WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary economic assessments

  1. A preliminary economic feasibility assessment of nuclear desalination in Madura Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.-H.; Hwang, Y.-D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Konishi, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hudi Hastowo [National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jakarta (Indonesia)]. E-mail: hastowo@cbn.net.id

    2005-07-01

    A joint study between KAERI and BATAN, which is entitled 'A preliminary economic feasibility assessment of nuclear desalination in Madura Island', is being conducted under the framework of the Interregional Technical Cooperation Project of IAEA, signed on Oct. 10, 2001 at IAEA. The duration of the project is January 2002 to December 2004. An economic feasibility of nuclear desalination using system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART), which will provide Madura Island with electricity and potable water and also support industrialisation and tourism, will be assessed during the project. The scope of this joint study includes the analyses for the short- and long-term energy and water demand as well as the supply plan for Madura Island, evaluation of the site characteristics, environmental impacts and health aspects, technical and economic evaluation of SMART and its desalination system, including the feasibility of its being identified on the Madura Island. KAERI and BATAN are cooperating in conducting a joint study, and IAEA provides technical support and a review of the study products. This paper presents the interim results of the joint study by focussing on the technical and economic aspects of nuclear desalination using SMART in Madura Island. (author)

  2. Techno-economic assessment and comparison of CO2 capture technologies for industrial processes: Preliminary results for the iron and steel sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, T.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and the preliminary results of a techno-economic assessment of CCS implementation on the iron and steel sector. The results show that for the short-mid term, a CO2 avoidance cost of less than 50 €/tonne at a CO2 avoidance rate of around 50% are possible by convert

  3. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    Two innovative vortex extraction devices - the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) and the Vortex Augmentor Concept (VAC) - are critically evaluated to provide a preliminary assessment of their technical and economic viability as compared to conventional horizontal axis wind energy systems. This assessment was carried out over a wide range of power output levels and augmentation ratios appropriate to each of the concepts.

  4. Ecological economics - a special perspective? Preliminary reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on some preliminary reflections from a research project concerning ecological economics as a special perspective. As Clive Spash noted in a presentation at the ESEE conference in Cambridge, July 2001, ecological economics has reached the age of puberty, looks into the glass...... and searches its own identity. The identity seeking processes are visible in the large number of publications discussing the characteristics of ecological economics as well as the similarities to and differences from environmental economics. The present paper is a part of this stream. The paper is work...

  5. High-intensity drying processes -- Impulse drying: Report 15 (final report). Production of linerboard on a pilot paper machine, subsequent commercial converting trials and preliminary economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1999-04-01

    In September 1998, 33{number_sign} liner was produced on the {number_sign}4 pilot machine under both single-felted wet pressing and impulse drying conditions. In October 1998, the pilot produced liner and commercial liner were converted to combined board and corrugated boxes at a commercial box plant. In January 1999, linerboard, medium, and combined board and box testing were completed. The pilot trials demonstrated that 33{number_sign} liner could be impulse dried at a reel speed of 380 m/min. Press dryness was improved by as much as 4 points, while CD STFI and CD ring crush were improved by more than 10%. Improvements to the smoothness of heated side of sheet were also realized. Commercial box plant converting trials demonstrated that impulse dried linerboard can be used to increase ECT and box compression strength by as much as 10%. As anticipated, print quality was found to be superior. A preliminary economic analysis was performed in which an impulse dryer would increase press dryness by 4 points and would allow the basis weight to be reduced by 10%. The economic model showed that the 4 points in dryness would translate to a 17% tonnage increase. Applying the 10% basis weight reduction resulted in an increase in productivity, on an area basis, of 30%. The pulp cost savings was found to outweigh any additional electric power costs.

  6. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  7. Tawhidic Based Economic System: A Preliminary Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hilmiyah Hilmiyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates contemporary mainstream economic system, does Islamic Economics taking advantage of the shortfall of the system outlined above based on Tawhidical approach? By using descriptive qualitative method this paper proposed the appropriate of Islamic economics theorize that the Islamic system provide the ideal form of a socio-economic order. This paper found that Tawhidic based economics approaches can be focused towards seeing wholes of economics, rather than parts; seeing economics activities as a worship, rather than competition; cultivating the solidarity (charity, rather than individualism and creating the justice, rather than injustice. Thus this paper designed to provide the concept of Islamic economic system with Tawhid as the basis, to fit the philosophy of economic science and reality of human life. The paper also shows the position of Tawhid in the system and theory of economy in creating prosperity and benefit for all mankind comparing to mainstream economic system and their theory.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i1.3481 

  8. Preliminary screening: Technical and economic assessment of synthesis gas to fuels and chemicals with emphasis on the potential for biomass-derived syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dayton, D. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2003-12-01

    This report reviews the many syngas to products processes and summarizes the technology status and description, chemistry, catalysts, reactors, gas cleanliness requirements, process and environmental performances, and economics.

  9. Preliminary Economic Analysis of the TRIFOOD System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-20

    M.D.; Carl Anderson, M.D.; and Karen Moxness, M.S.; "Nutritional Assessment of Orthopedic Patients," Mayo Clinic Proceedings (January 1981) 56:51...15) Balintfy, Joseph L., and F. Nebel , "Experiments with Computer- Assisted Menu Planning," Hospitals, Vol. 40, June 16, 1966. A .t Arthur D. Little

  10. Assessing the vulnerability of economic sectors to climate variability to improve the usability of seasonal to decadal climate forecasts in Europe - a preliminary concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability poses major challenges for decision-makers in climate-sensitive sectors. Seasonal to decadal (S2D) forecasts provide potential value for management decisions especially in the context of climate change where information from present or past climatology loses significance. However, usable and decision-relevant tailored climate forecasts are still sparse for Europe and successful examples of application require elaborate and individual producer-user interaction. The assessment of sector-specific vulnerabilities to critical climate conditions at specific temporal scale will be a great step forward to increase the usability and efficiency of climate forecasts. A concept for a sector-specific vulnerability assessment (VA) to climate variability is presented. The focus of this VA is on the provision of usable vulnerability information which can be directly incorporated in decision-making processes. This is done by developing sector-specific climate-impact-decision-pathways and the identification of their specific time frames using data from both bottom-up and top-down approaches. The structure of common VA's for climate change related issues is adopted which envisages the determination of exposure, sensitivity and coping capacity. However, the application of the common vulnerability components within the context of climate service application poses some fundamental considerations: Exposure - the effect of climate events on the system of concern may be modified and delayed due to interconnected systems (e.g. catchment). The critical time-frame of a climate event or event sequence is dependent on system-internal thresholds and initial conditions. But also on decision-making processes which require specific lead times of climate information to initiate respective coping measures. Sensitivity - in organizational systems climate may pose only one of many factors relevant for decision making. The scope of "sensitivity" in this concept comprises both the

  11. Health Economic Assessment: A Methodological Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs, an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis, and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments.

  12. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  13. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian;

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps in de...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  14. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-06-01

    This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

  15. Investigation of Sorption and Diffusion Mechanisms, and Preliminary Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sankar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. Several monovalent and divalent cation exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water. Experiments were performed using tritiated water feed solution containing tritium at the high end of the range (1 mCi/mL) anticipated in a nuclear fuel processing system that includes both acid and water streams recycling. The tritium concentration was about 0.1 ppm. The permeate was recovered under vacuum. The HTO/H2O selectivity and separation factor calculated from the measured tritium concentrations ranged from 0.99 to 1.23, and 0.83-0.98, respectively. Although the membrane performance for HTO separation was lower than expected, several encouraging observations including molecular sieving and high vapor permeance are reported. Additionally, several new approaches are proposed, such as tuning the sorption and diffusion properties offered by small pore LTA zeolite materials, and cation exchanged aluminosilicates with high metal loading. It is hypothesized that substantially improved preferential transport of tritium (HTO) resulting in a more concentrated permeate can be achieved. Preliminary economic analysis for the membrane-based process to concentrate tritiated water is also discussed.

  16. TOURISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todt Horst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.

  17. Economic assessment of nutritional recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges

    2015-01-01

    The effect of consumers' compliance with nutritional recommendations is uncertain because of potentially complex substitutions. To lift this uncertainty, we adapt a model of consumer behaviour under rationing to the case of linear nutritional constraints. Dietary adjustments are derived from information on consumer preferences, consumption levels, and nutritional contents of foods. A calibration exercise simulates, for different income groups, how the French diet would respond to various nutrition recommendations, and those behavioural adjustments are translated into health outcomes through the DIETRON epidemiological model. This allows for the ex-ante comparison of the efficiency, equity and health effects of ten nutritional recommendations. Although most recommendations impose significant taste costs on consumers, they are highly cost-effective, with the recommendations targeting salt, saturated fat, and fruits and vegetables (F&V) ranking highest in terms of efficiency. Most recommendations are also economically progressive, with the exception of that targeting F&V.

  18. Economic Growth in Mozambique? An Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we try to assess the nature, size and consistency of recent economic growth in Mozambique. We attempt to verify whether and to what extent this growth is unprecedented as has been claimed. We look at the available data to assess whether this growth is even across sectors and GDP components. Finally we try to assess whether by any indication we can say if observed growth is balanced and, if not, to what extent economic policy is actually responsible. We argue that ...

  19. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  20. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Review of the EU's Preliminary Assessment of China's Market Economy Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, the European Union (EU) made a decision on its preliminary assessment of China's market economy status (MES). After seriously studying the EU's preliminary assessment report, the Institute of Economic and Resources Management of Beijing Normal University made a review. We hold that the decision on the assessment fails to be fair and objective and is undermined by incorrect understanding and logical contradictions. However, the decision has still left some leeway for China's improvement and China needs to speed up in improving its market economy regime.

  2. Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available tec

  3. Assessing Family Economic Status From Teacher Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M.; Hoepfner, Ralph

    The utility of employing teacher reports about characteristics of students and their parents to assess family economic status was investigated using multiple regression analyses. The accuracy of teacher reports about parents' educational background was also explored, in addition to the effect of replacing missing data with logical, mean, or modal…

  4. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY REGULATION AND COMPETITION ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In a broad sense, the term „competition” defines the relations between economic operators acting on the same market seeking attainment of certain interests in economic freedom conditions. The need for regulations in the area of competition stems from the nature of free, open market economy which is founded on the existence of fair competition between economic agents, competition which must be observed, maintained and protected by the law. Public authorities who issue various regulations should be cautious about how far this role is played in the economy and they way adopted regulations affect competition in the market. Hence, the need for prior assessment relating to the potential effect of a regulation on competition. It was proven in practice that some regulations may lead to measures that may affect competition directly or indirectly by: limiting the number or range of suppliers; limiting supplier capability to compete and reducing interests of suppliers to compete vigorously.

  5. Review article "Assessment of economic flood damage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Damage assessments of natural hazards supply crucial information to decision support and policy development in the fields of natural hazard management and adaptation planning to climate change. Specifically, the estimation of economic flood damage is gaining greater importance as flood risk management is becoming the dominant approach of flood control policies throughout Europe. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and identifies research directions of economic flood damage assessment. Despite the fact that considerable research effort has been spent and progress has been made on damage data collection, data analysis and model development in recent years, there still seems to be a mismatch between the relevance of damage assessments and the quality of the available models and datasets. Often, simple approaches are used, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damage mechanisms. The results of damage assessments depend on many assumptions, e.g. the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries, and there are many pitfalls in economic evaluation, e.g. the choice between replacement costs or depreciated values. Much larger efforts are required for empirical and synthetic data collection and for providing consistent, reliable data to scientists and practitioners. A major shortcoming of damage modelling is that model validation is scarcely performed. Uncertainty analyses and thorough scrutiny of model inputs and assumptions should be mandatory for each damage model development and application, respectively. In our view, flood risk assessments are often not well balanced. Much more attention is given to the hazard assessment part, whereas damage assessment is treated as some kind of appendix within the risk analysis. Advances in flood damage assessment could trigger subsequent methodological improvements in other natural hazard areas with comparable time-space properties.

  6. Review article "Assessment of economic flood damage"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Schwarze, R.; Thieken, A.

    2010-08-01

    Damage assessments of natural hazards supply crucial information to decision support and policy development in the fields of natural hazard management and adaptation planning to climate change. Specifically, the estimation of economic flood damage is gaining greater importance as flood risk management is becoming the dominant approach of flood control policies throughout Europe. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and identifies research directions of economic flood damage assessment. Despite the fact that considerable research effort has been spent and progress has been made on damage data collection, data analysis and model development in recent years, there still seems to be a mismatch between the relevance of damage assessments and the quality of the available models and datasets. Often, simple approaches are used, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damage mechanisms. The results of damage assessments depend on many assumptions, e.g. the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries, and there are many pitfalls in economic evaluation, e.g. the choice between replacement costs or depreciated values. Much larger efforts are required for empirical and synthetic data collection and for providing consistent, reliable data to scientists and practitioners. A major shortcoming of damage modelling is that model validation is scarcely performed. Uncertainty analyses and thorough scrutiny of model inputs and assumptions should be mandatory for each damage model development and application, respectively. In our view, flood risk assessments are often not well balanced. Much more attention is given to the hazard assessment part, whereas damage assessment is treated as some kind of appendix within the risk analysis. Advances in flood damage assessment could trigger subsequent methodological improvements in other natural hazard areas with comparable time-space properties.

  7. 76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration review of chlorpyrifos and... comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all chlorpyrifos uses. After reviewing comments...

  8. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document... for the chlorpyrifos reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...

  9. CHARACTERISTIC OF ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF COMBINE HARVESTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bershickiy Y. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have highlighted the importance of ensuring a rational nomenclative and quantity structure of agricultural equipment for the timely and quality harvest of grain and cereal crops in agricultural organizations in southern Russia. The article shows the difficulty of choosing a certain trademark of combine harvester for the acquisition of a variety of domestic and foreign farm machine that implemented in the domestic market of agricultural machinery. We have considered different directions of price and operating characteristic of a combine harvester made by different manufacturers. We have also proved the exclusively importance and need for correct comparative economic assessment in conditions abatement of the national currency rate and a prices increase for imported equipment of mechanization, revealed methodical characteristic of technologic and economic evaluation of harvesting equipment, based on the calculation of unit (1 hectare harvest area of aggregate costs, including the costs of exploitation a combine and additional costs caused to losses crops in the process of harvesting as design features of the machines. Comparative economic analysis of the most sold combine harvesters made by domestic and foreign manufacturers in the Russian market was carried out. We have proved the economic efficiency of the acquisition of domestic combine harvesters under current assessment at correlation prices for domestic and imported equipment of mechanization

  10. Technical and economic assessment of solar hybrid repowering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) has performed a Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Hybrid Repowering under funding by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Western Energy Supply and Transmission (WEST) Associates, and a number of southwestern utilities. Solar hybrid repowering involves placement of solar hardware adjacent to and connected to existing gas- and oil-fueled electric generation units to displace some of or all the fossil fuel normally used during daylight hours. The subject study assesses the technical economic viability of the solar hybrid repowering concept within the southwestern United States and the PNM system. This document is a final report on the study and its results. The study was divided into the six primary tasks to allow a systematic investigation of the concept: (1) market survey and cost/benefit analysis, (2) study unit selection, (3) conceptual design and cost estimates, (4) unit economic analysis, (5) program planning, future phases, and (6) program management. Reeves Station No. 2 at Albuquerque, New Mexico, was selected for repowering with a design goal of 50 percent (25 MWe). The solar system design is based on the 10 MW solar central receiver pilot plant preliminary design for Barstow, California. SAN--1608-4-2 contains the technical drawings. (WHK)

  11. Preliminary documentation and assessment of fish diversity in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary documentation and assessment of fish diversity in sub-Saharan ... upon their life histories and degree of association with estuarine environments. ... Estuarine fish communities in Africa are strongly influenced by the prevailing ...

  12. Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ... The triglyceride level, artherogenic and coronary risk index of the mechanics was higher ... risk, mechanics, lipid profile, cardiovascular disease, liver dysfunction, benzene.

  13. Economic Journal in Russia: Quality Assessment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Valentinovna Tret’yakova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to assess economic journals included in the List of peer-reviewed scientific journals and editions that are authorized to publish the principal research findings of doctoral (candidate’s dissertations (the VAK List, it was established by the Decision of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and entered into force on December 01, 2016. The general assessment of the journals that include more than 380 titles is carried out by analyzing their bibliometric indicators in the system of the Russian Science Citation Index, in particular, by examining the values of their impact factors. The analysis conducted at the Institute of Socio-economic Development of Territories of RAS shows that a relatively small number of economic journals publish a significant proportion of articles that obtain a large share of citations. The author reveals that the new VAK List includes over 50% of journals specializing in economic sciences, which have a lower level of citation or which are virtually not cited at all. This indirectly indicates that such journals are “left behind” the “main stream of science”, that their significance is local, availability low, attractiveness for the audience and scientific authority insufficient. The analysis proves that when forming the list of peer-reviewed scientific publications recommended for publication of dissertation research findings, along with other criteria, it is advisable to use tools that help assess the level of the journal. It is very important that the evaluation had quantitative expression and served as a specific measure for ranking the journals. One of these tools may be a criterion value for the two-year impact factor, which helps identify journals with a sufficient citation level. The paper presents the results of analysis of the RSCI list, which was proposed by the Council for Science under the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation as an

  14. The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-05-15

    A combination of technical complexity, tight coupling, speed, and human fallibility contribute to the unexpected failure of large-scale energy technologies. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the social and economic costs of major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It documents 279 incidents that have been responsible for $41 billion in property damage and 182,156 deaths. Such disasters highlight an often-ignored negative externality to energy production and use, and emphasize the need for further research. (author)

  15. An economic assessment of low carbon vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerton, P. [Cambridge Econometrics CE, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Harrison, P. [European Climate Foundation ECF, Brussels (Belgium)] (eds.)

    2013-03-15

    The study aimed to analyse the economic impacts of decarbonizing light duty vehicles. As part of the study, the impacts of the European Commissions proposed 2020 CO2 regulation for cars and vans have been assessed. The analysis showed that a shift to low-carbon vehicles would increase spending on vehicle technology, therefore generating positive direct employment impacts, but potentially adding 1,000-1,100 euro to the capital cost of the average new car in 2020. However, these additional technology costs would be offset by fuel savings of around 400 euro per year, indicating an effective break-even point for drivers of approximately three years. At the EU level, the cost of running and maintaining the European car fleet would become 33-35 billion euro lower each year than in a 'do nothing scenario' by 2030, leading to positive economic impacts including indirect employment gains. Data on the cost of low carbon vehicle technologies has largely been sourced from the auto industry itself, with the study supported by a core working group including Nissan, GE, the European Association of Automotive Suppliers (CLEPA), and the European Storage Battery Manufacturers Association (Eurobat). Fuel price projections for the study were based on the IEA's World Energy Outlook, while technical modelling was carried out using the transport policy scoping tool SULTAN (developed by Ricardo-AEA for the European Commission) and the Road Vehicle Cost and Efficiency Calculation Framework, also developed by Ricardo-AEA. Macro-economic modelling was done using the E3ME model, which has previously been used for several European Commission and EU government impact assessments. This report focuses on efficient use of fossil fuels in internal combustion- and hybrid electric vehicles. It will be followed by a second report, which will focus on further reducing the use of fossil fuels by also substituting them with domestically produced energy carriers, such as electricity and

  16. Human Health Effects, Task Force Assessment, Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; And Others

    Presented in this preliminary report is one of seven assessments conducted by a special task force of Project Clean Air, the Human Health Effects Task Force. The reports summarize assessments of the state of knowledge on various air pollution problems, particularly in California, and make tentative recommendations as to what the University of…

  17. Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Functions in Economically Underprivileged Children Aged 7-9 Years: A preliminary Study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Arpitha; D'Souza, Crystal D; Sumithra, S; Avadhani, Sandhya; Subramanya, Chaya Mayasandra; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive functions in 7-9 year old school going children hailing from a socio-economically disadvantaged background in Bangalore, India. Ninety eight children (51% boys and 49% girls) were assessed on height, weight, BMI, aerobic fitness (multistage 20 m shuttle test) and cognitive functions (verbal tests: comprehension, arithmetic, vocabulary, analogies; performance tests: block design, object assembly and coding). Number of shuttles was significantly positively correlated with two of the cognitive tests: comprehension (p=0.01) and block design (p=0.005). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the number of shuttles emerged as an independent predictor of tests of comprehension and block design after adjusting for BMI and gender. The above findings provide preliminary evidence for the association between aerobic fitness and cognitive functions in children from poor socio-economic background.

  18. Economic Assessment of the Atlantic Coast Horseshoe Crab Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (lEc) provides an assessment of the economic value of the Atlantic Coast horseshoe crab fishery. We accomplish...

  19. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM MOBILITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    It is recognized that sediments play an important role in the pollution scheme of the ... effects in animals and humans. Studies on metal fractionation and ecological risk assessment in some tropical sediments ... Atlantic Ocean in West Africa.

  20. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Mary E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farish, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This

  1. Preliminary assessment of CO2 injectivity in carbonate storage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are used for a large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2 storage and reduction of the greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. To identify a suitable depleted reservoir, it is essential to do a preliminary and comprehensive assessment of key storage factors such as storage capacity, injectivity, trapping mechanisms, and containment. However, there are a limited number of studies providing a preliminary assessment of CO2 injectivity potential in depleted gas reservoirs prior to a CO2 storage operation. The aim of this study is to provide a preliminary assessment of a gas field located in Malaysia for its storage potential based on subsurface characterization prior to injection. Evaluation of the reservoir interval based on the facies, cores, and wireline log data of a well located in the field indicated that the pore type and fabrics analysis is very beneficial to identify suitable locations for a successful storage practice. Although the results obtained are promising, it is recommended to combine this preliminary assessment with the fluid-mineral interactions analysis before making any judgment about reliability of storage sites.

  2. Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge: A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-08

    A preliminary process model and techno-economic analysis (TEA) was completed for fuel produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sludge waste from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequent biocrude upgrading. The model is adapted from previous work by Jones et al. (2014) for algae HTL, using experimental data generated in fiscal year 2015 (FY15) bench-scale HTL testing of sludge waste streams. Testing was performed on sludge samples received from MetroVancouver’s Annacis Island WWTP (Vancouver, B.C.) as part of a collaborative project with the Water Environment and Reuse Foundation (WERF). The full set of sludge HTL testing data from this effort will be documented in a separate report to be issued by WERF. This analysis is based on limited testing data and therefore should be considered preliminary. Future refinements are necessary to improve the robustness of the model, including a cross-check of modeled biocrude components with the experimental GCMS data and investigation of equipment costs most appropriate at the smaller scales used here. Environmental sustainability metrics analysis is also needed to understand the broader impact of this technology pathway. The base case scenario for the analysis consists of 10 HTL plants, each processing 100 dry U.S. ton/day (92.4 ton/day on a dry, ash-free basis) of sludge waste and producing 234 barrel per stream day (BPSD) biocrude, feeding into a centralized biocrude upgrading facility that produces 2,020 barrel per standard day of final fuel. This scale was chosen based upon initial wastewater treatment plant data collected by the resource assessment team from the EPA’s Clean Watersheds Needs Survey database (EPA 2015a) and a rough estimate of what the potential sludge availability might be within a 100-mile radius. In addition, we received valuable feedback from the wastewater treatment industry as part of the WERF collaboration that helped form the basis for the selected HTL and upgrading

  3. Preliminary results of Aruba wind resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guda, M.H. [Fundashon Antiyano Pa Energia, Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)

    1996-12-31

    As part of a project to assess the possibilities for wind energy utilitization in the Dutch Antilles islands, windspeed and -direction data were collected in Aruba for two years, from March 1992 to February 1994. Five sites that were estimated to be representative for the islands` wind regimes, were monitored during this period: two sites on the windward coast, one east and one west; two inland sites, again one east and one west, and one site topping the cliffs overlooking the eastern windward coast. Additionally, twenty years worth of data were analyzed for the reference site at the airport, which is in the middle part of the island, on the leeward coast. Correlation calculations between these data and the data for the project sites were performed, in order to establish a methodology for estimating the long-term behavior of the wind regimes at these sites. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Preliminary functional assessment of a multigrasp myoelectric prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Skyler A; Bennett, Daniel A; Goldfarb, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The authors have previously described a multigrasp hand prosthesis prototype, and a two-site surface EMG based multigrasp control interface for its control. In this paper, the authors present a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the prosthesis and multigrasp controller in performing tasks requiring interaction and manipulation. The authors use as a performance measure the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), which entails manipulation of various objects designed to emulate activities of daily living, and provides a set of scores that indicate level of functionality in various types of hand function. In this preliminary assessment, a single non-amputee subject performed the SHAP while wearing the multigrasp prosthesis via an able-bodied adaptor. The results from this testing are presented, and compared to recently published SHAP results obtained with commercially available single-grasp and multigrasp prosthetic hands.

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Overweight Mainline Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requested information regarding overweight and oversized vehicle traffic entering inspection stations (ISs) in order to develop strategies for future research efforts and possibly help guide regulatory issues involving overweight commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). For a period of one month, inspection stations in Knox County and Greene County, Tennessee, recorded overweight and oversized vehicles that entered these ISs. During this period, 435 CMVs were recorded using an electronic form filled out by enforcement personnel at the IS. Of the 435 CMVs recorded, 381 had weight information documented with them. The majority (52.2%) of the vehicles recorded were five-axle combination vehicles, and 50.6% of all the vehicles were permitted to operate above the legal weight limit in Tennessee, which is 80,000 lb for vehicles with five or more axles. Only 16.8% of the CMVs recorded were overweight gross (11.5% of permitted vehicles) and 54.1% were overweight on an axle group. The low percentage of overweight gross CMVs was because only 45 of the vehicles over 80,000 lb. were not permitted. On average, axles that were overweight were 2,000 lb. over the legal limit for an axle or group of axles. Of the vehicles recorded, 172 vehicles were given a North American Standard (NAS) inspection during the assessment. Of those, 69% of the inspections were driver-only inspections (Level III) and only 25% of the inspections had a vehicle component (such as a Level I or Level II). The remaining 6% of inspections did not have valid Aspen numbers; the type of was inspection unknown. Data collected on the types of trailers of each vehicle showed that about half of the recorded CMVs could realistically be given a Level I (full vehicle and driver) inspection; this estimate was solely based on trailer type. Enforcement personnel at ISs without an inspection pit have difficulty fully inspecting certain vehicles due to low clearance below the trailer

  6. Assessing competition policy on economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Tilsa Oré

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of competition policies is one of the most recommended strategies to developing countries as a tool for achieving economic development. Using a panel dataset of over 100 countries and 7 years (from 2005-2011), I estimate the effect of competition on economic development, and also determine which of the comprehensive policy factors are the most relevant for increasing competition. A fixed effects instrumental variable approach is used. I find that competition intensity positivel...

  7. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  8. Assessment of validation of health-economics decision models in intervention studies of seasonal influenza and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, P.T.; Frederix, G.W.; Al, M.J.; Feenstra, T.F.; Vemer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to review recently published health-economic (HE) decision models to assess the reporting of validation efforts. An infectious disease (seasonal influenza, SI) and a chronic disease (breast cancer, BC) were used as examples, giving a preliminary insight in the reporting of valid

  9. A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Zander, P.; Flichman, G.; Hengsdijk, H.; Meuter, E.C.; Andersen, E.; Belhouchette, H.; Blanco, M.; Borkowski, N.; Heckelei, T.; Hecker, M.; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stokstad, G.; Thorne, P.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other

  10. The rise of behavioural economics : a quantitative assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the question of operationalising the development of behavioural economics, focussing on trends in the academic literature. The main research goal is to provide a quantitative assessment in order to answer the question of whether or not behavioural economics has gained in relative importance in the past few years. After an introduction and a short summary of the history of behavioural economics, several studies are laid out and evaluated. The results generally confirm ...

  11. Economic assessment of alternative energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groncki, P J; Goettle, IV, R J; Hudson, E A

    1980-04-01

    Current US energy policy includes many programs directed toward the restructuring of the energy system so as to decrease US dependence on foreign supplies and to increase our reliance on plentiful and environmentally benign energy forms. However, recent events have led to renewed concern over the direction of current energy policy. This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. The first strategy is to initiate no additional programs or policies beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is to direct policy toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third is to promote increased supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. The analysis indicates that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, and involves substantial environmental costs and impacts on economic performance. However, these relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation turned out to be less than anticipated; therefore, both conservation and R, D, and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy.

  12. California's forest resources. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Preliminary Assessment was prepared in response to the California Forest Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977 (FRAPA). This Act was passed to improve the information base upon which State resource administrators formulate forest policy. The Act provides for this report and a full assessment by 1987 and at five year intervals thereafter. Information is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction to the forest resources assessment program; the forest area: a general description; classifications of the forest lands; the watersheds; forest lands and the air resource; fish and wildlife resources; the forested rangelands; the wilderness; forest lands as a recreation resource; the timber resource; wood energy; forest lands and the mineral, fossil fuels, and geothermal energy resources; mathematically modeling California's forest lands; vegetation mapping using remote sensing technology; important forest resources legislation; and, State and cooperative State/Federal forestry programs. Twelve indexes, a bibliography, and glossary are included. (JGB)

  13. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  14. European Environmental Priorities: an Integrated Economic and Environmental Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa K; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  15. Assessing the Economic and Environmental Prospects of Stand-By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the Economic and Environmental Prospects of Stand-By Solar Powered ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... will be encouraged to pursue further an energy-environmental friendly policy which will lead ...

  16. Assessing the Impact of Financial Policies on Nigeria's Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the Impact of Financial Policies on Nigeria's Economic Growth. ... Furthermore, it calls for effective implementation and monitoring of financial policies as well ... to avoid lopsided compliance with financial and monetary guidelines.

  17. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary assessment of the impact of the Satellite Power System (SPS) on the environment is presented. Information that has appeared in documents referenced herein is integrated and assimilated. The state-of-knowledge as perceived from recently completed DOE-sponsored studies is disclosed, and prospective research and study programs that can advance the state-of-knowledge and provide an expanded data base for use in an assessment planned for 1980 are defined. Alternatives for research that may be implemented in order to achieve this advancement are also discussed in order that a plan can be selected which will be consistent with the fiscal and time constraints on the SPS Environmental Assessment Program. Health and ecological effects of microwave radiation, nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment (terrestrial operations and space operations), effects on the atmosphere, and effects on communications systems are examined in detail. (WHK)

  18. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  19. Swinger Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio D'Orlando

    2010-01-01

    Swinging is a sexual behavior of increasing relevance but substantially ignored in theoretical economic investigation. This paper has two major goals. The first is to describe what swinging is, discuss its economic relevance and single out the main characteristics of swinger behavior. To this end, the Italian situation has been considered as a type of case study. The second goal is to use standard and less-standard tools from economic theory to propose some preliminary assessments of the caus...

