspected of regulating ureteric growth. The data obtained will provide fundamental information on the development of renal architecture, as well as the regulation of nephron number.

  18. Spatial Heterodyne Observation of Water (SHOW) from a high altitude aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, A. E.; Langille, J.; Solheim, B.; Degenstein, D. A.; Letros, D.; Lloyd, N. D.; Loewen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water instrument (SHOW) is limb-sounding satellite prototype that is being developed in collaboration between the University of Saskatchewan, York University, the Canadian Space Agency and ABB. The SHOW instrument combines a field-widened SHS with an imaging system to observe limb-scattered sunlight in a vibrational band of water (1363 nm - 1366 nm). Currently, the instrument has been optimized for deployment on NASA's ER-2 aircraft. Flying at an altitude of 70, 000 ft the ER-2 configuration and SHOW viewing geometry provides high spatial resolution (limb-measurements of water vapor in the Upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region. During an observation campaign from July 15 - July 22, the SHOW instrument performed 10 hours of observations from the ER-2. This paper describes the SHOW measurement technique and presents the preliminary analysis and results from these flights. These observations are used to validate the SHOW measurement technique and demonstrate the sampling capabilities of the instrument.

  19. Estimation of total genetic effects for survival time in crossbred laying hens showing cannibalism, using pedigree or genomic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinker, T.; Raymond, B.; Bijma, P.; Vereijken, A.; Ellen, E.D.

    2017-01-01

    Mortality of laying hens due to cannibalism is a major problem in the egg-laying industry. Survival depends on two genetic effects: the direct genetic effect of the individual itself (DGE) and the indirect genetic effects of its group mates (IGE). For hens housed in sire-family groups, DGE and

  20. Estimations of Coherent Instabilities for JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    JLEIC is the medium energy electron-ion collider currently under active design at Jefferson Lab*. The design goals of JLEIC are both high luminosity (1033-1034 cm-2ses-1) and high polarization (>70%) for the electron and light ion beams, for a wide range of electron and ion beam energies and for a wide spectrum of ion species. The unprecedented luminosity goal for this electron-ion collider sets strong requirements for the understanding and management of potential collective effects in JLEIC. In this paper, we present preliminary estimations of single and coupled bunch coherent instabilities for the electron and proton beams at collision energies for the JLEIC design. Further improvement of the estimations and mitigation methods are discussed.

  1. Births: preliminary data for 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2006-12-28

    This report presents preliminary data for 2005 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight (LBW) are also presented. Data in this report are based on 99.2 percent of births for 2005. The records are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2005. Comparisons are made with 2004 data. The crude birth rate in 2005 was 14.0 births per 1,000 total population, unchanged from 2004. The general fertility rate, however, rose to 66.7 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years in 2005, the highest level since 1993. The birth rate for teenagers declined by 2 percent in 2005, falling to 40.4 births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, the lowest ever recorded in the 65 years for which a consistent series of rates are available. The rate declined for teenagers 15-17 years to 21.4 births per 1,000, but was essentially stable for older teenagers 18-19 years. The birth rate for women aged 20-24 years rose in 2005, whereas the rate for women aged 25-29 years was essentially unchanged. The birth rates for women aged 30 years and over rose to levels not seen in almost 40 years. Childbearing by unmarried women increased to record levels for the Nation in 2005. The birth rate rose 3 percent to 47.6 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years; the proportion of all births to unmarried women increased to 36.8 percent. The cesarean delivery rate rose by 4 percent in 2005 to 30.2 percent of all births, another record high for the Nation. The preterm birth rate continued to rise (to 12.7 percent in 2005) as did the rate for LBW births (8.2 percent).

  2. Births: preliminary data for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J A; Hamilton, B E; Ventura, S J

    2001-07-24

    This report presents preliminary data for 2000 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Data in this report are based on more than 96 percent of births for 2000. The records are weighted to independent control counts of births received in State vital statistics offices in 2000. Comparisons are made with 1999 final data. The number of births rose 3 percent between 1999 and 2000. The crude birth rate increased to 14.8 per 1,000 population in 2000, 2 percent higher than the 1999 rate. The fertility rate rose 3 percent to 67.6 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years between 1999 and 2000. The birth rate for teenagers, which has been falling since 1991, declined 2 percent in 2000 to 48.7 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years, another historic low. The rate for teenagers 15-17 years fell 4 percent, and the rate for 18-19 year olds was down 1 percent. Since 1991, rates have fallen 29 percent for teenagers 15-17 years and 16 percent for teenagers 18-19 years. Birth rates for all of the older age groups increased for 1999-2000: 1 percent among women aged 20-24 years, 3 percent for women aged 25-29 years, and 5 percent for women in their thirties. Rates for women aged 40-54 years were also up for 2000. The birth rate for unmarried women increased 2 percent to 45.2 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years in 2000, but was still lower than the peak reached in 1994. The number of births to unmarried women was up 3 percent, the highest number ever reported in the United States. However, the number of births to unmarried teenagers declined. The proportion of women who began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (83.2 percent) did not improve for 2000, nor did the rate of low birthweight (7.6 percent). The total cesarean rate rose for the fourth consecutive year to 22.9 percent, the result of both a

  3. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  4. Gini estimation under infinite variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Fontanari (Andrea); N.N. Taleb (Nassim Nicholas); P. Cirillo (Pasquale)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractWe study the problems related to the estimation of the Gini index in presence of a fat-tailed data generating process, i.e. one in the stable distribution class with finite mean but infinite variance (i.e. with tail index α∈(1,2)). We show that, in such a case, the Gini coefficient

  5. Variable Kernel Density Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, George R.; Scott, David W.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate some of the possibilities for improvement of univariate and multivariate kernel density estimates by varying the window over the domain of estimation, pointwise and globally. Two general approaches are to vary the window width by the point of estimation and by point of the sample observation. The first possibility is shown to be of little efficacy in one variable. In particular, nearest-neighbor estimators in all versions perform poorly in one and two dimensions, but begin to b...

  6. Fuel Burn Estimation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Validated the fuel estimation procedure using flight test data. A good fuel model can be created if weight and fuel data are available. Error in assumed takeoff weight results in similar amount of error in the fuel estimate. Fuel estimation error bounds can be determined.

  7. Optimal fault signal estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Niemann, H.H.; Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider here both fault identification and fault signal estimation. Regarding fault identification, we seek either exact or almost fault identification. On the other hand, regarding fault signal estimation, we seek either $H_2$ optimal, $H_2$ suboptimal or Hinfinity suboptimal estimation. By

  8. Escherichia coli O26 IN RAW BUFFALO MILK: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O26 is considered to be one of the most important food-borne pathogen. In this study, 120 buffalo milk samples collected in Lazio and in Apulia regions were tested for the presence of E. coli O26. One buffalo milk sample (0,8% tested positive for E. coli O26; the isolate was positive at the verocytotoxicity test and it showed resistance properties to different antimicrobial classes. These preliminary results highlight the need to monitor the foods of animal origin used for production and eaten by a wide range of persons, respect VTEC organism.

  9. A preliminary assessment of radiation effects on American Flagfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzivaki, M.; Waller, E., E-mail: margarita.tzivaki@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    In order to add to the knowledge base of radiation effects on non-human biota, it is important to define benchmark values for different species. An experimental set-up was designed to investigate effects from irradiation with Cs-137 to American Flagfish. Preliminary experiments to assess the suitability of the methodology were conducted by exposing Flagfish eggs to 44 h of ionizing radiation. The subsequent observation of the developing fry showed no effect on hatching. However, the mortality and observed vertebral malformations were increased with increasing absorbed dose which is suspected to be a result of developmental defects in the embryonic stage. (author)

  10. Preliminary Results on Uncertainty Quantification for Pattern Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stracuzzi, David John [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brost, Randolph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Maximillian Gene [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malinas, Rebecca [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Matthew Gregor [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Woodbridge, Diane [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes preliminary research into uncertainty quantification for pattern ana- lytics within the context of the Pattern Analytics to Support High-Performance Exploitation and Reasoning (PANTHER) project. The primary focus of PANTHER was to make large quantities of remote sensing data searchable by analysts. The work described in this re- port adds nuance to both the initial data preparation steps and the search process. Search queries are transformed from does the specified pattern exist in the data? to how certain is the system that the returned results match the query? We show example results for both data processing and search, and discuss a number of possible improvements for each.

  11. V and V Efforts of Auroral Precipitation Models: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Rastaetter, Lutz; Hesse, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Auroral precipitation models have been valuable both in terms of space weather applications and space science research. Yet very limited testing has been performed regarding model performance. A variety of auroral models are available, including empirical models that are parameterized by geomagnetic indices or upstream solar wind conditions, now casting models that are based on satellite observations, or those derived from physics-based, coupled global models. In this presentation, we will show our preliminary results regarding V&V efforts of some of the models.

