WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary emergency assessment

  1. Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, Ricardo N.; Maulvault, Ana L.; Barbosa, Vera L.; Cunha, Sara; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F.; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Marques, António

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, a-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylp

  2. Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ricardo N; Maulvault, Ana L; Barbosa, Vera L; Cunha, Sara; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Marques, António

    2017-02-13

    A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, α-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylparaben and UV-filter OC) was performed in seafood species available in the European markets. Additionally, the effect of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility was also investigated for the first time. Overall, steaming affected differentially contaminants' concentrations, for instance, decreasing PFOS levels in flounder, but increasing both BDE47 and BDE100. CeCs bioaccessibility varied according to seafood species and contaminant group, i.e. in general, lower bioaccessibility values were obtained for PBDEs (<70%, except for mackerel), while PFCs and PPCPs revealed higher bioaccessibility percentages (between 71 and 95%). The lowest bioaccessibility value was obtained for α-HBCD (mussel; 14%), whereas the highest percentage was observed in venlafaxine (mullet; 95%). Our preliminary study reports also, for the first time, the effects of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility. In most cases, bioaccessibility was not affected by cooking, however, a decrease was observed in PBDEs and venlafaxine bioaccessibility in steamed mussels and mullet, respectively, thus lowering the potential health risks associated with seafood consumption.

  3. Assessing the efficiency of an unplanted horizontal flow constructed wetland to reduce some emerging organic micropollutants. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapias, Josefina C.; Vila, Marta; Himi, Mahjoub; Salvadó, Victoria; Casas, Albert; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2017-04-01

    The presence of emerging organic contaminants (EOC) such as pharmaceutical and personal care products, pesticides or antiseptics in wastewater is an increasing concern worldwide due to their potential toxicological effects for humans and other living organisms. Because of their low concentration and persistence their removal using conventional treatment technologies is often incomplete and for this reason there is a growing interest for assessing the efficiency of alternative wastewater treatment technologies such as constructed wetlands (CWs). CWs are engineered systems for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) designed to take advantage of many of the same processes that occur in natural wetlands, but within a more controlled environment. CWs are a cost-effective alternative to conventional wastewater treatment plants especially in the context of small communities with less than 2000 people equivalent. Our study has been conducted at the Verdú WWTP (Lleida, Catalonia, NE Spain). This system has a primary treatment consisting on three septic tanks in parallel with a volume of 50 m3 and three chambers each one. The primary effluent is distributed to four parallel horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) CWs. Originally the system was planted with common reed (Phragmites australis), but currently after twelve years of service the system show evidences of clogging and then gravel bed was replaced and plants removed. After the HSSF CWs, there are two wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) followed by two smaller polishing horizontal HSSF CWs. Excellent overall treatment performance was exhibited on the elimination of conventional water quality parameters (93-98% average removal efficiency for TSS, COD, BOD5 and NTK), and its final effluent proved to comply with existing Spanish guidelines. Sampling has been conducted along two years at different seasons and examined EOC substances included analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, diclofenac, and naproxene

  4. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  5. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. Assessing the assessment in emergency care training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E W Dankbaar

    Full Text Available Each year over 1.5 million health care professionals attend emergency care courses. Despite high stakes for patients and extensive resources involved, little evidence exists on the quality of assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of commonly used formats in assessing emergency care skills.Residents were assessed at the end of a 2-week emergency course; a subgroup was videotaped. Psychometric analyses were conducted to assess the validity and inter-rater reliability of the assessment instrument, which included a checklist, a 9-item competency scale and a global performance scale.A group of 144 residents and 12 raters participated in the study; 22 residents were videotaped and re-assessed by 8 raters. The checklists showed limited validity and poor inter-rater reliability for the dimensions "correct" and "timely" (ICC = .30 and.39 resp.. The competency scale had good construct validity, consisting of a clinical and a communication subscale. The internal consistency of the (subscales was high (α = .93/.91/.86. The inter-rater reliability was moderate for the clinical competency subscale (.49 and the global performance scale (.50, but poor for the communication subscale (.27. A generalizability study showed that for a reliable assessment 5-13 raters are needed when using checklists, and four when using the clinical competency scale or the global performance scale.This study shows poor validity and reliability for assessing emergency skills with checklists but good validity and moderate reliability with clinical competency or global performance scales. Involving more raters can improve the reliability substantially. Recommendations are made to improve this high stakes skill assessment.

  7. Emergency design framework: a satellite preliminary scheme design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Hongfei; WANG Yishou; ZHANG Bao

    2007-01-01

    The emergency design of mechanical products or equipment(such as a satellite)is significant for disaster relief when the natural disasters occur.Most of us are unaware about the little information that is available in literature about emergency designs.Against the background of the preliminary scheme design of satellite payloads,emergency design was studied in the case of natural disasters.We presented some definitions about emergency design.Then,we proposed the basic ideas of how to realize the emergency design.These ideas were inspired by two aspects:1)the evolutionary algorithms,the agent,the human-computer cooperation,and the collaborative design theory;2)the emergency behaviors in ant colonies.Following the ideas,first we constructed the human-computer cooperation agents(hereinafter called the HC-Agents)that combine the human intelligence with evolutionary algorithms.These HC-Agents had specific features like the division of labor in the ant colony.Second,we developed the multiagents cooperative design system on the basis of a hybrid P2P(peer-to-peer)model.Therefore,the emergency design system has shown some capabilities,such as anti-interference,adaptation,and rapid response.

  8. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian;

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps in de...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  9. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-06-01

    This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

  10. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  11. 76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration review of chlorpyrifos and... comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all chlorpyrifos uses. After reviewing comments...

  12. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document... for the chlorpyrifos reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...

  13. Preliminary documentation and assessment of fish diversity in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary documentation and assessment of fish diversity in sub-Saharan ... upon their life histories and degree of association with estuarine environments. ... Estuarine fish communities in Africa are strongly influenced by the prevailing ...

  14. Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ... The triglyceride level, artherogenic and coronary risk index of the mechanics was higher ... risk, mechanics, lipid profile, cardiovascular disease, liver dysfunction, benzene.

  15. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2013 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2009 BNA, the 2012 BNA document, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures.

  16. Preliminary elaboration on emergent properties of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xing-yun

    2015-07-01

    Plant and animal derived secondary metabolites are the result of initiative and adaptability of natural evolution due to its adaptive stress responses. Based on countless attempts, rational thinking and thousands of years of clinical practice by ancient Chinese, the medicines were endowed with advantages for the treatment of diseases and keeping health balance through multiple components combination instead of single components, featured by a complex system with emergent properties. The emergence of traditional Chinese medicine is because of the integration of various components and its complex interactions. How to obtain the new multicomponent entities with the biological equivalent effect is an important and fundamental work for TCM-based new drug research and development. Currently, recognition of TCM emergence and development of related technical methods needs strengthened, and the understanding and research of TCM require a systematic integration of the holistic and reductive methods.

  17. Setting up and functioning of an Emergency Medicine Department: Lessons learned from a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Asish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Tertiary care teaching hospitals remain referral centres for victims of trauma and mass casualty. Often specialists from various disciplines manage these crowded casualty areas. These age old casualty areas are being replaced, throughout the country by Emergency Medicine Departments (EMDs, presumed to be better planned to confront a crisis. We aimed to gather basic data contributive in setting up of an EMD at a tertiary care teaching hospital from the lessons learned from functioning existent systems. Methods: This is primarily a questionnaire-based descriptive study at tertiary care referral centres across the country, which was purposively selected.The study models included one from a hospital without designated EMD and the other four from hospitals with established EMDs. Direct observation and focus group meetings with experienced informants at these hospitals contributed to the data. In the absence of a validated hospital preparedness assessment scale, comparison was done with regard to quantitative, qualitative and corroborative parameters using descriptive analysis. Results: The EMDs at best practice models were headed by specialist in Emergency Medicine assisted by organised staff, had protocols for managing mass casualty incident (MCI, separate trauma teams, ergonomic use of infrastructure and public education programmes. In this regard, these hospitals seemed well organised to manage MCIs and disasters. Conclusion: The observation may provide a preliminary data useful in setting up an EMD. In the absence of published Indian literature, this may facilitate further research in this direction. Anaesthesiologists, presently an approved Faculty in Emergency Medicine training can provide creative input with regard to its initial organisation and functioning, thus widening our horizons in a country where there is a severe dearth of trained emergency physicians.

  18. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head, James Colson. This document is the second of a two-part analysis on Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2016 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2016 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. The 2013 BNA was approved by NNSA’s Livermore Field Office on January 22, 2014.

  19. Human Health Effects, Task Force Assessment, Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; And Others

    Presented in this preliminary report is one of seven assessments conducted by a special task force of Project Clean Air, the Human Health Effects Task Force. The reports summarize assessments of the state of knowledge on various air pollution problems, particularly in California, and make tentative recommendations as to what the University of…

  20. Preliminary Analysis of a Novel SAR Based Emergency System for Earth Orbit Satellites using Galileo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, E.K.A.; Helderweirt, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of a novel Search and Rescue (SAR) based emergency system for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites using the Galileo Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It starts with a description of the space user SAR system including a concept description, mission ar

  1. Assessment of internal doses in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T.; Muikku, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Falk, R.; Johansson, J. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority - SSI (Sweden); Liland, A.; Thorshaug, S. [NRPA (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    The need for assessing internal radiation doses in emergency situations was demonstrated after accidents in Brazil, Ukraine and other countries. Lately more and more concern has been expressed regarding malevolent use of radiation and radioactive materials. The scenarios for such use are more difficult to predict than for nuclear power plant or weapons accidents. Much of the results of the work done in the IRADES project can be adopted for use in various accidental situations involving radionuclides that are not addressed in this report. If an emergency situation occurs in only one or a few of the Nordic countries, experts from the other countries could be called upon to assist in monitoring. A big advantage is then our common platform. In the Nordic countries much work has been put down on quality assurance of measurements and on training of dose assessment calculations. Attention to this was addressed at the internal dosimetry course in October 2005. Nordic emergency preparedness exercises have so far not included training of direct measurements of people in the early phase of an emergency. The aim of the IRADES project was to improve the preparedness especially for thyroid measurements. The modest financial support did not enable the participants to make big efforts but certainly acted as a much appreciated reminder of the importance of being prepared also to handle situations with malevolent use of radioactive materials. It was left to each country to decide to which extent to improve the practical skills. There is still a need for detailed national implementation plans. Measurement strategies need to be developed in each country separately taking into account national regulations, local circumstances and resources. End users of the IRADES report are the radiation protection authorities. (au)

  2. Assessment of internal doses in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T.; Muikku, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Falk, R.; Johansson, J. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority - SSI (Sweden); Liland, A.; Thorshaug, S. [NRPA (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    The need for assessing internal radiation doses in emergency situations was demonstrated after accidents in Brazil, Ukraine and other countries. Lately more and more concern has been expressed regarding malevolent use of radiation and radioactive materials. The scenarios for such use are more difficult to predict than for nuclear power plant or weapons accidents. Much of the results of the work done in the IRADES project can be adopted for use in various accidental situations involving radionuclides that are not addressed in this report. If an emergency situation occurs in only one or a few of the Nordic countries, experts from the other countries could be called upon to assist in monitoring. A big advantage is then our common platform. In the Nordic countries much work has been put down on quality assurance of measurements and on training of dose assessment calculations. Attention to this was addressed at the internal dosimetry course in October 2005. Nordic emergency preparedness exercises have so far not included training of direct measurements of people in the early phase of an emergency. The aim of the IRADES project was to improve the preparedness especially for thyroid measurements. The modest financial support did not enable the participants to make big efforts but certainly acted as a much appreciated reminder of the importance of being prepared also to handle situations with malevolent use of radioactive materials. It was left to each country to decide to which extent to improve the practical skills. There is still a need for detailed national implementation plans. Measurement strategies need to be developed in each country separately taking into account national regulations, local circumstances and resources. End users of the IRADES report are the radiation protection authorities. (au)

  3. Cyberspace and the Emerging Chinese Religious Landscape – Preliminary Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, DA

    2004-01-01

    It is still too early to assess the full impact of the Internet on China’s rapidly evolving religious landscape. The effectiveness of Falun Gong’s cyber-militancy has, however, underscored the role new information technologies are playing in the shifting relations of power between a classic repressive state apparatus and deterritorialized religious or sectarian movements. While the impact of the development of the Internet and other information technologies on the economy and p...

  4. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM MOBILITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    It is recognized that sediments play an important role in the pollution scheme of the ... effects in animals and humans. Studies on metal fractionation and ecological risk assessment in some tropical sediments ... Atlantic Ocean in West Africa.

  5. PBT assessment and prioritization of contaminants of emerging concern: Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangion, Alessandro; Gramatica, Paola

    2016-05-01

    The strong and widespread use of pharmaceuticals, together with incorrect disposal procedures, has recently made these products contaminants of emerging concern (CEC). Unfortunately, little is known about pharmaceuticals' environmental behaviour and ecotoxicity, so that EMEA (European Medicines Agency) released guidelines for the pharmaceuticals' environmental risk assessment. In particular, there is a severe lack of information about persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of the majority of the thousands of substances on the market. Computational tools, like QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models, are the only way to screen large sets of chemicals in short time, with the aim of ranking, highlighting and prioritizing the most environmentally hazardous for focusing further experimental studies. In this work we propose a screening method to assess the potential persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of more than 1200 pharmaceutical ingredients, based on the application of two different QSAR models. We applied the Insubria-PBT Index, a MLR (Multiple Linear Regression) QSAR model based on four simple molecular descriptors, implemented in QSARINS software, and able to synthesize the PBT potential in a unique cumulative value and the US-EPA PBT Profiler that assesses the PBT behaviour evaluating separately P, B and T. Particular attention was given to the study of Applicability Domain in order to provide reliable predictions. An agreement of 86% was found between the two models and a priority list of 35 pharmaceuticals, highlighted as potential PBTs by consensus, was proposed for further experimental validation. Moreover, the results of this computational screening are in agreement with preliminary experimental data in the literature. This study shows how in silico models can be applied in the hazard assessment to perform preliminary screening and prioritization of chemicals, and how the identification of the structural features, mainly

  6. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Mary E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farish, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This

  7. Preliminary assessment of CO2 injectivity in carbonate storage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are used for a large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2 storage and reduction of the greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. To identify a suitable depleted reservoir, it is essential to do a preliminary and comprehensive assessment of key storage factors such as storage capacity, injectivity, trapping mechanisms, and containment. However, there are a limited number of studies providing a preliminary assessment of CO2 injectivity potential in depleted gas reservoirs prior to a CO2 storage operation. The aim of this study is to provide a preliminary assessment of a gas field located in Malaysia for its storage potential based on subsurface characterization prior to injection. Evaluation of the reservoir interval based on the facies, cores, and wireline log data of a well located in the field indicated that the pore type and fabrics analysis is very beneficial to identify suitable locations for a successful storage practice. Although the results obtained are promising, it is recommended to combine this preliminary assessment with the fluid-mineral interactions analysis before making any judgment about reliability of storage sites.

  8. Soil quality assessment under emerging regulatory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, James; Head, Martin; Barraclough, Declan; Archer, Michael; Scheib, Catherine; Flight, Dee; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-08-01

    New and emerging policies that aim to set standards for protection and sustainable use of soil are likely to require identification of geographical risk/priority areas. Soil degradation can be seen as the change or disturbance in soil quality and it is therefore crucial that soil and soil quality are well understood to protect soils and to meet legislative requirements. To increase this understanding a review of the soil quality definition evaluated its development, with a formal scientific approach to assessment beginning in the 1970s, followed by a period of discussion and refinement. A number of reservations about soil quality assessment expressed in the literature are summarised. Taking concerns into account, a definition of soil quality incorporating soil's ability to meet multifunctional requirements, to provide ecosystem services, and the potential for soils to affect other environmental media is described. Assessment using this definition requires a large number of soil function dependent indicators that can be expensive, laborious, prone to error, and problematic in comparison. Findings demonstrate the need for a method that is not function dependent, but uses a number of cross-functional indicators instead. This method to systematically prioritise areas where detailed investigation is required, using a ranking based against a desired level of action, could be relatively quick, easy and cost effective. As such this has potential to fill in gaps and compliment existing monitoring programs and assist in development and implementation of current and future soil protection legislation.

  9. Preliminary results of Aruba wind resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guda, M.H. [Fundashon Antiyano Pa Energia, Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)

    1996-12-31

    As part of a project to assess the possibilities for wind energy utilitization in the Dutch Antilles islands, windspeed and -direction data were collected in Aruba for two years, from March 1992 to February 1994. Five sites that were estimated to be representative for the islands` wind regimes, were monitored during this period: two sites on the windward coast, one east and one west; two inland sites, again one east and one west, and one site topping the cliffs overlooking the eastern windward coast. Additionally, twenty years worth of data were analyzed for the reference site at the airport, which is in the middle part of the island, on the leeward coast. Correlation calculations between these data and the data for the project sites were performed, in order to establish a methodology for estimating the long-term behavior of the wind regimes at these sites. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Preliminary functional assessment of a multigrasp myoelectric prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Skyler A; Bennett, Daniel A; Goldfarb, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The authors have previously described a multigrasp hand prosthesis prototype, and a two-site surface EMG based multigrasp control interface for its control. In this paper, the authors present a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the prosthesis and multigrasp controller in performing tasks requiring interaction and manipulation. The authors use as a performance measure the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), which entails manipulation of various objects designed to emulate activities of daily living, and provides a set of scores that indicate level of functionality in various types of hand function. In this preliminary assessment, a single non-amputee subject performed the SHAP while wearing the multigrasp prosthesis via an able-bodied adaptor. The results from this testing are presented, and compared to recently published SHAP results obtained with commercially available single-grasp and multigrasp prosthetic hands.

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Overweight Mainline Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requested information regarding overweight and oversized vehicle traffic entering inspection stations (ISs) in order to develop strategies for future research efforts and possibly help guide regulatory issues involving overweight commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). For a period of one month, inspection stations in Knox County and Greene County, Tennessee, recorded overweight and oversized vehicles that entered these ISs. During this period, 435 CMVs were recorded using an electronic form filled out by enforcement personnel at the IS. Of the 435 CMVs recorded, 381 had weight information documented with them. The majority (52.2%) of the vehicles recorded were five-axle combination vehicles, and 50.6% of all the vehicles were permitted to operate above the legal weight limit in Tennessee, which is 80,000 lb for vehicles with five or more axles. Only 16.8% of the CMVs recorded were overweight gross (11.5% of permitted vehicles) and 54.1% were overweight on an axle group. The low percentage of overweight gross CMVs was because only 45 of the vehicles over 80,000 lb. were not permitted. On average, axles that were overweight were 2,000 lb. over the legal limit for an axle or group of axles. Of the vehicles recorded, 172 vehicles were given a North American Standard (NAS) inspection during the assessment. Of those, 69% of the inspections were driver-only inspections (Level III) and only 25% of the inspections had a vehicle component (such as a Level I or Level II). The remaining 6% of inspections did not have valid Aspen numbers; the type of was inspection unknown. Data collected on the types of trailers of each vehicle showed that about half of the recorded CMVs could realistically be given a Level I (full vehicle and driver) inspection; this estimate was solely based on trailer type. Enforcement personnel at ISs without an inspection pit have difficulty fully inspecting certain vehicles due to low clearance below the trailer

  12. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  13. Life cycle assessment of emerging technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy;

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Milk is becoming a key food commodity as population grows and demand increases. The treatment of milk to extend its shelf life is thus an important step in avoiding losses and optimizing resource use. The drawbacks of the most common treatments for shelf stable milk are the loss of nutri......Abstract Milk is becoming a key food commodity as population grows and demand increases. The treatment of milk to extend its shelf life is thus an important step in avoiding losses and optimizing resource use. The drawbacks of the most common treatments for shelf stable milk are the loss...... shelf life. A life cycle assessment was performed comparing this emerging technology to the common thermal treatment: indirect ultra-high temperature sterilisation combined with non-aseptic homogenisation. The results show that high-pressure based processing has a lower environmental burden compared...... to the high-temperature based processing, already at pilot-scale, and this difference is primarily due to the lower electricity consumption. Additionally, upscaling considerations were made using power laws and scenario analysis to simulate future full-scale applications of UHPH. The upscaling shows...

  14. California's forest resources. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Preliminary Assessment was prepared in response to the California Forest Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977 (FRAPA). This Act was passed to improve the information base upon which State resource administrators formulate forest policy. The Act provides for this report and a full assessment by 1987 and at five year intervals thereafter. Information is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction to the forest resources assessment program; the forest area: a general description; classifications of the forest lands; the watersheds; forest lands and the air resource; fish and wildlife resources; the forested rangelands; the wilderness; forest lands as a recreation resource; the timber resource; wood energy; forest lands and the mineral, fossil fuels, and geothermal energy resources; mathematically modeling California's forest lands; vegetation mapping using remote sensing technology; important forest resources legislation; and, State and cooperative State/Federal forestry programs. Twelve indexes, a bibliography, and glossary are included. (JGB)

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the use of a CDMA-based emergency telemedicine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jaemin; Chun, Honggu; Shin, Il Hyung; Shin, Sang Do; Suh, Gil Joon; Kim, Hee Chan

    2006-01-01

    We have conducted a preliminary evaluation of the use of a code division multiple access (CDMA)-based emergency telemedicine system to be used by emergency rescuers providing first-aid treatment for patients. The prototype system included five instrumentation modules for measuring non-invasive arterial blood pressure (NIBP), arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), six-channel electrocardiogram (ECG), blood glucose concentration and body temperature. The patient data were transferred to a doctor's PC through CDMA and TCP/IP networks using an embedded personal digital assistant (PDA) phone. Performance tests in the laboratory showed that the system provided reliable values with error ranges within +/-1% for heart rate, +/-5 mmHg for NIBP, +/-2% for SpO(2) and +/-1% for glucose. The feasibility of the prototype system was then evaluated with 15 real emergency patients on Jeju Island over a two-month period. Measured data were transmitted from a moving ambulance to the emergency medical centre without significant CDMA connection loss or transmission errors. The average transfer time was 8 min. Four emergency doctors and 11 rescuers completed a questionnaire. There were favourable reviews from the users.

  16. Research plan and preliminary results - A field research site for emerging contaminants in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael; Skopec, M.

    2006-01-01

    Research has recently documented the prevalence of a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and other emerging contaminants (ECs) in streams across the United States. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been found to be an important source and collection point of ECs to streams as many ECs are incompletely removed during treatment. To investigate the complex in-stream processes (e.g., dilution, sorption, degradation, dispersion, etc.) that can affect ECs following their input from a WWTP and determining if such input is having an effect on the aquatic ecosystem requires the integration of multi-disciplinary efforts at a carefully selected field site. Preliminary work has identified an 8-km reach of Fourmile Creek in central Iowa as an ideal research site to investigate such important research questions pertaining to ECs. Unique aspects of Fourmile Creek included: (1) it single source effluent-dominated stream, (2) background data document the input of a wide variety of ECs from WWTP discharge, (3) small basin size, (4) relatively simple flow system, (5) background data suggest that undefined processes are taking place decreasing the level of select ECs during stream transport, (6) the WWTP uses a treatment technology (activated sludge) typical of many towns in Iowa and the United States (7) a hydrogeologic setting of a low-gradient, small stream (average discharge less than 1.41 m³/s) in glacial drift is typical of many areas in Iowa and across the Midwest, and (8) the existence of a low-head clam approximately 2 km upstream of the WWTP outfall allowing more accurate "above WWTP" and "below WWTP" comparisons in aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, the WWTP is scheduled to close by 2011 providing a unique opportunity to determine how stream hydrology, water chemistry and aquatic biota react to the removal of the primary source of flow and ECs in this system. This will allow a novel "before" and "after" assessment not previously available in EC research. Research to date

  17. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary assessment of the impact of the Satellite Power System (SPS) on the environment is presented. Information that has appeared in documents referenced herein is integrated and assimilated. The state-of-knowledge as perceived from recently completed DOE-sponsored studies is disclosed, and prospective research and study programs that can advance the state-of-knowledge and provide an expanded data base for use in an assessment planned for 1980 are defined. Alternatives for research that may be implemented in order to achieve this advancement are also discussed in order that a plan can be selected which will be consistent with the fiscal and time constraints on the SPS Environmental Assessment Program. Health and ecological effects of microwave radiation, nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment (terrestrial operations and space operations), effects on the atmosphere, and effects on communications systems are examined in detail. (WHK)

  18. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  19. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  20. Social Media in Emergency Management: Capability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    engagement and thoughtful feedback: Jason Cameron ( CEMA ) Benjamin Morgan (City of Calgary) Greg Furlong (CITIG, Ottawa Paramedic Service) Patrice...technologies to reach the public and pursue a variety of operational objectives. The Calgary Emergency Management Agency ( CEMA ) and the Toronto Police...form of a quad-chart in Annex A. 1.3 The SMEM Expert Roundtable As part of the SMEM targeted investment project, DRDC CSS partnered with CEMA to

  1. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  2. A preliminary investigation of the use of throttles for emergency flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Wolf, Thomas D.; Stewart, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted regarding the use of throttles for emergency flight control of a multiengine aircraft. Several airplanes including a light twin-engine piston-powered airplane, jet transports, and a high performance fighter were studied during flight and piloted simulations. Simulation studies used the B-720, B-727, MD-11, and F-15 aircraft. Flight studies used the Lear 24, Piper PA-30, and F-15 airplanes. Based on simulator and flight results, all the airplanes exhibited some control capability with throttles. With piloted simulators, landings using manual throttles-only control were extremely difficult. An augmented control system was developed that converts conventional pilot stick inputs into appropriate throttle commands. With the augmented system, the B-720 and F-15 simulations were evaluated and could be landed successfully. Flight and simulation data were compared for the F-15 airplane.

  3. Preliminary assessment of a Ceres Polar Lander mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncy, J.; Grasset, Olivier; Martinot, V.; Gabriel, Gabriel

    2008-09-01

    The quest for water in all forms is a major challenge of planetary exploration. In the Inner System, beneath the Frost Line, H2O is relatively scarce: for it to survive in its solid form outside Earth's and Mars' atmospheres, H2O has to lie in areas exposed to little or no Sun. Three planetary bodies in the Inner System have a spin axis almost perpendicular to their orbital plane allowing temperatures below the sublimation limit in their polar areas: Mercury, our Moon and dwarf planet Ceres (fig. 1). Apart from the Moon's poles where the presence of water ice is not evidenced yet, the poles of Ceres are attractive and relatively easy targets for an in-situ mission. They will have been mapped by NASA's Dawn Orbiter by 2015. The successful landing of NASA's Phoenix on Mars has brought another evidence of the interest of modern precision landing techniques for planetary exploration. NASA's MSL and ESA's Moon-NEXT Lunar Lander missions will bring other examples of the relevance of such designs in the years to come. Thales Alenia Space and the "Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique" of the University of Nantes have carried out a preliminary evaluation of a Ceres Polar Lander mission, so as to explore the possibilities offered by soft landing techniques on such a valuable and affordable scientific target. This poster presents this assessment. It illustrates the scientific interest of Ceres' poles and the challenges of this environment for a potential lander. It assesses the feasibility of the mission in a preliminary way, as well as the ability to benefit from previous lander designs.

  4. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street Children in Nigeria. ... which these support networks are fulfilling their mission mandates is not yet known. Hence, this paper attempts to bridge ... Article Metrics. Metrics Loading .

  5. Gap Assessment in the Emergency Response Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Pike, William A.; Peddicord, Annie M Boe; Minsk, Brian S.

    2010-09-27

    This report describes a gap analysis of the emergency response and management (EM) community, performed during the fall of 2009. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook this effort to identify potential improvements to the functional domains in EM that could be provided by the application of current or future technology. To perform this domain-based gap analysis, PNNL personnel interviewed subject matter experts (SMEs) across the EM domain; to make certain that the analyses reflected a representative view of the community, the SMEs were from a variety of geographic areas and from various sized communities (urban, suburban, and rural). PNNL personnel also examined recent and relevant after-action reports and U.S. Government Accountability Office reports.

  6. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanizaki S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Tanizaki Department of Emergency Medicine, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui, Japan Abstract: Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. Keywords: inhalation injury, burn, carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning

  7. Assessing ecorelevance of emerging chemicals in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, D.

    2007-01-01

    effects measured on individuals can be extrapolated to the population level. The consequences of these studies and their impact on the assessment of risk will be discussed. An important message is that not all organismal or sub-organismal responses that are currently measured are relevant for protecting......Environmental monitoring of the Great Lakes and elsewhere has detected the presence of a wide variety of chemicals which has raised concern that these chemicals pose risks to resident species. Sediments are of particular interest due to their tendency to accumulate hydrophobic and persistent...

  8. Transportation needs assessment: Emergency response section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The transportation impacts of moving high level nuclear waste (HLNW) to a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada are of concern to the residents of the State as well as to the residents of other states through which the nuclear wastes might be transported. The projected volume of the waste suggests that shipments will occur on a daily basis for some period of time. This will increase the risk of accidents, including a catastrophic incident. Furthermore, as the likelihood of repository construction and operation and waste shipments increase, so will the attention given by the national media. This document is not to be construed as a willingness to accept the HLNW repository on the part of the State. Rather it is an initial step in ensuring that the safety and well-being of Nevada residents and visitors and the State`s economy will be adequately addressed in federal decision-making pertaining to the transportation of HLNW into and across Nevada for disposal in the proposed repository. The Preferred Transportation System Needs Assessment identifies critical system design elements and technical and social issues that must be considered in conducting a comprehensive transportation impact analysis. Development of the needs assessment and the impact analysis is especially complex because of the absence of information and experience with shipping HLNW and because of the ``low probability, high consequence`` aspect of the transportation risk.

  9. 76 FR 63628 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... [Docket ID FEMA-2011-0022] Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327... Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR). DATES: Comments must be... . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Please note that this proposed manual is not...

  10. Increased Authenticity in Practical Assessment Using Emergency Case OSCE Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesseler, Miriam; Weinlich, Michael; Byhahn, Christian; Muller, Michael P.; Junger, Jana; Marzi, Ingo; Walcher, Felix

    2010-01-01

    In case of an emergency, a fast and structured patient management is crucial for patient's outcome. The competencies needed should be acquired and assessed during medical education. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a valid and reliable assessment format to evaluate practical skills. However, traditional OSCE stations examine…

  11. Voice Assessment of Student Work: Recent Studies and Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhouse, Barry; Carroll, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Although relatively little attention has been given to the voice assessment of student work, at least when compared with more traditional forms of text-based review, the attention it has received strongly points to a promising form of review that has been hampered by the limits of an emerging technology. A fresh review of voice assessment in light…

  12. EPA Releases the First of Four Preliminary Risk Assessments for Insecticides Potentially Harmful to Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON-- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a preliminary pollinator risk assessment for the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, which shows a threat to some pollinators. EPA's assessment, prepared in collaboration wit

  13. Knowledge assessment and preparation for the certified emergency nurses examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kathleen

    2007-02-01

    With the current emphasis on credentialing in nursing, many nurses have committed to taking the CEN examination. The following questions have been developed to assist in emergency nursing knowledge assessment and in preparation for the CEN examination. Questions, rationale for the correct answers, and references are provided here for your self-evaluation. ENA has developed educational materials that can be used as further resources for CEN preparation: Emergency Nursing Core Curriculum and CEN Review Manual.

  14. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Thacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  15. Preliminary Assessment of the Interfacial Source Terms in SPACE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sun Won; Kim, Jeong Woo; Kim, Su Hyong; Kim, Kyung Du [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The development program for a nuclear reactor safety analysis code which will be used by utility bodies has been launched supported by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy. The code, named as SPACE, has been designed to solve the multi-dimensional 3-field 2 phase equations. The target power plant type is restricted to PWR's and does not include advanced reactor types, like gas cooled or liquid metal reactors. KAERI, KOPEC, KNF, KEPRI and KHNP are participated in the development project. KAERI has been assigned to develop the physical models and correlations which are required as the closure relationships. The assigned work can be divided into four parts, i.e, (i) the flow regime determination, (ii) the wall heat transfer, (iii) the wall and interfacial friction, and (iv) the interfacial heat and mass transfer. The interfacial heat and mass transfer correlations used in RELAP5, TRAC-M, CATHARE, etc. are reviewed with respect to the simplicity and the range of validity. The recent suggestions are also reviewed. The intellectual property ownerships are proved before an adaptation to the development of the SPACE code. The selected models and correlations are already represented by reference. This paper shows the preliminary assessment results obtained by using the SPACE code.

  16. Wind power in Eritrea, Africa: A preliminary resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, K.; Rosen, K. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States); Van Buskirk, R. [Dept. of Energy, Eritrea (Ethiopia)

    1997-12-31

    The authors preliminary assessment of Eritrean wind energy potential identified two promising regions: (1) the southeastern Red Sea coast and (2) the mountain passes that channel winds between the coastal lowlands and the interior highlands. The coastal site, near the port city of Aseb, has an exceptionally good resource, with estimated average annual wind speeds at 10-m height above 9 m/s at the airport and 7 m/s in the port. Furthermore, the southern 200 km of coastline has offshore WS{sub aa} > 6 m/s. This area has strong potential for development, having a local 20 MW grid and unmet demand for the fishing industry and development. Although the highland sites contain only marginal wind resources ({approximately} 5 m/s), they warrant further investigation because of their proximity to the capital city, Asmera, which has the largest unmet demand and a larger power grid (40 MW with an additional 80 MW planned) to absorb an intermittent source without storage.

  17. Assessing interpersonal and communication skills in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa M; Wallner, Clare; Swoboda, Thomas K; Leone, Katrina A; Kessler, Chad

    2012-12-01

    Interpersonal and communication skills (ICS) are a key component of several competency-based schemata and key competency in the set of six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. With the shift toward a competency-based educational framework, the importance of robust learner assessment becomes paramount. The journal Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) hosted a consensus conference to discuss education research in emergency medicine (EM). This article summarizes the initial preparatory research that was conducted to brief consensus conference attendees and reports the results of the consensus conference breakout session as it pertains to ICS assessment of learners. The goals of this consensus conference session were to twofold: 1) to determine the state of assessment of observable learner performance and 2) to determine a research agenda within the ICS field for medical educators. The working group identified six key recommendations for medical educators and researchers. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. Assessment of emergency medicine residents: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmers-Gray, Isabelle N.; Walsh, Kieran; Chan, Teresa M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Competency-based medical education is becoming the new standard for residency programs, including Emergency Medicine (EM). To inform programmatic restructuring, guide resources and identify gaps in publication, we reviewed the published literature on types and frequency of resident assessment. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and ERIC from Jan 2005 – June 2014. MeSH terms included “assessment,” “residency,” and “emergency medicine.” We included studies on EM residents reporting either of two primary outcomes: 1) assessment type and 2) assessment frequency per resident. Two reviewers screened abstracts, reviewed full text studies, and abstracted data. Reporting of assessment-related costs was a secondary outcome. Results The search returned 879 articles; 137 articles were full-text reviewed; 73 met inclusion criteria. Half of the studies (54.8%) were pilot projects and one-quarter (26.0%) described fully implemented assessment tools/programs. Assessment tools (n=111) comprised 12 categories, most commonly: simulation-based assessments (28.8%), written exams (28.8%), and direct observation (26.0%). Median assessment frequency (n=39 studies) was twice per month/rotation (range: daily to once in residency). No studies thoroughly reported costs. Conclusion EM resident assessment commonly uses simulation or direct observation, done once-per-rotation. Implemented assessment systems and assessment-associated costs are poorly reported. Moving forward, routine publication will facilitate transitioning to competency-based medical education. PMID:28344722

  19. Preliminary biogeochemical assessment of EPICA LGM and Holocene ice samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, S.; Alekhina, I.; Marie, D.; Wagenbach, D.; Raynaud, D.; Petit, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    weak signals were possible to generate which are now under cloning. The signals were hard to reproduce because of rather low volume of samples. More ice volume is needed to get the biosignal stronger and reproducible. Meantime we are adjusting PCR and in addition testing DNA repair-enzyme cocktail in case of DNA damage. As a preliminary conclusion we would like to highlight the following. Both Holocene and LGM ice samples (EDC99 and EDML) are very clean in terms of Ultra low biomass and Ultra low DOC content. The most basal ice of EDC and EDML ice cores could help in assessing microbial biomass and diversity if present under the glacier at the ice-bedrock boundary. * The present-day consortium includes S. Bulat, I. Alekhina, P. Normand, D. Prieur, J-R. Petit and D. Raynaud (France) and E. Willerslev and J.P. Steffensen (Denmark)

  20. Assessment of Simulated Emergency Scenarios: Are Trained Observers Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noveanu, Juliane; Amsler, Felix; Ummenhofer, Wolfgang; von Wyl, Thomas; Zuercher, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Simulation-based medical training is associated with superior educational outcomes and improved cost efficiency. Self- and peer-assessment may be a cost-effective and flexible alternative to expert-led assessment. We compared accuracy of self- and peer-assessment of untrained raters using basic evaluation tools to expert assessment using advanced validation tools including validated questionnaires and post hoc video-based analysis. Twenty-eight simulated emergency airway management scenarios were observed and video-recorded for further assessment. Participants consisted of 28 emergency physicians who were involved in four different airway management scenarios with different roles: One scenario as a team leader, one as an assisting team member, and two as an observer. Non-technical skills (NTS) and technical skills (TS) were analyzed by three independent groups: 1) the performing team (PT) consisted of the two emergency physicians acting either in the role of team leader or team member (self-assessment); 2) the observing team (OT), consisted of two of the participating emergency physicians not involved in the current clinical scenario (peer-assessment) and assessment occurred during (OT) or directly after (PT) the simulation without prior specific interpretational training but using standardized questionnaires; and 3) the expert team (ET) consisted of two specifically trained external observers (one psychologist and one emergency physician) using video-assisted objective assessment combined with standardized questionnaires. Intragroup reliability demonstrated by intra-class correlation (ICC) was moderate to good for TS (ICC 0.42(*)) and NTS (ICC 0.55(*)) in PT and moderate to good for TS (ICC 0.41(*)) or poor for NTS (ICC 0.27) in OT. ET showed an excellent intragroup reliability for both TS (ICC 0.78(*)) and NTS (ICC 0.81(*)). Interrater reliability was significantly different between ET and PT and between ET and OT for both TS and NTS. There was no difference

  1. Preliminary report on operational guidelines developed for use in emergency preparedness and response to a radiological dispersal device incident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.-J.; Kamboj, S.; Domotor, S.; Wallo, A.; Environmental Science Division; DOE

    2006-12-15

    This report presents preliminary operational guidelines and supporting work products developed through the interagency Operational Guidelines Task Group (OGT). The report consolidates preliminary operational guidelines, all ancillary work products, and a companion software tool that facilitates their implementation into one reference source document. The report is intended for interim use and comment and provides the foundation for fostering future reviews of the operational guidelines and their implementation within emergency preparedness and response initiatives in the event of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) incident. The report principally focuses on the technical derivation and presentation of the operational guidelines. End-user guidance providing more details on how to apply these operational guidelines within planning and response settings is being considered and developed elsewhere. The preliminary operational guidelines are categorized into seven groups on the basis of their intended application within early, intermediate, and long-term recovery phases of emergency response. We anticipate that these operational guidelines will be updated and refined by interested government agencies in response to comments and lessons learned from their review, consideration, and trial application. This review, comment, and trial application process will facilitate the selection of a final set of operational guidelines that may be more or less inclusive of the preliminary operational guidelines presented in this report. These and updated versions of the operational guidelines will be made available through the OGT public Web site (http://ogcms.energy.gov) as they become finalized for public distribution and comment.

  2. The assessment of seismic hazard for Gori, (Georgia) and preliminary studies of seismic microzonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoladze, Z.; Moscatelli, M.; Giallini, S.; Avalle, A.; Gventsadze, A.; Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic risk is a crucial issue for South Caucasus, which is the main gateway between Asia and Europe. The goal of this work is to propose new methods and criteria for defining an overall approach aimed at assessing and mitigating seismic risk in Georgia. In this reguard seismic microzonation represents a highly useful tool for seismic risk assessmentin land management, for design of buildings or structures and for emergency planning.Seismic microzonation assessment of local seismic hazard,which is a component of seismicity resulting from specific local characteristics which cause local amplification and soil instability, through identification of zones with seismically homogeneous behavior. This paper presents the results of preliminary study of seismic microzonation of Gori, Georgia. Gori is and is located in the Shida Kartli region and on both sides of Liachvi and Mtkvari rivers, with area of about 135 km2around the Gori fortress. Gori is located in Achara-Trialeti fold-thrust belt, that is tectonically unstable. Half of all earthquakes in Gori area with magnitude M≥3.5 have happened along this fault zone and on basis of damage caused by previous earthquakes, this territory show the highest level of risk (the maximum value of direct losses) in central part of the town. The seismic microzonation map of level 1 for Gori was carried out using: 1) Already available data (i.e., topographic map and boreholes data), 2) Results of new geological surveys and 3) Geophysical measurements (i.e., MASW and noise measurements processed with HVSR technique). Our preliminary results highlight the presence of both stable zones susceptible to local amplifications and unstable zones susceptible to geological instability. Our results are directed to establish set of actions aimed at risk mitigation before initial onset of emergency, and to management of the emergency once the seismic event has occurred. The products obtained, will contain the basic elements of an integrated system

  3. Hospital preparedness and response in CBRN emergencies: TIER assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Carlo; Ingrassia, Pier L; Della Corte, Francesco; Carenzo, Luca; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Gabilly, Laurent; Segond, Fredrique; Grieger, Fiene; Arnod-Prin, Philippe; Larrucea, Xabier; Violi, Chrisitan; Lopez, Cédric; Djalali, Ahmadreza

    2017-10-01

    Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies need particular hospital preparedness and resources availability. Also, specific skills and capabilities are required for efficient response to these types of events. The aim of this study was to develop an assessment tool to evaluate hospital preparedness and response performance with respect to CBRN emergencies. An evaluation tool was developed using the Delphi technique. A panel of experts from 10 countries, both European and non-European, with more than 5 years of experience in research or practice in CBRN emergency management was involved in this study. The study was run online, and the experts were asked to evaluate a list of items on hospital preparedness and response in CBRN emergencies. A threshold of 85% agreement level was defined as the consensus of experts in this study. The first-round questionnaire was answered by 13 experts. Consensus on the preparedness section was reached for all 29 items during the first round and one item was also added by the experts. Consensus on the response performance indicators were reached in 51 out of the 59 items, during the first round, and eight items were modified and then approved in the second round by the experts. Hospitals need a specific level of preparedness to enable an effective response to CBRN emergencies. The assessment tool, developed through experts' consensus in this study, provides a standardized method for the evaluation of hospital preparedness and response performance with respect to CBRN emergencies. The feasibility and reliability of this assessment tool could be evaluated before and during simulated exercises in a standardized manner.

  4. Preliminary effect of proximal femoral nail antirotation on emergency treatment of senile patients with intertrochanteric fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xin; LIU Lei; YANG Tian-fu; TU Chong-qi; WANG Guang-lin; FANG Yue; DUAN Hong; ZHANG Hui; PEI Fu-xing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively analyse the clinical outcome of emergency treatment of senile intertrochanteric fractures with proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA).Methods: From September 2008 to March 2009, 35 senile patients with intertrochanteric fracture, aged from 65 to 92 years with an average age of 76.5 years, were treated with PFNA within 24 hours after injury. There were 10 type Ⅰ fractures, 19 type Ⅱ and 6 type Ⅲ according to upgraded Evans-Jensen classification system. All patients were complicated with osteoporosis, and 19 patients had preexisting internal medical diseases. According to the rating scale of disease severity by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), there were 9 grade Ⅰ, 14 grade Ⅱ, 8 grade Ⅲ, and 4 grade Ⅳ.Results: The duration for operation ranged from 45 to 73 minutes with an average of 57.6 minutes. The volume of blood loss during operation ranged from 50 to 120 ml with an average of 77.5 ml. Patients could ambulate 2-4 days after operation (mean 3.5 days). Hospital stay was 4-7 days (mean 5.3 days). Full weight bearing time was 10-14 weeks (mean 12.8 weeks). During hospitalization period, there was no regional or deep infection, hypostatic pneumonia, urinary tract infection and bedsore except for 2 cases of urine retention. All cases were followed up with an average period of 12.3 months, and bone healing achieved within 15-18 weeks (mean 16.6 weeks). No complications such as delayed union, coxa vara or coxa valga, screw breakage or backout occurred and only 2 cases had trochanter bursitis because of thin body and overlong end of the antirotated nail. According to the Harris grading scale, the results were defined as excellent in 21 cases, good in 9 cases and fair in 5 cases, with the excellent and good rates of 85.7%.Conclusion: The emergency treatment of senile intertrochanteric fracture with proximal femoral nail antirotation has the advantages of minimal invasion, easy manipulation,less blood loss

  5. Preliminary Assessment for Abnormal Amphibians on National Wildlife Refuges in the Southeast Region FY 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary screening assessments for abnormal amphibians were initiated on national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in the southeast region in 2000, with additional refuges...

  6. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS). Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A summary of the preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of a SPS is given. Microwave health and ecological effects, other effects on health and the environment, effects on the atmosphere, and effects on communications systems are summarized. (WHK)

  7. Assessing Data Quality in Emergent Domains of Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darch, P. T.; Borgman, C.

    2016-12-01

    As earth scientists seek to study known phenomena in new ways, and to study new phenomena, they often develop new technologies and new methods such as embedded network sensing, or reapply extant technologies, such as seafloor drilling. Emergent domains are often highly multidisciplinary as researchers from many backgrounds converge on new research questions. They may adapt existing methods, or develop methods de novo. As a result, emerging domains tend to be methodologically heterogeneous. As these domains mature, pressure to standardize methods increases. Standardization promotes trust, reliability, accuracy, and reproducibility, and simplifies data management. However, for standardization to occur, researchers must be able to assess which of the competing methods produces the highest quality data. The exploratory nature of emerging domains discourages standardization. Because competing methods originate in different disciplinary backgrounds, their scientific credibility is difficult to compare. Instead of direct comparison, researchers attempt to conduct meta-analyses. Scientists compare datasets produced by different methods to assess their consistency and efficiency. This paper presents findings from a long-term qualitative case study of research on the deep subseafloor biosphere, an emergent domain. A diverse community converged on the study of microbes in the seafloor and those microbes' interactions with the physical environments they inhabit. Data on this problem are scarce, leading to calls for standardization as a means to acquire and analyze greater volumes of data. Lacking consistent methods, scientists attempted to conduct meta-analyses to determine the most promising methods on which to standardize. Among the factors that inhibited meta-analyses were disparate approaches to metadata and to curating data. Datasets may be deposited in a variety of databases or kept on individual scientists' servers. Associated metadata may be inconsistent or hard to

  8. 43 CFR 11.38 - Assessment Plan-preliminary estimate of damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... damages. 11.38 Section 11.38 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Assessment Plan Phase § 11.38 Assessment Plan—preliminary estimate of damages... resources, if the authorized official intends to include compensable value in the damage claim....

  9. Value impact assessment: A preliminary assessment of improvement opportunities at the Quantico Central Heating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary assessment of opportunities for improvement at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This study is part of a program intended to provide the CHP staff with a computerized Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist in a more efficient, reliable, and safe operation of their plant. As part of the effort to provide the AI decision support system, a team of six scientists and engineers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) visited the plant to characterize the conditions and environment of the CHP. This assessment resulted in a list of potential performance improvement opportunities at the CHP. In this report, 12 of these opportunities are discussed and qualitatively analyzed. 70 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF THE COUNTY EMERGENCY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilescu Liviu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes assessing the organizational culture of the County Emergency Hospital “Dr. Constantine Opris” of Baia Mare, as a basis for developing a strategic plan to facilitate the successful implementation of organizational goals and objectives. As research instruments were used: OCAI (Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the semi-structured interview. The identified organizational culture of the County Emergency Hospital “Dr. Constantin Opris” has characteristics of a weak culture with strong hierarchical accents. Regarding the preferred situation, is obvious the predilection for type clan culture values, based on participation, group cohesion and individual development. The results obtained from the application of the OCAI questionnaire reveals a mismatch between current organizational culture and preferred organizational culture, which requires adapting to contemporary society.

  11. Illustrating anticipatory life cycle assessment for emerging photovoltaic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ben A; Foley, Rider W; Prado-Lopez, Valentina; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Eisenberg, Daniel A; Hottle, Troy A; Sadowski, Jathan; Flanagan, William P; Fisher, Angela; Laurin, Lise; Bates, Matthew E; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Fraser, Matthew P; Guston, David H

    2014-09-16

    Current research policy and strategy documents recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in research and development (R&D) to guide emerging technologies toward decreased environmental burden. However, existing LCA practices are ill-suited to support these recommendations. Barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. Overcoming these challenges requires methodological advances that help identify environmental opportunities prior to large R&D investments. Such an anticipatory approach to LCA requires synthesis of social, environmental, and technical knowledge beyond the capabilities of current practices. This paper introduces a novel framework for anticipatory LCA that incorporates technology forecasting, risk research, social engagement, and comparative impact assessment, then applies this framework to photovoltaic (PV) technologies. These examples illustrate the potential for anticipatory LCA to prioritize research questions and help guide environmentally responsible innovation of emerging technologies.