  20. An Assessment of Economic Stability under the New European Economic Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe HURDUZEU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis, followed by the sovereign debt crisis, resulted in high unemployment, unsustainable public finances and deepening disparities between Euro Area member states, and underlined the necessity of strengthening economic coordination. In order to lessen the effects of the crises, to prevent further deepening of the economic context and the appearance of new similar situations, the European framework was improved by the provisions of the new economic governance. The aim of this paper is to assess the effects regarding macroeconomic stability within Euro Area member states, achieved under the new economic governance framework. In this respect, the first part of the paper consists in an overview of the provisions imposed through the European Semester, the reformed Stability and Growth Pact and the other elements of the new European governance. In order to assess the achievement of economic stability we analyzed data for Southern Euro Area member states, during 2009-2013, as this group of countries registered most issues during 2013. We took into consideration five important indicators, essential in any economy that form the macroeconomic stability pentagon: economic growth rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, budgetary balance and current account balance. By comparing the area obtained through the macroeconomic stability pentagon, we conclude on meeting one of the main objectives of the new European governance: economic stability.

  1. Copper hydrometallurgy-current status,preliminary economics,future direction and positioning versus smelting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Peacey; GUO Xian-jian; E.Robles

    2004-01-01

    The heap leaching of oxide copper ores with copper cathode recovery by solvent extraction and electrowinning is now well established as a low-cost method of copper recovery. This technology has recently been applied successfully to mixed oxide and chalcocite ores, notably in Chile at Cerro Colorado, Quebrada Blanca and Zaldivar.Currently, there are significant development efforts underway to try to extend heap leaching to chalcopyrite ores.The success of heap leaching/SX/EW has also led to a revival in the development of hydrometallurgical processes to recover copper from chalcopyrite and other copper concentrates. The current status of copper hydrometallurgy is reviewed and the most commercially attractive potential applications are explored. The advantages and disadvantages of the hydrometallurgical treatment of chalcopyrite concentrates and its preliminary economics are compared with those for the current best practices in copper smelting and refining.

  2. Integrated environmental and economic assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica

    The Solid Waste Management (SWM) sector has evolved from a simple control of emissions towards a resource recovery sector while still being constrained by strict emission regulations. For that waste authorities are paying increased attention to the waste hierarchy as a set of priorities for solid....... However, the waste hierarchy does not consider the local needs/conditions of each geographical area, and it cannot be used to identify sustainable SWM options by itself. Environmental impact assessment can help with this task as holistic decision-support tool. Nevertheless, waste authorities need economic...... assessment of SWM systems alongside environmental impacts assessment to take budget constrains into account. In light of the need for combined environmental and economic assessment of SWM, this PhD thesis developed a consistent and comprehensive method for integrated environmental and economic assessment...

  3. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  4. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  5. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  6. Preliminary assessment of a Ceres Polar Lander mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncy, J.; Grasset, Olivier; Martinot, V.; Gabriel, Gabriel

    2008-09-01

    The quest for water in all forms is a major challenge of planetary exploration. In the Inner System, beneath the Frost Line, H2O is relatively scarce: for it to survive in its solid form outside Earth's and Mars' atmospheres, H2O has to lie in areas exposed to little or no Sun. Three planetary bodies in the Inner System have a spin axis almost perpendicular to their orbital plane allowing temperatures below the sublimation limit in their polar areas: Mercury, our Moon and dwarf planet Ceres (fig. 1). Apart from the Moon's poles where the presence of water ice is not evidenced yet, the poles of Ceres are attractive and relatively easy targets for an in-situ mission. They will have been mapped by NASA's Dawn Orbiter by 2015. The successful landing of NASA's Phoenix on Mars has brought another evidence of the interest of modern precision landing techniques for planetary exploration. NASA's MSL and ESA's Moon-NEXT Lunar Lander missions will bring other examples of the relevance of such designs in the years to come. Thales Alenia Space and the "Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique" of the University of Nantes have carried out a preliminary evaluation of a Ceres Polar Lander mission, so as to explore the possibilities offered by soft landing techniques on such a valuable and affordable scientific target. This poster presents this assessment. It illustrates the scientific interest of Ceres' poles and the challenges of this environment for a potential lander. It assesses the feasibility of the mission in a preliminary way, as well as the ability to benefit from previous lander designs.

  7. Preliminary feasibility assessment for Earth-to-space electromagnetic (Railgun) launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Earhart, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    An Earth to space electromagnetic (railgun) launcher (ESRL) for launching material into space was studied. Potential ESRL applications were identified and initially assessed to formulate preliminary system requirements. The potential applications included nuclear waste disposal in space, Earth orbital applications, deep space probe launchers, atmospheric research, and boost of chemical rockets. The ESRL system concept consisted of two separate railgun launcher tubes (one at 20 deg from the horizontal for Earth orbital missions, the other vertical for solar system escape disposal missions) powered by a common power plant. Each 2040 m launcher tube is surrounded by 10,200 homopolar generator/inductor units to transmit the power to the walls. Projectile masses are 6500 kg for Earth orbital missions and 2055 kg for nuclear waste disposal missions. For the Earth orbital missions, the projectile requires a propulsion system, leaving an estimated payload mass of 650 kg. For the nuclear waste disposal in space mission, the high level waste mass was estimated at 250 kg. This preliminary assessment included technical, environmental, and economic analyses.

  8. "Economics with Training Wheels": Using Blogs in Teaching and Assessing Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Blogs provide a dynamic interactive medium for online discussion, consistent with communal constructivist pedagogy. The author of this article describes and evaluates a blog assignment used in the teaching and assessment of a small (40-60 students) introductory economics course. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected across four…

  9. Economic Benefits: Metrics and Methods for Landscape Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an expanding research frontier in the landscape architecture discipline, landscape performance research, which embraces the scientific dimension of landscape architecture through evidence-based designs that are anchored in quantitative performance assessment. Specifically, this paper summarizes metrics and methods for determining landscape-derived economic benefits that have been utilized in the Landscape Performance Series (LPS initiated by the Landscape Architecture Foundation. This paper identifies 24 metrics and 32 associated methods for the assessment of economic benefits found in 82 published case studies. Common issues arising through research in quantifying economic benefits for the LPS are discussed and the various approaches taken by researchers are clarified. The paper also provides an analysis of three case studies from the LPS that are representative of common research methods used to quantify economic benefits. The paper suggests that high(er levels of sustainability in the built environment require the integration of economic benefits into landscape performance assessment portfolios in order to forecast project success and reduce uncertainties. Therefore, evidence-based design approaches increase the scientific rigor of landscape architecture education and research, and elevate the status of the profession.

  10. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This report represents a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of a process which produces mixed solvents (butaol/acetone/ethanol) via fermentation of sugars derived from renewable biomass resources. The objective is to assess the technology of producing butanol/acetone from biomass, and select a viable process capable of serving as a base case model for technical and economic analysis. It is anticipated that the base case process developed herein can then be used as the basis for subsequent studies concerning biomass conversion processes capable of producing a wide range of chemicals. The general criteria utilized in determining the design basis for the process are profit potential and non-renewable energy displacement potential. The feedstock chosen, aspen wood, was selected from a number of potential renewable biomass resources as the most readily available in the United States and for its relatively large potential for producing reducing sugars.

  11. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.

  12. Economic Risk Assessment Taking Into Account the Volume Oscillator Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Mihaela LAPADUSI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic risk can be assessed from many points of view, but generally speaking it means the firm's inability to match workload with cost structure. Expansion of production capacity, adaptation to new technologies, diversification of products are only a few factors influencing risk. These, along with financial risk and bankruptcy risk constitute the most important category of risk which presents a great interest for the banks, shareholders, managers, business partners, etc. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of tje oscillation of your company's activity from the point of view of economic risk. The main objective of this research lies in economic risk assessment by means of the margin of safety, the safety index and critical time point.

  13. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J F

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary mate...

  14. In situ fluidization for peat bed rupture, and preliminary economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, R K; Khalili, N

    2002-11-01

    This study concerns in situ fluidization (ISF), a new remediation method with potential application to the remediation of NAPL and heavy metal contaminants, by their release from the fluidized zone generated by a water jet. The present study examines the effect of ISF on layers of peat, of significance owing to its role as an important NAPL and metal contaminant trap. Once trapped, such contaminants are not readily accessible by most remedial methods, due to the low permeability and diffusivity of the peat. A simple tank experiment is used to demonstrate rupture of a peat layer by ISF, with removal of the peat as elutriated fines and segregated peat chunks. The application of ISF in the field is then examined by three field trials in uncontaminated sands, in both saturated and unsaturated conditions. Fluidized depths of up to 1.9 m in the saturated zone (with refusal on a peat layer) and 2.5 m in the unsaturated zone (no refusal) were attained, using a 1.9-m-long, 50 mm diameter jet operated at 5-13 1 s(-1). Pulses of dark turbidity and shell fragments in the effluent indicated the rupture of peat and shelly layers. The experiments demonstrate the hydraulic viability of ISF in the field, and its ability to remove peat-based contaminants. The issues of appropriate jet design and water generation during ISF are discussed, followed by a preliminary economic analysis of ISF relative to existing remediation methods.

  15. Economic evaluation of influenza vaccination : Assessment for The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Bos, Jasper M.; Van Gennep, Mark; Jager, Johannes C.; Baltussen, Rob; Sprenger, Marc J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the costs associated with influenza and the cost effectiveness (net costs per life-year gained) of influenza vaccination in The Netherlands. Design and setting: The economic evaluation comprised a cost-of-illness assessment and a cost- effectiv

  16. Economic assessment of Q fever in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Prins, J.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the economic impact of controlling the Q fever epidemic in 2007-2011 in the Netherlands is assessed. Whereas most of the long-term benefits of the implemented control programme stem from reduced disease burden and human health costs, the majority of short-term intervention costs were i

  17. Economic assessment of Q fever in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Prins, J.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the economic impact of controlling the Q fever epidemic in 2007-2011 in the Netherlands is assessed. Whereas most of the long-term benefits of the implemented control programme stem from reduced disease burden and human health costs, the majority of short-term intervention costs were

  18. Assessing the benefits and economic values of trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental, economic, and social/community benefits of nature, in particular trees and forests, can lead to better vegetation management and designs to optimize environmental quality and human health for current and future generations. Computer models have been developed to assess forest composition and its associated effects on environmental...

  19. 76 FR 63628 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... [Docket ID FEMA-2011-0022] Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327... Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR). DATES: Comments must be... . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Please note that this proposed manual is not...

  20. A Model for Assessing the Gender Aspect in Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Rakauskienė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to develop a conceptual model for assessing the impact of the gender aspect on economic policy at macro– and microeconomic levels. The research methodology is based on analysing scientific approaches to the gender aspect in economics and gender–responsive budgeting as well as determining the impact of the gender aspect on GDP, foreign trade, the state budget and the labour market. First, the major findings encompass the main idea of a conceptual model proposing that a socio–economic picture of society can be accepted as completed only when, alongside public and private sectors, includes the care/reproductive sector that is dominated by women and creating added value in the form of educated human resources; second, macroeconomics is not neutral in terms of gender equality. Gender asymmetry is manifested not only at the level of microeconomics (labour market and business but also at the level of macroeconomics (GDP, the state budget and foreign trade, which has a negative impact on economic growth and state budget revenues. In this regard, economic decisions, according to the principles of gender equality and in order to achieve gender equality in economics, must be made, as the gender aspect has to be also implemented at the macroeconomic level.

  1. EPA Releases the First of Four Preliminary Risk Assessments for Insecticides Potentially Harmful to Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON-- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a preliminary pollinator risk assessment for the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, which shows a threat to some pollinators. EPA's assessment, prepared in collaboration wit

  2. Economic risk assessment of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present an innovative framework for an economic risk analysis of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture. It consists on the integration of three components: stochastic time series modelling for prediction of inflows and future reservoir storages at the beginning of the irrigation season; statistical regression for the evaluation of water deliveries based on projected inflows and storages; and econometric modelling for economic assessment of the production value of agriculture based on irrigation water deliveries and crop prices. Therefore, the effect of the price volatility can be isolated from the losses due to water scarcity in the assessment of the drought impacts. Monte Carlo simulations are applied to generate probability functions of inflows, which are translated into probabilities of storages, deliveries, and finally, production value of agriculture. The framework also allows the assessment of the value of mitigation measures as reduction of economic losses during droughts. The approach was applied to the Jucar river basin, a complex system affected by multiannual severe droughts, with irrigated agriculture as the main consumptive demand. Probability distributions of deliveries and production value were obtained for each irrigation season. In the majority of the irrigation districts, drought causes a significant economic impact. The increase of crop prices can partially offset the losses from the reduction of production due to water scarcity in some districts. Emergency wells contribute to mitigating the droughts' impacts on the Jucar river system.

  3. Economic assessment of the construction industry: A construction-economics nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Herbert Marion, Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an economic assessment of the construction industry. More specifically, this study addresses ambiguities within the literature that are associated with the construction-economics nexus. The researcher 1) investigated the relationships between economic indicators and stock prices of U.S. construction equipment manufacturers, 2) investigated the relationships between energy production, consumption, and corruption, and 3) determined the economic effect electricity generation and electricity consumption has on economies of scale. The researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics in this study and determined that economists, researchers, policy-makers, and others should have predicted the 2007-08 world economic collapse 5-6 years prior to realization of the event given that construction indices and GDP grossly regressed from statistically acceptable trends as early as 2002 and perhaps 2000. Substantiating this claim, the effect of the cost of construction materials and labor, i.e. construction index, on GDP was significant for years leading up to the collapse (1970-2007). Additionally, it was determined that energy production and consumption are predictors of governmental corruption in some countries. In the Republic of Botswana, for example, the researcher determined that energy production and consumption statistically jointly effected governmental corruption. In addition to determining statistical effect, a model for predicting governmental corruption was developed based on energy production and consumption volumes. Also, the researcher found that electricity generation in the 25 largest world economies had a statistically significant effect on GDP. Electricity consumption also had an effect on GDP, as well, but not on other economic indicators. More importantly than the quantitative findings, the researcher concluded that the construction-economics nexus is far more complex than most policy-makers realize. As such

  4. Assessment and insurance risk of foreign economic activity: accounting aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Susyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on research approaches to risk positioning grounded classification of risks arising in foreign trade activity. Deals with issues of assessment and insurance risks expediency display your losses from them. To reduce the negative impact of risks the theoretical foundations of security and practical advice with his reflection in the system of accounts. Grounded algorithm to select the most suitable method of risk assessment and constructed flowchart automation choice method for assessing the risk of foreign trade. The expediency of development of self-insurance risks of foreign economic activity.

  5. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  6. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  7. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Thacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  8. Preliminary Assessment of the Interfacial Source Terms in SPACE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sun Won; Kim, Jeong Woo; Kim, Su Hyong; Kim, Kyung Du [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The development program for a nuclear reactor safety analysis code which will be used by utility bodies has been launched supported by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy. The code, named as SPACE, has been designed to solve the multi-dimensional 3-field 2 phase equations. The target power plant type is restricted to PWR's and does not include advanced reactor types, like gas cooled or liquid metal reactors. KAERI, KOPEC, KNF, KEPRI and KHNP are participated in the development project. KAERI has been assigned to develop the physical models and correlations which are required as the closure relationships. The assigned work can be divided into four parts, i.e, (i) the flow regime determination, (ii) the wall heat transfer, (iii) the wall and interfacial friction, and (iv) the interfacial heat and mass transfer. The interfacial heat and mass transfer correlations used in RELAP5, TRAC-M, CATHARE, etc. are reviewed with respect to the simplicity and the range of validity. The recent suggestions are also reviewed. The intellectual property ownerships are proved before an adaptation to the development of the SPACE code. The selected models and correlations are already represented by reference. This paper shows the preliminary assessment results obtained by using the SPACE code.

  9. Wind power in Eritrea, Africa: A preliminary resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, K.; Rosen, K. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States); Van Buskirk, R. [Dept. of Energy, Eritrea (Ethiopia)

    1997-12-31

    The authors preliminary assessment of Eritrean wind energy potential identified two promising regions: (1) the southeastern Red Sea coast and (2) the mountain passes that channel winds between the coastal lowlands and the interior highlands. The coastal site, near the port city of Aseb, has an exceptionally good resource, with estimated average annual wind speeds at 10-m height above 9 m/s at the airport and 7 m/s in the port. Furthermore, the southern 200 km of coastline has offshore WS{sub aa} > 6 m/s. This area has strong potential for development, having a local 20 MW grid and unmet demand for the fishing industry and development. Although the highland sites contain only marginal wind resources ({approximately} 5 m/s), they warrant further investigation because of their proximity to the capital city, Asmera, which has the largest unmet demand and a larger power grid (40 MW with an additional 80 MW planned) to absorb an intermittent source without storage.

  10. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  11. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  12. Assessment of environmental and economic feasibility of Enhanced Landfill Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Vanderreydt, Ive; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the environmental and economic performance of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). Based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, a detailed model is developed and is applied to a case study, i.e. the first ELFM project in Belgium. The environmental and economic analysis is performed in order to study the valorisation of different waste types in the landfill, such as municipal solid waste, industrial waste and total waste. We found that ELFM is promising for the case study landfill as greater environmental benefits are foreseen in several impact categories compared to the landfill's current situation (the 'Do-nothing' scenario). Among the considered processes, the thermal treatment process dominates both the environmental and economic performances of ELFM. Improvements in the electrical efficiency of thermal treatment process, the calorific value of refuse derived fuel and recovery efficiencies of different waste fractions lead the performance of ELFM towards an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible direction. Although the environmental and economic profiles of ELFM will differ from case to case, the results of this analysis can be used as a benchmark for future ELFM projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Rodrigues Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices and 19.77% (market prices of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68% was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%, despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  14. Preliminary biogeochemical assessment of EPICA LGM and Holocene ice samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, S.; Alekhina, I.; Marie, D.; Wagenbach, D.; Raynaud, D.; Petit, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    weak signals were possible to generate which are now under cloning. The signals were hard to reproduce because of rather low volume of samples. More ice volume is needed to get the biosignal stronger and reproducible. Meantime we are adjusting PCR and in addition testing DNA repair-enzyme cocktail in case of DNA damage. As a preliminary conclusion we would like to highlight the following. Both Holocene and LGM ice samples (EDC99 and EDML) are very clean in terms of Ultra low biomass and Ultra low DOC content. The most basal ice of EDC and EDML ice cores could help in assessing microbial biomass and diversity if present under the glacier at the ice-bedrock boundary. * The present-day consortium includes S. Bulat, I. Alekhina, P. Normand, D. Prieur, J-R. Petit and D. Raynaud (France) and E. Willerslev and J.P. Steffensen (Denmark)

  15. An economic assessment of population health risk in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory

  16. Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact.

  17. Socio-economic Scenarios in Climate Assessments (IC11). Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Drunen, M.; Berkhout, F.

    2011-09-15

    It is widely recognised that projections of social and economic futures are circumscribed by irreducible uncertainties and ignorance. A common analytical response is to develop scenarios that map a range of alternative possible outcomes. The application of scenarios in climate assessments in the Netherlands was investigated in this report, focusing on the use of the socio-economic scenarios 'Welvaart en Leefomgeving' (WLO - The Future of the Dutch Built Environment). This research was carried out within the Climate Changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) programme. WLO scenarios have been applied in climate assessment studies. WLO generates figures and data that are useful. Nevertheless we encountered several CcSP projects that did not apply any socio-economic scenarios, whilst this seemed necessary based on their objectives. In general, climate assessments make little sense if socio-economic developments are not taken into account. Interestingly, some of the studies that did apply socio-economic scenarios, picked only one or two of the scenarios generated by WLO. From a theoretical point of view this selective 'shopping' may lead to a tunnel vision, because it is impossible to estimate which scenario is more probable than the others. At the other hand it is often impractical to explore all four scenarios. The time horizon of WLO was in several cases too short for climate assessments. As it is probable that the structure of society has changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www

  18. Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge: A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis, Rev.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A preliminary process model and techno-economic analysis (TEA) was completed for fuel produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sludge waste from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequent biocrude upgrading. The model is adapted from previous work by Jones et al. (2014) for algae HTL, using experimental data generated in fiscal year 2015 (FY15) bench-scale HTL testing of sludge waste streams. Testing was performed on sludge samples received from Metro Vancouver’s Annacis Island WWTP (Vancouver, B.C.) as part of a collaborative project with the Water Environment and Reuse Foundation (WERF). The full set of sludge HTL testing data from this effort will be documented in a separate report to be issued by WERF. This analysis is based on limited testing data and therefore should be considered preliminary. In addition, the testing was conducted with the goal of successful operation, and therefore does not represent an optimized process. Future refinements are necessary to improve the robustness of the model, including a cross-check of modeled biocrude components with the experimental GCMS data and investigation of equipment costs most appropriate at the relatively small scales used here. Environmental sustainability metrics analysis is also needed to understand the broader impact of this technology pathway. The base case scenario for the analysis consists of 10 HTL plants, each processing 100 dry U.S. ton/day (92.4 ton/day on a dry, ash-free basis) of sludge waste and producing 234 barrel per stream day (BPSD) biocrude, feeding into a centralized biocrude upgrading facility that produces 2,020 barrel per standard day of final fuel. This scale was chosen based upon initial wastewater treatment plant data collected by PNNL’s resource assessment team from the EPA’s Clean Watersheds Needs Survey database (EPA 2015a) and a rough estimate of what the potential sludge availability might be within a 100-mile radius. In addition, we received

  19. A GIS based European Hydro Power Atlas: a tool for technical and economical feasibility assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagli, Stefano; Mazzoli, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The service consists of a tool for quick technical and economic feasibility assessment of small hydropower sites, based on topography, hydrology, environmental flows and other constraints such as distance from existing electric grids. The system works in a web-mapping wrap and allows analysis at a scale comparable to common geo-browsing tools (such Google Earth ©), just like e.g. popular JRC's PVGIS for the estimation of photovoltaic potential. The system provides basically two levels of operation: (1) mapping of the hydropower potential at Europe or regional scale, and (2) preliminary assessment of hydropower production at a site specific level. In the first level, a map of the potential production is provided taking into account a predefined length of the diversion of water (derivation channel and penstock) and calculating related Hydraulic jump; the system combines then topographic information together with flow duration curve information for the whole European/regional stream network and operative hypothesis on maximum derivable flow and other relevant derivation parameters. In the second level user defines in detail project parameters (amount of withdrawal, length of derivation, distance from connection grid, type of turbine, local feed in tariff) and the system evaluates preliminary feasibility check (size of the plat, maximum allowed investment for a fixed for a payback time). Interface via Google Map/Earth © or similar geo-browsing tools will be provided. This tool is expected to play a role in promoting investment in pico-to micro-hydropower plants by making preliminary feasibility assessment much quicker and affordable, and providing reliable estimation of potential available resource, which may be a critical aspect in the development of small plants and for site scouting activity The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under Grant Agreement No. 603587 (SWITCH-ON).

  20. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs.

  2. Preliminary assessment of potential CDM early start projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.; Lehman, B.; Schumacher, K.; van Vliet, O.; Moreira, J.R.

    2000-11-01

    The Brazil/US Aspen Global Forum on Climate Change Policies and Programs has facilitated a dialogue between key Brazil and US public and private sector leaders on the subject of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). With support from the US government, a cooperative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo conducted an assessment of a number of projects put forth by Brazilian sponsors. Initially, we gathered information and conducted a screening assessment for ten projects in the energy sector and six projects in the forestry sector. Some of the projects appeared to offer greater potential to be attractive for CDM, or had better information available. We then conducted a more detailed assessment of 12 of these projects, and two other projects that were submitted after the initial screening. An important goal was to assess the potential impact of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) on the financial performance of projects. With the exception of the two forestry-based fuel displacement projects, the impact of CERs on the internal rate of return (IRR) is fairly small. This is true for both the projects that displace grid electricity and those that displace local (diesel-based) electricity production. The relative effect of CERs is greater for projects whose IRR without CERs is low. CERs have a substantial effect on the IRR of the two short-rotation forestry energy substitution projects. One reason is that the biofuel displaces coke and oil, both of which are carbon-intensive. Another factor is that the product of these projects (charcoal and woodfuel, respectively) is relatively low value, so the revenue from carbon credits has a strong relative impact. CERs also have a substantial effect on the NPV of the carbon sequestration projects. Financial and other barriers pose a challenge for implementation of most of the projects. In most cases, the sponsor lacks sufficient capital, and loans are available only at high interest

  3. Preliminary Assessment for Abnormal Amphibians on National Wildlife Refuges in the Southeast Region FY 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary screening assessments for abnormal amphibians were initiated on national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in the southeast region in 2000, with additional refuges...

  4. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS). Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A summary of the preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of a SPS is given. Microwave health and ecological effects, other effects on health and the environment, effects on the atmosphere, and effects on communications systems are summarized. (WHK)

  5. GIS-based preliminary wind-hydrogen energy assessment: A case study for Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain Siyal, Shahid; Hopper, Miles; Lefvert, Adrian; Mentis, Dimitris; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Lopez De Briñas Gorosabel, Oier; Varela González, Cristina; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    While the world is making progress on incorporating renewables in the electricity grid, the transport sector is still widely locked into using gasoline and diesel fuels. Simultaneously, wind energy is encountering resistance due to its intermittent nature. Wind to hydrogen energy conversion poses a solution to this problem, using wind powered electrolysis to produce hydrogen which can fuel the transport sector. In this report a preliminary assessment for wind to hydrogen energy conversion potential of Pakistan was made considering two different turbines; Vestas V82 and V112. Using available wind speed data, processed in ArcGIS, the hydrogen potential was calculated. Finally, the economic feasibility and potential environmental savings were assessed. From the results it was concluded that Pakistan has a good potential for wind to hydrogen conversion, with 63,807 and 80,232 ktons of hydrogen per year from the V82 and V112 turbines. This corresponds to 2,105 and 2,647 TWh of energy per year respectively. Only using 2% of that potential could give emissions savings of up to 11.43 and 14.37 MtCO2-eq, which would give good reason for more in-depth studies to evaluate the feasibility of a project in Pakistan.

  6. Ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, M.Aa.; Rich, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge conducted ten years after the opening in July 2000. The study applies historical micro data to re construct the travel pattern with no bridge in place and compare this to the current situation. To complete the socio.......2.A main advantage of analysing infrastructure ex post is the ability to learn and understand behavioural and methodological elements not foreseen at the ex ante stages. Following this we offer an extended discussion including two parts. Firstly we compare the ex ante predictions for the bridge...

  7. Economic Assessment of the Use Value of Geospatial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bernknopf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data inform decision makers. An economic model that involves application of spatial and temporal scientific, technical, and economic data in decision making is described. The value of information (VOI contained in geospatial data is the difference between the net benefits (in present value terms of a decision with and without the information. A range of technologies is used to collect and distribute geospatial data. These technical activities are linked to examples that show how the data can be applied in decision making, which is a cultural activity. The economic model for assessing the VOI in geospatial data for decision making is applied to three examples: (1 a retrospective model about environmental regulation of agrochemicals; (2 a prospective model about the impact and mitigation of earthquakes in urban areas; and (3 a prospective model about developing private–public geospatial information for an ecosystem services market. Each example demonstrates the potential value of geospatial information in a decision with uncertain information.

  8. 43 CFR 11.38 - Assessment Plan-preliminary estimate of damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... damages. 11.38 Section 11.38 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Assessment Plan Phase § 11.38 Assessment Plan—preliminary estimate of damages... resources, if the authorized official intends to include compensable value in the damage claim....

  9. Value impact assessment: A preliminary assessment of improvement opportunities at the Quantico Central Heating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary assessment of opportunities for improvement at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This study is part of a program intended to provide the CHP staff with a computerized Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist in a more efficient, reliable, and safe operation of their plant. As part of the effort to provide the AI decision support system, a team of six scientists and engineers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) visited the plant to characterize the conditions and environment of the CHP. This assessment resulted in a list of potential performance improvement opportunities at the CHP. In this report, 12 of these opportunities are discussed and qualitatively analyzed. 70 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Impact Assessment of Public Innovation Support in European Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Vilys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is related to the public innovation support in Euro-pean Economic Area and its effectiveness assessment. Main aim of the re-search presented in this paper is to propose new model for public innovation support effectiveness assessment, which could be relevant to the contempo-rary needs and would be based on new explored practice of public innova-tion support developments. The methods of comparative, regression, model-ling analysis, multi-criteria evaluation, analogy search, logical abstraction and impact evaluation have been applied for the research presented in this paper. Proposed original system of quantitative and qualitative indicators that characterize any public innovation support system (public innovation support index enables creation and implementation of measures devoted to the public innovation support impact improvement at EU and national level.

  11. RICH Economic Games for Networked Relationships and Communities: Development and Preliminary Validation in Yasawa, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental economic games reveal significant population variation in human social behavior. However, most protocols involve anonymous recipients, limiting their validity to fleeting interactions. Understanding human relationship dynamics will require methods with the virtues of economic games that also tap recipient identity-conditioned…

  12. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  13. A LITERATURE REVIEW OF ASSESSMENT AND MENTAL HEALTH, FROM THE BRAZILIAN VIRTUAL LIBRARY IN HEALTH ECONOMICS: RESULTS AND CHALLENGES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Estefania Albert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review of the literature on evaluation of mental health services from BVS ECO, without limited timeline. Design and Methods: A systematic review of texts in Spanish, Portuguese and English. It used certain preliminary criteria for inclusion and exclusion to identify relevant studies, using descriptors: evaluation, mental health evaluation/ assessment. Results: There were 48 articles of which 21 were excluded. The main theme of the publications was the verification of costs versus service complexity, and among the most recent publications, based on the type of treatment of psychological disorders. Conclusions: As a facilitator of research in Health Economics, BVS ECO should allow access to the full text and it is urgently to review the classification and inclusion of publications in the Base about evaluations inquiries. In terms of production, there is a tendency of articles over time, with detailing methodologies and objectives of border between health assessment and health economic evaluation.