  12. Preliminary analysis of the KAERI RCCS Experiment Using GAMMA+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoza, Samukelisiwe; Tak, Nam-il; Lim, Hong-Sik; Lee, Sung-Nam; Cho, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This paper describes the analysis of the KAERI RCCS experiment. GAMMA+ code was used for analysis of the RCCS 1/4-scale natural cooling experimental facility designed and built at KAERI to verify the performance of the natural circulation phenomenon. The results obtained from the GAMMA+ analysis showing the temperature profiles and flow rates at steady state were compared with the results from the preliminary experiments conducted in this facility. GAMMA+ analysis for the KAERI RCCS experimental setup was carried out to understand its natural circulation behavior. The air flow rate at the chimney exit achieved by experiments was from to be almost same as that of GAMMA+.

  13. Determinants of Trade Credit: A Preliminary Analysis on Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a preliminary analysis of the correlations between trade credit and some selected measures of financial performance for a sample of 958 firms acting in the construction sector. The examined period covers 2004-2013. The sample derived from Amadeus database contains firms that have sold and bought on credit. Results showed that larger firms offered and used more credit than counterparties. Firms offered and used in same time credit, but not in same level. Firms with higher return on assets and profit margin used and offered less credit from suppliers, respectively to clients. Moreover, more liquid firms used less trade payables.

  14. Preliminary study of a flux converter for experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malouch, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to define the characteristics of a flux converter dedicated to increase the fast neutron flux in irradiation devices placed in the core of Osiris experimental reactor. This preliminary work has dealt with the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic aspects of this problem. The synthesis of the results produced by the codes APOLLO2, DAIXY, MERCURE5.3 and FLICA-3M shows that a cylindrical converter equipped with 5 fissile rings can enhance the fast flux by a 35% factor in an experimental device set in its center. (A.C.)

  15. Preliminary field demonstration of a fiber-optic TCE sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, S.M.; Langry, K.; Roe, J.; Colston, B.W. Jr.; Daley, P.F.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1991-02-01

    We have developed a differential-absorption fiber-optic sensor for use in groundwater and vadose zone monitoring of certain volatile organochlorines. The principle of detection is a quantitative, irreversible chemical reaction that forms visible light-absorbing products. The sensor has been evaluated against gas chromatographic (GC) standard measurements and has demonstrated accuracy and sensitivity sufficient for the environmental monitoring of trace levels of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform. This sensor is currently under evaluation in monitoring well and vadose zone applications. In this paper, we describe the principles of the existing single measurement sensor technology and show preliminary field-test results. 3 refs., 8 figs

  16. Preliminary quantitative assessment of earthquake casualties and damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badal, J.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.

    2005-01-01

    Prognostic estimations of the expected number of killed or injured people and about the approximate cost associated with the damages caused by earthquakes are made following a suitable methodology of wide-ranging application. For the preliminary assessment of human life losses due to the occurrence...... of a relatively strong earthquake we use a quantitative model consisting of a correlation between the number of casualties and the earthquake magnitude as a function of population density. The macroseismic intensity field is determined in accordance with an updated anelastic attenuation law, and the number...... the local social wealth as a function of the gross domestic product of the country. This last step is performed on the basis of the relationship of the macroseismic intensity to the earthquake economic loss in percentage of the wealth. Such an approach to the human casualty and damage levels is carried out...

  17. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Lavin - Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, F.

    2008-05-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  18. Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP (Medical Isotopes Producer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon, G. H.; O, S. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP (Medical Isotopes Producer), which is used liquid nuclear fuel to produce medical isotopes of Mo-99 and Sr-89, was performed. To do this, this study was estimated the IRR(Internal Rate of Return) and PBP(Pay-back Period) about optimistic and pessimistic cases for market penetration of Asia and U.S.A. isotope markets. And sensitivity analysis is also performed about capital cost and price of Mo-99 and Sr-89. According to the results, IRR was between 14.9% and 24.3%, and PBP was between 4.8 years and 7.8 years. These suggest that MIP has economic merits. MIP can produce other medical isotopes such as Sr-90, I-131, Xe-133, Cs-137. So, it is necessary to do cost-benefit analysis considering production of these other isotopes

  19. Estimates of secondary waste production from operations at a proespective geologic repository in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhard, M.P.; Jardine, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, a method is outlined for estimating the volumes of solid and liquid radioactive wastes produced during the operation of a repository in tuff. Volume estimates were also developed based on a preliminary conceptual facility design. Based on a disposal rate of 3000 MTU/y of commercial spent fuel, the waste estimates ranged from 793 to 2464 m 3 /y of uncompacted solids and from 80,431 to 128,690 L/y of liquids, depending on the specific set of facility features assumed. The estimates of waste quantities were most dependent on variations in the ratio of truck to rail cask shipments received. The quantities of waste generated on site decreased as this ratio decreased. Although there are large uncertainties in the current estimates caused by the preliminary nature of the facility designs and the limited amount of engineering detail completed, the methodology can be used to refine estimates as the repository design progresses

  20. Improved self-exclusion program: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Nicole; Boutin, Claude; Ladouceur, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The gambling industry has offered self-exclusion programs for quite a long time. Such measures are designed to limit access to gaming opportunities and provide problem gamblers with the help they need to cease or limit their gambling behaviour. However, few studies have empirically evaluated these programs. This study has three objectives: (1) to observe the participation in an improved self-exclusion program that includes an initial voluntary evaluation, phone support, and a mandatory meeting, (2) to evaluate satisfaction and usefulness of this service as perceived by self-excluders, (3) to measure the preliminary impact of this improved program. One hundred sixteen self-excluders completed a questionnaire about their satisfaction and their perception of the usefulness during the mandatory meeting. Among those participants, 39 attended an initial meeting. Comparisons between data collected at the initial meeting and data taken at the final meeting were made for those 39 participants. Data showed that gamblers chose the improved self-exclusion program 75% of the time; 25% preferred to sign a regular self-exclusion contract. Among those who chose the improved service, 40% wanted an initial voluntary evaluation and 37% of these individuals actually attended that meeting. Seventy percent of gamblers came to the mandatory meeting, which was a required condition to end their self-exclusion. The majority of participants were satisfied with the improved self-exclusion service and perceived it as useful. Major improvements were observed between the final and the initial evaluation on time and money spent, consequences of gambling, DSM-IV score, and psychological distress. The applicability of an improved self-exclusion program is discussed and, as shown in our study, the inclusion of a final mandatory meeting might not be so repulsive for self-excluders. Future research directives are also proposed.

  1. Preliminary Assessment of the Flow of Used Electronics, In ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is the largest growing municipal waste stream in the United States. The improper disposal of e-waste has environmental, economic, and social impacts, thus there is a need for sustainable stewardship of electronics. EPA/ORD has been working to improve our understanding of the quantity and flow of electronic devices from initial purchase to final disposition. Understanding the pathways of used electronics from the consumer to their final disposition would provide insight to decision makers about their impacts and support efforts to encourage improvements in policy, technology, and beneficial use. This report is the first stage of study of EPA/ORD's efforts to understand the flows of used electronics and e-waste by reviewing the regulatory programs for the selected states and identifying the key lessons learned and best practices that have emerged since their inception. Additionally, a proof-of-concept e-waste flow model has been developed to provide estimates of the quantity of e-waste generated annually at the national level, as well as for selected states. This report documents a preliminary assessment of available data and development of the model that can be used as a starting point to estimate domestic flows of used electronics from generation, to collection and reuse, to final disposition. The electronics waste flow model can estimate the amount of electronic products entering the EOL management phase based on unit sales dat

  2. Preliminary radiological assessments of near-surface low-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerling, T.J.; Nancarrow, D.J.

    1988-08-01

    This report summarises preliminary assessments of post-closure radiological impact of LLW repositories at four sites previously under investigation by UK Nirex Ltd. The objectives of the assessments were: to demonstrate a methodology for site specific assessments, to identify important information requirements for detailed assessments; to identify methodological and research requirements. Doses and risks due to groundwater pathways, human intrusion, gaseous release and natural environmental change are estimated. (author)

  3. Assessing Internet addiction using the parsimonious Internet addiction components model - a preliminary study [forthcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Shorter, GW; Van Rooij, AJ; Griffiths, MD; Schoenmakers, T

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (2005), i...

  4. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...

  5. The demand factors for cesareans in Portugal – some preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Aida Isabel; Rocha, Tania

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the demand factors for cesareans in Portugal. This work is exploratory and preliminary. Data is aggregated in NUTSII , for the period 2002-10. The number of cesareans performed is count data which requires the estimation of this panel data by a negative binomial with fixed effects. The main result is the evidence that there may be induced demand for cesareans in Portugal. Further research is needed.

  6. Preliminary survey of natural background radiation in the Gaza Strip in Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, S.S.; Steck, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary survey of indoor radon, outdoor radon and surface alpha activity on glass in northern Gaza found that the average value indoors was 34 Bq m -3 , 18 Bq m -3 outdoors, and 13 Bq m -2 on glass. Good correlation was found between the retrospectively reconstructed radon exposure from implanted activity and the estimate based on contemporary radon gas concentration and age. (orig.)