  12. Accountability and assessment of emergency drill performance at schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Kubicek, Katrina; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Wong, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    Many schools throughout the United States are mandated to hold drills, or operational exercises, to prepare for fires, earthquakes, violence, and other emergencies. However, drills have not been assessed for their effectiveness in improving preparedness at schools. This mixed-methods study measures the quantity and the quality of drills in an urban school district in Los Angeles. Compliance with California mandates was fair; most schools barely met requirements. Drills were not used as opportunities to improve procedures. Sites neither conducted any self-assessments nor made changes to procedures on the basis of performance. Suggestions include developing realistic simulated exercises, debriefing, and better school accountability for drills.

  13. Ethical Values and Biological Diversity: A Preliminary Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel I. Cohen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been five major extinction events over geological time. However, the current rate of extinction or reduction of species and their habitats is directly related to anthropomorphic causes. For seventh grade students, biodiversity and its ethical considerations were introduced in a life sciences curriculum, following lessons on evolution, natural selection, and decent from common ancestry. This paper takes a preliminary look at the approach used in this unit, the ethical survey developed, and improvements to be made in subsequent years.

  14. Using VISIR in a Large Undergraduate Course: Preliminary Assessment Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. Alves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of remote labs in undergraduate courses has been reported in literature several times since the mid 90’s. Nevertheless, very few articles present results about the learning gains obtained by students using them, especially with a large number of students, thus suggesting a lack of data concerning their pedagogical effectiveness. This paper addresses such a gap by presenting some preliminary results concerning the use of a remote laboratory, known as VISIR, in a large undergraduate course on Applied Physics, with over 500 students enrolled.

  15. Review of the EU's Preliminary Assessment of China's Market Economy Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, the European Union (EU) made a decision on its preliminary assessment of China's market economy status (MES). After seriously studying the EU's preliminary assessment report, the Institute of Economic and Resources Management of Beijing Normal University made a review. We hold that the decision on the assessment fails to be fair and objective and is undermined by incorrect understanding and logical contradictions. However, the decision has still left some leeway for China's improvement and China needs to speed up in improving its market economy regime.

  16. An emergent account of language impairments in children with SLI: implications for assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J L

    2001-01-01

    While current theoretical accounts of language impairments in children with specific language impairment (SLI) provide clear direction with regard to intervention goal setting, these same accounts say little with regard to the intervention process. Current developments in connectionist modeling and the extension of principles of dynamical systems theory to cognitive and language development have resulted in a new theory of language development known as emergentism. In contrast to traditional formal linguistic accounts, the emergentist view holds that language is a dynamic evolving system that can be represented as a distribution of probabilistic information. Language acquisition, from this perspective, emerges from the child's simultaneous integration of multiple acoustic, linguistic, social and communicative cues within the context of the communicative interaction. An alternative account of SLI grounded within this emergentist view is presented, and preliminary implications are explored with respect to assessment and intervention.

  17. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  18. Assessing Knowledge Base on Geriatric Competencies for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita M. Hogan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency care of older adults requires specialized knowledge of their unique physiology, atypical presentations, and care transitions. Older adults often require distinctive assessment, treatment and disposition. Emergency medicine (EM residents should develop expertise and efficiency in geriatric care. Older adults represent over 25% of most emergency department (ED volumes. Yet many EM residencies lack curricula or assessment tools for competent geriatric care. Fully educating residents in emergency geriatric care can demand large amounts of limited conference time. The Geriatric Emergency Medicine Competencies (GEMC are high-impact geriatric topics developed to help residencies efficiently and effectively meet this training demand. This study examines if a 2-hour didactic intervention can significantly improve resident knowledge in 7 key domains as identified by the GEMC across multiple programs. Methods: A validated 29-question didactic test was administered at six EM residencies before and after a GEMC-focused lecture delivered in summer and fall of 2009. We analyzed scores as individual questions and in defined topic domains using a paired student t test. Results: A total of 301 exams were administered; 86 to PGY1, 88 to PGY2, 86 to PGY3, and 41 to PGY4 residents. The testing of didactic knowledge before and after the GEMC educational intervention had high internal reliability (87.9%. The intervention significantly improved scores in all 7 GEMC domains (improvement 13.5% to 34.6%; p<0.001. For all questions, the improvement was 23% (37.8% pre, 60.8% post; P<0.001 Graded increase in geriatric knowledge occurred by PGY year with the greatest improvement post intervention seen at the PGY 3 level (PGY1 19.1% versus PGY3 27.1%. Conclusion: A brief GEMC intervention had a significant impact on EM resident knowledge of critical geriatric topics. Lectures based on the GEMC can be a high-yield tool to enhance resident knowledge of

  19. Optimal network solution for proactive risk assessment and emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianxing

    Coupled with the continuous development in the field industrial operation management, the requirement for operation optimization in large scale manufacturing network has provoked more interest in the research field of engineering. Compared with the traditional way to take the remedial measure after the occurrence of the emergency event or abnormal situation, the current operation control calls for more proactive risk assessment to set up early warning system and comprehensive emergency response planning. Among all the industries, chemical industry and energy industry have higher opportunity to face with the abnormal and emergency situations due to their own industry characterization. Therefore the purpose of the study is to develop methodologies to give aid in emergency response planning and proactive risk assessment in the above two industries. The efficacy of the developed methodologies is demonstrated via two industrial real problems. The first case is to handle energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage under extreme conditions such as earthquake, tsunami, and hurricane, which may cause local areas to suffer from delayed rescues, widespread power outages, tremendous economic losses, and even public safety threats. In such urgent events of local energy shortage, agile energy dispatching through an effective energy transportation network, targeting the minimum energy recovery time, should be a top priority. The second case is a scheduling methodology to coordinate multiple chemical plants' start-ups in order to minimize regional air quality impacts under extreme meteorological conditions. The objective is to reschedule multi-plant start-up sequence to achieve the minimum sum of delay time compared to the expected start-up time of each plant. All these approaches can provide quantitative decision support for multiple stake holders, including government and environment agencies, chemical industry, energy industry and local

  20. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENTS OF SPATIAL INFLUENCES IN THE AMBOS NOGALES REGION OF THE US-MEXICAN BORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and...

  1. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  2. Development of an Assessment for Entrustable Professional Activity (EPA) 10: Emergent Patient Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Laura R; Leung, Cynthia G; Green, Brad; Lipps, Jonathan; Schaffernocker, Troy; Ledford, Cynthia; Davis, John; Way, David P; Kman, Nicholas E

    2017-01-01

    -fidelity simulation showed good potential for effective assessment of medical student entrustment of caring for the emergent patient. Preliminary evidence from this pilot project suggests content validity of most cases and associated checklist items. The assessments also demonstrated moderately strong faculty inter-rater reliability.

  3. Preliminary assessment of beam impact consequences on LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Carra, F; Dallocchio, A; Deboy, D; Mariani, N; Rossi, A; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2011-01-01

    The correct functioning of the LHC collimation system is crucial to attain the desired LHC luminosity performance. However, the requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, the robustness of the collimators plays an important role. An accident, which causes the proton beam to hit a collimator, might result in severe beam-induced damage and, in some cases, replacement of the collimator, with consequent downtime for the machine. In this paper, several case studies representing different realistic beam impact scenarios are shown. A preliminary analysis of the thermal response of tertiary collimators to beam impact is presented, from which the most critical cases can be identified. Such work will also help to give an initial insight on the operational constraints of the LHC by taking into account all relevant collimator damage limits.

  4. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.

  5. Can emergency physicians accurately and reliably assess acute vertigo in the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Simone; Nazerian, Peiman; Casati, Carlotta; Moroni, Federico; Risso, Michele; Ottaviani, Maddalena; Pecci, Rudi; Pepe, Giuseppe; Vannucchi, Paolo; Grifoni, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    To validate a clinical diagnostic tool, used by emergency physicians (EPs), to diagnose the central cause of patients presenting with vertigo, and to determine interrater reliability of this tool. A convenience sample of adult patients presenting to a single academic ED with isolated vertigo (i.e. vertigo without other neurological deficits) was prospectively evaluated with STANDING (SponTAneousNystagmus, Direction, head Impulse test, standiNG) by five trained EPs. The first step focused on the presence of spontaneous nystagmus, the second on the direction of nystagmus, the third on head impulse test and the fourth on gait. The local standard practice, senior audiologist evaluation corroborated by neuroimaging when deemed appropriate, was considered the reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity of STANDING were calculated. On the first 30 patients, inter-observer agreement among EPs was also assessed. Five EPs with limited experience in nystagmus assessment volunteered to participate in the present study enrolling 98 patients. Their average evaluation time was 9.9 ± 2.8 min (range 6-17). Central acute vertigo was suspected in 16 (16.3%) patients. There were 13 true positives, three false positives, 81 true negatives and one false negative, with a high sensitivity (92.9%, 95% CI 70-100%) and specificity (96.4%, 95% CI 93-38%) for central acute vertigo according to senior audiologist evaluation. The Cohen's kappas of the first, second, third and fourth steps of the STANDING were 0.86, 0.93, 0.73 and 0.78, respectively. The whole test showed a good inter-observer agreement (k = 0.76, 95% CI 0.45-1). In the hands of EPs, STANDING showed a good inter-observer agreement and accuracy validated against the local standard of care. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of

  7. A Needs Assessment for a Longitudinal Emergency Medicine Intern Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shappell, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A key task of emergency medicine (EM training programs is to develop a consistent knowledge of core content in recruits with heterogeneous training backgrounds. The traditional model for delivering core content is lecture-based weekly conference; however, a growing body of literature finds this format less effective and less appealing than alternatives. We sought to address this challenge by conducting a needs assessment for a longitudinal intern curriculum for millennial learners. We surveyed all residents from the six EM programs in the greater Chicago area regarding the concept, format, and scope of a longitudinal intern curriculum. We received 153 responses from the 300 residents surveyed (51% response rate. The majority of respondents (80%; 82% of interns agreed or strongly agreed that a dedicated intern curriculum would add value to residency education. The most positively rated teaching method was simulation sessions (91% positive responses, followed by dedicated weekly conference time (75% positive responses and dedicated asynchronous resources (71% positive responses. Less than half of respondents (47%; 26% of interns supported use of textbook readings in the curriculum. There is strong learner interest in a longitudinal intern curriculum. This needs assessment can serve to inform the development of a universal intern curriculum targeting the millennial generation. [West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(131-34.

  8. Preliminary assessment report for Kent National Guard Facility (Installation 53065), 24410 Military Road, Kent, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.; Rose, C.M.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard property in Kent, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment.

  9. Integrating quantitative and qualitative methodologies for the assessment of health care systems: emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanRooyen Michael J

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the complexity of health system reform in the post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings, attempts to restructure health services are fraught with pitfalls that are often unanticipated because of inadequate preliminary assessments. Our proposed Integrated Multimodal Assessment – combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies – may provide a more robust mechanism for identifying programmatic priorities and critical barriers for appropriate and sustainable health system interventions. The purpose of this study is to describe this novel multimodal assessment using emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia as a model. Methods Integrated quantitative and qualitative methodologies – system characterization and observation, focus group discussions, free-response questionnaires, and by-person factor analysis – were used to identify needs, problems, and potential barriers to the development of emergency medicine in Serbia. Participants included emergency and pre-hospital personnel from all emergency medical institutions in Belgrade. Results Demographic data indicate a loosely ordered network of part-time emergency departments supported by 24-hour pre-hospital services and an academic emergency center. Focus groups and questionnaires reveal significant impediments to delivery of care and suggest development priorities. By-person factor analysis subsequently divides respondents into distinctive attitudinal types, compares participant opinions, and identifies programmatic priorities. Conclusions By combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies, our Integrated Multimodal Assessment identified critical needs and barriers to emergency medicine development in Serbia and may serve as a model for future health system assessments in post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings.

  10. 44 CFR 206.33 - Preliminary damage assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requesting this support. (b) Damage assessment teams. Damage assessment teams will be composed of at least... possible. Other State and Federal agencies, and voluntary relief organizations may also be asked to... official will brief team members on damage criteria, the kind of information to be collected for...

  11. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  12. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A., E-mail: Marilyn.Brown@pubpolicy.gatech.ed [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources-discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint-provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas.

  13. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A. [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  14. Pain assessment by emergency nurses at triage in the emergency department: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuille, Marilène; Foerster, Maryline; Foucault, Eliane; Hugli, Olivier

    2017-08-09

    To investigate the assessment of pain intensity in the specific context of triage. Acute pain affects most patients admitted in emergency departments (ED) but pain relief in this setting remains insufficient. Evaluation of pain and its treatment at the time of patient triage expedites the administration of analgesia, but may be awkward at this time-pressured moment. The assessment of pain intensity by a validated pain scale is a critical initial step, and a patient's self-reporting is widely considered as the key to effective pain management. According to good practice guidelines, clinicians must accept a patient's statement, regardless of their own opinions. A qualitative methodology rooted in interactionist sociology and on the Grounded theory was used to provide an opportunity to uncover complex decision-making processes, such as those involved in assessing pain. A sociologist conducted semi-structured interviews during the 2013-2014 winter months with twelve nurses, trained in the use of an established protocol, focusing on the assessment of pain intensity. The interviews were recorded, fully transcribed and analyzed. The most frequently used pain scale was the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale. Discrepancies between self-assessment and evaluation by a nurse were common. To restore congruence between the two, nurses used various tactics, such as using different definitions of the high-end anchor of the scale, providing additional explanations about the scale, or using abnormal vital signs or the acceptance of morphine as a proof of the validity of severe pain ratings. Nurses cannot easily suspend their own judgment. Their tactics do not express a lack of professionalism, but are consistent with the logic of professional intervention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergency Response Damage Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandillon, Stephen; Yésou, Hervé; Schneiderhan, Tobias; de Boissezon, Hélène; de Fraipont, Paul

    2013-04-01

    During disasters rescue and relief organisations need quick access to reliable and accurate information to be better equipped to do their job. It is increasingly felt that satellites offer a unique near real time (NRT) tool to aid disaster management. A short introduction to the International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters', in operation since 2000 promoting worldwide cooperation among member space agencies, will be given as it is the foundation on which satellite-based, emergency response, damage assessment has been built. Other complementary mechanisms will also be discussed. The user access, triggering mechanism, an essential component for this user-driven service, will be highlighted with its 24/7 single access point. Then, a clear distinction will be made between data provision and geo-information delivery mechanisms to underline the user need for geo-information that is easily integrated into their working environments. Briefly, the path to assured emergency response product quality will be presented beginning with user requirements, expressed early-on, for emergency response value-adding services. Initiatives were then established, supported by national and European institutions, to develop the sector, with SERTIT and DLR being key players, providing support to decision makers in headquarters and relief teams in the field. To consistently meet the high quality levels demanded by users, rapid mapping has been transformed via workflow and quality control standardisation to improve both speed and quality. As such, SERTIT located in Alsace, France, and DLR/ZKI from Bavaria, Germany, join their knowledge in this presentation to report about recent standards as both have ISO certified their rapid mapping services based on experienced, well-trained, 24/7 on-call teams and established systems providing the first crisis analysis product in 6 hours after satellite data reception. The three main product types provided are then outlined: up-to-date pre

  16. Some Nigerian Anti-Tuberculosis Ethnomedicines: A Preliminary Efficacy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, Nneka N.; Nvau, John B.; Oladosu, Peters O.; Usman, Auwal M.; Ibrahim, Kolo; Boshoff, Helena I.; Dowd, Cynthia S.; Orisadipe, Abayomi T.; Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju; Adesomoju, Akinbo A.; Barry, Clifton E.; Okogun, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological significance Nigerian herbalists possess indigenous ethnomedicinal recipes for the management of tuberculosis and related ailments. Aim of the study To carry out a collaborative preliminary modern scientific evaluation of the efficacy of some Nigerian ethnomedicines used by traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) in the management of tuberculosis and related ailments Materials and methods Ethnomedicinal recipes (ETMs) were collected from TMPs from locations in various ecological zones of Nigeria under a collaborative understanding. The aqueous methanolic extracts of the ETMs were screened against Mycobacterium bovis, BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.) strain H37Rv using the broth microdilution method. Results Extracts of ETMs screened against BCG showed 69% activity against the organism. The activities varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 33μg /mL 64% of the extracts were active against M. tb. The activities of the extracts against M.tb. varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 128μg/mL. There was 77% agreement in results obtained using BCG or M. tb. as test organisms Conclusion The results show clear evidence for the efficacy of the majority of indigenous Nigerian herbal recipes in the ethnomedicinal management of tuberculosis and related ailments. BCG may be effectively used, to a great extent, as the organism for screening for potential anti-M. tb. agents. A set of prioritization criteria for the selection of plants for initial further studies for the purpose of antituberculsis drug discovery research is proposed. PMID:24911338

  17. Assessing Self Organization and Emergence in C2 Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    organization, and connectivity before emergent behaviour appears. Systems with emergent properties or emergent structures may appear to defy entropic ...Multi- agent System Design Paradigm ” (GI agent) 8. Holland, John, H., conclusion in “Emergence – From Chaos to Order”: 9. Kim, Jaegwon “Making

  18. Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zheng, E-mail: huangzhg@mails.tjmu.edu.cn

    2012-01-15

    The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

  19. Preliminary quantitative assessment of earthquake casualties and damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badal, J.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.

    2005-01-01

    of casualties within areas of different intensity is computed using an application developed in a geographic information system (GIS) environment, taking advantage of the possibilities of such a system for the treatment of space-distributed data. The casualty rate, defined as the number of killed people divided...... the local social wealth as a function of the gross domestic product of the country. This last step is performed on the basis of the relationship of the macroseismic intensity to the earthquake economic loss in percentage of the wealth. Such an approach to the human casualty and damage levels is carried out...... for sites near important cities located in a seismically active zone of Spain, thus contributing to an easier taking of decisions in emergency preparedness planning, contemporary earthquake engineering and seismic risk prevention....

  20. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  1. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 4. Vital Signs, Patient Assessment. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual, the fourth in a set of 14 modules, is designed to train emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Ohio. The module contains two sections covering the following course content: vital signs (temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure) and patient assessment at the scene of an emergency. Each section contains objectives,…

  2. Synthesis of N11-anchoring biotinylated artemisinin derivatives and their preliminary biological assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Unique endoperoxide moiety of artemisinin and its derivatives has been considered the functionality exhibiting highly potent antimalarial and anticancer activities.To investigate the mechanisms of their biological actions,development of suitable molecular probes including biotinylated derivatives is of extreme significance.The synthesis and preliminary biological assessment of four new biotinylated artemisinin derivatives have been reported in this work.

  3. Developing an Undergraduate Teaching Assistant Program in Communication: Values, Curriculum, and Preliminary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a case study of a Communication Undergraduate Teaching Assistant (UTA) program and reports a limited, preliminary assessment of the teaching effectiveness of 25 UTAs. Concludes by identifying various benefits and drawbacks of such programs and offers recommendations for departments interested in developing similar programs. (RS)

  4. Examining the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure: Four Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Chad E.; Kellum, Karen Kate; Wilson, Kelly G.; Luoma, Jason B.; Weinstein, Jonathan H.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a relatively new measure of implicit cognition that tests cognition as relational behavior instead of an associative activity and thus may provide a more specific measure of cognitive repertoires, including those for social biases, than better known implicit measures such as the Implicit…

  5. BIOCIDES (1) Preliminary environmental risk assessment of 93 biocides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; CSR

    1999-01-01

    A 1999 desk study assesses the environmental risks of 93 industrial or other non-agricultural pesticides. The risks for aquatic ecosystems are emphasised, and various data on use pattern, dosages, emissions, physicochemistry, environmental fate and ecotoxicity are listed. The biocides have not been

  6. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, appro

  7. Preliminary geothermal assessment surveys for the State of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.; Cox, M.E.; Lienert, B.R.; Kauahikaua, J.P.; Mattice, M.D.

    1980-09-01

    The Geothermal Resource Assessment Program of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics has conducted a series of geochemical and geophysical surveys in ten separate locations within the State of Hawaii in an effort to identify and assess potential geothermal areas throughout the state. The techniques applied include groundwater chemistry and temperatures, soil mercury surveys, ground radon emanometry, time-domain electromagnetic surveys and Schlumberger resistivity soundings. Although geochemical and geophysical anomalies were identified in nearly all the survey sites, those areas which show most promise, based on presently available data, for a geothermal resource are as follows: Puna, Kailua Kona, and Kawaihae on the island of Hawaii; Haiku-Paia and Olowalu-Ukumehame canyons on Maui; and Lualualei Valley on Oahu. Further surveys are planned for most of these areas in order to further define the nature of the thermal resource present.

  8. Preliminary Options Assessment of Versatile Irradiation Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramazan Sonat [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the work undertaken at INL from April 2016 to January 2017 and aimed at analyzing some options for designing and building a versatile test reactor; the scope of work was agreed upon with DOE-NE. Section 2 presents some results related to KNK II and PRISM Mod A. Section 3 presents some alternatives to the VCTR presented in [ ] as well as a neutronic parametric study to assess the minimum power requirement needed for a 235U metal fueled fast test reactor capable to generate a fast (>100 keV) flux of 4.0 x 1015 n /cm2-s at the test location. Section 4 presents some results regarding a fundamental characteristic of test reactors, namely displacement per atom (dpa) in test samples. Section 5 presents the INL assessment of the ANL fast test reactor design FASTER. Section 6 presents a summary.

  9. Malaysia’s government transformation programme: A preliminary assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Noore Alam Siddiquee

    2014-01-01

    While Malaysia has always seen major reform and modernisation programmes, the Government Transformation Programme (GTP) introduced by the current Prime Minister in 2009 has drawn much attention as a new model of public service reform. Touted as a major innovation in public service reform it is also claimed to have made impressive progress in areas where previous reforms have failed. This paper reviews the experience of the GTP as a reform model and assesses its impacts and policy significance...

  10. Preliminary technology utilization assessment of the robotic fruit harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an analysis whose purpose was to examine the history and progress of mechanical fruit harvesting, to determine the significance of a robotic fruit tree harvester and to assess the available market for such a product are summarized. Background information that can be used in determining the benefit of a proof of principle demonstration is provided. Such a demonstration could be a major step toward the transfer of this NASA technology.

  11. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  12. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed satellite power system (SPS) is summarized here. In this system, satellites would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwaves would be converted to electricity. The assessment considers microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and disruption of communications and other electromagnetic systems.

  13. Preliminary assessment of factors influencing riverine fish communities in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (MDCR), Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP), and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game (MDFG), conducted a preliminary investigation of fish communities in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this investigation was to determine relations between fish-community characteristics and anthropogenic alteration, including flow alteration and impervious cover, relative to the effect of physical basin and land-cover (environmental) characteristics. Fish data were obtained for 756 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select a set of fish metrics responsive to flow alteration. Fish metrics tested include two fish-community metrics (fluvial-fish relative abundance and fluvial-fish species richness), and five indicator species metrics (relative abundance of brook trout, blacknose dace, fallfish, white sucker, and redfin pickerel). Streamflows were simulated for each fish-sampling site using the Sustainable Yield Estimator application (SYE). Daily streamflows and the SYE water-use database were used to determine a set of indicators of flow alteration, including percent alteration of August median flow, water-use intensity, and withdrawal and return-flow fraction. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine a set of environmental characteristics, including elevation, basin slope, percent sand and gravel, percent wetland, and percent open water, and a set of anthropogenic-alteration variables, including impervious cover and dam density. Two analytical techniques, quantile regression and generalized linear modeling, were applied to determine the association between fish-response variables and the selected environmental and

  14. A Needs Assessment for a Longitudinal Emergency Medicine Intern Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappell, Eric; Ahn, James

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A key task of emergency medicine (EM) training programs is to develop a consistent knowledge of core content in recruits with heterogeneous training backgrounds. The traditional model for delivering core content is lecture-based weekly conference; however, a growing body of literature finds this format less effective and less appealing than alternatives. We sought to address this challenge by conducting a needs assessment for a longitudinal intern curriculum for millennial learners. Methods We surveyed all residents from the six EM programs in the greater Chicago area regarding the concept, format, and scope of a longitudinal intern curriculum. Results We received 153 responses from the 300 residents surveyed (51% response rate). The majority of respondents (80%; 82% of interns) agreed or strongly agreed that a dedicated intern curriculum would add value to residency education. The most positively rated teaching method was simulation sessions (91% positive responses), followed by dedicated weekly conference time (75% positive responses) and dedicated asynchronous resources (71% positive responses). Less than half of respondents (47%; 26% of interns) supported use of textbook readings in the curriculum. Conclusion There is strong learner interest in a longitudinal intern curriculum. This needs assessment can serve to inform the development of a universal intern curriculum targeting the millennial generation. PMID:28116005

  15. A Needs Assessment for a Longitudinal Emergency Medicine Intern Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappell, Eric; Ahn, James

    2017-01-01

    A key task of emergency medicine (EM) training programs is to develop a consistent knowledge of core content in recruits with heterogeneous training backgrounds. The traditional model for delivering core content is lecture-based weekly conference; however, a growing body of literature finds this format less effective and less appealing than alternatives. We sought to address this challenge by conducting a needs assessment for a longitudinal intern curriculum for millennial learners. We surveyed all residents from the six EM programs in the greater Chicago area regarding the concept, format, and scope of a longitudinal intern curriculum. We received 153 responses from the 300 residents surveyed (51% response rate). The majority of respondents (80%; 82% of interns) agreed or strongly agreed that a dedicated intern curriculum would add value to residency education. The most positively rated teaching method was simulation sessions (91% positive responses), followed by dedicated weekly conference time (75% positive responses) and dedicated asynchronous resources (71% positive responses). Less than half of respondents (47%; 26% of interns) supported use of textbook readings in the curriculum. There is strong learner interest in a longitudinal intern curriculum. This needs assessment can serve to inform the development of a universal intern curriculum targeting the millennial generation.

  16. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by Sandia/CA Fire Marshal, Martin Gresho. This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2004 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. On October 1, 2007, LLNL contracted with the Alameda County Fire Department to provide emergency response services. The level of service called for in that contract is the same level of service as was provided by the LLNL Fire Department prior to that date. This Compliance Assessment will evaluate fire department services beginning October 1, 2008 as provided by the Alameda County Fire Department.

  18. The preliminary experience in the emergency department of a newly opened penitentiary institution hospital in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Koc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency cases become a widespread problem in prisons across Turkey. The opening of a new prison hospital in January 2012 within the catchment of Silivri Penitentiary Institution gave a unique opportunity to treat the inmates quickly. Aims: The study was to conduct an extensive review for documentation of prisoners′ healthcare problems leading to emergency admission following the first year after the opening of Penitentiary Institution Hospital and point to decrease redundant hospital transfers of this individual cohort. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out where 12,325 visits to the Silivri Penitentiary Institution Hospital for emergency visits from the period of 1 st January 2012 to the 31 st December 2012 were identified from electronic medical records. After obtaining consent from the local IRB, data including details of the type, cause and nature of the complaints of the illnesses were processed. Results: In the 12-month period, there were 12,325 visits to the emergency department, of which 4328 for surgical conditions (35.1%, 2684 for medical disorders (21.8%, 1867 for sports injuries (15.2%, 1327 for Ear Nose Throat (ENT problems (10.8%, 827 for psychiatric disorders (6.70%, 396 for violence injury (3.2%, 169 for self harm (1.4%, and 727 for miscellaneous (5.8%. The most common cause of emergency visits was sports injuries, followed by non-specific abdominal pain and ENT problems. Eighteen prisoners re-attended 243 times, ranging from 8 visits to a maximum of 56 visits. Conclusion: Inmates in prison have a wide range of complaints, and sometimes these complaints do not suggest an illness. Prison population exhibited substantially higher prevalence rates of diseases than the civilian population. We conclude that this new healthcare system in prisons will prevent redundant hospital transfers and guarantee detainees have access to the same health care that is offered to non-detained population.

  19. Preliminary statistical assessment towards characterization of biobotic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Tahmid; Meng Yang; Lobaton, Edgar; Bozkurt, Alper

    2016-08-01

    Biobotic research involving neurostimulation of instrumented insects to control their locomotion is finding potential as an alternative solution towards development of centimeter-scale distributed swarm robotics. To improve the reliability of biobotic agents, their control mechanism needs to be precisely characterized. To achieve this goal, this paper presents our initial efforts for statistical assessment of the angular response of roach biobots to the applied bioelectrical stimulus. Subsequent findings can help to understand the effect of each stimulation parameter individually or collectively and eventually reach reliable and consistent biobotic control suitable for real life scenarios.

  20. Preliminary assessment of potential CDM early start projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.; Lehman, B.; Schumacher, K.; van Vliet, O.; Moreira, J.R.

    2000-11-01

    The Brazil/US Aspen Global Forum on Climate Change Policies and Programs has facilitated a dialogue between key Brazil and US public and private sector leaders on the subject of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). With support from the US government, a cooperative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo conducted an assessment of a number of projects put forth by Brazilian sponsors. Initially, we gathered information and conducted a screening assessment for ten projects in the energy sector and six projects in the forestry sector. Some of the projects appeared to offer greater potential to be attractive for CDM, or had better information available. We then conducted a more detailed assessment of 12 of these projects, and two other projects that were submitted after the initial screening. An important goal was to assess the potential impact of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) on the financial performance of projects. With the exception of the two forestry-based fuel displacement projects, the impact of CERs on the internal rate of return (IRR) is fairly small. This is true for both the projects that displace grid electricity and those that displace local (diesel-based) electricity production. The relative effect of CERs is greater for projects whose IRR without CERs is low. CERs have a substantial effect on the IRR of the two short-rotation forestry energy substitution projects. One reason is that the biofuel displaces coke and oil, both of which are carbon-intensive. Another factor is that the product of these projects (charcoal and woodfuel, respectively) is relatively low value, so the revenue from carbon credits has a strong relative impact. CERs also have a substantial effect on the NPV of the carbon sequestration projects. Financial and other barriers pose a challenge for implementation of most of the projects. In most cases, the sponsor lacks sufficient capital, and loans are available only at high interest

  1. Emergency CT brain: preliminary interpretation with a tablet device: image quality and diagnostic performance of the Apple iPad.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Tablet devices have recently been used in radiological image interpretation because they have a display resolution comparable to desktop LCD monitors. We identified a need to examine tablet display performance prior to their use in preliminary interpretation of radiological images. We compared the spatial and contrast resolution of a commercially available tablet display with a diagnostic grade 2 megapixel monochrome LCD using a contrast detail phantom. We also recorded reporting discrepancies, using the ACR RADPEER system, between preliminary interpretation of 100 emergency CT brain examinations on the tablet display and formal review on a diagnostic LCD. The iPad display performed inferiorly to the diagnostic monochrome display without the ability to zoom. When the software zoom function was enabled on the tablet device, comparable contrast detail phantom scores of 163 vs 165 points were achieved. No reporting discrepancies were encountered during the interpretation of 43 normal examinations and five cases of acute intracranial hemorrhage. There were seven RADPEER2 (understandable) misses when using the iPad display and 12 with the diagnostic LCD. Use of software zoom in the tablet device improved its contrast detail phantom score. The tablet allowed satisfactory identification of acute CT brain findings, but additional research will be required to examine the cause of "understandable" reporting discrepancies that occur when using tablet devices.

  2. Preliminary assessment of Eflows on Lucanian Rivers through IHA implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Michele; Martino, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    According to the WFD, the ecological flow (Eflow) is assumed to be the hydrological regime consistent with the achievement of the environmental objectives of "good quality status" in natural surface water bodies. As well known, the hydrological regime of natural flow plays a primary and crucial role influencing the physical conditions of habitats, which in turn determines the biotic composition and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, the simple assumption to supply a minimum instream during dry periods is not enough anymore in order to protect the river environment. The recent hydro-ecological knowledge provides that all flow components must be included as operational targets for water quantitative management from base flows (including low flows) to high and flood regimes in terms of magnitude, frequency, duration, timing and rate of change. Several conceptual and numerical codes have been developed and applied on different case studies in order to define common tools to be implemented for the Eflow assessment. In such a frame, the work deals with the application of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration methodology (IHA by TNC) to main Lucanian rivers to assess the ecological flow to be assumed in each monitoring cross section. The analyses have been carried on monthly discharge data derived through a simple rainfall-runoff applied at the basin scale and based on the precipitation measurements obtained by the regional rainfall gauge stations.

  3. 77 FR 43606 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Operations Manual (9327.2-PR) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR). The Federal Emergency Management Agency..., 2011. DATES: This manual is effective July 18, 2012. ADDRESSES: This final manual is available...

  4. Quadrennial review of a paediatric emergency assessment unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Penny; Birch, Simon; Cogman, Genevieve; Glasper, Edward A; Wiltshire, Maureen

    The primary aim of this article is to report on one aspect of a quadrennial study designed to explore the appropriateness and impact of the development of a paediatric emergency assessment unit (PEAU) as a response to increases in paediatric emergencies presenting to a south-western regional child health unit. In particular, this article will present the findings of a prospective audit of admissions to the PEAU over a 1-month period during the latter part of 2002. The primary method of data collection utilized a structured survey instrument developed using a design and automatic data computer software package, completed by the nursing staff. Anonymized descriptive data were obtained from 223 children admitted to the PEAU during one calendar moth and authorized by the appropriate clinical directorate audit committee as part of its ongoing commitment to the full implementation of clinical governance. The data presented primarily relate to children admitted during the official opening times of the PEAU, and those presenting out of hours. The data analysis demonstrates a reduction in the number of children staying overnight in hospital since the opening of the PEAU, with the majority of children being referred by their own family doctor. Only one child in the sample was readmitted to the PEAU within 24 hours, and two within 24 hours of discharge as inpatients. Although thought to be pertinent, only one child admitted after official closing of the PEAU and out of hours was described as being admitted for social reasons. The International Classification of Diagnosis (ICD) 10 (World Health Organization (WHO), 1994) classifications of the children admitted to the PEAU reflect those found in other similar studies. Overall, the results of this investigation demonstrate that a PEAU can offer an efficient service to GPs, families and others as a route of referral, thus mitigating unnecessary overnight stays for individual children.

  5. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  6. A preliminary assessment of peat degradation in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Anshari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of tropical peats is a global concern due to large Carbon emission and loss of biodiversity. The degradation of tropical peats usually starts when the government clears closed peat forests into open and drained peatlands for agricultural uses. Tropical peats have high values of Water Contents (WC, Organic Matters (OM and Total Organic Carbon (TOC, and low values of Total Nitrogen (TN and Total Sulphur (TS. Dry Bulk Density (DBD is commonly less than 0.1 g cm−3. Decline of concentration values of OM (<90% and TOC (<40% indicate peat degradation. In disturbed peats, TN concentration tends to decrease and the concentration of TS slightly increases. Changes in OM, TOC, TN and TS are potentially important indicators for assessing peat degradation in the tropics.

  7. Personality assessment and feedback (PAF): strategies and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats; Pedersen, Mads Kjær

    2008-01-01

    anxiety or depression, drug and alcohol dependence, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and current level of functioning. The axis II disorder includes a semi-structured interview for personality disorders. Outcomes include global functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), substance use......, and antisocial personality disorder is particularly common. However, clinical strategies must vary strongly across disorders. Objectives: To test the clinical effectiveness of a full personality disorder assessment and individual feedback to patient and caseworker, against screening for axis I disorders alone......Background: Co-morbid personality disorders are common in substance dependent patients, and personality disorders are associated with worse clinical outcomes, worse retention and compliance, and alliance problems. The whole range of personality disorders is present in substance dependent patients...

  8. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  9. Preliminary assessment of soil erosion impact during forest restoration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Sheng; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan has a fragile geology and steep terrain. The 921 earthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Morakot, and the exploitation and use of the woodland by local residents have severely damaged the landscape and posed more severe challenges to the montane ecosystem. A land conservation project has been implemented by the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University which reclaimed approximately 1,500 hectares of leased woodland from 2008 to 2010, primarily used to grow bamboo, tea trees, betel nut, fruit, and vegetable and about 1,298 hectares have been reforested. The process of forest restoration involves clear cutting, soil preparation and a six-year weeding and tending period which may affect the amount of soil erosion dramatically. This study tried to assess the impact of forest restoration from the perspective of soil erosion through leased-land recovery periods and would like to benefit the practical implementation of reforestation in the future. A new plantation reforested in the early 2013 and a nearby 29-year-old mature forest were chosen as experimental and comparison sites. A self-designed weir was set up in a small watershed of each site for the runoff and sediment yield observation. According to the observed results from May to August 2013, a raining season in Taiwan, the runoff and erosion would not as high as we expected, because the in-situ soil texture of both sites is sandy loam to sandy with high percentage of coarse fragment which increased the infiltration. There were around 200 kg to 250 kg of wet sand/soil yielded in mature forest during the hit of Typhoon Soulik while the rest of the time only suspended material be yielded at both sites. To further investigate the influence of the six-year weeding and tending period, long term observations are needed for a more completed assessment of soil erosion impact.

  10. Preliminary Assessment of the Loss of Flow Accident for PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Andong; Choi, Yong Won; Bae, Moohoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    TRACE code have being considered as a candidate tool for SFR audit calculation for licensing review since 2012. On the basis of modeling and precalculation experience for the Demonstration Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (DSFR-600), TRACE code model for PGSFR was developed this year. In this paper, one of representing Design Base Event (DBE), Loss of Flow (LOF) accident was pre-calculated and Locked Rotor (LR) case was compared with LOF case since it could be a possible limiting case for LOF representing DBE. Sensitivity calculation for the LR case was implemented for identifying major parameters for the scenario. For the preparation of the review of licensing application for PGSFR, TRACE model for the PGSFR was developed and the loss of flow accident was precalculated. The locked pump rotor case was also calculated as a possible bounding case for the loss of flow scenario. Pre-calculation showed that the locked rotor case was similar or worst case to the loss of flow accident. Therefore, the locked rotor case should take into account in design base accident assessment of PGSFR. Sensitivity calculations for the rocked rotor case also studied for identification of unfixed design parameters influencing to estimation of inner surface temperature. Sensitivity result showed that the first temperature peak was largely influenced by reactor trip delay and second peak mostly influenced by pump coast down characteristic.

  11. Malaysia’s government transformation programme: A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noore Alam Siddiquee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While Malaysia has always seen major reform and modernisation programmes, the Government Transformation Programme (GTP introduced by the current Prime Minister in 2009 has drawn much attention as a new model of public service reform. Touted as a major innovation in public service reform it is also claimed to have made impressive progress in areas where previous reforms have failed. This paper reviews the experience of the GTP as a reform model and assesses its impacts and policy significance. Drawing on the findings of in-depth interviews and review of available literature the paper argues that while the GTP is unique in many respects and has already made a promising start, it is not without limitations and controversies. The paper highlights some of the accomplishments of the GTP as well as prevailing criticisms and concerns surrounding it. The paper also identifies the key factors that explain the early success of the GTP and comments on major lessons and policy implications that could be of value to other developing countries with similar circumstances.

  12. A Preliminary Assessment of HTST Processing on Donkey Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Giribaldi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing attention from consumers on non-bovine milk types, and to the increase in the number of small dairy donkey farms in Italy, farmers require more advanced and reliable processing devices, in order to guarantee a safe product of high quality. To this aim, a new small-scale High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST pasteurizer (72 °C for 15 s, prototyped by the authors, was tested on donkey milk. The efficacy of the HTST device was tested on raw donkey milk microflora by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus cereus. The biochemical quality was assessed by determining the protein profile by monodimensional electrophoresis and by measuring lysozyme activity. The HTST apparatus was able to reduce the total bacteria count, and to completely eradicate Enterobacteriaceae. Bacillus cereus, when present, was decreased with low efficiency. Changes in the protein profile were observed in milk pasteurized in accordance with both processes, although HTST seemed to limit casein degradation. Lysozyme activity was not substantially affected in comparison to raw donkey milk. In conclusion, a tailored small-volume HTST device could be safely applied to pasteurize donkey milk in on-farm pasteurization processes on small dairy donkey farms.

  13. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  14. Preliminary tsunami hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.

  15. A Preliminary Assessment of Peat Degradation in West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshari, G. Z.

    2010-12-01

    Degradation of tropical peats is a global concern due to large Carbon emission and loss of biodiversity. The degradation of tropical peats usually starts when the government clears closed peat forests into open and drained peatlands for agricultural uses. The purpose of this paper is to assess the change of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Nitrogen (TN) from various peatland uses, and to analyze major factors that direct peat degradation. Data were collected from undrained peat forest, drained and logged peat forest, drained peats from oil palm plantations at different ages (< 5 yrs; 5-10 yrs; and 15-20 yrs), and drained peat for community agriculture. I analyzed a total of 331 subsamples for TOC and TN with elemental analyzer. I classified these data based on peat occurrences (i.e. coastal and inland peats), and peat layers (i.e. acrotelm and catotelm). I used SPSS version 17.0 in data analyses in order to compare means of TOC, TN, and atomic ratio between TOC and TN (Atomic C/N ratio). Results of analysis show that values of TOC are insignificantly different, and values of TN and Atomic C/N ratio are significantly different between coastal and inland peats, and between acrotelm and catotelm. Between land use groups, TOC values have smaller variability than TN values, which shows an increasing trend in drained peats. Hence, Atomic C/N ratio values are significantly lower in drained than undrained peats, comparing between 28.6 and 68.6, respectively. This study presently reckons that drainage is a major factor that enhances the rate of peat decomposition.

  16. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Denese C.

    2016-01-01

    Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma). Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation. PMID:28070448

  17. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Jason P; Marks, Denese C; Sheffield, William P

    2016-01-01

    Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma). Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation.

  18. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Acker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma. Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation.

  19. Diagnostic Emergency Ultrasound: Assessment Techniques In The Pediatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Joshua; Nelson, Bret P

    2016-01-01

    Emergency ultrasound is performed at the point of care to answer focused clinical questions in a rapid manner. Over the last 20 years, the use of this technique has grown rapidly, and it has become a core requirement in many emergency medicine residencies and in some pediatric emergency medicine fellowships. The use of emergency ultrasound in the pediatric setting is increasing due to the lack of ionizing radiation with these studies, as compared to computed tomography. Utilizing diagnostic ultrasound in the emergency department can allow clinicians to arrive at a diagnosis at the bedside rather than sending the patient out of the department for another study. This issue focuses on common indications for diagnostic ultrasound, as found in the pediatric literature or extrapolated from adult literature where pediatric evidence is scarce. Limitations, current trends, controversies, and future directions of diagnostic ultrasound in the emergency department are also discussed.

  20. Essentials for emergency care: Lessons from an inventory assessment of an emergency centre in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Marfo Osei

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Beyond pointing out specific material resource deficiencies at the Surgical Medical Emergency (SME centre, our inventory assessment indicated a need to develop better implementation strategies for infection control policies, to collaborate with other departments on coordination of patient care, and to set a research agenda to develop emergency and acute care protocols that are both effective and sustainable in our setting. Equipment and supplies are essential elements of emergency preparedness that must be both available and ‘ready-to-hand’. Consequently, key factors in determining readiness to provide quality emergency care include supply-chain, healthcare financing, functionality of systems, and a coordinated institutional vision. Lessons learnt may be useful for others facing similar challenges to emergency medicine development.

  1. Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  2. Fukushima. A preliminary assessment in July 2011; Fukushima. Eine vorlaeufige Bilanz im Juli 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Rolf

    2011-07-01

    Four months after the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi a preliminary assessment of the accident sequence vents is performed based on the available incomplete information. The following topics are discussed: initiating events and accident sequences, radioactive materials release and dispersion, fundamentals on radiation exposure following the accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi, contamination of food stuff, fission product release into the Pacific Ocean, source tern and external radiation exposure in the first year, preliminary radiological assessment, radiological situation throughout the different accident phases (radioactive cloud and fallout, late phase), estimation of radiation exposure in the first year due to decay of short-lived radionuclides based on the state end of July 2011, comparison of the reactor accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi.

  3. Brief report: Assessing youth well-being in global emergency settings: Early results from the Emergency Developmental Assets Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Peter C; Roehlkepartain, Eugene C; Wallace, Teresa; Inselman, Ashley; Stephenson, Paul; Rodriguez, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The 13-item Emergency Developmental Assets Profile measures the well-being of children and youth in emergency settings such as refugee camps and armed conflict zones, assessing whether young people are experiencing adequate positive relationships and opportunities, and developing positive values, skills, and self-perceptions, despite being in crisis circumstances. The instrument was found to have acceptable and nearly identical internal consistency reliability in 22 administrations in non-emergency samples in 15 countries (.75), and in 4 samples of youth ages 10-18 (n = 1550) in the emergency settings (war refugees and typhoon victims, .74) that are the measure's focus, and evidence of convergent validity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed acceptable model fit among those youth in emergency settings. Measures of model fit showed that the Em-DAP has configural and metric invariance across all emergency contexts and scalar invariance across some. The Em-DAP is a promising brief cross-cultural tool for assessing the developmental quality of life as reported by samples of youth in a current humanitarian crisis situation. The results can help to inform international relief program decisions about services and activities to be provided for children, youth, and families in emergency settings.

  4. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field.

  5. A preliminary survey of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch and trade in China: an emerging crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Wang, Y; Norman, B

    2012-04-01

    This study gives an account of spatial and temporal distribution of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch events in China on the basis of historical records and information obtained from interviews with fishing industry stakeholders. A total of 186 R. typus were recorded with key harvest areas identified as in Hainan and Zhejiang, and the peak catching seasons were May to June and September to October. Aspects of the R. typus trade are discussed, including products, markets and the process. The results suggest that R. typus is increasingly becoming a targeted resource in China as a consequence of fierce competition for large shark fins and an emerging local market for consumption of all body parts. Current obstacles and potential measures for sustainable exploitation and trade of R. typus are discussed.

  6. The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-05-15

    A combination of technical complexity, tight coupling, speed, and human fallibility contribute to the unexpected failure of large-scale energy technologies. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the social and economic costs of major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It documents 279 incidents that have been responsible for $41 billion in property damage and 182,156 deaths. Such disasters highlight an often-ignored negative externality to energy production and use, and emphasize the need for further research. (author)

  7. Paving the Way for Warehouse Centralization in Healthcare: A Preliminary Assessment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grimaldi, Sabrina; Cagliano, Anna Corinna; Rafele, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Centralized logistics management is currently one interesting option for healthcare systems facing an increasing need to improve responsiveness and service quality while reducing costs. This work focuses on one aspect of centralized logistics, namely warehouse centralization and proposes a preliminary approach to assess material management in healthcare institutions as a first step towards decisions about the implementation of such a strategy. A list of variables and relationships between the...

  8. A Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Garel M., J.-M. Cugnasse, A. Loison, J.-M. Gaillard, C. Vuiton, and D.Maillard. 2005. Monitoring the abundance of mouflon in south France. European ...of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  9. Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation: Tooele Army Depot, Utah. Volume 2. South Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-29

    Classification) Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation, Toefle Army Depot., Utah; Volume ’fl-South Area Q2 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Andris Lapins CPG, Li 3a...Regulations CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act CES Civil Engineering Squadron CGW Chemistry Groundwater File CRL...area around s rEAD . 2-12 Low humidity is a characteristic of the valley climate and visibility is generally good. During winter months, however, storm

  10. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G. W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...

  11. Assessing Internet addiction using the parsimonious Internet addiction components model - a preliminary study [forthcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Shorter, GW; Van Rooij, AJ; Griffiths, MD; Schoenmakers, T.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (2005), i...

  12. Preliminary Safeguards Assessment for the Pebble-Bed Fluoride High-Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR) Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disser, Jay; Arthur, Edward; Lambert, Janine

    2016-09-01

    This report examines a preliminary design for a pebble bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (PB-FHR) concept, assessing it from an international safeguards perspective. Safeguards features are defined, in a preliminary fashion, and suggestions are made for addressing further nuclear materials accountancy needs.

  13. Assessing and Unlocking the Value of Emerging Markets Sustainability Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Lubin, David; Esty, Dan; Lauterbach, Sandra; Miller, Deborah; Raza, Yamama; Masland, John

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the rapid expansion of sustainability indices in emerging markets and the potential of these indices to support broader sustainability efforts. It looks at 17 emerging market sustainability indices, comparing and contrasting business models, sustainability objectives, and construction methodologies, and identifying obstacles in establishing a viable business model. Spe...

  14. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz 2) space reactor program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A. C.

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 2 space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz 2 activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as the following: neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz 2 system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  15. Preliminary market assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.T.; Fey, C.L.; Grogan, P.J.; Klein, N.P.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR) system market potential is presented with emphasis on the factors influencing industrial acceptability. Preliminary market potential areas are identified based on the availability of waste heat. Trends in energy use are examined to see the effect they might have on these market potential areas in the future. Focus groups interviews are used to explore important factors in the industrial decision-making process. These important factors are explored quantitatively in a survey of industrial plant engineers. The survey deals with the waste-heat boiler configuration of the FBWHR system. Results indicate market acceptance of the fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler could be quite low.

  16. A preliminary total-system performance assessment for the potential repository site Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Dockerey, H.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    We present a preliminary performance assessment of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A., as a potential site for a radioactive-waste repository. Models and results are discussed for four basic categories of processes and events: groundwater flow and aqueous transport, gas flow and gaseous transport, human intrusion, and basaltic volcanism. Calculated releases of radioactivity to the accessible environment are compared with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requirements. The preliminary results show releases from human intrusion and volcanisms to fall well below the regulatory limits, though not all aspects of those categories have yet been considered. Calculated releases for nominal gaseous transport (of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}) are closest to the limits, indicating that models and data relating to gaseous releases may need to receive higher priority. (author) 15 figs., 33 refs.