  14. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  15. The impact of inclusion criteria in health economic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Anke; Thieda, Patricia; Thaler, Kylie; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2011-05-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore the use of a pilot study to examine the impact of inclusion criteria on cost-effectiveness results and clinical heterogeneity. A health economic assessment was conducted using QRISK®2 and simulation modelling of different population groups within the pilot study in Lower Austria. Patients were referred by their family physicians to 'Active Prevention' (Vorsorge Aktiv), a community-based lifestyle intervention focused on exercise and nutritional programmes. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded before and after the intervention and translated to cardiovascular events. As expected, enforcing restrictive inclusion criteria produced stronger and more irrefutable computations - in the expected number of events, the number of deaths, the incremental cost per life-year saved and in the 95% confidence interval. These findings provide insight into the issues surrounding clinical heterogeneity and the need for restrictive inclusion criteria. This is not a full health economic assessment of the intervention. While inclusion criteria provide stronger results by limiting populations to those who would benefit the most, they must be enforced, both within and outside the clinical trial setting. Enforcement has costs, both monetary and arising from unintended negative consequences of enforcement mechanisms. All these considerations will affect the results realized by the payer organization. A pilot study can reveal whether an intervention may be cost effective 'enough' without restrictive

  16. Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  18. Waste-to-methanol: Process and economics assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Centi, Gabriele; Salladini, Annarita; Palo, Emma; Perathoner, Siglinda; Spadaccini, Luca

    2017-07-01

    The waste-to-methanol (WtM) process and related economics are assessed to evidence that WtM is a valuable solution both from economic, strategic and environmental perspectives. Bio-methanol from Refuse-derived-fuels (RdF) has an estimated cost of production of about 110€/t for a new WtM 300t/d plant. With respect to waste-to-energy (WtE) approach, this solution allows various advantages. In considering the average market cost of methanol and the premium as biofuel, the WtM approach results in a ROI (Return of Investment) of about 29%, e.g. a payback time of about 4years. In a hybrid scheme of integration with an existing methanol plant from natural gas, the cost of production becomes a profit even without considering the cap for bio-methanol production. The WtM process allows to produce methanol with about 40% and 30-35% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions with respect to methanol production from fossil fuels and bio-resources, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An economic evaluation of Columbia River anadromous fish programs: A preliminary study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper evaluates the economics of the Columbia River anadromous fish programs. The paper begins with a description of the Columbia River watershed and discusses...

  20. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  1. Ethical Values and Biological Diversity: A Preliminary Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel I. Cohen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been five major extinction events over geological time. However, the current rate of extinction or reduction of species and their habitats is directly related to anthropomorphic causes. For seventh grade students, biodiversity and its ethical considerations were introduced in a life sciences curriculum, following lessons on evolution, natural selection, and decent from common ancestry. This paper takes a preliminary look at the approach used in this unit, the ethical survey developed, and improvements to be made in subsequent years.

  2. Using VISIR in a Large Undergraduate Course: Preliminary Assessment Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. Alves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of remote labs in undergraduate courses has been reported in literature several times since the mid 90’s. Nevertheless, very few articles present results about the learning gains obtained by students using them, especially with a large number of students, thus suggesting a lack of data concerning their pedagogical effectiveness. This paper addresses such a gap by presenting some preliminary results concerning the use of a remote laboratory, known as VISIR, in a large undergraduate course on Applied Physics, with over 500 students enrolled.

  3. The October 1973 NASA mission model analysis and economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the 1973 NASA Mission Model Analysis. The purpose was to obtain an economic assessment of using the Shuttle to accommodate the payloads and requirements as identified by the NASA Program Offices and the DoD. The 1973 Payload Model represents a baseline candidate set of future payloads which can be used as a reference base for planning purposes. The cost of implementing these payload programs utilizing the capabilities of the shuttle system is analyzed and compared with the cost of conducting the same payload effort using expendable launch vehicles. There is a net benefit of 14.1 billion dollars as a result of using the shuttle during the 12-year period as compared to using an expendable launch vehicle fleet.

  4. Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2000-08-10

    The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas.

  5. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW.

  6. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENTS OF SPATIAL INFLUENCES IN THE AMBOS NOGALES REGION OF THE US-MEXICAN BORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and...

  7. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  8. Economic impact assessment of invasive plant pests in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), phytosanitary measures should be economically justifiable. The economic impact assessments within a

  9. 75 FR 62762 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Assessment of Snapper Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Economic Assessment of Snapper Grouper Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean AGENCY: National Oceanic and... demographic, cultural, economic, and social information about the snapper-grouper fisheries in the...

  10. Preliminary assessment of beam impact consequences on LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Carra, F; Dallocchio, A; Deboy, D; Mariani, N; Rossi, A; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2011-01-01

    The correct functioning of the LHC collimation system is crucial to attain the desired LHC luminosity performance. However, the requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, the robustness of the collimators plays an important role. An accident, which causes the proton beam to hit a collimator, might result in severe beam-induced damage and, in some cases, replacement of the collimator, with consequent downtime for the machine. In this paper, several case studies representing different realistic beam impact scenarios are shown. A preliminary analysis of the thermal response of tertiary collimators to beam impact is presented, from which the most critical cases can be identified. Such work will also help to give an initial insight on the operational constraints of the LHC by taking into account all relevant collimator damage limits.

  11. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.

  12. The genetic and economic effect of preliminary culling in the seedling orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1977-01-01

    The genetic and economic effects of two stages of truncation selection in a white spruce seedling orchard were investigated by computer simulation. Genetic effects were computed by assuming a bivariate distribution of juvenile and mature traits and volume was used as the selection criterion. Seed production was assumed to rise in a linear fashion to maturity and then...

  13. Preliminary assessment report for Kent National Guard Facility (Installation 53065), 24410 Military Road, Kent, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.; Rose, C.M.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard property in Kent, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment.

  14. Links between energy and food markets. A preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvis, H.J.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2010-04-15

    This report addresses the links between energy and food markets, and the long-term trends and large short-term fluctuations they have undergone. The ways in which these markets are related and which feedback mechanisms must be taken into account in scenario analyses were investigated. On the basis of international studies and prognoses, three links connecting energy and food markets were identified. The first link is formed by the common drivers on the demand side, namely demographic and economic developments, the second link is related to the energy costs of agricultural and food production and distribution, and the third link comprises the role of agriculture as a producer of energy.

  15. A Preliminary Assessment of Social Vulnerability in Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Sugata; Islam, Nabiul

    2017-04-01

    The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta has a high population density and is exposed to rapid environmental changes making it one of the most stressed deltas in the world. The low-lying coastal areas of the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta comprise 19 coastal districts of Bangladesh and two districts in India with significant land areas within 5 meters of sea level has a population of more than 50 million people at an average population density of 1100 people/km2. This population is exposed to a range of hazards such as severe cyclones, coastal erosion, and salinization, exacerbated by climate change and subsidence which imply severe stress on the resource dependent community of this region. This situation is further complicated by poverty and limited social well-being such as poor access to education/ health/ drinking water/ sanitation facilities, and lack of food and energy security. Thus assessing social vulnerability can help to understand which communities are susceptible to environmental change and guide adaptation actions to address these threats. This preliminary study aims to construct a socio-economic index by assessing the social vulnerability of coastal communities of GBM Delta taking consistent and common secondary data from the Census of India and the Bangladesh Bureau of Statisticsand applyinga Principle Component Analysis(PCA) methodology. Several statistical tests like Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) have also been used to assess the appropriateness of using PCA. Among the selected common indicators, five major components are found to explain majority of the total variation of social vulnerability across the delta: (1) poverty, (2) dependency ratio, (3) agriculture dependency, (4) lack of sanitation and (5) existence of mud houses. The most important observation is the existence of a social vulnerability gradient across the coast. In other words, socially marginalised and vulnerable communities are found on the Delta margin in both India and

  16. 44 CFR 206.33 - Preliminary damage assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requesting this support. (b) Damage assessment teams. Damage assessment teams will be composed of at least... possible. Other State and Federal agencies, and voluntary relief organizations may also be asked to... official will brief team members on damage criteria, the kind of information to be collected for...

  17. Techno-Economic Assessment of Four CO2 Storage Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruson J.-F.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS should be a key technology in order to achieve a decline in the CO2 emissions intensity of the power sector and other intensive industry, but this potential deployment could be restricted by cost issues as the International Energy Agency (IEA in their last projections (World Energy Outlook 2013 has considered only around 1% of global fossil fuel-fired power plants could be equipped with CCS by 2035. The SiteChar project funded by 7th Framework Programme of European Commission gives the opportunity to evaluate the most influential parameters of techno-economic evaluations of four feasible European projects for CO2 geological storage located onshore and offshore and related to aquifer storage or oil and gas reservoirs, at different stages of characterization. Four potential CO2 storage sites have been assessed in terms of storage costs per tonne of CO2 permanently stored (equivalent cost based. They are located offshore UK, onshore Denmark, offshore Norway and offshore Italy. The four SiteChar techno-economic evaluations confirm it is not possible to derive any meaningful average cost for a CO2 storage site. The results demonstrate that the structure of costs for a project is heterogeneous and the storage cost is consequently site dependent. The strategy of the site development is fundamental, the technical choices such as the timing, rate and duration of injection are also important. The way monitoring is managed, using observation wells and logging has a strong impact on the estimated monitoring costs. Options to lower monitoring costs, such as permanent surveys, exist and should be further investigated. Table 1 below summarizes the cost range in Euro per tonne (Discount Rate (DR at 8% for the different sites, which illustrates the various orders of magnitude due to the specificities of each site. These figures have how to be considered with care. In particular the Italian and Norwegian sites present very specific

  18. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  19. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  20. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A., E-mail: Marilyn.Brown@pubpolicy.gatech.ed [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources-discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint-provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas.

  1. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A. [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  2. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Preliminary Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2011-08-01

    This paper summarizes the potential market for process heat produced by a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), the environmental benefits reduced CO2 emissions will have on these markets, and the typical economics of projects using these applications. It gives examples of HTGR technological applications to industrial processes in the typical co-generation supply of process heat and electricity, the conversion of coal to transportation fuels and chemical process feedstock, and the production of ammonia as a feedstock for the production of ammonia derivatives, including fertilizer. It also demonstrates how uncertainties in capital costs and financial factors affect the economics of HTGR technology by analyzing the use of HTGR technology in the application of HTGR and high temperature steam electrolysis processes to produce hydrogen.

  3. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  4. Preliminary quantitative assessment of earthquake casualties and damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badal, J.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.

    2005-01-01

    of casualties within areas of different intensity is computed using an application developed in a geographic information system (GIS) environment, taking advantage of the possibilities of such a system for the treatment of space-distributed data. The casualty rate, defined as the number of killed people divided...... the local social wealth as a function of the gross domestic product of the country. This last step is performed on the basis of the relationship of the macroseismic intensity to the earthquake economic loss in percentage of the wealth. Such an approach to the human casualty and damage levels is carried out...... for sites near important cities located in a seismically active zone of Spain, thus contributing to an easier taking of decisions in emergency preparedness planning, contemporary earthquake engineering and seismic risk prevention....

  5. Some Nigerian Anti-Tuberculosis Ethnomedicines: A Preliminary Efficacy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, Nneka N.; Nvau, John B.; Oladosu, Peters O.; Usman, Auwal M.; Ibrahim, Kolo; Boshoff, Helena I.; Dowd, Cynthia S.; Orisadipe, Abayomi T.; Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju; Adesomoju, Akinbo A.; Barry, Clifton E.; Okogun, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological significance Nigerian herbalists possess indigenous ethnomedicinal recipes for the management of tuberculosis and related ailments. Aim of the study To carry out a collaborative preliminary modern scientific evaluation of the efficacy of some Nigerian ethnomedicines used by traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) in the management of tuberculosis and related ailments Materials and methods Ethnomedicinal recipes (ETMs) were collected from TMPs from locations in various ecological zones of Nigeria under a collaborative understanding. The aqueous methanolic extracts of the ETMs were screened against Mycobacterium bovis, BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.) strain H37Rv using the broth microdilution method. Results Extracts of ETMs screened against BCG showed 69% activity against the organism. The activities varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 33μg /mL 64% of the extracts were active against M. tb. The activities of the extracts against M.tb. varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 128μg/mL. There was 77% agreement in results obtained using BCG or M. tb. as test organisms Conclusion The results show clear evidence for the efficacy of the majority of indigenous Nigerian herbal recipes in the ethnomedicinal management of tuberculosis and related ailments. BCG may be effectively used, to a great extent, as the organism for screening for potential anti-M. tb. agents. A set of prioritization criteria for the selection of plants for initial further studies for the purpose of antituberculsis drug discovery research is proposed. PMID:24911338

  6. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration with Biochar: A Preliminary Assessment of its Global Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonette, J.; Lehmann, J.; Joseph, S.

    2007-12-01

    , while sequestering 0.5 Gt as biochar. Of the 60.6 Gt/yr of biomass that is fixed in usable form, we estimate that perhaps 10% of it (6.1 Gt/yr) could become available in one form or another (crop and forestry residues, and animal waste) for pyrolysis. This level of pyrolysis would offset 1.8 Gt/yr of fossil C, and sequester 3.0 Gt/yr as biochar, enough to halt the increase and actually decrease the level of atmospheric C by 0.7 Gt/yr. Even at half this level (i.e., 5% of annually fixed biomass), pyrolysis would be sufficient to decrease the global C cycle imbalance by 2.4 Gt/yr and in combination with other sequestration options help to achieve the minimum goal of C neutrality. Clearly, the potential contribution of biochar technology is large, perhaps large enough to mitigate climate change alone. However, this preliminary assessment is tempered by several unknowns. Research is needed to further define the impacts of biochar amendments on soil biota, productivity, and greenhouse gas production. For example, there is some evidence that N2O and CH4 production is decreased by biochar amendments, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. The impact of different types of biochar and pyrolysis conditions also needs to be determined. Lastly, total accounting for greenhouse gas emissions coupled with economic analyses to determine the economic potential of the technology under various scenarios is essential.

  7. Economic and Risk Analyses for SMEs Internationalization Projects. A Preliminary Insight on the Rationale of Business Consulting Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena - Madalina VĂTĂMĂNESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is meant to be a first step towards the investigation of two current issues: the organization’s demand for highly professional services and the business consulting firms’ response as a challenge for the ethic imperatives. The main question raised is whether the national business consulting firms are liable to provide the economic and risk analyses required by the ambitious internationalization projects of small and medium enterprises (SMEs, and if not, what should be the firms’ ethical approach. In this respect, preliminary conclusions were made after testing the deliverables of several business consulting firms which were contracted to elaborate intricate economic and risk analyses of an internationalization project developed by a medium enterprise. The proven level of expertise of the contracted firms did not confirm their claims and assurances that they were fit for the job. This is why the rationale of today’s business consulting firms should be taken into account for further consideration while the exigency for increased savvy should become a priority.

  8. Current process and future path for health economic assessment of pharmaceuticals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products.

  9. Synthesis of N11-anchoring biotinylated artemisinin derivatives and their preliminary biological assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Unique endoperoxide moiety of artemisinin and its derivatives has been considered the functionality exhibiting highly potent antimalarial and anticancer activities.To investigate the mechanisms of their biological actions,development of suitable molecular probes including biotinylated derivatives is of extreme significance.The synthesis and preliminary biological assessment of four new biotinylated artemisinin derivatives have been reported in this work.

  10. Developing an Undergraduate Teaching Assistant Program in Communication: Values, Curriculum, and Preliminary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a case study of a Communication Undergraduate Teaching Assistant (UTA) program and reports a limited, preliminary assessment of the teaching effectiveness of 25 UTAs. Concludes by identifying various benefits and drawbacks of such programs and offers recommendations for departments interested in developing similar programs. (RS)

  11. Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, Ricardo N.; Maulvault, Ana L.; Barbosa, Vera L.; Cunha, Sara; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F.; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Marques, António

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, a-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylp

  12. Multivariate economic performance assessment of an MPC controlled electric arc furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Donghui; Craig, Ian K; Bauer, Margret

    2007-06-01

    Economic performance is very important to advanced process control projects investigating whether the investment of control technology is worthwhile. In this paper economic performance assessment of a simulated electric arc furnace is conducted. The dependence of controlled variables and the corresponding economic impact are highlighted.

  13. Economic costs of Oxford House inpatient treatment and incarceration: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Bradley D; Viola, Judah; Jason, Leonard A; Davis, Margaret I; Ferrari, Joseph R; Rabin-Belyaev, Olga

    2006-01-01

    The Oxford House model for substance abuse recovery has potential economic advantages associated with the low cost of opening up and maintaining the settings. In the present study, annual program costs per person were estimated for Oxford House based on federal loan information and data collected from Oxford House Inc. In addition, annual treatment and incarceration costs were approximated based on participant data prior to Oxford House residence in conjunction with normative costs for these settings. Societal costs associated with the Oxford House program were relatively low, whereas estimated costs associated with inpatient and incarceration history were high. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C;

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  16. Technological Change in Assessing Economics: A Cautionary Welcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Brendan; Considine, John; Flannery, Darragh

    2009-01-01

    The use of computer-based automated assignment systems in economics has expanded significantly in recent years. The most widely used system is Aplia which was developed by Paul Romer in 2000. Aplia is a computer application designed to replace traditional paper-based assignments in economics. The main features of Aplia are: (1) interactive content…

  17. Examining the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure: Four Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Chad E.; Kellum, Karen Kate; Wilson, Kelly G.; Luoma, Jason B.; Weinstein, Jonathan H.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a relatively new measure of implicit cognition that tests cognition as relational behavior instead of an associative activity and thus may provide a more specific measure of cognitive repertoires, including those for social biases, than better known implicit measures such as the Implicit…

  18. BIOCIDES (1) Preliminary environmental risk assessment of 93 biocides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; CSR

    1999-01-01

    A 1999 desk study assesses the environmental risks of 93 industrial or other non-agricultural pesticides. The risks for aquatic ecosystems are emphasised, and various data on use pattern, dosages, emissions, physicochemistry, environmental fate and ecotoxicity are listed. The biocides have not been

  19. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, appro

  20. Technical and economic assessment of solar hybrid repowering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    Drawings are presented for the repowering project described in SAN--1608-4-1. Reeves Sation No. 2 was selected for study for repowering at 50 percent (25 MWe) using the 10-MW solar central receiver pilot plant preliminary design for Barstow, California. (WHK)

  1. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  2. Preliminary geothermal assessment surveys for the State of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.; Cox, M.E.; Lienert, B.R.; Kauahikaua, J.P.; Mattice, M.D.

    1980-09-01

    The Geothermal Resource Assessment Program of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics has conducted a series of geochemical and geophysical surveys in ten separate locations within the State of Hawaii in an effort to identify and assess potential geothermal areas throughout the state. The techniques applied include groundwater chemistry and temperatures, soil mercury surveys, ground radon emanometry, time-domain electromagnetic surveys and Schlumberger resistivity soundings. Although geochemical and geophysical anomalies were identified in nearly all the survey sites, those areas which show most promise, based on presently available data, for a geothermal resource are as follows: Puna, Kailua Kona, and Kawaihae on the island of Hawaii; Haiku-Paia and Olowalu-Ukumehame canyons on Maui; and Lualualei Valley on Oahu. Further surveys are planned for most of these areas in order to further define the nature of the thermal resource present.

  3. Preliminary Options Assessment of Versatile Irradiation Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramazan Sonat [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the work undertaken at INL from April 2016 to January 2017 and aimed at analyzing some options for designing and building a versatile test reactor; the scope of work was agreed upon with DOE-NE. Section 2 presents some results related to KNK II and PRISM Mod A. Section 3 presents some alternatives to the VCTR presented in [ ] as well as a neutronic parametric study to assess the minimum power requirement needed for a 235U metal fueled fast test reactor capable to generate a fast (>100 keV) flux of 4.0 x 1015 n /cm2-s at the test location. Section 4 presents some results regarding a fundamental characteristic of test reactors, namely displacement per atom (dpa) in test samples. Section 5 presents the INL assessment of the ANL fast test reactor design FASTER. Section 6 presents a summary.

  4. Malaysia’s government transformation programme: A preliminary assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Noore Alam Siddiquee

    2014-01-01

    While Malaysia has always seen major reform and modernisation programmes, the Government Transformation Programme (GTP) introduced by the current Prime Minister in 2009 has drawn much attention as a new model of public service reform. Touted as a major innovation in public service reform it is also claimed to have made impressive progress in areas where previous reforms have failed. This paper reviews the experience of the GTP as a reform model and assesses its impacts and policy significance...

  5. Preliminary technology utilization assessment of the robotic fruit harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an analysis whose purpose was to examine the history and progress of mechanical fruit harvesting, to determine the significance of a robotic fruit tree harvester and to assess the available market for such a product are summarized. Background information that can be used in determining the benefit of a proof of principle demonstration is provided. Such a demonstration could be a major step toward the transfer of this NASA technology.

  6. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed satellite power system (SPS) is summarized here. In this system, satellites would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwaves would be converted to electricity. The assessment considers microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and disruption of communications and other electromagnetic systems.

  7. Health Economics of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review and Expert Panel's Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Mark E Beatty; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Donald S Shepard; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville,Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness...

  8. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling

  9. Preliminary assessment of factors influencing riverine fish communities in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (MDCR), Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP), and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game (MDFG), conducted a preliminary investigation of fish communities in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this investigation was to determine relations between fish-community characteristics and anthropogenic alteration, including flow alteration and impervious cover, relative to the effect of physical basin and land-cover (environmental) characteristics. Fish data were obtained for 756 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select a set of fish metrics responsive to flow alteration. Fish metrics tested include two fish-community metrics (fluvial-fish relative abundance and fluvial-fish species richness), and five indicator species metrics (relative abundance of brook trout, blacknose dace, fallfish, white sucker, and redfin pickerel). Streamflows were simulated for each fish-sampling site using the Sustainable Yield Estimator application (SYE). Daily streamflows and the SYE water-use database were used to determine a set of indicators of flow alteration, including percent alteration of August median flow, water-use intensity, and withdrawal and return-flow fraction. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine a set of environmental characteristics, including elevation, basin slope, percent sand and gravel, percent wetland, and percent open water, and a set of anthropogenic-alteration variables, including impervious cover and dam density. Two analytical techniques, quantile regression and generalized linear modeling, were applied to determine the association between fish-response variables and the selected environmental and

  10. Economic assessment of nine geothermal direct use applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, L.C.; Breton, T.R.

    1983-12-01

    This report provides an economic analysis of nine federally-supported geothermal direct heat applications which were part of DOE's Program Opportunity Notice (PON) program. Three of the projects analyzed were user-owned systems, and six were district heating systems. Five of the nine projects are successful from an economic standpoint and the majority of these projects are in areas where geothermal energy has long been used for heating. The results of this analysis indicate that geothermal energy projects can be economic under certain conditions, but these conditions may not be very widespread.

  11. Preliminary statistical assessment towards characterization of biobotic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Tahmid; Meng Yang; Lobaton, Edgar; Bozkurt, Alper

    2016-08-01

    Biobotic research involving neurostimulation of instrumented insects to control their locomotion is finding potential as an alternative solution towards development of centimeter-scale distributed swarm robotics. To improve the reliability of biobotic agents, their control mechanism needs to be precisely characterized. To achieve this goal, this paper presents our initial efforts for statistical assessment of the angular response of roach biobots to the applied bioelectrical stimulus. Subsequent findings can help to understand the effect of each stimulation parameter individually or collectively and eventually reach reliable and consistent biobotic control suitable for real life scenarios.

  12. Preliminary assessment of Eflows on Lucanian Rivers through IHA implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Michele; Martino, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    According to the WFD, the ecological flow (Eflow) is assumed to be the hydrological regime consistent with the achievement of the environmental objectives of "good quality status" in natural surface water bodies. As well known, the hydrological regime of natural flow plays a primary and crucial role influencing the physical conditions of habitats, which in turn determines the biotic composition and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, the simple assumption to supply a minimum instream during dry periods is not enough anymore in order to protect the river environment. The recent hydro-ecological knowledge provides that all flow components must be included as operational targets for water quantitative management from base flows (including low flows) to high and flood regimes in terms of magnitude, frequency, duration, timing and rate of change. Several conceptual and numerical codes have been developed and applied on different case studies in order to define common tools to be implemented for the Eflow assessment. In such a frame, the work deals with the application of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration methodology (IHA by TNC) to main Lucanian rivers to assess the ecological flow to be assumed in each monitoring cross section. The analyses have been carried on monthly discharge data derived through a simple rainfall-runoff applied at the basin scale and based on the precipitation measurements obtained by the regional rainfall gauge stations.

  13. Special Issue on Using Econometrics for Assessing Economic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Two methodological approaches to empirical economics which are labelled ‘theory first' versus ‘reality first' are introduced building the background for the discussion of the individual contributions to this special issue....

  14. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  15. A preliminary assessment of peat degradation in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Anshari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of tropical peats is a global concern due to large Carbon emission and loss of biodiversity. The degradation of tropical peats usually starts when the government clears closed peat forests into open and drained peatlands for agricultural uses. Tropical peats have high values of Water Contents (WC, Organic Matters (OM and Total Organic Carbon (TOC, and low values of Total Nitrogen (TN and Total Sulphur (TS. Dry Bulk Density (DBD is commonly less than 0.1 g cm−3. Decline of concentration values of OM (<90% and TOC (<40% indicate peat degradation. In disturbed peats, TN concentration tends to decrease and the concentration of TS slightly increases. Changes in OM, TOC, TN and TS are potentially important indicators for assessing peat degradation in the tropics.

  16. Personality assessment and feedback (PAF): strategies and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats; Pedersen, Mads Kjær

    2008-01-01

    anxiety or depression, drug and alcohol dependence, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and current level of functioning. The axis II disorder includes a semi-structured interview for personality disorders. Outcomes include global functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), substance use......, and antisocial personality disorder is particularly common. However, clinical strategies must vary strongly across disorders. Objectives: To test the clinical effectiveness of a full personality disorder assessment and individual feedback to patient and caseworker, against screening for axis I disorders alone......Background: Co-morbid personality disorders are common in substance dependent patients, and personality disorders are associated with worse clinical outcomes, worse retention and compliance, and alliance problems. The whole range of personality disorders is present in substance dependent patients...

  17. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  18. Preliminary assessment of soil erosion impact during forest restoration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Sheng; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan has a fragile geology and steep terrain. The 921 earthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Morakot, and the exploitation and use of the woodland by local residents have severely damaged the landscape and posed more severe challenges to the montane ecosystem. A land conservation project has been implemented by the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University which reclaimed approximately 1,500 hectares of leased woodland from 2008 to 2010, primarily used to grow bamboo, tea trees, betel nut, fruit, and vegetable and about 1,298 hectares have been reforested. The process of forest restoration involves clear cutting, soil preparation and a six-year weeding and tending period which may affect the amount of soil erosion dramatically. This study tried to assess the impact of forest restoration from the perspective of soil erosion through leased-land recovery periods and would like to benefit the practical implementation of reforestation in the future. A new plantation reforested in the early 2013 and a nearby 29-year-old mature forest were chosen as experimental and comparison sites. A self-designed weir was set up in a small watershed of each site for the runoff and sediment yield observation. According to the observed results from May to August 2013, a raining season in Taiwan, the runoff and erosion would not as high as we expected, because the in-situ soil texture of both sites is sandy loam to sandy with high percentage of coarse fragment which increased the infiltration. There were around 200 kg to 250 kg of wet sand/soil yielded in mature forest during the hit of Typhoon Soulik while the rest of the time only suspended material be yielded at both sites. To further investigate the influence of the six-year weeding and tending period, long term observations are needed for a more completed assessment of soil erosion impact.

  19. Land grabbing: a preliminary quantification of economic impacts on rural livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle F; D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Global demands on agricultural land are increasing due to population growth, dietary changes and the use of biofuels. Their effect on food security is to reduce humans' ability to cope with the uncertainties of global climate change. In light of the 2008 food crisis, to secure reliable future access to sufficient agricultural land, many nations and corporations have begun purchasing large tracts of land in the global South, a phenomenon deemed "land grabbing" by popular media. Because land investors frequently export crops without providing adequate employment, this represents an effective income loss for local communities. We study 28 countries targeted by large-scale land acquisitions [comprising 87 % of reported cases and 27 million hectares (ha)] and estimate the effects of such investments on local communities' incomes. We find that this phenomenon can potentially affect the incomes of ~12 million people globally with implications for food security, poverty levels and urbanization. While it is important to note that our study incorporates a number of assumptions and limitations, it provides a much needed initial quantification of the economic impacts of large-scale land acquisitions on rural livelihoods.

  20. A preliminary estimate of the economic impact of the energy amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, R; Rubbia, Carlo; Rubio, Juan Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The basic concept and the applicability of the Energy Amplifier (EA) have been exhaustively described elsewhere (Refs. [1] to [4]). The EA is essentially a source of high quality heat, produced by the nuclear cascades induced by a high intensity proton beam inside an appropriate ³beam dump² arrangement. A fraction of such ³heat² has to be transformed into electricity to run the accelerator, the rest being available for a number of different industrial applications, and in particular commercial electricity production. In this paper the economic aspects are further explored and we attempt a first order estimate of the cost of such an energy source, comparing it critically with more conventional sources. In this task we have been greatly helped by a number of people2) who have specific competence in the industrial aspects of the application. We conclude that in agreement to our previous estimates, the practical cost of high quality heat is about US /GJ, namely and times lower than the one of Coal and Natural...

  1. Preliminary Assessment of the Loss of Flow Accident for PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Andong; Choi, Yong Won; Bae, Moohoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    TRACE code have being considered as a candidate tool for SFR audit calculation for licensing review since 2012. On the basis of modeling and precalculation experience for the Demonstration Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (DSFR-600), TRACE code model for PGSFR was developed this year. In this paper, one of representing Design Base Event (DBE), Loss of Flow (LOF) accident was pre-calculated and Locked Rotor (LR) case was compared with LOF case since it could be a possible limiting case for LOF representing DBE. Sensitivity calculation for the LR case was implemented for identifying major parameters for the scenario. For the preparation of the review of licensing application for PGSFR, TRACE model for the PGSFR was developed and the loss of flow accident was precalculated. The locked pump rotor case was also calculated as a possible bounding case for the loss of flow scenario. Pre-calculation showed that the locked rotor case was similar or worst case to the loss of flow accident. Therefore, the locked rotor case should take into account in design base accident assessment of PGSFR. Sensitivity calculations for the rocked rotor case also studied for identification of unfixed design parameters influencing to estimation of inner surface temperature. Sensitivity result showed that the first temperature peak was largely influenced by reactor trip delay and second peak mostly influenced by pump coast down characteristic.