  7. An Algorithm for Glaucoma Screening in Clinical Settings and Its Preliminary Performance Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S-Farzad Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To devise and evaluate a screening algorithm for glaucoma in clinical settings. Methods: Screening included examination of the optic disc for vertical cupping (≥0.4 and asymmetry (≥0.15, Goldmann applanation tonometry (≥21 mmHg, adjusted or unadjusted for central corneal thickness, and automated perimetry. In the diagnostic step, retinal nerve fiber layer imaging was performed using scanning laser polarimetry. Performance of the screening protocol was assessed in an eye hospital-based program in which 124 non-physician personnel aged 40 years or above were examined. A single ophthalmologist carried out the examinations and in equivocal cases, a glaucoma subspecialist′s opinion was sought. Results: Glaucoma was diagnosed in six cases (prevalence 4.8%; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.09 of whom five were new. The likelihood of making a definite diagnosis of glaucoma for those who were screened positively was 8.5 times higher than the estimated baseline risk for the reference population; the positive predictive value of the screening protocol was 30%. Screening excluded 80% of the initial population. Conclusion: Application of a formal screening protocol (such as our algorithm or its equivalent in clinical settings can be helpful in detecting new cases of glaucoma. Preliminary performance assessment of the algorithm showed its applicability and effectiveness in detecting glaucoma among subjects without any visual complaint.

  8. Correlation of Salivary Statherin and Calcium Levels with Dental Calculus Formation: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gowda Sadashivappa Pateel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Salivary constituents have a wide range of functions including oral calcium homeostasis. Salivary proteins such as statherin inhibit crystal growth of calcium phosphate in supersaturated solutions and interact with several oral bacteria to adsorb on hydroxyapatite. Concurrently, saliva, which is supersaturated with respect to calcium phosphates, is the driving force for plaque mineralization and formation of calculus. Thus, the aim of the present study was to estimate and correlate salivary statherin and calcium concentration to the dental calculus formation. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the relationship between salivary statherin, calcium, and dental calculus among 70 subjects, aged 20–55 years. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on the calculus scores as interpreted by Calculus Index which was followed by collection of whole saliva using Super•SAL™. Salivary calcium levels were assessed by calorimetric method using Calcium Assay kit (Cayman Chemical, Michigan, USA and statherin levels by using ELISA Kit (Cusabio Biotech. Results. Statherin levels showed a weak negative correlation with the calcium levels and with calculus formation. The mean salivary statherin and calcium concentration were found to be 0.96 μg/ml and 3.87 mg/ml, respectively. Salivary statherin levels differed significantly among the three groups (p<0.05. Conclusions. Our preliminary data indicates that statherin could possibly play a role in the formation of dental calculus.

  9. Extremity exposure in nuclear medicine: Preliminary results of a European study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merce, M. S.; Ruiz, N.; Barth, I.; Carnicer, A.; Donadille, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fulop, M.; Ginjaume, M.; Gualdrini, G.; Krim, S.; Mariotti, F.; Ortega, X.; Rimpler, A.; Vanhavere, F.; Baechler, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Work Package 4 of the ORAMED project, a collaborative project (2008-11) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme, is concerned with the optimisation of the extremity dosimetry of medical staff in nuclear medicine. To evaluate the extremity doses and dose distributions across the hands of medical staff working in nuclear medicine departments, an extensive measurement programme has been started in 32 nuclear medicine departments in Europe. This was done using a standard protocol recording all relevant information for radiation exposure, i.e. radiation protection devices and tools. This study shows the preliminary results obtained for this measurement campaign. For diagnostic purposes, the two most-used radionuclides were considered: 99m Tc) and 18 F. For therapeutic treatments, Zevalin R and DOTATOC (both labelled with 90 Y) were chosen. Large variations of doses were observed across the hands depending on different parameters. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of the positioning of the extremity dosemeter for a correct estimate of the maximum skin doses. (authors)

  10. Preliminary analysis of engineered barrieer performances in geological disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Maki, Yasuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Motoi.

    1988-01-01

    This report represents preliminary results of safety analysis of a engineered barrier system in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three well-known computer codes; ORIGEN 2, TRUMP, and SWIFT were used in the simulation. Main conceptual design of the repository was almost identical to that of SKB in Sweden and NAGRA in Switzerland; the engineered barrier conasists glass solidified waste, steel overpack, and compacted bentonite. Two different underground formations are considered; granite and neogene sedimentary rock, which are typically found in Japan. We first determined the repository configuration, particularly the space between disposal pitts. The ORIGEN 2 was used to estimate heat generation in the waste glass reprocessed at 4 years after removal from PWR. Then, temperature distribution was calculated by the TRUMP. The results of two or three dimensional calculation indicated that the pit interval should be kept more than 5 m in the case of granite formation at 500 m depth, according to the temperature criteria in the bentonite layer ( 90 Sr, 241 Am, 239 Pu, and 237 Np were chosen in one or two dimensional calculations. For both cases of steady release and instanteneous release, the maximum concentration in the pore water at the boundary between bentonite and surrounding rock had the following order; 237 Np> 239 Pu> 90 Sr> 241 Am. Sensitivity analysis showed that the order mainly due to the different adsorption characteristics of the nuclides in bentonite layer. (author)

  11. Preliminary study on activity monitoring using an android smart-watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanathapillai, Vijayalakshmi; Amor, James D; Goodwin, Zoe; James, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    The global trend for increasing life expectancy is resulting in aging populations in a number of countries. This brings to bear a pressure to provide effective care for the older population with increasing constraints on available resources. Providing care for and maintaining the independence of an older person in their own home is one way that this problem can be addressed. The EU Funded Unobtrusive Smart Environments for Independent Living (USEFIL) project is an assistive technology tool being developed to enhance independent living. As part of USEFIL, a wrist wearable unit (WWU) is being developed to monitor the physical activity (PA) of the user and integrate with the USEFIL system. The WWU is a novel application of an existing technology to the assisted living problem domain. It combines existing technologies and new algorithms to extract PA parameters for activity monitoring. The parameters that are extracted include: activity level, step count and worn state. The WWU, the algorithms that have been developed and a preliminary validation are presented. The results show that activity level can be successfully extracted, that worn state can be correctly identified and that step counts in walking data can be estimated within 3% error, using the controlled dataset.

  12. Preliminary assessment of an S.G.H.W. type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicevskis, A.; Chapman, A.G.; Hesse, E.W.

    1970-08-01

    A preliminary design study has been made of a research reactor, based on the enriched S.G.H.W.R. concept, to be used for power reactor fuel irradiation, isotope production, basic research, and training in nuclear technology. A reactor physics assessment established a core size which would allow uninterrupted operation for the required irradiation period consistent with low capital and operating costs. A design was selected with 24 channels, a D 2 O calandria diameter of 2.7 m and an overall core height of 4.0 m. The capital cost was estimated as $750,000 for the fuel and $1,600,000 for the moderator, the refuelling cost being $340,000 per annum. A thermal design study showed that the fission heat of 65 MW could be transmitted to pressurised light water at 200 lb/in 2 abs. and rejected to sea water in two conventional U-tube heat exchangers. The basic design is flexible and can be adapted to meet many special requirements. (author)

  13. A neural flow estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur; Bruun, Erik

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a new way to estimate the flow in a micromechanical flow channel. A neural network is used to estimate the delay of random temperature fluctuations induced in a fluid. The design and implementation of a hardware efficient neural flow estimator is described. The system...... is implemented using switched-current technique and is capable of estimating flow in the μl/s range. The neural estimator is built around a multiplierless neural network, containing 96 synaptic weights which are updated using the LMS1-algorithm. An experimental chip has been designed that operates at 5 V...

  14. The comparative performance of PMI estimation in skeletal remains by three methods (C-14, luminol test and OHI): analysis of 20 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Annalisa; Gibelli, Daniele; Muccino, Enrico; Scarpulla, Valentina; Cerutti, Elisa; Caruso, Valentina; Sguazza, Emanuela; Mazzarelli, Debora; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-27

    When estimating post-mortem interval (PMI) in forensic anthropology, the only method able to give an unambiguous result is the analysis of C-14, although the procedure is expensive. Other methods, such as luminol tests and histological analysis, can be performed as preliminary investigations and may allow the operators to gain a preliminary indication concerning PMI, but they lack scientific verification, although luminol testing has been somewhat more accredited in the past few years. Such methods in fact may provide some help as they are inexpensive and can give a fast response, especially in the phase of preliminary investigations. In this study, 20 court cases of human skeletonized remains were dated by the C-14 method. For two cases, results were chronologically set after the 1950s; for one case, the analysis was not possible technically. The remaining 17 cases showed an archaeological or historical collocation. The same bone samples were also screened with histological examination and with the luminol test. Results showed that only four cases gave a positivity to luminol and a high Oxford Histology Index (OHI) score at the same time: among these, two cases were dated as recent by the radiocarbon analysis. Thus, only two false-positive results were given by the combination of these methods and no false negatives. Thus, the combination of two qualitative methods (luminol test and microscopic analysis) may represent a promising solution to cases where many fragments need to be quickly tested.