  17. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Safety and efficiency of emergency department assessment of chest discomfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Jim; Innes, Grant; McKnight, Douglas; Boychuk, Barb; Grafstein, Eric; Thompson, Christopher R.; Rosenberg, Frances; Anis, Aslam H.; Gin, Ken; Tilley, Jessica; Wong, Hubert; Singer, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Background Most Canadian emergency departments use an unstructured, individualized approach to patients with chest pain, without data to support the safety and efficiency of this practice. We sought to determine the proportions of patients with chest discomfort in emergency departments who either had acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and were inappropriately discharged from the emergency department or did not have ACS and were held for investigation. Methods Consecutive consenting patients aged 25 years or older presenting with chest discomfort to 2 urban tertiary care emergency departments between June 2000 and April 2001 were prospectively enrolled unless they had a terminal illness, an obvious traumatic cause, a radiographically identifiable cause, severe communication problems or no fixed address in British Columbia or they would not be available for follow-up by telephone. At 30 days we assigned predefined explicit outcome diagnoses: definite ACS (acute myocardial infarction [AMI] or definite unstable angina) or no ACS. Results Of 1819 patients, 241 (13.2%) were assigned a 30-day diagnosis of AMI and 157 (8.6%), definite unstable angina. Of these 398 patients, 21 (5.3%) were discharged from the emergency department without a diagnosis of ACS and without plans for further investigation. The clinical sensitivity for detecting ACS was 94.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 92.5%– 96.9%) and the specificity 73.8% (95% CI 71.5%– 76.0%). Of the patients without ACS or an adverse event, 71.1% were admitted to hospital or held in the emergency department for more than 3 hours. Interpretation The current individualized approach to evaluation and disposition of patients with chest discomfort in 2 Canadian tertiary care emergency departments misses 5.3% of cases of ACS while consuming considerable health care resources for patients without coronary disease. Opportunities exist to improve both safety and efficiency. PMID:15184334

  19. Discharge from an emergency department observation unit and a surgical assessment unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Backer Mogensen, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain at discharge from an emergency department observation unit compared with discharge from a surgical assessment unit.......To investigate the experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain at discharge from an emergency department observation unit compared with discharge from a surgical assessment unit....

  20. Assessment and Evaluation of National Human Resource Development System Competitiveness in Emerging Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, HunSeok; Seo, DongIn; Kim, JuSeuk; Yoo, SangOk; Seong, HeeChang

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed and evaluated the competitiveness of national human resource development (NHRD) systems in emerging countries with potential for growth. The literature on emerging countries and NHRD systems was reviewed. The study developed a model mechanism with forty-one indices and nine sub-components for the NHRD system assessment in…

  1. Assessment and Evaluation of National Human Resource Development System Competitiveness in Emerging Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, HunSeok; Seo, DongIn; Kim, JuSeuk; Yoo, SangOk; Seong, HeeChang

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed and evaluated the competitiveness of national human resource development (NHRD) systems in emerging countries with potential for growth. The literature on emerging countries and NHRD systems was reviewed. The study developed a model mechanism with forty-one indices and nine sub-components for the NHRD system assessment in…

  2. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, K.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Bolton, P.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, R.K. [RKR, Inc. (United States)

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center.

  3. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Emergency Management Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Emergency Management Portal System collects cleanup site data, and personnel readiness data. Learn how this data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies.

  4. EMERGENCY FORECASTING FOR INVESTIGATED OBJECT AND ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Pilinevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of factors inducing an occurrence and development of technogenic emergencies. Zones of object destruction have been determined on a certain example. The object destruction is a result of the impulse wave occurred during an explosion of one propane tank.

  5. Patients’ vs. Physicians’ Assessments of Emergencies: The Prudent Layperson Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langdorf, Mark I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare perception of the need for emergency care by emergency department (ED patients vs. emergency physicians (EPs. Methods: Mailed survey to EPs and a convenience sample of ED patients. Survey rated urgency of acute sore throat, ankle injury, abdominal pain, and hemiparesis, as well as the best definition of “emergency.” Responses were compared with chi-square (p < .05. Results: 119/140 (85% of EPs and 1453 ED patients responded. EPs were more likely to judge acute abdominal pain (79.8% vs. 43.4%, p < 0.001, odds ratio (OR 5.16, 95% confidence interval (CI 3.19-8.40 and hemiparesis (100% vs. 82.6%, p < 0.001, OR 24.9, 95% CI 3.75-94.4 as an emergency. Similar proportions of ED patients and EPs considered sore throat (12.2% vs. 7.6%, p = 0.18, OR 0.59, CI 0.27-1.23 and ankle injury (46.9% vs. 38.6%, p = 0.10, OR 0.71, CI 0.48-1.06 an emergency. EPs (35% and ED patients (40% agreed to a similar degree with the “prudent layperson” definition, “a condition that may result in death, permanent disability, or severe pain.” (p = .36, OR 1.22, CI 0.81-1.84. EPs were more likely to add, “the condition prevented work,” (27% vs. 16%, p = 0.003, OR 0.51, CI 0.33-0.81. Patients more often added, “occurred outside business hours” (15% vs. 4%, p = 0.002, OR 4.0, CI = 1.5-11.3. Conclusion: For serious complaints, ED patients’ thresholds for seeking care are higher than judged appropriate by EPs. Stroke is not uniformly recognized as an emergency. Absent consensus for the “correct” threshold, the prudent layperson standard is appropriate.

  6. Impaired motor unit control in paretic muscle post stroke assessed using surface electromyography: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K; Li, Xiaoyan; Rymer, William Zev; Suresh, Nina L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the possible contribution of disordered control of motor unit (MU) recruitment and firing patterns in muscle weakness post-stroke. A novel surface EMG (sEMG) recording and decomposition system was used to record sEMG signals and extract single MU activities from the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) of two hemiparetic stroke survivors. To characterize MU reorganization, an estimate of the motor unit action potential (MUAP) amplitude was derived using spike triggered averaging of the sEMG signal. The MUs suitable for further analysis were selected using a set of statistical tests that assessed the variability of the morphological characteristics of the MUAPs. Our preliminary results suggest a disrupted orderly recruitment based on MUAP size, a compressed recruitment range, and reduced firing rates evident in the paretic muscle compared with the contralateral muscle of one subject with moderate impairment. In contrast, the MU organization was largely similar bilaterally for the subject with minor impairment. The preliminary results suggest that MU organizational changes with respect to recruitment and rate modulation can contribute to muscle weakness post-stroke. The contrasting results of the two subjects indicate that the degree of MU reorganization may be associated with the degree of the functional impairment, which reveals the differential diagnostic capability of the sEMG decomposition system.

  7. Assessing emergency planning zone for new nuclear power plant considering risk of extreme external events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzbutas, Robertas

    2015-04-01

    In general, the Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) are defined as well as plant site and arrangement structures are designed to minimize the potential for natural and manmade hazards external to the plant from affecting the plant safety related functions, which can affect nearby population and environment. This may include consideration of extreme winds, fires, flooding, aircraft crash, seismic activity, etc. Thus the design basis for plant and site is deeply related to the effects of any postulated external events and the limitation of the plant capability to cope with accidents i.e. perform safety functions. It has been observed that the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methodologies to deal with EPZ and extreme external events have not reached the same level of maturity as for severe internal events. The design basis for any plant and site is deeply related to the effects of any postulated external events and the limitation of the plant capability to cope with accidents i.e. perform safety functions. As a prime example of an advanced reactor and new Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) with enhanced safety, the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) and Site selection for New NPP in Lithuania had been considered in this work. In the used Safety-by-Design™ approach, the PSA played obviously a key role; therefore a Preliminary IRIS PSA had been developed along with the design. For the design and pre-licensing process of IRIS the external events analysis included both qualitative evaluation and quantitative assessment. As a result of preliminary qualitative analyses, the external events that were chosen for more detailed quantitative scoping evaluation were high winds and tornadoes, aircraft crash, and seismic events. For the site selection in Lithuania a detail site evaluation process was performed and related to the EPZ and risk zoning considerations. In general, applying the quantitative assessment, bounding site characteristics could be used in order to

  8. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  9. An instrument to assess self-statements during public speaking: scale development and preliminary psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, S G; Dibartolo, P M

    2000-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the "Positive Self-Statements" (SSPS-P) and the "Negative Self-Statements" subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument.

  10. Stock assessment of Haliporoides triarthrus (Fam. Solenoceridae) off Mozambique: a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Torstensen, E.; Pacule, H.

    1992-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Haliporoides triarthrus, is an important species in the deep-water shrimp fishery in Mozambique. Total catches are in the range of 1,500 to 2,700 tons, with the pink shrimp accounting for 70-90%. Estimates of growth parameters and of natural mortality are used for a preliminary assessment of the fishery, based on length-structured virtual population analysis and yield-per-recruit analyses. With an arbitrarily chosen terminal fishing mortality F, the results indicate a situati...

  11. An Instrument to Assess Self-Statements During Public Speaking: Scale Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2006-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the “Positive Self-Statements” (SSPS-P) and the “Negative Self-Statements” subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument. PMID:16763666

  12. Preliminary results of mental workload and task engagement assessment using electroencephalogram in a space suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ahmed F; Zony, Abongwa N; de Leon, Pablo; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary results of subject's mental workload and task engagement assessment in an experimental space suit. We have quantified the mental workload and task engagement based on changes in electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG signals were collected from subjects scalp using a commercial wireless EEG device in two experimental conditions - when subjects did not wear space suit (control condition) and when subjects wore space suit. Brain state changes were estimated and compared with the direct responses for different tasks and different conditions. We found that the spacesuit experiment introduced a greater mental workload where subject's stress levels were higher than control experiment.

  13. Tsunami hazard assessment at Port Alberni, BC, Canada: preliminary model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, S. T.; Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Douglas, K. L.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.

    2016-12-01

    Located in the heart of Vancouver Island, BC, Port Alberni has a well-known history of tsunamis. Many of the Nuu-Chah-Nulth First Nations share oral stories about a strong fight between a thunderbird and a whale that caused big waves in a winter night, a story that is compatible with the recently recognized great Cascadia tsunami in January, 1700. Port Alberni, with a total population of approximately 20,000 people, lies beside the Somass River, at the very end of Barkley Sound Inlet. The narrow canal connecting this town to the Pacific Ocean runs for more than 64 km ( 40 miles) between steep mountains, providing an ideal setting for the amplification of tsunami waves through funnelling effects. The devastating effects of tsunamis are still fresh in residents' memories from the impact of the 1964 Alaska tsunami that caused serious damage to the city. In June 2016, Emergency Management BC ran a coastal exercise in Port Alberni, simulating the response to an earthquake and a tsunami. During three days, the emergency teams in the City of Port Alberni practiced and learned from the experience. Ocean Networks Canada contributed to this exercise with the development of preliminary simulations of tsunami impact on the city from a buried rupture of the Cascadia Subduction Zone, including the Explorer segment. Wave propagation was simulated with the long-wave model FUNWAVE-TVD. Preliminary results indicate a strong amplification of tsunami waves in the Port Alberni area. The inundation zone in Port Alberni had a footprint similar to that of the 1700 Cascadia and 1964 Alaska tsunamis, inundating the area surrounding the Somass river and preferentially following the Kitsuksis and Roger Creek river margins into the city. Several other tsunami source scenarios, including splay faulting and trench-breaching ruptures are currently being modeled for the city of Port Alberni following a similar approach. These results will be presented at the conference.

  14. Risk Assessment for Emergency Planning Related to Nuclear Weapons Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-25

    agencies for handling emergencies (e.g., police , ambulance , medical, hospital, and fire-fighting organ zations should be specified). The facility...emerganey aczions, Including protective mesures . 1. Request for any needed on-site support by off-site organizations. a. Prognosis for worsening cr...decontamination. f. Providing ambulance servlce. S. Providing medical treatment services. 2. Each organization should establish a radiation protection program

  15. Risk assessment and emerging chemicals hazards in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Moscato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The main beliefs relating to the risk assessment of chemicals in foods, new chemicals in raw material as well as in food processing are briefly presented. Evaluation reviews of representative chemicals found in traditional and novel foods are given. Old and new processes or newly recognized compounds, that require careful assessment in terms of their potential human health impact, are discussed. As example of processing-related contaminants, a risk assessment for acrylamide, is described, providing two different approaches in food safety assessment and the management of carcinogenic contaminants.

  16. Emerging contaminants: presentations at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnyak, George; Vandenberg, John; Yaroschak, Paul J; Williams, Larry; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Hinz, John

    2011-07-15

    A session entitled "Emerging Contaminants" was held in April 2009 in Cincinnati, OH at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference. The purpose of the session was to share information on both programmatic and technical aspects associated with emerging contaminants. Emerging contaminants are chemicals or materials that are characterized by a perceived or real threat to human health or environment, a lack of published health standards or an evolving standard. A contaminant may also be "emerging" because of the discovery of a new source, a new pathway to humans, or a new detection method or technology. The session included five speakers representing the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and each of the military services. The DoD created the Emerging Contaminant Directorate to proactively address environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with emerging contaminants. This session described the scan-watch-action list process, impact assessment methodology, and integrated risk management concept that DoD has implemented to manage emerging contaminants. EPA presented emerging trends in health risk assessment. Researchers made technical presentations on the status of some emerging contaminates in the assessment process (i.e. manganese, RDX, and naphthalene).

  17. Assessments of emerging science and technologies: Mapping the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsberg, E.M.; Thorstensen, E.; Nielsen, R.O.; Bakker, de E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents comparative work from the EST-Frame project on technology appraisal. It focuses on studies of 'advisory domains' (more or less distinct traditions for assessment of technologies, such as risk analysis, foresight and ethical assessments). The purpose of the study was to increase t

  18. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  19. Continuous Assessment: A Preliminary Study of Student Engagement in the Assessment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin, Edmund; Mageean, Eileen; Llorens, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an objective analysis of student engagement with continuous assessment over a three year period. The results of two groups of students from different stages of a modularised level seven engineering programme were examined. As both groups had taken modules where they studied numerical differentiation, this topic was selected and the corresponding assessment results and attendance of both groups were analysed. Two assessment methods were used to evaluate student engagemen...

  20. Geriatric nursing assessment and intervention in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth Emilie; Wagner, Lis; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    : At discharge, and at 1 and 6 months follow-up, a brief standardised nursing assessment (ISAR 2) developed by McCusker et al. was carried out. The focus was on unresolved problems that required medical or nursing intervention, new or different home care services or comprehensive geriatric assessment. After...... assessment, the nurse made relevant referrals to the geriatric outpatient clinic, community health centre, general practitioner or made arrangements with next of kin. Results. One hundred and fifty people participated, mean age was 81.7. At discharge, they had a mean of 1.9 unresolved problems, after 1 month...

  1. Emerging frontier technologies for food safety analysis and risk assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yi-yang; LIU Jia-hui; WANG Sai; CHEN Qi-long; GUO Tian-yang; ZHANG Li-ya; JIN Yong; SU Hai-jia; TAN Tian-wei

    2015-01-01

    Access to security and safe food is a basic human necessity and essential for a sustainable world. To perform hi-end food safety analysis and risk assessment with state of the art technologies is of utmost importance thereof. With applications as exempliifed by microlfuidic immunoassay, aptasensor, direct analysis in real time, high resolution mass spectrometry, benchmark dose and chemical speciifc adjustment factor, this review presents frontier food safety analysis and risk assess-ment technologies, from which both food quality and public health wil beneift undoubtedly in a foreseeable future.

  2. Emergency nurses' decisions regarding frequency and nature of vital sign assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Katherine; Currey, Judy; Considine, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To explore the factors emergency nurses use to inform their decisions regarding frequency and nature of vital sign assessment. Research related to clinical deterioration and vital sign assessment in the emergency department is in its infancy. Studies to date have explored the frequency of vital sign assessment in the emergency department; however, there are no published studies that have examined factors that emergency nurses use to inform their decisions regarding frequency and nature of ongoing vital sign assessment. A prospective exploratory design was used. Data were collected using a survey consisting of eight patient vignettes. The study was conducted in one emergency department in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants were emergency nurses permanently employed at the study site. A 96% response rate was achieved (n = 47/49). The most common frequency of patient reassessment nominated by participants was 15 or 30 minutely, with an equal number of participants choosing these frequency intervals. Abnormality in initial vital sign parameters was the most common factor identified for choosing either a 15- or 30-minute assessment interval. Frequency of assessment decisions was influenced by years of emergency nursing experience in one vignette and level of postgraduate qualification in three vignettes. Heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure were all nominated by over 80% of participants as vital signs that participants considered important for reassessment. The frequency and nature of vital signs selected varied according to vignette content. There were significant negative correlations between assessment of conscious state and years of nursing experience and assessment of respiratory rate and years of emergency nursing experience. Level of postgraduate qualification did not influence selection of parameters for reassessment. Emergency nurses are tailoring vital sign assessment to patients' clinical status, and nurses are integrating known vital sign data

  3. Preliminary feasibility assessment for Earth-to-space electromagnetic (Railgun) launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Earhart, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    An Earth to space electromagnetic (railgun) launcher (ESRL) for launching material into space was studied. Potential ESRL applications were identified and initially assessed to formulate preliminary system requirements. The potential applications included nuclear waste disposal in space, Earth orbital applications, deep space probe launchers, atmospheric research, and boost of chemical rockets. The ESRL system concept consisted of two separate railgun launcher tubes (one at 20 deg from the horizontal for Earth orbital missions, the other vertical for solar system escape disposal missions) powered by a common power plant. Each 2040 m launcher tube is surrounded by 10,200 homopolar generator/inductor units to transmit the power to the walls. Projectile masses are 6500 kg for Earth orbital missions and 2055 kg for nuclear waste disposal missions. For the Earth orbital missions, the projectile requires a propulsion system, leaving an estimated payload mass of 650 kg. For the nuclear waste disposal in space mission, the high level waste mass was estimated at 250 kg. This preliminary assessment included technical, environmental, and economic analyses.

  4. Preliminary assessment report for Redmond Army National Guard Facility, Installation 53120, Redmond, Washington. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard (WAARNG) property in Redmond, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Redmond ARNG property, Phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. The environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) supply/storage of hazardous materials, (2) weapons cleaning, (3) the underground storage tanks (USTs), and (4) the use of herbicides. These ESOs are no longer active because of the closure of OMS 10 activities in 1988.

  5. Euler Technology Assessment program for preliminary aircraft design employing SPLITFLOW code with Cartesian unstructured grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Dennis B.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents results from the Euler Technology Assessment program. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Euler computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for use in preliminary aircraft design. Both the accuracy of the predictions and the rapidity of calculations were to be assessed. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Fort Worth Company, using a recently developed in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages for this study, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaptation of the volume grid during the solution convergence to resolve high-gradient flow regions. This proved beneficial in resolving the large vortical structures in the flow for several configurations examined in the present study. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of the configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design analysis, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles of attack. The time required to generate the results from initial surface definition is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.

  6. Preliminary assessment report for Florence Military Reservation, Installation 04080, Florence, Arizona. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Arizona Army National Guard property near Florence, Arizona. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. Florence Military Reservation is a 5,655-acre site located in the southern portion of Arizona, about 65 mi southeast of Phoenix, in the county of Pinal. Florence Military Reservation includes Unit Training Equipment Site (UTES) 1, an artillery firing range, and ammunition storage. The subject of this PA is the UTES. The environmentally significant operations associated with the UTES property are (1) vehicle maintenance and refueling, (2) supply/storage of materials, and (3) the vehicle washrack.

  7. Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER): An Innovative Emergency Management Tool in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Amy; Nakata, Nicole; Talbert, Todd; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Martinez, DeAndrea; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-09-01

    To demonstrate how inclusion of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) as a tool in Public Health Preparedness Capabilities: National Standards for State and Local Planning can increase public health capacity for emergency response. We reviewed all domestic CASPER activities (i.e., trainings and assessments) between fiscal years 2012 and 2016. Data from these CASPER activities were compared with respect to differences in geographic distribution, type, actions, efficacy, and usefulness of training. During the study period, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted 24 domestic in-person CASPER trainings for 1057 staff in 38 states. On average, there was a marked increase in knowledge of CASPER. Ninety-nine CASPERs were conducted in the United States, approximately half of which (53.5%) assessed preparedness; the others were categorized as response or recovery (27.2%) or were unrelated to a disaster (19.2%). CASPER trainings are successful in increasing disaster epidemiology skills. CASPER can be used by Public Health Emergency Preparedness program awardees to help build and sustain preparedness and response capabilities.

  8. [Assessment of traumatic tooth injuries in the emergency room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risheim, Helge

    2006-04-27

    Many patients with facial injuries are first seen by doctors in the emergency room. Injuries affecting teeth and alveolar process are common in children; approximately half of all children have sustained such an injury before adulthood. Dentoalveolar trauma does not pose a significant morbid risk for the trauma patient. However, failure to recognise or obtain appropriate consultation can result in premature tooth or alveolar bone loss, resulting in problematic prosthetic rehabilitation. Emergency room doctors should know the initial treatment guidelines for traumatic dental injuries to provide optimal treatment before the patient can seen by a dentist. An avulsed tooth should be replanted immediately, or kept moist until it can be replanted. Prognosis is related to storage media and the length of the extra-alveolar period. Teeth replanted within 5 minutes have the best prognosis. If the primary consultation is by phone the patient, or the parent, should be informed to replant the avulsed tooth. If this is not feasible the tooth should be stored in milk, saliva (oral cavity) or physiologic saline until replanted. Primary teeth are not replanted.

  9. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  10. Development and preliminary results of the Financial Incentive Coercion Assessment questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Margaret M; Croft, Jason R; French, Michael T; Dugosh, Karen L; Festinger, David S

    2012-07-01

    Financial incentives are often used in research, yet no measure exists to determine whether they lead to perceptions of coercion in subjects. We present a preliminary evaluation of a recently developed Financial Incentive Coercion Assessment (FICA) questionnaire. FICA measures perceived coercion specifically related to payment for participation in a research study. Two hundred sixty-six subjects were recruited from a large randomized controlled trial; 152 returned for a 6-month follow-up and completed the FICA. Approximately 30% of participants reported the major reason for participating was "for the money," but less than 5% felt that the financial incentives were coercive. FICA results are consistent with levels of perceived coercion using an alternative measure. Initial assessment of responses on the FICA suggests that it may provide a novel approach to measuring perceived coercion from financial incentives in research. Future work will refine the FICA and analyze its psychometric properties.

  11. Preliminary assessments of spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales region of the US-Mexican border

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.A. [ManTech Environmental Technology Inc., P.O. Box 12313, 27709 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mukerjee, S. [US Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, MD-47, 27711 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Monroy, G.J. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 400 West Congress St., Suite 433, 85701 Tucson, AZ (United States); Keene, F.E. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 3033 North Central Ave., 85012 Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2001-08-10

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and particulate matter (PM) species were used from four sites, two on either side of the border. An examination of median levels and principal component analysis indicated the dominance of soil dusts and mobile sources. Pairwise comparisons of sites for VOCs associated with mobile sources revealed statistically significant differences between sites in the central Nogales area vs. the two sites furthest from the border. Particulate lead at Mexican sites was higher and significantly different vs. US sites. Although further analyses are necessary, findings suggest that local and immediate mobile/other anthropogenic and soil dust influences are present throughout Nogales, with particulate lead from leaded motor vehicle exhaust or soldering operations being a possible influence on the Mexican side.

  12. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. 370.8 Section 370.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency...

  13. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  14. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  15. Environmental Assessment : Emergency use of prescriptive grazing at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment (EA) documents the purpose of and the issues, alternatives, and analysis associated with allowance of emergency use of prescriptive...

  16. Assessment of Common and Emerging Bioinformatics Pipelines for Targeted Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwald, Léa; Touzet, Hélène; Lemoine, Yves; Hot, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeted metagenomics, also known as metagenetics, is a high-throughput sequencing application focusing on a nucleotide target in a microbiome to describe its taxonomic content. A wide range of bioinformatics pipelines are available to analyze sequencing outputs, and the choice of an appropriate tool is crucial and not trivial. No standard evaluation method exists for estimating the accuracy of a pipeline for targeted metagenomics analyses. This article proposes an evaluation protocol containing real and simulated targeted metagenomics datasets, and adequate metrics allowing us to study the impact of different variables on the biological interpretation of results. This protocol was used to compare six different bioinformatics pipelines in the basic user context: Three common ones (mothur, QIIME and BMP) based on a clustering-first approach and three emerging ones (Kraken, CLARK and One Codex) using an assignment-first approach. This study surprisingly reveals that the effect of sequencing errors has a bigger impact on the results that choosing different amplified regions. Moreover, increasing sequencing throughput increases richness overestimation, even more so for microbiota of high complexity. Finally, the choice of the reference database has a bigger impact on richness estimation for clustering-first pipelines, and on correct taxa identification for assignment-first pipelines. Using emerging assignment-first pipelines is a valid approach for targeted metagenomics analyses, with a quality of results comparable to popular clustering-first pipelines, even with an error-prone sequencing technology like Ion Torrent. However, those pipelines are highly sensitive to the quality of databases and their annotations, which makes clustering-first pipelines still the only reliable approach for studying microbiomes that are not well described. PMID:28052134

  17. Vulnerability Assessments and Resilience Planning at Federal Facilities. Preliminary Synthesis of Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, R. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.; Blohm, A. J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Delgado, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.; Henriques, J. J. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Malone, E L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.

    2015-08-15

    U.S. government agencies are now directed to assess the vulnerability of their operations and facilities to climate change and to develop adaptation plans to increase their resilience. Specific guidance on methods is still evolving based on the many different available frameworks. Agencies have been experimenting with these frameworks and approaches. This technical paper synthesizes lessons and insights from a series of research case studies conducted by the investigators at facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Defense. The purpose of the paper is to solicit comments and feedback from interested program managers and analysts before final conclusions are published. The paper describes the characteristics of a systematic process for prioritizing needs for adaptation planning at individual facilities and examines requirements and methods needed. It then suggests a framework of steps for vulnerability assessments at Federal facilities and elaborates on three sets of methods required for assessments, regardless of the detailed framework used. In a concluding section, the paper suggests a roadmap to further develop methods to support agencies in preparing for climate change. The case studies point to several preliminary conclusions; (1) Vulnerability assessments are needed to translate potential changes in climate exposure to estimates of impacts and evaluation of their significance for operations and mission attainment, in other words into information that is related to and useful in ongoing planning, management, and decision-making processes; (2) To increase the relevance and utility of vulnerability assessments to site personnel, the assessment process needs to emphasize the characteristics of the site infrastructure, not just climate change; (3) A multi-tiered framework that includes screening, vulnerability assessments at the most vulnerable installations, and adaptation design will efficiently target high-risk sites and infrastructure

  18. Emergency assessment and treatment planning for traumatic dental injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, A; Cohenca, N

    2016-03-01

    Trauma involving the dentoalveolar region is a frequent occurrence which can result in the fracturing and displacement of teeth, crushing and/or fracturing of bone and soft tissue injuries including contusions, abrasions and lacerations. This review describes the assessment of patients with these injuries, not in a didactic sense by repeating excellent already published classifications and treatment options, but by addressing questions that arise during assessment. It covers trauma first aid, examination of the patient, factors that affect treatment planning decisions, and the importance of communicating treatment options and prognosis to traumatized patients.

  19. Construction of an Index System for Earthquake Emergency Loss Assessment and Decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Gaozhong; An Jiwen; Deng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Loss assessment and decision-making are essential for earthquake emergency rescues, and for scientific prediction of seismic damage and determination of rescue objectives. In practice, however, there exist some problems, such as basic data not being precise and rich enough and decision making not having systematic and complete criteria. This paper tries to solve these problems using the method of data indexation by constructing an index system for earthquake emergency loss assessment and decision-making.

  20. Self-assessed efficacy of a clinical musculoskeletal anatomy workshop: A preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José E; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Canoso, Juan J; Kalish, Robert A; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    To survey the efficacy of a practical workshop on clinical musculoskeletal anatomy held in five American countries. A self-assessment competence questionnaire sent to participants 1-3 months after the workshop. Results were compared to the results of a practical, instructor-assessed, pre-workshop test. The response rate of participants was 76.4%. The overall, self-assessed competence score for anatomical items that had been included in the pre-test was 76.9 (scale 0-100) as compared to an overall score of 48.1 in the practical, pre-workshop test (p<0.001). For items that were addressed in the workshop, but not included in the pre-test, self-assessed competence was rated at 62.9. Differences in anatomical knowledge between individuals from different countries and professional groups noted in the practical pre-test were no longer present in the post-test self-assessment. From this preliminary data and supporting evidence from the literature we believe that our anatomy workshop provides an effective didactic tool for increasing competence in musculoskeletal anatomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary data on a new opioid risk assessment measure: the Brief Risk Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ted; Moore, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessment and stratification have become a central issue in prescribing opioids to patients with chronic pain. Research to date on various risk screening measures has shown that a clinical interview by an experienced clinician offers superior predictive ability in identifying patients who are more likely to engage in future medication aberrant behavior. The current study represents a pilot study of an interview rating scale that is designed to replicate this clinical assessment. This study compares the predictions of medication aberrant behavior made by the Opioid Risk Tool, the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain-Revised, and the new interview rating scale, the Brief Risk Interview (BRI). A sample of 196 patients was assessed by each of the three risk measures and then follow-up data were gathered at 6 months post interview to determine which patients had engaged in medication aberrant behavior and had been discharged from the practice. The BRI shows superior predictive ability in identifying patients who later engage in medication aberrant behavior. Although more study in other settings is needed, these preliminary data suggest that the Brief Risk Interview could be a useful tool for any pain clinician in assessing risk through the use of information gathered in a brief interview.

  2. The Emergence of Quality Assessment in Brazilian Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauko, Jaakko; Centeno, Vera Gorodski; Candido, Helena; Shiroma, Eneida; Klutas, Anni

    2016-01-01

    The focus in this article is on Brazilian education policy, specifically quality assurance and evaluation. The starting point is that quality, measured by means of large-scale assessments, is one of the key discursive justifications for educational change. The article addresses the questions of how quality evaluation became a significant feature…

  3. Assessment, Teacher Education and the Emergence of Professional Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue; Smith, Vivienne

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a new assessment tool that situates school literacy as a specific cognitive, cultural, social and emotional. It reports evidence of the extent to which this tool seems to have helped student teachers to broker and balance different kinds of data and knowledge flows. The study shows that the tool was helpful in encouraging…

  4. The Emergence of Quality Assessment in Brazilian Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauko, Jaakko; Centeno, Vera Gorodski; Candido, Helena; Shiroma, Eneida; Klutas, Anni

    2016-01-01

    The focus in this article is on Brazilian education policy, specifically quality assurance and evaluation. The starting point is that quality, measured by means of large-scale assessments, is one of the key discursive justifications for educational change. The article addresses the questions of how quality evaluation became a significant feature…

  5. Assessing Expectations: Towards a Toolbox for an Ethics of Emerging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucivero, Federica; Swierstra, Tsjalling; Boenink, Marianne

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, several authors have argued that the desirability of novel technologies should be assessed early, when they are still emerging. Such an ethical assessment of emerging technologies is by definition focused on an elusive object. Usually promises, expectations, and visions of the technology are taken as a starting point. As Nordmann and Rip have pointed out in a recent article, however, ethicists should not take for granted the plausibility of such expectations and visions. In this paper, we explore how the quality of expectations on emerging technologies might be assessed when engaging in a reflection on the desirability of emerging technologies. We propose that an assessment of expectations' plausibility should focus on statements on technological feasibility, societal usability, and desirability of the expected technology. Whereas the feasibility statement and, to a lesser extent, the usability statements are frequently quite futuristic, the claims on desirability, by contrast, often display a conservative stance towards the future. Assessing the quality of expectations and visions on behalf of emerging technologies requires, then, a careful and well-directed use of both skepticism and imagination. We conclude with a brief overview of the tools and methods ethicists could use to assess claims made on behalf of emerging technologies and improve the ethical reflection on them.

  6. Educational assessment of medical student rotation in emergency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Christian; Cusick, Seric; Scruggs, William; Henson, Travis W; Anderson, Craig L; Barajas, Graciela; Zlidenny, Alexander; McDonough, Joanne; Langdorf, Mark I

    2007-08-01

    Medical student ultrasound education is sparse. In 2002, we began the first medical student rotation in emergency ultrasound. To evaluate if medical students can learn and retain sonographic skills during a two- or four-week elective. We gave students an exam on the first and last days of the rotation. Six months later, students took the exam a third time. A control group was used for comparison. Over a 19-month period, we enrolled 45 students (25 on the two-week and 20 on the four-week elective). The four-week student post-test score was significantly better than the two- week post-test score (81% vs 72%, p=0.003). On the six-month exam, the four-week student post-test score was significantly better than the two-week post-test score (77% vs 69%, p=0.008). The control group did not statistically improve. Medical students can learn bedside ultrasound interpretation with clinical integration and retain the knowledge six months later.

  7. Educational Assessment of Medical Student Rotation in Emergency Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox, J Christian

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical student ultrasound education is sparse. In 2002, we began the first medical student rotation in emergency ultrasound. Objective: To evaluate if medical students can learn and retain sonographic skills during a two- or four-week elective. Methods: We gave students an exam on the first and last days of the rotation. Six months later, students took the exam a third time. A control group was used for comparison. Results: Over a 19-month period, we enrolled 45 students (25 on the two-week and 20 on the four-week elective. The four-week student post-test score was significantly better than the two- week posttest score (81% vs. 72%, p=0.003. On the six-month exam, the four-week student post-test score was significantly better than the two-week post-test score (77% vs 69%, p=0.008. The control group did not statistically improve. Conclusion: Medical students can learn bedside ultrasound interpretation with clinical integration and retain the knowledge six months later.

  8. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  9. Relationships between vocalization forms and functions in infancy: preliminary implications for early communicative assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Ertmer, David J

    2014-11-01

    This preliminary study explored relationships between form and function in prelinguistic vocalizations to increase our understanding of early communicative development and to provide potential clinical implications for early communicative assessment and intervention. Twenty typically developing infants-5 infants in each of 4 age groups, from 3 to 20 months of age-were included. Vocalizations from these infants had previously been categorized for their form (Nathani, Ertmer, & Stark, 2006) and function (Stark, Bernstein, & Demorest, 1993) characteristics. In the present study, cross-classification tabulations between form and function were conducted to examine relationships between vocalization types and their apparent uses. As anticipated, earlier developing forms were mostly associated with earlier developing functions, and later developing forms were mostly associated with later developing functions. However, there were some exceptions such that some forms were associated with a variety of functions, and vice versa. The results suggest that some forms are more tightly coupled to function than others in the prelinguistic and early linguistic period. Preliminary implications for developmental theory, future research, and clinical applications are discussed. Larger, longitudinal studies with typical and atypical populations and stricter methodological controls are needed to validate these findings.

  10. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  11. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part II. High Temperature Structural Integrity Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A high temperature structural integrity assessment belongs to the Part II of a whole preliminary guideline for the high temperature structure. The main contents of this guideline are the evaluation procedures of the creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth in high temperature condition, the high temperature LBB evaluation procedure, and the inelastic evaluations of the welded joints in SFR structures. The methodologies for the proper inelastic analysis of an SFR structures in high temperatures are explained and the guidelines of inelastic analysis options using ANSYS and ABAQUS are suggested. In addition, user guidelines for the developed NONSTA code are included. This guidelines need to be continuously revised to improve the applicability to the design and analysis of the SFR structures.

  12. Assessing risks for a pre-emergent pathogen: virginiamycin use and the emergence of streptogramin resistance in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D L; Johnson, J A; Harris, A D; Furuno, J P; Perencevich, E N; Morris, J G

    2003-04-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important cause of hospital-acquired infections and an emerging infectious disease. VRE infections were resistant to standard antibiotics until quinupristin/dalfopristin (QD), a streptogramin antibiotic, was approved in 1999 for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections in people. After that decision, the practice of using virginiamycin in agriculture for animal growth promotion came under intense scrutiny. Virginiamycin, another streptogramin, threatens the efficacy of QD in medicine because streptogramin resistance in enterococci associated with food animals may be transferred to E faecium in hospitalised patients. Policy makers face an unavoidable conundrum when assessing risks for pre-emergent pathogens; good policies that prevent or delay adverse outcomes may leave little evidence that they had an effect. To provide a sound basis for policy, we have reviewed the epidemiology of E faecium and streptogramin resistance and present qualitative results from mathematical models. These models are based on simple assumptions consistent with evidence, and they establish reasonable expectations about the population-genetic and population-dynamic processes underlying the emergence of streptogramin-resistant E faecium (SREF). Using the model, we have identified critical aspects of SREF emergence. We conclude that the emergence of SREF is likely to be the result of an interaction between QD use in medicine and the long-term use of virginiamycin for animal growth promotion. Virginiamycin use has created a credible threat to the efficacy of QD by increasing the mobility and frequency of high-level resistance genes. The potential effects are greatest for intermediate rates of human-to-human transmission (R0 approximately equal 1).

  13. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  14. System of tactical assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT: Development and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to report the development and preliminary validation of tactical assessment system in Soccer and highlight its advantages. The validation process followed five perspectives of the concept of validity that consider the value of heuristic methods and the importance of the description of behavior performed in playing situations. Thus, the process of validation was focused on four points: i acceptability and reasonableness of the test perceived by players; ii analysis of content of assessment tool through a panel of experts; iii potential of the assessment tool to discriminate the quality of the performance of players; iv observation reliability. The results displayed values higher than 0.63 for correlation between the evaluations of coaches and the system. It shows the potential of this system to distinguish the performances of players based on the evaluations of coaches. The players who performed the field test agreed with its physical demands and spatial and normative configurations. All experts endorsed the categories and variables of this system. The reliabilities showed values higher than 0.79 for intra and inter-observers. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the system is valid and reliable for the assessment of the tactical behavior of soccer players.

  15. Towards the conservation of parasitoid wasp species in Canada: Preliminary assessment of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first to consider braconid parasitoid wasps in conservation efforts in Canada. Out of the 28 genera of the subfamily Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae present in the country, 13 genera were studied and 16 species were identified as potential candidates to be included in the Species Candidate Lists of COSEWIC (The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. For every selected species a brief summary of its broad geographical distribution is provided, with detailed and in many cases new information of its distribution and collecting dates in Canada, hosts (Lepidoptera if known, and color pictures of all wasp species. A preliminary assessment is made using Prioritization Criteria developed by COSEWIC, and some general recommendations are made based in those analyses.

  16. Preliminary shielding assessment for the 100 MeV proton linac (KOMAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Cho, Y S; Chang, J

    2005-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project is building the Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex facilities from 2002 to 2012, which consists of a high-current 100 MeV proton linear accelerator and various beam-lines. This paper provides a preliminary estimate of the shielding required for the 20 mA proton linac and the beam-dump. For an accurate information on secondary neutron production from the guiding magnet and primary heat sink of the beam dump, proton-induced 63Cu and 65Cu cross section data were evaluated and applied to shielding calculations. The required thickness of the concrete was assessed by a simple line-of-sight model for the lateral shielding of the beam-line and the full shielding of the beam dump. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed using the MCNPX code to obtain the source term and attenuation coefficients for the three-dimensional lateral shielding model of the beam-line.

  17. Visual Assessment on Coastal Cruise Tourism: A Preliminary Planning Using Importance Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisutomo, S.

    2017-07-01

    Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) has been widely applied in many cases. In this research, IPA was applied to measure perceive on coastal tourism objects and its possibility to be developed as coastal cruise tourism in Makassar. Three objects, i.e. Akkarena recreational site, Losari public space at waterfront, and Paotere traditional Phinisi ships port, were selected and assessed visually from water area by a group of purposive resource persons. The importance and performance of 10 attributes of each site were scored using Likert scale from 1 to 5. Data were processed by SPSS-21 than resulted Cartesian graph which the scores were divided in four quadrants: Quadrant I concentric here, Quadrant II keep up the good work, Quadrant III low priority, and Quadrant IV possible overkill. The attributes in each quadrant could be considered as the platform for preliminary planning of coastal cruise tour in Makassar

  18. Preliminary assessment of the ATHENA/WFI non-X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinati, Emanuele; Barbera, Marco; Diebold, Sebastian; Guzman, Alejandro; Santangelo, Andrea; Tenzer, Chris

    2017-06-01

    We present a preliminary assessment of the non-X-ray background for the WFI on board ATHENA conducted at IAAT in the context of the collaborative background and radiation damage working group activities. Our main result is that in the baseline configuration originally assumed for the camera the requirement on the level of non-X-ray background could not be met. In light of the results of Geant4 simulations we propose and discuss a possible optimization of the camera design and pinpoint some open issues to be addressed in the next phase of investigation. One of these concerns the possible contribution to the non-X-ray background from soft protons and ions funneled to the focal plane through the optics. This is not quantified at this stage, here we just briefly report on our ongoing activities aimed at validating the mechanisms of proton scattering at grazing incidence.

  19. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Kara and Barents Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario, which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater, is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansievert calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs is found to dominate the doses. 19 refs., 56 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Forskningscente Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Barents and Kara Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansieverts calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs is found to dominate the doses. (au) 8 tabs., 56 ills., 19 refs.

  1. Preliminary risk assessment of radon in groundwater: a case study from Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Gasparon, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the radon concentrations in the water supplies of a residential area of central west Anatolia, Turkey. This research provides a preliminary risk assessment for inhabitants in the study area which can be applied for other regions. In 14 out of the 19 water supplies analysed, radon concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level (11.1 Bq l(-1)). The total annual effective doses of 10 for the wet season and 14 for the dry season out of the 19 water supplies are greater than the values recommended by EPA [Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides, Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1999) pdf >] (0.1 mSv a(-1)). The elevated radon concentrations in water resources are most probably linked with geological origin which contains significant amounts of radioactive minerals.

  2. Preliminary assessment of the behavioral activation model in Japanese undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Koki; Okajima, Isa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Shun; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Sakano, Yuji

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have reported that behavioral activation is an effective intervention for depression. The behavioral activation model is based on several formulations. For example, depressive mood leads to avoidant behaviors, avoidance negatively affects social contacts, decreased socialization lessens opportunities for positive reinforcement, and a decrease in positive reinforcement results in more depressive mood. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among avoidant behavior, social contact, frequency of positive reinforcement, and depressive mood by using structural equation modeling to assess support for aspects of this behavioral activation model. Participants were 630 Japanese undergraduate students and vocational school students. Results provided preliminary support for the model. Treating both avoidance and activating behavior might contribute to decreased impairment.

  3. PORFLOW MODELING FOR A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NEW SALTSTONE DISPOSAL UNIT DESIGNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.

    2012-08-06

    At the request of Savannah River Remediation (SRR), SRNL has analyzed the expected performance obtained from using seven 32 million gallon Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs) in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) to store future saltstone grout. The analysis was based on preliminary SDU final design specifications. The analysis used PORFLOW modeling to calculate the release of 20 radionuclides from an SDU and transport of the radionuclides and daughters through the vadose zone. Results from this vadose zone analysis were combined with previously calculated releases from existing saltstone vaults and FDCs and a second PORFLOW model run to calculate aquifer transport to assessment points located along a boundary 100 m from the nearest edge of the SDF sources. Peak concentrations within 12 sectors spaced along the 100 m boundary were determined over a period of evaluation extending 20,000 years after SDF closure cap placement. These peak concentrations were provided to SRR to use as input for dose calculations.

  4. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

  5. Critical Emergency Medicine Procedural Skills: A Comparative Study of Methods for Teaching and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Dane M.; And Others

    Three critical procedural skills in emergency medicine were evaluated using three assessment modalities--written, computer, and animal model. The effects of computer practice and previous procedure experience on skill competence were also examined in an experimental sequential assessment design. Subjects were six medical students, six residents,…

  6. Emergent Literacy Performance across Two Languages: Assessing Four-Year-Old Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F.

    2014-01-01

    There are few emergent literacy assessments available for bilingual children. This study investigated the usefulness of a screening battery of oral language and print-related measures as an assessment tool for bilingual Samoan-English speaking children. A total of 18 children were recruited from three Samoan language immersion kindergartens (Aoga…

  7. Integrating the Schoolhouse and the Marketplace: A Preliminary Assessment of the Emerging Role of Electronic Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex

    This paper focuses on how, by reinforcing and exploiting the emphasis on electronic technologies in school reform, marketers are integrating school children into the advertising and marketing system. The ZapMe! program is a for-profit venture that proposes to derive its profits from activities that link the academic activities of schools and the…

  8. A Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Preservation and Restoration of Fujian Hakka Tulou Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Ueda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2009, research trips were taken, mainly in the Fujian province of China, to investigate the construction materials, methods, structures and floor plans of Hakka Tulou. Researchers lived in several Tulou, interviewed residents and experienced traditional Hakka lifestyle. Typically, Tulou are located in remote regions at relatively high elevations in climatic conditions characterized by hot summers, cold winters, and with high incidents of typhoons and earthquakes. The extent of damage and level of preservation were examined with respect to the age of many of these structures, the relatively harsh environment, and changing demographics in the region. The majority of occupants are now elderly. They maintain a traditional and efficient lifestyle utilizing minimum electricity, water, and energy. This study discusses the findings from these two field trips and assesses environmental load and sustainability within the context of current environmental standards using the Japanese Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE from data collected at Cheng Qi Lou. The goal was: firstly to undertake a preliminary environmental assessment to determine sustainable elements of Hakka Tulou construction methods; secondly, to identify potential sustainable solutions to preserve existing structure; and finally, to identify appropriate sustainable solutions to repair and retrofit damaged and underutilized structures to modern living standards, while retaining traditional building techniques and lifestyle.

  9. Preliminary assessment of a hysteroscopic fallopian tube heat and biomaterial technology for permanent female sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, Prajan; Trembly, B. Stuart; Moodie, Karen L.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2017-02-01

    Recent failures in hysteroscopic female sterilization procedures have brought into question the implantation of nonresorbable metal devices into the fallopian tubes due to long-term risks such as migration, fragmentation, and tubal perforation. The goal of this study is to assess whether a porous, biodegradable implant can be deposited into the fallopian tube lumen with or without a local mild heat treatment to generate a safe and permanent fallopian tube occlusion/sterilization event. The technologies investigated included freeze-cast collagen-based scaffolds and magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) based scaffolds. In vitro assessment of iron oxide MNP-based scaffolds was performed to determine the absorption rate density (ARD); subsequent computational modeling quantified the thermal in vivo steady state temperature as a function of tubal radius for treatment planning. For collagen-based scaffolds, in vivo testing was performed to study the biocompatibility in a mouse flank model, followed by implantation into an in vivo anestrus feline uterine horn (animal model for the fallopian tube). Biological responses were studied histopathologically. Uterine horn patency was assessed via radiographic imaging. Preliminary studies suggest the MNP-impregnated scaffold and a safe, noninvasive AMF excitation field have potential to generate a sufficient focal fallopian tube thermal dose to create a fibrotic healing event and ultimately, permanent tubal occlusion.

  10. Maxillary dentoalveolar assessment following retraction of maxillary incisors: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Maia Fernandes Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2. The premaxilla was assessed through seven axial slices by means of Dolphin ImagingTM software. In each of these slices, five measurements of the distance from the buccal cortical bone to the palatal cortical bone were performed. Tooth length of maxillary incisors (n = 44 was also measured in sagittal slices. Measurements were repeated after a two-week interval, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to test examiner calibration. Wilcoxon test was used to detect differences in measurements performed at the two time intervals. Results: The ICC was satisfactory for tooth length (0.890 and for premaxilla alveolar thickness measurements (0.980. Analysis of data showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05 in tooth length or alveolar thickness between the two-time intervals assessed. Conclusion: The force used in retraction of maxillary incisors in this research did not promote significant changes in tooth length of maxillary incisors or in premaxilla alveolar thickness.

  11. Maxillary dentoalveolar assessment following retraction of maxillary incisors: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago Maia Fernandes; Claudino, Lígia Vieira; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2). The premaxilla was assessed through seven axial slices by means of Dolphin ImagingTM software. In each of these slices, five measurements of the distance from the buccal cortical bone to the palatal cortical bone were performed. Tooth length of maxillary incisors (n = 44) was also measured in sagittal slices. Measurements were repeated after a two-week interval, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to test examiner calibration. Wilcoxon test was used to detect differences in measurements performed at the two time intervals. Results: The ICC was satisfactory for tooth length (0.890) and for premaxilla alveolar thickness measurements (0.980). Analysis of data showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in tooth length or alveolar thickness between the two-time intervals assessed. Conclusion: The force used in retraction of maxillary incisors in this research did not promote significant changes in tooth length of maxillary incisors or in premaxilla alveolar thickness. PMID:27901233

  12. Interview: Health technology assessment in Asia: an emerging trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bong-min

    2012-05-01

    Bong-min Yang, PhD (in economics), is Professor and former Dean of the School of Public Health at the Seoul National University, South Korea. Professor Yang has led research and written many papers in health economics and healthcare systems in Korea and Asia. His recent research and publications focus on the field of economic evaluation and outcomes research. He played a key role in the introduction of a formal health technology assessment system within Korean healthcare. He is currently serving as Executive Director, Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University. In addition to his research and publications, Professor Yang is Associate Editor for Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, is co-editor-in-chief for Value in Health Regional Issues, and is currently chair of the Management Advisory Board of Value in Health and a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Medical Economics. He has been a policy consultant to China, Japan, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and India. He has also worked as a short-term consultant at the WHO, ADB, UNDP and the World Bank. For the Korean government, he served as Chairperson of the Health Insurance Reform Committee, and Chairperson of the Drug Pricing and Reimbursement Committee. He is currently serving as Chair of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research-Asia Consortium, and a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research.