  2. Malaysia’s government transformation programme: A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noore Alam Siddiquee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While Malaysia has always seen major reform and modernisation programmes, the Government Transformation Programme (GTP introduced by the current Prime Minister in 2009 has drawn much attention as a new model of public service reform. Touted as a major innovation in public service reform it is also claimed to have made impressive progress in areas where previous reforms have failed. This paper reviews the experience of the GTP as a reform model and assesses its impacts and policy significance. Drawing on the findings of in-depth interviews and review of available literature the paper argues that while the GTP is unique in many respects and has already made a promising start, it is not without limitations and controversies. The paper highlights some of the accomplishments of the GTP as well as prevailing criticisms and concerns surrounding it. The paper also identifies the key factors that explain the early success of the GTP and comments on major lessons and policy implications that could be of value to other developing countries with similar circumstances.

  3. A Preliminary Assessment of HTST Processing on Donkey Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Giribaldi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing attention from consumers on non-bovine milk types, and to the increase in the number of small dairy donkey farms in Italy, farmers require more advanced and reliable processing devices, in order to guarantee a safe product of high quality. To this aim, a new small-scale High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST pasteurizer (72 °C for 15 s, prototyped by the authors, was tested on donkey milk. The efficacy of the HTST device was tested on raw donkey milk microflora by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus cereus. The biochemical quality was assessed by determining the protein profile by monodimensional electrophoresis and by measuring lysozyme activity. The HTST apparatus was able to reduce the total bacteria count, and to completely eradicate Enterobacteriaceae. Bacillus cereus, when present, was decreased with low efficiency. Changes in the protein profile were observed in milk pasteurized in accordance with both processes, although HTST seemed to limit casein degradation. Lysozyme activity was not substantially affected in comparison to raw donkey milk. In conclusion, a tailored small-volume HTST device could be safely applied to pasteurize donkey milk in on-farm pasteurization processes on small dairy donkey farms.

  4. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  5. Assessment of Economic Dynamism in the Regions of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Gedminaitė-Raudonė

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Competiveness of regions is one of the most important policies formulating regional policy. The new focus on the specific fea­tures of the region and its competiveness encourages using the regional policy measures reflective of broader conception of the rural countryside. The new rural policy targeting and monitoring needs for typologies taking into account the diversity of rural regions. While creating region typologies for policy goals, it was essential to find new criteria and indicators for the measurement of the rural region’s economic potential. The economic dyna­mism becomes an important indicator of the region’s economic potential proposed by OECD organisation. This paper examines methodology to build a typology of economic dynamism for rural regions of Lithuania relevant for rural policy purposes. The re­search results shows that suggested typology based on economic dynamism, which is measured by the number of employed in all population aged 15–64, at this period is not suitable methodologi­cal tool for classification of rural regions in Lithuania.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Preliminary tsunami hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.

  7. A Preliminary Assessment of Peat Degradation in West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshari, G. Z.

    2010-12-01

    Degradation of tropical peats is a global concern due to large Carbon emission and loss of biodiversity. The degradation of tropical peats usually starts when the government clears closed peat forests into open and drained peatlands for agricultural uses. The purpose of this paper is to assess the change of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Nitrogen (TN) from various peatland uses, and to analyze major factors that direct peat degradation. Data were collected from undrained peat forest, drained and logged peat forest, drained peats from oil palm plantations at different ages (< 5 yrs; 5-10 yrs; and 15-20 yrs), and drained peat for community agriculture. I analyzed a total of 331 subsamples for TOC and TN with elemental analyzer. I classified these data based on peat occurrences (i.e. coastal and inland peats), and peat layers (i.e. acrotelm and catotelm). I used SPSS version 17.0 in data analyses in order to compare means of TOC, TN, and atomic ratio between TOC and TN (Atomic C/N ratio). Results of analysis show that values of TOC are insignificantly different, and values of TN and Atomic C/N ratio are significantly different between coastal and inland peats, and between acrotelm and catotelm. Between land use groups, TOC values have smaller variability than TN values, which shows an increasing trend in drained peats. Hence, Atomic C/N ratio values are significantly lower in drained than undrained peats, comparing between 28.6 and 68.6, respectively. This study presently reckons that drainage is a major factor that enhances the rate of peat decomposition.

  8. An economic evaluation of implant treatment in edentulous patients-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Nicola U; Sendi, Pedram; Marinello, Carlo P

    2005-01-01

    Edentulous patients with denture problems benefit from implant treatment with overdenture prostheses. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate a method of analyzing cost effectiveness in dentistry. As an example, overdenture treatment with two or four implants was compared to the conventional complete denture (CD). In a self-selected trial, 20 patients each were treated with implant-retained overdentures (two implants, IRET), implant-supported overdentures (four implants, ISUP), or CDs (control group) in the edentulous mandible. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the patient's perspective, with a time horizon of 6 months. Direct health-care costs were calculated in Swiss Francs (in 2000), and effects were defined as improvements in perceived chewing ability compared with the baseline value before treatment (measured on a VAS). Point estimates for mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were complemented with cost-effectiveness acceptability curves to account for uncertainties associated with costs and effects. Mean incremental costs were CHF 4,329 (IRET-CD), CHF 13,360 (ISUP-CD), and CHF 9,031 (ISUP-IRET); these cost differences were all statistically significant. The mean incremental effects at 6 months were 19% (IRET-CD), 23% (ISUP-CD), and 4% (ISUP-IRET). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were CHF 228 (IRET-CD), CHF 581 (ISUP-CD), and CHF 2,258 (IRET-ISUP) per percentage increase in chewing ability. From an economic point of view, IRETs were more attractive than ISUPs. The latter were associated with a statistically significant improvement in perceived chewing ability compared to CDs, but at substantially higher costs.

  9. Global assessment of the economics of land degradation and improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkonya, Ephraim

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation—defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report as the long-term loss of ecosystems services—is a global problem, negatively affecting the livelihoods and food security of billions of people. Intensifying efforts, mobilizing more investments and strengthening the policy commitment for addressing land degradation at the global level needs to be supported by a careful evaluation of the costs and benefits of action versus costs of inaction against land degradation. Consistent with the definition of land degradation, we adopt the Total Economic Value (TEV) approach to determine the costs of land degradation and use remote sensing data and global statistical databases in our analysis. The results show that the annual costs of land degradation due to land use and land cover change (LUCC) are about US231 billion per year or about 0.41 % of the global GDP of US56.49 trillion in 2007. Contrary to past global land degradation assessment studies, land degradation is severe in both tropical and temperate countries. However, the losses from LUCC are especially high in Sub-Saharan Africa, which accounts for 26 % of the total global costs of land degradation due to LUCC. However, the local tangible losses (mainly provisioning services) account only for 46 % of the total cost of land degradation and the rest of the cost is due to the losses of ecosystem services (ES) accruable largely to beneficiaries other than the local land users. These external ES losses include carbon sequestration, biodiversity, genetic information and cultural services. This implies that the global community bears the largest cost of land degradation, which suggests that efforts to address land degradation should be done bearing in mind that the global community,as a whole, incurs larger losses than the local communities experiencing land degradation. The cost of soil fertility mining due to using land degrading management practices on maize, rice and wheat is estimated to be

  10. Economic Assessment of Rising Global Demand for Farmland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    Due to factors such as population growth and changing diets in the developing world as well as increasing demand for bioenergy in the developed world, the demand for agricultural land is on the rise. Since land is more or less fixed, this implies increasing value of land. The effect of increasing...... incomes, with poverty reductions and general economic development as the ultimate outcome. On the other hand it could also induce a neo-colonial scramble for land, where politically and economically powerful actors appropriate land at the expense of rural populations, whose livelihoods depend on this land...... increasing land values will mainly benefit the rural populations or the political-economic elites. In addition, it takes into account the deeper determinants of the extent to which farmers are able to obtain political power, and thereby claim their rights to a share of the benefits from increased value...

  11. Quality assessment of economic analyses in pediatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorowski, Paul J; Routh, Jonathan C; Nelson, Caleb P

    2013-02-01

    To describe and evaluate economic analyses or economic evaluations in pediatric urologic literature, including study types such as cost-effectiveness analysis, which are increasingly common in the medical literature. We performed a systematic literature review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (1990-2011) to identify economic analyses of pediatric urologic topics. Studies were evaluated using published quality metrics. We examined the analysis type, data sources, perspective, methodology, sensitivity analyses, and the reporting of methods, results, limitations, and conclusions. We identified 2945 nonduplicated studies, 60 of which met inclusion criteria. Economic analyses of pediatric urologic topics increased in number during the study period, from 1 study (2%) in 1990 to 7 (12%) in 2010 (P pediatric urologic literature, there is a need for standardization in methods and reporting. Future investigations should attempt to follow standardized reporting guidelines and should pay particular attention to reporting of methods and results, including a comprehensive discussion of limitations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activity-Based Costing Model for Assessing Economic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHayes, Daniel W.; Lovrinic, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    An economic model for evaluating the cost performance of academic and administrative programs in higher education is described. Examples from its application at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis are used to illustrate how the model has been used to control costs and reengineer processes. (Author/MSE)

  13. Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  14. Fukushima. A preliminary assessment in July 2011; Fukushima. Eine vorlaeufige Bilanz im Juli 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Rolf

    2011-07-01

    Four months after the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi a preliminary assessment of the accident sequence vents is performed based on the available incomplete information. The following topics are discussed: initiating events and accident sequences, radioactive materials release and dispersion, fundamentals on radiation exposure following the accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi, contamination of food stuff, fission product release into the Pacific Ocean, source tern and external radiation exposure in the first year, preliminary radiological assessment, radiological situation throughout the different accident phases (radioactive cloud and fallout, late phase), estimation of radiation exposure in the first year due to decay of short-lived radionuclides based on the state end of July 2011, comparison of the reactor accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi.

  15. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field.

  16. Paving the Way for Warehouse Centralization in Healthcare: A Preliminary Assessment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grimaldi, Sabrina; Cagliano, Anna Corinna; Rafele, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Centralized logistics management is currently one interesting option for healthcare systems facing an increasing need to improve responsiveness and service quality while reducing costs. This work focuses on one aspect of centralized logistics, namely warehouse centralization and proposes a preliminary approach to assess material management in healthcare institutions as a first step towards decisions about the implementation of such a strategy. A list of variables and relationships between the...

  17. A Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Garel M., J.-M. Cugnasse, A. Loison, J.-M. Gaillard, C. Vuiton, and D.Maillard. 2005. Monitoring the abundance of mouflon in south France. European ...of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  18. Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation: Tooele Army Depot, Utah. Volume 2. South Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-29

    Classification) Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation, Toefle Army Depot., Utah; Volume ’fl-South Area Q2 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Andris Lapins CPG, Li 3a...Regulations CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act CES Civil Engineering Squadron CGW Chemistry Groundwater File CRL...area around s rEAD . 2-12 Low humidity is a characteristic of the valley climate and visibility is generally good. During winter months, however, storm

  19. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G. W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...

  20. Assessing Internet addiction using the parsimonious Internet addiction components model - a preliminary study [forthcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Shorter, GW; Van Rooij, AJ; Griffiths, MD; Schoenmakers, T.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (2005), i...

  1. Preliminary Safeguards Assessment for the Pebble-Bed Fluoride High-Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR) Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disser, Jay; Arthur, Edward; Lambert, Janine

    2016-09-01

    This report examines a preliminary design for a pebble bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (PB-FHR) concept, assessing it from an international safeguards perspective. Safeguards features are defined, in a preliminary fashion, and suggestions are made for addressing further nuclear materials accountancy needs.

  2. Health Economics of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review and Expert Panel's Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Mark E.; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Shepard, Donald S.; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  3. The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-27

    through open market operations . In addition, the backlog of uncleared checks caused “float” or Federal Reserve credit to the financial system to rise. On... market operations , and float, see Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 2001 Annual Report, pp. 14-16. At first, analysts feared that the direct effect on...September 11. FRBSF Economic Letter. Number 2001-35. December 7, 2001. For a distribution of the sources of the credit across the discount window, open

  4. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Carlini; Sonia Castellucci; Silvia Cocchi; Elena Allegrini; Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with th...

  5. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with the economic feasibility of biomass boiler plants with specific regard to an existing residential building. An Italian case study is further investigated, focusing the attention on European and national regulations on energy efficiency and considering the recent public incentives and supporting measures. The main thermoclimatic parameters—that is, heating degree days (HDDs, building thermal insulation and thermal needs—are taken into account. Moreover, the following economic indicators are calculated: cumulative cash flow, discounted cumulative cash flow, payback period (PP, net present value (NPV, Internal rate of return (IRR, discounted payback period (DPP, and profit index (PI.

  6. Assessment of eco-environmental quality of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Shi, Longyu

    2016-05-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the key and foundation to the sustainable socio-economic development of a region. Eco-environmental quality assessment can reveal the capacity of sustainable socio-economic development in a region and the degree of coordination between social production and the living environment. As part of a new development strategy for Fujian Province, the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone) provides an important guarantee for the development of China's southeastern coastal area. Based on ecological and remote sensing data on the Economic Zone obtained in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this study investigated county-level administrative regions with a comprehensive index of eco-environmental indicators. An objective weighting method was used to determine the importance of each indicator. This led to the development of an indicator system to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone. ArcGIS software was used to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone based on each indicator. The eco-environmental quality index (EQI) of the county-level administrative regions was calculated. The overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone during the period studied is described and analyzed. The results show that the overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone is satisfactory, but significant intraregional differences still exist. The key to improving the overall eco-environmental quality of this area is to restore vegetation and preserve biodiversity.

  7. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  8. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  9. An Ecological and Economic Assessment Methodology for Coastal Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Ana M.

    2009-07-01

    An adaptation of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response methodology is presented in this work. The differential DPSIR (ΔDPSIR) was developed to evaluate impacts on the coastal environment and as a tool for integrated ecosystem management. The aim of the ΔDPSIR is to provide scientifically-based information required by managers and decision-makers to evaluate previously adopted policies, as well as future response scenarios. The innovation of the present approach is to provide an explicit link between ecological and economic information related to the use and management of a coastal ecosystem within a specific timeframe. The application of ΔDPSIR is illustrated through an analysis of developments in a Southwest European coastal lagoon between 1985 and 1995. The value of economic activities dependent on the lagoon suffered a significant reduction (ca. -60%) over that period, mainly due to a decrease in bivalve production. During that decade the pressures from the catchment area were managed (ca. 176 million Euros), mainly through the building of waste water treatment plants. Notwithstanding this, the ecosystem state worsened with respect to abnormal clam mortalities due to a parasite infection and to benthic eutrophication symptoms in specific problematic areas. The negative economic impacts during the decade were estimated between -565 and -315 million Euros, of which 9-49% represent the cost of environmental externalities. Evaluation of these past events indicates that future management actions should focus on reducing the limitation on local clam seeds, which should result in positive impacts to both the local socio-economy and biodiversity.

  10. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz 2) space reactor program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A. C.

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 2 space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz 2 activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as the following: neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz 2 system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  11. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF DIRECT SALES IN SICILIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many farmers today adopt direct sales as an entrepreneurial strategy in order to achieve a competitive advantage. The aim of this study has been to analyze the role that direct sales play in Sicilian farms and how the short food supply chain is able to valorize the endogenous resources of rural areas and increase the net income of farmer. Our results showed that direct sales, in conjunction with conventional sales, can represent a growing opportunity for farmers and lead to an improvement in the economic performances of agricultural businesses, an increase in farm investments and the creation of new job opportunities.

  12. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  13. Technical Report on Acidification, Eutrophication and Tropospheric Ozone in Europe: an integrated economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofala J; Heyes C; Klimont Z; Amann M; Pearce DW; Howarth A; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  14. Technical Report on Soil Degradation in Europe: an integrated economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Born G van den; Haan BJ de; Pearce DW; Howarth A; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  15. Technical Report on Water Quantity and Quality in Europe: an integrated economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan BJ de; Beusen A; Sedee C; Pearce DW; Howarth A; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  16. Technical Report on Waste Management in Europe: an integrated economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan BJ de; Sedee C; Jantzen J; Pearce DW; Howarth A; LAE

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  17. Technical Report on Biodiversity in Europe: an integrated economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink BJE ten; Vliet AJH van; Heunks C; Haan BJ de; Pearce DW; Howarth A; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  18. Technical Report on Climate Change in Europe: an integrated economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strengers BJ; Capros P; Mantzos L; Pearce DW; Howarth A; Sedee C; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  19. Technical Report on Stratospheric Ozone Depletion in Europe: an integrated economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; Slaper H; Pearce DW; Howarth A; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  20. Integrated regional modeling assessment of the environmental and economic potential of perennial grass bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Khanna, M.; Dwivedi, P.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S.; Wang, W.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial grasses have been proposed as viable bioenergy crops because of their potential to yield harvestable biomass on marginal lands without displacing food and contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction by storing carbon in soil. Switchgrass, miscanthus, and restored native prairie are among the crops being considered in the corn and agricultural regions of the eastern United States. In this study, we used an extensive dataset of site observations for each of these crops to evaluate and improve a combined ecosystem and economic modeling framework about how both yield and GHG fluxes would respond to different land use strategies. Using this model-data integration approach, we found 30-75% improvement in our predictions over previous studies and good model-data agreement of harvested yields and soil carbon stocks (r2 > 0.62 for all crops). We found that growing perennial grasses would result in average onsite GHG reductions of 0.5-2.0 Mg CO2e ha-1 yr-1compared to a corn-soy baseline, not including fossil fuel offsets. If grown on marginal lands, average onsite GHG reductions remain significant at 0.3-1.0 Mg CO2e ha-1 yr-1. After conversion to bioenergy and complete life cycle assessment, offsite GHG savings can increase by up to 150%, providing a dry biomass supply of 11-22 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for energy use. Preliminary model results of the abatement cost range between 62- 250 per ton of CO2e abated. While a carbon tax would provide an incentive, we find that it would need to be larger than the abatement cost to induce production of cellulosic biofuels.

  1. Preliminary market assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.T.; Fey, C.L.; Grogan, P.J.; Klein, N.P.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR) system market potential is presented with emphasis on the factors influencing industrial acceptability. Preliminary market potential areas are identified based on the availability of waste heat. Trends in energy use are examined to see the effect they might have on these market potential areas in the future. Focus groups interviews are used to explore important factors in the industrial decision-making process. These important factors are explored quantitatively in a survey of industrial plant engineers. The survey deals with the waste-heat boiler configuration of the FBWHR system. Results indicate market acceptance of the fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler could be quite low.

  2. A preliminary total-system performance assessment for the potential repository site Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Dockerey, H.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    We present a preliminary performance assessment of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A., as a potential site for a radioactive-waste repository. Models and results are discussed for four basic categories of processes and events: groundwater flow and aqueous transport, gas flow and gaseous transport, human intrusion, and basaltic volcanism. Calculated releases of radioactivity to the accessible environment are compared with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requirements. The preliminary results show releases from human intrusion and volcanisms to fall well below the regulatory limits, though not all aspects of those categories have yet been considered. Calculated releases for nominal gaseous transport (of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}) are closest to the limits, indicating that models and data relating to gaseous releases may need to receive higher priority. (author) 15 figs., 33 refs.

  3. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of Intelligent Transport Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUAN Zhicai; WU Jianping; Mike McDonald

    2006-01-01

    A general review of the socio-economic impact of the intelligent transport system (ITS) is presented with a case study to demonstrate the data envelopment analysis method. Cost-benefit analyses are still the dominant method for evaluating ITS and other transport engineering projects, while cost effective analyses and multi-criteria appraisals are widely used to define and prioritize objectives by providing useful information for the most promising policy decisions. Both cost-benefit analyses and a data envelopment analysis method are applied to analyze the socio-economic impact of convoy driving systems. The main findings are that a convoy provides a worthwhile benefit-cost ratio when more than 30% of the traffics in the convoys and the traffic load exceeds 5500 vehicles/h for a three-lane motorway. The results also show that for a fixed percentage of convoys, increased demand will increase the data envelopment analysis method relative efficiency and that the neglect of certain output indicators of an ITS may result in underestimation of the system effects.

  5. Assessing economic reform: insights from intra-industry trade flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Groshek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Measured against its central European neighbors, Ukraine has experienced a less than successful path to the reform and integration of its economy since independence. Corruption has continued at an elevated level and annual output growth has been uneven and anemic. Given its geographic position on the edge of the former Soviet Union and the persistence of domestic political schisms, such feeble results might be expected. This paper examines the development of Ukraine’s intra-industry trade links with EU partners, in light of its established ties to Russia, as a measure and predictor of the strength of its reform efforts. Its progress is measured against that of its immediate western neighbor: Slovakia. The use of intra-industry trade, as an indicator of both demand and supply side constraints, might reveal the degree to which Ukrainian and Slovak economic considerations have compelled the adoption of reforms. A key economic consideration is the preference for reform and enhanced integration with the EU versus the protection of incumbent interests and links with traditional trading partners. An exploration of developments in Slovak and Ukraine intra-industry trade provides an indication of which factor currently dominates.

  6. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  7. Economic assessment of alternatives for glyphosate application in arable farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehlenbeck, Hella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Application and sales of herbicides with glyphosate have strongly increased in Germany during the past 10 years. This has raised a number of questions and discussions concerning glyphosate use. Therefore, this paper identifies and evaluates alternatives with an efficacy almost equivalent to glyphosate for different treatmentareas in terms of economic consequences for farms in comparison to glyphosate use by way of example. With the help of exemplary crop rotations uses in arable farming for winter wheat, winter oilseed rape, winter barley, maize and summer barley were analyzed. Within a “worst case scenario” a complete abandonment of glyphosate applications was assumed. Different tillage systems (plough, no-plough were considered. The only alternatives with an efficacy almost equivalent to glyphosate were mechanical measures. For the analyzed treatment-areas (desiccation, pre-sowing, stubble no approved and efficient chemical alternative could be identified. The economic advantages and disadvantages of substituting glyphosate by mechanical alternatives were strongly depending on the treatment-area, the efficacy concerning yield expectations (in comparison to glyphosate use, the tillage system, the necessity of grain drying as well as further operational factors such as the availability of sufficient field work days and mechanical equipment.

  8. Integrative assessment of hydrological, ecological, and economic systems for water resources management at river basin scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglian LI; Xiusheng YANG; Qiong GAO; Yu LI; Suocheng DONG

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a basin-scale integrative hydrological, ecological, and economic (HEE) modeling system, aimed at evaluating the impact of resources management, especially agricultural water resources management, on the sustainability of regional water resources. The hydrological model in the modeling system was adapted from SWAT, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to simulate the water balance in terms of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and streamflow. An ecologi-cal model was integrated into the hydrological model to compute the ecosystem production of biomass production and yield for different land use types. The economic model estimated the monetary values of crop production and water productivity over irrigated areas. The modeling system was primarily integrated and run on a Windows platform and was able to produce simulation results at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of hydrological response unit (HRU). The modeling system was then calibrated over the period from 1983 to 1991 for the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin, China.Calibration results showed that the efficiencies of the modeling system in simulating monthly streamflow over 5hydrological stations were from 0.54 to 0.68 with an average of 0.64, indicating an acceptable calibration.Preliminary simulation results from 1986 to 1995 revealed that water use in the study region has largely reduced the streamflow in many parts of the area except for that in the riverhead. Spatial distribution of biomass production, and crop yield showed a strong impact of irrigation on agricultural production. Water productivity over irrigated cropland ranged from 1 to 1640 USD/(ha.mm 1), indicat-ing a wide variation of the production conditions within the study region and a great potential in promoting water use efficiency in low water productivity areas. Generally,simulation results from this study indicated that the modeling system was capable of tracking the temporal and spatial

  9. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable renewable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility and sufficient capacity, and greater concern for overgeneration from renewable sources not well matched in time with electric loads. Hydrogen systems have the potential to support the grid in each of these areas. However, limited information is available about the economic competitiveness of hydrogen system configurations. This paper quantifies the value for hydrogen energy storage and demand response systems to participate in select California wholesale electricity markets using 2012 data. For hydrogen systems and conventional storage systems (e.g., pumped hydro, batteries), the yearly revenues from energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets are compared to the yearly cost to establish economic competitiveness. Hydrogen systems can present a positive value proposition for current markets. Three main findings include: (1) For hydrogen systems participating in California electricity markets, producing and selling hydrogen was found to be much more valuable than producing and storing hydrogen to later produce electricity; therefore systems should focus on producing and selling hydrogen and opportunistically providing ancillary services and arbitrage. (2) Tighter integration with electricity markets generates greater revenues (i.e., systems that participate in multiple markets receive the highest revenue). (3) More storage capacity, in excess of what is required to provide diurnal shifting, does not increase competitiveness in current California wholesale energy markets. As more variable renewable generation is installed, the importance of long duration storage may become apparent in the energy price or through additional markets, but currently, there is not a sufficiently large price differential between days to generate enough revenue to offset the cost of additional storage. Future work will involve

  10. Impaired motor unit control in paretic muscle post stroke assessed using surface electromyography: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K; Li, Xiaoyan; Rymer, William Zev; Suresh, Nina L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the possible contribution of disordered control of motor unit (MU) recruitment and firing patterns in muscle weakness post-stroke. A novel surface EMG (sEMG) recording and decomposition system was used to record sEMG signals and extract single MU activities from the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) of two hemiparetic stroke survivors. To characterize MU reorganization, an estimate of the motor unit action potential (MUAP) amplitude was derived using spike triggered averaging of the sEMG signal. The MUs suitable for further analysis were selected using a set of statistical tests that assessed the variability of the morphological characteristics of the MUAPs. Our preliminary results suggest a disrupted orderly recruitment based on MUAP size, a compressed recruitment range, and reduced firing rates evident in the paretic muscle compared with the contralateral muscle of one subject with moderate impairment. In contrast, the MU organization was largely similar bilaterally for the subject with minor impairment. The preliminary results suggest that MU organizational changes with respect to recruitment and rate modulation can contribute to muscle weakness post-stroke. The contrasting results of the two subjects indicate that the degree of MU reorganization may be associated with the degree of the functional impairment, which reveals the differential diagnostic capability of the sEMG decomposition system.

  11. The Assessment Of Geographical Borders In Economic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowska Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The length of common border between two geographical units is frequently used as a basic weight in spatial analysis. The newest methodological propositions such as tests for hierarchical relations (Markowska et. al. 2014; Sokołowski et. al. 2013, regional spatial moving average and new spatial correlation coefficient (Markowska et. al. 2015 are using border lengths. In cited references new methods have been illustrated by analyses for EU NUTS2 regions. It is obvious that borders between regions belonging to different countries have different socio-economic impact than borders between regions lying in the same country. A new simple method for assesment the importance of borders is proposed in the paper. It is based on a chosen macroeconomic variable available at NUTS 2 level (e.g. GDP, infant mortality, Human Development Index. For neighboring regions bigger value is divided by smaller value giving the local importance of the given border. These measures of local border importance can be than average for borders within the same country and for borders for each pair of neighboring countries.

  12. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg(-1) , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  14. An instrument to assess self-statements during public speaking: scale development and preliminary psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, S G; Dibartolo, P M

    2000-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the "Positive Self-Statements" (SSPS-P) and the "Negative Self-Statements" subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument.

  15. Stock assessment of Haliporoides triarthrus (Fam. Solenoceridae) off Mozambique: a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Torstensen, E.; Pacule, H.

    1992-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Haliporoides triarthrus, is an important species in the deep-water shrimp fishery in Mozambique. Total catches are in the range of 1,500 to 2,700 tons, with the pink shrimp accounting for 70-90%. Estimates of growth parameters and of natural mortality are used for a preliminary assessment of the fishery, based on length-structured virtual population analysis and yield-per-recruit analyses. With an arbitrarily chosen terminal fishing mortality F, the results indicate a situati...

  16. An Instrument to Assess Self-Statements During Public Speaking: Scale Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2006-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the “Positive Self-Statements” (SSPS-P) and the “Negative Self-Statements” subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument. PMID:16763666

  17. Preliminary results of mental workload and task engagement assessment using electroencephalogram in a space suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ahmed F; Zony, Abongwa N; de Leon, Pablo; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary results of subject's mental workload and task engagement assessment in an experimental space suit. We have quantified the mental workload and task engagement based on changes in electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG signals were collected from subjects scalp using a commercial wireless EEG device in two experimental conditions - when subjects did not wear space suit (control condition) and when subjects wore space suit. Brain state changes were estimated and compared with the direct responses for different tasks and different conditions. We found that the spacesuit experiment introduced a greater mental workload where subject's stress levels were higher than control experiment.

  18. Spatial Analysis and Safety Assessment of Social and Economic Development of Small and Medium Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Orekhova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the spatial patterns of socio-economic development of small and medium-sized cities in the Volgograd region. We know that small and medium-sized cities as spatial socio-economic systems are not only the support frame of settlement, but the main “engine” of innovative impulses for the surrounding periphery. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the effort to implement a spatial approach to the assessment of the economic security of small and medium-sized cities (SCR. The content of the economic security of cities is determined by two system characteristics of the socio-economic system: economic activity (EA and quality of life (QL of the urban population, or SCR = F (EA; QL. For finding spatial patterns in GIS, great interest is in investigating the environment of each city by calculating the local statistical characteristics of geo-variability which allow assessing trends of spatial variation of the six components of security (human security, technosphere safety, environmental safety, etc., local variations in emissions and their values indicators Ki. The successful solution of these problems is possible with the use of tools of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA in ARCGIS, and in particular, the Voronoy maps. The spatial approach has allowed to perform an integrated assessment of the economic security and to evaluate safety risks in small and medium-sized cities of the Volgograd region with the security system of indicators.

  19. Technical and economic assessment of photovoltaic-driven desalination systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Renne, David; Kazmerski, Lawrence L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Solar desalination systems are approaching technical and cost viability for producing fresh-water, a commodity of equal importance to energy in many arid and coastal regions worldwide. Solar photovoltaics (PV) represent an ideal, clean alternative to fossil fuels, especially for remote communities such as grid-limited villages or isolated islands. These applications for water production in remote areas are the first to be nearing cost-competitiveness due to decreasing PV prices and increasing fossil fuel prices over the last five years. The electricity produced from PV systems for desalination applications can be used for electro-mechanical devices such as pumps or in direct-current (DC) devices. Reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis (ED) desalination units are the most favorable alternatives to be coupled with PV systems. RO usually operates on alternating current (AC) for the pumps, thus requiring a DC/AC inverter. In contrast, electrodialysis uses DC for the electrodes at the cell stack, and hence, it can use the energy supplied from the PV panels with some minor power conditioning. Energy storage is critical and batteries are required for sustained operation. In this paper, we discuss the operational features and system designs of typical PV-RO and PV-ED systems in terms of their suitability and optimization for PV operation. For PV-RO and PV-ED systems, we evaluate their electricity need, capital and operational costs, and fresh-water production costs. We cover ongoing and projected research and development activities, with estimates of their potential economics. We discuss the feasibility of future solar desalination based on expected (or predicted) improvements in technology of the desalination and PV systems. Examples are provided for Middle East and other parts of the World. (author)

  20. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  1. A Study on improvement of environmental assessment system in social, economic, and environmental sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Young Sook; Koo, Doh Wan; Keum, Kee Yong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The environmental assessment system is assessed as a mechanism that can achieve the goal for environmental policy in 21st century. As it can evaluate social and economic feasibility of large-scale development program, this system can achieve a sustainable society by mitigating social conflicts arising from environmental problems. For making the environmental assessment system substantial, this study was implemented by the need of improvement of the system, by analyzing problems of social, economic, and environmental evaluation, which is implemented under the present system. 44 refs., 1 fig., 25 tabs.