  15. A Gaussian IV estimator of cointegrating relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårdsen, Gunnar; Haldrup, Niels

    2006-01-01

    In static single equation cointegration regression modelsthe OLS estimator will have a non-standard distribution unless regressors arestrictly exogenous. In the literature a number of estimators have been suggestedto deal with this problem, especially by the use of semi-nonparametricestimators. T......In static single equation cointegration regression modelsthe OLS estimator will have a non-standard distribution unless regressors arestrictly exogenous. In the literature a number of estimators have been suggestedto deal with this problem, especially by the use of semi...... in cointegrating regressions. These instruments are almost idealand simulations show that the IV estimator using such instruments alleviatethe endogeneity problem extremely well in both finite and large samples....

  16. Optimal estimation of the optomechanical coupling strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernád, József Zsolt; Sanavio, Claudio; Xuereb, André

    2018-06-01

    We apply the formalism of quantum estimation theory to obtain information about the value of the nonlinear optomechanical coupling strength. In particular, we discuss the minimum mean-square error estimator and a quantum Cramér-Rao-type inequality for the estimation of the coupling strength. Our estimation strategy reveals some cases where quantum statistical inference is inconclusive and merely results in the reinforcement of prior expectations. We show that these situations also involve the highest expected information losses. We demonstrate that interaction times on the order of one time period of mechanical oscillations are the most suitable for our estimation scenario, and compare situations involving different photon and phonon excitations.

  17. Energy and raw material potentials of wood residue in the Pacific Coast States: a summary of a preliminary feasibility investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Grantham; Eldon Estep; John M. Pierovich; Harold Tarkow; Thomas C. Adams

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of a preliminary investigation of feasibility of using wood residue to meet energy and raw material needs in the Pacific Coast States. Magnitude of needs was examined and volume of logging-residue and unused mill residue was estimated. Costs of obtaining and preprocessing logging residue for energy and pulp and particle board raw material were...

  18. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-11-11

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed.

  19. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed

  20. A geostatistical estimation of zinc grade in bore-core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzec, A.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities and preliminary results of geostatistical interpretation of the XRF determination of zinc in bore-core samples are considered. For the spherical model of the variogram the estimation variance of grade in a disk-shape sample (estimated from the grade on the circumference sample) is calculated. Variograms of zinc grade in core samples are presented and examples of the grade estimation are discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  1. Methods for estimating the semivariogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophaven, Søren Nymand; Carstensen, Niels Jacob; Rootzen, Helle

    2002-01-01

    . In the existing literature various methods for modelling the semivariogram have been proposed, while only a few studies have been made on comparing different approaches. In this paper we compare eight approaches for modelling the semivariogram, i.e. six approaches based on least squares estimation...... maximum likelihood performed better than the least squares approaches. We also applied maximum likelihood and least squares estimation to a real dataset, containing measurements of salinity at 71 sampling stations in the Kattegat basin. This showed that the calculation of spatial predictions...

  2. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  3. Preliminary I&C Design for LORELEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, S.; Kaufman, Y.; Guttmann, E. B.; Levy, S.; Amidan, D.; Gdalyho, B.; Cahana, T.; Ellenbogen, A.; Arad, M.; Weiss, Y.; Sasson, A.; Ferry, L.; Bourrelly, F.; Cohen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the preliminary I&C design for LORELEI experiment The preliminary design deals with considerations regarding appropriate safety and service instrumentation. The determined closed loop control rules for temperature and position will be implemented in the detailed design. The Computer Aided Operator Decisions System (CAODS) will be used for prediction of hot spot temperature and thickness of oxidation layer using Baker-Just correlation. The proposed hybrid simulation system comprising of both virtual and real hardware will be in-cooperated for LORELEI verification. It will perform both integration cold tests for a partial hardware loop and virtual tests for the final I&C design

  4. Neoplastic potential of gastric irradiation. IV. Risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.; Justman, J.; Weiss, L.

    1984-01-01

    No significant tumor increase was found in the initial analysis of patients irradiated for peptic ulcer and followed through 1962. A preliminary study was undertaken 22 years later to estimate the risk of cancer due to gastric irradiation for peptic ulcer disease. A population of 2,049 irradiated patients and 763 medically managed patients has been identified. A relative risk of 3.7 was found for stomach cancer and an initial risk estimate of 5.5 x 10(-6) excess stomach cancers per person rad was calculated. A more complete follow-up is in progress to further elucidate this observation and decrease the ascertainment bias; however, preliminary data are in agreement with the Japanese atomic bomb reports

  5. Genetic connections between dressage and show jumping in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, G; Madsen, Per; Ducro, B J

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades a process of specialization has occurred into show jumping (JH) and dressage (DH) in the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN). As a consequence, the genetic base might become stratified. The objective of this study was to estimate the connectedness between JH and DH subpopulati...

  6. Economic impact and market analysis of a special event: The Great New England Air Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic; Atul Sheel; Apurv Mather; Deepak Ninan

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a post-event evaluation for the Great New England Air Show to assess its general economic impact and to refine economic estimates where possible. In addition to the standard economic impact variables, we examined travel distance, purchase decision involvement, event satisfaction, and frequency of attendance. Graphic mapping of event visitors' home ZIP...

  7. Genetic connections between dressage and show jumping in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, G; Madsen, Per; Ducro, B J

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades a process of specialization has occurred into show jumping (JH) and dressage (DH) in the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN). As a consequence, the genetic base might become stratified. The objective of this study was to estimate the connectedness between JH and DH...

  8. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  9. Combining four Monte Carlo estimators for radiation momentum deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hykes, Joshua M.; Urbatsch, Todd J.

    2011-01-01

    Using four distinct Monte Carlo estimators for momentum deposition - analog, absorption, collision, and track-length estimators - we compute a combined estimator. In the wide range of problems tested, the combined estimator always has a figure of merit (FOM) equal to or better than the other estimators. In some instances the FOM of the combined estimator is only a few percent higher than the FOM of the best solo estimator, the track-length estimator, while in one instance it is better by a factor of 2.5. Over the majority of configurations, the combined estimator's FOM is 10 - 20% greater than any of the solo estimators' FOM. The numerical results show that the track-length estimator is the most important term in computing the combined estimator, followed far behind by the analog estimator. The absorption and collision estimators make negligible contributions. (author)

  10. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Clair

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of “doing nothing” is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Methods Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and “cost of illness” methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Results Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative “base case” scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  11. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Clair; Reid, Papaarangi; Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2012-05-28

    Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of "doing nothing" is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous) and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and "cost of illness" methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative "base case" scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  12. Research on parafoil stability using a rapid estimate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua YANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the consideration of rotation between canopy and payload of parafoil system, a four-degree-of-freedom (4-DOF longitudinal static model was used to solve parafoil state variables in straight steady flight. The aerodynamic solution of parafoil system was a combination of vortex lattice method (VLM and engineering estimation method. Based on small disturbance assumption, a 6-DOF linear model that considers canopy additional mass was established with benchmark state calculated by 4-DOF static model. Modal analysis of a dynamic model was used to calculate the stability parameters. This method, which is based on a small disturbance linear model and modal analysis, is high-efficiency to the study of parafoil stability. It is well suited for rapid stability analysis in the preliminary stage of parafoil design. Using this method, this paper shows that longitudinal and lateral stability will both decrease when a steady climbing angle increases. This explains the wavy track of the parafoil observed during climbing.

  13. Generalized shrunken type-GM estimator and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C Z; Du, Y L

    2014-01-01

    The parameter estimation problem in linear model is considered when multicollinearity and outliers exist simultaneously. A class of new robust biased estimator, Generalized Shrunken Type-GM Estimation, with their calculated methods are established by combination of GM estimator and biased estimator include Ridge estimate, Principal components estimate and Liu estimate and so on. A numerical example shows that the most attractive advantage of these new estimators is that they can not only overcome the multicollinearity of coefficient matrix and outliers but also have the ability to control the influence of leverage points

  14. Generalized shrunken type-GM estimator and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. Z.; Du, Y. L.

    2014-03-01

    The parameter estimation problem in linear model is considered when multicollinearity and outliers exist simultaneously. A class of new robust biased estimator, Generalized Shrunken Type-GM Estimation, with their calculated methods are established by combination of GM estimator and biased estimator include Ridge estimate, Principal components estimate and Liu estimate and so on. A numerical example shows that the most attractive advantage of these new estimators is that they can not only overcome the multicollinearity of coefficient matrix and outliers but also have the ability to control the influence of leverage points.

  15. Project Rulison: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M Jr; Bray, B G; Mann, R L

    1970-01-01

    Project Rulison was designed to use underground nuclear technology to determine the potential of this technique for commercial development of the deep, thick, lenticular, low permeability, Mesaverde Formation of the Tuli Rulison field in Garfield County, Colorado. A feasibility study completed in July 1966 indicated that nuclear explosives were a potentially economic method of stimulating recovery of natural gas from the reservoir. The gas-in-place, estimated to be between 90 to 125 billion cu ft per 640 acres from earlier wells, was confirmed from information obtained on 2 conventional wells completed in 1966. The Project Rulison exploratory well, R-EX, was completed in May 1968. Detailed testing of this well provided data on geology, hydrology and reservoir characteristics. The data obtained from the testing have been used to determine the flow capacity of the Mesaverde reservoir. The reservoir characteristics were then used as input data to make predictions of post-shot reservoir performance in the nuclear stimulated well, using a radial, unsteady state gas-flow computer model. (20 refs.)