  13. Marine proteomics: a critical assessment of an emerging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Marc; Ankisetty, Sridevi; Corrales, Jone; Marsh-Hunkin, K Erica; Gochfeld, Deborah J; Willett, Kristine L; Rimoldi, John M

    2012-10-26

    The application of proteomics to marine sciences has increased in recent years because the proteome represents the interface between genotypic and phenotypic variability and, thus, corresponds to the broadest possible biomarker for eco-physiological responses and adaptations. Likewise, proteomics can provide important functional information regarding biosynthetic pathways, as well as insights into mechanism of action, of novel marine natural products. The goal of this review is to (1) explore the application of proteomics methodologies to marine systems, (2) assess the technical approaches that have been used, and (3) evaluate the pros and cons of this proteomic research, with the intent of providing a critical analysis of its future roles in marine sciences. To date, proteomics techniques have been utilized to investigate marine microbe, plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate physiology, developmental biology, seafood safety, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental change. However, marine proteomics studies often suffer from poor experimental design, sample processing/optimization difficulties, and data analysis/interpretation issues. Moreover, a major limitation is the lack of available annotated genomes and proteomes for most marine organisms, including several "model species". Even with these challenges in mind, there is no doubt that marine proteomics is a rapidly expanding and powerful integrative molecular research tool from which our knowledge of the marine environment, and the natural products from this resource, will be significantly expanded.

  14. Emergency imaging assessment of deep neck space infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroldi, Roberto; Farina, Davide; Ravanelli, Marco; Lombardi, Davide; Nicolai, Piero

    2012-10-01

    Deep neck space infection may lead to severe and potentially life-threatening complications, such as airway obstruction, mediastinitis, septic embolization, dural sinus thrombosis, and intracranial abscess. The clinical presentation is widely variable, and often early symptoms do not reflect the disease severity. The complication risk depends on the extent and anatomical site: diseases that transgress fascial boundaries and spread along vertically oriented spaces (parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal, and paravertebral space) have a higher risk of complications and require a more aggressive treatment compared with those confined within a nonvertically oriented space (peritonsillar, sublingual, submandibular, parotid, and masticator space). Imaging has 5 crucial roles: (1) confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis, (2) define the precise extent of the disease, (3) identify complications, (4) distinguish between drainable abscesses and cellulitis, and (5) monitor deep neck space infection progression. Ultrasonography is the gold standard to differentiate abscesses from cellulitis, for the diagnosis of lymphadenitis. and to identify internal jugular thrombophlebitis in the infrahyoid neck. However, field-of-view limitation and poor anatomical information confine the use of ultrasonography to the evaluation of superficial lesions and to image-guided aspiration or drainage. Computed tomography (CT) combines fast image acquisition and precise anatomical information without field-of-view limitations. For these reasons, it is the most reliable technique for the evaluation of deep and multicompartment lesions and for the identification of mediastinal and intracranial complications. Contrast agent administration enhances the capability to differentiate fluid collections from cellulitis and allows the detection of vascular complications. Magnetic resonance imaging is more time-consuming than CT, limiting its use to selected indications. It is the technique of choice for assessing

  15. Establishing cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory in Saudi Arabia and producing preliminary calibration curve of dicentric chromosomes as biomarker for medical dose estimation in response to radiation emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadyan, Khaled; Elewisy, Sara; Moftah, Belal; Shoukri, Mohamed; Alzahrany, Awad; Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-12-01

    In cases of public or occupational radiation overexposure and eventual radiological accidents, it is important to provide dose assessment, medical triage, diagnoses and treatment to victims. Cytogenetic bio-dosimetry based on scoring of dicentric chromosomal aberrations assay (DCA) is the "gold standard" biotechnology technique for estimating medically relevant radiation doses. Under the auspices of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan in Saudi Arabia, we have set up a biodosimetry laboratory and produced a national standard dose-response calibration curve for DCA, pre-required to estimate the doses received. For this, the basic cytogenetic DCA technique needed to be established. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected from four healthy volunteers and irradiated with radiation doses between 0 and 5 Gy of 320 keV X-rays. Then, lymphocytes were PHA stimulated, Colcemid division arrested and stained cytogenetic slides were prepared. The Metafer4 system (MetaSystem) was used for automatic and manually assisted metaphase finding and scoring of dicentric chromosomes. Results were fit to the linear-quadratic dose-effect model according to the IAEA EPR-Biodosimetry-2011 report. The resulting manually assisted dose-response calibration curve (Y = 0.0017 + 0.026 × D + 0.081 × D(2)) was in the range of those described in other populations. Although the automated scoring over-and-under estimates DCA at low (2 Gy) doses, respectively, it showed potential for use in triage mode to segregate between victims with potential risk to develop acute radiotoxicity syndromes. In conclusion, we have successfully established the first biodosimetry laboratory in the region and have produced a preliminary national dose-response calibration curve. The laboratory can now contribute to the national preparedness plan in response to eventual radiation emergencies in addition to providing information for decision makers and public health officials who assess the

  16. The Effects of September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on Public and Private Information Infrastructures: A Preliminary Assessment of Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Jeffrey W.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of the September 11 attacks on public and private information infrastructures. Topics include the role of information technology in future homeland security initiatives; continuity and recovery plans; decentralization of operations; and the development of system redundancies to eliminate single…

  17. Gaze behavior nonlinear dynamics assessed in virtual immersion as a diagnostic index of sexual deviancy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Bradford

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results about the use of virtual characters, penile plethysmography and gaze behaviour dynamics to assess deviant sexual preferences. Pedophile patients' responses are compared to those of non-deviant subjects while they were immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features.

  18. Expanding The INSPIRED COPD Outreach ProgramTM to the emergency department: a feasibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillis D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Darcy Gillis,1 Jillian Demmons,1 Graeme Rocker1,2 1Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Nova Scotia Health Authority, Halifax, NS, Canada; 2Division of Respirology, Nova Scotia Health Authority, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Background: The Halifax-based INSPIRED COPD Outreach Program™ is a facility-to-community home-based novel clinical initiative that through improved care transitions, self-management, and engagement in advance care planning has demonstrated a significant (60%–80% reduction in health care utilization with substantial cost aversion. By assessing the feasibility of expanding INSPIRED into the emergency department (ED we anticipated extending reach and potential for positive impact of INSPIRED to those with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD who avoid hospital admission.Methods: Patients were eligible for the INSPIRED-ED study if >40 years of age, diagnosed with AECOPD and discharged from the ED, willing to be referred, community dwelling with at least one of: previous use of the ED services, admission to Intermediate Care Unit/Intensive Care Unit, or admission to hospital with AECOPD in the past year. We set feasibility objectives for referral rates, completion of action plans, advance care planning participation, and reduction in ED visit frequency.Results: Referral rates were 0.5/week. Among eligible patients (n=174 33 (19% were referred of whom 15 (M=4, F=11 enrolled in INSPIRED-ED. Mean (SD age was 68 (7 years, post-bronchdilator FEV1 44.2 (15.5 % predicted, and Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea score 3.8 (0.41. We met feasibility objectives for action plan and advance care planning completion. Frequency of subsequent ED visits fell by 54%. Mean (SD Care Transition Measure (CTM-3 improved from 8.6 (2.0 to 11.3 (1.3, P=0.0004, and of 14 patients responding 12 (86% found the program very helpful. An additional 34

  19. Assessment of the knowledge and attitudes of preliminary school students toward smoking in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jabbar Sahib

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early smoking considered as a major challenge for health promoters, as well it is socially not acceptable, thus interventions must tackle childhood starts of smoking.Aim: Assessing the knowledge and attitude of preliminary students towards tobacco use. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 2195, 5th grade students from 30 preliminary schools in Baghdad (15 from each side Karkh & Rusafa during November 2014. They were selected by multistage sampling technique.Results:  Participated students age ranged between (10-13 years and (51.9% of them were girls, (54.3% of their parents were nonsmoker while the rest reported that both or one of them are smokers, direct and indirect risks of cigarette  smoking were known by (82.4% and (66.2% respectively, and (70.8% of students’ families were found to wear their kids from smoking hazards, while more than (50% of them have received health education massages from their teachers. Sitting near smoker person was not in favor of (86.2% of the participants, as (51.4% considered it religiously inconvenient and (34.6% considered smoking as a sign of no self-confidence. At last, (73.7% of the surveyed students agreed with smoking prohibition in public places while (25.8% opposed that.Conclusion: In spite of the high percentage of students’ parents were smokers; nevertheless, risks of smoking are well known by the surveyed students and they showed positive attitudes toward smoking prohibition in public places. Parental advising for quit smoking and urging teachers to educate their students about smoking hazards are thought to be the right action.

  20. Assessing emergency medical care in low income countries: A pilot study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Tasleem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency Medical Care is an important component of health care system. Unfortunately it is however, ignored in many low income countries. We assessed the availability and quality of facility-based emergency medical care in the government health care system at district level in a low income country – Pakistan. Methods We did a quantitative pilot study of a convenience sample of 22 rural and 20 urban health facilities in 2 districts – Faisalabad and Peshawar – in Pakistan. The study consisted of three separate cross-sectional assessments of selected community leaders, health care providers, and health care facilities. Three data collection instruments were created with input from existing models for facility assessment such as those used by the Joint Commission of Accreditation of Hospitals and the National Center for Health Statistics in USA and the Medical Research Council in Pakistan. Results The majority of respondents 43/44(98%, in community survey were not satisfied with the emergency care provided. Most participants 36/44(82% mentioned that they will not call an ambulance in health related emergency because it does not function properly in the government system. The expenses on emergency care for the last experience were reported to be less than 5,000 Pakistani Rupees (equivalent to US$ 83 for 19/29(66% respondents. Most health care providers 43/44(98% were of the opinion that their facilities were inadequately equipped to treat emergencies. The majority of facilities 31/42(74% had no budget allocated for emergency care. A review of medications and equipment available showed that many critical supplies needed in an emergency were not found in these facilities. Conclusion Assessment of emergency care should be part of health systems analysis in Pakistan. Multiple deficiencies in emergency care at the district level in Pakistan were noted in our study. Priority should be given to make emergency care responsive to

  1. FIM FRAME: a method for assessing and improving emergency plans for floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Lumbroso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade Europe has been hit by a number of severe flood events. Reviews of recent large flood events in England and France have indicated that there is room for improvement in the emergency planning for floods. Methods that can be used for the systematic assessment and improvement of emergency plans are extensively documented in readily available literature. However, those that do exist are often limited to appraising the content of the plans rather than the process that the plan should guide. This paper describes research to develop a systematic method for assessing and improving emergency plans, which is called the FIM FRAME method. The development of the method was informed by research carried out with stakeholders in France, the Netherlands and England, as well as an appraisal of available tools that can be used to develop and improve plans, and an analysis of a selection of flood emergency plans from the three countries. One of the fundamental requirements of the FIM FRAME method was that it should be able to be applied by the relevant stakeholders to a range of emergency plans that mainly focus on flooding. The method comprises a series of steps (known as Appraise, Tackle and Implement that can assist stakeholders with assessing and improving emergency plans. The method was piloted in the three countries and then refined following feedback from end users. This paper describes the development of the FIM FRAME method and its application in three case studies affected by different types of floods.

  2. A Brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment to evaluate concussions: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Anne; Collins, Michael W; Elbin, R J; Furman, Joseph M; Troutman-Enseki, Cara; DeWolf, Ryan M; Marchetti, Greg; Kontos, Anthony P

    2014-10-01

    Vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms have been documented in patients with sport-related concussions. However, there is no current brief clinical screen to assess and monitor these issues. To describe and provide initial data for the internal consistency and validity of a brief clinical screening tool for vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms after sport-related concussions. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-four patients, aged 13.9 ± 2.5 years and seen approximately 5.5 ± 4.0 days after a sport-related concussion, and 78 controls were administered the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment, which included 5 domains: (1) smooth pursuit, (2) horizontal and vertical saccades, (3) near point of convergence (NPC) distance, (4) horizontal vestibular ocular reflex (VOR), and (5) visual motion sensitivity (VMS). Participants were also administered the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Sixty-one percent of patients reported symptom provocation after at least 1 VOMS item. All VOMS items were positively correlated to the PCSS total symptom score. The VOR (odds ratio [OR], 3.89; P VMS (OR, 3.37; P VMS, NPC distance, and ln(age) that resulted in a high predicted probability (area under the curve = 0.89) for identifying concussed patients. The VOMS demonstrated internal consistency as well as sensitivity in identifying patients with concussions. The current findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the VOMS as a brief vestibular/ocular motor screen after sport-related concussions. The VOMS may augment current assessment tools and may serve as a single component of a comprehensive approach to the assessment of concussions. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. Preliminary assessment of off-season fuels for electricity generation at Indian sugar mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ranney, J.W. [Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-11-07

    This report on off-season fuels is part of a preliminary feasibility assessment to retrofit Indian sugar mills to cogenerate heat and power with sales of excess electricity to the local grid. To justify the high capital costs of retrofitting existing facilities, sugar mill operators must attempt to maximize the amount of power they sell to the local grid. This fact means that sugar mills must operate and sell power well-beyond the milling season, which typically lasts about 200 days. The purpose of this report is to assess and determine whether low cost and reliable sources of off-season fuels can be secured for two sugar mills (Simbhaoli and Daurala) within their respective sugar growing districts, located in western Uttar Pradesh. Off-season fuels under consideration include excess bagasse that is stored for off-season use, agricultural field residues (e.g., wheat straw), forest residues (e.g., bark and small limbs), and dedicated energy crops (short-rotation woody crops and herbaceous energy crops). Results of the pre-feasibility indicate that bagasse and some agricultural residues are available in sufficient quantity and may be available at reasonable cost.

  4. GIS-based preliminary wind-hydrogen energy assessment: A case study for Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain Siyal, Shahid; Hopper, Miles; Lefvert, Adrian; Mentis, Dimitris; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Lopez De Briñas Gorosabel, Oier; Varela González, Cristina; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    While the world is making progress on incorporating renewables in the electricity grid, the transport sector is still widely locked into using gasoline and diesel fuels. Simultaneously, wind energy is encountering resistance due to its intermittent nature. Wind to hydrogen energy conversion poses a solution to this problem, using wind powered electrolysis to produce hydrogen which can fuel the transport sector. In this report a preliminary assessment for wind to hydrogen energy conversion potential of Pakistan was made considering two different turbines; Vestas V82 and V112. Using available wind speed data, processed in ArcGIS, the hydrogen potential was calculated. Finally, the economic feasibility and potential environmental savings were assessed. From the results it was concluded that Pakistan has a good potential for wind to hydrogen conversion, with 63,807 and 80,232 ktons of hydrogen per year from the V82 and V112 turbines. This corresponds to 2,105 and 2,647 TWh of energy per year respectively. Only using 2% of that potential could give emissions savings of up to 11.43 and 14.37 MtCO2-eq, which would give good reason for more in-depth studies to evaluate the feasibility of a project in Pakistan.

  5. A preliminary economic feasibility assessment of nuclear desalination in Madura Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.-H.; Hwang, Y.-D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Konishi, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hudi Hastowo [National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jakarta (Indonesia)]. E-mail: hastowo@cbn.net.id

    2005-07-01

    A joint study between KAERI and BATAN, which is entitled 'A preliminary economic feasibility assessment of nuclear desalination in Madura Island', is being conducted under the framework of the Interregional Technical Cooperation Project of IAEA, signed on Oct. 10, 2001 at IAEA. The duration of the project is January 2002 to December 2004. An economic feasibility of nuclear desalination using system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART), which will provide Madura Island with electricity and potable water and also support industrialisation and tourism, will be assessed during the project. The scope of this joint study includes the analyses for the short- and long-term energy and water demand as well as the supply plan for Madura Island, evaluation of the site characteristics, environmental impacts and health aspects, technical and economic evaluation of SMART and its desalination system, including the feasibility of its being identified on the Madura Island. KAERI and BATAN are cooperating in conducting a joint study, and IAEA provides technical support and a review of the study products. This paper presents the interim results of the joint study by focussing on the technical and economic aspects of nuclear desalination using SMART in Madura Island. (author)

  6. Preliminary engineering assessment of the HCLL and HCPB Neutron Activation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, Pattrick; Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona, (Spain); Angelone, Maurizio [ENEA, Unita Tecnica Fusione, Frascati, (Italy); Klix, Axel [KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Neutron Activation System (NAS) is one of the four types of neutronics sensors considered for the testing of the HCLL and HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER. It measures the absolute neutron flux intensity with information on the neutron spectrum in selected positions of the TBM. The working principle of the NAS is as follows: the system moves small activation probes (capsules) into selected positions in the TBM (irradiation ends) by means of pneumatic transport with pressurized helium gas; the capsules are irradiated for a selected period, depending on their materials composition (several tens of seconds up to the full plasma pulse length); immediately after the irradiation they are extracted and transported to a gamma spectrometer by means of the same pneumatic transport system; the gamma spectrometer determines the induced gamma activity; the neutron flux and neutron fluence is calculated from the measured gamma activity and the known activation cross section of the materials in the activation probe; after the measurement the capsule is sent either to a disposal or storage (for later measurement). This paper summarizes the results of the feasibility assessment of the TBM NAS in the conceptual design phase, including design justification, identification of requirements based on the expected operating conditions in ITER and preliminary engineering assessment of the activation materials, irradiation ends integration in the modules design and the counting station. (authors)

  7. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of mineral and hydrocarbon activities on the Nuussuaq peninsula, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Asmund, G.; Glahder, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2008-01-15

    There is an increasing interest for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration in Greenland and in both regards the Nuussuaq peninsula is in focus. This preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment describes the status of the biological knowledge from the area and designates potential conflicts between activities and the biological environment. Furthermore biological knowledge gaps are identified. These should be filled before specific environmental impacts assessments can be carried out and relevant studies to fill these data gaps are proposed. (au)

  8. Identifying Factors Associated with Risk Assessment Competencies of Public Health Emergency Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiejing; Ren, Jiaojiao; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Ning, Ning; Ding, Ding

    2017-06-04

    This study aimed to better understand the current situation of risk assessment and identify the factors associated with competence of emergency responders in public health risk assessment. The participants were selected by a multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling method in Heilongjiang Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The questionnaires that measured their perceptions on risk assessment competences were administered through the face-to-face survey. A final sample of 1889 staff was obtained. Of this sample, 78.6% of respondents rated their own risk assessment competences as "relatively low", contrasting with 21.4% rated as "relatively high". Most of the respondents (62.7%) did not participate in any risk assessment work. Only 13.7% and 42.7% of respondents reported participating in risk assessment training and were familiar with risk assessment tools. There existed statistical significance between risk assessment-related characteristics of respondents and their self-rated competences scores. Financial support from the government and administrative attention were regarded as the important factors contributing to risk assessment competences of CDC responders. Higher attention should be given to risk assessment training and enhancing the availability of surveillance data. Continuous efforts should be made to remove the financial and technical obstacles to improve the competences of risk assessment for public health emergency responders.

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Requirement Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This revision of the LLNL Fire Protection Baseline Needs Assessment (BNA) was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by Martin Gresho, Sandia/CA Fire Marshal. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only address emergency response. The original LLNL BNA was created on April 23, 1997 as a means of collecting all requirements concerning emergency response capabilities at LLNL (including response to emergencies at Sandia/CA) into one BNA document. The original BNA documented the basis for emergency response, emergency personnel staffing, and emergency response equipment over the years. The BNA has been updated and reissued five times since in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. A significant format change was performed in the 2004 update of the BNA in that it was 'zero based.' Starting with the requirement documents, the 2004 BNA evaluated the requirements, and determined minimum needs without regard to previous evaluations. This 2010 update maintains the same basic format and requirements as the 2004 BNA. In this 2010 BNA, as in the previous BNA, the document has been intentionally divided into two separate documents - the needs assessment (1) and the compliance assessment (2). The needs assessment will be referred to as the BNA and the compliance assessment will be referred to as the BNA Compliance Assessment. The primary driver for separation is that the needs assessment identifies the detailed applicable regulations (primarily NFPA Standards) for emergency response capabilities based on the hazards present at LLNL and Sandia/CA and the geographical location of the facilities. The needs assessment also identifies areas where the modification of the requirements in the applicable NFPA standards is appropriate, due to the improved fire protection

  10. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Poomacha Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Poomacha Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  11. Emergency assessment of debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2007 Harris Fire, San Diego County, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    IntroductionThe objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Harris Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  12. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Witch Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Witch Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  13. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Rice Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Rice Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  14. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Santiago Fire, Orange County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Santiago Fire in Orange County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  15. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Buckweed Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Buckweed Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  16. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ammo Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ammo Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  17. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Canyon Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Canyon Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  18. System model for evaluation of an emergency response plan for a nuclear power plant based on an assessment of nuclear emergency exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius C.; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are designed and built with systems dedicated to provide a high degree of protection to its workers, the population living in their neighborhoods and the environment. Among the requirements for ensuring safety there are the existence of the nuclear emergency plan. Due to the relationship between the actions contemplated in the emergency plan and the nuclear emergency exercise, it becomes possible to assess the quality of the nuclear emergency plan, by means of emergency exercise evaluation, The techniques used in this work aim at improving the evaluation method of a nuclear emergency exercise through the use of performance indicators in the evaluation of the structures, actions and procedures involved. The proposed model enables comparisons between different moments of an emergency plan directed to a nuclear power plant as well as comparisons between plans dedicated to different facilities. (author)

  19. Measuring non-technical skills in medical emergency care: a review of assessment measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simon Cooper1, Ruth Endacott2, Robyn Cant11School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Gippsland Campus, Churchill, Victoria, Australia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth UKAim: To review the literature on non-technical skills and assessment methods relevant to emergency care.Background: Non-technical skills (NTS include leadership, teamwork, decision making and situation awareness, all of which have an impact on healthcare outcomes. Significant concerns have been raised about the rates of adverse medical events, many of which are attributed to NTS failures.Methods: Ovid, Medline, ProQUEST, PsycINFO and specialty websites were searched for NTS measures using applicable access strategies, inclusion and exclusion criteria. Publications identified were assessed for relevance.Results: A range of non-technical skill measures relevant to emergency care was identified: leadership (n = 5, teamwork (n = 7, personality/behavior (n = 3 and situation awareness tools (n = 1. Of these, 9 have been used with emergency care populations/clinicians. All had varying degrees of reliability and validity. In the last decade there has been some development of teamwork measures specific to emergency care with a predominantly global and collective rating of broad skills.Conclusion: A variety of non-technical skill measures are available; only a few have been used in the emergency care arena. There is a need for an increase in the focused assessment of teamwork skills for a greater understanding of team performance to enhance patient safety in medical emergency care.Keywords: non-technical skills, teamwork, medical emergency, standards

  20. Consistency assessment with global and bridging development strategies in emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Josh; Quan, Hui; Shentu, Yue

    2013-11-01

    Global trial strategy with the participation of all major regions including countries from emerging markets surely increases new drug development efficiency. Nevertheless, there are circumstances in which some countries in emerging markets cannot join the original global trial. To evaluate the extrapolability of the original trial results to a new country, a bridging trial in the country has to be conducted. In this paper, we first evaluate the efficiency loss of the bridging trial strategy compared to that of the global trial strategy as a function of between-study variability from consistency assessment perspective. The provided evidence should encourage countries in emerging markets to make a greater effort to participate in the original global trial. We then discuss sample size requirement for desired assurance probability for consistency assessment based on various approaches for both global and bridging trial strategies. Examples are presented for numerical demonstration and comparisons.

  1. A new methodology for assessment of pectus excavatum correction after bar removal in Nuss procedure: Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Fonseca, João; Vilaça, João L; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Direito-Santos, Bruno; Pinho, António C M; Fonseca, Jaime C; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The objective is to present a new methodology to assess quantitatively the impact of bar removal on the anterior chest wall, among patients with pectus excavatum who have undergone the Nuss procedure, and present a preliminary study using this methodology. We propose to acquire, for each patient, the surface of the anterior chest wall using a three-dimensional laser scanner at subsequent time points (short term: before and after surgery; long term: follow-up visit, 6months, and 12months after surgery). After surfaces postprocessing, the changes are assessed by overlapping and measuring the distances between surfaces. In this preliminary study, three time points were acquired and two assessments were performed: before vs after bar removal (early) and before vs 2-8weeks after bar removal (interim). In 21 patients, the signed distances and volumes between surfaces were computed and the data analysis was performed. This methodology revealed useful for monitoring changes in the anterior chest wall. On average, the mean, maximum, and volume variations, in the early assessment, were -0.1±0.1cm, -0.6±0.2cm, and 47.8±22.2cm(3), respectively; and, in the interim assessment, were -0.5±0.2cm, -1.3±0.4cm, and 122.1±47.3cm(3), respectively (pmethodology is novel, objective and safe, helping on follow-up of pectus excavatum patients. Moreover, the preliminary study suggests that the time the bar was in situ may be the main determinant of the anterior chest wall retraction following bar removal. Further studies should continue to corroborate and reinforce the preliminary findings, by increasing the sample size and performing long-term assessments. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary assessment of metal toxicity in the middle Tisza river (Hungary) flood plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, M.C.; Williams, P.L. [Dept. of Environmental Health Science, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Cyanide and heavy metals were accidentally released from a mine waste lagoon in Romania into tributaries ultimately draining into the Tisza River. Within two months of the cyanide accident two subsequent heavy metal waste spills further contaminated the Tisza River, followed by severe spring flooding, which potentially spread the contamination to soils adjacent to the river. Flood plain soils and shoreline sediments were sampled from two locations on the middle Tisza River and a reference site to conduct a preliminary assessment of metal content and toxicity. Ten-day sediment toxicity tests were conducted with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca and 24 h soil toxicity tests were conducted with the nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). High concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead and arsenic were detected in soil and sediment samples. However, no mortality was observed in Hyalella exposed to Tisza River sediments and only up to 27% mortality of C. elegans was observed in flood plain soils. Low mortalities are attributed to reduced metal bioavailability caused by high soil cation exchange capacities and possible interactions with sediment organic matter or sulfides. Future studies should focus on factors that alter metal bioavailability and their relationship to potential toxicity of organisms exposed to Tisza River sediments and flood plain soils. (orig.)

  3. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Effects of Paint Industry Effluents on Local Groundwater Regime in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, groundwater constitutes a major source of water supply especially in developing countries, however wastes generated arising from industrial growth and further complication caused by its indiscriminate disposal have been a major risk to groundwater vulnerability. Hence in this study, preliminary impact assessment of wastewater discharged from paint industry on proximal groundwater regime was carried out. Representative groundwater and effluent samples were collected from locations within the study area, and analyzed in accordance to the American Public Health Association standard methods. The values of the measured concentration of the parameters were compared with regulatory standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Mn2+ , total Fe, Ca2+ , TDS, TSS, total hardness and SO4 2- were mostly higher than the permissible regulatory standards. Total alkalinity values were very low in all the groundwater samples, while the presence of E-coli across all the sampling points indicated wide spread pathogenic contamination. The results showed average lead concentration of 1.18 mg/l compared to the permissible level of 0.01 mg/l. Corresponding higher values of the physicochemical and biological parameters were observed in the discharged effluent samples. The observed high lead concentration have potential toxic consequences, and hence enforcement of localized waste minimization is recommended in order to promote waste recycling, and ensure adequate protection of public health and the environment.

  5. Euler technology assessment for preliminary aircraft design employing OVERFLOW code with multiblock structured-grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, David A.; Muilenburg, Dennis A.

    1995-01-01

    The viability of applying a state-of-the-art Euler code to calculate the aerodynamic forces and moments through maximum lift coefficient for a generic sharp-edge configuration is assessed. The OVERFLOW code, a method employing overset (Chimera) grids, was used to conduct mesh refinement studies, a wind-tunnel wall sensitivity study, and a 22-run computational matrix of flow conditions, including sideslip runs and geometry variations. The subject configuration was a generic wing-body-tail geometry with chined forebody, swept wing leading-edge, and deflected part-span leading-edge flap. The analysis showed that the Euler method is adequate for capturing some of the non-linear aerodynamic effects resulting from leading-edge and forebody vortices produced at high angle-of-attack through C(sub Lmax). Computed forces and moments, as well as surface pressures, match well enough useful preliminary design information to be extracted. Vortex burst effects and vortex interactions with the configuration are also investigated.

  6. A preliminary spatial assessment of risk: Marine birds and chronic oil pollution on Canada's Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C H; O'Hara, P D; Bertazzon, S; Morgan, K; Underwood, F E; Paquet, P C

    2016-12-15

    Chronic oil pollution poses substantial risks to marine birds and other marine wildlife worldwide. On Canada's Pacific coast, the negative ecological consequences to marine birds and marine ecosystems in general remain poorly understood. Using information relating to oil spill probability of occurrence, areas of overall importance to marine birds, and the at-sea distribution and density of 12 marine bird species and seven bird groups, including multiple Species at Risk, we undertook a spatial assessment of risk. Our results identify two main areas important to marine birds potentially at higher risk of exposure to oil. For individual bird species or species groups, those predicted to have elevated bird densities near the mainland and the northeast coast of Vancouver Island were identified as being at higher potential risk of exposure. Our results, however, should be considered preliminary. As with other anthropogenic stressors, in order to better understand and subsequently mitigate the consequences of chronic oil pollution on marine birds, improved information relating to marine birds and the occurrence of oil spills on Canada's Pacific coast is needed.

  7. Preliminary study on assessment of nutrient transport in the Taihu Basin based on SWAT modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI; Geying; YU; Ge; GUI; Feng

    2006-01-01

    With the Taihu Basin as a study area, using the spatially distributed and mechanism-based SWAT model, preliminary simulations of nutrient transport in the Taihu Basin during the period of 1995~2002 has been carried out. The topography, soil, meteorology and land use with industrial point pollution discharge, the loss of agricultural fertilizers, urban sewerage, and livestock drainages were all considered in the boundary conditions of the simulations. The model was calibrated and validated against water quality monitoring data from 2001 to 2002. The results show that the annual total productions of nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) into Lake Taihu are 40000t and 2000t respectively. Nutrient from the Huxi Region is a major resource for Lake Taihu. The non-point source (surface source) pollution is the main form of catchment sources of nutrients into Lake Taihu,occupied TN 53% and TP 56% respectively. TN and TP nutrients from industrial point pollution discharge are 30% and 16%, and sewerage in both forms of point source and non-point source are TN 31% and TP 47%. Both the loss of agricultural fertilizers and livestock drainages from the catchment should be paid more attention as an important nutrient source. The results also show that SWAT is an effective model for the simulation of temporally and spatially nutrient changes and for the assessment of the trends in a catchment scale.

  8. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85: Presentation Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, Bentley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85 presentation and supplementary report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory examine how the spacing of E85 fueling stations impacts E85 retail pricing. The analysis finds an inverse correlation between station density and E85 prices, with local competition putting downward pressure on E85 prices. A gas station with E85 whose nearest competitor is within a 0.5 mile radius is associated with a lower E85 price per gallon than an otherwise identical station with E85 whose nearest competitor is farther away. The analysis also finds a higher level of correlation between E85 and both E10 and wholesale gasoline prices than with ethanol costs. This indicates that E85 may, in fact, be priced with respect to its substitute fuel, and not based on the cost of its inputs. These findings help identify key trends and barriers in E85 markets and highlight data gaps that, if addressed, could help enable competitive E85 markets. The analysis was released in February 2017 and uses national and Minnesota-specific price data.

  9. Preliminary assessment of perchlorate in ecological receptors at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (LHAAP), Karnack, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P N; Theodorakis, C W; Anderson, T A; Kendall, R J

    2001-10-01

    There have been increasing human health and ecological concerns about ionic perchlorate (ClO4-) since it was detected in drinking water sources in 1997. Perchlorate is known to affect thyroid function, causing subsequent hormone disruption and potential perturbations of metabolic activities. According to current estimates, perchlorate is found in the surface of groundwater of 14 states, including Texas. Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, located in east central Texas, was a facility historically associated with perchlorate-containing propellants and rocket motors. Subsequently, perchlorate contamination in ground and surface waters at the facility has been reported. Soil, sediment, water, vegetation, and animal tissue samples were collected from several locations within the plant for a preliminary site assessment of perchlorate contamination. Perchlorate concentrations ranged from 555-5,557,000 ppb in vegetation, 811-2038 ppb in aquatic insects, below detection limits (ND) to 207 ppb in fish, ND-580 ppb in frogs, and ND-2328 ppb in mammals. Consistent with our hypothesis, aquatic organisms inhabiting perchlorate-contaminated surface water bodies contained detectable concentrations of perchlorate. Additionally, terrestrial organisms were exposed through pathways not necessarily related to contaminated surface waters. Therefore, these data demonstrate that aquatic and terrestrial species are exposed to perchlorate in the environment. To our knowledge, this represents the first incidence of perchlorate exposure among wild animals reported in the scientific literature.

  10. Preliminary water-quality assessment of the upper White River near Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.; Eikenberry, S.E.; Wilber, W.G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1981-01-01

    The White River Park Commission is planning the development of park facilities along the White River through Indianapolis, Ind. A key element in the planning is the determination of whether water quality of the river is suitable for recreation. A preliminary water-quality assessment conducted August 4-5, 1980, indicated that, during low-flow steady-state conditions, the river is suitable for partial body contact recreation (any contact with water up to, but not including complete submergence). Dissolved-oxygen concentrations varied but were higher than the Indiana water-quality standards established to ensure conditions for the maintenance of a well-balanced, warm-water fish community. High fecal-coliform densities that have been observed in the White River during high streamflow are probably caused by stormwater runoff carried by combined storm and sanitary sewers. However, during the low-flow, steady-state conditions on August 4-5, 1980, fecal-coliform densities were within the Indiana standards for partial body contact recreation. Quantities of organic matter and concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in the White River were generally within the limits recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and were generally similar to values for other Indiana rivers. Chromium, copper, lead, zinc, and mercury are accumulating in bottom materials downstream from 30th Street. The phytoplankton concentrations in the White River were high. The dominant phytoplankton species were indicative of rivers moderately affected by organic wastes. (USGS)

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley Clinton

    2017-02-01

    The Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85 presentation and supplementary report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory examine how the spacing of E85 fueling stations impacts E85 retail pricing. The analysis finds an inverse correlation between station density and E85 prices, with local competition putting downward pressure on E85 prices. A gas station with E85 whose nearest competitor is within a 0.5 mile radius is associated with a lower E85 price per gallon than an otherwise identical station with E85 whose nearest competitor is farther away. The analysis also finds a higher level of correlation between E85 and both E10 and wholesale gasoline prices than with ethanol costs. This indicates that E85 may, in fact, be priced with respect to its substitute fuel, and not based on the cost of its inputs. These findings help identify key trends and barriers in E85 markets and highlight data gaps that, if addressed, could help enable competitive E85 markets. The analysis was released in February 2017 and uses national and Minnesota-specific price data.

  12. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria Educational Assessment System--Emerging Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aworanti, Olatunde Awotokun

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria educational assessment system with its emerging challenges. This is inevitable following the globalisation trend which has brought drastic changes in the world of technology. The essence of the paper is to describe the present status of ICT in the Nigeria educational…

  13. Longitudinal Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response to Wildfire, Bastrop County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Katie R; Feldt, Bonnie A; Zane, David F; Haywood, Tracy; Jones, Russell W; Horney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    On September 4, 2011, a wildfire ignited in Bastrop County, Texas, resulting in losses of 34,068 acres of land and 1,645 homes and 2 deaths. At the request of the Texas Department of State Health Services Health Service Region 7 and the Bastrop County Office of Emergency Management, Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) were conducted in the weeks following the wildfire and again 3.5 years later to assess both the immediate and long-term public health and preparedness impacts of the wildfire. The objective of these assessments was to learn more about the trajectory of disaster recovery, including rebuilding, evacuation, household emergency planning, and mental and physical health outcomes among both adults and children. In 2015, households exposed to the 2011 wildfires were significantly more likely to have established a family meeting place and evacuation route, to have confidence in the local government's ability to respond to disaster, and to report symptoms of depression and higher stress. Longitudinal assessments using the CASPER method can provide actionable information for improved planning, preparedness, and recovery to public health and emergency management agencies and community residents.

  14. Some Theoretic Approaches to the Emerging Study of Political Communication: A Critical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L.

    This paper assesses the state of political communication as an emerging multidisciplinary effort and discusses two major varieties of political communication theory and research. The first section of the paper discusses the "effects" research tradition in mass and political communication, examines the impact of critiques of this…

  15. Emerging Theoretical Models of Reading through Authentic Assessments among Preservice Teachers: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboler, Eileen S.; Gupta, Abha

    2010-01-01

    This two-part study examines the emerging understanding of the reading process among preservice teachers (PTs), enrolled in a teacher preparation course on diagnostic reading. The study focuses on the use of reading assessment tools to understand the process of reading, while using reading inventories for diagnostic as well as pedagogical…

  16. Image and Imaging an Emergency Department: Expense and Benefit of Different Quality Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this era of high-tech medicine, it is becoming increasingly important to assess patient satisfaction. There are several methods to do so, but these differ greatly in terms of cost, time, and labour and external validity. The aim of this study is to describe and compare the structure and implementation of different methods to assess the satisfaction of patients in an emergency department. Methods. The structure and implementation of the different methods to assess patient satisfaction were evaluated on the basis of a 90-minute standardised interview. Results. We identified a total of six different methods in six different hospitals. The average number of patients assessed was 5012, with a range from 230 (M5 to 20 000 patients (M2. In four methods (M1, M3, M5, and M6, the questionnaire was composed by a specialised external institute. In two methods, the questionnaire was created by the hospital itself (M2, M4.The median response rate was 58.4% (range 9–97.8%. With a reminder, the response rate increased by 60% (M3. Conclusion. The ideal method to assess patient satisfaction in the emergency department setting is to use a patient-based, in-emergency department-based assessment of patient satisfaction, planned and guided by expert personnel.

  17. The Highland Health Advocates: a preliminary evaluation of a novel programme addressing the social needs of emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losonczy, Lia Ilona; Hsieh, Dennis; Wang, Michael; Hahn, Christopher; Trivedi, Tarak; Rodriguez, Marcela; Fahimi, Jahan; Alter, Harrison

    2017-09-01

    Patients commonly come to the emergency department (ED) with social needs. To address this, we created the Highland Health Advocates (HHA), an ED-based help desk and medical-legal partnership using undergraduate volunteers to help patients navigate public resources and provide onsite legal and social work referrals. We were able to provide these services in English and Spanish. We aimed to determine the social needs of the patients who presented to our ED and the potential impact of the programme in resolving those needs and connecting them to a 'medical home' (defined as a consistent, primary source of medical care such as a primary care doctor or clinic). ED patients at a US safety net hospital were enrolled in a 1:2 ratio in a quasi-experiment comparing those who received intervention from the HHA during a limited access rollout with controls who received usual care on days with no help desk. We collected a baseline social needs evaluation, with follow-up assessments at 1 and 6 months. Primary outcomes were linkages for the primary identified need and to a medical home within 1 month. Other outcomes at 6 months included whether a patient (1) felt helped; 2) had a decreased number of ED visits; (3) had the primary identified need met; (4) had a primary doctor; and (5) had a change in self-reported health status. We enrolled 459 subjects (intervention=154, control=305). Housing (41%), employment (23%) and inability to pay bills (22%) were participants' top identified needs. At baseline, 32% reported the ED as their medical home, with the intervention cohort having higher ED utilisation (>1 ED visit in the prior month: 49% vs 24%). At 1 month, 185 (40%) subjects were reached for follow-up, with more HHA subjects linked to a resource (59% vs 37%) and a medical home (92% vs 76%). At 6 months, 75% of subjects felt HHA was helpful and more subjects in the HHA group had a doctor (93% v 69%). No difference was found in ED utilisation, primary need resolution or self

  18. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime(®) manufactured by Revlon(®) consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61%) was most prevalent, followed by Type I' (28%), Type II (9%), Type III (2%), Type IV (1%), and Type V (1%); in the male population, Type I (33%) was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%), Type III (18%), Type IV (14%), Type I' (10%), and Type V (3%). Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870) and females (κ = 0.870). Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI) of 91.48-99.38. Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database.

  19. Preliminary assessment of partitioning and transmutation as a radioactive waste management concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A. G.; Tedder, D. W.; Drago, J. P.; Blomeke, J. O.; Perona, J. J.

    1977-09-01

    Partitioning (separating) the actinide elements from nuclear fuel cycle wastes and transmuting (burning) them to fission products in power reactors represents a potentially advanced concept of radioactive waste management which could reduce the long-term (greater than 1000 years) risk associated with geologic isolation of wastes. The greatest uncertainties lie in the chemical separations technology needed to recover greater than 99 percent of the actinides during the reprocessing of spent fuels and their refabrication as fresh fuels or target elements. Preliminary integrated flowsheets based on modifications of the Purex process and supplementary treatment by oxalate precipitation and ion exchange indicate that losses of plutonium in reprocessing wastes might be reduced from about 2.0 percent to 0.1 percent, uranium losses from about 1.7 percent to 0.1 percent, neptunium losses from 100 percent to about 1.2 percent, and americium and curium from 100 percent to about 0.5 percent. Mixed oxide fuel fabrication losses may be reduced from about 0.5 percent to 0.06 percent for plutonium and from 0.5 percent to 0.04 percent for uranium. Americium losses would be about 5.5 percent for the reference system. Transmutation of the partitioned actinides at a rate of 5 to 7 percent per year is feasible in both fast and thermal reactors, but additional studies are needed to determine the most suitable strategy for recycling them to reactors and to assess the major impacts of implementing the concept on fuel cycle operations and costs. It is recommended that the ongoing program to evaluate the feasibility, impacts, costs, and incentives of implementing partitioning-transmutation be continued until a firm assessment of its potentialities can be made. At the present level of effort, achievement of this objective should be possible by 1980. 27 tables, 50 figures.

  20. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime® manufactured by Revlon® consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. Results: No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61%) was most prevalent, followed by Type I’ (28%), Type II (9%), Type III (2%), Type IV (1%), and Type V (1%); in the male population, Type I (33%) was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%), Type III (18%), Type IV (14%), Type I’ (10%), and Type V (3%). Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870) and females (κ = 0.870). Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI) of 91.48-99.38. Conclusion: Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database. PMID:26816459

  1. Suicide Risk Assessment in Australian Emergency Departments: Assessing Clinicians’ Disposition Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Weiland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine (1 the uniformity of disposition decisions made by clinicians working in Australian emergency departments (EDs using vignettes describing patients presenting with deliberate self-harm or suicide risk; (2 factors associated with these decisions; (3 factors associated with confidence in these decisions. Methodology. We validated and distributed by email an online survey tool to Australian emergency clinicians via their colleges. Participants were presented with five vignettes and asked to rate the level of risk and protective factors for suicide, the patient’s disposition (admit/discharge/review, factors influencing this decision, their confidence in the decision, and factors that would have improved their confidence. Results. Percentages of participants choosing the modal disposition decision for each scenario ranged from 58.6% (136/232 to 92.4% (220/238, demonstrating uniformity in clinicians’ disposition decisions. Predictors of disposition were consistently level of risk factors perceived and, infrequently, clinician factors including age and years experience. Confidence in disposition decisions was high across scenarios. Clinicians reported patient, clinician, contextual and decision support factors relevant to an Australian emergency context affected their disposition decisions and confidence in decisions. Conclusion. Emergency clinicians are uniform and confident in their disposition decisions for patient vignettes where there is risk of suicide or self harm.

  2. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  3. Assessment of Behavioural Markers of Autonoetic Consciousness during Episodic Autobiographical Memory Retrieval: A Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing theoretical debate regarding episodic memory and how it can be accurately measured, in particular if the focus should be content-based recall of episodic details or something more experiential involving the subjective capacity to mentally travel back in time and “re-live” aspects of the original event. The autonoetic subscale of the Episodic Autobiographical Memory Interview (EAMI is presented here as a new test instrument that attempts to redress theoretical and methodological shortcomings in autobiographical memory assessment. The EAMI merges a phenomenological detail-based approach with an assessment of autonoetic consciousness, departing considerably from traditional Remember/Know paradigms used within this field. We present findings from an initial pilot study investigating the potential markers of autonoetic consciousness that may accompany episodic retrieval. Key behavioural indices of autonoetic consciousness, notably those of viewer perspective, visual imagery, and emotional re-experiencing, emerged as being inextricably bound with the level of phenomenological detail recalled and the overall re-living judgment. The autonoetic subscale of the EAMI permits conceptually refined assessment of episodic personal memories and the accompanying subjective experience of mental re-living, characteristic of episodic memory.

  4. Do emergency medicine residents and faculty have similar learning styles when assessed with the Kolb learning style assessment tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Jenna; O'Brien, Corinne; Poole, Christy; Nomura, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Experiential learning theory and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (Kolb LSI) have influenced educators worldwide for decades. Knowledge of learning styles can create efficient learning environments, increase information retention, and improve learner satisfaction. Learning styles have been examined in medicine previously, but not specifically with Emergency Medicine (EM) residents and attendings. Using the Kolb LSI, the learning styles of Emergency Medicine residents and attendings were assessed. The findings showed that the majority of EM residents and attendings shared the accommodating learning style. This result was different than prior studies that found the majority of medical professionals had a converging learning style and other studies that found attendings often have different learning styles than residents. The issue of learning styles among emergency medical residents and attendings is important because learning style knowledge may have an impact on how a residency program structures curriculum and how EM residents are successfully, efficiently, and creatively educated.

  5. E-learning for grass-roots emergency public health personnel: Preliminary lessons from a national program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangquan; Jiang, Qicheng; Qin, Xia; Fang, Guixia; Hu, Zhi

    2016-07-19

    In China, grass-roots emergency public health personnel have relatively limited emergency response capabilities and they are constantly required to update their professional knowledge and skills due to recurring and new public health emergencies. However, professional training, a principal solution to this problem, is inadequate because of limitations in manpower and financial resources at grass-roots public health agencies. In order to provide a cost-effective and easily expandable way for grass-roots personnel to acquire knowledge and skills, the National Health Planning Commission of China developed an emergency response information platform and provided trial access to this platform in Anhui and Heilongjiang provinces in China. E-learning was one of the modules of the platform and this paper has focused on an e-learning pilot program. Results indicated that e-learning had satisfactorily improved the knowledge and ability of grass-roots emergency public health personnel, and the program provided an opportunity to gain experience in e-course design and implementing e-learning. Issues such as the lack of personalized e-courses and the difficulty of evaluating the effectiveness of e-learning are topics for further study.

  6. A Preliminary Assessment of Social Vulnerability in Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Sugata; Islam, Nabiul

    2017-04-01

    The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta has a high population density and is exposed to rapid environmental changes making it one of the most stressed deltas in the world. The low-lying coastal areas of the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta comprise 19 coastal districts of Bangladesh and two districts in India with significant land areas within 5 meters of sea level has a population of more than 50 million people at an average population density of 1100 people/km2. This population is exposed to a range of hazards such as severe cyclones, coastal erosion, and salinization, exacerbated by climate change and subsidence which imply severe stress on the resource dependent community of this region. This situation is further complicated by poverty and limited social well-being such as poor access to education/ health/ drinking water/ sanitation facilities, and lack of food and energy security. Thus assessing social vulnerability can help to understand which communities are susceptible to environmental change and guide adaptation actions to address these threats. This preliminary study aims to construct a socio-economic index by assessing the social vulnerability of coastal communities of GBM Delta taking consistent and common secondary data from the Census of India and the Bangladesh Bureau of Statisticsand applyinga Principle Component Analysis(PCA) methodology. Several statistical tests like Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) have also been used to assess the appropriateness of using PCA. Among the selected common indicators, five major components are found to explain majority of the total variation of social vulnerability across the delta: (1) poverty, (2) dependency ratio, (3) agriculture dependency, (4) lack of sanitation and (5) existence of mud houses. The most important observation is the existence of a social vulnerability gradient across the coast. In other words, socially marginalised and vulnerable communities are found on the Delta margin in both India and

  7. A Preliminary Assessment of a Deep Borehole disposal of Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Younmyoung; Jeon, Jongtae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of such radioactive waste as spent nuclear fuels (SFs) and other waste forms has been investigating mainly at Sandia National Labs for the US DOE as an alternative option. DBD can give advantages over less deep geological disposal since the disposal of wastes at a great depth where a low degree of permeability in the potentially steady rock condition will be beneficial for nuclide movement. Groundwater in the deep basement rock can even have salinity and less chance to mix with groundwater above. The DBD concept is quite straightforward and even simple: Waste canisters are simply emplaced in the lower 2 km part of the borehole down to 5 km deep. Through this study, a conceptual DBD is assessed for a similar case as the US DOE's approach, in which 400 SF canisters are to be emplaced at a deep bottom between 3km and 5km depths, upon which an additional 1km-thick compacted bentonite is overbuffered, and the remaining upper part of the borehole is backfilled again with a mixture of crushed rock and bentonite. Then, the total 5km-deep borehole has three zones: a disposal zone at the bottom 2km, a buffer zone at the next 1km, and backfill zone at the rest top 2km, as illustrated conceptually in Fig. 1. To demonstrate the feasibility in view of long-term radiological safety, a rough model for a safety assessment of this conceptual deep borehole repository system, providing detailed models for nuclide transport in and around the geosphere and biosphere under normal nuclide release scenarios that can occur after a closure of the repository, has been developed using GoldSim. A simple preliminary result in terms of the dose exposure rate from a safety assessment of the DBD is also presented and compared to the case of direct disposal of SFs in a KBS-3V vertical type repository, carried out in previous studies. For different types and shapes of repositories at each different depth, direct comparison between a DBD and a KBS-3 type disposal of

  8. A qualitative exploration of which resident skills parents in pediatric emergency departments can assess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Katherine A; Eady, Kaylee; Frank, Jason R; Hamstra, Stanley J; Karwowska, Anna; Murnaghan, Aleisha; Pound, Catherine M; Tse, Sandy; Jabbour, Mona

    2016-11-01

    Residents must strive for excellence in their nontechnical skills (NTS). However, NTS have not traditionally been well-assessed in pediatric emergency departments (EDs). One underutilized assessment strategy is to have parents assess the residents caring for their children. Prior to involving parents in resident assessment, it is essential to identify which NTS parents in pediatric EDs can assess. To explore which resident NTS parents in pediatric EDs can assess. An exploratory qualitative study design was used. It included interviews with faculty members involved in the supervision and assessment of residents in a pediatric ED and residents who had experience working in a pediatric ED, as well as focus groups with parents who had visited a pediatric ED at least twice in the past year. Participants in this study suggested that parents, if provided with the opportunity, can assess residents' communication skills, comfort in a pediatric setting, adaptability, and collaboration. This study demystifies how parents can become involved in the assessment of residents' NTS. The findings will inform the development of assessment strategies and could be used to develop assessment instruments that enable parents to become actively involved in the assessment of residents in pediatric EDs.