  2. Methodological approach for assessing the economic impact of forest fires using MODIS remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Juan Ramón Molina Martínez; Miguel Castillo Soto

    2013-01-01

    Assessing areas affected by forest fires requires comprehensive studies covering a wide range of analyzes. From an economic standpoint, assessing the affected area in monetary terms is crucial. Determining the degree of loss in the value of natural resources, both those of a tangible and intangible nature, enables knowing the residual value remaining after a fire, i.e...

  3. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  4. Environmental-Economic Assessment Of Generation, Flow And Efficiency Of Use Of Production And Consumption Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. G.; Golofastova, N. N.; Galanina, T. V.; Koroleva, T. G.; Mikhailova, Ya S.

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of environmental and economic analysis of industrial and economic activities of an enterprise to assess the generation, flow and efficiency of production and consumption waste. The purpose of research is the analysis and the development of theoretical propositions for the functioning of the system of environmental and economic indicators for the effective management of production and consumption waste in the enterprise. The analysis of the existing systems of environmental and economic indicators taking into consideration the industry characteristics and the types of negative impacts is carried out. The main result of the study is the development of the system of environmental and economic indicators of production and consumption waste, adapted to the modern requirements. The results of the study can be recommended to support the effective management decision-making concerning waste management and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure.

  5. Economic sustainability of small construction enterprises of Ukraine: assessment, tendencies and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byelyenkova Olga Yu.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study of economic sustainability of small construction enterprises of Ukraine on the basis of financial and economic indicators, which characterise financial, production and investment activity of enterprises. Having assessed dynamics of the ratios (liquidity, financial independence, profitability, labour productivity, wages, relation of the level of wages of workers to the average wage by all branches of economy, wear and tear of fixed assets, increase of floating assets and receivables, re-investment ratios and the share of gross capital investments in assets the article identifies factors that negatively influence economic sustainability of both small construction enterprises and the whole construction industry. These factors are unprofitableness of analysed enterprises during a long period, significant reduction of sizes of own capital and fall of investment activity. Prospect of further studies in this direction is identification of macro-economic factors that influence economic sustainability of small construction enterprises.

  6. A Review of Cogent Reflection on the Economic Impact Assessment of Conferences – MICE Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MICE tourism has grown into an important economic sector in many places, and it is quite easy to understand the relevancy of estimating the economic impact of business tourists on the local and regional economies. Several industrial and academic researches has mentioned many methods for economic impact studies (direct, indirect and induced impacts of the conference - MICE tourism related events. Of these, the input-output (I-O model and general equilibrium models (REMI and REM II are widely used for the economic impact assessments. The current paper will review economic impact studies in the c conference - MICE tourism related events and then discusses the issues related to the I-O model and general equilibrium models framework

  7. Continuous Assessment: A Preliminary Study of Student Engagement in the Assessment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin, Edmund; Mageean, Eileen; Llorens, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an objective analysis of student engagement with continuous assessment over a three year period. The results of two groups of students from different stages of a modularised level seven engineering programme were examined. As both groups had taken modules where they studied numerical differentiation, this topic was selected and the corresponding assessment results and attendance of both groups were analysed. Two assessment methods were used to evaluate student engagemen...

  8. Theory of Economic Life Prediction and Reliability Assessment of Aircraft Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chuliang; LIU Kege

    2011-01-01

    The theory of economic life prediction and reliability assessment of aircraft structures has a significant effect on safety of aircraft structures.It is based on the two-stage theory of fatigue process and can guarantee the safety and reliability of structures.According to the fatigue damage process, the fatigue scatter factors of crack initiation stage and crack propagation stage are given respectively.At the same time, mathematical models of fatigue life prediction are presented by utilizing the fatigue scatter factors and full scale test results of aircraft structures.Furthermore, the economic life model is put forward.The model is of significant scientific value for products to provide longer economic life, higher reliability and lower cost.The theory of economic life prediction and reliability assessment of aircraft structures has been successfully applied to determining and extending the structural life for thousands of airplanes.

  9. Analytical Assessment of Financial Ability of Local Budgets to Ensure Socio-Economic Development of Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabushka Lyudmila Borisivna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes conceptual grounds of functioning of local budgets, their role, importance and aim in socio-economic development of the state and its regions. The main task of the study is improvement of theoretical and methodological grounds for assessment of financial capability of local budgets as an instrument of socio-economic development of regions and development of practical recommendations on strategic directions of financial provision of regional development. The proposed model of assessment of ability of a local budget to ensure socio-economic development of a region is based on indicators of the budget potential, financial potential of the population and investment potential of the region. The article justifies importance of re-formation of local budgets as a main component of socio-economic development of territories through application of strategic directions of financial provision of local budgets with absolute, average, low and crisis levels of financial capacity.

  10. Preliminary assessment report for Redmond Army National Guard Facility, Installation 53120, Redmond, Washington. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard (WAARNG) property in Redmond, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Redmond ARNG property, Phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. The environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) supply/storage of hazardous materials, (2) weapons cleaning, (3) the underground storage tanks (USTs), and (4) the use of herbicides. These ESOs are no longer active because of the closure of OMS 10 activities in 1988.

  11. Euler Technology Assessment program for preliminary aircraft design employing SPLITFLOW code with Cartesian unstructured grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Dennis B.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents results from the Euler Technology Assessment program. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Euler computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for use in preliminary aircraft design. Both the accuracy of the predictions and the rapidity of calculations were to be assessed. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Fort Worth Company, using a recently developed in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages for this study, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaptation of the volume grid during the solution convergence to resolve high-gradient flow regions. This proved beneficial in resolving the large vortical structures in the flow for several configurations examined in the present study. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of the configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design analysis, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles of attack. The time required to generate the results from initial surface definition is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.

  12. Preliminary assessment report for Florence Military Reservation, Installation 04080, Florence, Arizona. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Arizona Army National Guard property near Florence, Arizona. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. Florence Military Reservation is a 5,655-acre site located in the southern portion of Arizona, about 65 mi southeast of Phoenix, in the county of Pinal. Florence Military Reservation includes Unit Training Equipment Site (UTES) 1, an artillery firing range, and ammunition storage. The subject of this PA is the UTES. The environmentally significant operations associated with the UTES property are (1) vehicle maintenance and refueling, (2) supply/storage of materials, and (3) the vehicle washrack.

  13. Economic Assessment of FMDv Releases from the National Bio and Agro Defense Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendell, Dustin L.; Marsh, Thomas L.; Coble, Keith H.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Szmania, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease releases from the future National Bio and Agro Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. Using an economic framework that estimates the impacts to agricultural firms and consumers, quantifies costs to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and assesses costs of response to the government, we find the distribution of economic impacts to be very significant. Furthermore, agricultural firms and consumers bear most of the impacts followed by the government and the regional non-agricultural firms. PMID:26114546

  14. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  15. Development and preliminary results of the Financial Incentive Coercion Assessment questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Margaret M; Croft, Jason R; French, Michael T; Dugosh, Karen L; Festinger, David S

    2012-07-01

    Financial incentives are often used in research, yet no measure exists to determine whether they lead to perceptions of coercion in subjects. We present a preliminary evaluation of a recently developed Financial Incentive Coercion Assessment (FICA) questionnaire. FICA measures perceived coercion specifically related to payment for participation in a research study. Two hundred sixty-six subjects were recruited from a large randomized controlled trial; 152 returned for a 6-month follow-up and completed the FICA. Approximately 30% of participants reported the major reason for participating was "for the money," but less than 5% felt that the financial incentives were coercive. FICA results are consistent with levels of perceived coercion using an alternative measure. Initial assessment of responses on the FICA suggests that it may provide a novel approach to measuring perceived coercion from financial incentives in research. Future work will refine the FICA and analyze its psychometric properties.

  16. Preliminary assessments of spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales region of the US-Mexican border

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.A. [ManTech Environmental Technology Inc., P.O. Box 12313, 27709 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mukerjee, S. [US Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, MD-47, 27711 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Monroy, G.J. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 400 West Congress St., Suite 433, 85701 Tucson, AZ (United States); Keene, F.E. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 3033 North Central Ave., 85012 Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2001-08-10

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and particulate matter (PM) species were used from four sites, two on either side of the border. An examination of median levels and principal component analysis indicated the dominance of soil dusts and mobile sources. Pairwise comparisons of sites for VOCs associated with mobile sources revealed statistically significant differences between sites in the central Nogales area vs. the two sites furthest from the border. Particulate lead at Mexican sites was higher and significantly different vs. US sites. Although further analyses are necessary, findings suggest that local and immediate mobile/other anthropogenic and soil dust influences are present throughout Nogales, with particulate lead from leaded motor vehicle exhaust or soldering operations being a possible influence on the Mexican side.

  17. The application of multiloop diagnostics model to assess and improve the economic security of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluzhnikov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author’s research is dedicated to the enhancement of the level of the enterprise economic safety. This task involves developing the concept of an integrated system for early prevention of dangers and threats of business activity, substantiation of procedures for regulating the activities of the enterprise in accordance with the changing external and internal factors. Multiloop diagnostics model is proposed to identify causal relations of management dysfunction. It allows you to receive an adequate assessment of the basic parameters of activity of the enterprise and accurately identify its status. Researching problems of economic safety of the enterprise such diagnostic methods as economic and logical analysis, statistical monitoring and strategic management were applied. There was made a conclusion that a qualitative assessment is a key tool of the level assessment of the enterprise economic safety, its control, and monitoring. It allows you to get reliable information about the real possibilities of the enterprise at different stages of development, to monitor and evaluate the level of economic security, find effective solutions to transition to a higher level of economic safety of the enterprise.

  18. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems.

  19. Geometry optimization of Fresnel-collectors with economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertins, M.; Heinzel, V. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany); Lerchenmueller, H. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, A. [PSE GmbH, Solar Info Center, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Fresnel solar collector is a promising concept to reduce the electricity cost price in solar thermal power plants. The optical performance of a Fresnel collector depends on material properties, on its geometric layout and on the level of optical accuracy that can be obtained. A variety of geometric parameters, e.g. the height of the absorber, the number, size and distance of primary mirrors in.uence the shading and blocking of rays and the amount of rays missing the absorber. To evaluate the in.uence of the parameter variation regarding the electricity cost price and to yield an optimization, the optical performance is assessed with an annual simulation based on hourly weather-data. To permit a consideration of changes in collector cost according to different geometric layouts, cost factors where allocated to geometric parameters. The paper presents the method and the simulation results of the optimization under different boundary conditions and shows how the developed simulation tool can lead to an optimum collector design with respect to cost price of electricity. The sensitivity of the results will be discussed. (orig.)

  20. PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND ULTRASONICS WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, Saravanan; Kuczynska, Agnieszka; Hume, Scott; Mulgundmath, Vinay; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Remias, Joe; Ambedkar, Balraj; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan

    2012-11-01

    The results of the preliminary techno-economic assessment for integrating a process utilizing low-energy solvents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture enabled by a combination of enzymes and ultrasonics with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant are presented. Four cases utilizing the enzyme-activated solvent are compared using different methodologies of regeneration against the DOE/NETL reference MEA case. The results are shown comparing the energy demand for post-combustion CO2 capture and the net higher heating value (HHV) efficiency of the power plant integrated with the post-combustion capture (PCC) plant. A levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) assessment was performed showing the costs of the options presented in the study. The key factors contributing to the reduction of LCOE were identified as enzyme make-up rate and the capability of the ultrasonic regeneration process. The net efficiency of the integrated PC power plant with CO2 capture changes from 24.9% with the reference Case 10 plant to between 24.34% and 29.97% for the vacuum regeneration options considered, and to between 26.63% and 31.41% for the ultrasonic regeneration options. The evaluation also shows the effect of the critical parameters on the LCOE, with the main variable being the initial estimation of enzyme dosing rate. The LCOE ($/MWh) values range from 112.92 to 125.23 for the vacuum regeneration options and from 108.9 to 117.50 for the ultrasonic regeneration cases considered in comparison to 119.6 for the reference Case 10. A sensitivity analysis of the effect of critical parameters on the LCOE was also performed. The results from the preliminary techno-economic assessment show that the proposed technology can be investigated further with a view to being a viable alternative to conventional CO2 scrubbing technologies.

  1. Rapid regional-scale assessments of socio-economic vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin F.; Lieske, Scott N.; Keys, Noni; Smith, Timothy F.

    2016-03-01

    Assessing socio-economic vulnerability to climate change impacts to support regional decision-making is conceptually and practically challenging. We report on research that tested a rapid assessment approach of socio-economic vulnerability in Australia’s natural resource management regions. The approach focuses on regionally important economic sectors, identified using existing datasets, which are likely to be sensitive to climate change impacts. Disaggregated spatial representations of factors known to be associated with vulnerability function as multiple lines of evidence for highlighting intra-regional hotspots of high potential vulnerability. Our results show that a small number of factors based upon contextually relevant empirical evidence offers a low-cost, rapid assessment process, which is readily transferable across regions and provides end-users with guidance for interpreting the results within the context of regional conditions.

  2. Vulnerability Assessments and Resilience Planning at Federal Facilities. Preliminary Synthesis of Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, R. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.; Blohm, A. J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Delgado, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.; Henriques, J. J. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Malone, E L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.

    2015-08-15

    U.S. government agencies are now directed to assess the vulnerability of their operations and facilities to climate change and to develop adaptation plans to increase their resilience. Specific guidance on methods is still evolving based on the many different available frameworks. Agencies have been experimenting with these frameworks and approaches. This technical paper synthesizes lessons and insights from a series of research case studies conducted by the investigators at facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Defense. The purpose of the paper is to solicit comments and feedback from interested program managers and analysts before final conclusions are published. The paper describes the characteristics of a systematic process for prioritizing needs for adaptation planning at individual facilities and examines requirements and methods needed. It then suggests a framework of steps for vulnerability assessments at Federal facilities and elaborates on three sets of methods required for assessments, regardless of the detailed framework used. In a concluding section, the paper suggests a roadmap to further develop methods to support agencies in preparing for climate change. The case studies point to several preliminary conclusions; (1) Vulnerability assessments are needed to translate potential changes in climate exposure to estimates of impacts and evaluation of their significance for operations and mission attainment, in other words into information that is related to and useful in ongoing planning, management, and decision-making processes; (2) To increase the relevance and utility of vulnerability assessments to site personnel, the assessment process needs to emphasize the characteristics of the site infrastructure, not just climate change; (3) A multi-tiered framework that includes screening, vulnerability assessments at the most vulnerable installations, and adaptation design will efficiently target high-risk sites and infrastructure

  3. Assessing the potential of economic instruments for managing drought risk at river basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Economic instruments work as incentives to adapt individual decisions to collectively agreed goals. Different types of economic instruments have been applied to manage water resources, such as water-related taxes and charges (water pricing, environmental taxes, etc.), subsidies, markets or voluntary agreements. Hydroeconomic models (HEM) provide useful insight on optimal strategies for coping with droughts by simultaneously analysing engineering, hydrology and economics of water resources management. We use HEMs for evaluating the potential of economic instruments on managing drought risk at river basin scale, considering three criteria for assessing drought risk: reliability, resilience and vulnerability. HEMs allow to calculate water scarcity costs as the economic losses due to water deliveries below the target demands, which can be used as a vulnerability descriptor of drought risk. Two generic hydroeconomic DSS tools, SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS ( both programmed in GAMS) have been developed to evaluate water scarcity cost at river basin scale based on simulation and optimization approaches. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water according to the system priorities and operating rules, and evaluate the scarcity costs using economic demand functions. The optimization tool allocates water resources for maximizing net benefits (minimizing total water scarcity plus operating cost of water use). SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), while OPTIGAMS is used to simulate the effect of ideal water markets by economic optimization. These tools have been applied to the Jucar river system (Spain), highly regulated and with high share of water use for crop irrigation (greater than 80%), where water scarcity, irregular hydrology and groundwater overdraft cause droughts to have significant economic, social and environmental consequences. An econometric model was first used to explain the variation

  4. PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS ON PROCESSING WASTES INTO CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Social and economical development, investing activities, and ensuring environmental safety are the main strategic components of sustainable development of the Russian Federation. Considering that any economic activities are related to using natural resources, and environmental impact, the economically and ecologically effective investments in modern competitive resources- and energy-saving, environment-safe industrial and other innovative technologies are the integral conditions of ensuring favorable conditions for life activities, achieving balance of the ecological-economic system of the country However, there is a number of environmental and business factors, which prevent full-scale implementation of modern resource-saving and environmental protection technologies in production, ensuring, on the one hand, achievement of pay-back of investments in the shortest times (economic result in the form of profit, and on the other hand, observation of all environmental, sanitary-and-hygienic, technical norms, demands and rules set forth by the legislation. At the stage of business planning, all the possible future environmental costs and environmental and financial damages caused by the manufacturing activities during implementation and post-implementation periods are not taken into account as a practice of assessment of environmental efficiency and practicality of investment projects. This article covers methodical and scientific methodological approaches to the solution of the given problem within the limits of development of recommendations on environmental and economic assessment of investment projects that would ensure environmental safety and economic efficiency of the investments. Results of own researches in the field, including the developed software for environmental and economic assessment of investment projects in the building industry, in the waste processing into secondary raw materials and products, which allows to analyze efficiency of

  5. An Economic Impact Analysis of the Proposed Yakima/Klickitat Fishery Enhancement Project; Preliminary Design Report, Appendix D.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Richard S.; Cocheba, Donald J.; Green, Daniel; Hedrick, David W.

    1989-12-27

    The objective of this study is to estimate the economic impact of the proposed Yakima/Klickitat Production Project on the local economies of the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins. The project, when operating at planned maximum production, will augment the total number of salmon and steelhead returning to the subbasins by 77,600 and will increase the sustainable terminal harvest by 55,160. These estimates do not include fish harvested in the ocean or in the mainstem Columbia. In addition to evaluating the impacts of the construction, operations and maintenance, experimentation and monitoring, and harvest activities described in the Draft Environmental Assessment (Bonneville Power Administration, 1989), our analysis also evaluates some passageway improvements and Phase II screening of irrigation structures. Both of these augmentations are required In order for the project to reach maximum planned harvest levels. The study area includes the Yakima Subbasin economy (Yakima and Kittitas counties), the mid-Columbia Basin/Klickitat Subbasin economies (Klickitat, Hood River, and Wasco counties), and the Tri-Cities economy (Benton and Franklin counties). The study period extends from 1990 through 2015: from preconstruction planning activities through reaching maximum production.

  6. Self-assessed efficacy of a clinical musculoskeletal anatomy workshop: A preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José E; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Canoso, Juan J; Kalish, Robert A; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    To survey the efficacy of a practical workshop on clinical musculoskeletal anatomy held in five American countries. A self-assessment competence questionnaire sent to participants 1-3 months after the workshop. Results were compared to the results of a practical, instructor-assessed, pre-workshop test. The response rate of participants was 76.4%. The overall, self-assessed competence score for anatomical items that had been included in the pre-test was 76.9 (scale 0-100) as compared to an overall score of 48.1 in the practical, pre-workshop test (p<0.001). For items that were addressed in the workshop, but not included in the pre-test, self-assessed competence was rated at 62.9. Differences in anatomical knowledge between individuals from different countries and professional groups noted in the practical pre-test were no longer present in the post-test self-assessment. From this preliminary data and supporting evidence from the literature we believe that our anatomy workshop provides an effective didactic tool for increasing competence in musculoskeletal anatomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary data on a new opioid risk assessment measure: the Brief Risk Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ted; Moore, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessment and stratification have become a central issue in prescribing opioids to patients with chronic pain. Research to date on various risk screening measures has shown that a clinical interview by an experienced clinician offers superior predictive ability in identifying patients who are more likely to engage in future medication aberrant behavior. The current study represents a pilot study of an interview rating scale that is designed to replicate this clinical assessment. This study compares the predictions of medication aberrant behavior made by the Opioid Risk Tool, the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain-Revised, and the new interview rating scale, the Brief Risk Interview (BRI). A sample of 196 patients was assessed by each of the three risk measures and then follow-up data were gathered at 6 months post interview to determine which patients had engaged in medication aberrant behavior and had been discharged from the practice. The BRI shows superior predictive ability in identifying patients who later engage in medication aberrant behavior. Although more study in other settings is needed, these preliminary data suggest that the Brief Risk Interview could be a useful tool for any pain clinician in assessing risk through the use of information gathered in a brief interview.

  8. Framework for economic pluvial flood risk assessment considering climate change effects and adaptation benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the water cycle by influencing the precipitation patterns. It is important to integrate the anticipated changes into the design of urban drainage in response to the increased risk level in cities. This paper presents a pluvial flood risk assessment framework...... to identify and assess adaptation options in the urban context. An integrated approach is adopted by incorporating climate change impact assessment, flood inundation modeling, economic tool, and risk assessment, hereby developing a step-by-step process for cost-benefit assessment of climate change adaptation...

  9. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation...... to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities.......Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible...

  10. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  11. Relationships between vocalization forms and functions in infancy: preliminary implications for early communicative assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Ertmer, David J

    2014-11-01

    This preliminary study explored relationships between form and function in prelinguistic vocalizations to increase our understanding of early communicative development and to provide potential clinical implications for early communicative assessment and intervention. Twenty typically developing infants-5 infants in each of 4 age groups, from 3 to 20 months of age-were included. Vocalizations from these infants had previously been categorized for their form (Nathani, Ertmer, & Stark, 2006) and function (Stark, Bernstein, & Demorest, 1993) characteristics. In the present study, cross-classification tabulations between form and function were conducted to examine relationships between vocalization types and their apparent uses. As anticipated, earlier developing forms were mostly associated with earlier developing functions, and later developing forms were mostly associated with later developing functions. However, there were some exceptions such that some forms were associated with a variety of functions, and vice versa. The results suggest that some forms are more tightly coupled to function than others in the prelinguistic and early linguistic period. Preliminary implications for developmental theory, future research, and clinical applications are discussed. Larger, longitudinal studies with typical and atypical populations and stricter methodological controls are needed to validate these findings.

  12. Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ricardo N; Maulvault, Ana L; Barbosa, Vera L; Cunha, Sara; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Marques, António

    2017-02-13

    A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, α-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylparaben and UV-filter OC) was performed in seafood species available in the European markets. Additionally, the effect of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility was also investigated for the first time. Overall, steaming affected differentially contaminants' concentrations, for instance, decreasing PFOS levels in flounder, but increasing both BDE47 and BDE100. CeCs bioaccessibility varied according to seafood species and contaminant group, i.e. in general, lower bioaccessibility values were obtained for PBDEs (<70%, except for mackerel), while PFCs and PPCPs revealed higher bioaccessibility percentages (between 71 and 95%). The lowest bioaccessibility value was obtained for α-HBCD (mussel; 14%), whereas the highest percentage was observed in venlafaxine (mullet; 95%). Our preliminary study reports also, for the first time, the effects of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility. In most cases, bioaccessibility was not affected by cooking, however, a decrease was observed in PBDEs and venlafaxine bioaccessibility in steamed mussels and mullet, respectively, thus lowering the potential health risks associated with seafood consumption.

  13. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  14. Economic assessment of human life as a diagnostic indicator of the crisis phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yevgenyevna Shipitsyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper to reveal the essence of the term “economic assessment of human life” the methodological approaches used in the economic theory and estimation theory are applied, the categorical apparatus revealing the meaning of the economic cost, price and value of human life is created. To define the cost of human life, the income, cost-based, and comparative approaches are analyzed. Various types of living costs depending on the purpose of assessment application are allocated. For the state purposes and definition of social payments, the concept of cadastral value of human life is introduced. The introduction of the macroeconomic indicator reflecting level and quality of life in the country is substantiated. The author's technique of the economic assessment of human life is given in the article and is approved on the example of the Russian Federation. Besides, the interrelations between manifestations of the crisis phenomena and their tendencies in society, quality of life and a size of life assessment at the calculation of regional coefficients for an assessment of risks to the citizens' life or health are revealed

  15. Formation of the Integrated Approach to the Assessment of the Socio-Economic Development of Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vasilievna Kislitsyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The integrated approach to the assessment of the socio-economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation, which is characterized by systematic character and novelty, is presented in the article. This approach is based on the modern techniques used in this sphere. The main purpose of the comprehensive assessment of a region’s socio-economic development level is the elaboration of a possible solution for the strategic development issues taking into account spatial, geographical, natural, socioinstitutional and other features. The authors propose to estimate the socio-economic climate of the subjects of the Russian Federation by the average values of socio-economic indexes for the three-year period. For comparability of multitemporal indicators and regional distinctions, the indicators measured in monetary units are transformed in the form of their relation to the cost of the fixed set of consumer goods and services. In addition, we estimate the dynamics of comparable indicators in absolute and relative expression and introduce scales for the assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic situation and a level of quality (stability of dynamics. On the basis of this technique, the authors examine the socio-economic situation of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation in 2012–2014. As a result, we have revealed one of the problems of socio-economic development — the imbalance of the dynamics of the main socio-economic indexes. In the studied period, 7 regions have shown moderate or high growth of the integrated indicator (not less than 9 %, but in 4 of them, the growth was unbalanced of poor quality. Moreover, further 11 regions have shown a considerable and unbalanced decrease in the social-economic situation. This has been revealed on the basis of the integrated indicator. Thus, the offered approach can be applied for an assessment of the level of socio-economic development in Russian regions in medium-term prospect. It can be

  16. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part II. High Temperature Structural Integrity Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A high temperature structural integrity assessment belongs to the Part II of a whole preliminary guideline for the high temperature structure. The main contents of this guideline are the evaluation procedures of the creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth in high temperature condition, the high temperature LBB evaluation procedure, and the inelastic evaluations of the welded joints in SFR structures. The methodologies for the proper inelastic analysis of an SFR structures in high temperatures are explained and the guidelines of inelastic analysis options using ANSYS and ABAQUS are suggested. In addition, user guidelines for the developed NONSTA code are included. This guidelines need to be continuously revised to improve the applicability to the design and analysis of the SFR structures.

  17. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  18. System of tactical assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT: Development and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to report the development and preliminary validation of tactical assessment system in Soccer and highlight its advantages. The validation process followed five perspectives of the concept of validity that consider the value of heuristic methods and the importance of the description of behavior performed in playing situations. Thus, the process of validation was focused on four points: i acceptability and reasonableness of the test perceived by players; ii analysis of content of assessment tool through a panel of experts; iii potential of the assessment tool to discriminate the quality of the performance of players; iv observation reliability. The results displayed values higher than 0.63 for correlation between the evaluations of coaches and the system. It shows the potential of this system to distinguish the performances of players based on the evaluations of coaches. The players who performed the field test agreed with its physical demands and spatial and normative configurations. All experts endorsed the categories and variables of this system. The reliabilities showed values higher than 0.79 for intra and inter-observers. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the system is valid and reliable for the assessment of the tactical behavior of soccer players.

  19. Water Quality Assessment in the Vouga Catchment (Portugal) through the Integration of Hydrologic Modeling, Economic Valuation, and Optimization Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawtree, Daniel; Julich, Stefan; Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Feger, Karl-Heinz

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic model assessments of the impacts of land-cover / use change (LCLUC) are fundamental for the development of catchment management plans, which are increasingly needed for meeting water quality standards (i.e. Water Framework Directive). These assessments can be difficult to conduct at the spatial scale required for such plans, due to data limitations and the challenge of up-scaling from field / small scale studies to larger regions. Furthermore, such hydrologic assessments are of limited practical use if the financial impacts of any potential land-cover / management changes on local stakeholders are adequately quantified and taken into planning consideration. To address these challenges, this study presents an approach that integrates hydrologic modeling, economic valuation, and landscape optimization methods. This approach is applied to the Vouga catchment, a large (2,298 km^2) mixed land-use catchment in north-central Portugal. The Vouga has high nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) impacts in a number of reaches, which have negative impacts on downstream wetlands and groundwater supplies. To examine potential improvements to water quality, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated over a five period (2002 - 2007) to establish the baseline hydrologic and nutrient fluxes. This calibration relies upon the up-scaling of findings from previous field studies (on vegetation and soils), hydrologic assessments, and modeling studies. The agricultural income for local stakeholders was estimated from existing land-cover and management approaches is made, to establish the baseline financial conditions. An optimization algorithm is then applied to the baseline scenario using both the biophysical and financial information, which seeks to determine various (most) optimal states. The preliminary results from this work are presented, and the advantages and challenges of using such an approach for scenario analysis for catchment management are discussed

  20. Health technology assessment and personalized medicine: are economic evaluation guidelines sufficient to support decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husereau, Don; Marshall, Deborah A; Levy, Adrian R; Peacock, Stuart; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2014-04-01

    Many jurisdictions delivering health care, including Canada, have developed guidance for conducting economic evaluation, often in the service of larger health technology assessment (HTA) and reimbursement processes. Like any health intervention, personalized medical (PM) interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. However, current approaches to economic evaluation to support decision making have been largely developed from population-based approaches to therapy-that is, evaluating the costs and consequences of single interventions across single populations. This raises the issue as to whether these methods, as they are or more refined, are adequate to address more targeted approaches to therapy, or whether a new paradigm for assessing value in PM is required. We describe specific issues relevant to the economic evaluation of diagnostics-based PM and assess whether current guidance for economic evaluation is sufficient to support decision making for PM interventions. Issues were identified through literature review and informal interviews with national and international experts (n = 10) in these analyses. This article elaborates on findings and discussion at a workshop held in Ottawa, Canada, in January 2012. Specific issues related to better guiding economic evaluation of personalized medicine interventions include: how study questions are developed, populations are characterized, comparators are defined, effectiveness is evaluated, outcomes are valued and how resources are measured. Diagnostics-based PM also highlights the need for analyses outside of economic evaluation to support decision making. The consensus of this group of experts is that the economic evaluation of diagnostics-based PM may not require a new paradigm. However, greater complexity means that existing approaches and tools may require improvement to undertake these more analyses.