  16. Free-field ground motions for the nonproliferation experiment: Preliminary comparisons with nearby nuclear events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.H.; Peratt, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1987, we have installed fixed arrays of tri-axial accelerometers in the fire-field near the shot horizons for low-yield (≤ 20 kt) nuclear events in the N-tunnel complex beneath Rainier Mesa. For the Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) we augmented the array to achieve 23 free-field stations. Goals are: (a) to examine robustness and stability of various free-field source function estimates -- e.g., reduced displacement potentials (RDP) and spectra; (b) to compare close-in with regional estimates to test whether detailed close-in free-field and/or surface ground motion data can improve predictability of regional-teleseismic source functions; (c) to provide experimental data for checking two-dimensional numerical simulations. We report preliminary comparisons between experimental free-field data for NPE (1993) and three nearby nuclear events (MISTY ECHO, 1988; MINERAL QUARRY, 1990; HUNTERS TROPHY, 1992). All four working points are within 1 km of each other in the same wet tuff bed, thus reducing concerns about possible large differences in material properties between widely separated shots. Initial comparison of acceleration and velocity seismograms for the four events reveals: (1) There is a large departure from the spherical symmetry commonly assumed in analytic treatments of source theory; both vertical and tangential components are surprisingly large. (2) All shots show similar first-peak particle-velocity amplitude decay rates suggesting significant attenuation even in the supposedly purely elastic region. (3) Sharp (>20 Hz) arrivals are not observed at tunnel level from near-surface pP reflections or spall-closure sources -- but broadened peaks are seen that suggest more diffuse reflected energy from the surface and from the Paleozoic limestone basement below tunnel level

  17. A preliminary evaluation of some soil and plant parameters that influence root uptake of arsenic, cadmium, cooper, and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Krieger, G.R.; Lau, V.

    1994-01-01

    In the absence of site-specific data, the concentration of metals in plants is typically estimated by multiplying the total concentration of metal in soil by a metal-specific soil-to-root bioconcentration factor (BCF). However, this approach does not account for various soil properties, such as pH, organic matter content, and cation exchange capacity, that are known to influence root uptake of some metals. For risk assessment purposes, a simple, predictive method for estimating root uptake of metals that is based on site-specific soil and crop data is needed so that the importance of the produce ingestion pathway and subsequent influence on human exposure can be quantitatively assessed. An easy-to-use method is necessary since collecting site-specific data on the concentration of metals in home-grown produce is often time-consuming and costly. Ideally, it should be possible to develop a statistically-reliable relationship between plant and soil metals levels that includes appropriate weighing factors for various soil properties. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop simple, predictive models for estimating the concentration of metals in plants via root uptake using site-specific soil data. This paper presents preliminary predictive equations for estimating root uptake of arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc in fruiting, root, and all vegetables combined (i.e., fruiting and root crop data were combined). Results show that by using data on additional soil parameters (other than relying solely on the concentration of metals in soil), the concentration of metals in fruiting and root vegetables can be more confidently predicted

  18. Experience with PET FDG - Preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, Teresa; Jofre, Josefina; Canessa, Jose; Gonzalez, Patricio; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Galaz, Rodrigo; Miranda, Karina

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this preliminary communication was to analyse the indications and data in initial group of patients studied with first dedicated PET scanner in the country at Hospital Militar in Santiago Chile. The main application of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-Fluoro deoxyglucose (FDG) is related with oncological patients management. We studied 136 patients, 131 (97%) with known or suspected malignant disease and remaining 5 for cardiological or neuropsychiatric disease. Ten patients were controlled diabetics (1 insulin dependent). Their mean age was 51.6±18 years ranging from 6 to 84 years and 65% were females. A total of 177 scans were acquired using a dedicated PET (Siemens HR + with 4mm resolution) system. Mean F18-FDG injected dose was 477±107 MBq (12.9±2.9 mCi). Mean blood glucose levels, performed prior the injection, were 94±17mg/dl (range 62-161). F18-FDG was obtained from the cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9 installed in the Chilean Agency of Nuclear Energy, distant about 15 miles away from the clinical PET facility. PET studies were analyzed by at least 4 independent observers visually. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated in some cases. Image fusion of FDG images with recent anatomical (CT, MRI) studies was performed where available. Data acquisition protocol consisted in 7-8 beds/study from head to mid-thighs, with 6-7-min/bed acquisitions, 36% transmission with germanium 68 rods. Data was reconstructed with standard OSEM protocol. The main indications included pulmonary lesions in 31%, gastrointestinal cancers in 21%, melanoma in 13% and lymphoma in 9% patients. The remaining were of breast, thyroid, testes, ovary, musculoskeletal (soft tissue and bone), brain tumour etc. Abnormal focal tracer uptake was observed in 83/131 oncological patients, 54% corroborating with clinical diagnosis of primary tumor or recurrence while 46% showed new metastatic localization. FDG scans were normal 36/131 patients. In 9 patients

  19. Experience with PET FDG - Preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massardo, Teresa; Jofre, Josefina; Canessa, Jose; Gonzalez, Patricio; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Galaz, Rodrigo; Miranda, Karina [Centro PET de Imagenes Moleculares, Hospital Militar de Santiago, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this preliminary communication was to analyse the indications and data in initial group of patients studied with first dedicated PET scanner in the country at Hospital Militar in Santiago Chile. The main application of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-Fluoro deoxyglucose (FDG) is related with oncological patients management. We studied 136 patients, 131 (97%) with known or suspected malignant disease and remaining 5 for cardiological or neuropsychiatric disease. Ten patients were controlled diabetics (1 insulin dependent). Their mean age was 51.6{+-}18 years ranging from 6 to 84 years and 65% were females. A total of 177 scans were acquired using a dedicated PET (Siemens HR + with 4mm resolution) system. Mean F18-FDG injected dose was 477{+-}107 MBq (12.9{+-}2.9 mCi). Mean blood glucose levels, performed prior the injection, were 94{+-}17mg/dl (range 62-161). F18-FDG was obtained from the cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9 installed in the Chilean Agency of Nuclear Energy, distant about 15 miles away from the clinical PET facility. PET studies were analyzed by at least 4 independent observers visually. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated in some cases. Image fusion of FDG images with recent anatomical (CT, MRI) studies was performed where available. Data acquisition protocol consisted in 7-8 beds/study from head to mid-thighs, with 6-7-min/bed acquisitions, 36% transmission with germanium 68 rods. Data was reconstructed with standard OSEM protocol. The main indications included pulmonary lesions in 31%, gastrointestinal cancers in 21%, melanoma in 13% and lymphoma in 9% patients. The remaining were of breast, thyroid, testes, ovary, musculoskeletal (soft tissue and bone), brain tumour etc. Abnormal focal tracer uptake was observed in 83/131 oncological patients, 54% corroborating with clinical diagnosis of primary tumor or recurrence while 46% showed new metastatic localization. FDG scans were normal 36/131 patients. In 9

  20. Preliminary Validation of Composite Material Constitutive Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; Athanasios lliopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Adrian C. Orifici; Rodney S. Thomson

    2012-01-01

    This paper is describing the preliminary results of an effort to validate a methodology developed for composite material constitutive characterization. This methodology involves using massive amounts of data produced from multiaxially tested coupons via a 6-DoF robotic system called NRL66.3 developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The testing is followed by...

  1. Phytochemical Screening and Preliminary Evaluation of Analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the methanolic root extract of Cissus polyantha was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening, analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies. Phytochemical studies was carried out using standard phytochemical protocol while the analgesic studies was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing tests in ...

  2. French 900 MWe PWR PSA preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Brisbois, J.

    1988-10-01

    A PSA is performed by the Safety Assessment Department of CEA for a 900 MWe standardized plant. The paper presents the objectives, the scope of the study and the relative preliminary results. Some general insights are drawn, especially the benefit related to the implementation of emergency procedures

  3. Preliminary radiation shielding design for BOOMERANG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary radiation shielding specifications are presented here for the 3 GeV BOOMERANG Australian synchrotron light source project. At this time the bulk shield walls for the storage ring and injection system (100 MeV Linac and 3 GeV Booster) are considered for siting purposes

  4. Resumption Of Sexual Relationship After Childbirth: Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resumption Of Sexual Relationship After Childbirth: Preliminary Observations On Husband\\'s Attitude. ... An open-ended questionnaire developed by the authors was used to elicit information on relevant aspects of husbands' reproductive behaviour. We found that husbands' preferred time of resumption of sexual ...