  9. Medical student self-assessment narratives: perceived educational needs during fourth-year emergency medicine clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aaron W; Balodis, Amanda; Kman, Nicholas E; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2013-01-01

    The educational needs of medical students in the 4th-year of training are not well defined in the literature. The specific aim of this investigation is to characterize the perceived educational needs of 4th-year medical students during an Emergency Medicine clerkship. This was a thematic analysis of informed self-assessment narratives. The writings were performed by medical students during an Emergency Medicine clerkship from July 2010 through May 2011. Themes and subthemes that emerged were assessed for frequency of occurrence. Qualitative analysis of 203 narratives revealed 13 themes and 55 subthemes. Patient care (50%), history taking (44%), and physical examination (29%) were the themes most commonly noted as strengths. Medical decision making/plan of care (44%), differential diagnosis (37%), presentation skills (32%), and knowledge base (27%) were the themes most commonly noted as weaknesses. All themes were described as strengths by some students and weaknesses by others; however, trends were apparent in the analysis. Fourth-year medical students rotating on an Emergency Medicine clerkship perceive an educational need to improve medical decision making/plan of care. Self-assessment narratives reveal trends in strengths and weaknesses but also highlight the importance of recognizing students as unique learners with individualized needs.

  10. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  11. May thrombopoietin be a useful marker of sepsis severity assessment in patients with SIRS entering the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Elisabetta; Pigozzi, Luca; Lison, Davide; Pivetta, Emanuele; Bosco, Ornella; Vizio, Barbara; Suppo, Umberto; Turvani, Fabrizio; Morello, Fulvio; Battista, Stefania; Moiraghi, Corrado; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Lupia, Enrico

    2014-10-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO), a growth factor primarily involved in regulating thrombopoiesis, has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis. TPO levels are, indeed, greatly increased in patients with sepsis compared to control subjects, and correlate with sepsis severity. The aim of this study was to evaluate TPO as predictive biomarker of sepsis and of sepsis severity in patients entering the emergency department (ED) with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This was a prospective observational study. Ours is a sub-study of the 'Need-speed trial', a multi-center observational study involving six Italian centers affiliated to the GREAT Italian Network. TPO was measured by ELISA. We enrolled 13 patients with SIRS (6 with acute pancreatitis, 3 with acute heart failure, 1 with pulmonary embolism, and 3 with allergic reactions), and 40 patients with sepsis, eight of whom had severe sepsis and three septic shock. TPO was significantly higher in patients with sepsis than with SIRS. In addition, TPO was higher in patients with severe sepsis than with sepsis, and in patients with septic shock than with severe sepsis, although these differences did not reach the statistical significance. Our preliminary results suggest that TPO may have the potential to be considered a promising early biomarker for both the diagnosis of sepsis and the assessment of sepsis severity in patients with SIRS entering the ED.

  12. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility, desirability and preferred approaches for disposal of selected high-level nuclear wastes in space were analyzed. Preliminary space disposal risk estimates and estimates of risk uncertainty are provided.

  13. Preliminary assessment of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex environmental contaminants background survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents the preliminary results of the first year of the multiyear study, The Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex) Environmental...

  14. Assessing antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using fossil pollen data: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yao; Jackson, Stephen T [Department of Botany and Program in Ecology, University of Wyoming (United States); Brewer, Simon [Department of Botany, University of Wyoming (United States); Williams, John W, E-mail: yliu11@uwyo.ed [Department of Geography and Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We explored formal approaches to identifying and interpreting the antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using pollen records. Preliminary results of cluster analyses, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, and likelihood estimation of ecosystem analog in a simple Bayesian model allow assessment of modern ecosystem antiquities and past ecosystem turnovers. Approaches discussed in this study thus provide a vehicle for further studies.

  15. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration with Biochar: A Preliminary Assessment of its Global Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonette, J.; Lehmann, J.; Joseph, S.

    2007-12-01

    Biochar technology involves the capture of CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its ultimate conversion to biochar by pyrolysis. Energy is obtained during the pyrolysis process and the charcoal, or biochar, which is considerably more stable than biomass, may then be incorporated into agricultural lands where it serves to increase the nutrient- and water-holding capacity of soil. With an estimated half-life in soil on the order of centuries to millenia, biochar offers a way of safely storing C for long periods of time while enhancing the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, biochar technology, like other biomass conversion approaches that include C sequestration options, offers a way to decrease the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. That is, biochar technology is one of the few inherently "carbon-negative" sources of energy. These positive attributes are of little consequence, however, if the total contribution to sequestration is small compared to the need. In this paper, we provide a preliminary assessment of the potential contribution of biochar technology to the mitigation of climate change, and identify some research needs. Currently, the atmospheric C levels are increasing by about 4.1 Gt/yr, with 7.2 Gt/yr being put into the atmosphere by fossil fuel combustion and cement production, and 3.1 Gt/yr being removed from the atmosphere by the ocean (2.2 Gt/yr) and terrestrial processes (0.9 Gt/yr). The uptake by terrestrial processes can be increased significantly by management of the 60.6 Gt/yr of biomass C that is fixed by photosynthesis (i.e., net primary productivity), of which 59 Gt/yr is decomposed and 1.6 Gt/yr combusted. Biomass pyrolysis converts about 50% of the biomass C to char. Of the other 50% that is converted to bio-oil and bio-gas, the net energy production is about 62% efficient. Thus, pyrolysis of 1 Gt of biomass C would provide energy equivalent to about 0.3 Gt of fossil C and could be used to offset that amount of fossil C

  16. DIFFICULTIES EMERGING IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING RUSSIAN STUDENTS TO MAKE A SPEECH IN JAPANESE AT THE STAGE OF THE SPEECH TEXT PRELIMINARY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Maksimenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a detailed description of difficulties that emerge in the process of teaching Russian students to make a speech in Japanese at the stage of the speech text preliminary development. The conducted research shows that in the process of acquiring speech making skills students have considerable difficulties and make a number of various mistakes at different stages (phases of oral speech production. We suppose that for developing an efficient model of teaching students to make a speech in Japanese it is necessary to introduce corrections into the speech production model which are directly connected with the peculiarities of making an oral presentation in Japanese at the initial stage of education.

  17. Preliminary assessment of the interaction of introduced biological agents with biofilms in water distribution systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Caldwell, Sara; Jones, Howland D. T.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Souza, Caroline Ann; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2005-12-01

    Basic research is needed to better understand the potential risk of dangerous biological agents that are unintentionally or intentionally introduced into a water distribution system. We report on our capabilities to conduct such studies and our preliminary investigations. In 2004, the Biofilms Laboratory was initiated for the purpose of conducting applied research related to biofilms with a focus on application, application testing and system-scale research. Capabilities within the laboratory are the ability to grow biofilms formed from known bacteria or biofilms from drinking water. Biofilms can be grown quickly in drip-flow reactors or under conditions more analogous to drinking-water distribution systems in annular reactors. Biofilms can be assessed through standard microbiological techniques (i .e, aerobic plate counts) or with various visualization techniques including epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy and confocal fluorescence hyperspectral imaging with multivariate analysis. We have demonstrated the ability to grow reproducible Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms in the annular reactor with plate counts on the order of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/cm{sup 2}. Stationary phase growth is typically reached 5 to 10 days after inoculation. We have also conducted a series of pathogen-introduction experiments, where we have observed that both polystyrene microspheres and Bacillus cereus (as a surrogate for B. anthracis) stay incorporated in the biofilms for the duration of our experiments, which lasted as long as 36 days. These results indicated that biofilms may act as a safe harbor for bio-pathogens in drinking water systems, making it difficult to decontaminate the systems.

  18. The orodental status of a group of elderly in-patients: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, L; Gosney, M A; Doherty, U; Field, E A

    1999-12-01

    To provide a preliminary assessment of the orodental status and dental treatment requirements of a group of elderly in-patients. Cross-sectional. Acute Care of the Elderly and Stroke Rehabilitation units at teaching hospitals in Merseyside. 150 patients aged 58 to 94 years, in which a history could be validated at interview. Questionnaire administered by dentist and clinical examination. Registration with a dentist, prosthetic status and difficulties with dentures, denture hygiene and identification marking, dental treatment needs and evidence of mucosal pathology. Only 27% of patients claimed registration with a dentist. Three quarters of the patients were edentulous and 66 patients wore full dentures; 18 had no prostheses. Difficulties were experienced by one quarter of patients with upper dentures, compared with a half of lower denture wearers. Of the dentures available for inspection, 61% had removable soft debris, 66% were left out at night and 75% were cleaned by the patient, whilst on the ward. No dentures had evidence of identification marking. Of the 39 partially dentate patients, 75% required interventive dental treatment. Denture stomatitis was diagnosed in 29% of patients and 19 had evidence of benign mucosal pathology. The orodental status of this group of elderly in-patients was poor, with a high proportion being edentulous. Few were registered with a dentist and denture hygiene was inadequate. Lack of identification marking is a matter of concern. Closer liaison between hospital staff responsible for elderly in-patients is required, to improve the orodental health and quality of life of this medically compromised group of patients.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of mud crab Scylla olivacea (Portunidae) in Peninsular Malaysia: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosly, Hurul Adila-Aida Mohamad; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd; Yahya, Khairun; Naim, Darlina Md

    2013-11-01

    A primary factor in population management and wildlife conservation is the delineation of population units derived from descriptions of population genetic structure. Yet, predicting factors that influence the patterns of gene flow in a population particularly at landscape scales remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Here we report a population genetic study of the mud crab Scylla olivacea examined based on a 542 bp segment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I gene among 91 individuals from six localities in the west and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. In total 55 unique haplotypes were distinguished with 45 private haplotypes and a single common haplotype shared among all populations studied. The other ten haplotypes were shared among various populations. The sharing of this haplotype reflects the connection of the mangrove areas between east and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. High haplotype diversity (h = 0.968 ± 0.021; mean ± SD) and low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.120 ± 0.015; mean ± SD) were displayed, which may be indicative of genetic bottleneck events. No significant phylogenetic lineages were recognized using neighbour-joining and maximum parsimony methods. Hierarchical AMOVA analysis indicated that 99.33 % of the genetic variation was contained within populations and 0.67 % occurred among populations, suggesting no geographical patterning among populations studied, supported by F st test. Mismatch distribution analysis showed that the observed distribution of the pairwise mutation differences among haplotypes was multimodal, which is not concordant with a sudden range expansion scenario. However, neutrality tests showed non-significant negative values suggesting that the populations studied may have experienced past population growth, but the expansion may have been restricted to separate local areas that resulted in the non-significant negative Fu's Fs and Tajima's D value. Overall, this present preliminary study was

  20. Preliminary Assessment of Wind and Wave Retrieval from Chinese Gaofen-3 SAR Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weizeng; Sheng, Yexin; Sun, Jian

    2017-07-25

    The Chinese Gaofen-3 (GF-3) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) launched by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) has operated at C-band since September 2016. To date, we have collected 16/42 images in vertical-vertical (VV)/horizontal-horizontal (HH) polarization, covering the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) around U.S. western coastal waters. Wind speeds from NDBC in situ buoys are up to 15 m/s and buoy-measured significant wave height (SWH) has ranged from 0.5 m to 3 m. In this study, winds were retrieved using the geophysical model function (GMF) together with the polarization ratio (PR) model and waves were retrieved using a new empirical algorithm based on SAR cutoff wavelength in satellite flight direction, herein called CSAR_WAVE. Validation against buoy measurements shows a 1.4/1.9 m/s root mean square error (RMSE) of wind speed and a 24/23% scatter index (SI) of SWH for VV/HH polarization. In addition, wind and wave retrieval results from 166 GF-3 images were compared with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) re-analysis winds, as well as the SWH from the WaveWatch-III model, respectively. Comparisons show a 2.0 m/s RMSE for wind speed with a 36% SI of SWH for VV-polarization and a 2.2 m/s RMSE for wind speed with a 37% SI of SWH for HH-polarization. Our work gives a preliminary assessment of the wind and wave retrieval results from GF-3 SAR images for the first time and will provide guidance for marine applications of GF-3 SAR.

  1. Preliminary Assessment of the Interior Noise Environment in the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    The second-generation Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) serves as a representative vehicle under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) project with a design goal to transport 90 passengers over a distance of 1800 km at a speed of 550 km/hr. The tiltrotor combines the vertical lift capability of a helicopter with the speed, altitude, and range of a turboprop airplane. The blade-passage frequency of the four-bladed rotor is as low as 6.9 Hz during cruise conditions. The resulting low-frequency acoustic excitation and its harmonics, combined with the anticipated use of lightweight composite and sandwich materials for the fuselage sidewall, may pose a challenge to achieving acceptable interior noise levels. The objective of the present study is to perform a preliminary assessment of the expected interior noise environment in the LCTR2 cabin. The approach includes a combination of semi-empirical, analytical, and statistical energy analysis methods. Because the LCTR2 is a notional vehicle, the prediction approach was also applied to the XV-15 tiltrotor and Bombardier Q400 turobprop aircraft to compare predictions with publicly available experimental data. Guidance for the expected interior noise levels in the LCTR2 was obtained by considering both the predicted exterior noise levels and the transmission loss of a basic fuselage sidewall consisting of a skin, porous layer and a trim panel. Structural and acoustic resonances are expected to coincide with low order harmonics of the blade passage frequency. The estimated sound pressure levels in the LCTR2 may not be acceptable when evaluated against known characteristics of human response to low frequency sound.

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment of emerging materials: case study of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Michael P; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Koivisto, Antti Joonas; Jensen, Alexander Christian Østerskov; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Pang, Chengfang; Marcomini, Antonio; Sonnemann, Guido

    2017-05-01

    The development and use of emerging technologies such as nanomaterials can provide both benefits and risks to society. Emerging materials may promise to bring many technological advantages but may not be well characterized in terms of their production volumes, magnitude of emissions, behaviour in the environment and effects on living organisms. This uncertainty can present challenges to scientists developing these materials and persons responsible for defining and measuring their adverse impacts. Human health risk assessment is a method of identifying the intrinsic hazard of and quantifying the dose-response relationship and exposure to a chemical, to finally determine the estimation of risk. Commonly applied deterministic approaches may not sufficiently estimate and communicate the likelihood of risks from emerging technologies whose uncertainty is large. Probabilistic approaches allow for parameters in the risk assessment process to be defined by distributions instead of single deterministic values whose uncertainty could undermine the value of the assessment. A probabilistic approach was applied to the dose-response and exposure assessment of a case study involving the production of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide in seven different exposure scenarios. Only one exposure scenario showed a statistically significant level of risk. In the latter case, this involved dumping high volumes of nano-TiO2 powders into an open vessel with no personal protection equipment. The probabilistic approach not only provided the likelihood of but also the major contributing factors to the estimated risk (e.g. emission potential).

  3. Assessment of a Chief Complaint–Based Curriculum for Resident Education in Geriatric Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Muelleman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We hypothesized that a geriatric chief complaint–based didactic curriculum would improve resident documentation of elderly patient care in the emergency department (ED. Methods: A geriatric chief complaint curriculum addressing the 3 most common chief complaints—abdominal pain, weakness, and falls—was developed and presented. A pre- and postcurriculum implementation chart review assessed resident documentation of the 5 components of geriatric ED care: 1 differential diagnosis/patient evaluation considering atypical presentations, 2 determination of baseline function, 3 chronic care facility/caregiver communication, 4 cognitive assessment, and 5 assessment of polypharmacy. A single reviewer assessed 5 pre- and 5 postimplementation charts for each of 18 residents included in the study. We calculated 95% confidence and determined that statistical significance was determined by a 2-tailed z test for 2 proportions, with statistical significance at 0.003 by Bonferroni correction. Results: For falls, resident documentation improved significantly for 1 of 5 measures. For abdominal pain, 2 of 5 components improved. For weakness, 3 of 5 components improved. Conclusion: A geriatric chief complaint–based curriculum improved emergency medicine resident documentation for the care of elderly patients in the ED compared with a non–age-specific chief complaint–based curriculum. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:484–488.

  4. Measuring teamwork performance: Validity testing of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) with clinical resuscitation teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Connell, Cliff; Sims, Lyndall; Porter, Joanne E; Symmons, Mark; Nestel, Debra; Liaw, Sok Ying

    2016-04-01

    To test the resuscitation non-technical Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) for feasibility, validity and reliability, in two Australian Emergency Departments (ED). Non-technical (teamwork) skills have been identified as inadequate and as such have a significant impact on patient safety. Valid and reliable teamwork assessment tools are an important element of performance assessment and debriefing processes. A quasi experimental design based on observational ratings of resuscitation non-technical skills in two metropolitan ED. Senior nursing staff rated 106 adult resuscitation team events over a ten month period where three or more resuscitation team members attended. Resuscitation events, team performance and validity and reliability data was collected for the TEAM. Most rated events were for full cardiac resuscitation (43%) with 3-15 team members present for an average of 45 min. The TEAM was found to be feasible and quickly completed with minimal or no training. Discriminant validity was good as was internal consistency with a Cronbach alpha of 0.94. Uni-dimensional and concurrent validity also reached acceptable standards, 0.94 and >0.63 (p=performance indicating a need for leadership training. The TEAM is a feasible, valid and reliable non-technical assessment measure in simulated and real clinical settings. Emergency teams need to develop leadership skills through training and reflective debriefing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  6. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  7. Dynamical ice sheet model coupling with the GEOS-5 AGCM: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, R. I.; Zhao, B.; Nowicki, S.; Suarez, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamical ice sheet models (ISMs) have been developed to address well-known limitations in eustatic change prediction capabilities. Coupling ISMs to an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is not straightforward, due in part to the extreme difference in spatial scales between the ISM mesh and AGCM grid. In given locations, ISM element edge lengths may be a few km or less, while the AGCM typically has grid spacings on the order of 10s to 100s of km. The Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) is a finite-volume AGCM and employs a cube-sphere atmospheric grid (nominally 1° resolution) and a catchment-based land surface scheme that operates on sub-grid scale areas, or tiles, that describe surface characteristics. The land surface component communicates with the atmosphere on a semi-implicit time step via the exchange grid. In this study, coupling between the AGCM and the ISM is facilitated through sub-grid scale land surface tiles that are defined for each element of the ISM. The ISM used here is the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) from NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Univ. California at Irvine, which has been adapted for the Greenland Ice Sheet using the 72,320-element Schlagel mesh and using a shallow ice approximation. In the AGCM, land surface tiles are uniquely characterized through a simple downscaling parameterization of surface temperature within each AGCM grid box using a defined lapse rate. On each land surface tile, GEOS-5 employs an advanced snow hydrology model for improved representation of the ice sheet surface mass balance. This preliminary assessment focuses on the differences in the AGCM surface mass balance and surface temperature fields resulting from the downscaling measures employed in the context of an exchange grid, semi-implicit coupling with the atmosphere, and the response of the ISM. Differences in AGCM computational performance with the addition of Greenland tiles is examined, and comparative advantages of

  8. Preliminary assessment of active rock slope instabilities in the high Himalaya of Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Benedetta; Manconi, Andrea; Leith, Kerry; Loew, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The small kingdom of Bhutan, nested between India and Tibet (between 88° and 92° east and 26° and 28° north), is characterised by markedly different landscapes and climatic zones. V-shaped, forest-covered valleys in the south, affected by the monsoonal rains, give gradually way to steep, barren slopes of U-shaped valleys in the drier north, host of the highest peaks, a large number of glaciers and glacial lakes. A transition zone of vegetated, elevated plateaus collects the towns in which most of the population lives. Landslides in the high Himalaya of Bhutan have not been extensively studied despite the primary and secondary hazards related to them. The regulations and restrictions to travel to and within Bhutan imposed by the government, as well as the extremely rugged terrain hinder the accessibility to remote slopes and valleys, both of which have resulted in lack of data and investigations. In this work, we aim at producing an inventory of large rock slope instabilities (> 1 million m3) across the high Himalaya of Bhutan, identifying types of failure, assessing the activity and analysing the distribution of landslides in combination with predisposing and preparatory factors, such as lithology, tectonic structures, hypsometry, deglaciation, fluvial erosive power and climate. At this stage, we rely on the information retrieved through satellite remote sensing data, i.e. medium and high resolution DEMs, optical images and space borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. An initial inventory was compiled based on the identification of geomorphological features associated with slope instabilities using the available Google Earth images. Moreover, we assessed the SAR data coverage and the expected geometrical distortions by assuming different sensors (ERS, Envisat, and ALOS Palsar-1). As we are mainly interested in detecting the surface deformation related to large unstable slopes by applying Differential SAR, we also computed the percentage of potentially

  9. Objective and behavioural assessment of the emergence from post-traumatic amnesia (PTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Nicole; Doig, Emmah J; Fleming, Jennifer M; Wiemers, Anna; Zemljic, Collette

    2006-08-01

    To determine the profile of resolution of typical PTA behaviours and describe new learning and improvements in self-care during PTA. Prospective longitudinal study monitoring PTA status, functional learning and behaviours on a daily basis. Participants were 69 inpatients with traumatic brain injury who were in PTA. PTA was assessed using the Westmead or Oxford PTA assessments. Functional learning capability was assessed using a routine set of daily tasks and behaviour was assessed using an observational checklist. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Challenging behaviours that are typically associated with PTA, such as agitation, aggression and wandering resolved in the early stages of PTA and incidence rates of these behaviours were less than 20%. Independence in self-care and bowel and bladder continence emerged later during resolution of PTA. New learning in functional situations was demonstrated by patients in PTA. It is feasible to begin active rehabilitation focused on functional skills-based learning with patients in the later stages of PTA. Formal assessment of typically observed behaviours during PTA may complement memory-based PTA assessments in determining emergence from PTA.

  10. The ethics of sharing preliminary research findings during public health emergencies: a case study from the 2009 influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowcroft, N S; Rosella, L C; Pakes, B N

    2014-06-19

    During the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic, a suite of studies conducted in Canada showed an unexpected finding, that patients with medically attended laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza were more likely to have received seasonal influenza vaccination than test-negative control patients. Different bodies, including scientific journals and government scientific advisory committees, reviewed the evidence simultaneously to determine its scientific validity and implications. Decision-making was complicated when the findings made their way into the media. The normal trajectory of non-urgent research includes peer-review publication after which decision-makers can process the information taking into account other evidence and logistic considerations. In the situation that arose, however, the congruence of an unexpected finding and the simultaneous review of the evidence both within and outside the traditional peer-review sphere raised several interesting issues about how to deal with emerging evidence during a public health emergency. These events are used in this article to aid discussion of the complex interrelationship between researchers, public health decision-makers and scientific journals, the trade-offs between sharing information early and maintaining the peer-review quality assurance process, and to emphasise the need for critical reflection on the practical and ethical norms that govern the way in which research is evaluated, published and communicated in public health emergencies.

  11. Identification and assessment of site treatment plan implementation opportunities for emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.A. [Sandia National Labs., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in response to the 1992 Federal Facility Compliance Act, has prepared Site Treatment Plans (STP) for the approximately 2,000 waste streams identified within its mixed waste inventory Concurrently, emerging mixed waste treatment technologies are in final development. This paper defines a three-phase process to identify and assess implementation opportunities for these emerging technologies within the STP. It highlights the first phase, functional matching of expected treatment capabilities with proposed treatment requirements. Matches are based on treatment type, regulated contaminant and waste matrix type, for both capabilities and requirements. Results identify specific waste streams and volumes that could be treated by each emerging technology. A study for Plasma Hearth Process, Delphi DETOX{sup sm}, Supercritical Water Oxidation and Vitrification shows that about 200,000 ml of DOE`s mixed waste inventory can potentially be treated by one or more of these emerging technologies. Actual implementations are small fractions of the treatable inventory. Differences between potential and actual implementations must be minimized to accrue optimum benefit from implementation of emerging or alternative treatment technologies. Functional matching is the first phase in identifying and quantifying benefits, addressing technology system and treatment issues, and providing, in part, the basis for STP implementation decisions. DOE, through EM`s Office of Technology Development, has funded this work.

  12. Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

    2013-09-01

    Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. 76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious... entitled: ``Data and Data Needs to Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to... available basis beginning at 8 a.m. If you need special accommodations due to a disability, please...

  14. Establishment of a computerized support system for the assessment of radiation exposure in nuclear emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hui; Lee, Yeong Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Seo, Kyeong Seok; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byeong Woo [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-15

    The main objective of this project is to provide a real-time dose assessment system which can be used in CARE system as a tool for radiological dose assessment and supporting decision-making in nuclear emergency. FADAS which has been developed as a nuclear long-term project of KAERI has been edited to be operated on HP workstation. And control program has been developed for the automatic control of the interface between FADAS and CARE modules. The environmental condition around Kori site has been investigated and the information related to the emergency planning such as population density, road network, and socio-environmental data have been displayed on the computer screen. It is necessary to prepare effective protective action suitable to a given environmental condition to minimize radiological exposure of the public. An algorithm for estimating the effectiveness of each protective action to a given situation has been proposed.

  15. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last....../corrosive chemicals will remain serious risks also in future the development of plausible scenarios for potential emerging risks is also needed. This includes risks from new mixtures and chemicals (e.g. nanoparticles)....

  16. Airway Management & Assessment of Dyspnea in Emergency Department Patients with Acute Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Peter S.; Zaman, Masood

    2013-01-01

    Shortness of breath is the most common symptom in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Ensuring adequate oxygenation and ventilation as well as symptomatic relief are key goals of early emergency department management. In this focused review, we describe how to assess dyspnea in clinical practice and how to treat AHF patients to relieve dyspnea, with initial discussion on Airway and Breathing management for patients who present in extremis. PMID:23795334

  17. Nanotechnology in food processing sector-An assessment of emerging trends

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana Sastry, R.; Anshul, Shrivastava; Rao, N. H.

    2012-01-01

    Use of nanoscience based technology in the food industry is fast emerging as new area for research and development. Several research groups including private companies in the industry have initiated research programmes for exploring the wide scope of nanotechnology into the value chain of food processing and manufacturing. This paper discusses the current focus of research in this area and assesses its potential impacts. Using the developed relational database framework with R&D indicators li...

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Requirement Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This revision of the LLNL Fire Protection Baseline Needs Assessment (BNA) was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by Martin Gresho, Sandia/CA Fire Marshal. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only address emergency response. The original LLNL BNA was created on April 23, 1997 as a means of collecting all requirements concerning emergency response capabilities at LLNL (including response to emergencies at Sandia/CA) into one BNA document. The original BNA documented the basis for emergency response, emergency personnel staffing, and emergency response equipment over the years. The BNA has been updated and reissued five times since in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. A significant format change was performed in the 2004 update of the BNA in that it was 'zero based.' Starting with the requirement documents, the 2004 BNA evaluated the requirements, and determined minimum needs without regard to previous evaluations. This 2010 update maintains the same basic format and requirements as the 2004 BNA. In this 2010 BNA, as in the previous BNA, the document has been intentionally divided into two separate documents - the needs assessment (1) and the compliance assessment (2). The needs assessment will be referred to as the BNA and the compliance assessment will be referred to as the BNA Compliance Assessment. The primary driver for separation is that the needs assessment identifies the detailed applicable regulations (primarily NFPA Standards) for emergency response capabilities based on the hazards present at LLNL and Sandia/CA and the geographical location of the facilities. The needs assessment also identifies areas where the modification of the requirements in the applicable NFPA standards is appropriate, due to the improved fire protection

  19. Literature-based recommendations for suicide assessment in the emergency department: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, Linda; Minassian, Arpi; Vilke, Gary M; Wilson, Michael P

    2012-11-01

    Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide are important presenting complaints in the Emergency Department (ED). The Joint Commission established a National Patient Safety Goal that requires screening for suicidal ideation to identify patients at risk for suicide. Given the emphasis on screening for suicidal ideation in the general hospital and ED, it is important for Emergency Physicians to be able to understand and perform suicide risk assessment. A review of literature was conducted using PubMed to determine important elements of suicide assessment in adults, ages 18 years and over, in the ED. Four typical ED cases are presented and the assessment of suicide risk in each case is discussed. The goal of an ED evaluation is to appropriately determine which patients are at lowest suicide risk, and which patients are at higher or indeterminate risk such that psychiatry consultation is warranted while the patient is in the ED. Emergency clinicians should estimate this risk by taking into account baseline risk factors, such as previous suicide attempts, as well as acute risk factors, such as the presence of a suicide plan. Although a brief screening of suicide risk in the ED does not have the sensitivity to accurately determine which patients are at highest risk of suicide after leaving the ED, patients at lowest risk may be identified. In these low-risk patients, psychiatric holds and real-time psychiatric consultation while in the ED may not be needed, facilitating more expeditious dispositions from the ED. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.

    1998-10-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is the fourth threatened or endangered species to undergo a preliminary assessment for estimating potential risk from environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The assessments are being conducted as part of a three-year project to develop a habitat management plan for threatened and endangered species and species of concern at the Laboratory. For the preliminary assessment, estimated doses were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (HIs). This assessment included a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic chemicals) to 100 simulated nest sites located within flycatcher potential habitat. Sources of contaminant values were 10,000-ft{sup 2} grid cells within an Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU). This EEU was estimated around the potential habitat and was based on the maximum home range for the fly catcher identified in the scientific literature. The tools used included a custom FORTRAN program, ECORSK5, and a geographic information system. Food consumption and soil ingestion contaminant pathways were addressed in the assessment. Using a four-category risk evaluation, HI results indicate no appreciable impact is expected to the southwestern willow flycatcher. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, flycatcher habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain low levels of risk from contaminants.

  1. Developing Mathematical Provisions for Assessment of Liquid Hydrocarbon Emissions in Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shantarin, V. D.

    2016-10-01

    The paper reviews the development of methodology for calculation of hydrocarbon emissions during seepage and evaporation to monitor the reliability and safety of hydrocarbon storage and transportation. The authors have analyzed existing methods, models and techniques for assessing the amount of evaporated oil. Models used for predicting the material balance of multicomponent two-phase systems have been discussed. The results of modeling the open-air hydrocarbon evaporation from an oil spill are provided and exemplified by an emergency pit. Dependences and systems of differential equations have been obtained to assess parameters of mass transfer from the open surface of a liquid multicomponent mixture.

  2. Fast assessment of the effect of preventive wide area emergency control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrova, Evgenia; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2013-01-01

    to determine whether the suggested counteraction is sufficient to avoid system instability during severely critical operating conditions. The fast assessment of the effect that a countermeasure has on system stability provides an important decision support for the control room personnel in emergency situations......This paper describes an approach to quick assessment of the effect that a suggested countermeasure would have on the system generators stability margins in respect to aperiodic rotor angle small signal stability. The approach ensures that computational demanding simulations can be avoided...

  3. Acute chest pain in emergency room. Preliminary findings with 40-64-slice CT ECG-gated of the whole chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, E

    2007-01-01

    ECG-gated MDCT of the entire chest represents the latest technical advance in the diagnostic work-up of atypical chest pain. The authors report their preliminary experience with the use of 40 and 64-slice CT in the emergency room and recommend to study only patients with moderate likelihood of coronary artery disease. ECG-gated MDCT of the entire chest will be preferentially performed on 64-slice MDCT rather than 40-slice MDCT because it enable to reduce the scan time (18 seconds versus 28 seconds acquisition time), the volume of contrast medium (82 mL + 15 mL versus 97 mL + 15 mL of highly concentrated contrast agent for a patient of 70 kgs) and radiation exposure (17 mSv versus 19 mSv). Approximately 1500 to 2000 of images are produced and need to be analysed on a dedicated workstation by a radiologist expert in cardiac and thoracic disorders. At the present time, only a few studies exist in the literature showing some promising results but further large clinical studies are needed before to implement such sophisticated protocol in emergency room.

  4. Damage assessment of Haiti earthquake emergency using high resolution remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Dou, Aixia; Wang, Xiaoqing; Dong, Yanfang; Ding, Xiang; Li, Zhi; Yuan, Xiaoxiang; Qiu, Yurong

    2010-09-01

    This paper introduces the procedure of emergency remote sensing assessment for Haiti earthquake happened on Jan 12 2010. The procedure is divided into 4 steps: data preparation, data processing, information extraction and damage assessment, and contains three key targets which are damage information extraction, quantitative assessment and estimation of casualties and economic losses. In the first stage, the damage information of the buildings is the basis, and the other information, including building type, damage grade, built-over area, would be extracted by visual interpretation and automatically statistic with human-computer interaction from the high resolution disaster imageries. Then the remote sensing damage index and equivalent ground damage index of building could be counted in the second stage. According to this result, the specialists sketch a more exact intensity distribution in different regions of the metropolis. At last, the number of casualties is estimated by an empirical model adapting to worldwide earthquake as the detailed construction damage has been known. To assess the economic losses, we use a macro economic-based model which only needs population, per capita GDP and statistical macro-economic fragility related to seismic intensity. In this case, it is the first time to implement the methods of remote sensing assessment in foreign serious earthquake emergency, which is proven of being applicable outside China.

  5. Use of the community assessment for public health emergency response to conduct community health assessments for public health accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Ashley M; Vagi, Sara; Horney, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    A community health assessment (CHA) is a collaborative process of collecting and analyzing data to learn about the health status of a community. Community health assessments are also a requirement of public health accreditation for state and local health departments and of the Affordable Care Act for nonprofit hospitals. One element of a CHA is primary data collection. This article describes the use of the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) method for primary data collection to meet public health accreditation requirements in 2 case study communities--Nashua, New Hampshire, and Davidson County, North Carolina; CASPER is a flexible and efficient method for the collection of population-based primary data in an urban or rural setting.

  6. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program (ERDAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    sample sources to be exfoliated cells, body fluids such as blood and saliva, and breath. Collection of tissues and other body fluids requiring risky...M.B., and Miller, A . C . , 2001. “Radiation exposure assessment using cytological and molecular biomarkers,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 9 7, 17–23

  7. A structured assessment of emergency and acute care providers in Afghanistan during the current conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Leeda; Afzali, Edris; Donaldson, Ross; Lazar, Paul; Bundesmann, Raghnild; Rashid, Samra

    2015-01-01

    Afghanistan has struggled with several decades of well-documented conflict, increasing the importance of providing emergency services to its citizens. However, little is known about the country's capacity to provide such care. Three native-speaking Afghan-American physicians performed an assessment of emergency care via combined quantitative and qualitative survey tools. Hospitals in Kabul, Afghanistan were selected based on probability proportional to size methodology, in which size was derived from prior work in the country and permission granted by the administering agency and the Ministry of Health. A written survey was given to physicians and nurses, followed by structured focus groups, and multiple days of observation per facility. A descriptive analysis was performed and data analyzed through a combination of variables in eight overarching categories relevant to emergency care. One hundred twenty-five surveys were completed from 9 hospitals. One third of respondents (32.8 %) worked full time in the emergency departments, with another 28.8 % working there at least three quarters of the time. Over 63 % of providers believed that the greatest delay for care in emergencies was in the prehospital setting. Differences were noted among the various types of facilities when looking at specific components of emergency care such as skill level of workers, frequencies of assaults in the hospitals, and other domains of service provision. Sum of squares between the different facility types were highest for areas of skill (SS = 210.3; p = .001), confidence in the system (SS = 156.5; p < .005), assault (SS = 487.6; p < .005), and feeling safe in the emergency departments (SS = 193.1, p < .005). Confidence negatively correlated to frequency of assaults (Pearson r = -.33; p < .005) but positively correlated with feeling safe (Pearson r = .51; p < .005) and reliability of equipment (Pearson r = .48; p < .005). The only correlation for access to services was prehospital care

  8. Preliminary assessment of bioengineered fringing shoreline reefs in Grand Isle and Breton Sound, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea

    2013-01-01

    postconstruction data are available. Data for the latter two sites thus reflect only the 2012 spring/summer seasons, which were further impacted by a direct hit by Hurricane Isaac in August 2012, which resulted in shoreward movement of approximately 14 percent of the bioengineered structures at Lake Fortuna. Given the shortened monitoring timeframe and significant differences in construction schedules, we were not able to provide a full postconstruction assessment of the sites or a full comparison of site success based on local site characteristics. Because many of the impacts that were identified for monitoring reflect long-term processes, results and data presented should be interpreted cautiously. Sustainable oyster reefs require recruitment, growth, and survival at a rate that keeps pace with mortality and shell disarticulation. Although one site failed to recruit (establishment plus survival > 50 millimeters [mm]) over two spawning seasons, two sites only had 6 months postconstruction data available for assessment. Although there are good data on the requirements for oyster growth, there is limited explicit information on the site-specific water quality, hydrodynamic, and biological interaction effects that may determine successful reef establishment. Furthermore, interannual variability can significantly affect reef establishment, and our shortened timeframe of sampling (less than one spawning season for two of the reefs; two spawning seasons for one reef), combined with a lack of prerestoration monitoring data, limit our ability to draw any conclusions about long-term reef sustainability. Bioengineered reefs are thought to provide some benefits to shoreline stabilization through their structure by immediately attenuating wave energies and directly reducing erosion rates at shorelines sheltered by the reefs but also by increasing sediment deposition behind the reefs. Preliminary data indicate differences in reef impact by site; given the short timeframe of postconstruction

  9. The reliability and validity of questionnaire for preliminary assessment of heat stress at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Dehghan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat stress is one of the most important consequences of occupational heat exposure in worldwide. Current heat stress indices are not suitable for heat strain screening in developing countries due to their inherent and applied limitations. The Aim of this study was design, validity and reliability of a questionnaire method entitled "Heat Strain Score Index" or HSSI for preliminary assessment of heat stress at workplace. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. This research included seven stages (i Item generation (ii Evaluation of content validity by 9 subjects of occupational health specialists and 30 occupational health providers (iii Reliability analysis was performed on 98 workers (iv Structure validity was conducted on 150 workers (v Test of the measurement model (vi Criteria validity on 122 worker and (vii classification of level thermal risk with ROC curves. Data were analyzed with SPSS-18 and AMOS-16 software. Results: In stage of item generation 40 items were identified. In Content Validity evaluation in the level of occupational health specialists, 27 items modified, 3 items were removed and 3 items added in evaluation by occupational health providers, 19 items modified. Internal consistency (α of items was 0.91. Exploratory factor analysis on items HSSI scale identified four subscales which explained 71.6% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence of model fits (GFI=0.991, RMSEA=0.036. Correlation between the HSSI score with aural temperature was 0.73.Cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity for upper green zone (no thermal strain were 13.5, 91% and 50%.whereas Cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity for lower red zone (thermal strain were 18, 86% and 73%. Conclusion: This study revealed HSSI scale includes 18 of measurable variables that high overlapped with WBGT index and others questionnaires. This scale demonstrated high reliability and validity

  10. Preliminary Assessment of Variable Speed Power Turbine Technology on Civil Tiltrotor Size and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Acree, Cecil W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nm at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper performs a preliminary assessment of variable-speed power turbine technology on LCTR2 sizing, while maintaining the same, advanced technology engine core. Six concepts were studied; an advanced, single-speed engine with a conventional power turbine layout (Advanced Conventional Engine, or ACE) using a multi-speed (shifting) gearbox. There were five variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) engine concepts, comprising a matrix of either three or four turbine stages, and fixed or variable guide vanes; plus a minimum weight, twostage, fixed-geometry VSPT. The ACE is the lightest engine, but requires a multi-speed (shifting) gearbox to maximize its fuel efficiency, whereas the VSPT concepts use a lighter, fixed-ratio gearbox. The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) design code was used to study the trades between rotor and engine efficiency and weight. Rotor performance was determined by Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II), and engine performance was estimated with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). Design trades for the ACE vs. VSPT are presented in terms of vehicle gross and empty weight, propulsion system weight and mission fuel burn for the civil mission. Because of its strong effect on gearbox weight and on both rotor and engine efficiency, rotor speed was chosen as the reference design variable for comparing design trades. Major study assumptions are presented and discussed. Impressive engine power-to-weight and fuel efficiency reduced vehicle sensitivity to propulsion system choice

  11. Battery energy storage: A preliminary assessment of national benefits (the Gateway Benefits Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zaininger, H. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Hurwitch, J.; Badin, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of national benefits from electric utility applications of battery energy storage through the year 2010 are presented along with a discussion of the particular applications studied. The estimates in this report were based on planning information reported to DOE by electric utilities across the United States. Future studies are planned to refine these estimates as more application-specific information becomes available.

  12. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  13. Profile and results of frail patient assessed by advanced practice nursing in an Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Casals, Montserrat; Chirveches-Pérez, Emilia; Puigoriol-Juvanteny, Emma; Nubó-Puntí, Núria; Chabrera-Sanz, Carolina; Subirana-Casacuberta, Mireia

    2017-06-02

    To describe the profile of patients evaluated by Nurse Care Management in an Emergency Department and identify the type of alternative healthcare resource assigned and report the results of clinical practice. Prospective follow-up, on admission to the Emergency Department in an acute hospital and on discharge from the alternative healthcare resource, of patients assessed by Nurse Care Management, from July to December 2015. The patient characteristics, social environment and results of clinical practice were studied. 190 patients were included of whom 13 were readmitted (6.8%). 122 (59.8%) cases from the Emergency Department were referred to to intermediate care facilities, 71 (34.8%) cases for domiciliary care, 10 (4.9%) cases were referred to an acute care hospital and 1 (0.5%) died. Patients referred to intermediate care were more complex, presented geriatric syndromes as their reason for admission and diagnosed with dementia, while those referred to home care presented more respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses (p <0.05). The mean Barthel Index and polypharmacy before emergency admission were higher than at the time of discharge from the alternative healthcare resource (p <0.05). Patients presenting with advanced age, complexity, comorbidity, are referred to intermediate care facilities or domiciliary care, they are admitted to acute care hospitasl and are readmitted less than other patients. After being discharged from the alternative resource, they lose functional capacity and present less polypharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A preliminary nationwide survey of the presence of emerging contaminants in drinking and source waters in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kelly C; Grassi, Marco Tadeu; Vidal, Cristiane; Pescara, Igor C; Jardim, Wilson F; Fernandes, Andreia N; Sodré, Fernando F; Almeida, Fernanda V; Santana, Joyce S; Canela, Maria Cristina; Nunes, Camila R O; Bichinho, Kátia M; Severo, Flaviana J R

    2016-12-01

    This is the first nationwide survey of emerging contaminants in Brazilian waters. One hundred drinking water samples were investigated in 22 Brazilian state capitals. In addition, seven source water samples from two of the most populous regions of the country were evaluated. Samples were collected from June to September of 2011 and again during the same period in 2012. The study covered emerging contaminants of different classes, including hormones, plasticizers, herbicides, triclosan and caffeine. The analytical method for the determination of the compounds was based on solid-phase extraction followed by analysis via liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Caffeine, triclosan, atrazine, phenolphthalein and bisphenol A were found in at least one of the samples collected in the two sampling campaigns. Caffeine and atrazine were the most frequently detected substances in both drinking and source water. Caffeine concentrations in drinking water ranged from 1.8ngL(-1) to values above 2.0μgL(-1) while source-water concentrations varied from 40ngL(-1) to about 19μgL(-1). For atrazine, concentrations were found in the range from 2.0 to 6.0ngL(-1) in drinking water and at concentrations of up to 15ngL(-1) in source water. The widespread presence of caffeine in samples of treated water is an indication of the presence of domestic sewage in the source water, considering that caffeine is a compound of anthropogenic origin.

  15. Self-assessed emergency readiness and training needs of nurses in rural Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Holly E; Soto Mas, Francisco; Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Turley, James P; Miller, Jerry; Kim, Misu

    2010-01-01

    Nurses, particularly public health nurses, play a key role in emergency preparedness and response in rural areas. To prepare rural jurisdictions for unforeseen disastrous events it is imperative to assess the public health emergency readiness and training needs of nurses. The objective of this study was to assess the self-reported terrorism preparedness and training needs of a nurse workforce. Cross-sectional prevalence of practicing nurses in regions of North Texas. 3,508 rural nurses practicing in North Texas participated in the study. Data were collected through a mailed survey; analyses included multinominal logistic regression and descriptive statistics. A total of 941 (27%) nurses completed the survey. The majority of respondents reported limited bioterrorism-related training. Fewer than 10% were confident in their ability to diagnose or treat bioterrorism-related conditions. Although only 30% expressed a willingness to collaborate with state and local authorities during a bioterrorism event, more than 69% indicated interest in future training opportunities. Preferred training modalities included small group workshops with instructor-led training, and Internet-based training. Licensing agencies, professional organizations, and community constituencies may need to play a stronger role in improving the bioterrorism-related emergency preparedness of rural nurses.

  16. MRI assessment of thoracic stent grafts after emergency implantation in multi trauma patients: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, Volker [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); University Hospital Ulm, University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); Oberhuber, Alexander; Orend, Karl-Heinz [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Trumpp, Stephan [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); University Hospital Ulm, Department of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Bornstedt, Axel; Merkle, Nico; Rottbauer, Wolfgang [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); Hoffmann, Martin [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of MRI for static and dynamic assessment of the deployment of thoracic aortic stent grafts after emergency implantation in trauma patients. Twenty patients initially presenting with a rupture of the thoracic aorta were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The deployment of the implanted stent graft was assessed by CTA and MRI, comprising the assessment of the aortic arch with and without contrast agent, and the assessment of the motion of the stent graft over the cardiac cycle. The stent graft geometry and motion over the cardiac cycle were assessable by MRI in all patients. Flow-mediated signal variations in areas of flow acceleration could be well visualised. No statistically significant differences in stent-graft diameters were observed between CT and MRI measurements. MRI appears to be a valuable tool for the assessment of thoracic stent grafts. It shows similar performance in the accurate assessment of stent-graft dimensions to the current gold standard CTA. Its capability of providing additional functional information and the lack of ionising radiation and nephrotoxic contrast agents may make MRI a valuable tool for monitoring patients after TEVAR. (orig.)

  17. Emergency assessment of seismic landslide susceptibility: a case study of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake affected area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Chuan; Zhu Jing; Liang Jingtao

    2009-01-01

    The 8.0 Mw Wenchuan earthquake triggered widespread and large scale landslides in mountainous regions.An approach was used to map and assess landslide susceptibility in a given area. A numerical rating system was applied to five factors that contribute to slope instability. Factors such as lithology, topography, streams and faults have an important influence as event-controlling factors for landslide susceptibility assessment. A final map is provided to show areas of low,medium, and high landslide susceptibility. Areas identified as having high landslide susceptibility were located in the central,northeastern, and far south regions of the study area. The assessment results will help decision makers to select safe sites for emergency placement of refuges and plan for future reconstruction. The maps may also be used as a basis for landslide risk management in the study area.

  18. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  19. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) versus multidetector computed tomography in hemodynamically unstable emergency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornell Pérez, R

    2017-02-10

    This critically appraised topic (CAT) study aims to evaluate the quality and extent of the scientific evidence that supports the use of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) versus multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in hemodynamically unstable trauma patients in the emergency room. An efficient search of the literature yielded several recent articles with a high level of evidence. The CAT study concludes that FAST is an acceptable initial imaging test in hemodynamically unstable patients, although its performance is limited in certain circumstances. The decision whether to use MDCT should be determined by evaluating the patient's degree of instability and the distance to the MDCT scanner. Nevertheless, few articles address the question of the distance to MDCT scanners in emergency departments. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Probabilistic risk assessment support of emergency preparedness at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R.; Baker, W.H.; Simpkins, A.A.; Taylor, R.P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wagner, K.C.; Amos, C.N. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Integration of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for K Reactor operation into related technical areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS) includes coordination with several onsite organizations responsible for maintaining and upgrading emergency preparedness capabilities. Major functional categories of the PRA application are scenario development and source term algorithm enhancement. Insights and technologies from the SRS PRA have facilitated development of: (1) credible timelines for scenarios; (2) algorithms tied to plant instrumentation to provide best-estimate source terms for dose projection; and (3) expert-system logic models to implement informed counter-measures to assure onsite and offsite safety following accidental releases. The latter methodology, in particular, is readily transferable to other reactor and non-reactor facilities at SRS and represents a distinct advance relative to emergency preparedness capabilities elsewhere in the DOE complex.