  1. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns. An increase in potential flood damage in the urban context is anticipated due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires a higher performance on flood...... risk quantification and assessment of appropriated adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper represents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give...... detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimations of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost benefit analysis. The results are aimed to provide important information to decision making on how best to adapt for urban pluvial...

  2. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns. An increase in potential flood damage in the urban context is anticipated due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires a higher performance on flood...... risk quantification and assessment of appropriated adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper represents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give...... detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimations of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost benefit analysis. The results are aimed to provide important information to decision making on how best to adapt for urban pluvial...

  3. Mathematical economics methods in assessing the effects of institutional factors on foreign trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, M. A.; Nepp, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    Foreign trade activity (FT) is an essential driver of economic development; therefore, factors affecting its efficiency should be analysed. Along with the conventional economic factors affecting FT development, a focus should be given to institutional factors, whose role also cannot be neglected. Recent studies show institutional factors to produce both qualitative and quantitative effects on a country's economic development, with various criteria and assessment approaches having been developed for their estimation. This paper classifies mathematical methods used to assess the effect of institutional factors on FT efficiency. An analysis of conventional mathematical models describing the relationship between institutional factors and FT indicators is provided. Mathematical methods are currently the major instrument for the analysis of FT parameters and their dependence on various external factors.

  4. Towards the conservation of parasitoid wasp species in Canada: Preliminary assessment of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first to consider braconid parasitoid wasps in conservation efforts in Canada. Out of the 28 genera of the subfamily Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae present in the country, 13 genera were studied and 16 species were identified as potential candidates to be included in the Species Candidate Lists of COSEWIC (The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. For every selected species a brief summary of its broad geographical distribution is provided, with detailed and in many cases new information of its distribution and collecting dates in Canada, hosts (Lepidoptera if known, and color pictures of all wasp species. A preliminary assessment is made using Prioritization Criteria developed by COSEWIC, and some general recommendations are made based in those analyses.

  5. Preliminary shielding assessment for the 100 MeV proton linac (KOMAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Cho, Y S; Chang, J

    2005-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project is building the Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex facilities from 2002 to 2012, which consists of a high-current 100 MeV proton linear accelerator and various beam-lines. This paper provides a preliminary estimate of the shielding required for the 20 mA proton linac and the beam-dump. For an accurate information on secondary neutron production from the guiding magnet and primary heat sink of the beam dump, proton-induced 63Cu and 65Cu cross section data were evaluated and applied to shielding calculations. The required thickness of the concrete was assessed by a simple line-of-sight model for the lateral shielding of the beam-line and the full shielding of the beam dump. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed using the MCNPX code to obtain the source term and attenuation coefficients for the three-dimensional lateral shielding model of the beam-line.

  6. Visual Assessment on Coastal Cruise Tourism: A Preliminary Planning Using Importance Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisutomo, S.

    2017-07-01

    Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) has been widely applied in many cases. In this research, IPA was applied to measure perceive on coastal tourism objects and its possibility to be developed as coastal cruise tourism in Makassar. Three objects, i.e. Akkarena recreational site, Losari public space at waterfront, and Paotere traditional Phinisi ships port, were selected and assessed visually from water area by a group of purposive resource persons. The importance and performance of 10 attributes of each site were scored using Likert scale from 1 to 5. Data were processed by SPSS-21 than resulted Cartesian graph which the scores were divided in four quadrants: Quadrant I concentric here, Quadrant II keep up the good work, Quadrant III low priority, and Quadrant IV possible overkill. The attributes in each quadrant could be considered as the platform for preliminary planning of coastal cruise tour in Makassar

  7. Preliminary assessment of the ATHENA/WFI non-X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinati, Emanuele; Barbera, Marco; Diebold, Sebastian; Guzman, Alejandro; Santangelo, Andrea; Tenzer, Chris

    2017-06-01

    We present a preliminary assessment of the non-X-ray background for the WFI on board ATHENA conducted at IAAT in the context of the collaborative background and radiation damage working group activities. Our main result is that in the baseline configuration originally assumed for the camera the requirement on the level of non-X-ray background could not be met. In light of the results of Geant4 simulations we propose and discuss a possible optimization of the camera design and pinpoint some open issues to be addressed in the next phase of investigation. One of these concerns the possible contribution to the non-X-ray background from soft protons and ions funneled to the focal plane through the optics. This is not quantified at this stage, here we just briefly report on our ongoing activities aimed at validating the mechanisms of proton scattering at grazing incidence.

  8. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Kara and Barents Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario, which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater, is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansievert calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs is found to dominate the doses. 19 refs., 56 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Forskningscente Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Barents and Kara Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansieverts calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs is found to dominate the doses. (au) 8 tabs., 56 ills., 19 refs.

  10. Preliminary risk assessment of radon in groundwater: a case study from Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Gasparon, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the radon concentrations in the water supplies of a residential area of central west Anatolia, Turkey. This research provides a preliminary risk assessment for inhabitants in the study area which can be applied for other regions. In 14 out of the 19 water supplies analysed, radon concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level (11.1 Bq l(-1)). The total annual effective doses of 10 for the wet season and 14 for the dry season out of the 19 water supplies are greater than the values recommended by EPA [Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides, Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1999) pdf >] (0.1 mSv a(-1)). The elevated radon concentrations in water resources are most probably linked with geological origin which contains significant amounts of radioactive minerals.

  11. Preliminary assessment of the behavioral activation model in Japanese undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Koki; Okajima, Isa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Shun; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Sakano, Yuji

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have reported that behavioral activation is an effective intervention for depression. The behavioral activation model is based on several formulations. For example, depressive mood leads to avoidant behaviors, avoidance negatively affects social contacts, decreased socialization lessens opportunities for positive reinforcement, and a decrease in positive reinforcement results in more depressive mood. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among avoidant behavior, social contact, frequency of positive reinforcement, and depressive mood by using structural equation modeling to assess support for aspects of this behavioral activation model. Participants were 630 Japanese undergraduate students and vocational school students. Results provided preliminary support for the model. Treating both avoidance and activating behavior might contribute to decreased impairment.

  12. PORFLOW MODELING FOR A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NEW SALTSTONE DISPOSAL UNIT DESIGNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.

    2012-08-06

    At the request of Savannah River Remediation (SRR), SRNL has analyzed the expected performance obtained from using seven 32 million gallon Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs) in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) to store future saltstone grout. The analysis was based on preliminary SDU final design specifications. The analysis used PORFLOW modeling to calculate the release of 20 radionuclides from an SDU and transport of the radionuclides and daughters through the vadose zone. Results from this vadose zone analysis were combined with previously calculated releases from existing saltstone vaults and FDCs and a second PORFLOW model run to calculate aquifer transport to assessment points located along a boundary 100 m from the nearest edge of the SDF sources. Peak concentrations within 12 sectors spaced along the 100 m boundary were determined over a period of evaluation extending 20,000 years after SDF closure cap placement. These peak concentrations were provided to SRR to use as input for dose calculations.

  13. Economic and Thermodynamic Analysis for Preliminary Design of Dry Steam Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) with Multifarious Gas Removal System (GRS) in Kamojang, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damar Pranadi, Aloysius; Sihana; Suryopratomo, Kutut; Rahmatika Salis, Fiki

    2016-09-01

    Indonesia has great number of geothermal potential separated by two kind of potential, 16.13 GW for high enthalpy and 7.88 GW for low enthalpy speculative resources [4]. In the end of 2013, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources stated that Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) in Indonesia have been built about 1.34 GW in capacity and wanted to seriously develop geothermal potential up to 6.64 GW by 2025 [8]. Cost is one of famous obstacle in Indonesia's GPP Development. To reduce grand total cost of GPP, this paper will present the relation between thermodynamic and economic analysis in purpose to find the most economical gas removal system in GPP. By gleaning data at Kamojang Steam Field on behalf of PT Pertamina Geothermal Energy, this study will thermodynamically analyze and calculate a GPP preliminary design with software, named as Cycle Tempo 5.0. In additional, writers create motive steam calculator (based on C++ language) to enhance thermodynamic analysis for gas removal system (GRS) and adapted the results in Cycle Tempo 5.0. After thermodynamic analysis has been done, economic study will be undertaken by Net Present Value Analysis to compare the utilization cost of three different GRS and find which kind of GRS is more economical for nearly 30 years operation. For the result, Dual LRVP has higher performance than the others, spend less utilization cost and more economical for nearly 30 years operation. Moreover, the economic analysis for replacement of gas removal system shown in this paper too. In conclusion, GPP with Dual LRVP is proper to be developed in the future Geothermal Power Plant or to replace the existing GRS in some existing GPP in Indonesia.

  14. Theoretical Grounds of Economic Assessment of the Current Level of Innovation Receptivity of Engineering Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelianov Oleksandr Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies and generalises existing approaches to identification of criteria of assessment of innovation receptivity of subjects of economic activity and also marks out main groups of methods of this assessment. It provides a chain of competences of an enterprise in the sphere of management of its innovation activity, which meets its passive and active innovation receptivity, which lies in the foundation of formation of the multiplicative approach to assessment of the current level of innovation receptivity of an enterprise. The article offers complex qualitative and quantitative indicators of active and also passive innovation receptivity of an enterprise. Further studies of the issue of assessment of the current level of innovation receptivity of economic subjects require clarification of capabilities of a more complete consideration of influence of the obtained financial results from the enterprise innovation activity upon this level.

  15. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

  16. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying

  17. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  18. A socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity on the Ghanaian market: implications for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E.S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the

  19. Socio-economic baseline assessment: Thayawthatangyi and Langan Islands, Myeik Archipelago, Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, H; Thiha, S.; Pontillas, M.; Ponce de Leon, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    This report details the methodology and results of a 2014 socio-economic baseline assessment of 4 villages in the Myeik Archipelago, Myanmar undertaken as part of a programme to build local stakeholders capacity to use data to inform marine resource planning and managemnt

  20. Phased array ultrasonic technology contribution to engineering critical assessment (ECA) of economizer piping welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorau, P.; Gray, D.; Daks, W. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: peter.ciorau@opg.com

    2006-09-15

    This paper describes the application of phased array ultrasonic technology for engineering critical assessment of economizer piping welds. The objective is to detect and size fatigue cracks in the counter bore area of carbon steel boiler feedwater piping welds of a thermal station. A size accuracy of {+-} 1 mm for the outer ligament was required.

  1. Assessing the economic impacts of agricultural carbon sequestration: Terraces and agroforestry in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Valdivia, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for information about the economic impact of agricultural carbon (C) sequestration in the developing world, but as yet no studies have assessed the potential for farmers in the highland tropics to participate in C contracts. In this paper we show how an econometric-proc

  2. Techno-economic assessment of the production of bio-based chemicals from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Gangarapu, S.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, possible process steps for the production of bio-based industrial chemicals from glutamic acid are described, including a techno-economic assessment of all processes. The products under investigation were those that were shown to be synthesized from glutamic acid on lab-scale, namely

  3. Assessing farm innovations and responses to policies: a review of bio-economic farm models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.J.C.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2007-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models (BEFMs) are developed to enable assessment of policy changes and technological innovations, for specific categories of farming systems. A rapidly growing number of research projects is using these models and there is increasing interest for application. The paper critically

  4. An economic and legal assessment of the EU food industry's competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Bremmers, H.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the competitiveness of the European food industry from an economic and legal perspective. Knowledge of its present competitiveness and improvement opportunities are lacking. To close this knowledge gap, we measured the competitiveness of eight subsectors, b

  5. An economic and legal assessment of the EU food industry's competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Bremmers, H.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the competitiveness of the European food industry from an economic and legal perspective. Knowledge of its present competitiveness and improvement opportunities are lacking. To close this knowledge gap, we measured the competitiveness of eight subsectors,

  6. Techno-economic assessment of the production of bio-based chemicals from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Gangarapu, S.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, possible process steps for the production of bio-based industrial chemicals from glutamic acid are described, including a techno-economic assessment of all processes. The products under investigation were those that were shown to be synthesized from glutamic acid on lab-scale, namely

  7. Framework for Assessing Environmental, Social, and Economic Sustainability of ICT Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Khuloud

    2013-01-01

    Key challenges that confront the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry today in defining and achieving social, environmental, and economic sustainability goals include identifying sustainable operating standards and best practices and measuring and assessing performance against those practices. The industry lacks a framework for…

  8. A new validation-assessment tool for health-economic decision models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauskopf, J.; Vemer, P.; Voorn, van G.A.K.; Corro Ramos, I.

    2014-01-01

    A validation-assessment tool is being developed for decision makers to transparently and consistently evaluate the validation status of different health-economic decision models. It is designed as a list of validation techniques covering all relevant aspects of model validation to be filled in by

  9. An Integrated Hydro-Economic Modelling Framework to Evaluate Water Allocation Strategies II: Scenario Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, B.; Malano, H.; Davidson, B.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Bharati, L.; Sylvain, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the results of an assessment of the hydrological and economic implications of reallocating water in the Musi sub-basin, a catchment within the Krishna Basin in India, are reported. Policy makers identified a number of different but plausible scenarios that could apply in the sub-basin,

  10. Software Integration of Life Cycle Assessment and Economic Analysis for Process Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakula, Sawitree; Malakula, Pomthong; Siemanonda, Kitipat

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case desig...

  11. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603 Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG & Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2012-04-09

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  12. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  13. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the ..Section..1603 Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Porro, G.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the Section 1603 grant program.

  14. A Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Preservation and Restoration of Fujian Hakka Tulou Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Ueda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2009, research trips were taken, mainly in the Fujian province of China, to investigate the construction materials, methods, structures and floor plans of Hakka Tulou. Researchers lived in several Tulou, interviewed residents and experienced traditional Hakka lifestyle. Typically, Tulou are located in remote regions at relatively high elevations in climatic conditions characterized by hot summers, cold winters, and with high incidents of typhoons and earthquakes. The extent of damage and level of preservation were examined with respect to the age of many of these structures, the relatively harsh environment, and changing demographics in the region. The majority of occupants are now elderly. They maintain a traditional and efficient lifestyle utilizing minimum electricity, water, and energy. This study discusses the findings from these two field trips and assesses environmental load and sustainability within the context of current environmental standards using the Japanese Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE from data collected at Cheng Qi Lou. The goal was: firstly to undertake a preliminary environmental assessment to determine sustainable elements of Hakka Tulou construction methods; secondly, to identify potential sustainable solutions to preserve existing structure; and finally, to identify appropriate sustainable solutions to repair and retrofit damaged and underutilized structures to modern living standards, while retaining traditional building techniques and lifestyle.

  15. Preliminary assessment of a hysteroscopic fallopian tube heat and biomaterial technology for permanent female sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, Prajan; Trembly, B. Stuart; Moodie, Karen L.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2017-02-01

    Recent failures in hysteroscopic female sterilization procedures have brought into question the implantation of nonresorbable metal devices into the fallopian tubes due to long-term risks such as migration, fragmentation, and tubal perforation. The goal of this study is to assess whether a porous, biodegradable implant can be deposited into the fallopian tube lumen with or without a local mild heat treatment to generate a safe and permanent fallopian tube occlusion/sterilization event. The technologies investigated included freeze-cast collagen-based scaffolds and magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) based scaffolds. In vitro assessment of iron oxide MNP-based scaffolds was performed to determine the absorption rate density (ARD); subsequent computational modeling quantified the thermal in vivo steady state temperature as a function of tubal radius for treatment planning. For collagen-based scaffolds, in vivo testing was performed to study the biocompatibility in a mouse flank model, followed by implantation into an in vivo anestrus feline uterine horn (animal model for the fallopian tube). Biological responses were studied histopathologically. Uterine horn patency was assessed via radiographic imaging. Preliminary studies suggest the MNP-impregnated scaffold and a safe, noninvasive AMF excitation field have potential to generate a sufficient focal fallopian tube thermal dose to create a fibrotic healing event and ultimately, permanent tubal occlusion.

  16. Maxillary dentoalveolar assessment following retraction of maxillary incisors: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Maia Fernandes Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2. The premaxilla was assessed through seven axial slices by means of Dolphin ImagingTM software. In each of these slices, five measurements of the distance from the buccal cortical bone to the palatal cortical bone were performed. Tooth length of maxillary incisors (n = 44 was also measured in sagittal slices. Measurements were repeated after a two-week interval, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to test examiner calibration. Wilcoxon test was used to detect differences in measurements performed at the two time intervals. Results: The ICC was satisfactory for tooth length (0.890 and for premaxilla alveolar thickness measurements (0.980. Analysis of data showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05 in tooth length or alveolar thickness between the two-time intervals assessed. Conclusion: The force used in retraction of maxillary incisors in this research did not promote significant changes in tooth length of maxillary incisors or in premaxilla alveolar thickness.

  17. Maxillary dentoalveolar assessment following retraction of maxillary incisors: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago Maia Fernandes; Claudino, Lígia Vieira; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2). The premaxilla was assessed through seven axial slices by means of Dolphin ImagingTM software. In each of these slices, five measurements of the distance from the buccal cortical bone to the palatal cortical bone were performed. Tooth length of maxillary incisors (n = 44) was also measured in sagittal slices. Measurements were repeated after a two-week interval, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to test examiner calibration. Wilcoxon test was used to detect differences in measurements performed at the two time intervals. Results: The ICC was satisfactory for tooth length (0.890) and for premaxilla alveolar thickness measurements (0.980). Analysis of data showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in tooth length or alveolar thickness between the two-time intervals assessed. Conclusion: The force used in retraction of maxillary incisors in this research did not promote significant changes in tooth length of maxillary incisors or in premaxilla alveolar thickness. PMID:27901233

  18. Pre-economic analysis of HTR in preparation for a comprehensive economic assessment of HTRs in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredimas, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.bredimas@strane-innovation.com

    2014-05-01

    High temperature nuclear reactors will address mainly the industrial cogeneration market and compete with gas cogeneration, the current reference technology. The key question for HTR is therefore: how far are HTRs competitive against gas technologies? This simple question demands a complex response. First, the cogeneration scheme has to be discussed according the specificities in heat usage of every industry as they will impact the design. Second, the costs, revenues and risks of the different lifecycle phases for both a HTR and gas cogeneration plant have to be assessed and compared. These parameters will greatly depend on each location (personnel costs, gas local prices, CO{sub 2} pricing, etc.). A particular attention has to be given to the risk interactions between the cogeneration plant and the industrial facility it is supplying with heat and electricity (e.g. tritium contamination in industrial processes, explosion of flammable products in industrial site). This paper aims mainly at starting exchanges at international level with other equivalent initiatives in order to assess in general terms the economic viability of HTR worldwide, in relation to the evaluation of the HTR global market.

  19. Health economics education in undergraduate medical degrees: an assessment of curricula content and student knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Ewan; Lorgelly, Paula K

    2010-01-01

    To define the structure and content of health economics teaching in undergraduate medical degrees in the UK, and identify and quantify differences in student knowledge, with a view to informing the health economics curricula. Semi-structured interviews with senior teaching staff in three Medical Schools, a review of course documentation, and an online survey to assess student knowledge. The survey was scored and mean scores were compared across medical schools, year of study, and teaching components, including the professional background of the teachers. There was considerable diversity across the medical schools in terms of the content of the health economics education, and in the way that the learning was structured and delivered. Student knowledge was found to vary across medical schools; the school with the most intensive health economics curricula was found to perform marginally better. Students who were taught by health economists scored higher than those who were taught by other professions. The teaching and learning environment and level of student knowledge of health economics was found to differ considerably across medical schools. The delivery of health economics teaching by specialised health economists would appear to be one possible strategy to improve student knowledge.

  20. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change.

  1. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  2. Hurricane Sandy Economic Impacts Assessment: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-08-07

    Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.

  3. The Effects of September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on Public and Private Information Infrastructures: A Preliminary Assessment of Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Jeffrey W.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of the September 11 attacks on public and private information infrastructures. Topics include the role of information technology in future homeland security initiatives; continuity and recovery plans; decentralization of operations; and the development of system redundancies to eliminate single…

  4. Gaze behavior nonlinear dynamics assessed in virtual immersion as a diagnostic index of sexual deviancy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Bradford

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results about the use of virtual characters, penile plethysmography and gaze behaviour dynamics to assess deviant sexual preferences. Pedophile patients' responses are compared to those of non-deviant subjects while they were immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features.

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  6. Assessment of the knowledge and attitudes of preliminary school students toward smoking in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jabbar Sahib

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early smoking considered as a major challenge for health promoters, as well it is socially not acceptable, thus interventions must tackle childhood starts of smoking.Aim: Assessing the knowledge and attitude of preliminary students towards tobacco use. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 2195, 5th grade students from 30 preliminary schools in Baghdad (15 from each side Karkh & Rusafa during November 2014. They were selected by multistage sampling technique.Results:  Participated students age ranged between (10-13 years and (51.9% of them were girls, (54.3% of their parents were nonsmoker while the rest reported that both or one of them are smokers, direct and indirect risks of cigarette  smoking were known by (82.4% and (66.2% respectively, and (70.8% of students’ families were found to wear their kids from smoking hazards, while more than (50% of them have received health education massages from their teachers. Sitting near smoker person was not in favor of (86.2% of the participants, as (51.4% considered it religiously inconvenient and (34.6% considered smoking as a sign of no self-confidence. At last, (73.7% of the surveyed students agreed with smoking prohibition in public places while (25.8% opposed that.Conclusion: In spite of the high percentage of students’ parents were smokers; nevertheless, risks of smoking are well known by the surveyed students and they showed positive attitudes toward smoking prohibition in public places. Parental advising for quit smoking and urging teachers to educate their students about smoking hazards are thought to be the right action.

  7. Assessment of health policy in Costa Rica--some preliminary remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, C G; Mohs, E; Eriksson, B

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica is one of the world's success stories in primary health care. During the past 20 years the country has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition. However, during the 80's the economic recession severely affected the country. The social, economic, political and geographic contexts are important for the assessment of health policy. The longstanding democracy, investments in public education and health all contribute to the peace and stability. Assessment of health policy needs both a quantitative and qualitative approach. The policy-making process--how policies are made, translated into action and evaluated--is a research challenge. The national health policy 1986-1990 includes commitment to Health for All strategy; development of the National Health Care System; strengthening of the health care infrastructure; consolidation of health achievements and undertaking of new problems and approaches on integral care for the population; community participation in all health care system activities; and health care priorities. Important research issues are the relationship between the needs of the population and health policy development and the impacts of health policy on the health of the population. A comprehensive study of policy-making includes studies of policy content, process, output and evaluation of impacts (including economy of health policy), and analysis for policy, i.e. information for policy making, process and policy advocacy. Recent successful health policy issues are child health and HIV/AIDS, while water pollution and traffic accidents have been more problematic policy issues.

  8. A Brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment to evaluate concussions: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Anne; Collins, Michael W; Elbin, R J; Furman, Joseph M; Troutman-Enseki, Cara; DeWolf, Ryan M; Marchetti, Greg; Kontos, Anthony P

    2014-10-01

    Vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms have been documented in patients with sport-related concussions. However, there is no current brief clinical screen to assess and monitor these issues. To describe and provide initial data for the internal consistency and validity of a brief clinical screening tool for vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms after sport-related concussions. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-four patients, aged 13.9 ± 2.5 years and seen approximately 5.5 ± 4.0 days after a sport-related concussion, and 78 controls were administered the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment, which included 5 domains: (1) smooth pursuit, (2) horizontal and vertical saccades, (3) near point of convergence (NPC) distance, (4) horizontal vestibular ocular reflex (VOR), and (5) visual motion sensitivity (VMS). Participants were also administered the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Sixty-one percent of patients reported symptom provocation after at least 1 VOMS item. All VOMS items were positively correlated to the PCSS total symptom score. The VOR (odds ratio [OR], 3.89; P VMS (OR, 3.37; P VMS, NPC distance, and ln(age) that resulted in a high predicted probability (area under the curve = 0.89) for identifying concussed patients. The VOMS demonstrated internal consistency as well as sensitivity in identifying patients with concussions. The current findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the VOMS as a brief vestibular/ocular motor screen after sport-related concussions. The VOMS may augment current assessment tools and may serve as a single component of a comprehensive approach to the assessment of concussions. © 2014 The Author(s).

  9. Preliminary assessment of off-season fuels for electricity generation at Indian sugar mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ranney, J.W. [Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-11-07

    This report on off-season fuels is part of a preliminary feasibility assessment to retrofit Indian sugar mills to cogenerate heat and power with sales of excess electricity to the local grid. To justify the high capital costs of retrofitting existing facilities, sugar mill operators must attempt to maximize the amount of power they sell to the local grid. This fact means that sugar mills must operate and sell power well-beyond the milling season, which typically lasts about 200 days. The purpose of this report is to assess and determine whether low cost and reliable sources of off-season fuels can be secured for two sugar mills (Simbhaoli and Daurala) within their respective sugar growing districts, located in western Uttar Pradesh. Off-season fuels under consideration include excess bagasse that is stored for off-season use, agricultural field residues (e.g., wheat straw), forest residues (e.g., bark and small limbs), and dedicated energy crops (short-rotation woody crops and herbaceous energy crops). Results of the pre-feasibility indicate that bagasse and some agricultural residues are available in sufficient quantity and may be available at reasonable cost.

  10. Preliminary engineering assessment of the HCLL and HCPB Neutron Activation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, Pattrick; Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona, (Spain); Angelone, Maurizio [ENEA, Unita Tecnica Fusione, Frascati, (Italy); Klix, Axel [KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Neutron Activation System (NAS) is one of the four types of neutronics sensors considered for the testing of the HCLL and HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER. It measures the absolute neutron flux intensity with information on the neutron spectrum in selected positions of the TBM. The working principle of the NAS is as follows: the system moves small activation probes (capsules) into selected positions in the TBM (irradiation ends) by means of pneumatic transport with pressurized helium gas; the capsules are irradiated for a selected period, depending on their materials composition (several tens of seconds up to the full plasma pulse length); immediately after the irradiation they are extracted and transported to a gamma spectrometer by means of the same pneumatic transport system; the gamma spectrometer determines the induced gamma activity; the neutron flux and neutron fluence is calculated from the measured gamma activity and the known activation cross section of the materials in the activation probe; after the measurement the capsule is sent either to a disposal or storage (for later measurement). This paper summarizes the results of the feasibility assessment of the TBM NAS in the conceptual design phase, including design justification, identification of requirements based on the expected operating conditions in ITER and preliminary engineering assessment of the activation materials, irradiation ends integration in the modules design and the counting station. (authors)

  11. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EU COMPETITION POLICY DURING THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELA RAMONA ICHIM (GRIGORE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context marked by deep economic and political changes determined mainly by the challenges launched by economic and financial crisis, the EU is designing a new model of competition policy that focuses on a set of coordinated group actions to ensure transparency and a level playing field both for countries and companies operating within the Single Market. The regulatory and institutional framework modernization requires an assessment of EU competition policy enforcement. Using the WEF’s effectiveness of anti-monopoly policy index and the EBDR’s competition policy index this paper highlights some disparities between EU’s member states regarding the perceived effectiveness of competition policy implementation and the quality of actions undertaken to protect competition.

  12. STUDY REGARDING THE ASSESSMENT OF THE FINANCIAL STABILITY OF THE ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baltes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research presents both theoretical and practicalthe evolution of the financial stability assessed through the solvency indicators, the real economic growth rate and the GDP deflator in the manufacturing companies from Romania, through the Vector Autoregression Model (VAR. The sample consists in 36 companies belonging to the manufacturing industry in Romania, listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, on the first and second category. The study is conducted during the period 2007-2014 and demonstrated the fact that a change in the real economic growth causes a positive change in the GDP deflator. Not lastly, the change of the real economic growth also determines a positive change of the patrimonial solvency, and a change in the GDP deflator produces a reduction of the patrimonial solvency.

  13. A socio-economic assessment of proposed road user charging schemes in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    of the projects depends crucially on the congestion level. With the Current traffic level, road pricing will not yet be socially expedient in Copenhagen. However, if the opening year is postponed to 2015, the two most favourable schemes will turn positive. The analyses also showed that the magnitude of demand......Road pricing. congestion charging, toll-systems and other road charging instruments are intensively discussed in many countries. Although many partial analyses of the consequences have been published, few overall socio-economic analyses have been carried out. The article presents such a socio......-economic analysis of four different proposed road pricing schemes for the Copenhagen area. The purpose was to assess all benefits and costs involved, including impacts on traffic and environment, maintenance and financing costs as well as tax distortion effects. It was concluded that the socio-economic surplus...

  14. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  15. Augmenting water supply by combined desalination/water recycling methods: an economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusner, Adam; Blandin, Gaetan; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Dry coastal communities increasingly need to consider non-traditional methods of augmenting their water supply. This study presents a preliminary economic comparison of three alternatives for increasing the water supply by 50% for a hypothetical baseline coastal scenario: increasing desalination (Scenario A), direct potable water reuse (DPWR) (Scenario B), and a novel retrofitted configuration of a hybrid forward osmosis-reverse osmosis (FO-RO) plant (Scenario C). The latter used the dilution of the seawater feed to increase the recovery and overall output water of the original RO step. To account for the time value of money, levelised cost (LC) was used as the primary economic metric. The hybrid FO-RO configuration had a comparable LC to DPWR (0.59 vs. 0.61 $ m(-3)) and was 12% cheaper than desalination (0.67 $ m(-3)). Furthermore, hybrid FO-RO was 7% more energy efficient than conventional desalination due to reduced intake and pretreatment flows. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that incremental reductions in LC were possible for increased FO membrane flux, including in pressure-assisted osmosis scenarios with applied pressure ranging from 2 to 6 bar. These findings validate the examination of hybrid FO-RO configurations that deviate from the energy-reduction paradigms typically studied.