  5. Preliminary failure mode and effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, J.V.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) was made on the overall 5 Kwe system. A general discussion of the system and failure effect is given in addition to the tabulated FMEA and a primary block diagram of the system. (U.S.)

  6. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  7. Preliminary Findings on Rural Homelessness in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Richard J.; And Others

    This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…

  8. Preliminary safety analysis report for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, K.E.; Levine, J.D.; Howe, H.J.

    A Preliminary Safety Analysis Report has been prepared for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. No accident scenarios have been identified which would result in exposures to on-site personnel or the general public in excess of the guidelines defined for the project by DOE

  9. HTGR gas turbine power plant preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutz, S.L.; Krase, J.M.; Meyer, L.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary reference design of the HTGR gas turbine power plant is presented. Economic and practical problems and incentives related to the development and introduction of this type of power plant are evaluated. The plant features and major components are described, and a discussion of its performance, economics, development, safety, control, and maintenance is presented. 4 references

  10. Preliminary tests of the electrostatic plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.; Acker, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program to verify an electrostatic plasma acceleration concept and to identify those parameters most important in optimizing an Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) thruster based upon this thrust mechanism. Preliminary performance measurements of thrust, specific impulse and efficiency were obtained using a unique plasma exhaust momentum probe. Reliable EPA thruster operation was achieved using one power supply.

  11. Emotion Knowledge and Attentional Differences in Preschoolers Showing Context-Inappropriate Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Robin L; Lang, Nichole J

    2016-08-01

    Some children show anger inappropriate for the situation based on the predominant incentives, which is called context-inappropriate anger. Children need to attend to and interpret situational incentives for appropriate emotional responses. We examined associations of context-inappropriate anger with emotion recognition and attention problems in 43 preschoolers (42% male; M age = 55.1 months, SD = 4.1). Parents rated context-inappropriate anger across situations. Teachers rated attention problems using the Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher Report Form. Emotion recognition was ability to recognize emotional faces using the Emotion Matching Test. Anger perception bias was indicated by anger to non-anger situations using an adapted Affect Knowledge Test. 28% of children showed context-inappropriate anger, which correlated with lower emotion recognition (β = -.28) and higher attention problems (β = .36). Higher attention problems correlated with more anger perception bias (β = .32). This cross-sectional, correlational study provides preliminary findings that children with context-inappropriate anger showed more attention problems, which suggests that both "problems" tend to covary and associate with deficits or biases in emotion knowledge. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Preliminary designs: passive solar manufactured housing. Technical status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-12

    The criteria established to guide the development of the preliminary designs are listed. Three preliminary designs incorporating direct gain and/or sunspace are presented. Costs, drawings, and supporting calculations are included. (MHR)

  13. Adjusting estimative prediction limits

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ueki; Kaoru Fueda

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a direct adjustment of the estimative prediction limit to reduce the coverage error from a target value to third-order accuracy. The adjustment is asymptotically equivalent to those of Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox (1994, 1996) and Vidoni (1998). It has a simpler form with a plug-in estimator of the coverage probability of the estimative limit at the target value. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

  14. Preliminary Ecotoxicity and Biodegradability Assessment of Metalworking Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerulová, Kristína; Amcha, Peter; Filická, Slávka

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of activated sludge from sewage treatment plant to degrade selected MWFs (ecotoxicity to bacterial consortium) and to evaluate the ecotoxicity by Lemna minor-higher plant. After evaluating the ecotoxicity, biodegradations rate with activated sludge was assessed on the basis of COD measurement. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity according to OECD 221 by Lemna minor shows effective concentration of Emulzin H at the rate of 81.6 mg l-1, for Ecocool 82.9 mg l-1, for BC 25 about 99.3 mg l-1, and for Dasnobor about 97.3 mg l-1. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity by bacterial consortium according to OECD 209 (STN EN ISO 8192) shows effective concentration of Blasocut BC 25 at the rate 227.4 mg l-1. According to OECD 302B, the biodegradations level of Emulzin H, Ecocool and BC 25 achieved 80% in 10 days. It can be stated that these MWFs have potential to ultimate degradation, but the statement has to be confirmed by a biodegradability test with other parameters than COD, which exhibits some disadvantages in testing O/W emulsions.

  15. Development and test validation of a computational scheme for high-fidelity fluence estimations of the Swiss BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A.; Wieselquist, W.; Ferroukhi, H.; Canepa, S.; Heldt, J.; Ledergerber, G.

    2011-01-01

    One of the current objectives within reactor analysis related projects at the Paul Scherrer Institut is the establishment of a comprehensive computational methodology for fast neutron fluence (FNF) estimations of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and internals for both PWRs and BWRs. In the recent past, such an integral calculational methodology based on the CASMO-4/SIMULATE- 3/MCNPX system of codes was developed for PWRs and validated against RPV scraping tests. Based on the very satisfactory validation results, the methodology was recently applied for predictive FNF evaluations of a Swiss PWR to support the national nuclear safety inspectorate in the framework of life-time estimations. Today, focus is at PSI given to develop a corresponding advanced methodology for high-fidelity FNF estimations of BWR reactors. In this paper, the preliminary steps undertaken in that direction are presented. To start, the concepts of the PWR computational scheme and its transfer/adaptation to BWR are outlined. Then, the modelling of a Swiss BWR characterized by very heterogeneous core designs is presented along with preliminary sensitivity studies carried out to assess the sufficient level of details required for the complex core region. Finally, a first validation test case is presented on the basis of two dosimeter monitors irradiated during two recent cycles of the given BWR reactor. The achieved computational results show a satisfactory agreement with measured dosimeter data and illustrate thereby the feasibility of applying the PSI FNF computational scheme also for BWRs. Further sensitivity/optimization studies are nevertheless necessary in order to consolidate the scheme and to ensure increasing continuously, the fidelity and reliability of the BWR FNF estimations. (author)

  16. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  17. Estimation of measurement variances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In the previous two sessions, it was assumed that the measurement error variances were known quantities when the variances of the safeguards indices were calculated. These known quantities are actually estimates based on historical data and on data generated by the measurement program. Session 34 discusses how measurement error parameters are estimated for different situations. The various error types are considered. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) estimate systematic error variances from standard data; (2) estimate random error variances from data as replicate measurement data; (3) perform a simple analysis of variances to characterize the measurement error structure when biases vary over time

  18. Electrical estimating methods

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2014-01-01

    Simplify the estimating process with the latest data, materials, and practices Electrical Estimating Methods, Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide to estimating electrical costs, with data provided by leading construction database RS Means. The book covers the materials and processes encountered by the modern contractor, and provides all the information professionals need to make the most precise estimate. The fourth edition has been updated to reflect the changing materials, techniques, and practices in the field, and provides the most recent Means cost data available. The complexity of el

  19. Monte Carlo-based tail exponent estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barunik, Jozef; Vacha, Lukas

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach to estimation of the tail exponent in financial stock markets. We begin the study with the finite sample behavior of the Hill estimator under α-stable distributions. Using large Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the Hill estimator overestimates the true tail exponent and can hardly be used on samples with small length. Utilizing our results, we introduce a Monte Carlo-based method of estimation for the tail exponent. Our proposed method is not sensitive to the choice of tail size and works well also on small data samples. The new estimator also gives unbiased results with symmetrical confidence intervals. Finally, we demonstrate the power of our estimator on the international world stock market indices. On the two separate periods of 2002-2005 and 2006-2009, we estimate the tail exponent.

  20. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  1. Estimating the consequences of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Lauffer, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a simple model is proposed for investigating the possibility of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model allows an estimate of the number of flowing fractures at Yucca Mountain based on the size of the fractures and the yearly volume of infiltrating water. Given the number of flowing fractures, the number of waste containers they contact is estimated by a geometric argument. Preliminary results indicate that the larger the flowing fractures, the lower the releases of radionuclides. Also, even with significant fracture flow, releases could be well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency

  2. On Cost Estimate for Decommissioning of one Isotope Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek Vasko et al

    2010-08-01

    The main scope of this study has been to calculate the future cost for decommission and dismantling the Isotope central at the Studsvik site using the OMEGA CODE. Detailed empirical information is used in the study for 'bench-marking' purposes, in such cases when there is a need to supplement and correct field data from the industry. In the present study, data has been retrieved and organized such that the estimated costs for decommissioning of the Isotope Central become transparent and reliable. This approach gives a preliminary qualitative indication about the accuracy of the cost estimate delivered by the industry

  3. Estimating the consequences of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Lauffer, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    A simple model is proposed for investigating the possibility of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model allows an estimate of the number of flowing fractures at Yucca Mountain based on the size of the fractures and the yearly volume of infiltrating water. Given the number of flowing fractures, the number of waste containers they contact is estimated by a geometric argument. Preliminary results indicate that the larger the flowing fractures, the lower the releases of radionuclides. Also, even with significant fracture flow, releases could be well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency

  4. On Cost Estimate for Decommissioning of one Isotope Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek Vasko et al

    2010-08-15

    The main scope of this study has been to calculate the future cost for decommission and dismantling the Isotope central at the Studsvik site using the OMEGA CODE. Detailed empirical information is used in the study for 'bench-marking' purposes, in such cases when there is a need to supplement and correct field data from the industry. In the present study, data has been retrieved and organized such that the estimated costs for decommissioning of the Isotope Central become transparent and reliable. This approach gives a preliminary qualitative indication about the accuracy of the cost estimate delivered by the industry

  5. Entertaining politics, seriously?! : How talk show formats blur conceptual boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schohaus, Birte

    2017-01-01

    What happens behind the scenes of a talk show? Why do some politicians seem to appear on every show while others are hardly ever seen? Birte Schohaus conducted a multi-layered research in which she conducted interviews with journalists, producers, PR advisors and (former) politicians and combined

  6. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  7. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  8. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  9. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  10. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a...