  1. Probabilistic risk assessment support of emergency preparedness at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Baker, W.H.; Simpkins, A.A.; Taylor, R.P. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Wagner, K.C.; Amos, C.N. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Integration of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for K Reactor operation into related technical areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS) includes coordination with several onsite organizations responsible for maintaining and upgrading emergency preparedness capabilities. Major functional categories of the PRA application are scenario development and source term algorithm enhancement. Insights and technologies from the SRS PRA have facilitated development of: (1) credible timelines for scenarios; (2) algorithms tied to plant instrumentation to provide best-estimate source terms for dose projection; and (3) expert-system logic models to implement informed counter-measures to assure onsite and offsite safety following accidental releases. The latter methodology, in particular, is readily transferable to other reactor and non-reactor facilities at SRS and represents a distinct advance relative to emergency preparedness capabilities elsewhere in the DOE complex.

  2. Characterize Behaviour of Emerging Pollutants in Artificial Recharge: Column Experiments - Experiment Design and Results of Preliminary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Carrera, J.; Ayora, C.; Licha, T.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging pollutants (EPs) have been detected in water resources as a result of human activities in recent years. They include pharmaceuticals, personal care products, dioxins, flame retardants, etc. They are a source of concern because many of them are resistant to conventional water treatment, and they are harmful to human health, even in low concentrations. Generally, this study aims to characterize the behaviour of emerging pollutants in reclaimed water in column experiments which simulates artificial recharge. One column set includes three parts: influent, reactive layer column (RLC) and aquifer column (AC). The main influent is decided to be Secondary Effluent (SE) of El Prat Wastewater Treatment Plant, Barcelona. The flow rate of the column experiment is 0.9-1.5 mL/min. the residence time of RLC is designed to be about 1 day and 30-40 days for AC. Both columns are made of stainless steel. Reactive layer column (DI 10cm * L55cm) is named after the filling material which is a mixture of organic substrate, clay and goethite. One purpose of the application of the mixture is to increase dissolve organic carbon (DOC). Leaching test in batchs and columns has been done to select proper organic substrate. As a result, compost was selected due to its long lasting of releasing organic matter (OM). The other purpose of the application of the mixture is to enhance adsorption of EPs. Partition coefficients (Kow) of EPs indicate the ability of adsorption to OM. EPs with logKow>2 could be adsorbed to OM, like Ibuprofen, Bezafibrate and Diclofenac. Moreover, some of EPs are charged in the solution with pH=7, according to its acid dissociation constant (Ka). Positively charged EPs, for example Atenolol, could adsorb to clay. In the opposite, negatively charged EPs, for example Gemfibrozil, could adsorb to goethite. Aquifer column (DI 35cm * L1.5m) is to simulate the processes taking place in aquifer in artificial recharge. The filling of AC has two parts: silica sand and

  3. Risk Assessment Methodology for Water utilities (RAM-W) : the foundation for emergency response planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2005-03-01

    Concerns about acts of terrorism against critical infrastructures have been on the rise for several years. Critical infrastructures are those physical structures and information systems (including cyber) essential to the minimum operations of the economy and government. The President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP) probed the security of the nation's critical infrastructures. The PCCIP determined the water infrastructure is highly vulnerable to a range of potential attacks. In October 1997, the PCCIP proposed a public/private partnership between the federal government and private industry to improve the protection of the nation's critical infrastructures. In early 2000, the EPA partnered with the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and Sandia National Laboratories to create the Risk Assessment Methodology for Water Utilities (RAM-W{trademark}). Soon thereafter, they initiated an effort to create a template and minimum requirements for water utility Emergency Response Plans (ERP). All public water utilities in the US serving populations greater than 3,300 are required to undertaken both a vulnerability assessment and the development of an emergency response plan. This paper explains the initial steps of RAM-W{trademark} and then demonstrates how the security risk assessment is fundamental to the ERP. During the development of RAM-W{trademark}, Sandia performed several security risk assessments at large metropolitan water utilities. As part of the scope of that effort, ERPs at each utility were reviewed to determine how well they addressed significant vulnerabilities uncovered during the risk assessment. The ERP will contain responses to other events as well (e.g. natural disasters) but should address all major findings in the security risk assessment.

  4. Effectiveness of diffusion tensor imaging in assessing disease severity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Hu, Houchun Harry [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ramos-Platt, Leigh [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wren, Tishya Anne Leong; Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Perkins, Thomas Gardner; Chia, Jonathan Mawlin [Philips Healthcare North America, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-04-01

    There is currently a lack of suitable objective endpoints to measure disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Emerging research suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has potential as an outcome measure for the evaluation of skeletal muscle injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of DTI as quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of disease severity in DMD. Thirteen consecutive boys (8.9 years ± 3.0 years) with DMD were evaluated using DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were compared with clinical outcome measures of manual muscle testing and MRI determinations of muscle fat fraction (MFF) in the right lower extremity. Both MRI measures of FA and ADC strongly correlated with age and muscle strength. Values for FA positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with muscle strength (r = 0.78 and -0.96; both P ≤ 0.002) while measures of ADC negatively correlated age, but positively correlated with muscle strength (r = -0.87 and 0.83; both P ≤ 0.0004). Additionally, ADC and FA strongly correlated with MFF (r = -0.891 and 0.894, respectively; both P ≤ 0.0001). Mean MMF was negatively correlated with muscle strength (r = -0.89, P = 0.0001). DTI measures of muscle structure strongly correlated with muscle strength and adiposity in boys with DMD in this pilot study, although these markers may be more reflective of fat replacement rather than muscle damage in later stages of the disease. Further studies in presymptomatic younger children are needed to assess the ability of DTI to detect early changes in DMD. (orig.)

  5. [Assessment of quality indicators in pediatric poisoning in an emergency service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez Roca, C; Martínez Sánchez, L; Calzada Baños, Y; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Quintilla Martínez, J M; Luaces Cubells, C

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of quality indicators allows clinicians to evaluate clinical assistance with a standard, to detect deficiencies and to improve medical assistance. Patients who came to emergency services of a tertiary level hospital for suspicion of poisoning from January 2011 to June 2012 were assessed using 20 quality indicators of pediatric poisoning. Data collection was performed by retrospective review of clinical reports. A total of 393 patients were admitted for suspicion of poisoning (0.3% of all admissions).The standard was reached in 11 indicators and not reached in 6: administration of activated charcoal within 2hours of poison ingestion (standard=90%, result=83.5%); attention within the first 15minutes of arriving in the emergency service (standard=90%, result=60.4%); start of gastrointestinal decontamination within 20minutes of arrival in emergency services (standard=90%, result=29.7%); performing of electrocardiogram on the patients poisoned with cardiotoxic substances (standard=95%, result=87%); judicial communication of cases of poisoning that could conceal a crime (standard=95%, result=31.3%), and collection of the minimal set of information of poisoned patients (standard=90%, result=1.9%). Three indicators could not be evaluated as a consequence of the limited number of cases where they could be applied (<5). The main deficiencies are related to delay in assistance, collection of information and completion of judicial reports. Giving these patients priority, designing a checklist to collect the main points of their management, and creating obligatory fields for data in computerized medical records, are the main actions available to achieve pediatric poisoning quality indicators in this emergency service. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. The emerging role of multidetector row CT angiography in the diagnosis of cervical arterial dissection: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elijovich, Lucas [NYU Medical Center, Department of Neurology, New York, NY (United States); Kazmi, Khuram [NYU Medical Center, Department of Neurology, New York, NY (United States); NYU Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gauvrit, Jean Y. [NYU Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Hopital Salengro, Department of Neuroradiology, Lille (France); Law, Meng [NYU Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Cervical artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke, particularly in young patients. The diagnosis can be made with invasive catheter angiography or non-invasive imaging, either with MRI in conjunction with MR angiography (MRA) or CT angiography (CTA). Both modalities have been shown to have a high specificity and sensitivity. New developments such as multi-slice CTA (MSCTA) are emerging as an alternative methods for imaging the cervical and intracranial arteries. However, the contribution of modern MSCTA to carotid artery dissection has not been reported. We present a retrospective series of seven patients in whom both MSCTA and cervical axial T1 MRI and MRA were performed in the acute to subacute setting of internal carotid artery dissection. Carotid artery dissection was identified in all seven patients by MSCTA. The combination of MRI and MRA identified dissection in five of the seven patients. Additionally, a pseudoaneurysm was identified by MSCTA that was missed by MRI and MRA. Our findings confirm that MSCTA is a complementary technique in comparison to cervical axial T1 MRI and cervical MRA for diagnosing carotid artery dissection, and at times may provide additional information that can impact patient management. (orig.)

  7. An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 2: Preliminary evaluation and analysis of CSEPP exercise database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.; Lerner, K.

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the quality and usefulness of the information in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) exercise database. It incorporates the results of two separate analytical efforts. The first effort investigated the process of assigning standardized codes to issues identified in CSEPP exercise reports. A small group of issues was coded independently by each of several individuals, and the results of the individual codings were compared. Considerable differences were found among the individuals` codings. The second effort consisted of a statistical multivariate analysis, to investigate whether exercise issues are evenly distributed among exercise tabs, sites, and objectives. It was found that certain tabs, sites, and objectives were disproportionately associated with problem areas in exercises. In some cases, these problem areas have persisted over time, but in other cases they have undergone significant shifts over the time span of the investigation. The study concludes that the database can be a useful resource for analyzing problem areas and setting priorities for CSEPP program resources. However, some further analyses should be performed in order to more fully explore the data and increase confidence in the results.

  8. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  9. Using video games for volcanic hazard education and communication: an assessment of the method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul D.; Stewart, Iain

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the findings from a study aimed at understanding whether video games (or serious games) can be effective in enhancing volcanic hazard education and communication. Using the eastern Caribbean island of St. Vincent, we have developed a video game - St. Vincent's Volcano - for use in existing volcano education and outreach sessions. Its twin aims are to improve residents' knowledge of potential future eruptive hazards (ash fall, pyroclastic flows and lahars) and to integrate traditional methods of education in a more interactive manner. Here, we discuss the process of game development including concept design through to the final implementation on St. Vincent. Preliminary results obtained from the final implementation (through pre- and post-test knowledge quizzes) for both student and adult participants provide indications that a video game of this style may be effective in improving a learner's knowledge. Both groups of participants demonstrated a post-test increase in their knowledge quiz score of 9.3 % for adults and 8.3 % for students and, when plotted as learning gains (Hake, 1998), show similar overall improvements (0.11 for adults and 0.09 for students). These preliminary findings may provide a sound foundation for the increased integration of emerging technologies within traditional education sessions. This paper also shares some of the challenges and lessons learnt throughout the development and testing processes and provides recommendations for researchers looking to pursue a similar study.

  10. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  11. Assessment of Chronic Pain in Children: Current Status and Emerging Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya Mizell Palermo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews the current status of research on assessment of chronic pain in children and adolescents, primarily in the context of treatment outcome research. Two specific primary aims are addressed. First, the degree of attention devoted to several major domains of chronic pain assessment (pain, physical functioning, role functioning, sleep and emotional functioning is summarized, highlighting areas where further instrument development and validation are needed. Second, sensitivity of instruments within these domains is presented using data from clinical trials of psychological therapies aimed at treatment of chronic pain in children and adolescents. Findings demonstrate that although there has been recent progress in developing and validating a range of measures of pain-related outcomes, as of yet, very few clinical trials have included any outcomes other than pain intensity. Moreover, in randomized controlled trials where physical, role or emotional functioning outcomes have been included, there have been limited positive findings. The present paper lists some challenges and future directions in assessment of physical and role functioning, including highlighting emerging methodologies for assessment of physical activity and function in children with chronic pain. Clinical implications of integrating assessment tools into clinical practice are discussed. In conclusion, progress in developing and validating specific tools to assess important outcome domains in chronic pain has been realized. Opportunities exist for further measurement validation in most domains, and further theory-driven treatment research to match goals of the treatment with specific interventions and outcomes.

  12. Nursing Assessment and Intervention to Geriatric Patients Discharged From Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth Emilie; Poulsen, Ingrid; Hendriksen, Carsten

    Background: Geriatric patients recently discharged from hospital are at risk of unplanned readmissions and admission to nursing home. When discharged directly from Emergency Department (ED) the risk increases, as time pressure often requires focus on the presenting problem, although 80 % of geria......Background: Geriatric patients recently discharged from hospital are at risk of unplanned readmissions and admission to nursing home. When discharged directly from Emergency Department (ED) the risk increases, as time pressure often requires focus on the presenting problem, although 80...... % of geriatric patients have complex and often unresolved caring needs. Objective: To examine the effect of a two-stage nursing assessment and intervention to address the patients uncompensated problems given just after discharge from ED and one and six months after. Method: We conducted a prospective...... nursing assessment comprising a checklist of 10 physical, mental, medical and social items. The focus was on unresolved problems which require medical intervention, new or different home care services, or comprehensive geriatric assessment. Following this the nurses made relevant referrals...

  13. Comparative assessment of the environmental sustainability of existing and emerging perchlorate treatment technologies for drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Mehnert, Michelle H; Guest, Jeremy S; Strathmann, Timothy J; Werth, Charles J

    2013-05-07

    Environmental impacts of conventional and emerging perchlorate drinking water treatment technologies were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA). Comparison of two ion exchange (IX) technologies (i.e., nonselective IX with periodic regeneration using brines and perchlorate-selective IX without regeneration) at an existing plant shows that brine is the dominant contributor for nonselective IX, which shows higher impact than perchlorate-selective IX. Resource consumption during the operational phase comprises >80% of the total impacts. Having identified consumables as the driving force behind environmental impacts, the relative environmental sustainability of IX, biological treatment, and catalytic reduction technologies are compared more generally using consumable inputs. The analysis indicates that the environmental impacts of heterotrophic biological treatment are 2-5 times more sensitive to influent conditions (i.e., nitrate/oxygen concentration) and are 3-14 times higher compared to IX. However, autotrophic biological treatment is most environmentally beneficial among all. Catalytic treatment using carbon-supported Re-Pd has a higher (ca. 4600 times) impact than others, but is within 0.9-30 times the impact of IX with a newly developed ligand-complexed Re-Pd catalyst formulation. This suggests catalytic reduction can be competitive with increased activity. Our assessment shows that while IX is an environmentally competitive, emerging technologies also show great promise from an environmental sustainability perspective.

  14. Rethinking risk assessment for emerging technology first-in-human trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genske, Anna; Engel-Glatter, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Recent progress in synthetic biology (SynBio) has enabled the development of novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of human disease. In the near future, first-in-human trials (FIH) will be indicated. FIH trials mark a key milestone in the translation of medical SynBio applications into clinical practice. Fostered by uncertainty of possible adverse events for trial participants, a variety of ethical concerns emerge with regards to SynBio FIH trials, including 'risk' minimization. These concerns are associated with any FIH trial, however, due to the novelty of the approach, they become more pronounced for medical applications of emerging technologies (emTech) like SynBio. To minimize potential harm for trial participants, scholars, guidelines, regulations and policy makers alike suggest using 'risk assessment' as evaluation tool for such trials. Conversely, in the context of emTech FIH trials, we believe it to be at least questionable to contextualize uncertainty of potential adverse events as 'risk' and apply traditional risk assessment methods. Hence, this issue needs to be discussed to enable alterations of the evaluation process before the translational phase of SynBio applications begins. In this paper, we will take the opportunity to start the debate and highlight how a misunderstanding of the concept of risk, and the possibilities and limitations of risk assessment, respectively, might impair decision-making by the relevant regulatory authorities and research ethics committees, and discuss possible solutions to tackle the issue.

  15. Social worker assessment of bad news delivery by emergency medicine residents: a novel direct-observation milestone assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Alice Ann; Spear-Ellinwood, Karen; Berman, Melissa; Nisson, Peyton; Rhodes, Suzanne Michelle

    2016-09-01

    The skill of delivering bad news is difficult to teach and evaluate. Residents may practice in simulated settings; however, this may not translate to confidence or competence during real experiences. We investigated the acceptability and feasibility of social workers as evaluators of residents' delivery of bad news during patient encounters, and assessed the attitudes of both groups regarding this process. From August 2013 to June 2014, emergency medicine residents completed self-assessments after delivering bad news. Social workers completed evaluations after observing these conversations. The Assessment tools were designed by modifying the global Breaking Bad News Assessment Scale. Residents and social workers completed post-study surveys. 37 evaluations were received, 20 completed by social workers and 17 resident self-evaluations. Social workers reported discussing plans with residents prior to conversations 90 % of the time (18/20, 95 % CI 64.5, 97.8). Social workers who had previously observed the resident delivering bad news reported that the resident was more skilled on subsequent encounters 90 % of the time (95 % CI 42.2, 99). Both social workers and residents felt that prior training or experience was important. First-year residents valued advice from social workers less than advice from attending physicians, whereas more experienced residents perceived advice from social workers to be equivalent with that of attending physicians (40 versus 2.9 %, p = 0.002). Social worker assessment of residents' abilities to deliver bad news is feasible and acceptable to both groups. This formalized self-assessment and evaluation process highlights the importance of social workers' involvement in delivery of bad news, and the teaching of this skill. This method may also be used as direct-observation for resident milestone assessment.

  16. Environmental sustainability assessments of pharmaceuticals: an emerging need for simplification in life cycle assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Soete, Wouter; Debaveye, Sam; De Meester, Steven; Van der Vorst, Geert; Aelterman, Wim; Heirman, Bert; Cappuyns, Philippe; Dewulf, Jo

    2014-10-21

    The pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries are eager to strive toward innovative products and technologies. This study first derives hotspots in resource consumption of 2839 Basic Operations in 40 Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient synthesis steps through Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA). Second, since companies are increasingly obliged to quantify the environmental sustainability of their products, two alternative ways of simplifying (E)LCA are discussed. The usage of averaged product group values (R(2) = 3.40 × 10(-30)) is compared with multiple linear regression models (R(2) = 8.66 × 10(-01)) in order to estimate resource consumption of synthesis steps. An optimal set of predictor variables is postulated to balance model complexity and embedded information with usability and capability of merging models with existing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) data systems. The amount of organic solvents used, molar efficiency, and duration of a synthesis step were shown to be the most significant predictor variables. Including additional predictor variables did not contribute to the predictive power and eventually weakens the model interpretation. Ideally, an organization should be able to derive its environmental impact from readily available ERP data, linking supply chains back to the cradle of resource extraction, excluding the need for an approximation with product group averages.

  17. Preliminary Assessment of Landslides Along the Florida River Downstream from Lemon Reservoir, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Ellis, William L.; Kibler, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Nearly two-dozen shallow landslides were active during spring 2005 on a hillside located along the east side of the Florida River about one kilometer downstream from Lemon Reservoir in La Plata County, southwestern Colorado. Landslides on the hillside directly threaten human safety, residential structures, a county roadway, utilities, and the Florida River, and indirectly threaten downstream areas and Lemon Dam. Most of the area where the landslides occurred was burned during the 2002 Missionary Ridge wildfire. We performed geologic mapping, subsurface exploration and sampling, radiocarbon dating, and shallow ground-water and ground-displacement monitoring to assess landslide activity. Active landslides during spring 2005 were as large as 35,000 m3 and confined to colluvium. Debris flows were mobilized from most of the landslides, were as large as 1,500 m3, and traveled as far as 250 m. Landslide activity was triggered by elevated ground-water pressures within the colluvium caused by infiltration of snowmelt. Landslide activity ceased as ground-water pressures dropped during the summer. Shallow landslides on the hillside appear to be much more likely following the Missionary Ridge fire because of the loss of tree root strength and evapotranspiration. We used monitoring data and observations to develop preliminary, approximate rainfall/snowmelt thresholds above which shallow landslide activity can be expected. Landslides triggered during spring 2005 occurred within a 1.97 x 107 m3 older landslide that extends, on average, about 40 m into bedrock. The south end of this older landslide appears to have experienced deep secondary landsliding. Radiocarbon dating of sediments at the head of the older landslide suggests that the landslide was active about 1,424-1,696 years ago. A relatively widespread wildfire may have preceded the older landslide, and the landslide may have occurred during a wetter time. The wetter climate and effects of the wildfire would likely have

  18. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS WITH EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS WITHIN THE REMARCA STUDY: PRELIMINARY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA have a high or very high cardiovascular risk (CVR before therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Objective: to evaluate the impact of antirheumatic therapy performed in accordance with the Treat-to-Target strategy on the progression of atherosclerosis and CVR in patients with early RA. Subjects and methods. This investigation enrolled 74 patients (72% women; median age, 56 years with early RA having moderate to high activity (median DAS28, 5.6 who had not previously received DMARDs and glucocorticoids (GCs. All patients were anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody-positive and 87% of the patients were rheumatoid factor-positive. All patients received methotrexate (MT subcutaneously with dose escalation up to 25–30 mg/week, in case of its inefficiency at 3 months a biological agent (BA was added. After 6 months, 39% of the patients achieved remission; 19% had low; 35 and 7% had moderate and high disease activity, respectively. The majority (n = 20 (69% who achieved remission received MT monotherapy; 9 (31% – MT + BA whereas among the patients who did not achieve remission 15 (33% and 30 (67% respectively. At baseline and after 6 months of treatment, traditional CVR factors were assessed in all patients, by determining the total coronary risk by the SCORE scale, including that modified by EULAR (mSCORE, carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA by duplex scanning data, coronary calcification (CC by multislice spiral computed tomography and by estimating the degree of CVR.Results and discussion. The rates of hypertension, overweight, abdominal obesity, low activity, smoking, and type 2 diabetes mellitus did not change significantly after 6 months. There were increases in the levels of total cholesterol by 7% (p < 0.05, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 9% (p<0.01, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 26% (p < 0.005, and body mass index (BMI by 1% (p < 0.01 and a decrease

  19. The Utility of Preliminary Patient Evaluation in a Febrile Respiratory Infectious Disease Unit outside the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Sik; Jhun, Byung Woo; Yoon, Hee; Lim, Seong Mi; Ko, Eunsil; Park, Joo Hyun; Hwang, Sung Yeon; Lee, Se Uk; Lee, Tae Rim; Cha, Won Chul; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon

    2017-09-01

    A febrile respiratory infectious disease unit (FRIDU) with a negative pressure ventilation system was constructed outside the emergency department (ED) of the Samsung Medical Center in 2015, to screen for patients with contagious diseases requiring isolation. We evaluated the utility of the FRIDU during 1 year of operation. We analyzed 1,562 patients who were hospitalized after FRIDU screening between August 2015 and July 2016. The level of isolation recommended during their screening at the FRIDU was compared with the level deemed appropriate given their final diagnosis. Of the 1,562 patients screened at the FRIDU, 198 (13%) were isolated, 194 (12%) were reverse isolated, and 1,170 (75%) were not isolated. While hospitalized, 97 patients (6%) were confirmed to have a contagious disease requiring isolation, such as tuberculosis; 207 patients (13%) were confirmed to be immunocompromised and to require reverse isolation, mainly due to neutropenia; and the remaining 1,258 patients (81%) did not require isolation. The correlation coefficient for isolation consistency was 0.565 (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and negative predictive value of FRIDU screening for diagnosing contagious disease requiring isolation are 76% and 98%, respectively. No serious nosocomial outbreaks of contagious diseases occurred. During FRIDU screening, 114 patients were admitted to the resuscitation zone due to clinical instability, and three of these patients died. The initial isolation levels resulting from FRIDU screening were moderately well correlated with the isolation levels required by the final diagnosis, demonstrating the utility of pre-hospitalization screening units. However, the risks of deterioration during the screening process remain challenges. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  20. Capillary lactate as a tool for the triage nurse among patients with SIRS at emergency department presentation: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzon, Cyril; Barrot, Loïc; Besch, Guillaume; Barbot, Olivier; Desmettre, Thibaut; Capellier, Gilles; Piton, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    The triage nurse is involved in the early identification of the most severe patients at emergency department (ED) presentation. However, clinical criteria alone may be insufficient to identify them correctly. Measurement of capillary lactate concentration at ED presentation may help to discriminate these patients. The primary objective of this study was to identify the prognostic value of capillary lactate concentration measured by the triage nurse among patients presenting to the ED. This was a prospective observational study, performed in the ED of a university hospital. At ED presentation, capillary lactate measurement was performed by the triage nurse among patients presenting with a clinical criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Clinical variables usually used to determine severity were collected at presentation. Twenty-eight-day mortality and MEDS score were recorded. One hundred seventy-six patients with clinical SIRS presented to the ED. Median age was 72 years, and 28-day mortality was 16%. Capillary lactate at ED presentation was significantly higher among 28-day non-survivors than among survivors (5.7 mmol.L(-1) [3.2 to 7.4] vs 2.9 mmol.L(-1) [1.9 to 5.2], p = 0.003). A score based on mottling and capillary lactate concentration >3.6 mmol.L(-1) was significantly associated with 28-day mortality (area under curve, AUC = 0.75), independently of the MEDS score (AUC = 0.79) for the prediction of 28-day mortality (AUC global model 0.87). A high capillary lactate concentration measured by the triage nurse among patients presenting to the ED with clinical SIRS is associated with a high risk of death. A score calculated by the triage nurse, based on mottling and capillary lactate concentration, appears to be useful for identifying the most severe patients.

  1. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations Provide Valid Clinical Skills Assessment in Emergency Medicine Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallenstein, Joshua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation of emergency medicine (EM learners based on observed performance in the emergency department (ED is limited by factors such as reproducibility and patient safety. EM educators depend on standardized and reproducible assessments such as the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. The validity of the OSCE as an evaluation tool in EM education has not been previously studied. The objective was to assess the validity of a novel management-focused OSCE as an evaluation instrument in EM education through demonstration of performance correlation with established assessment methods and case item analysis. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of fourth-year medical students enrolled in a required EM clerkship. Students enrolled in the clerkship completed a five-station EM OSCE. We used Pearson’s coefficient to correlate OSCE performance with performance in the ED based on completed faculty evaluations. Indices of difficulty and discrimination were computed for each scoring item. Results: We found a moderate and statistically-significant correlation between OSCE score and ED performance score [r(239 =0.40, p<0.001]. Of the 34 OSCE testing items the mean index of difficulty was 63.0 (SD =23.0 and the mean index of discrimination was 0.52 (SD =0.21. Conclusion: Student performance on the OSCE correlated with their observed performance in the ED, and indices of difficulty and differentiation demonstrated alignment with published best-practice testing standards. This evidence, along with other attributes of the OSCE, attest to its validity. Our OSCE can be further improved by modifying testing items that performed poorly and by examining and maximizing the inter-rater reliability of our evaluation instrument. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:121–126.

  2. Multimarker Strategy for Short-Term Risk Assessment in Patients With Dyspnea in the Emergency Department The MARKED (Multi mARKer Emergency Dyspnea)-Risk Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eurlings, Luc W.; Sanders-van Wijk, Sandra; van Kimmenade, Roland; Osinski, Aart; van Helmond, Lidwien; Vallinga, Maud; Crijns, Harry J.; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P.; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The study aim was to determine the prognostic value of a multimarker strategy for risk-assessment in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with dyspnea. Background Combining biomarkers with different pathophysiological backgrounds may improve risk stratification in dyspneic

  3. Performance assessment methodology as applied to the Greater Confinement Disposal site: Preliminary results of the third performance iteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baer, T.A. [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy has contracted Sandia National Laboratories to conduct a performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility, Nevada. The performance assessment is an iterative process in which transport models are used to prioritize site characterization data collection. Then the data are used to refine the conceptual and performance assessment models. The results of the first two performance assessment iterations indicate that the site is likely to comply with the performance standards under the existing hydrologic conditions. The third performance iteration expands the conceptual model of the existing transport system to include possible future events and incorporates these processes in the performance assessment models. The processes included in the third performance assessment are climate change, bioturbation, plant uptake, erosion, upward advection, human intrusion and subsidence. The work completed to date incorporates the effects of bioturbation, erosion and subsidence in the performance assessment model. Preliminary analyses indicate that the development of relatively deep-rooting plant species at the site, which could occur due to climate change, irrigated farming or subsidence, poses the greatest threat to the site`s performance.

  4. Preliminary assessment of developmental toxicity of Perfluorinated Phosphonic Acid in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) are a third member of the perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) family, and are structurally similar to the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates. These emerging chemicals have recently been detected in the environment, particularl...

  5. Changing Teachers' Perceptions about the Writing Abilities of Emerging Bilingual Students: Towards a Holistic Bilingual Perspective on Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero-Gonzalez, Lucinda; Escamilla, Kathy; Hopewell, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the application of a holistic bilingual view to assess the writing of emerging bilingual children. The study is part of a 5-year longitudinal research and intervention project that explores the biliteracy development of Spanish-English emerging bilingual students who are receiving instruction in both languages. Participants…

  6. Assessment of plant-driven removal of emerging organic pollutants by duckweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Dawn; Vishwanathan, Saritha; Park, Jung Jae; Oh, David; Michael Saunders, F

    2010-08-01

    Constructed treatment wetlands have the potential to reclaim wastewaters through removal of trace concentrations of emerging organic pollutants, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides. Flask-scale assessments incorporating active and inactivated duckweed were used to screen for plant-associated removal of emerging organic pollutants in aquatic plant systems. Removals of four of eight pollutants, specifically atrazine, meta-N,N-diethyl toluamide (DEET), picloram, and clofibric acid, were negligible in all experimental systems, while duckweed actively increased aqueous depletion of fluoxetine, ibuprofen, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and triclosan. Active plant processes affecting depletion of experimental pollutants included enhancement of microbial degradation of ibuprofen, uptake of fluoxetine, and uptake of degradation products of triclosan and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Passive plant processes, particularly sorption, also contributed to aqueous depletion of fluoxetine and triclosan. Overall, studies demonstrated that aquatic plants contribute directly and indirectly to the aqueous depletion of emerging organic pollutants in wetland systems through both active and passive processes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Virtual Reality Simulation Environments to Assess Competence for Emergency Medicine Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jillian L; Taekman, Jeffrey M; Dev, Parvati; Danforth, Douglas R; Mohan, Deepika; Kman, Nicholas; Crichlow, Amanda; Bond, William F

    2017-09-09

    Immersive learning environments that use virtual simulation technology are increasingly relevant as medical learners train in an environment of restricted clinical training hours and a heightened focus on patient safety. We conducted a consensus process with a breakout group of the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change Through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes." This group examined the current uses of virtual simulation in training and assessment, including limitations and challenges in implementing virtual simulation into medical education curricula. We discuss the role of virtual environments in formative and summative assessment. Finally, we offer recommended areas of focus for future research examining virtual simulation technology for assessment, including high stakes assessment in medical education. Specifically, we discuss needs for determination of areas of focus for virtual simulation training and assessment, development and exploration of virtual platforms, automated feedback within such platforms, and evaluation of effectiveness and validity of virtual simulation education. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of indirect losses and costs of emergency for project planning of alpine hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenda, Lisa; Pfurtscheller, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    By virtue of augmented settling in hazardous areas and increased asset values, natural disasters such as floods, landslides and rockfalls cause high economic losses in Alpine lateral valleys. Especially in small municipalities, indirect losses, mainly stemming from a breakdown of transport networks, and costs of emergency can reach critical levels. A quantification of these losses is necessary to estimate the worthiness of mitigation measures, to determine the appropriate level of disaster assistance and to improve risk management strategies. There are comprehensive approaches available for assessing direct losses. However, indirect losses and costs of emergency are widely not assessed and the empirical basis for estimating these costs is weak. To address the resulting uncertainties of project appraisals, a standardized methodology has been developed dealing with issues of local economic effects and emergency efforts needed. In our approach, the cost-benefit-analysis for technical mitigation of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control (TAC) will be optimized and extended using the 2005-debris flow as a design event, which struggled a small town in the upper Inn valley in southwest Tyrol (Austria). Thereby, 84 buildings were affected, 430 people were evacuated and due to this, the TAC implemented protection measures for 3.75 million Euros. Upgrading the method of the TAC and analyzing to what extent the cost-benefit-ratio is about to change, is one of the main objectives of this study. For estimating short-run indirect effects and costs of emergency on the local level, data was collected via questionnaires, field mapping, guided interviews, as well as intense literature research. According to this, up-to-date calculation methods were evolved and the cost-benefit-analysis of TAC was recalculated with these new-implemented results. The cost-benefit-ratio will be more precise and specific and hence, the decision, which mitigation alternative will be carried out

  9. Establishment of computerized support system for the assessment of radiation exposure in a nuclear emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hui; Lee, Yeong Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Seo, Kyeong Seok; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byeong Woo [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    For the development of a real-time dose assessment, the knowledge over several fields is necessary. For the establishment of the computerized support system for radiation dose assessment, the followings activities have been carried out in this first year. The first test operation of FADAS on HP workstation has been done by editing the basic modules which had been developed as a nuclear long-term project of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The environmental information around the Kori site have been investigated and the information related to the emergency planning such as population density, road network, and socio-environmental data have been displayed on the computer screen. For the automatic control of the basic modules of FADAS, a first-step control program has been organized.

  10. Emergency planning and response: An independent safety assessment of Department of Energy nuclear reactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, D.; Boyd, R.

    1981-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has formed a Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training (NFPQT) Committee to assess the implications of the recommendations contained in the President's Commission Report on the Three Mile Island (TMI) Accident (the Kemeny Commission report) that are applicable to DOE's nuclear reactor operations. Thirteen DOE nuclear reactors have been reviewed. The assessments of the 13 facilities are based on information provided by the individual operator organizations and/or cognizant DOE Field Offices. Additional clarifying information was supplied in some, but not all, instances. This report indicates how these 13 reactor facilities measure up in light of the Kemeny and other TMI-related studies and recommendations, particularly those that have resulted in upgraded Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements in the area of emergency planning and response.

  11. Emergencies in the retroperitoneum: assessment of spread of disease by helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scialpi, M. E-mail: michelescialpi@libero.it; Scaglione, M.; Angelelli, G.; Lupattelli, L.; Resta, M.C.; Resta, M.; Rotondo, A

    2004-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis, leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm, and renal trauma frequently occur in the setting of patients with abdominal nontraumatic and traumatic injury; it represents the most urgent conditions that may determine the presence of fluid collections or haematoma in the retroperitoneum. Single spiral CT and multidetector-row CT (MDCT) play an important role in diagnosis of retroperitoneal emergencies, providing useful informations on the type, site, extent and management of the fluid collections. An accurate CT assessment requires the awareness of the existence of dissectable retroperitoneal fascial planes. Fluid collections or haematoma tends to escape the retroperitoneal site of origin into planes extend from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor. We assess the multicompartimental anatomy of the retroperitoneum and the pathway of spread of the most frequent retroperitoneal fluid collections or haematoma by helical CT.

  12. Nanotechnology in food processing sector-An assessment of emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana Sastry, R; Anshul, Shrivastava; Rao, N H

    2013-10-01

    Use of nanoscience based technology in the food industry is fast emerging as new area for research and development. Several research groups including private companies in the industry have initiated research programmes for exploring the wide scope of nanotechnology into the value chain of food processing and manufacturing. This paper discusses the current focus of research in this area and assesses its potential impacts. Using the developed relational database framework with R&D indicators like literature and patent documents for assessment of the potential of nanotechnology in food sector, a model to organize and map nanoresearch areas to the food processing sector was developed. The study indicates that the about five basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food sector, include food processing, packaging, nutraceuticals delivery, food safety and functional foods.

  13. Preliminary assessment of night vision goggles in airborne forest fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Sion; Craig, Greg; Erdos, Rob; Filiter, Don; Crowell, Bob; Macuda, Todd

    2007-04-01

    Helicopters are widely used in daytime forest fire suppression, conducting diverse tasks such as spotting, re-supply, medical evacuation and airborne delivery. However, they are not used at night for forest fire suppression operations. There would be many challenges when operating in the vicinity of forest fires at night, including scene obscuration from smoke and dynamic changes in lighting conditions. There is little data on the use of Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) for airborne forest fire suppression. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC), in collaboration with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR), performed a preliminary flight test to examine the use of NVGs while operating near forest fires. The study also simulated limited aspects of night time water bucketing. The preliminary observations from this study suggest that NVGs have potential to improve the safety and efficiency of airborne forest fire suppression, including forest fire perimeter mapping and take-off and landing in the vicinity of open fires. NVG operations at some distance from the fire pose minimal risk to flight, and provide an enhanced capability to identify areas of combustion at greater distances and accuracy. Closer to the fire, NVG flight becomes more risk intensive as a consequence of a reduction in visibility attributable to the adverse effects on NVG performance of the excess radiation and smoke emitted by the fire. The preliminary results of this study suggest that water bucketing at night is a difficult operation with elevated risk. Further research is necessary to clarify the operational limitations and implementation of these devices in forest fire suppression.

  14. Instrument for assessing the quality of mobile emergency pre-hospital care: content validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Assis Neves Dantas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To validate an instrument to assess quality of mobile emergency pre-hospital care. METHOD A methodological study where 20 professionals gave their opinions on the items of the proposed instrument. The analysis was performed using Kappa test (K and Content Validity Index (CVI, considering K> 0.80 and CVI ≥ 0.80. RESULTS Three items were excluded from the instrument: Professional Compensation; Job Satisfaction and Services Performed. Items that obtained adequate K and CVI indexes and remained in the instrument were: ambulance conservation status; physical structure; comfort in the ambulance; availability of material resources; user/staff safety; continuous learning; safety demonstrated by the team; access; welcoming; humanization; response time; costumer privacy; guidelines on care; relationship between professionals and costumers; opportunity for costumers to make complaints and multiprofessional conjunction/actuation. CONCLUSION The instrument to assess quality of care has been validated and may contribute to the evaluation of pre-hospital care in mobile emergency services.

  15. [Challenges in the assessment and managment of health risks associated with emerging water micropollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Yves

    2009-06-01

    Analytical laboratories can now identify and quantify an impressive number of "new" pollutants present at very low concentrations in water. Nanotechnology products are a new cause for concern. " Emerging " pollutants are defined as substances that were not previously sought or detected (plasticizers, drugs, chlorination byproducts, persistant organic pollutants, ...) and that are now being identified in many continental water resources. The biological actions of these substances, alone and in combination with other more " classical "pollutants, include such effects as endocrine disruption. Contaminants may be present in surface and groundwater resources, may be generated during treatment, and are found in drinking water distribution networks. In industrialized countries, the main source of emerging pollutants for humans is not water, but rather food, cosmetics and air. Urgent measures are needed to protect biodiversity and human health, including quantitative risk assessment, toxicologic studies of xenobiotic mixtures and chronic effects, strategies to protect water resources, technological advances in wastewater treatment, reliable potable water production, and new inert materials for transport and storage. Good sanitation and safe tap water are major contributors to human health and well-being Major efforts and investments are needed, based on rigorous, objective assessments of risks for the environment and public health.

  16. Zika--an emerging infectious disease. The risk assessment from Polish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gańczak, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, attention has been paid to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, the emerging vector-borne disease. It is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area, South America and Caribbean. The etiology, epidemiology, transmission, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the diagnostic possibilities in the aim to assessing the risk of its introduction to Poland. ZIKV is spread by Aedes mosquitoes which are not found throughout Poland. The prevention strategies adopted by national public health authorities should be based on a surveillance of imported cases and on increasing awareness among healthcare professionals and travelers. Due to a large number of asymptomatic ZIKV infections and limitations in the availability of diagnostic tests, monitoring based on laboratory results is likely to be unreliable in Poland. There are no requirements to report ZIKV infections to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Nevertheless, the global epidemic continues to spread, and despite travels of Poles to countries in which Aedes mosquitoes are active, Polish sportsmen will be travelling to Brazil in August 2016 to participate in the Olympic Games, the will also be true of the many fans who will follow them; therefore imported cases of ZIKV infection are possible. As the awareness of the infection risk will increase among medical staff and travelers, the number of suspected cases of travel-related ZIKV infections may rise in Poland. Medical staff should be informed where and how to report such cases. Thorough surveillance, adequate assessment of possible threats, action plans, rapid and effective intervention development, spread of up to date information of ZIKV, as well as other emerging or re-emerging infectious pathogens can play a key role in guaranteeing population health.

  17. Nuclear Reactor Component Code CUPID-I: Numerical Scheme and Preliminary Assessment Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyoung Kyu; Jeong, Jae Jun; Park, Ik Kyu; Kim, Jong Tae; Yoon, Han Young

    2007-12-15

    A component scale thermal hydraulic analysis code, CUPID (Component Unstructured Program for Interfacial Dynamics), is being developed for the analysis of components of a nuclear reactor, such as reactor vessel, steam generator, containment, etc. It adopted three-dimensional, transient, two phase and three-field model. In order to develop the numerical schemes for the three-field model, various numerical schemes have been examined including the SMAC, semi-implicit ICE, SIMPLE, Row Scheme and so on. Among them, the ICE scheme for the three-field model was presented in the present report. The CUPID code is utilizing unstructured mesh for the simulation of complicated geometries of the nuclear reactor components. The conventional ICE scheme that was applied to RELAP5 and COBRA-TF, therefore, were modified for the application to the unstructured mesh. Preliminary calculations for the unstructured semi-implicit ICE scheme have been conducted for a verification of the numerical method from a qualitative point of view. The preliminary calculation results showed that the present numerical scheme is robust and efficient for the prediction of phase changes and flow transitions due to a boiling and a flashing. These calculation results also showed the strong coupling between the pressure and void fraction changes. Thus, it is believed that the semi-implicit ICE scheme can be utilized for transient two-phase flows in a component of a nuclear reactor.

  18. Preliminary structural assessment of DEMO vacuum vessel against a vertical displacement event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozzillo, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.mozzillo@unina.it [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Tarallo, Andrea; Marzullo, Domenico [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Bachmann, Christian [EUROfusion PMU, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Di Gironimo, Giuseppe [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Mazzone, Giuseppe [Unità Tecnica Fusione - ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The paper focuses on a preliminary structural analysis of the current concept design of DEMO vacuum vessel. • The Vacuum Vessel was checked against the VDE in combinations with the weight force of all components that the vessel shall bear. • Different configurations for the vacuum vessel supports are considered, showing that the best solution is VV supported at the lower port. • The analyses evaluated the “P damage” according to RCC-MRx code. - Abstract: This paper focuses on a preliminary structural analysis of the current concept design of DEMO vacuum vessel (VV). The VV structure is checked against a vertical load due to a Vertical Displacement Event in combination with the weight force of all components that the main vessel shall bear. Different configurations for the supports are considered. Results show that the greatest safety margins are reached when the tokamak is supported through the lower ports rather than the equatorial ports, though all analyzed configurations are compliant with RCC-MRx design rules.

  19. Competency Assessment in Senior Emergency Medicine Residents for Core Ultrasound Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jessica N; Kendall, John; Smalley, Courtney

    2015-11-01

    Quality resident education in point-of-care ultrasound (POC US) is becoming increasingly important in emergency medicine (EM); however, the best methods to evaluate competency in graduating residents has not been established. We sought to design and implement a rigorous assessment of image acquisition and interpretation in POC US in a cohort of graduating residents at our institution. We evaluated nine senior residents in both image acquisition and image interpretation for five core US skills (focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST), aorta, echocardiogram (ECHO), pelvic, central line placement). Image acquisition, using an observed clinical skills exam (OSCE) directed assessment with a standardized patient model. Image interpretation was measured with a multiple-choice exam including normal and pathologic images. Residents performed well on image acquisition for core skills with an average score of 85.7% for core skills and 74% including advanced skills (ovaries, advanced ECHO, advanced aorta). Residents scored well but slightly lower on image interpretation with an average score of 76%. Senior residents performed well on core POC US skills as evaluated with a rigorous assessment tool. This tool may be developed further for other EM programs to use for graduating resident evaluation.

  20. Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and [sup 137]Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

  1. Development and preliminary evaluation of a music-based attention assessment for patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Lesiuk, Teresa L

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in attention are commonly seen in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). While visual attention assessment measurements have been rigorously developed and frequently used in cognitive neurorehabilitation, there is a paucity of auditory attention assessment measurements for patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to field test a researcher-developed Music-based Attention Assessment (MAA), a melodic contour identification test designed to assess three different types of attention (i.e., sustained attention, selective attention, and divided attention), for patients with TBI. Additionally, this study aimed to evaluate the readability and comprehensibility of the test items and to examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the scale and test items. Fifteen patients diagnosed with TBI completed 3 different series of tasks in which they were required to identify melodic contours. The resulting data showed that (a) test items in each of the 3 subtests were found to have an easy to moderate level of item difficulty and an acceptable to high level of item discrimination, and (b) the musical characteristics (i.e., contour, congruence, and pitch interference) were found to be associated with the level of item difficulty, and (c) the internal consistency of the MAA as computed by Cronbach's alpha was .95. Subsequent studies using a larger sample of typical participants, along with individuals with TBI, are needed to confirm construct validity and internal consistency of the MAA. In addition, the authors recommend examination of criterion validity of the MAA as correlated with current neuropsychological attention assessment measurements.

  2. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  3. Self-Assessment of Word Knowledge with Graded Readers: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan-a-rom, Udorn

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated how second language (L2) learners self-assessed word knowledge on a page of text taken from a graded reader. The case study subjects were five Thai high school learners of English. They were asked to assess their word knowledge using a page of continuous text. Data gained through observation, interviews, self-assessment and…

  4. A web-based team-oriented medical error communication assessment tool: development, preliminary reliability, validity, and user ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sara; Brock, Doug; Prouty, Carolyn D; Odegard, Peggy Soule; Shannon, Sarah E; Robins, Lynne; Boggs, Jim G; Clark, Fiona J; Gallagher, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams are not well suited for assessing communication skills. Standardized patient assessments are costly and patient and peer assessments are often biased. Web-based assessment using video content offers the possibility of reliable, valid, and cost-efficient means for measuring complex communication skills, including interprofessional communication. We report development of the Web-based Team-Oriented Medical Error Communication Assessment Tool, which uses videotaped cases for assessing skills in error disclosure and team communication. Steps in development included (a) defining communication behaviors, (b) creating scenarios, (c) developing scripts, (d) filming video with professional actors, and (e) writing assessment questions targeting team communication during planning and error disclosure. Using valid data from 78 participants in the intervention group, coefficient alpha estimates of internal consistency were calculated based on the Likert-scale questions and ranged from α=.79 to α=.89 for each set of 7 Likert-type discussion/planning items and from α=.70 to α=.86 for each set of 8 Likert-type disclosure items. The preliminary test-retest Pearson correlation based on the scores of the intervention group was r=.59 for discussion/planning and r=.25 for error disclosure sections, respectively. Content validity was established through reliance on empirically driven published principles of effective disclosure as well as integration of expert views across all aspects of the development process. In addition, data from 122 medicine and surgical physicians and nurses showed high ratings for video quality (4.3 of 5.0), acting (4.3), and case content (4.5). Web assessment of communication skills appears promising. Physicians and nurses across specialties respond favorably to the tool.