  16. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of mineral and hydrocarbon activities on the Nuussuaq peninsula, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Asmund, G.; Glahder, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2008-01-15

    There is an increasing interest for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration in Greenland and in both regards the Nuussuaq peninsula is in focus. This preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment describes the status of the biological knowledge from the area and designates potential conflicts between activities and the biological environment. Furthermore biological knowledge gaps are identified. These should be filled before specific environmental impacts assessments can be carried out and relevant studies to fill these data gaps are proposed. (au)

  17. A Framework for Assessing the Social and Economic Impact of Sustainable Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räikkönen Minna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investments towards sustainable development are vital for the future and they must be carefully planned to deliver immediate and long-term benefits. Hence, the ability to communicate the forms of impact of sustainable investments to local societies, people, investors and other stakeholders can provide a competitive advantage. However, the assessments are often under pressure to demonstrate short-term effects rather than emphasise the long-term impact. In addition, indirect and intangible forms of impacts should not be measured solely in economic terms. This paper proposes an assessment framework to support the integrated economic and social impact assessment of sustainable investments aimed at improving physical and socio-economic wellbeing. The framework is demonstrated in two case studies: new construction and renovation investments in affordable housing and social impact investment in sustainable development. The investments in the case studies are evaluated, selected and prioritized not only in terms of money but also with regard to sustainability, social acceptability and their overall impact on society, as a whole. The results indicate that a systematic integrated assessment of monetary and non-monetary factors can be successfully combined with the sustainable development decisions.

  18. Economic Assessment of SMART Deployment in Korea using DEEP 5.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyu-dong; Roh, Myung-sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    SMART is designed to produce 330MW thermal energy and 40,000m{sup 3}/day desalinated water with enhanced safety system. The design acquired the standard design certification from Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) for the first time in the world. Nonetheless, SMART is estimated to have a higher cost of energy compared to other power sources, so investors were restrained from ploughing their asset into construction of the first unit as a demonstration plant. Such a dismal economic outlook discouraged Korean nuclear power industry and potential purchasers from deploying SMART. In this study, economic assessments were conducted to figure out economic competitiveness of SMART. Desalination Economics Evaluation Program (DEEP) software which was developed and distributed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used to analyze the cost of electricity and water of SMART and other power plants. This study set out to evaluate the economic competitiveness of deploying SMART in Korea. This implies that controlling overnight construction cost is a key factor of the economic competitiveness of SMART. SMART is appropriate for small-medium sized remote electricity demand, so a related case study was conducted. A comparison of economic value between SMART and other alternative power sources were conducted using DEEP software. The alternative power sources were coal power plant and combined cycle gas turbine plant. Assuming those power plants generates certain amount of water to be fairly compared with SMART, DEEP software calculated SMART should be built with maximum 9,000-10,000 $/kWe construction cost. Compared to the plants with CCS facility, allowance of SMART construction cost increases to be 11,000-12,000 $/kWe. Another assumption was considered to highlight the merit of SMART which emits almost zero carbon compounds. Applying carbon tax to the previous study, LCOE of SMART and other power sources was calculated. The result shows that overnight

  19. Economic analysis and assessment of syngas production using a modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.

    2011-08-10

    Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.

  20. Market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Paul D

    2014-11-01

    Atrazine and other triazine herbicides are widely used in US maize and sorghum production, yet the most recent market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine is for market conditions prevalent in the early 1990s, before commercialization of transgenic crops. Grain markets have changed substantially since that time; for example, the size of the US maize market increased by 170% from 1990-1992 to 2007-2009. This paper reports a current assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine. Yield increases and cost changes implied by triazine herbicides are projected to reduce maize prices by 7-8% and sorghum prices by 19-20%. Projected consumer benefits from lower prices range from $US 3.6 to 4.4 × 10(9) annually, with the net projected economic benefit for triazine herbicides to the US economy ranging from $US 2.9 to 3.4 × 10(9) annually because lower prices imply reduced producer income. Productivity gains from triazine herbicides maintain an estimated 270 000-390 000 ha of land in non-crop uses that generate environmental benefits not accounted for in this analysis. Even in the current era, with transgenic varieties dominating crop production, atrazine and the other triazine herbicides continue to be a key part of maize and sorghum production and generate substantial economic benefits. © 2013 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atrazine and other triazine herbicides are widely used in US maize and sorghum production, yet the most recent market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine is for market conditions prevalent in the early 1990s, before commercialization of transgenic crops. Grain markets have changed substantially since that time; for example, the size of the US maize market increased by 170% from 1990–1992 to 2007–2009. This paper reports a current assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine. RESULTS Yield increases and cost changes implied by triazine herbicides are projected to reduce maize prices by 7–8% and sorghum prices by 19–20%. Projected consumer benefits from lower prices range from $US 3.6 to 4.4 × 109 annually, with the net projected economic benefit for triazine herbicides to the US economy ranging from $US 2.9 to 3.4 × 109 annually because lower prices imply reduced producer income. Productivity gains from triazine herbicides maintain an estimated 270 000–390 000 ha of land in non-crop uses that generate environmental benefits not accounted for in this analysis. CONCLUSION Even in the current era, with transgenic varieties dominating crop production, atrazine and the other triazine herbicides continue to be a key part of maize and sorghum production and generate substantial economic benefits. © 2013 The Authors. PestManagement Science published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24318916

  2. The assessment of seismic hazard for Gori, (Georgia) and preliminary studies of seismic microzonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoladze, Z.; Moscatelli, M.; Giallini, S.; Avalle, A.; Gventsadze, A.; Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic risk is a crucial issue for South Caucasus, which is the main gateway between Asia and Europe. The goal of this work is to propose new methods and criteria for defining an overall approach aimed at assessing and mitigating seismic risk in Georgia. In this reguard seismic microzonation represents a highly useful tool for seismic risk assessmentin land management, for design of buildings or structures and for emergency planning.Seismic microzonation assessment of local seismic hazard,which is a component of seismicity resulting from specific local characteristics which cause local amplification and soil instability, through identification of zones with seismically homogeneous behavior. This paper presents the results of preliminary study of seismic microzonation of Gori, Georgia. Gori is and is located in the Shida Kartli region and on both sides of Liachvi and Mtkvari rivers, with area of about 135 km2around the Gori fortress. Gori is located in Achara-Trialeti fold-thrust belt, that is tectonically unstable. Half of all earthquakes in Gori area with magnitude M≥3.5 have happened along this fault zone and on basis of damage caused by previous earthquakes, this territory show the highest level of risk (the maximum value of direct losses) in central part of the town. The seismic microzonation map of level 1 for Gori was carried out using: 1) Already available data (i.e., topographic map and boreholes data), 2) Results of new geological surveys and 3) Geophysical measurements (i.e., MASW and noise measurements processed with HVSR technique). Our preliminary results highlight the presence of both stable zones susceptible to local amplifications and unstable zones susceptible to geological instability. Our results are directed to establish set of actions aimed at risk mitigation before initial onset of emergency, and to management of the emergency once the seismic event has occurred. The products obtained, will contain the basic elements of an integrated system

  3. Socio-economic analysis : a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh a...

  4. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) – Black Sea assessments (STECF-15-16).

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Expert Working Group meeting of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries EWG 15-12 was held from 28 Sep-02 Oct 2015 in Ispra, Italy to assess the status of Black Sea against the proposed FMSY reference points. The meeting was preceded by a two-day data preparatory meeting held at JRC premises during 24-25 Sep 2015. The report was reviewed by written procedure in October 2015.

  5. Enlightenment of ISO Methodology to Assess and Communicate the Economic Benefits of Consensus-Based Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    In March 2010,ISO released the Methodology to Assess and Communicate the Economic Benefits of Consensus-Based Standards,which is of a great theoretical and practical significance.Standards and standardization is not a simple administrative work,but a kind of highly professional and technical business.The reality is just the opposite in that the standardization work worldwide always lacks the support of theories.The case is even worse in China.

  6. Economic assessment of environmental impact in the course of oil field development and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Kupriyanova, O. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The article considers the variety of impacts that oil exploration and production operations have on the environment at different stages of the process. To provide accurate economic assessment, an oil field development project was designed, with various development options. These options being analyzed, the strategy with the minimal environmental impact was identified. This has allowed preparation of a guideline on how to prevent deterioration of the environment and to reduce the negative environmental impact

  7. A primer of economic methods of assessment of medical imaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, C. [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, QLD (Australia). Department of Radiological Sciences

    1997-12-01

    A number of methods of economic assessment that can be applied to medical technology are described. Two, in particular Cost-Benefit Analysis and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - are applied to medical imaging technology. An outline of a Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and the cost effectiveness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging is given. Copyright (1997) Australian Institute of Radiography 17 refs.

  8. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  9. Assessment of Economic Efficiency Pertaining to Application of Energy Storage Units in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chernetsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some aspects pertaining to an application of technologies for energy storage in electric power. Review of technical and cost characteristics of energy storage units has been given in the paper. The review reflects data of the energy storage units which are available and which are under development. The paper proposes an approach that permits to assess boundaries of economically reasonable application of energy storage systems in order to balance daily load curve of a power system.

  10. A socio-economic impact assessment of the European launcher sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Luca del; Scatteia, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    In a context where the economic strains are challenging European policies as well as the very fabric of governmental contributions to public life, innovation and efficacy of public policy in research are called upon to support growth in Europe and to sustain employment and entrepreneurial capacities. Governments need evidence that the investments in space, while providing strategic tools to implement sovereign policies, create jobs and build the competitive European economy of the future. This is particularly true when the decisions at stake have a potential bearing on the future of the European space sector for at least the next 30 years, as it has been the case for the ESA Council at ministerial level meeting in December 2014. On that occasion, Ministers took the decision to start the development of a new Ariane 6 launcher and Vega evolutions having a critical bearing on the Member States' strategic industrial capabilities and on the sustainability of the European guaranteed access to space. Given the importance of the subject, and following similar studies undertaken in the past for e.g. the Ariane 1-4 programme, the Agency has requested an independent consulting team to perform a dedicated study to assess ex-post the direct, indirect and induced socio-economic impacts of the Ariane 5 programme (mid-term evaluation) and of the Vega programme (early evaluation) globally, at European level, and within the economies and industries of each ESA Member State. This paper presents the assessment of the socio-economic impacts allowing the evaluation of the return on public investments in launchers through ESA in a wider perspective, going beyond the purely economic terms. The scope of the assessment covered in total approximately 25 ESA programmatic and activity lines and 30,000 commitments from 1986 to end 2012. In the framework of the study, the economic impact of the European launcher programmes is measured through a GDP impact defined as the straight economic

  11. A new methodology for assessment of pectus excavatum correction after bar removal in Nuss procedure: Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Fonseca, João; Vilaça, João L; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Direito-Santos, Bruno; Pinho, António C M; Fonseca, Jaime C; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The objective is to present a new methodology to assess quantitatively the impact of bar removal on the anterior chest wall, among patients with pectus excavatum who have undergone the Nuss procedure, and present a preliminary study using this methodology. We propose to acquire, for each patient, the surface of the anterior chest wall using a three-dimensional laser scanner at subsequent time points (short term: before and after surgery; long term: follow-up visit, 6months, and 12months after surgery). After surfaces postprocessing, the changes are assessed by overlapping and measuring the distances between surfaces. In this preliminary study, three time points were acquired and two assessments were performed: before vs after bar removal (early) and before vs 2-8weeks after bar removal (interim). In 21 patients, the signed distances and volumes between surfaces were computed and the data analysis was performed. This methodology revealed useful for monitoring changes in the anterior chest wall. On average, the mean, maximum, and volume variations, in the early assessment, were -0.1±0.1cm, -0.6±0.2cm, and 47.8±22.2cm(3), respectively; and, in the interim assessment, were -0.5±0.2cm, -1.3±0.4cm, and 122.1±47.3cm(3), respectively (pmethodology is novel, objective and safe, helping on follow-up of pectus excavatum patients. Moreover, the preliminary study suggests that the time the bar was in situ may be the main determinant of the anterior chest wall retraction following bar removal. Further studies should continue to corroborate and reinforce the preliminary findings, by increasing the sample size and performing long-term assessments. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Techno-economic assessment of a hybrid solar receiver and combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Han; Nathan, Graham; Dally, Bassam; Chinnici, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    A techno-economic analysis is performed to compare two different configurations of hybrid solar thermal systems with fossil fuel backup to provide continuous electricity output. The assessment compares a Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC), in which the functions of a solar cavity receiver and a combustor are integrated into a single device with a reference conventional solar thermal system using a regular solar cavity receiver with a backup boiler, termed the Solar Gas Hybrid (SGH). The benefits of the integration is assessed by varying the size of the storage capacity and heliostat field while maintaining the same overall thermal input to the power block.

  13. Preliminary assessment of metal toxicity in the middle Tisza river (Hungary) flood plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, M.C.; Williams, P.L. [Dept. of Environmental Health Science, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Cyanide and heavy metals were accidentally released from a mine waste lagoon in Romania into tributaries ultimately draining into the Tisza River. Within two months of the cyanide accident two subsequent heavy metal waste spills further contaminated the Tisza River, followed by severe spring flooding, which potentially spread the contamination to soils adjacent to the river. Flood plain soils and shoreline sediments were sampled from two locations on the middle Tisza River and a reference site to conduct a preliminary assessment of metal content and toxicity. Ten-day sediment toxicity tests were conducted with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca and 24 h soil toxicity tests were conducted with the nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). High concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead and arsenic were detected in soil and sediment samples. However, no mortality was observed in Hyalella exposed to Tisza River sediments and only up to 27% mortality of C. elegans was observed in flood plain soils. Low mortalities are attributed to reduced metal bioavailability caused by high soil cation exchange capacities and possible interactions with sediment organic matter or sulfides. Future studies should focus on factors that alter metal bioavailability and their relationship to potential toxicity of organisms exposed to Tisza River sediments and flood plain soils. (orig.)

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Effects of Paint Industry Effluents on Local Groundwater Regime in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, groundwater constitutes a major source of water supply especially in developing countries, however wastes generated arising from industrial growth and further complication caused by its indiscriminate disposal have been a major risk to groundwater vulnerability. Hence in this study, preliminary impact assessment of wastewater discharged from paint industry on proximal groundwater regime was carried out. Representative groundwater and effluent samples were collected from locations within the study area, and analyzed in accordance to the American Public Health Association standard methods. The values of the measured concentration of the parameters were compared with regulatory standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Mn2+ , total Fe, Ca2+ , TDS, TSS, total hardness and SO4 2- were mostly higher than the permissible regulatory standards. Total alkalinity values were very low in all the groundwater samples, while the presence of E-coli across all the sampling points indicated wide spread pathogenic contamination. The results showed average lead concentration of 1.18 mg/l compared to the permissible level of 0.01 mg/l. Corresponding higher values of the physicochemical and biological parameters were observed in the discharged effluent samples. The observed high lead concentration have potential toxic consequences, and hence enforcement of localized waste minimization is recommended in order to promote waste recycling, and ensure adequate protection of public health and the environment.

  15. Euler technology assessment for preliminary aircraft design employing OVERFLOW code with multiblock structured-grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, David A.; Muilenburg, Dennis A.

    1995-01-01

    The viability of applying a state-of-the-art Euler code to calculate the aerodynamic forces and moments through maximum lift coefficient for a generic sharp-edge configuration is assessed. The OVERFLOW code, a method employing overset (Chimera) grids, was used to conduct mesh refinement studies, a wind-tunnel wall sensitivity study, and a 22-run computational matrix of flow conditions, including sideslip runs and geometry variations. The subject configuration was a generic wing-body-tail geometry with chined forebody, swept wing leading-edge, and deflected part-span leading-edge flap. The analysis showed that the Euler method is adequate for capturing some of the non-linear aerodynamic effects resulting from leading-edge and forebody vortices produced at high angle-of-attack through C(sub Lmax). Computed forces and moments, as well as surface pressures, match well enough useful preliminary design information to be extracted. Vortex burst effects and vortex interactions with the configuration are also investigated.

  16. A preliminary spatial assessment of risk: Marine birds and chronic oil pollution on Canada's Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C H; O'Hara, P D; Bertazzon, S; Morgan, K; Underwood, F E; Paquet, P C

    2016-12-15

    Chronic oil pollution poses substantial risks to marine birds and other marine wildlife worldwide. On Canada's Pacific coast, the negative ecological consequences to marine birds and marine ecosystems in general remain poorly understood. Using information relating to oil spill probability of occurrence, areas of overall importance to marine birds, and the at-sea distribution and density of 12 marine bird species and seven bird groups, including multiple Species at Risk, we undertook a spatial assessment of risk. Our results identify two main areas important to marine birds potentially at higher risk of exposure to oil. For individual bird species or species groups, those predicted to have elevated bird densities near the mainland and the northeast coast of Vancouver Island were identified as being at higher potential risk of exposure. Our results, however, should be considered preliminary. As with other anthropogenic stressors, in order to better understand and subsequently mitigate the consequences of chronic oil pollution on marine birds, improved information relating to marine birds and the occurrence of oil spills on Canada's Pacific coast is needed.

  17. Preliminary study on assessment of nutrient transport in the Taihu Basin based on SWAT modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI; Geying; YU; Ge; GUI; Feng

    2006-01-01

    With the Taihu Basin as a study area, using the spatially distributed and mechanism-based SWAT model, preliminary simulations of nutrient transport in the Taihu Basin during the period of 1995~2002 has been carried out. The topography, soil, meteorology and land use with industrial point pollution discharge, the loss of agricultural fertilizers, urban sewerage, and livestock drainages were all considered in the boundary conditions of the simulations. The model was calibrated and validated against water quality monitoring data from 2001 to 2002. The results show that the annual total productions of nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) into Lake Taihu are 40000t and 2000t respectively. Nutrient from the Huxi Region is a major resource for Lake Taihu. The non-point source (surface source) pollution is the main form of catchment sources of nutrients into Lake Taihu,occupied TN 53% and TP 56% respectively. TN and TP nutrients from industrial point pollution discharge are 30% and 16%, and sewerage in both forms of point source and non-point source are TN 31% and TP 47%. Both the loss of agricultural fertilizers and livestock drainages from the catchment should be paid more attention as an important nutrient source. The results also show that SWAT is an effective model for the simulation of temporally and spatially nutrient changes and for the assessment of the trends in a catchment scale.

  18. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85: Presentation Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, Bentley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85 presentation and supplementary report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory examine how the spacing of E85 fueling stations impacts E85 retail pricing. The analysis finds an inverse correlation between station density and E85 prices, with local competition putting downward pressure on E85 prices. A gas station with E85 whose nearest competitor is within a 0.5 mile radius is associated with a lower E85 price per gallon than an otherwise identical station with E85 whose nearest competitor is farther away. The analysis also finds a higher level of correlation between E85 and both E10 and wholesale gasoline prices than with ethanol costs. This indicates that E85 may, in fact, be priced with respect to its substitute fuel, and not based on the cost of its inputs. These findings help identify key trends and barriers in E85 markets and highlight data gaps that, if addressed, could help enable competitive E85 markets. The analysis was released in February 2017 and uses national and Minnesota-specific price data.

  19. Preliminary assessment of perchlorate in ecological receptors at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (LHAAP), Karnack, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P N; Theodorakis, C W; Anderson, T A; Kendall, R J

    2001-10-01

    There have been increasing human health and ecological concerns about ionic perchlorate (ClO4-) since it was detected in drinking water sources in 1997. Perchlorate is known to affect thyroid function, causing subsequent hormone disruption and potential perturbations of metabolic activities. According to current estimates, perchlorate is found in the surface of groundwater of 14 states, including Texas. Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, located in east central Texas, was a facility historically associated with perchlorate-containing propellants and rocket motors. Subsequently, perchlorate contamination in ground and surface waters at the facility has been reported. Soil, sediment, water, vegetation, and animal tissue samples were collected from several locations within the plant for a preliminary site assessment of perchlorate contamination. Perchlorate concentrations ranged from 555-5,557,000 ppb in vegetation, 811-2038 ppb in aquatic insects, below detection limits (ND) to 207 ppb in fish, ND-580 ppb in frogs, and ND-2328 ppb in mammals. Consistent with our hypothesis, aquatic organisms inhabiting perchlorate-contaminated surface water bodies contained detectable concentrations of perchlorate. Additionally, terrestrial organisms were exposed through pathways not necessarily related to contaminated surface waters. Therefore, these data demonstrate that aquatic and terrestrial species are exposed to perchlorate in the environment. To our knowledge, this represents the first incidence of perchlorate exposure among wild animals reported in the scientific literature.

  20. Preliminary water-quality assessment of the upper White River near Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.; Eikenberry, S.E.; Wilber, W.G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1981-01-01

    The White River Park Commission is planning the development of park facilities along the White River through Indianapolis, Ind. A key element in the planning is the determination of whether water quality of the river is suitable for recreation. A preliminary water-quality assessment conducted August 4-5, 1980, indicated that, during low-flow steady-state conditions, the river is suitable for partial body contact recreation (any contact with water up to, but not including complete submergence). Dissolved-oxygen concentrations varied but were higher than the Indiana water-quality standards established to ensure conditions for the maintenance of a well-balanced, warm-water fish community. High fecal-coliform densities that have been observed in the White River during high streamflow are probably caused by stormwater runoff carried by combined storm and sanitary sewers. However, during the low-flow, steady-state conditions on August 4-5, 1980, fecal-coliform densities were within the Indiana standards for partial body contact recreation. Quantities of organic matter and concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in the White River were generally within the limits recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and were generally similar to values for other Indiana rivers. Chromium, copper, lead, zinc, and mercury are accumulating in bottom materials downstream from 30th Street. The phytoplankton concentrations in the White River were high. The dominant phytoplankton species were indicative of rivers moderately affected by organic wastes. (USGS)

  1. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley Clinton

    2017-02-01

    The Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85 presentation and supplementary report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory examine how the spacing of E85 fueling stations impacts E85 retail pricing. The analysis finds an inverse correlation between station density and E85 prices, with local competition putting downward pressure on E85 prices. A gas station with E85 whose nearest competitor is within a 0.5 mile radius is associated with a lower E85 price per gallon than an otherwise identical station with E85 whose nearest competitor is farther away. The analysis also finds a higher level of correlation between E85 and both E10 and wholesale gasoline prices than with ethanol costs. This indicates that E85 may, in fact, be priced with respect to its substitute fuel, and not based on the cost of its inputs. These findings help identify key trends and barriers in E85 markets and highlight data gaps that, if addressed, could help enable competitive E85 markets. The analysis was released in February 2017 and uses national and Minnesota-specific price data.

  2. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime(®) manufactured by Revlon(®) consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61%) was most prevalent, followed by Type I' (28%), Type II (9%), Type III (2%), Type IV (1%), and Type V (1%); in the male population, Type I (33%) was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%), Type III (18%), Type IV (14%), Type I' (10%), and Type V (3%). Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870) and females (κ = 0.870). Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI) of 91.48-99.38. Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database.

  3. Preliminary assessment of partitioning and transmutation as a radioactive waste management concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A. G.; Tedder, D. W.; Drago, J. P.; Blomeke, J. O.; Perona, J. J.

    1977-09-01

    Partitioning (separating) the actinide elements from nuclear fuel cycle wastes and transmuting (burning) them to fission products in power reactors represents a potentially advanced concept of radioactive waste management which could reduce the long-term (greater than 1000 years) risk associated with geologic isolation of wastes. The greatest uncertainties lie in the chemical separations technology needed to recover greater than 99 percent of the actinides during the reprocessing of spent fuels and their refabrication as fresh fuels or target elements. Preliminary integrated flowsheets based on modifications of the Purex process and supplementary treatment by oxalate precipitation and ion exchange indicate that losses of plutonium in reprocessing wastes might be reduced from about 2.0 percent to 0.1 percent, uranium losses from about 1.7 percent to 0.1 percent, neptunium losses from 100 percent to about 1.2 percent, and americium and curium from 100 percent to about 0.5 percent. Mixed oxide fuel fabrication losses may be reduced from about 0.5 percent to 0.06 percent for plutonium and from 0.5 percent to 0.04 percent for uranium. Americium losses would be about 5.5 percent for the reference system. Transmutation of the partitioned actinides at a rate of 5 to 7 percent per year is feasible in both fast and thermal reactors, but additional studies are needed to determine the most suitable strategy for recycling them to reactors and to assess the major impacts of implementing the concept on fuel cycle operations and costs. It is recommended that the ongoing program to evaluate the feasibility, impacts, costs, and incentives of implementing partitioning-transmutation be continued until a firm assessment of its potentialities can be made. At the present level of effort, achievement of this objective should be possible by 1980. 27 tables, 50 figures.

  4. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime® manufactured by Revlon® consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. Results: No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61%) was most prevalent, followed by Type I’ (28%), Type II (9%), Type III (2%), Type IV (1%), and Type V (1%); in the male population, Type I (33%) was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%), Type III (18%), Type IV (14%), Type I’ (10%), and Type V (3%). Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870) and females (κ = 0.870). Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI) of 91.48-99.38. Conclusion: Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database. PMID:26816459

  5. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation using an economic pluvial flood risk framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    It is anticipated that climate change is likely to lead to an increasing risk level of flooding in cities in northern Europe. One challenging question is how to best address the increasing flood risk and assess the costs and benefits of adapting to such changes. We established an integrated...... approach for identification and assessment of climate change adaptation options by incorporating climate change impacts, flood inundation modelling, economic tool and risk assessment and management. The framework is further extended and adapted by embedding a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the total...... uncertainty bounds propagated through the evaluation and identify the relative contribution of inherent uncertainties in the assessment. The case study is a small urban catchment located in Skibhus, Odense where no significant city development is anticipated. Two adaptation scenarios, namely pipe enlargement...

  6. An Assessment of Direct and Indirect Economic Losses of Climatic Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Willner, S. N.; Wenz, L.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Risk of extreme weather events like storms, heat extremes, and floods has already risen due to anthropogenic climate change and is likely to increase further under future global warming. Additionally, the structure of the global economy has changed importantly in the last decades. In the process of globalization, local economies have become more and more interwoven forming a complex network. Together with a trend towards lean production, this has resulted in a strong dependency of local manufacturers on global supply and value added chains, which may render the economic network more vulnerable to climatic extremes; outages of local manufacturers trigger indirect losses, which spread along supply chains and can even outstrip direct losses. Accordingly, in a comprehensive climate risk assessment these inter-linkages should be considered. Here, we present acclimate, an agent based dynamic damage propagation model. Its agents are production and consumption sites, which are interlinked by economic flows accounting for the complexity as well as the heterogeneity of the global supply network. Assessing the economic response on the timescale of the adverse event, the model permits to study temporal and spatial evolution of indirect production losses during the disaster and in the subsequent recovery phase of the economy. In this study, we focus on the dynamic economic resilience defined here as the ratio of direct to total losses. This implies that the resilience of the system under consideration is low if the high indirect losses are high. We find and assess a nonlinear dependence of the resilience on the disaster size. Further, we analyze the influence of the network structure upon resilience and discuss the potential of warehousing as an adaptation option.

  7. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  8. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  9. The weather roulette: assessing the economic value of seasonal wind speed predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Isadora; Cortesi, Nicola; Torralba-Fernandez, Veronica; Soret, Albert; Gonzalez-Reviriego, Nube; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Climate prediction is an emerging and highly innovative research area. For the wind energy sector, predicting the future variability of wind resources over the coming weeks or seasons is especially relevant to quantify operation and maintenance logistic costs or to inform energy trading decision with potential cost savings and/or economic benefits. Recent advances in climate predictions have already shown that probabilistic forecasting can improve the current prediction practices, which are based in the use of retrospective climatology and the assumption that what happened in the past is the best estimation of future conditions. Energy decision makers now have this new set of climate services but, are they willing to use them? Our aim is to properly explain the potential economic benefits of adopting probabilistic predictions, compared with the current practice, by using the weather roulette methodology (Hagedorn & Smith, 2009). This methodology is a diagnostic tool created to inform in a more intuitive and relevant way about the skill and usefulness of a forecast in the decision making process, by providing an economic and financial oriented assessment of the benefits of using a particular forecast system. We have selected a region relevant to the energy stakeholders where the predictions of the EUPORIAS climate service prototype for the energy sector (RESILIENCE) are skillful. In this region, we have applied the weather roulette to compare the overall prediction success of RESILIENCE's predictions and climatology illustrating it as an effective interest rate, an economic term that is easier to understand for energy stakeholders.

  10. Fire Risk Assessment and Its Economic Loss Estimation in Tehran Subway, Applying Event Tree Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Atrkar Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subway system is one of the critical infrastructures in a society. In economic optimizations of risk control measures, valuing the loss of life and other financial losses in terms of money on the other hand, could influence the optimal investments in safety. The purpose is to contribute to the implementation of HSE in the transportation system. In this research, a fire risk assessment along with its economic loss estimation in the Direct Current (DC trains and rectifier substation (RS of Tehran subway is implemented. The number of fatalities, the extent of damage on the train equipment, etc., is then calculated in monetary unit. By using Event Tree Analysis (herein ETA, after identification of initiating events through observation, interviews, and evaluation of documents, event tree was constructed for each of them and the probability of multiple scenarios were computed. The scenario with the highest probability of fire in RS, including increased heats in the RTU panels generate a loss of at least 730 Million Rials. Accordingly, the minimum and maximum economic loss caused by fire on DC trains is minimum 510 and 1230 Million Rials, respectively. Conclusion: Given the findings of this study, the financial and human life risks, along with all tangible and intangible losses, which is considerable, the relevant managers must compare investments in safety, with the decrease of calculated economic risks as a result of fire accident in Tehran subway.

  11. Tipping elements and climate-economic shocks: Pathways toward integrated assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Robert E.; Shwom, Rachael L.; Wagner, Gernot; Yuan, Jiacan

    2016-08-01

    The literature on the costs of climate change often draws a link between climatic "tipping points" and large economic shocks, frequently called "catastrophes." The phrase "tipping points" in this context can be misleading. In popular and social scientific discourse, "tipping points" involve abrupt state changes. For some climatic "tipping points," the commitment to a state change may occur abruptly, but the change itself may be rate-limited and take centuries or longer to realize. Additionally, the connection between climatic "tipping points" and economic losses is tenuous, although emerging empirical and process-model-based tools provide pathways for investigating it. We propose terminology to clarify the distinction between "tipping points" in the popular sense, the critical thresholds exhibited by climatic and social "tipping elements," and "economic shocks." The last may be associated with tipping elements, gradual climate change, or nonclimatic triggers. We illustrate our proposed distinctions by surveying the literature on climatic tipping elements, climatically sensitive social tipping elements, and climate-economic shocks, and we propose a research agenda to advance the integrated assessment of all three.