  11. Preliminary assessment of potential underground stability (wedge and spalling) at Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Derek [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Geotechnical Engineering

    2005-12-15

    In SKB's Underground Design Premises the objective in the early design phase is to estimate if there is sufficient space for the repository at a site. One of the conditions that could limit the space available is stability of the underground openings, i.e., deposition tunnels and deposition boreholes. The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential for wedge instability and spalling that may be encountered at the Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites based on information from the site investigations program up to July 30, 2004. The rock mass spalling strength was defined using the in-situ results from SKB's Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment and AECL's Mine-by Experiment. These experiments suggest that the rock mass spalling strength for crystalline rocks can be estimated as 0.57 of the mean laboratory uniaxial compressive strength. A probability-based methodology utilizing this in-situ rock mass spalling strength has been developed for assessing the risk for spalling in a repository at the Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites. The in-situ stresses and the uniaxial compressive strength data from these sites were used as the bases for the analyses. Preliminary findings from all sites suggest that, generally, the risk for spalling increases as the depth of the repository increases, simply because the stress magnitudes increase with depth. The depth at which the risk for spalling is significant, depends on the individual sites which are discussed below. The greatest uncertainty in the spalling analyses for Forsmark is related to the uncertainty in the horizontal stress magnitudes and associated stress gradients with depth. The confidence in these analyses can only be increased by increasing the confidence in the stress and geology model for the site. From the analyses completed it appears that spalling in the deposition tunnels can be controlled by orienting the tunnels approximately parallel to the maximum horizontal

  12. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  13. 32 CFR 644.30 - Preliminary real estate work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary real estate work. 644.30 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.30 Preliminary real estate work. (a) Preliminary real estate work is defined as that action taken...

  14. 28 CFR 2.48 - Revocation: Preliminary interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation: Preliminary interview. 2.48....48 Revocation: Preliminary interview. (a) Interviewing officer. A parolee who is retaken on a warrant issued by a Commissioner shall be given a preliminary interview by an official designated by the Regional...

  15. Thermoluminescent dosemeters characterization for patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology preliminary results;Caracterizacao de dosimetros termoluminescentes para dosimetria de pacientes em radiodiagnostico - resultados iniciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, William J.; Squair, Peterson L. [Faculdade Novo Rumo, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gonzaga, Natalia B. [Universidade Unincor, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Maria S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The determination of the metrological characteristics of thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters plays an important role in dosimetry of patients submitted to x-ray examinations for diagnostic purpose. Entrance surface doses can be measured with TL dosimeters to verify the compliance with the diagnostic reference levels. Organ doses can be estimated through TL measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom which it allows the radiation risk assessment. In this work, LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) rod and chip thermoluminescent dosimeters were characterized considering their use for patient dosimetry in computerized tomography and mammography. Preliminary results showed that TL dosimeters have a response reproducibility of 7.8% and 4.8% and homogeneity of 18.4% and 6.5% for rod and chip shapes, respectively. (author)

  16. Eurisol-DS Multi MW Target Preliminary Study of the Windlowless Transverse Film (WTF) Liquid Metal Proton-to Neutron Converter

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Rocca, R; Samec, K

    2008-01-01

    This technical note summarises the design calculations performed within Task#2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) for the WTF (Windowless Transverse Film) mercur converter. A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the heat deposition within the mercury and estimate the mercury velocity needed in the film. The geometry used is based on previous analysis simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA. The results of these calculations show the baseline parameters, which will be used for the detailed design. Particularly, with a 1 GeV proton beam with a $\\sigma$ ~2 mm Gaussian distribution on a 4x30x40cm long target and with a 5m/s velocity at the peak power density region seems a suitable solution.

  17. (11)C-labeling and preliminary evaluation of vortioxetine as a PET radioligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Valdemar L; Hansen, Hanne D; Herth, Matthias M

    2014-01-01

    . Preliminary evaluation of [(11)C]vortioxetine in a Danish Landrace pig showed rapid brain uptake and brain distribution in accordance with the pharmacological profile, all though an unexpected high binding in cerebellum was also observed. [(11)C]vortioxetine displayed slow tracer kinetics with peak uptake...

  18. Online Distance Education at the Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia: Preliminary Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Rozhan Mohammed; Lateh, Habibah Hj

    2000-01-01

    Presents the instructional design aspects of a multimedia course delivered online via the Internet in a distance learning program at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Reports results of a preliminary study that showed student perceptions toward online distance education focused on accessibility and presentation rather than pedagogical techniques and…

  19. LM-OSL from single grains of quartz: A preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.; Duller, G.A.T.; Solongo, S.

    2002-01-01

    the easy-to-bleach component, those with only the hard-to-bleach component, and those exhibiting all components. The results of this preliminary study show that LM-OSL experiments carried out at the single grain level may give important insights into the luminescence properties observed when viewing...

  20. A Preliminary Investigation into Parents' Concerns about Programming Education in Japanese Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukiko; Kanoh, Hiroko; Adachi, Kinya

    2017-01-01

    To investigate parents' concerns about programming education in primary school, a preliminary online survey was carried out as a first step of the study. The result of the survey shows that parents seem to think that aim of programming education in primary school is not only learning coding. [For the complete proceedings, see ED579395.

  1. National Courts of Last Instance Failing to Make a Preliminary Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    are the consequences if a Member State court fails to make a preliminary reference in a situation where it was legally obliged to do so? The article shows that such failure may constitute an infringement of the right to a fair trial as laid down in Article 6(1) of the European Convention of Human Rights. It may also...

  2. Development and preliminary analyses of material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    Material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle has been developed using ORIGEN-2 code as basic engine. This model has feature of: It can treat more than 1000 nuclides including minor actinides and fission products. It has flexibility of modeling and graph output using a engineering work station. I made preliminary calculation of LWR fuel high burnup effect (reloading fuel average burnup of 60 GWd/t) on nuclear fuel cycle. The preliminary calculation shows LWR fuel high burnup has much effect on Japanese Pu balance problem. (author)

  3. Atmospheric Turbulence Estimates from a Pulsed Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruis, Matthew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the eddy dissipation rate (EDR) were obtained from measurements made by a coherent pulsed lidar and compared with estimates from mesoscale model simulations and measurements from an in situ sonic anemometer at the Denver International Airport and with EDR estimates from the last observation time of the trailing vortex pair. The estimates of EDR from the lidar were obtained using two different methodologies. The two methodologies show consistent estimates of the vertical profiles. Comparison of EDR derived from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model with the in situ lidar estimates show good agreement during the daytime convective boundary layer, but the WRF simulations tend to overestimate EDR during the nighttime. The EDR estimates from a sonic anemometer located at 7.3 meters above ground level are approximately one order of magnitude greater than both the WRF and lidar estimates - which are from greater heights - during the daytime convective boundary layer and substantially greater during the nighttime stable boundary layer. The consistency of the EDR estimates from different methods suggests a reasonable ability to predict the temporal evolution of a spatially averaged vertical profile of EDR in an airport terminal area using a mesoscale model during the daytime convective boundary layer. In the stable nighttime boundary layer, there may be added value to EDR estimates provided by in situ lidar measurements.

  4. Preliminary design for hot dirty-gas control-valve test facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary design and cost estimating effort for a facility for the testing of control valves in Hot Dirty Gas (HDGCV) service. This design was performed by Mittelhauser Corporation for the United States Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The objective of this effort was to provide METC with a feasible preliminary design for a test facility which could be used to evaluate valve designs under simulated service conditions and provide a technology data base for DOE and industry. In addition to the actual preliminary design of the test facility, final design/construction/operating schedules and a facility cost estimate were prepared to provide METC sufficient information with which to evaluate this design. The bases, assumptions, and limitations of this study effort are given. The tasks carried out were as follows: METC Facility Review, Environmental Control Study, Gas Generation Study, Metallurgy Review, Safety Review, Facility Process Design, Facility Conceptual Layout, Instrumentation Design, Cost Estimates, and Schedules. The report provides information regarding the methods of approach used in the various tasks involved in the completion of this study. Section 5.0 of this report presents the results of the study effort. The results obtained from the above-defined tasks are described briefly. The turnkey cost of the test facility is estimated to be $9,774,700 in fourth quarter 1979 dollars, and the annual operating cost is estimated to be $960,000 plus utilities costs which are not included because unit costs per utility were not available from METC.