  5. Assessing soil-structure interaction during the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence (Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrigo Caserta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the moderate-magnitude aftershocks succeeding to the 2016 August 24th, Mw = 6.0, Amatrice (Italy mainshok to asses, specially during an ongoing seismic sequence, the soil-structure interaction where cultural Heritage is involved. We have chosen as case study the San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039  in Acquasanta Terme town, about 20 Km northeast of Amatrice. First of all we studied the soil shaking features in order to characterize the input to the monument. Then, using the recordings in the church, we tried to figure out  how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

  6. The Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment: Mangrove, Tidal Emergent Marsh, Barrier Islands, and Oyster Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Reece, Joshua S.; Tirpak, Blair; Edwards, Cynthia Kallio; Geselbracht, Laura; Woodrey, Mark; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy)

    2015-01-01

    Climate, sea level rise, and urbanization are undergoing unprecedented levels of combined change and are expected to have large effects on natural resources—particularly along the Gulf of Mexico coastline (Gulf Coast). Management decisions to address these effects (i.e., adaptation) require an understanding of the relative vulnerability of various resources to these stressors. To meet this need, the four Landscape Conservation Cooperatives along the Gulf partnered with the Gulf of Mexico Alliance to conduct this Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment (GCVA). Vulnerability in this context incorporates the aspects of exposure and sensitivity to threats, coupled with the adaptive capacity to mitigate those threats. Potential impact and adaptive capacity reflect natural history features of target species and ecosystems. The GCVA used an expert opinion approach to qualitatively assess the vulnerability of four ecosystems: mangrove, oyster reef, tidal emergent marsh, and barrier islands, and a suite of wildlife species that depend on them. More than 50 individuals participated in the completion of the GCVA, facilitated via Ecosystem and Species Expert Teams. Of the species assessed, Kemp’s ridley sea turtle was identified as the most vulnerable species across the Gulf Coast. Experts identified the main threats as loss of nesting habitat to sea level rise, erosion, and urbanization. Kemp’s ridley also had an overall low adaptive capacity score due to their low genetic diversity, and higher nest site fidelity as compared to other assessed species. Tidal emergent marsh was the most vulnerable ecosystem, due in part to sea level rise and erosion. In general, avian species were more vulnerable than fish because of nesting habitat loss to sea level rise, erosion, and potential increases in storm surge. Assessors commonly indicated a lack of information regarding impacts due to projected changes in the disturbance regime, biotic interactions, and synergistic effects in both

  7. Gulf Coast vulnerability assessment: Mangrove, tidal emergent marsh, barrier islands and oyster reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Reece, Joshua; Tirpak, Blair; Edwards, Cynthia Kallio; Geselbracht, Laura; Woodrey, Mark; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy)

    2017-01-01

    Climate, sea level rise, and urbanization are undergoing unprecedented levels of combined change and are expected to have large effects on natural resources—particularly along the Gulf of Mexico coastline (Gulf Coast). Management decisions to address these effects (i.e., adaptation) require an understanding of the relative vulnerability of various resources to these stressors. To meet this need, the four Landscape Conservation Cooperatives along the Gulf partnered with the Gulf of Mexico Alliance to conduct this Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment (GCVA). Vulnerability in this context incorporates exposure and sensitivity to threats (potential impact), coupled with the adaptive capacity to mitigate those threats. Potential impact and adaptive capacity reflect natural history features of target species and ecosystems. The GCVA used an expert opinion approach to qualitatively assess the vulnerability of four ecosystems: mangrove, oyster reef, tidal emergent marsh, and barrier islands, and a suite of wildlife species that depend on them. More than 50 individuals participated in the completion of the GCVA, facilitated via Ecosystem and Species Expert Teams. Of the species assessed, Kemp’s ridley sea turtle was identified as the most vulnerable species across the Gulf Coast. Experts identified the main threats as loss of nesting habitat to sea level rise, erosion, and urbanization. Kemp’s ridley also had an overall low adaptive capacity score due to their low genetic diversity, and higher nest site fidelity as compared to other assessed species. Tidal emergent marsh was the most vulnerable ecosystem, due in part to sea level rise and erosion. In general, avian species were more vulnerable than fish because of nesting habitat loss to sea level rise, erosion, and potential increases in storm surge. Assessors commonly indicated a lack of information regarding impacts due to projected changes in the disturbance regime, biotic interactions, and synergistic effects in

  8. Assessing written communication during interhospital transfers of emergency general surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Felicity N R; Saucke, Megan C; Greenberg, Caprice C; Ingraham, Angela M

    2017-06-15

    Poor communication causes fragmented care. Studies of transitions of care within a hospital and on discharge suggest significant communication deficits. Communication during transfers between hospitals has not been well studied. We assessed the written communication provided during interhospital transfers of emergency general surgery patients. We hypothesized that patients are transferred with incomplete documentation from referring facilities. We performed a retrospective review of written communication provided during interhospital transfers to our emergency department (ED) from referring EDs for emergency general surgical evaluation between January 1, 2014 and January 1, 2016. Elements of written communication were abstracted from referring facility documents scanned into the medical record using a standardized abstraction protocol. Descriptive statistics summarized the information communicated. A total of 129 patients met inclusion criteria. 87.6% (n = 113) of charts contained referring hospital documents. 42.5% (n = 48) were missing history and physicals. Diagnoses were missing in 9.7% (n = 11). Ninety-one computed tomography scans were performed; among 70 with reads, final reads were absent for 70.0% (n = 49). 45 ultrasounds and x-rays were performed; among 27 with reads, final reads were missing for 80.0% (n = 36). Reasons for transfer were missing in 18.6% (n = 21). Referring hospital physicians outside the ED were consulted in 32.7% (n = 37); consultants' notes were absent in 89.2% (n = 33). In 12.4% (n = 14), referring documents arrived after the patient's ED arrival and were not part of the original documentation provided. This study documents that information important to patient care is often missing in the written communication provided during interhospital transfers. This gap affords a foundation for standardizing provider communication during interhospital transfers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Health risk assessment of cadmium pollution emergency for urban populations in Foshan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ming; Zhao, Peipei; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Guiqiu

    2017-03-01

    With rapid socioeconomic development, water pollution emergency has become increasingly common and could potentially harm the environment and human health, especially heavy metal pollution. In this paper, we investigate the Cd pollution emergency that occurred in the Pearl River network, China, in 2005, and we build a migration and transformation model for heavy metals to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of Cd concentrations under various scenarios of Cd pollution emergency in Foshan City. Moreover, human health hazard and carcinogenic risk for local residents of Foshan City were evaluated. The primary conclusions were as follows: (1) the number of carcinogen-affected people per year under scenario 1 reached 254.41 when the frequency was 0.1 year/time; specifically, the number of people with cancer per year in the area of the Datang, Lubao, and Nanbian waterworks was 189.36 accounting for 74% of the total number per year; (2) at the frequency of 5 years/time, the Lubao waterwork is the only one in extremely high- or high-risk grade, while besides it, the risk grade in the Datang, Nanbian, Xinan, Shitang, and Jianlibao waterworks is in the extremely high or high grade when the frequency is 0.1 year/time; (3) when Cd pollution accidents with the same level occurs again, Cd concentration decreases to a low level in the water only if the migration distance of Cd is at least 40-50 km. Based on the health risk assessment of Cd pollution, this study gives the recommendation that the distance should keep above 50 km in tidal river network of the Pearl River Delta between those factories existing the possibility of heavy metal pollution and the drinking water source. Only then can the public protect themselves from hazardous effects of higher levels of heavy metal.

  10. Emerging viral zoonoses: frameworks for spatial and spatiotemporal risk assessment and resource planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Archie C A; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2009-10-01

    Spatial epidemiological tools are increasingly being applied to emerging viral zoonoses (EVZ), partly because of improving analytical methods and technologies for data capture and management, and partly because the demand is growing for more objective ways of allocating limited resources in the face of the emerging threat posed by these diseases. This review documents applications of geographical information systems (GIS), remote sensing (RS) and spatially-explicit statistical and mathematical models to epidemiological studies of EVZ. Landscape epidemiology uses statistical associations between environmental variables and diseases to study and predict their spatial distributions. Phylogeography augments epidemiological knowledge by studying the evolution of viral genetics through space and time. Cluster detection and early warning systems assist surveillance and can permit timely interventions. Advanced statistical models can accommodate spatial dependence present in epidemiological datasets and can permit assessment of uncertainties in disease data and predictions. Mathematical models are particularly useful for testing and comparing alternative control strategies, whereas spatial decision-support systems integrate a variety of spatial epidemiological tools to facilitate widespread dissemination and interpretation of disease data. Improved spatial data collection systems and greater practical application of spatial epidemiological tools should be applied in real-world scenarios.

  11. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Dynamic Self-Assessment of Supply Chains Performance: an Emerging Market Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez-Ramírez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic self-assessment of performance on supply chains operating in emerging markets is proposed. Based on wellestablishedkey performance indicators (KPI, this paper provides a decision support aid. Although it has been validatedin the automotive industry, the standardized model’s approach makes it applicable to other industries. It is the result of alarge literature review and identification of best practices from the automotive industry in which the lack of dynamic toolsto evaluate logistics performance of suitable supply chains to the current competitive exchange rate was detected.Developed under a system dynamics approach (DS, the model analyzes different scenarios taking into account KPI andits dynamic relationships. The results obtained were validated through the statistical technique of design of experiments(DOE. This model also considers the specific features of the automotive operations in emerging countries as well astheir importance in the future development of the manufacturing industry. In this context, the tool exposed is a keybackup to decision making and to dynamically evaluate the variables with major influence on manufacturing supplychains. As a conclusion, findings are discussed and future researches are presented.

  13. The hydrological impact assessment in the decision support of nuclear emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, Dan V; Slavnicu, Dan S; Gheorghiu, Dorina; Acasandrei, Valentin T; Slavnicu, Elena

    2010-07-01

    The paper presents several aspects believed to be relevant for the integration in the decision support systems for the management of radiological emergencies, of assessment tools addressing surface water contamination. Three exemplary cases are discussed in the context-the CONVEX 2005 international alert exercise, AXIOPOLIS 09, a national drill targeting a CANDU reactor at Cernavoda nuclear power plant in Romania, and Oltenia 07-a nation-wide drill around a scenario, involving trans-border effects of a virtual accident at a VVER reactor at Kozloduy, Bulgaria. The capability of different analytic tools were tested, including public deliverables like real-time, online decision support system's HDM module and model-based computerised system for management support to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring radionuclide-contaminated aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas, as well as research-grade, home-made facilities, in order to identify and sort out merits and issues of interest in steering their effective utilisation.

  14. Assessment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systemsfor nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    technologies based on renewable energy sources has increased tremendously in the last decade. A significant amount of experimental and modelling research has recently been presented on emerging technologies. In this paper, four main technologies are assessed: Fuel Cells (FC), Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T), solar...... thermal reversible heat pump /organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) and cogeneration solar Thermoelectric generators (TEG).This paper aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art developments, discuss the fundamental and technical challenges facing commercial adoption and prospects of these technologies......Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB.These systems...

  15. Comprehensive assessment and network analysis of the emerging genetic susceptibility landscape of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Chindo; Miele, Lucio; Koganti, Tejaswi; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping have made possible identification of genetic variants associated with increased risk of developing prostate cancer using genome-wide associations studies (GWAS). However, the broader context in which the identified genetic variants operate is poorly understood. Here we present a comprehensive assessment, network, and pathway analysis of the emerging genetic susceptibility landscape of prostate cancer. We created a comprehensive catalog of genetic variants and associated genes by mining published reports and accompanying websites hosting supplementary data on GWAS. We then performed network and pathway analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-containing genes to identify gene regulatory networks and pathways enriched for genetic variants. We identified multiple gene networks and pathways enriched for genetic variants including IGF-1, androgen biosynthesis and androgen signaling pathways, and the molecular mechanisms of cancer. The results provide putative functional bridges between GWAS findings and gene regulatory networks and biological pathways.

  16. Assessment and Management of Work-Related Stress in Hospital Emergency Departments in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ettorre, Gabriele; Greco, Maria Rita

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes in the organization of the healthcare system, triggered by the current economic crisis in Italy, require interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of work-related stress (WRS) on healthcare workers' health status and well-being. Emergency department (ED) personnel appear to be particularly vulnerable to WRS as a consequence of specific occupational risk factors. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to analyze the level of WRS after improvement interventions implemented by the management staff of the ED and focused on work context factors. The assessment of WRS showed that nurses and physicians of the ED are exposed to a medium level of risk; the improvement interventions aimed at reducing WRS were focused on: (1) function and organizational culture; (2) role within the occupational organization; and (3) relationships at work policy. These interventions were found to be significantly effective in reducing the risk of WRS.

  17. Assessment and risk classification protocol for patients in emergency units1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Michele de Freitas Neves; Oliveira, Gabriela Novelli; Pergola-Marconato, Aline Maino; Marconato, Rafael Silva; Bargas, Eliete Boaventura; Araujo, Izilda Esmenia Muglia

    2014-01-01

    Objective to develop, validate the contents and verify the reliability of a risk classification protocol for an Emergency Unit. Method the content validation was developed in a University Hospital in a country town located in the state of Sao Paulo and was carried out in two stages: the first with the individual assessment of specialists and the second with the meeting between the researchers and the specialists. The use of the protocol followed a specific guide. Concerning reliability, the concordance or equivalent method among observers was used. Results the protocol developed showed to have content validity and, after the suggested changes were made, there were excellent results concerning reliability. Conclusion the assistance flow chart was shown to be easy to use, and facilitate the search for the complaint in each assistance priority. PMID:26107828

  18. Establishment of a radiological dose assessment system for HANARO emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil

    1999-12-01

    A radiological dose assessment system has been established to calculate the three-dimensional wind field based on the observed data at meteorological towers, and to calculate the exposure dose in the radiological accidents or for emergency training. The wind fields program has been constructed to calculate the real-time wind field using the atmospheric stability and the diffusion parameters based on the meteorological data sets measured from two meteorological towers. The result is separated into the effective dose and thyroid dose with 4 age groups such as infant, children, teenage and adult. Dose rate and cumulated dose for above each termare calculated and repeated for the prediction and modification according to the elapsed time. The evaluated data sets are displayed on the map around KAERI site with social and environmental information which is made with GIS. (author)

  19. How to assess the emergence of the European Pirate Parties. Towards a research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Uszkai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the emergence of the pirate movements in the European Union. Our goal is to sketch the steps towards a research agenda for this grassroots political movement which gained momentum since 2009. To attain our goal we showed the re-signification of the concept of piracy in the debate around intellectual property and its institutional settlement. Afterwards we analysed the big political themes of several European Pirate Parties and their struggle to follow the preferences of the median voter. We concluded with a set of hypotheses of which the most important is that the pirates will inscribe neither to the left nor to the right part of the political spectrum.

  20. Children’s experiences of acute hospitalisation to a paediatric emergency and assessment unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Jackson, Karen; Kolbæk, Raymond;

    2012-01-01

    Short-stay treatment has become a popular form of care as a strategy to cope with increased demands on health care. There is little research that considers children’s experiences of acute hospitalisation to a short-stay care facility such as a Paediatric Emergency and Assessment Unit (PEAU......). This study explored the experiences of eight children aged 8–10 years. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to investigate the children’s own experiences of being hospitalised in a PEAU. Thematic content analyses were used. Three major themes were identified: the children’s understanding of disease......, treatment and procedures; the children’s experiences of health-care personnel and the PEAU and transformation of everyday life into the settings of the hospital. The children identified the hospital stay as an overall positive experience. The children took part in leisure activities as they would at home...

  1. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  2. The use of a new automatic device for patients' assessment at Triage in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Di Somma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess time saving in an Emergency Department arising out of the introduction of automatic devices (Carescape™ V100 to measure vital signs compared to the manual devices. Methods: We performed a prospective, observational study of eligible patients referring to Sant’Andrea Hospital Emergency Department during the entire month of October 2009, randomly assigned into two groups. In the first group of 476 patients vital signs measurements were detected with manual devices, while in the second group of 477 patients with automatic device Carescape™ V100. Results: Data indicated that the comparison of the total time between the two groups gave a significant difference (1993 vs 1518 min, p < 0.001. No differences were found with respect to age, sex and priority codes. Significant differences were also found when comparing the subgroups of the same acuity categories: white codes 4.33 vs 2.27 (min, p < 0.05; green codes 4.28 vs 3.37 (min, p < 0.001; yellow codes 3.92 vs 2.72 (min, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated a statistical significance between the two groups with a difference of 475 minutes spent in Triage procedures including vital signs measurements. In conclusion time saved by vital signs automatic device could allow ED physicians to make a qualified approach with an earlier diagnosis and a more rapid and effective therapy, possibly improving patients’ outcomes. ABSTRACT of data concerning vital signs quality assessment, because we did not compare the two methods in the same patient and we did not correlate Triage priority evaluation with patients’ outcomes. In the future further studies should be specifically aimed to address this issue. In conclusion time saved by vital signs automatic device could allow ED physicians to make a qualified approach to patient with an earlier diagnosis and a more rapid and effective therapy, possibly improving patients’ outcomes.

  3. Short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment via an integrated modeling system for nuclear power plants in complex terrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni-Bin CHANG; Yu-Chi WENG

    2013-01-01

    Short-term predictions of potential impacts from accidental release of various radionuclides at nuclear power plants are acutely needed,especially after the Fukushima accident in Japan.An integrated modeling system that provides expert services to assess the consequences of accidental or intentional releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere has received wide attention.These scenarios can be initiated either by accident due to human,software,or mechanical failures,or from intentional acts such as sabotage and radiological dispersal devices.Stringent action might be required just minutes after the occurrence of accidental or intentional release.To fulfill the basic functions of emergency preparedness and response systems,previous studies seldom consider the suitability of air pollutant dispersion models or the connectivity between source term,dispersion,and exposure assessment models in a holistic context for decision support.Therefore,the Gaussian plume and puff models,which are only suitable for illustrating neutral air pollutants in flat terrain conditional to limited meteorological situations,are frequently used to predict the impact from accidental release of industrial sources.In situations with complex terrain or special meteorological conditions,the proposing emergency response actions might be questionable and even intractable to decisionmakers responsible for maintaining public health and environmental quality.This study is a preliminary effort to integrate the source term,dispersion,and exposure assessment models into a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to tackle the complex issues for short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment at nuclear power plants.Through a series model screening procedures,we found that the diagnostic (objective) wind field model with the aid of sufficient on-site meteorological monitoring data was the most applicable model to promptly address the trend of local wind field patterns.However,most of the

  4. Short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment via an integrated modeling system for nuclear power plants in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Weng, Yu-Chi

    2013-03-01

    Short-term predictions of potential impacts from accidental release of various radionuclides at nuclear power plants are acutely needed, especially after the Fukushima accident in Japan. An integrated modeling system that provides expert services to assess the consequences of accidental or intentional releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere has received wide attention. These scenarios can be initiated either by accident due to human, software, or mechanical failures, or from intentional acts such as sabotage and radiological dispersal devices. Stringent action might be required just minutes after the occurrence of accidental or intentional release. To fulfill the basic functions of emergency preparedness and response systems, previous studies seldom consider the suitability of air pollutant dispersion models or the connectivity between source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models in a holistic context for decision support. Therefore, the Gaussian plume and puff models, which are only suitable for illustrating neutral air pollutants in flat terrain conditional to limited meteorological situations, are frequently used to predict the impact from accidental release of industrial sources. In situations with complex terrain or special meteorological conditions, the proposing emergency response actions might be questionable and even intractable to decisionmakers responsible for maintaining public health and environmental quality. This study is a preliminary effort to integrate the source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models into a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to tackle the complex issues for short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment at nuclear power plants. Through a series model screening procedures, we found that the diagnostic (objective) wind field model with the aid of sufficient on-site meteorological monitoring data was the most applicable model to promptly address the trend of local wind field patterns

  5. Supervision and feedback for junior medical staff in Australian emergency departments: findings from the emergency medicine capacity assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiland Tracey J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical supervision and feedback are important for the development of competency in junior doctors. This study aimed to determine the adequacy of supervision of junior medical staff in Australian emergency departments (EDs and perceived feedback provided. Methods Semi-structured telephone surveys sought quantitative and qualitative data from ED Directors, Directors of Emergency Medicine Training, registrars and interns in 37 representative Australian hospitals; quantitative data were analysed with SPSS 15.0 and qualitative data subjected to content analysis identifying themes. Results Thirty six of 37 hospitals took part. Of 233 potential interviewees, 95 (40.1% granted interviews including 100% (36/36 of ED Directors, and 96.2% (25/26 of eligible DEMTs, 24% (19/81 of advanced trainee/registrars, and 17% (15/90 of interns. Most participants (61% felt the ED was adequately supervised in general and (64.2% that medical staff were adequately supervised. Consultants and registrars were felt to provide most intern supervision, but this varied depending on shift times, with registrars more likely to provide supervision on night shift and at weekends. Senior ED medical staff (64% and junior staff (79% agreed that interns received adequate clinical supervision. Qualitative analysis revealed that good processes were in place to ensure adequate supervision, but that service demands, particularly related to access block and overcrowding, had detrimental effects on both supervision and feedback. Conclusions Consultants appear to provide the majority of supervision of junior medical staff in Australian EDs. Supervision and feedback are generally felt to be adequate, but are threatened by service demands, particularly related to access block and ED overcrowding.

  6. Children's safety initiative: a national assessment of pediatric educational needs among emergency medical services providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; Meckler, Garth; Dickinson, Caitlyn; Dickenson, Kathryn; Jui, Jonathan; Lambert, William; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) providers may have critical knowledge gaps in pediatric care due to lack of exposure and training. There is currently little evidence to guide educators to the knowledge gaps that most need to be addressed to improve patient safety. The objective of this study was to identify educational needs of EMS providers related to pediatric care in various domains in order to inform development of curricula. The Children's Safety Initiative-EMS performed a three-phase Delphi survey on patient safety in pediatric emergencies among providers and content experts in pediatric emergency care, including physicians, nurses, and prehospital providers of all levels. Each round included questions related to educational needs of providers or the effect of training on patient safety events. We identified knowledge gaps in the following domains: case exposure, competency and knowledge, assessment and decision making, and critical thinking and proficiency. Individual knowledge gaps were ranked by portion of respondents who ranked them "highly likely" (Likert-type score 7-10 out of 10) to contribute to safety events. There were 737 respondents who were included in analysis of the first phase of the survey. Paramedics were 50.8% of respondents, EMT-basics/first responders were 22%, and physicians 11.4%. The top educational priorities identified in the final round of the survey include pediatric airway management, responder anxiety when working with children, and general pediatric skills among providers. The top three needs in decision-making include knowing when to alter plans mid-course, knowing when to perform an advanced airway, and assessing pain in children. The top 3 technical or procedural skills needs were pediatric advanced airway, neonatal resuscitation, and intravenous/intraosseous access. For neonates, specific educational needs identified included knowing appropriate vital signs and preventing hypothermia. This is the first large-scale Delphi

  7. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part I. High Temperature Structure Design Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A preliminary guideline for the design and evaluation of LMR high temperature structure is presented based upon ASME B and PV Code, Section III, Subsection NH. The main contents of this guideline are the materials, general design, vessel, piping, core support structure, pumps, valves, fabrication, examination, and testing for the class 1 components. The ratcheting evaluation, enhanced creep assessment, welds design and evaluation, inelastic analysis approach, piping design alternatives, and bellows design method are described in appendices. A user of this guideline should follow the essential procedures and may refer to other pertinent codes, standards, laws, regulations, or other pertinent documents when this guideline does not lead to proper design of the structure. While this guideline adopts major procedures of Subsection NH, it refers to the RCC-MR and/or DDS in some amount for the items where these codes have excellency to improve this guideline.

  8. The application of conductivity measurements for preliminary assessments of chlorhexidine and lidocaine hydrochloride release from methylcellulose gel at various temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Voncina, Bojana

    2009-01-01

    For the evaluation of conductivity measurements in the control and monitoring of release process, high number of conductivity measurements was performed. The measurements were done for the compositions of chlorhexidine with methylcellulose, and lidocaine hydrochloride with methylcellulose. Chlorhexidine, a very slightly soluble substance is released from the methylcellulose bead in the amounts ca. 30%-70%, and it depends of temperature of the release process. The lidocaine hydrochloride at the same time is released from methylcellulose formulation in 70-100%. The conductivity in the donor compartment at the start point, and in the acceptor compartment at the termination point, reflect the released amounts of the drug. This study confirms the possibility of application of conductivity measurements for the preliminary assessments of the kinetics of release of soluble and practically insoluble substances from the nonionic polymeric matrix.

  9. An assistive controller for a lower-limb exoskeleton for rehabilitation after stroke, and preliminary assessment thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Spencer A; Ha, Kevin H; Goldfarb, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel controller, intended for use in a lower-limb exoskeleton, to aid gait rehabilitation in patients with hemiparesis after stroke. The controller makes use of gravity compensation, feedforward movement assistance, and reinforcement of isometric joint torques to achieve assistance without dictating the spatiotemporal nature of joint movement. The patient is allowed to self-select walking speed and is able to make trajectory adaptations to maintain balance without interference from the controller. The governing equations and the finite state machine which comprise the system are described herein. The control architecture was implemented in a lower-limb exoskeleton and a preliminary experimental assessment was conducted in which a patient with hemiparesis resulting from stroke walked with assistance from the exoskeleton. The patient exhibited improvements in fast gait speed, step length asymmetry, and stride length in each session, as measured before and after exoskeleton training, presumably as a result of using the exoskeleton.

  10. A Preliminary Watershed Scale Soil Quality Assessment in North Central Iowa USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil quality assessment has been recognized as an important step toward understanding the long-term effects of tillage, cropping system, landscape position, and conservation practices within agricultural watersheds. Our objective is to provide an initial assessment of various soil quality indicators...

  11. Preliminary Study on Establishing the New System of Assessment and Evaluation Of "Athletic Physiology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the light of the problems existing in assessment of the course of "athletic physiology" in universities at present, this article makes reflections upon the assessment mode of students for this course and takes a general survey on development of the evaluation system by comprehensively employing both the quantitative method and…

  12. A preliminary assessment of legged mobility provided by a lower limb exoskeleton for persons with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Ryan J; Quintero, Hugo A; Murray, Spencer A; Ha, Kevin H; Hartigan, Clare; Goldfarb, Michael

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an assessment of a lower limb exoskeleton for providing legged mobility to people with paraplegia. In particular, the paper presents a single-subject case study comparing legged locomotion using the exoskeleton to locomotion using knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) on a subject with a T10 motor and sensory complete injury. The assessment utilizes three assessment instruments to characterize legged mobility, which are the timed up-and-go test, the Ten-Meter Walk Test (10 MWT), and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6 MWT), which collectively assess the subject's ability to stand, walk, turn, and sit. The exertion associated with each assessment instrument was assessed using the Physiological Cost Index. Results indicate that the subject was able to perform the respective assessment instruments 25%, 70%, and 80% faster with the exoskeleton relative to the KAFOs for the timed up-and-go test, the 10 MWT, and the 6 MWT, respectively. Measurements of exertion indicate that the exoskeleton requires 1.6, 5.2, and 3.2 times less exertion than the KAFOs for each respective assessment instrument. The results indicate that the enhancement in speed and reduction in exertion are more significant during walking than during gait transitions.

  13. Assessing Critical Thinking in Higher Education: The HEIghten™ Approach and Preliminary Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Mao, Liyang; Frankel, Lois; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking is a learning outcome highly valued by higher education institutions and the workforce. The Educational Testing Service (ETS) has designed a next generation assessment, the HEIghten™ critical thinking assessment, to measure students' critical thinking skills in analytical and synthetic dimensions. This paper introduces the…

  14. A Preliminary Assessment of Legged Mobility Provided by a Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Persons With Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Ryan J.; Quintero, Hugo A.; Murray, Spencer A.; Ha, Kevin H.; Hartigan, Clare; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of a lower limb exoskeleton for providing legged mobility to people with paraplegia. In particular, the paper presents a single-subject case study comparing legged locomotion using the exoskeleton to locomotion using knee–ankle–foot orthoses (KAFOs) on a subject with a T10 motor and sensory complete injury. The assessment utilizes three assessment instruments to characterize legged mobility, which are the timed up-and-go test, the Ten-Meter Walk Test (10 MWT), and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6 MWT), which collectively assess the subject’s ability to stand, walk, turn, and sit. The exertion associated with each assessment instrument was assessed using the Physiological Cost Index. Results indicate that the subject was able to perform the respective assessment instruments 25%, 70%, and 80% faster with the exoskeleton relative to the KAFOs for the timed up-and-go test, the 10 MWT, and the 6 MWT, respectively. Measurements of exertion indicate that the exoskeleton requires 1.6, 5.2, and 3.2 times less exertion than the KAFOs for each respective assessment instrument. The results indicate that the enhancement in speed and reduction in exertion are more significant during walking than during gait transitions. PMID:23797285

  15. Assessment of Primary Representational Systems with Neurolinguistic Programming: Examination of Preliminary Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Fred J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the inconsistent findings of studies on neurolinguistic programing and recommends some areas that should be examined to verify various claims. Discusses methods of assessing client's primary representational systems, including predicate usage and eye movements, and suggests that more reliable methods of assessing PRS must be found. (JAC)

  16. Seasonal occurrence, removal efficiencies and preliminary risk assessment of multiple classes of organic UV filters in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-04-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (≥80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18-1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and 70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment.

  17. Perspectives of patients with acute abdominal pain in an emergency department observation unit and a surgical assessment unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Mogensen, Christian B;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the patient perspective when admitted with acute abdominal pain to an emergency department observation unit compared with the perspective when admitted to a surgical assessment unit. BACKGROUND: An increase in emergency department observation units has led...... to more short-term admissions and has changed the patient journey from admission to specialised wards staffed by specialist nurses to stays in units staffed by emergency nurses. DESIGN: A comparative field study. METHODS: The study included 21 patients. Participant observation and qualitative interviews...... were performed, and the analyses were phenomenological-hermeneutic. RESULTS: Emergency department observation unit patients had extensive interaction with health professionals, which could create distrust. Surgical assessment unit patients experienced lack of interaction with nurses, also creating...

  18. Clinical assessment, neuroimaging and immunomarkers in Chagas disease study (CLINICS: rationale, study design and preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamary Oliveira-Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chagas disease (CD is an important cause of cardiomyopathy and stroke in Brazil. Brain infarcts and atrophy seem to occur independently of cardiomyopathy severity and cognitive impairment is understudied. Objective: Compare the prevalence of brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities between patients with or without CD; determine if inflammatory biomarkers are increased in CD; and determine the efficacy of aspirin in reducing the rate of microembolization in these patients. Methods: 500 consecutive patients with heart failure will undergo a structured cognitive evaluation, biomarker collection and search for microembolic signals on transcranial Doppler. The first 90 patients are described, evaluated with cognitive tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging to measure N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, myo-inositol (MI and creatine (Cr. Results: Mean age was 55±11 years, 51% female, 38 (42% with CD. Mean NAA/Cr ratio was lower in patients with CD as compared to other cardiomyopathies. Long-term memory and clock-drawing test were also significantly worse in CD patients. In the multivariable analysis correcting for ejection fraction, age, sex and educational level, reduced NAA/Cr (p=0.006 and cognitive dysfunction (long-term memory, p=0.023; clock-drawing test, p=0.015 remained associated with CD. Conclusion: In this preliminary sample, CD was associated with cognitive impairment and decreased NAA/Cr independently of cardiac function or educational level.

  19. Assessment of the contralesional corticospinal tract in early-onset pediatric hemiplegia: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawe, Rachel L; Dewald, Jules P A

    2014-01-01

    While pediatric hemiplegia results from a unilateral lesion, the immature state of the brain at the time of injury increases the likelihood of observing changes in the non-lesioned hemisphere as well. The purpose of this preliminary study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate the contralesional corticospinal tracts in individuals with early-onset pediatric hemiplegia. Twelve individuals with pediatric hemiplegia and ten age-matched controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Corticospinal projections were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography for both the lesioned and contralesional side in pediatric hemiplegia as well as the dominant and non-dominant sides in control subjects. The contralesional tract was found to have decreased white matter integrity relative to control subjects. Compared to controls, the contralesional tract also showed increased tract volume. The increase in volume suggests the presence of ipsilateral corticospinal projections from the contralesional hemisphere that are maintained during development to control the paretic extremities. Decreases in integrity may be explained by diffuse damage or incomplete maturation. The findings of this study support the notion of bilateral motor involvement in pediatric hemiplegia, and the need to address bilateral neural changes as well as motor deficits in this population.

  20. Non destructive examination of UN / U-Si fuel pellets using neutrons (preliminary assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, Mark Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Voit, Stewart Lancaster [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Losko, Adrian S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tremsin, Anton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Tomographic imaging and diffraction measurements were performed on nine pellets; four UN/ U Si composite formulations (two enrichment levels), three pure U3Si5 reference formulations (two enrichment levels) and two reject pellets with visible flaws (to qualify the technique). The U-235 enrichments ranged from 0.2 to 8.8 wt.%. The nitride/silicide composites are candidate compositions for use as Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF). The monophase U3Si5 material was included as a reference. Pellets from the same fabrication batches will be inserted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho during 2016. The goal of the Advanced Non-destructive Fuel Examination work package is the development and application of non-destructive neutron imaging and scattering techniques to ceramic and metallic nuclear fuels. Data reported in this report were collected in the LANSCE run cycle that started in September 2015 and ended in March 2016. Data analysis is ongoing; thus, this report provides a preliminary review of the measurements and provides an overview of the characterized samples.

  1. A preliminary assessment of using a white light confocal imaging profiler for cut mark analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher W; Moore, Christopher R; Leifheit, Randell

    2012-01-01

    White light confocal microscopy creates detailed 3D representations of microsurfaces that can be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The study describes its application to the analysis of cut marks on bone, particularly when discerning cuts made by steel tools from those made by stone. The process described comes from a study where cuts were manually made on a cow rib with seven cutting tools, four stone (an unmodified chert flake, a chert biface, a bifacially ground slate fragment, and an unsharpened piece of slate), and three steel (a Swiss Army Knife, a serrate steak knife, and a serrate saw). Kerfs were magnified ×20 and 3D data clouds were generated using a Sensofar(®) White Light Confocal Profiler (WLCP). Kerf profiles and surface areas, volumes, mean depths, and maximum depths were calculated with proprietary software (SensoScan(®) and SolarMap(®)). For the most part, the stone tools make shallower and wider cuts. Kerf floors can be studied at higher magnifications; they were viewed at ×100. When comparing the kerf floors of the unsharpened slate and the serrate steak knife it was found that the slate floor was more uneven, but the serrate steak knife generated more overall relief. Although preliminary, the approach described here successfully distinguishes stone and steel tools; the authors conclude that the WLCP is a promising technology for cut mark analysis because of the very detailed 3D representations it creates and the numerous avenues of analysis it provides.

  2. Fish, fishers and fisheries of the Western Indian Ocean: their diversity and status. A preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Elst, Rudy; Everett, Bernadine; Jiddawi, Narriman; Mwatha, Gerald; Afonso, Paula Santana; Boulle, David

    2005-01-15

    The Western Indian Ocean represents ca. 8% of the world's oceans but generates only 4% of the global industrial catch. This region is also home to a great proportion of the world's population, living in developing countries with a high dependence on marine resources. Trends in the declared landings of marine resources from the Western Indian Ocean suggest that this ocean may be approaching its maximum harvest potential of ca. 4 Mt per annum, but underreported artisanal catches complicate more-detailed analyses. There is a growing demand for 'new resources' to make up for declining stocks, while several large fluctuations are linked to changes in market demand and over exploitation. Artisanal fisheries in the region are highly diversified. Preliminary results are presented of a project that evaluates the conservation status and sustainable management practices in 168 different fishery types. It is concluded that the majority of the region's artisanal fisheries are not adequately supported by scientific information and that management strategies need to be improved if the enormous development challenges of East African countries are to be met.

  3. Preliminary assessment of landslide-induced wave hazards, Tidal Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Jakob, Matthias; Motyka, Roman J.; Zirnheld, Sandra L.; Craw, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    A large potential rock avalanche above the northern shore of Tidal Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, was investigated to determine hazards and risks of landslide-induced waves to cruise ships and other park visitors. Field and photographic examination revealed that the 5 to 10 million cubic meter landslide moved between AD 1892 and 1919 after the retreat of Little Ice Age glaciers from Tidal Inlet by AD 1890. The timing of landslide movement and the glacial history suggest that glacial debuttressing caused weakening of the slope and that the landslide could have been triggered by large earthquakes of 1899-1900 in Yakutat Bay. Evidence of recent movement includes fresh scarps, back-rotated blocks, and smaller secondary landslide movements. However, until there is evidence of current movement, the mass is classified as a dormant rock slump. An earthquake on the nearby active Fairweather fault system could reactivate the landslide and trigger a massive rock slump and debris avalanche into Tidal Inlet. Preliminary analyses show that waves induced by such a landslide could travel at speeds of 45 to 50 m/s and reach heights up to 76 m with wave runups of 200 m on the opposite shore of Tidal Inlet. Such waves would not only threaten vessels in Tidal Inlet, but would also travel into the western arm of Glacier Bay endangering large cruise ships and their passengers.

  4. myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment: preliminary psychometric analysis of a new self-concept assessment for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sau Kuan; Lang, Cathryne P; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Johnston, Leanne M

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the preliminary validity and reliability of the myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 8 to 12 years. The myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment includes 26 items divided into eight domains, assessed across three Performance Perspectives (Personal, Social, and Perceived) and an additional Importance Rating. Face and content validity was assessed by semi-structured interviews with seven expert professionals regarding the assessment construct, content, and clinical utility. Reliability was assessed with 50 children aged 8 to 12 years with CP (29 males, 21 females; mean age 10y 2mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] level I=35, II=8, III=5, IV=1; mean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition [WISC-IV]=104), whose data was used to calculate internal consistency of the scale, and a subset of 35 children (20 males, 15 females; mean age 10y 5mo; GMFCS level I=26, II=4, III=4, IV=1; mean WISC-IV=103) who participated in test-retest reliability within 14 to 28 days. Face and content validity was supported by positive expert feedback, with only minor adjustments suggested to clarify the wording of some items. After these amendments, strong internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.84-0.91) and moderate to good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.64-0.75) was found for each component. The myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment is a valid and reliable assessment of self-concept for children with CP aged 8 to 12 years. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Registered nurses' self-efficacy for assessing and responding to woman abuse in emergency department settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Erin; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn

    2006-12-01

    Enhanced knowledge regarding the factors that influence and support the self-efficacy of emergency department (ED) registered nurses and their provision of care to women who have experienced abuse is necessary for the promotion of optimal health care. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy of registered nurses with respect to assessing and responding to woman abuse in the ED. Study hypotheses and research questions were derived from Bandura's theory of self-efficacy. A secondary analysis (N = 158) of data from the Violence against Women: Health Care Provider Survey was completed. Originally, survey questions were not developed to operationalize the concepts outlined by Bandura. However, they were found to be good indicators. Four scales were developed from the item pool, validated through factor analysis and used to operationalize study variables. Positive relationships were found between self-efficacy information available to ED registered nurses and their self-efficacy for assessing and responding to woman abuse (r= .73, p Bandura's theory and demonstrate that the clinical responses of ED registered nurses are complex and must be understood in terms of self-efficacy and the factors that support its development.

  6. Using data envelopment analysis for assessing the performance of pediatric emergency department physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos, Javier; Patrick, Jonathan; Michalowski, Wojtek; Farion, Ken

    2017-03-01

    In attempting to measure the performance of providers in a service industry such as health care, it is crucial that the measurement tool recognize both the efficiency and quality of service provided. We develop a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to help assess the performance of emergency department (ED) physicians at a partner hospital. The model incorporates efficiency measures as inputs and quality measures as outputs. We demonstrate the importance of a nuanced approach that recognizes the heterogeneity of patients that an ED physician encounters and the important role s/he plays as a mentor for physicians in training. In the study, patients were grouped according to their presenting complaint and ED physicians were assessed on each group separately. Performance variations were evident between physicians within each complaint group as well as between groups. A secondary grouping divided patients based on whether the attending physician was assisted by a trainee. Almost all ED physicians showed better performance scores when not assisted by trainees or ED fellows.

  7. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence

  8. A preliminary biological assessment of Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents an initial biological assessment of wetland conditions on Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Slade NWR, and Florence Lake NWR that was...

  9. An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.W.L.; Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.K.; Weiner, R.; Neill, R.H. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has reviewed the WIPP 1992 Performance Assessment (Sandia WIPP Performance Assessment Department, 1992). Although this performance assessment was released after the October 1992 passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), the work preceded the Act. For individual and ground-water protection, calculations have been done for 1000 years post closure, whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191) issued in 1993 require calculations for 10,000 years. The 1992 Performance Assessment continues to assimilate improved understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site, and evolving conceptual models of natural barriers. Progress has been made towards assessing WIPP`s compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191). The 1992 Performance Assessment has addressed several items of major concern to EEG, outlined in the July 1992 review of the 1991 performance assessment (Neill et al., 1992). In particular, the authors are pleased that some key results in this performance assessment deal with sensitivity of the calculated complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) to alterative conceptual models proposed by EEG -- that flow in the Culebra be treated as single-porosity fracture-flow; with no sorption retardation unless substantiated by experimental data.

  10. Assessment of Integrated Pedestrian Protection Systems with Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) and Passive Safety Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mervyn; Nathanson, Andrew; Carroll, Jolyon; Wisch, Marcus; Zander, Oliver; Lubbe, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems fitted to cars for pedestrians have been predicted to offer substantial benefit. On this basis, consumer rating programs-for example, the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP)-are developing rating schemes to encourage fitment of these systems. One of the questions that needs to be answered to do this fully is how the assessment of the speed reduction offered by the AEB is integrated with the current assessment of the passive safety for mitigation of pedestrian injury. Ideally, this should be done on a benefit-related basis. The objective of this research was to develop a benefit-based methodology for assessment of integrated pedestrian protection systems with AEB and passive safety components. The method should include weighting procedures to ensure that it represents injury patterns from accident data and replicates an independently estimated benefit of AEB. A methodology has been developed to calculate the expected societal cost of pedestrian injuries, assuming that all pedestrians in the target population (i.e., pedestrians impacted by the front of a passenger car) are impacted by the car being assessed, taking into account the impact speed reduction offered by the car's AEB (if fitted) and the passive safety protection offered by the car's frontal structure. For rating purposes, the cost for the assessed car is normalized by comparing it to the cost calculated for a reference car. The speed reductions measured in AEB tests are used to determine the speed at which each pedestrian in the target population will be impacted. Injury probabilities for each impact are then calculated using the results from Euro NCAP pedestrian impactor tests and injury risk curves. These injury probabilities are converted into cost using "harm"-type costs for the body regions tested. These costs are weighted and summed. Weighting factors were determined using accident data from Germany and Great Britain and an independently

  11. Aquatic monitoring programs conducted during environmental impact assessments in Canada: preliminary assessment before and after weakened environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Brynn; Walker, Tony R

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic monitoring programs are imperative for the functioning of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process and a cornerstone for industrial compliance in Canada. However, in 2012, several leading pieces of federal environmental legislation (e.g., Canadian Environmental Assessment Act c.19, s. 52, 2012) were drastically altered, effectively weakening levels of environmental protection for aquatic ecosystems during project developments. This paper assesses the impact of CEAA 2012 on aquatic monitoring programs (and subsequent monitoring data reporting) across Canada for ten projects (five completed pre-CEAA 2012 and five completed post-CEAA 2012). Projects included four energy and six mining projects and were selected based on the following criteria: (i) representative of Canada's resource economy; (ii) project information was publicly available; and (iii) strong public interest. Projects pre- and post-CEAA 2012 exhibited few apparent differences before and after environmental regulatory changes. However, wide discrepancies exist in numbers and types of parameters reported, along with a lack of consistency in reporting. Projects pre-CEAA 2012 provided more follow-up monitoring commitments. Although qualitative differences remain inconclusive, this paper highlights requirements for further assessment of aquatic monitoring and follow-up programs in Canada. Recommendations for the government to consider during reviews of the federal environmental assessment processes include (i) improved transparency on the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency website ( https://www.ceaa-acee.gc.ca/ ); (ii) creation of a legally binding standardized aquatic monitoring program framework to ensure that all Canadian aquatic ecosystems are monitored with equal rigour; and (iii) commitments and justification related to frequency of aquatic monitoring of water quality.

  12. Preliminary assessment of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties of Pistacia integerrima fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Nazir, Abdul

    2015-07-01

    Present study was focused on the evaluation of preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant properties in hydrophilic and lipophilic solvents extracts of Pistacia integerrima fruit, collected from Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Standard analytical methods were followed to estimate the proximate composition of nutrients, trace metals and phytochemical contents including phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and ascorbic acid. The free radical scavenging activities of aqueous and acetone extracts were carried out against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide radical, ferrous ion chelation, ferric ion reduction, and phosphomolybdenium complex assay. Comparatively highest value of cultural importance index was determined for Margalla hills than other study sites. Crude fibers contents (33.65%) were found highest among nutrients, while in minerals utmost level was measured for K (947.3 mg/kg, FW), followed by Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. Acetone extract exhibited highest total phenolics contents (113.7 mg GAE/100g, FW) and antioxidant potential for ferric ion reduction (107.3 μM GAE/100g, FW), phosphomolybdenum complex assay (99.32 μM AAE/100g, FW) and DPPH radical scavenging (91.89%). Fruit of P. integerrima was found an excellent source of nutrients, minerals and antioxidants. Crude extracts exhibited noteworthy potential against free radicals and could be of immense significance in the prevention of different diseases related to free radicals. Present data could be an effectual tool for propagation programs intended to enhance the antioxidant and other phytochemical components in foods.

  13. Assessment of RF exposures from emerging wireless communication technologies in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Gönter; Martens, Luc

    2012-02-01

    In situ electromagnetic (EM) radio frequency (RF) exposure to base stations of emerging wireless technologies is assessed at 311 locations, 68 indoor and 243 outdoor, spread over 35 areas in three European countries (Belgium, The Netherlands, and Sweden) by performing narrowband spectrum analyzer measurements. The locations are selected to characterize six different environmental categories (rural, residential, urban, suburban, office, and industrial). The maximal total field value was measured in a residential environment and equal to 3.9 V m(-1), mainly due to GSM900 signals. Exposure ratios for maximal electric field values, with respect to ICNIRP reference levels, range from 0.5% (WiMAX) to 9.3% (GSM900) for the 311 measurement locations. Exposure ratios for total field values vary from 3.1% for rural environments to 9.4% for residential environments. Exposures are lognormally distributed and are the lowest in rural environments and the highest in urban environments. Highest median exposures were obtained in urban environments (0.74 V m(-1)), followed by office (0.51 V m(-1)), industrial (0.49 V m(-1)), suburban (0.46 V m(-1)), residential (0.40 V m(-1)), and rural (0.09 V m(-1)) environments. The average contribution to the total electric field is more than 60% for GSM. Except for the rural environment, average contributions of UMTS-HSPA are more than 3%. Contributions of the emerging technologies LTE and WiMAX are on average less than 1%. The dominating outdoor source is GSM900 (95 percentile of 1.9 V m(-1)), indoor DECT dominates (95 percentile of 1.5 V m(-1)).

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  15. Establishing Normative Values for the Barnett Balance Assessment Tool: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L. Cercone MSOTS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for the Barnett Balance Assessment (BBA for individuals ages 18-70+ years. The BBA is a newly developed assessment tool that may address limitations present in other assessments currently used to detect balance deficits. The BBA was administered to 141 participants who had no history of medical issues that could impact balance. A review of the normative data collected indicated little variation in total assessment scores in the age categories of 18-29, 30-39, and 40-49, due to the presence of a ceiling effect. Variations existed in scores among participants in the remaining age categories (50-59, 60-69, and 70+. These findings may imply that the BBA has its greatest discriminative power in assessing individuals with impaired balance, and/or that the BBA is not sensitive enough to detect differences in individuals with mild balance impairments. The researchers suggest future studies be conducted with the BBA to establish norms with populations with known orthopedic or neurological conditions that may impair balance. Results of these studies could then be compared with the baseline data gathered in this study to determine the BBA’s usefulness in detecting balance impairments with clinical populations.

  16. Creation and Assessment of a Bad News Delivery Simulation Curriculum for Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Rees, Chris A; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Hsu, Deborah C; Doughty, Cara B; Lorin, Martin I

    2016-05-01

    improved significantly (p=0.034 and p=0.046, respectively). Conclusions Pediatric emergency medicine fellows frequently deliver bad news. A course using SPs was well received by trainees and resulted in improvement in self-assessed skills and comfort. This curriculum provides the opportunity for fellows to receive patient/parent feedback of their communication skills and observations from skilled instructors. This methodology should be considered when creating training curricula for bad news delivery skills.

  17. EURISOL Desktop Assistant Toolkit (EDAT): A modeling, simulation and visualization support to the preliminary radiological assessment of RIB projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, D.; Vamanu, B.; Acasandrei, V.; Maceika, E.; Plukis, A.

    2010-04-01

    The paper describes an approach taken within the EURISOL-DS project (European Isotope Separation Online Radioactive Ion Beam Facility) to a number of safety and radioprotection issues raised by the advent of radioactive ion beam facilities in the cutting edge area of particle accelerators. The ensuing solution emerged from a collaborative effort of the investigating team-in-charge, affiliated with the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest, with expert colleagues at the Physics Institute in Vilnius, and at CERN, within the participation in the EURISOL-DS project, Sub-Task B: Radiation, Activation, Shielding and Doses of the Safety and Radioprotection, Task 5. The work was primarily geared towards the identification of knowledge and data in line with validated, accepted and nationally/internationally recommended methods and models of radiological assessment applied within the nuclear power fuel cycle, deemed to be suitable for assessing health and environmental impact of accelerator operations as well. As a result, a computer software platform code-named “EURISOL Desktop Assistant Toolkit” was developed. The software is, inter alia, capable to assess radiation doses from pure or isotopically mixed open or shielded point sources; emergency response-relevant doses; critical group doses via complex pathways, including the air, the water, and the food chain and derived release limits for the normal, routine operations of nuclear facilities. Dedicated data libraries and GIS (Geographic Information System) facilities assist the input/output operations.

  18. Dental students' self-assessment of operative preparations using CAD/CAM: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Keith A; Levine, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA)'s accreditation standards for dental schools state that "graduates must demonstrate the ability to self-assess." Therefore, dental schools have developed preclinical and clinical self-assessment (SA) protocols aimed at fostering a reflective process. This study comparing students' visual SA with students' digital SA and with faculty assessment was designed to test the hypothesis that higher agreement would occur when utilizing a digital evaluation. Twenty-five first-year dental students at one dental school participated by preparing a mesial occlusal preparation on tooth #30 and performing both types of SAs. A faculty evaluation was then performed both visually and digitally using the same evaluation criteria. The Kappa statistic was used to measure agreement between evaluators. The results showed statistically significant moderate agreement between the faculty visual and faculty digital modes of evaluation for occlusal shape (K=0.507, p=0.002), proximal shape (K=0.564, p=0.001), orientation (K=0.425, p=0.001), and definition (K=0.480, p=0.001). There was slight to poor agreement between the student visual and faculty visual assessment, except for preparation orientation occlusal shape (K=0.164, p=0.022), proximal shape (K=-0.227, p=0.032), orientation (K=0.253, p=0.041), and definition (K=-0.027, p=0.824). This study showed that the students had challenges in self-assessing even when using CAD/CAM and the digital assessment did not improve the amount of student/faculty agreement.