  5. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  6. Cost function estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C K; Andersen, K; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    on these criteria, a two-part model was chosen. In this model, the probability of incurring any costs was estimated using a logistic regression, while the level of the costs was estimated in the second part of the model. The choice of model had a substantial impact on the predicted health care costs, e...

  7. Software cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the state of the art of software cost estimation (SCE). The main questions to be answered in the paper are: (1) What are the reasons for overruns of budgets and planned durations? (2) What are the prerequisites for estimating? (3) How can software development effort be

  8. Software cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, F.J.; Heemstra, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the state of the art of software cost estimation (SCE). The main questions to be answered in the paper are: (1) What are the reasons for overruns of budgets and planned durations? (2) What are the prerequisites for estimating? (3) How can software development effort be

  9. Overconfidence in Interval Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, Jack B.; Klayman, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Judges were asked to make numerical estimates (e.g., "In what year was the first flight of a hot air balloon?"). Judges provided high and low estimates such that they were X% sure that the correct answer lay between them. They exhibited substantial overconfidence: The correct answer fell inside their intervals much less than X% of the time. This…

  10. Davedan Show Di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ruastiti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini disusun dari hasil penelitian yang bertujuan untuk dapat memahami pertunjukan Davedan Show di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali. Penelitian ini dilakukan karena adanya ketimpangan antara asumsi dan kenyataan di lapangan. Pada umumnya wisatawan yang datang ke Bali hanya senang dan antusias menonton seni pertunjukan pariwisata berbasis seni budaya lokal saja. Tetapi kenyataan ini berbeda. Walaupun Davedan Show tidak dibangun dari seni budaya lokal saja, tetapi kenyataannya wisatawan sangat senang menonton pertunjukan tersebut. Pertanyaannya: bagaimanakah bentuk pertunjukan Davedan Show tersebut?; mengapa wisatawan senang menonton pertunjukan itu?; apa implikasinya bagi pelaku, masyarakat, dan industri pariwisata di Nusa Dua, Bali?. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif, khususnya implementatif partisipatoris yang mengutamakan kerjasama antara periset dengan para informan terkait. Sumber data penelitian ini adalah pertunjukan Davedan itu sendiri, pihak manajemen, para penari, penonton, hasil-hasil penelitian yang telah ada sebelumnya. Seluruh data yang telah dikumpulkan dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, FGD, dan studi kepustakaan itu dianalisis secara kritis dengan menggunakan teori estetika postmodern, teori praktik, dan teori relasi kuasa pengetahuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa: (1 Davedan Show disajikan dalam bentuk oratorium. Hal itu dapat dilihat dari cara penyajian, koreografi, dan iringan pertunjukannya. Davedan Show yang menampilkan tema Treasure of The Archipelago, membuka gerbang petualangan baru itu diiringi musik rekaman etnik Nusantara secara medley, berkelanjutan dengan struktur pertunjukan: seni budaya Bali, Sumatra, Sunda, Solo, Kalimantan, dan seni budaya Papua; (2 Davedan Show banyak diminati wisatawan manca negara karena penciptaan pertunjukan itu dilatari oleh ideologi pasar, ideologi estetika, dan ideologi budaya Nusantara; (3 Hingga kini Davedan Show berkembang secara berkelanjutan di Nusa Dua

  11. Preliminary Design Analysis of a HGD for the NHDD Program at Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Nam; Lee, H. Y.; Lee, S. B.; Kim, Y. W.

    2007-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is in the process of carrying out a Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) Program by considering the indirect cycle gas cooled reactors that produce heat at temperatures in the order of 950 .deg. C. A coaxial double-tube Hot Gas Duct (HGD) is a key component connecting the reactor pressure vessel and the intermediate heat exchanger for the NHDD program. Recently, a preliminary design evaluation for the hot gas duct of the NHDD program was carried out. These preliminary design activities include a decision on the geometric dimensions, a strength evaluation, an appropriate material selection, and identifying the design code for the HGD. In this study, a preliminary strength evaluation for the HGD of the NHDD program has been undertaken based on the HTR-10 design concepts. Also, a preliminary evaluation of the creep-fatigue damage for a high temperature HGD structure has been carried out according to the draft code case for Alloy 617. Preliminary strength evaluation results for the HGD showed that the geometric dimensions of the proposed HGD would be acceptable for the design requirements

  12. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50MT of plutonium using new facilities at the Savannah River site: alternative 12A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons of plutonium using ceramic in a new facility at Savannah River Site (SRS)

  13. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at the Savannah River site: alternative 12B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons of plutonium using ceramic in an existing facility (221-F) at an Savannah River Site (SRS)

  14. Accelerated prompt gamma estimation for clinical proton therapy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Brent F. B.; Létang, J. M.; Testa, É.; Sarrut, D.

    2016-11-01

    There is interest in the particle therapy community in using prompt gammas (PGs), a natural byproduct of particle treatment, for range verification and eventually dose control. However, PG production is a rare process and therefore estimation of PGs exiting a patient during a proton treatment plan executed by a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation converges slowly. Recently, different approaches to accelerating the estimation of PG yield have been presented. Sterpin et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 4915-46) described a fast analytic method, which is still sensitive to heterogeneities. El Kanawati et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 8067-86) described a variance reduction method (pgTLE) that accelerates the PG estimation by precomputing PG production probabilities as a function of energy and target materials, but has as a drawback that the proposed method is limited to analytical phantoms. We present a two-stage variance reduction method, named voxelized pgTLE (vpgTLE), that extends pgTLE to voxelized volumes. As a preliminary step, PG production probabilities are precomputed once and stored in a database. In stage 1, we simulate the interactions between the treatment plan and the patient CT with low statistic MC to obtain the spatial and spectral distribution of the PGs. As primary particles are propagated throughout the patient CT, the PG yields are computed in each voxel from the initial database, as a function of the current energy of the primary, the material in the voxel and the step length. The result is a voxelized image of PG yield, normalized to a single primary. The second stage uses this intermediate PG image as a source to generate and propagate the number of PGs throughout the rest of the scene geometry, e.g. into a detection device, corresponding to the number of primaries desired. We achieved a gain of around 103 for both a geometrical heterogeneous phantom and a complete patient CT treatment plan with respect to analog MC, at a convergence level of 2% relative

  15. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  16. Slow cortical potential Neurofeedback and self-management training in outpatient care for children with ADHD: study protocol and first preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eChristiansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD today is predominantly pharmacological. While it is the most common treatment, it might not always be the most appropriate one. Moreover, long term effects remain unclear. Behavior therapy and non-pharmacological treatments such as neurofeedback (NF are promising alternatives, though there are no routine outpatient care/effectiveness studies yet that have included children with medication or changes in medication.Methods/design: This paper presents the protocol of a randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of a Slow Cortical Potential (SCP NF protocol with self-management (SM in a high frequent outpatient care setting. Both groups (NF/SM receive a total of 30 high frequent therapy sessions. Additionally, 6 sessions are reserved for comorbid problems. The primary outcome measure is the reduction of ADHD core symptoms according to parent and teacher ratings.Preliminary Results: Untill now 58 children were included in the study (48 males, with a mean age of 8.42 (1.34 years, and a mean IQ of 110 (13.37. Conners-3 parent and teacher ratings were used to estimate core symptom change. Since the study is still ongoing, and children are in different study stages, pre-post and follow-up results are not yet available for all children included. Preliminary results suggest overall good pre-post effects, though. For parent and teacher ratings an ANOVA with repeated measures yielded overall satisfying pre-post effects (η2 .175 to .513. Differences between groups (NF vs. SM could not yet be established (p = .81.Discussion: This is the first randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a NF protocol in a high frequent outpatient care setting that does not exclude children on or with changes in medication. First preliminary results show positive effects. The rationale for the trial, the design, and the strengths and limitations of the study are

  17. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  18. Optomechanical parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Shan Zheng; Tsang, Mankei; Harris, Glen I; Bowen, Warwick P

    2013-01-01

    We propose a statistical framework for the problem of parameter estimation from a noisy optomechanical system. The Cramér–Rao lower bound on the estimation errors in the long-time limit is derived and compared with the errors of radiometer and expectation–maximization (EM) algorithms in the estimation of the force noise power. When applied to experimental data, the EM estimator is found to have the lowest error and follow the Cramér–Rao bound most closely. Our analytic results are envisioned to be valuable to optomechanical experiment design, while the EM algorithm, with its ability to estimate most of the system parameters, is envisioned to be useful for optomechanical sensing, atomic magnetometry and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. (paper)

  19. CHANNEL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over the communicat......A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over...... the communication channel. The method further includes determining a sequence of second coefficient estimates of the communication channel based on a decomposition of the first coefficient estimates in a dictionary matrix and a sparse vector of the second coefficient estimates, the dictionary matrix including...... filter characteristics of at least one known transceiver filter arranged in the communication channel....

  20. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard Petersen, H.; Almdal, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nanotech, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kusano, Y.; Broendsted, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant. (Author)