  19. Ehrlichiosis in Household Dogs and Parasitized Ticks in Kerman- Iran: Preliminary Zoonotic Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Motaghipisheh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the family of Anaplasmatacea. Re­cently, outbreak of human monocytic ehrlichiosis was reported in northern part of Iran. Besides, serological evidence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis was reported from southeastern of Iran but the epidemi­ology of this disease is almost undetermined in Iran. The present study was designed to use PCR for detection of Ehrlichia spp. in tick infested household dogs and determination of risks of disease transmission to dog’s owners.Method: Blood samples were prepared from 100 tick infested household dogs after complete clinical examination. Complete cell blood count was done for each sample. DNA extraction was done and PCR was carried out by a com­mercial kit afterwards. Regarding to PCR results, blood samples were collected from owners and family members who were exposed to infected and non-infected dogs. A similar method was utilized for DNA extraction and PCR in human samples.Result: Ehrlichial DNA was detected by PCR in six percent of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick pools and 9% of the examined dogs. No positive sample was detected among the 67 examined human bloods.Conclusion: Ehrlichiosis could be considered as an emerging canine disease but owning a dog should not be consid­ered a major risk factor for ehrlichiosis in humans. Further serological and molecular studies in different parts of Iran are required to clarify the epidemiology of ehrlichiosis in canine, ticks, and human population. 

  20. Incorporating Preliminary Mental Health Assessment in the Initial Healthcare for Refugees in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, AbdulKareem; West, Bernadette; Fox, Anne; Savin, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to assess the feasibility of introducing a mental health screening tool into the initial health care assessment for refugees in New Jersey, US. A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of professionals providing refugee health care in New Jersey and in a number of other states. There is a widespread appreciation of the need to consider the mental and emotional issues of the refugees as a priority in healthcare services. A mental health screening tool is required for practice in NJ. Community resources should be coupled with early screening for better refugee mental health outcomes.

  1. Preliminary assessment of interactions between the FMIT deuteron beam and liquid-lithium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassberger, J A

    1983-03-01

    Scoping calculations were performed to assess the limit of response of the FMIT lithium target to the deuteron-beam interactions. Results indicate that most response modes have acceptably minor impacts on the lithium-target behavior. Individual modes of response were studied separately to assess sensitivity of the target to various phenomena and to identify those needing detailed evaluation. A few responses are of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. Potential for several different responses combining additively is identified as the major area requiring further consideration.

  2. Licensing assessment of the Candu Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. Preliminary safety information document. Volume II. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    ERDA has requested United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) to evaluate the design of the Canadian natural uranium fueled, heavy water moderated (CANDU) nuclear reactor power plant to assess its conformance with the licensing criteria and guidelines of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for light water reactors. This assessment was used to identify cost significant items of nonconformance and to provide a basis for developing a detailed cost estimate for a 1140 MWe, 3-loop Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) located at the Middletown, USA Site.

  3. Techno-economic assessment and comparison of CO2 capture technologies for industrial processes: Preliminary results for the iron and steel sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, T.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and the preliminary results of a techno-economic assessment of CCS implementation on the iron and steel sector. The results show that for the short-mid term, a CO2 avoidance cost of less than 50 €/tonne at a CO2 avoidance rate of around 50% are possible by convert

  4. Analysis of climatic conditions and preliminary assessment of alternative cooling strategies for houses in California transition climate zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-07-01

    This is a preliminary scoping study done as part of the {open_quotes}Alternatives to Compressive Cooling in California Transition Climates{close_quotes} project, which has the goal of demonstrating that houses in the transitional areas between the coast and the Central Valley of California do not require air-conditioning if they are properly designed and operated. The first part of this report analyzes the climate conditions within the transitional areas, with emphasis on design rather than seasonal conditions. Transitional climates are found to be milder but more variable than those further inland. The design temperatures under the most stringent design criteria, e.g. 0.1 % annual, are similar to those in the Valley, but significantly lower under more relaxed design criteria, e.g., 2% annual frequency. Transition climates also have large day-night temperature swings, indicating significant potential for night cooling, and wet-bulb depressions in excess of 25 F, indicating good potential for evaporative cooling. The second part of the report is a preliminary assessment using DOE-2 computer simulations of the effectiveness of alternative cooling and control strategies in improving indoor comfort conditions in two conventional Title-24 houses modeled in various transition climate locations. The cooling measures studied include increased insulation, light colors, low-emissivity glazing, window overhangs, and exposed floor slab. The control strategies studied include natural and mechanical ventilation, and direct and two-stage evaporative cooling. The results indicate the cooling strategies all have limited effectiveness, and need to be combined to produce significant improvements in indoor comfort. Natural and forced ventilation provide similar improvements in indoor conditions, but during peak cooling periods, these will still be above the comfort zone. Two-stage evaporative coolers can maintain indoor comfort at all hours, but not so direct evaporative coolers.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of an Educational Outcomes Assessment Process for Dental Interpretive Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Richard A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for testing the ability of dental students to detect presence and depth of dental caries was evaluated. Students (n=40) from four experience groups examined radiographs obtained from a model. Results indicated that this method of assessing student competence in radiographic interpretation is valid. (MSE)

  6. A preliminary examination of offender needs assessment: are all those questions really necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabee, David; Zhang, Sheldon; Yang, Joy

    2011-09-01

    Criminologists generally agree that offender recidivism can be reduced by addressing the criminogenic needs of this population. Two prominent assessments of offender risks and needs are the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) and the Correctional Offender Management Profiling for Alternative Sanctions (COMPAS). Both predict recidivism, but they are largely based on data from records. In contrast, the determination of inmates' service needs is based on lengthy (and costly) offender interviews. In light of evidence that many correctional systems have not adopted standardized assessments of service needs-and that time burden and costs are typically cited as barriers, the present study examined whether interviews involving complex scales improve the accuracy of offender needs assessment relative to a few single-item measures. To test this, 75 California prison inmates were administered the LSI-R, COMPAS, and a set of four yes/no items asking if they needed help with substance abuse, vocational training, housing, and education. Approximately 70% to 90% of inmates identified as needing these services according to the LSI-R or COMPAS could have been identified using these four supplemental items, though specificity rates were low for the financial and housing domains. The results suggest that simpler, less costly approaches to offender needs assessment might be achievable.

  7. Preliminary Assessment/Investigation Final Summary Report: "Dead Zone" Site, Laysan Island, Hawaiian Island NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to assess the risks that the "Laysan Dead Zone" poses to the health of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) personnel and natural...

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium Part 2: Human, Toxicokinetic, and Mechanistic Studies (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2014, EPA released the second part of draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for Cr(VI) to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA w...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium Part 1: Experimental Animal Studies (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April 2014, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for Cr(VI) to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in...

  10. NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND COMMUNITY METABOLISM IN STREAMS DRAINING HARVESTED AND OLD GROWTH WATERSHEDS: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of timber harvesting on streams is assessed using two measures of ecosystem function: nutrient ad community metabolism. This research is being conducted in streams of the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas, the Cascad...

  11. Brief Antecedent Assessment and Treatment of Tics in the General Education Classroom: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T.; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that…

  12. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence es

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for ETBE to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in ...

  14. Preliminary zoning for risk assessment and remediation purposes in Portman Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Garcia-Lorenzo, MariLuz; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel; Molina, Jose; Gonzalez, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor

    2014-05-01

    , pyrite and quartz predominate. The pH is close to neutrality and despite a high heavy metals level, the chemical reactivity is low. The data allowed a preliminary zoning of the risk in the area to be established, and this was the starting point to outline the remediation project.

  15. BE-SAFE: Bedside sonography for assessment of the fetus in emergencies: educational intervention for late-pregnancy obstetric ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachita; Adedipe, Adeyinka; Ruffatto, Benjamin; Backlund, Brandon H; Sajed, Dana; Rood, Kari; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2014-09-01

    Late obstetric emergencies are time critical presentations in the emergency department. Evaluation to ensure the safety of mother and child includes rapid assessment of fetal viability, fetal heart rate (FHR), fetal lie, and estimated gestational age (EGA). Point-of-care (POC) obstetric ultrasound (OBUS) offers the advantage of being able to provide all these measurements. We studied the impact of POC OBUS training on emergency physician (EP) confidence, knowledge, and OBUS skill performance on a live model. This is a prospective observational study evaluating an educational intervention we designed, called the BE-SAFE curriculum (BEdside Sonography for the Assessment of the Fetus in Emergencies). Subjects were a convenience sample of EP attendings (N=17) and residents (N=14). Prior to the educational intervention, participants completed a self-assessment survey on their confidence regarding OBUS, and took a pre-test to assess their baseline knowledge of OBUS. They then completed a 3-hour training session consisting of didactic and hands-on education in OBUS. After training, each subject's time and accuracy of performance of FHR, EGA, and fetal lie was recorded. Post-intervention knowledge tests and confidence surveys were administered. Results were compared with non-parametric t-tests. Pre- and post-test knowledge assessment scores for previously untrained EPs improved from 65.7% [SD=20.8] to 90% [SD=8.2] (peducational intervention, EPs can accurately and rapidly use ultrasound to determine FHR, fetal lie, and estimate gestational age in mid-late pregnancy.

  16. Preliminary hazard assessment and site characterization of Meşelik campus area, Eskişehir-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited knowledge of ground conditions, such as geotechnical parameters, is one of the main causes of foundation failure. Unknown ground conditions can also cause additional burden costs. Due to lack of geotechnical parameters in foundation soil, some problems can be observed during and after the construction.

    In this study, a comprehensive field study was conducted to make a preliminary hazard assessment on the Meşelik campus area, Eskişehir, Turkey. In this context, the experimental studies were performed in two stages. In the first stage, boreholes were drilled in the field; a standard penetration test (SPT was performed and disturbed/undisturbed samples were collected from certain levels. In the second stage, laboratory tests were performed in order to identify and classify the samples. Unconfined compression strength and triaxial compression tests were conducted on undisturbed samples for determining the engineering characteristics. XRD (X-ray diffraction tests were performed and the swelling potential of the samples were evaluated. The liquefaction potential of the area was also assessed on a SPT-based method. Thus, the geotechnical parameters and the liquefaction potential of the sub-surface in the study area were thoroughly analyzed and presented to be used for further studies.

  17. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  18. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 1996 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Hinzman, R.L.; Jackson, B.L.; Baron, L.

    1996-09-01

    More than approximately 50 years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes generated by the three facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant) has resulted in a mosaic of uncontaminated property and lands that are contaminated to varying degrees. This contaminated property includes source areas and the terrestrial and aquatic habitats down gradient from these source areas. Although the integrator OUs generally contain considerable habitat for biota, the source OUs provide little or no suitable habitat. Historically, ecological risk assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source OU. Endpoints considered in source OUs include plants, soil/litter invertebrates and processes, aquatic biota found in on-OU sediments and surface waters, and small herbivorous, omnivorous, and vermivorous (i.e., feeding on ground, litter, or soil invertebrates) wildlife. All of these endpoints have limited spatial distributions or home ranges such that numerous individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the source OU. Most analyses are not adequate for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the ORR that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. This report is a preliminary response to a plan for assessing risks to wide-ranging species.

  19. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ranch Fire, Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ranch Fire in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  20. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Slide and Grass Valley Fires, San Bernardino County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Slide and Grass Valley Fires in San Bernardino County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 3.50 inches (88.90 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  1. Assessment of quality of life in patients treated for low-grade glioma: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taphoorn, M J; Heimans, J J; Snoek, F J; Lindeboom, J; Oosterink, B; Wolbers, J G; Karim, A B

    1992-01-01

    In this pilot study quality of life was assessed in fourteen adult patients who were treated for a low-grade glioma with surgery and radiotherapy at least one year previously. Apart from widely used parameters, such as the neurological and functional status, the patients' cognitive functioning and actual affective status were determined. In addition the patients were interviewed to evaluate various aspects of quality of life. Generally no serious focal neurological deficits were found, although psychological examination showed serious cognitive and affective disturbances in most cases. Self report measures concerning cognitive functioning were not in all cases in accordance with objective test results. When the results of treatment in glioma patients are evaluated assessment of quality of life, including neuropsychological functioning, should be performed, especially as new therapeutic strategies are being developed. PMID:1602310

  2. Assessing abnormal illness behavior in post-stroke patients: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal illness behavior (AIB can contribute poor functioning in an individual along with significant increase in health care utilization. It has been studied in various disorders. This study examined the feasibility of assessing abnormal illness behavior in individuals with stroke who were undergoing treatment in a psychiatric and neurological rehabilitation center. Materials and Methods: Subjects who were admitted to the department of psychiatric and neurological rehabilitation ward for post-stroke rehabilitation treatment were assessed using screening version of Illness Behavior Questionnaire (SIBQ. Results: The total number of subjects who were screened was eight. The mean score of SIBQ was 6.125 ± 1.35. With the cut off score of 7, five subjects had abnormal illness behavior. Conclusions: The above study highlights that it is feasible to screen individuals with stroke undergoing rehabilitation for possibility of abnormal illness behavior.

  3. A preliminary assessment of renewable energy capacity in Prince George, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanders, D.; Salter, J.; Tatebe, K.; Pond, E.; Sheppard, R.J.

    2009-03-31

    This report examined the potential local energy capacity from biomass and solar thermal energy in the City of Prince George, British Columbia (BC). The aim of the study was to develop a framework for mapping renewable energy capacity. Opportunities for adopting a sustainable fibre-based energy system were identified. A community energy mapping methodology for solar thermal energy was developed to assess potential spatial capacity. The framework was developed to help communities to assess local renewable energy options. Further studies are needed to couple demand analyses with capacity studies in order to determine the degree of energy self-sufficiency that is possible for communities, as well as to provide a method of helping communities to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 97 refs., 6 tabs., 20 figs., 6 appendices.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM) Roadmap Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A set of five developmental steps building from the NASA TASAR (Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests) concept are described, each providing incrementally more efficiency and capacity benefits to airspace system users and service providers, culminating in a Full Airborne Trajectory Management capability. For each of these steps, the incremental Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements are identified for later use in future formal safety assessments intended to lead to certification and operational approval of the equipment and the associated procedures. Two established safety assessment methodologies that are compliant with the FAA's Safety Management System were used leading to Failure Effects Classifications (FEC) for each of the steps. The most likely FEC for the first three steps, Basic TASAR, Digital TASAR, and 4D TASAR, is "No effect". For step four, Strategic Airborne Trajectory Management, the likely FEC is "Minor". For Full Airborne Trajectory Management (Step 5), the most likely FEC is "Major".

  5. Preliminary Assessment McGhee - Tyson ANGB, McGhee - Tyson Municipal Airport, Knoxville, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Marketing Service EPA U. S. Environmental Protection Agency FTA Fire Training Area HARM U. S. Air Force Hazard Assessment Rating Methology HAS Hazard...and/or JP-4 fuel. Site No. 3 - Oil/Water Separator at 110/119th TCF Vehicle Maintenance Area. Building 100 (HAS - 56) Stress vegetation was observed ...Building 126 (HAS -56) Oil stained soil and stress vegetation was observed in a drainage swale directly adjacent to the twin oil/water (o/w)separators. In

  6. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE LOW-TEMPERATURE WASTE FORM TECHNOLOGY COUPLED WITH TECHNETIUM REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2014-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have been chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing low-temperature waste forms for immobilization of DOE aqueous waste streams, including technetium removal as an implementing technology. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the Cast Stone waste immobilization projects at Hanford. Science and technology needs were identified for work associated with 1) conducting performance assessments and risk assessments of waste form and disposal system performance, and 2) technetium chemistry in tank wastes and separations of technetium from waste processing streams. Technical approaches to address the science and technology needs were identified and an initial sequencing priority was suggested. The following table summarizes the most significant science and technology needs and associated approaches to address those needs. These approaches and priorities will be further refined and developed as strong integrated teams of researchers from national laboratories, contractors, industry, and academia are brought together to provide the best science and technology solutions. Implementation of a science and technology program that addresses these needs by pursuing the identified approaches will have immediate benefits to DOE in reducing risks and uncertainties associated with near-term decisions regarding supplemental immobilization at Hanford. Longer term, the work has the potential for cost savings and for providing a strong technical foundation for future

  7. Nuclear Hardness Evaluation Procedures for the Preliminary Assessment of the FLEETSATCOM Attitude and Velocity Control Subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    attitude and velocity control subsystem of the FLSATCOM satellite to various nuclear weapon effects. DD1473 E ITION OF INOV 6 IS OBSOLETE...thermomechanical damage and material degradation. These procedures are presented in Section 3. 3) the so-called top-level screen of the AVCS assessment which ETI...bays with cat-a-lac paint, a low Z material , to minimize cavity field coupling. 44 0 use of terminal protection, mostly in the form of zener diodes or

  8. Flattening filter-free accelerators: a report from the AAPM Therapy Emerging Technology Assessment Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Kry, Stephen F; Popple, Richard; Yorke, Ellen; Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios; Xia, Ping; Huq, Saiful; Bayouth, John; Galvin, James; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2015-05-08

    This report describes the current state of flattening filter-free (FFF) radiotherapy beams implemented on conventional linear accelerators, and is aimed primarily at practicing medical physicists. The Therapy Emerging Technology Assessment Work Group of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed a writing group to assess FFF technology. The published literature on FFF technology was reviewed, along with technical specifications provided by vendors. Based on this information, supplemented by the clinical experience of the group members, consensus guidelines and recommendations for implementation of FFF technology were developed. Areas in need of further investigation were identified. Removing the flattening filter increases beam intensity, especially near the central axis. Increased intensity reduces treatment time, especially for high-dose stereotactic radiotherapy/radiosurgery (SRT/SRS). Furthermore, removing the flattening filter reduces out-of-field dose and improves beam modeling accuracy. FFF beams are advantageous for small field (e.g., SRS) treatments and are appropriate for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). For conventional 3D radiotherapy of large targets, FFF beams may be disadvantageous compared to flattened beams because of the heterogeneity of FFF beam across the target (unless modulation is employed). For any application, the nonflat beam characteristics and substantially higher dose rates require consideration during the commissioning and quality assurance processes relative to flattened beams, and the appropriate clinical use of the technology needs to be identified. Consideration also needs to be given to these unique characteristics when undertaking facility planning. Several areas still warrant further research and development. Recommendations pertinent to FFF technology, including acceptance testing, commissioning, quality assurance, radiation safety, and facility planning, are presented. Examples of clinical

  9. Quality Assessment of Neonatal Transport performed by the Mobile Emergency Medical Services (SAMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C.F. Romanzeira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of neonatal transport performed by the Mobile Emergency Medical Services (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência [SAMU].METHODS: This was a cross-sectional before-and-after observational study. The study was carried out from March to August of 2013 using a validated instrument, the Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability (TRIPS, to assess the characteristics of the newborn, medical and mechanical complications (equipment and ambulance, and stability of newborns before and after transport. Tests were conducted with 95% confidence level. Numerical variables are represented by measures of central tendency and dispersion. Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact test. In the comparison of variables between the groups, the Student's t-test was used for variables with normal distribution, Fisher exact test, when appropriate, and the Mann-Whitney test, for non-normal distribution.RESULTS: 33 newborns were transported from low-risk units to neonatal intensive care units. Male gender (57.6% and full-term gestational age (63.6% were more prevalent. Birth weight < 2,500 g was found in 39.4% of newborns. Respiratory failure accounted for 42.4% of the requests. The mean transport time was 58 minutes without medical or mechanical complications. The TRIPS score worsened in 15% of neonates; in this group of infants, the mean initial temperature of 36.46 ± 0.19 decreased significantly to 36.08 ± 0.22 (p = 0.041.CONCLUSION: The transport performed by the SAMU was adequate for most newborns. The oscillation in body temperature was the only significant variable for the alteration in the TRIPS score.

  10. Assessing hospital performance for acute myocardial infarction: how should emergency department transfers be attributed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadashvili, Zaza; Hannan, Edward L; Cozzens, Kimberly; Walford, Gary; Jacobs, Alice K; Berger, Peter B; Holmes, David R; Venditti, Ferdinand J; Curtis, Jeptha

    2015-03-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services publicly reports risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) to assess quality of care for hospitals that treat acute myocardial infarction patients, and the outcomes for inpatient transfers are attributed to transferring hospitals. However, emergency department (ED) transfers are currently ignored and therefore attributed to receiving hospitals. New York State administrative data were used to develop a statistical model similar to the one used by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to risk-adjust hospital 30-day mortality rates. RSMRs were calculated and outliers were identified when ED transfers were attributed to: (1) the transferring hospital and (2) the receiving hospital. Differences in hospital outlier status and RSMR tertile between the 2 attribution methods were noted for hospitals performing and not performing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Although both methods of attribution identified 3 high outlier non-PCI hospitals, only 2 of those hospitals were identified by both methods, and each method identified a different hospital as a third outlier. Also, when transfers were attributed to the referring hospital, 1 non-PCI hospital was identified as a low outlier, and no non-PCI hospitals were identified as a low outlier with the other attribution method. About one sixth of all hospitals changed their tertile status. Most PCI hospitals (89%) that changed status moved to a higher (worse RSMR) tertile, whereas the majority of non-PCI hospitals (68%) that changed status were moved to a lower (better) RSMR tertile when ED transfers were attributed to the referring hospital. Hospital quality assessments for acute myocardial infarction are affected by whether ED transfers are assigned to the transferring or receiving hospital. The pros and cons of this choice should be considered.

  11. Quality Assessment of Neonatal Transport performed by the Mobile Emergency Medical Services (SAMU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanzeira, Juliana C F; Sarinho, Silvia W

    2015-01-01

    To assess the quality of neonatal transport performed by the Mobile Emergency Medical Services (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência [SAMU]). This was a cross-sectional before-and-after observational study. The study was carried out from March to August of 2013 using a validated instrument, the Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability (TRIPS), to assess the characteristics of the newborn, medical and mechanical complications (equipment and ambulance), and stability of newborns before and after transport. Tests were conducted with 95% confidence level. Numerical variables are represented by measures of central tendency and dispersion. Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact test. In the comparison of variables between the groups, the Student's t-test was used for variables with normal distribution, Fisher exact test, when appropriate, and the Mann-Whitney test, for non-normal distribution. 33 newborns were transported from low-risk units to neonatal intensive care units. Male gender (57.6%) and full-term gestational age (63.6%) were more prevalent. Birth weighttransport time was 58 minutes without medical or mechanical complications. The TRIPS score worsened in 15% of neonates; in this group of infants, the mean initial temperature of 36.46±0.19 decreased significantly to 36.08±0.22 (p=0.041). The transport performed by the SAMU was adequate for most newborns. The oscillation in body temperature was the only significant variable for the alteration in the TRIPS score. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutritional Situation Assessment of 65 Years Old Patient Who Applicate to Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižsmail Nalbur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study.we want to purpose that nutritinos and socio-demographic situations who over 65 years old patients come in one of the most important 3rd degree hospital emergeny department. Material and Method: We practice Mini Nutritional Assessment test descriptive and forward-looking on 93 women and 111 men totally 204 patients between 15.03.2014-30.03.2014 who applicate emergency department. Results: In these group % 68.61 0f patient was between 65-79 years old; % 31.39 of was patient over 80 years old. After Mini Nutritional Assessment test results patient of % 60.8 in Group 1; % 18.6 in Group 2; % 20.6 in Group 3. However in Goup1 and 2 there was no important difference between gender (p=0.196, p=0.216; in Group 3 male gender was meaningful more than female (p=0.024. In Group 1 and Group 2 65-79 years old patient group was meaningful more than 80 years ol patient group (p=0.02, p=0.017. In Group 3 there was no difference beween in these groups (p=0.109. In this study groups there was meaningful difference between age and weight (p<0.001, there was no diffeence for height (p=0.722. In Group 2 avarege of arm circumference and calf circumference higher than Group 3 (p=0.010, p=0.016. In this study patients who hospitalized in intensive care unit after this treatmet in emergengy department meaningful more than Group 1 and 2 (p=0.038. Discussion: Early diagnosis of malnutrition in elderly patient who applicate emergengy department is important for treatment.

  13. A Preliminary Assessment of the S-3A SRAL Performances in SAR Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Scharroo, Remko; Bonekamp, Hans; Lucas, Bruno; Loddo, Carolina; Benveniste, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    The present work aims to assess and characterize the S3-A SRAL Altimeter performance in closed-loop tracking mode and in open ocean conditions. We have processed the Sentinel-3 SAR data products from L0 until L2 using an adaptation of the ESRIN GPOD CryoSat-2 Processor SARvatore.During the Delay-Doppler processing, we have chosen to activate the range zero-padding option.The L2 altimetric geophysical parameters, that are to be validated, are the sea surface height above the ellipsoid (SSH), sea level anomaly (SLA), the significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed (U10), all estimated at 20 Hz.The orbit files are the POD MOE, while the geo- corrections are extracted from the RADS database.In order to assess the accuracy of the wave&wind products, we have been using an ocean wave&wind speed model output (wind speed at 10 meter high above the sea surface) from the ECMWF.We have made a first order approximation of the sea state bias as -4.7% of the SWH.In order to assess the precision performance of SRAL SAR mode, we compute the level of instrumental noise (range, wave height and wind speed) for different conditions of sea state.

  14. EMG assessment of analgesia in treatment of posttonsillectomy pain: random allocation, preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Krakovski, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Surface electromyographic (sEMG) study of posttonsillectomy swallow-evoked muscular reactions was performed to assess validity of EMG in evaluation of analgesic drugs. Sixty randomly chosen operated adults were divided into group 1 (n=30) treated with oxycodone, and group 2 (n=30) treated with placebo. Pain assessment included visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and EMG data: the timing, electric amplitude, and graphic patterns of muscular activity. We investigated masseter, infrahyoid, and submental-submandibular muscles. Records from trapezius muscle were used for control. The results were compared with previously established normative database. The sEMG data were compared with VAS score. Oxycodone significantly reduced VAS pain score and changed muscle reactions to analgesia (amplitude) as was recorded by sEMG, whereas placebo reduced VAS pain score nonsignificantly and changed the reaction of the trapezius muscle only. Analgesia smoothes the recorded swallow peaks and increases time of deglutition. Statistically significant difference in muscle reactions was detected between the 2 groups. sEMG might be used for quantitative evaluation of analgesic drugs by assessment of muscular reactions to pain and to analgesia. This method might add quantitative justification to the information obtained by VAS pain testing and clinical data.

  15. Simulated tsunami run-up amplification factors around Penang Island for preliminary risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yong Hui; Kh'ng, Xin Yi; Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye; Tan, Wai Kiat

    2017-08-01

    The mega-tsunami Andaman that struck Malaysia on 26 December 2004 affected 200 kilometers of northwest Peninsular Malaysia coastline from Perlis to Selangor. It is anticipated by the tsunami scientific community that the next mega-tsunami is due to occur any time soon. This rare catastrophic event has awakened the attention of Malaysian government to take appropriate risk reduction measures, including timely and orderly evacuation. To effectively evacuate ordinary citizens to a safe ground or a nearest designated emergency shelter, a well prepared evacuation route is essential with the estimated tsunami run-up heights and inundation distances on land clearly indicated on the evacuation map. The run-up heights and inundation distances are simulated by an in-house model 2-D TUNA-RP based upon credible scientific tsunami source scenarios derived from tectonic activity around the region. To provide a useful tool for estimating the run-up heights along the entire coast of Penang Island, we computed tsunami amplification factors based upon 2-D TUNA-RP model simulations in this paper. The inundation map and run-up amplification factors in six domains along the entire coastline of Penang Island are provided. The comparison between measured tsunami wave heights for the 2004 Andaman tsunami and TUNA-RP model simulated values demonstrates good agreement.

  16. Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern: anisakiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Miguel; Pierce, Graham J.; Pascual, Santiago; González-Muñoz, Miguel; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Mladineo, Ivona; Cipriani, Paolo; Bušelić, Ivana; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2017-03-01

    Anisakiasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by the fish parasitic nematode Anisakis. Spain appears to have the highest reported incidence in Europe and marinated anchovies are recognised as the main food vehicle. Using data on fishery landings, fish infection rates and consumption habits of the Spanish population from questionnaires, we developed a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model for the anchovy value chain. Spaniards were estimated to consume on average 0.66 Anisakis per untreated (non-frozen) raw or marinated anchovy meal. A dose-response relationship was generated and the probability of anisakiasis was calculated to be 9.56 × 10‑5 per meal, and the number of annual anisakiasis cases requiring medical attention was predicted between 7,700 and 8,320. Monte Carlo simulations estimated post-mortem migration of Anisakis from viscera to flesh increases the disease burden by >1000% whilst an education campaign to freeze anchovy before consumption may reduce cases by 80%. However, most of the questionnaire respondents who ate untreated meals knew how to prevent Anisakis infection. The QRA suggests that previously reported figures of 500 anisakiasis per year in Europe is a considerable underestimate. The QRA tool can be used by policy makers and informs industry, health professionals and consumers about this underdiagnosed zoonosis.

  17. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches have abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction of local, catchment-specific characteristics, such as meteorology, topography and geology. These traditional views have been beneficial, but they have a narrow framing. In this paper we contrast traditional views with broader perspectives that are emerging from an improved understanding of the climatic context of floods. We conclude: (1 extending the traditional system boundaries (local catchment, recent decades, hydrological/hydraulic processes opens up exciting possibilities for better understanding and improved tools for flood risk assessment and management. (2 Statistical approaches in flood estimation need to be complemented by the search for the causal mechanisms and dominant processes in the atmosphere, catchment and river system that leave their fingerprints on flood characteristic. (3 Natural climate variability leads to time-varying flood characteristics, and this variation may be partially quantifiable and predictable, with the perspective of a dynamic, climate informed flood risk management. (4 Efforts are needed to fully account for factors that contribute to changes in all three risk components (hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and to better understand the interactions between society and floods. (5 Given the global scale and societal importance, we call for the organization of an international multidisciplinary collaboration and data sharing initiative to understand further the links between climate and flooding and to advance flood research.

  18. Echocardiographic Assessment of Degenerative Mitral Stenosis: A Diagnostic Challenge of an Emerging Cardiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Ahmet Afşşin; Gilliland, Yvonne E; Lavie, Carl J; Ramee, Stephen J; Parrino, Patrick E; Bates, Michael; Shah, Sangeeta; Cash, Michael E; Dinshaw, Homeyar; Qamruddin, Salima

    2017-03-01

    Degenerative mitral stenosis (DMS) is characterized by decreased mitral valve (MV) orifice area and increased transmitral pressure gradient due to chronic noninflammatory degeneration and subsequent calcification of the fibrous mitral annulus and the MV leaflets. The "true" prevalence of DMS in the general population is unknown. DMS predominantly affects elderly individuals, many of whom have multiple other comorbidities. Transcatheter MV replacement techniques, although their long-term outcomes are yet to be tested, have been gaining popularity and may emerge as more effective and relatively safer treatment option for patients with DMS. Echocardiography is the primary imaging modality for evaluation of DMS and related hemodynamic abnormalities such as increased transmitral pressure gradient and pulmonary arterial pressure. Classic echocardiographic techniques used for evaluation of mitral stenosis (pressure half time, proximal isovelocity surface area, continuity equation, and MV area planimetry) lack validation for DMS. Direct planimetry with 3-dimensional echocardiography and color flow Doppler is a reasonable technique for determining MV area in DMS. Cardiac computed tomography is an essential tool for planning potential interventions or surgeries for DMS. This article reviews the current concepts on mitral annular calcification and its role in DMS. We then discuss the epidemiology, natural history, differential diagnosis, mechanisms, and echocardiographic assessment of DMS.

  19. Improving the Treatment and Assessment of Moderate and Severe Pain in a Pediatric Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chafe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Janeway Children’s Hospital previously enacted a number of measures to improve pain management for patients in its emergency department (ED. While improvements were demonstrated, rates for the timely assessment and treatment of pain remain below standards of care. Objectives. The study objectives are to investigate the impact of the previous attempts to improve the treatment of pain and to explore ways to further improve pain management in the ED. Methods. Key informant interviews and a focus group were conducted with nurses, physicians, and parents whose children were identified as having severe pain. Results. Interviews were conducted with 31 parents or children, 9 physicians, and 8 nurses. The focus group was attended by 15 nurses. Previous initiatives were viewed as improvements. Continued barriers include difficulties in accurately capturing the level of pain, issues in treating pain for specific types of patients, and inadequacy in addressing patients in severe pain. Conclusion. Changes in pain treatment protocols can result in positive impacts but are likely insufficient on their own to achieve desired standards of care. Consistent measurement and engagement with staff can identify additional opportunities for improving pain management within an ED setting.

  20. Parameter variation and scenario analysis in impact assessments of emerging energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Hanna Marie

    There is a global need for energy technologies that reduce the adverse impacts of societal progress and that address today's challenges without creating tomorrow's problems. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) can support technology developers in achieving these prerequisites of sustainability by providing a systems perspective. However, modeling the early-stage scale up and impacts of technology systems may lead to unreliable or incomplete results due to a lack of representative technical, spatial, and temporal data. The goal of this dissertation is to support the acceleration of clean energy technology development by providing information about the regional variation of impacts and benefits resulting from plausible deployment scenarios. Three emerging energy technologies are selected as case studies: (1) brine management for carbon dioxide sequestration; (2) carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and sequestration; (3) stationary fuel cells for combined heat and power in commercial buildings. In all three case studies, priority areas are identified where more reliable data and models are necessary for reducing uncertainty, and vital information is revealed on how impacts vary spatially and temporally. Importantly, moving away from default technology and waste management hierarchies as a source of data fosters goal-driven systems thinking which in turn leads to the discovery of technology improvement potentials.

  1. Children's experiences of acute hospitalisation to a paediatric emergency and assessment unit--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Jackson, Karen; Kolbæk, Raymond; Glasdam, Stinne

    2012-09-01

    Short-stay treatment has become a popular form of care as a strategy to cope with increased demands on health care. There is little research that considers children's experiences of acute hospitalisation to a short-stay care facility such as a Paediatric Emergency and Assessment Unit (PEAU). This study explored the experiences of eight children aged 8-10 years. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to investigate the children's own experiences of being hospitalised in a PEAU. Thematic content analyses were used. Three major themes were identified: the children's understanding of disease, treatment and procedures; the children's experiences of health-care personnel and the PEAU and transformation of everyday life into the settings of the hospital. The children identified the hospital stay as an overall positive experience. The children took part in leisure activities as they would at home and enjoyed time together with their parents while in hospital. In their conversations with staff they adapted to professional terms that they did not necessarily understand. They did not differentiate between professionals. Further work should be considered to clarify the consequences of this. This study has provided some limited insight into the child's experiences of acute hospitalisation, which should inform nursing care.

  2. Korean round-robin result for new international program to assess the reliability of emerging nondestructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Cho; Kim, Jin Gyum; Kang, Sung Sik; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, as a representative organization of Korea, in February 2012 participated in an international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques initiated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques is to investigate the performance of emerging and prospective novel nondestructive techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. In this article, Korean round-robin test results were evaluated with respect to the test blocks and various nondestructive examination techniques. The test blocks were prepared to simulate large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds in nuclear power plants. Also, lessons learned from the Korean round-robin test were summarized and discussed.

  3. Korean Round-Robin Tests Result for New International Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Cho Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, as a representative organization of Korea, in February 2012 participated in an international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques initiated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques is to investigate the performance of emerging and prospective novel nondestructive techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. In this article, Korean round-robin test results were evaluated with respect to the test blocks and various nondestructive examination techniques. The test blocks were prepared to simulate large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds in nuclear power plants. Also, lessons learned from the Korean round-robin test were summarized and discussed.

  4. Bilateral mammographic density asymmetry and breast cancer risk: A preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Bin, E-mail: zhengb@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sumkin, Jules H., E-mail: jsumkin@mail.magee.edu [Department of Radiology, Magee Womens Hospital, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zuley, Margarita L., E-mail: zuleyml@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, Magee Womens Hospital, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Wang, Xingwei, E-mail: wangx6@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Klym, Amy H., E-mail: klymah@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Gur, David, E-mail: gurd@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    To improve efficacy of breast cancer screening and prevention programs, it requires a risk assessment model with high discriminatory power. This study aimed to assess classification performance of using computed bilateral mammographic density asymmetry to predict risk of individual women developing breast cancer in near-term. The database includes 451 cases with multiple screening mammography examinations. The first (baseline) examinations of all case were interpreted negative. In the next sequential examinations, 187 cases developed cancer or surgically excised high-risk lesions, 155 remained negative (not-recalled), and 109 were recalled benign cases. From each of two bilateral cranio-caudal view images acquired from the baseline examination, we computed two features of average pixel value and local pixel value fluctuation. We then computed mean and difference of each feature computed from two images. When applying the computed features and other two risk factors (woman's age and subjectively rated mammographic density) to predict risk of cancer development, areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were computed to evaluate the discriminatory/classification performance. The AUCs are 0.633 {+-} 0.030, 0.535 {+-} 0.036, 0.567 {+-} 0.031, and 0.719 {+-} 0.027 when using woman's age, subjectively rated, computed mean and asymmetry of mammographic density, to classify between two groups of cancer-verified and negative cases, respectively. When using an equal-weighted fusion method to combine woman's age and computed density asymmetry, AUC increased to 0.761 {+-} 0.025 (p < 0.05). The study demonstrated that bilateral mammographic density asymmetry could be a significantly stronger risk factor associated to the risk of women developing breast cancer in near-term than woman's age and assessed mean mammographic density.

  5. Preliminary needs assessment of mobile technology use for healthcare among homeless veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Gemmae M.; Solomon, Jeffrey L.; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Sawh, Leon; Smelson, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Homeless veterans have complex healthcare needs, but experience many barriers to treatment engagement. While information technologies (IT), especially mobile phones, are used to engage patients in care, little is known about homeless veterans’ IT use. This study examines homeless veterans’ access to and use of IT, attitudes toward health-related IT use, and barriers to IT in the context of homelessness. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 homeless veterans in different housing programs in Boston, MA, ranging from emergency shelters to supportive transitional housing that allow stays of up to 2 years. Interviews were conducted in person, audio recorded and then transcribed. Three researchers coded transcripts. Inductive thematic analysis was used. Results. Most participants (90%) had a mobile phone and were receptive to IT use for health-related communications. A common difficulty communicating with providers was the lack of a stable mailing address. Some participants were using mobile phones to stay in touch with providers. Participants felt mobile-phone calls or text messages could be used to remind patients of appointments, prescription refills, medication taking, and returning for laboratory results. Mobile phone text messaging was seen as convenient, and helped participants stay organized because necessary information was saved in text messages. Some reported concerns about the costs associated with mobile phone use (calls and texting), the potential to be annoyed by too many text messages, and not knowing how to use text messaging. Conclusion. Homeless veterans use IT and welcome its use for health-related purposes. Technology-assisted outreach among this population may lead to improved engagement in care. PMID:26246964

  6. Preliminary needs assessment of mobile technology use for healthcare among homeless veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Keith McInnes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Homeless veterans have complex healthcare needs, but experience many barriers to treatment engagement. While information technologies (IT, especially mobile phones, are used to engage patients in care, little is known about homeless veterans’ IT use. This study examines homeless veterans’ access to and use of IT, attitudes toward health-related IT use, and barriers to IT in the context of homelessness.Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 homeless veterans in different housing programs in Boston, MA, ranging from emergency shelters to supportive transitional housing that allow stays of up to 2 years. Interviews were conducted in person, audio recorded and then transcribed. Three researchers coded transcripts. Inductive thematic analysis was used.Results. Most participants (90% had a mobile phone and were receptive to IT use for health-related communications. A common difficulty communicating with providers was the lack of a stable mailing address. Some participants were using mobile phones to stay in touch with providers. Participants felt mobile-phone calls or text messages could be used to remind patients of appointments, prescription refills, medication taking, and returning for laboratory results. Mobile phone text messaging was seen as convenient, and helped participants stay organized because necessary information was saved in text messages. Some reported concerns about the costs associated with mobile phone use (calls and texting, the potential to be annoyed by too many text messages, and not knowing how to use text messaging.Conclusion. Homeless veterans use IT and welcome its use for health-related purposes. Technology-assisted outreach among this population may lead to improved engagement in care.

  7. Preliminary needs assessment of mobile technology use for healthcare among homeless veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, D Keith; Fix, Gemmae M; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Sawh, Leon; Smelson, David A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Homeless veterans have complex healthcare needs, but experience many barriers to treatment engagement. While information technologies (IT), especially mobile phones, are used to engage patients in care, little is known about homeless veterans' IT use. This study examines homeless veterans' access to and use of IT, attitudes toward health-related IT use, and barriers to IT in the context of homelessness. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 homeless veterans in different housing programs in Boston, MA, ranging from emergency shelters to supportive transitional housing that allow stays of up to 2 years. Interviews were conducted in person, audio recorded and then transcribed. Three researchers coded transcripts. Inductive thematic analysis was used. Results. Most participants (90%) had a mobile phone and were receptive to IT use for health-related communications. A common difficulty communicating with providers was the lack of a stable mailing address. Some participants were using mobile phones to stay in touch with providers. Participants felt mobile-phone calls or text messages could be used to remind patients of appointments, prescription refills, medication taking, and returning for laboratory results. Mobile phone text messaging was seen as convenient, and helped participants stay organized because necessary information was saved in text messages. Some reported concerns about the costs associated with mobile phone use (calls and texting), the potential to be annoyed by too many text messages, and not knowing how to use text messaging. Conclusion. Homeless veterans use IT and welcome its use for health-related purposes. Technology-assisted outreach among this population may lead to improved engagement in care.

  8. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...

  9. Fukushima nuclear accident: preliminary assessment of the risks to non-human biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Gabdo, Hamman Tukur; Liman, Muhammad Sanusi

    2015-02-01

    This study assesses the 'radio-ecological' impacts of Fukushima nuclear accident on non-human biota using the ERICA Tool, which adopts an internationally verified methodology. The paper estimates the impacts of the accident on terrestrial and marine biota based on the environmental data reported in literature for Japan, China, South Korea and the USA. Discernible impacts have been detected in the marine biota around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This study confirms that the Fukushima accident had caused heavier damage to marine bionts compared with terrestrial flora and fauna, in Japan.

  10. Modeling and preliminary assessment of crude oil contaminated soil in Ogoni (Nigeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

    2014-07-01

    In 2010, a severe contamination of soil and groundwater caused by the production and transportation of crude oil were detected in the Ogoni area, Federal Republic of Nigeria. A linear correlation between aliphatics and aromatics and the missing link between the degree of contamination and the depth of the soil samples indicate incomplete earlier remediation activities. 665 analyzed samples were mathematically reduced to 28 contamination patterns that can be distinguished by type and degree of pollution, environmentally assessed and visualized by a quasi 3-D model. Case studies taken from the Local Government Areas Eleme, Gokana, Khana, and Tai show the methodology and results.

  11. Preliminary assessment of risk of ozone impacts to maize (Zea mays) in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tienhoven, AM

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available to ozone episodes early in the growth season (Novak et al., 2005). Such responses should ideally be measured under experimental condi- tions in greenhouses or open-top chambers. The regional scale ozone maps (Figs. 3 and 5) identify central and southern.... The critical loads/levels approach to gaseous pollut- ant emission control. Environmental Pollution 69, 105e123. Bussotti, M., Schaub, M., Cozzi, A., Krauchi, N., Ferretti, M., Novak, K., Skelly, J.M., 2003. Assessment of ozone visible symp- toms in the field...

  12. Summary on the preliminary assessment of the T91 window performance in the MEGAPIE conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Y. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Fazio, C. [Program Nuclear Safety Research, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: concetta.fazio@nuklear.fzk.de; Gorse, D. [CNRS - CECM, 15 Rue G. Urbain, Vitry sur Seine cedex (France); Groeschel, F. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Henry, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Terlain, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Vogt, J.-B. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, Universite de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Auger, T. [CNRS - CECM, 15 Rue G. Urbain, Vitry sur Seine cedex (France); Gessi, A. [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie l' Energia e l' Ambiente, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano Bologna (Italy)

    2006-06-23

    The MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) target is a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic neutron spallation target, which is considered as a key experiment for the development of accelerator driven systems to transmute high level nuclear waste. The target has been designed in the frame of an international collaboration and it will be installed and irradiated at the SINQ facility of the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland. This paper summarises the experiments done to assess the performance of the MEGAPIE window material, which is made of martensitic steel T91.

  13. Preliminary assessment of injection, storage, and recovery of freshwater in the lower Hawthorn aquifer, Cape Coral, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Aponte, Vicente; Wexler, Eliezer J.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of subsurface injection, storage and recovery of fresh canal water was made in the naturally brackish lower Hawthorn aquifer in Cape Coral, southwestern Florida. A digital modeling approach was used for this preliminary assessment, incorporating available data on hydrologic conditions, aquifer properties, and water quality to simulate density-dependent ground-water flow and advective-dispersive transport of a conservative ground-water solute (chloride ion). A baseline simulation was used as reference to compare the effects of changing various operational factors on the recovery efficiency. A recovery efficiency of 64 percent was estimated for the baseline simulation. Based on the model, the recovery efficiency increases if the injection rate and recovery rates are increased and if the ratio of recovery rate to injection rate is increased. Recovery efficiency decreases if the amount of water injected is increased; slightly decreases if the storage time is increased; is not changed significantly if the water is injected to a specific flow zone; increases with successive cycles of injection, storage, and recovery; and decreases if the chloride concentrations in either the injection water or native aquifer water are increased. In everal hypothetical tests, the recovery efficiency fluctuated between 22 and about 100 percent. Two successive cycles could bring the recovery efficiency from 60 to about 80 percent. Interlayer solute mass movement across the upper and lower boundaries seems to be the most important factor affecting the recovery efficiency. A sensitivity analysis was performed applying a technique in which the change in the various factors and the corresponding model responses are normalized so that meaningful comparisons among the responses could be made. The general results from the sensitivity analysis indicated that the permeabilities of the upper and lower flow zones were the most important factors that produced the greatest

  14. Development of a novel location-based assessment of sensory symptoms in cancer patients: preliminary reliability and validity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Adam R; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a novel location-based assessment of sensory symptoms in cancer (L-BASIC) instrument, and its initial estimates of reliability and validity. L-BASIC is structured so that patients provide a numeric score and an adjectival description for any sensory symptom, including both pain and neuropathic sensations, present in each of the 10 predefined body areas. Ninety-seven patients completed the baseline questionnaire; 39 completed the questionnaire on two occasions. A mean of 3.5 body parts was scored per patient. On average, 2.7 (of 11) descriptor categories were used per body part. There was good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.74) for a four-item scale that combined location-specific metrics. Temporal stability was adequate (kappa>0.50 and r>0.60 for categorical and continuous variables, respectively) among patients without observed or reported subjective change in clinical status between L-BASIC administrations. We compared our four-item scale against scores obtained from validated pain and quality-of-life (QOL) scales, and as expected, correlations were higher for pain-related items than for QOL-related items. We detected differences in L-BASIC responses among patients with cancer-related head or neck pain, chemotherapy-related neuropathy and breast cancer-related lymphedema. We conclude that L-BASIC provides internally consistent and temporally stable responses, while acknowledging that further refinement and testing of this novel instrument are necessary. We anticipate that future versions of L-BASIC will provide reliable and valid syndrome-specific measurement of defined clinical pain and symptom constructs in the cancer population, which may be of particular value in assessing treatment response in patients with such multiple complaints.

  15. National Coal Utilization Assessment: a preliminary assessment of coal utilizaton in the South. [Southern USA to 2020; forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L. B.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Boercker, F. D.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the major problems and issues related to coal development and use in the South are identified and assessed assuming a base-case energy scenario for the next 45 years. This scenario assumes a midrange of coal use and a relatively high rate of nuclear use over the forecast period. The potential impacts from coal development and use are significant, particularly in the 1990-2020 time period. Practically all available sites suitable for power plant development in the assessment will be utilized by 2020. Overall, sulfur dioxide will be well below the annual primary standard; however, several local hot-spot areas were identified. In addition, sulfate concentrations will be increased significantly, particularly over Virginia, West Virginia, and northern Kentucky. Coal mining is expected to affect 6 of the 12 major ecological regions. Coal mining will lead to increased average suspended sediment concentrations in some river basins, and special measures will be required to control acid discharges from active mines in pyritic regions. The increased mining of coal and subsequent sulfur dioxide increases from its combustion may also give rise to a land-use confrontation with food and fiber production. Potential health effects from exposure to sulfur dioxide and sulfates are expected to increase rapidly in several areas, particularly in parts of Kentucky, Maryland, District of Columbia, and Georgia. Regional social costs should be relatively low, although some site-specific costs are expected to be very high. Alternative energy technologies, careful siting selection, and deployment of environmental control technologies and operating policies will be required to reduce or mitigate these potential impacts.

  16. Support interoperability and reusability of emerging forms of assessment: Some issues on integrating IMS LD with IMS QTI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Boon, Jo; Van der Klink, Marcel; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Boon, J., Van der Klink, M., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2011). Support interoperability and reusability of emerging forms of assessment: Some issues on integrating IMS LD with IMS QTI. In F. Lazarinis, S. Green, & E. Pearson (Eds.), E-Learning Standards and Interoperability: Frameworks an

  17. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module II. Human Systems and Patient Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on human systems and patient assessment is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Four units are presented: (1) medical terminology, which covers some common prefixes and suffixes and the use of the medical dictionary; (2) an overview of the…

  18. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBT

  19. Modeling fate and transport of "Contaminants of Emerging Concern" (CECs): is the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) the appropriate model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods As the scientific and regulatory communities realize the significant environmental impacts and ubiquity of “contaminants of emerging concern” (CECs), it is increasingly imperative to develop quantitative assessment tools to evaluate and predict the fate and transport of...

  20. Preliminary Assessment of JERS-1 SAR to Discriminating Boreal Landscape Features for the Boreal Forest Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Williams, Cynthia; Podest, Erika; Chapman, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the JERS-1 North American Boreal Forest Mapping Project and a preliminary assessment