  12. A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; King, Thomas F [ORNL

    2006-04-01

    operation in response to local or system operators. There are no known distributed energy asset owners currently receiving compensation for reactive power supply or capability. However, there are some cases where small generators on the generation and transmission side of electricity supply have been tested and have installed the capability to be dispatched for reactive power support. Several concerns need to be met for distributed energy to become widely integrated as a reactive power resource. The overall costs of retrofitting distributed energy devices to absorb or produce reactive power need to be reduced. There needs to be a mechanism in place for ISOs/RTOs to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where distributed energy resides. Novel compensation methods should be introduced to encourage the dispatch of dynamic resources close to areas with critical voltage issues. The next phase of this research will investigate in detail how different options of reactive power producing DE can compare both economically and functionally with shunt capacitor banks. Shunt capacitor banks, which are typically used for compensating reactive power consumption of loads on distribution systems, are very commonly used because they are very cost effective in terms of capital costs. However, capacitor banks can require extensive maintenance especially due to their exposure to lightning at the top of utility poles. Also, it can be problematic to find failed capacitor banks and their maintenance can be expensive, requiring crews and bucket trucks which often requires total replacement. Another shortcoming of capacitor banks is the fact that they usually have one size at a location (typically sized as 300, 600, 900 or 1200kVAr) and thus don't have variable range as do reactive power producing DE, and cannot respond to dynamic reactive power needs. Additional future work is to find a detailed methodology to identify the hidden benefit of DE for providing reactive power

  13. A Preliminary Assessment of a Deep Borehole disposal of Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Younmyoung; Jeon, Jongtae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of such radioactive waste as spent nuclear fuels (SFs) and other waste forms has been investigating mainly at Sandia National Labs for the US DOE as an alternative option. DBD can give advantages over less deep geological disposal since the disposal of wastes at a great depth where a low degree of permeability in the potentially steady rock condition will be beneficial for nuclide movement. Groundwater in the deep basement rock can even have salinity and less chance to mix with groundwater above. The DBD concept is quite straightforward and even simple: Waste canisters are simply emplaced in the lower 2 km part of the borehole down to 5 km deep. Through this study, a conceptual DBD is assessed for a similar case as the US DOE's approach, in which 400 SF canisters are to be emplaced at a deep bottom between 3km and 5km depths, upon which an additional 1km-thick compacted bentonite is overbuffered, and the remaining upper part of the borehole is backfilled again with a mixture of crushed rock and bentonite. Then, the total 5km-deep borehole has three zones: a disposal zone at the bottom 2km, a buffer zone at the next 1km, and backfill zone at the rest top 2km, as illustrated conceptually in Fig. 1. To demonstrate the feasibility in view of long-term radiological safety, a rough model for a safety assessment of this conceptual deep borehole repository system, providing detailed models for nuclide transport in and around the geosphere and biosphere under normal nuclide release scenarios that can occur after a closure of the repository, has been developed using GoldSim. A simple preliminary result in terms of the dose exposure rate from a safety assessment of the DBD is also presented and compared to the case of direct disposal of SFs in a KBS-3V vertical type repository, carried out in previous studies. For different types and shapes of repositories at each different depth, direct comparison between a DBD and a KBS-3 type disposal of

  14. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  15. An Initial Assessment of the Economic Value of Coastal and Freshwater Wetlands in West Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian V. Eppink

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many countries in West Asia, defined in this study as the Arabic-speaking countries of the Arabian Peninsula plus Turkey and Iran, have enacted environmental conservation laws but regional underlying drivers of environment change, such as rising incomes and fast-growing populations, continue to put pressure on remaining wetlands. This paper aims to inform conservation efforts by presenting the first regional assessment of the economic value of coastal and freshwater wetlands in West Asia. Using scenario analysis we find that, dependent on the discount rate used, the present value of the regional economic loss of not protecting wetlands by 2050 is between US dollar 2.3 billion and US dollar 7.2 billion (expressed in 2007 US dollars. The method used for this assessment, however, is not suitable for expressing national realities adequately. We therefore suggest that detailed localized studies are conducted to improve insight into the drivers and the social and economic effects of wetland loss in West Asia.

  16. Ecological and Economic Assessment of Micro-/Milli-Continuous Campaign Manufacturing: The Case of Writing Ink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Grundemann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many products from the fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals industries are currently manufactured batch-wise in multi-product plants. However, this processing scheme suffers from severe drawbacks, such as a high specific energy demand, cleaning costs and high staff requirements. Transferring batch into continuous campaign productions may overcome these drawbacks. Using the case of writing ink, such a continuous manufacturing scheme was developed employing micro- and milli-structured components in order to intensify certain unit operations. In this paper, an ecological and economic assessment of both production concepts considering all lifecycle stages is presented. The aim of our work is to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the two multi-product plants and to derive recommendations for the most efficient design and operation of a continuous campaign manufacturing plant. The results show that lower environmental impacts are related to continuous processing, which is due to the option for energy integration in this case. Furthermore, in the economic assessment, continuous processing proved to be economically viable. In this case, reduced staff requirements based on a highly automated manufacturing plant are the key to lower personnel costs. In general, the results emphasize the importance of such micro-/milli-continuous multi-product plants for the future manufacturing of newly developed products in the mentioned industries.

  17. Economic Assessment of Zoonoses Surveillance in a 'One Health' Context: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2016-08-01

    Collaboration between animal and public health sectors has been highlighted as a means to improve the management of zoonotic threats. This includes surveillance systems for zoonoses, where enhanced cross-sectoral integration and sharing of information are seen as key to improved public health outcomes. Yet, there is a lack of evidence on the economic returns of such collaboration, particularly in the development and implementation of surveillance programmes. The economic assessment of surveillance in this context needs to be underpinned by the understanding of the links between zoonotic disease surveillance in animal populations and the wider public health disease mitigation process and how these relations impact on the costs and benefits of the surveillance activities. This study presents a conceptual framework of these links as a basis for the economic assessment of cross-sectoral zoonoses surveillance with the aim of supporting the prioritization of resource allocation to surveillance. In the proposed framework, monetary, non-monetary and intermediate or intangible cost components and benefit streams of three conceptually distinct stages of zoonotic disease mitigation are identified. In each stage, as the final disease mitigation objective varies so does the use of surveillance information generated in the animal populations for public health decision-making. Consequently, the associated cost components and benefit streams also change. Building on the proposed framework and taking into account these links, practical steps for its application are presented and future challenges are discussed.

  18. Landfill mining in Austria: foundations for an integrated ecological and economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Sarc, Renato; Ragossnig, Arne; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Eisenberger, Martin; Budischowsky, Andreas; Pomberger, Roland

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, basic technical and economic studies for landfill mining are being carried out in Austria on the basis of a pilot project. An important goal of these studies is the collection of elementary data as the basis for an integrated ecological and economic assessment of landfill mining projects with regard to their feasibility. For this purpose, economic, ecological, technical, organizational, as well as political and legal influencing factors are identified and extensively studied in the article. An important aspect is the mutual influence of the factors on each other, as this can significantly affect the development of an integrated assessment system. In addition to the influencing factors, the definition of the spatial and temporal system boundaries is crucial for further investigations. Among others, the quality and quantity of recovered waste materials, temporal fluctuations or developments in prices of secondary raw material and fuels attainable in the markets, and time and duration of dumping, play a crucial role. Based on the investigations, the spatial system boundary is defined in as much as all the necessary process steps, from landfill mining, preparing and sorting to providing a marketable material/product by the landfill operator, are taken into account. No general accepted definition can be made for the temporal system boundary because the different time-related influencing factors necessitate an individual project-specific determination and adaptation to the facts of the on-site landfill mining project. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Techno-economic and environmental assessment of sewage sludge wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Canato, Matteo; Heimersson, Sara; Laera, Giuseppe; Salvetti, Roberta; Slavik, Edoardo; Svanström, Magdalena

    2015-05-01

    Today, several technologies and management strategies are proposed and applied in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to minimise sludge production and contamination. In order to avoid a shifting of burdens between different areas, their techno-economic and environmental performance has to be carefully evaluated. Wet oxidation (WO) is an alternative solution to incineration for recovering energy in sewage sludge while converting it to mostly inorganic residues. This paper deals with an experimentation carried out within the EU project "ROUTES". A mass balance was made for a WWTP (500,000 person equivalents) in which a WO stage for sludge minimisation was considered to be installed. Both bench- and full-scale test results were used. Design of treatment units and estimation of capital and operational costs were then performed. Subsequently, technical and economic aspects were evaluated by means of a detailed methodology which was developed within the ROUTES project. Finally, an assessment of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective was performed. The integrated assessment showed that for the specific upgrade considered in this study, WO technology, although requiring a certain increase of technical complexity at the WWTP, may contribute to environmental and economic advantages. The paper provides guidance in terms of which aspects need a more thorough evaluation in relation to the specific case in which an upgrade with WO is considered.

  20. Risk Assessment, Partition and Economic Loss Estimation of Rice Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural risk, especially the risk assessment, partition and economic loss estimation of specific and main crops, maize, wheat and rice, is widely touted in China as a means of improving the effective productivity. The main objective of this article is to perform a detailed analysis of the stability and comparative advantage of rice production in 30 provinces on the basis of relative rice production data from 2000 to 2012 in China. The non-parametric information diffusion model based on entropy theory was used to assess rice production risk. Accordingly, we divided the risk level with hierarchical cluster analysis. Then, we calculated the economic loss of rice production by the scenario analysis. The results show that, firstly, the national disaster risk of rice production is at a lower level. Secondly, there are significant differences in the stability, comparative advantage and risk probability of rice production among the 30 provinces. Thirdly, Shanxi province belongs to the high risk zone, 12 provinces belong to the middle risk zone and 17 provinces to the low risk zone. Finally, there is a proportional rate between the economic loss (yield loss and disaster area (yield loss rate of rice production. Therefore, we could obtain some significant policy suggestions.

  1. Local Community Assessment on the Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects of Ecotourism in Lobo, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe Dian D. Bansil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the economic, environmental and social aspects of ecotourism in Lobo, Batangas, Philippines. Lobo is situated in the Verde Island Passage, the “center of the center of marine biodiversity” in the world. Lobo is also home to scenic beaches with spectacular dive spots and fish sanctuaries; mountain ranges with the endangered tree specie, the Philippine teak or Tectona philippinensis; and the 120-year old Malabrigo Lighthouse, which is overlooking Verde Island. The assessment was made by 394 residents of 18 barangays or local communities within the ecotourism areas, who are selected through stratified-proportional random sampling. The study is descriptive in nature and a survey questionnaire was the instrument used in data gathering. Results show that ecotourism in Lobo is economically, viable, environmentally sound and socially acceptable. However, the local government of Lobo and the tourism industry should be constantly cautious in every aspect of ecotourism development to assure its sustainability in the long run. In addition, residents of the local communities should also be always vigilant on the protection of the Lobo environment and conservation of its natural resources outweighing whatever economic benefits they may be offered by industries, tourism or any else.

  2. Analysis of the methods for assessing socio-economic development level of urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Bogacheva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The present paper provides a targeted analysis of current approaches (ratings) in the assessment of socio-economic development of urban areas. The survey focuses on identifying standardized methodologies to area assessment techniques formation that will result in developing the system of intelligent monitoring, dispatching, building management, scheduling and effective management of an administrative-territorial unit. This system is characterized by complex hierarchical structure, including tangible and intangible properties (parameters, attributes). Investigating the abovementioned methods should increase the administrative-territorial unit's attractiveness for investors and residence. The research aims at studying methods for evaluating socio-economic development level of the Russian Federation territories. Experimental and theoretical territory estimating methods were revealed. Complex analysis of the characteristics of the areas was carried out and evaluation parameters were determined. Integral indicators (resulting rating criteria values) as well as the overall rankings (parameters, characteristics) were analyzed. The inventory of the most widely used partial indicators (parameters, characteristics) of urban areas was revealed. The resulting criteria of rating values homogeneity were verified and confirmed by determining the root mean square deviation, i.e. divergence of indices. The principal shortcomings of assessment methodologies were revealed. The assessment methods with enhanced effectiveness and homogeneity were proposed.

  3. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  4. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility, desirability and preferred approaches for disposal of selected high-level nuclear wastes in space were analyzed. Preliminary space disposal risk estimates and estimates of risk uncertainty are provided.

  5. Preliminary assessment of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex environmental contaminants background survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents the preliminary results of the first year of the multiyear study, The Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex) Environmental...

  6. Techno-economic assessment of novel vanadium redox flow batteries with large-area cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a promising electrochemical storage system for stationary megawatt-class applications. The currently limited cell area determined by the bipolar plate (BPP) could be enlarged significantly with a novel extruded large-area plate. For the first time a techno-economic assessment of VRFB in a power range of 1 MW-20 MW and energy capacities of up to 160 MWh is presented on the basis of the production cost model of large-area BPP. The economic model is based on the configuration of a 250 kW stack and the overall system including stacks, power electronics, electrolyte and auxiliaries. Final results include a simple function for the calculation of system costs within the above described scope. In addition, the impact of cost reduction potentials for key components (membrane, electrode, BPP, vanadium electrolyte) on stack and system costs is quantified and validated.

  7. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Implementation of Measures for Reducing Energy Losses in Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Alexander; Wilson, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess a group of measures of electrical improvements in distribution systems, starting from the complementation of technical and economic criteria. In order to solve the problem of energy losses in distribution systems, technical and economic analysis was performed based on a mathematical model to establish a direct relationship between the energy saved by way of minimized losses and the costs of implementing the proposed measures. This paper aims at analysing the feasibility of reducing energy losses in distribution systems, by changing existing network conductors by larger crosssection conductors and distribution voltage change at higher levels. The impact of this methodology provides a highly efficient mathematical tool for analysing the feasibility of implementing improvement projects based on their costs which is a very useful tool for the distribution companies that will serve as a starting point to the analysis for this type of projects in distribution systems.

  8. Economic assessment of flood forecasts for a risk-averse decision-maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Simon; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Boucher, Vincent; Fortier-Filion, Thomas-Charles

    2017-04-01

    A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. It has also been suggested in past studies that ensemble forecasts might possess a greater economic value than deterministic forecasts. However, the vast majority of recent hydro-economic literature is based on the cost-loss ratio framework, which might be appealing for its simplicity and intuitiveness. One important drawback of the cost-loss ratio is that it implicitly assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. By definition, a risk-neutral individual is indifferent to forecasts' sharpness: as long as forecasts agree with observations on average, the risk-neutral individual is satisfied. A risk-averse individual, however, is sensitive to the level of precision (sharpness) of forecasts. This person is willing to pay to increase his or her certainty about future events. In fact, this is how insurance companies operate: the probability of seeing one's house burn down is relatively low, so the expected cost related to such event is also low. However, people are willing to buy insurance to avoid the risk, however small, of loosing everything. Similarly, in a context where people's safety and property is at stake, the typical decision maker is more risk-averse than risk-neutral. Consequently, the cost-loss ratio is not the most appropriate tool to assess the economic value of flood forecasts. This presentation describes a more realistic framework for assessing the economic value of such forecasts for flood mitigation purposes. Borrowing from economics, the Constant Absolute Risk Aversion utility function (CARA) is the central tool of this new framework. Utility functions allow explicitly accounting for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker and fully exploiting the information related to ensemble forecasts' uncertainty. Three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared in terms of quality (comparison with

  9. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  10. Techno-economic assessment of central sorting at material recovery facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Wenzel, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Simulation of technical and economic performance for materials recovery facilities (MRFs) is a basic requirement for planning new, or evaluating existing, separate waste collection and recycling systems. This study mitigates the current pervasive scarcity of data on process efficiency and costs...... by documenting typical steps taken in a techno-economic assessment of MRFs, using the specific example of lightweight packaging waste (LWP) sorting in Germany. Thus, the study followed the steps of dimensioning of buildings and equipment, calculation of processing costs and projections of revenues from material...... sales and sorting residues disposal costs. Material flows through the plants were simulated considering both optimal process conditions and real or typical conditions characterised by downtime and frequent operation at overcapacity. By modelling four plants of progressively higher capacity (size...

  11. Assessing antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using fossil pollen data: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yao; Jackson, Stephen T [Department of Botany and Program in Ecology, University of Wyoming (United States); Brewer, Simon [Department of Botany, University of Wyoming (United States); Williams, John W, E-mail: yliu11@uwyo.ed [Department of Geography and Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We explored formal approaches to identifying and interpreting the antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using pollen records. Preliminary results of cluster analyses, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, and likelihood estimation of ecosystem analog in a simple Bayesian model allow assessment of modern ecosystem antiquities and past ecosystem turnovers. Approaches discussed in this study thus provide a vehicle for further studies.

  12. Preliminary assessment of the interaction of introduced biological agents with biofilms in water distribution systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Caldwell, Sara; Jones, Howland D. T.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Souza, Caroline Ann; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2005-12-01

    Basic research is needed to better understand the potential risk of dangerous biological agents that are unintentionally or intentionally introduced into a water distribution system. We report on our capabilities to conduct such studies and our preliminary investigations. In 2004, the Biofilms Laboratory was initiated for the purpose of conducting applied research related to biofilms with a focus on application, application testing and system-scale research. Capabilities within the laboratory are the ability to grow biofilms formed from known bacteria or biofilms from drinking water. Biofilms can be grown quickly in drip-flow reactors or under conditions more analogous to drinking-water distribution systems in annular reactors. Biofilms can be assessed through standard microbiological techniques (i .e, aerobic plate counts) or with various visualization techniques including epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy and confocal fluorescence hyperspectral imaging with multivariate analysis. We have demonstrated the ability to grow reproducible Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms in the annular reactor with plate counts on the order of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/cm{sup 2}. Stationary phase growth is typically reached 5 to 10 days after inoculation. We have also conducted a series of pathogen-introduction experiments, where we have observed that both polystyrene microspheres and Bacillus cereus (as a surrogate for B. anthracis) stay incorporated in the biofilms for the duration of our experiments, which lasted as long as 36 days. These results indicated that biofilms may act as a safe harbor for bio-pathogens in drinking water systems, making it difficult to decontaminate the systems.

  13. The orodental status of a group of elderly in-patients: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, L; Gosney, M A; Doherty, U; Field, E A

    1999-12-01

    To provide a preliminary assessment of the orodental status and dental treatment requirements of a group of elderly in-patients. Cross-sectional. Acute Care of the Elderly and Stroke Rehabilitation units at teaching hospitals in Merseyside. 150 patients aged 58 to 94 years, in which a history could be validated at interview. Questionnaire administered by dentist and clinical examination. Registration with a dentist, prosthetic status and difficulties with dentures, denture hygiene and identification marking, dental treatment needs and evidence of mucosal pathology. Only 27% of patients claimed registration with a dentist. Three quarters of the patients were edentulous and 66 patients wore full dentures; 18 had no prostheses. Difficulties were experienced by one quarter of patients with upper dentures, compared with a half of lower denture wearers. Of the dentures available for inspection, 61% had removable soft debris, 66% were left out at night and 75% were cleaned by the patient, whilst on the ward. No dentures had evidence of identification marking. Of the 39 partially dentate patients, 75% required interventive dental treatment. Denture stomatitis was diagnosed in 29% of patients and 19 had evidence of benign mucosal pathology. The orodental status of this group of elderly in-patients was poor, with a high proportion being edentulous. Few were registered with a dentist and denture hygiene was inadequate. Lack of identification marking is a matter of concern. Closer liaison between hospital staff responsible for elderly in-patients is required, to improve the orodental health and quality of life of this medically compromised group of patients.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of mud crab Scylla olivacea (Portunidae) in Peninsular Malaysia: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosly, Hurul Adila-Aida Mohamad; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd; Yahya, Khairun; Naim, Darlina Md

    2013-11-01

    A primary factor in population management and wildlife conservation is the delineation of population units derived from descriptions of population genetic structure. Yet, predicting factors that influence the patterns of gene flow in a population particularly at landscape scales remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Here we report a population genetic study of the mud crab Scylla olivacea examined based on a 542 bp segment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I gene among 91 individuals from six localities in the west and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. In total 55 unique haplotypes were distinguished with 45 private haplotypes and a single common haplotype shared among all populations studied. The other ten haplotypes were shared among various populations. The sharing of this haplotype reflects the connection of the mangrove areas between east and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. High haplotype diversity (h = 0.968 ± 0.021; mean ± SD) and low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.120 ± 0.015; mean ± SD) were displayed, which may be indicative of genetic bottleneck events. No significant phylogenetic lineages were recognized using neighbour-joining and maximum parsimony methods. Hierarchical AMOVA analysis indicated that 99.33 % of the genetic variation was contained within populations and 0.67 % occurred among populations, suggesting no geographical patterning among populations studied, supported by F st test. Mismatch distribution analysis showed that the observed distribution of the pairwise mutation differences among haplotypes was multimodal, which is not concordant with a sudden range expansion scenario. However, neutrality tests showed non-significant negative values suggesting that the populations studied may have experienced past population growth, but the expansion may have been restricted to separate local areas that resulted in the non-significant negative Fu's Fs and Tajima's D value. Overall, this present preliminary study was

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Wind and Wave Retrieval from Chinese Gaofen-3 SAR Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weizeng; Sheng, Yexin; Sun, Jian

    2017-07-25

    The Chinese Gaofen-3 (GF-3) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) launched by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) has operated at C-band since September 2016. To date, we have collected 16/42 images in vertical-vertical (VV)/horizontal-horizontal (HH) polarization, covering the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) around U.S. western coastal waters. Wind speeds from NDBC in situ buoys are up to 15 m/s and buoy-measured significant wave height (SWH) has ranged from 0.5 m to 3 m. In this study, winds were retrieved using the geophysical model function (GMF) together with the polarization ratio (PR) model and waves were retrieved using a new empirical algorithm based on SAR cutoff wavelength in satellite flight direction, herein called CSAR_WAVE. Validation against buoy measurements shows a 1.4/1.9 m/s root mean square error (RMSE) of wind speed and a 24/23% scatter index (SI) of SWH for VV/HH polarization. In addition, wind and wave retrieval results from 166 GF-3 images were compared with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) re-analysis winds, as well as the SWH from the WaveWatch-III model, respectively. Comparisons show a 2.0 m/s RMSE for wind speed with a 36% SI of SWH for VV-polarization and a 2.2 m/s RMSE for wind speed with a 37% SI of SWH for HH-polarization. Our work gives a preliminary assessment of the wind and wave retrieval results from GF-3 SAR images for the first time and will provide guidance for marine applications of GF-3 SAR.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of the Interior Noise Environment in the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    The second-generation Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) serves as a representative vehicle under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) project with a design goal to transport 90 passengers over a distance of 1800 km at a speed of 550 km/hr. The tiltrotor combines the vertical lift capability of a helicopter with the speed, altitude, and range of a turboprop airplane. The blade-passage frequency of the four-bladed rotor is as low as 6.9 Hz during cruise conditions. The resulting low-frequency acoustic excitation and its harmonics, combined with the anticipated use of lightweight composite and sandwich materials for the fuselage sidewall, may pose a challenge to achieving acceptable interior noise levels. The objective of the present study is to perform a preliminary assessment of the expected interior noise environment in the LCTR2 cabin. The approach includes a combination of semi-empirical, analytical, and statistical energy analysis methods. Because the LCTR2 is a notional vehicle, the prediction approach was also applied to the XV-15 tiltrotor and Bombardier Q400 turobprop aircraft to compare predictions with publicly available experimental data. Guidance for the expected interior noise levels in the LCTR2 was obtained by considering both the predicted exterior noise levels and the transmission loss of a basic fuselage sidewall consisting of a skin, porous layer and a trim panel. Structural and acoustic resonances are expected to coincide with low order harmonics of the blade passage frequency. The estimated sound pressure levels in the LCTR2 may not be acceptable when evaluated against known characteristics of human response to low frequency sound.

  17. Use of the Exponential and Exponentiated Demand Equations to Assess the Behavioral Economics of Negative Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragale, Jennifer E. C.; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal motivation and hedonic assessment of aversive stimuli are symptoms of anxiety and depression. Symptoms influenced by motivation and anhedonia predict treatment success or resistance. Therefore, a translational approach to the study of negatively motivated behaviors is needed. We describe a novel use of behavioral economics demand curve analysis to investigate negative reinforcement in animals that separates hedonic assessment of footshock termination (i.e., relief) from motivation to escape footshock. In outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, relief increased as shock intensity increased. Likewise, motivation to escape footshock increased as shock intensity increased. To demonstrate the applicability to anxiety disorders, hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement were investigated in anxiety vulnerable Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. WKY rats demonstrated increased motivation for shock cessation with no difference in relief as compared to control SD rats, consistent with a negative bias for motivation in anxiety vulnerability. Moreover, motivation was positively correlated with relief in SD, but not in WKY. This study is the first to assess the hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement using behavioral economic analysis. This procedure can be used to investigate positive and negative reinforcement in humans and animals to gain a better understanding of the importance of motivated behavior in stress-related disorders. PMID:28270744

  18. Assessment of technical and economical potential of biomass exploitation in Sicily - A GIS based methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccali, M.; Cellura, M.; D' Alberti, V. [DREAM Dipartimento di Ricerche Energetiche ed Ambientali, Universita di Palermo (Italy); Columba, P. [DESAF Dipartimento di Economia dei Sistemi Agro-Forestali, Universita di Palermo (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) supported methodology has been defined and adopted in order to assess the real technical and economical potential of biomass for energy production in Sicily contest. This methodology is based on a data referred to a (GIS) collecting data about cover land use, transport facilities, urban cartography, regional territorial planning, terrain digital model, lithology, climatic types, civil and industry users. By means of that GIS was possible to highlight the potential areas where gather the residues coming from pruning of olives, vineyards and other agricultures crops and to assess the tons of biomass available for energy purpose. The economic availability has been assessed assuming a price of the biomass comparing it with other fuels and the evaluation carried out shows the strong competitiveness of firewood in comparison with the traditional fossil fuels when the collection system is implemented in efficient way. At the same time the study has shown a good competitiveness of the finished biomasses (pellets), and good potentiality for a long term development of this market. According to these, as important result of the study is to show the opportunities stemming from the harmonisation of Energy Policy with the Waste Management System. (orig.)

  19. Use of the Exponential and Exponentiated Demand Equations to Assess the Behavioral Economics of Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragale, Jennifer E C; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal motivation and hedonic assessment of aversive stimuli are symptoms of anxiety and depression. Symptoms influenced by motivation and anhedonia predict treatment success or resistance. Therefore, a translational approach to the study of negatively motivated behaviors is needed. We describe a novel use of behavioral economics demand curve analysis to investigate negative reinforcement in animals that separates hedonic assessment of footshock termination (i.e., relief) from motivation to escape footshock. In outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, relief increased as shock intensity increased. Likewise, motivation to escape footshock increased as shock intensity increased. To demonstrate the applicability to anxiety disorders, hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement were investigated in anxiety vulnerable Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. WKY rats demonstrated increased motivation for shock cessation with no difference in relief as compared to control SD rats, consistent with a negative bias for motivation in anxiety vulnerability. Moreover, motivation was positively correlated with relief in SD, but not in WKY. This study is the first to assess the hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement using behavioral economic analysis. This procedure can be used to investigate positive and negative reinforcement in humans and animals to gain a better understanding of the importance of motivated behavior in stress-related disorders.

  20. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  1. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  2. A framework for assessing the economic value of pharmacovigilance in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Stergachis, Andy; Choi, Hye Lyn; Dodoo, Alexander; Nwokike, Jude; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-03-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) programs are an essential component of national healthcare systems. Well-functioning PV programs can improve population health by identifying and reducing medicines-related problems (MRPs). Many low- and middle-income countries lack functional PV systems, but this deficiency has not been described in terms of the potential economic value of strengthening PV systems. The assessment of economic value for PV can support rational decision making at the country level. We propose a framework for assessing the economic value of PV. We divide national PV systems into four levels: (1) no PV, (2) basic PV, (3) semi-functional PV, and (4) functional PV. These categories represent increasing levels of investment in PV capacity at the national or health facility level for all available medicines, including vaccines. The proposed framework can be used to estimate the costs of PV (including the value of investments to increase PV capacity and the costs of managing MRPs) and outcomes associated with PV (including improvements in morbidity, mortality, and quality of life as a result of the reduction in MRPs). The quantitative approach proposed for assessing costs and benefits uses a decision-analytic modeling framework that would estimate the value of the consequences of MRPs adjusted for their probability of occurrence. This allows the quantification of value using monetary outcomes (cost-benefit analysis), natural units (cost-effectiveness analysis), or mortality adjusted for quality of life or disability (cost-utility analysis). Evidence generated using this framework could assist policy makers, program managers, and donors in evaluating investments that aim to increase the capacity and efficiency of national and facility-level PV programs in low- and middle-income countries.

  3. Dynamical ice sheet model coupling with the GEOS-5 AGCM: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, R. I.; Zhao, B.; Nowicki, S.; Suarez, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamical ice sheet models (ISMs) have been developed to address well-known limitations in eustatic change prediction capabilities. Coupling ISMs to an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is not straightforward, due in part to the extreme difference in spatial scales between the ISM mesh and AGCM grid. In given locations, ISM element edge lengths may be a few km or less, while the AGCM typically has grid spacings on the order of 10s to 100s of km. The Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) is a finite-volume AGCM and employs a cube-sphere atmospheric grid (nominally 1° resolution) and a catchment-based land surface scheme that operates on sub-grid scale areas, or tiles, that describe surface characteristics. The land surface component communicates with the atmosphere on a semi-implicit time step via the exchange grid. In this study, coupling between the AGCM and the ISM is facilitated through sub-grid scale land surface tiles that are defined for each element of the ISM. The ISM used here is the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) from NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Univ. California at Irvine, which has been adapted for the Greenland Ice Sheet using the 72,320-element Schlagel mesh and using a shallow ice approximation. In the AGCM, land surface tiles are uniquely characterized through a simple downscaling parameterization of surface temperature within each AGCM grid box using a defined lapse rate. On each land surface tile, GEOS-5 employs an advanced snow hydrology model for improved representation of the ice sheet surface mass balance. This preliminary assessment focuses on the differences in the AGCM surface mass balance and surface temperature fields resulting from the downscaling measures employed in the context of an exchange grid, semi-implicit coupling with the atmosphere, and the response of the ISM. Differences in AGCM computational performance with the addition of Greenland tiles is examined, and comparative advantages of

  4. Preliminary assessment of active rock slope instabilities in the high Himalaya of Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Benedetta; Manconi, Andrea; Leith, Kerry; Loew, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The small kingdom of Bhutan, nested between India and Tibet (between 88° and 92° east and 26° and 28° north), is characterised by markedly different landscapes and climatic zones. V-shaped, forest-covered valleys in the south, affected by the monsoonal rains, give gradually way to steep, barren slopes of U-shaped valleys in the drier north, host of the highest peaks, a large number of glaciers and glacial lakes. A transition zone of vegetated, elevated plateaus collects the towns in which most of the population lives. Landslides in the high Himalaya of Bhutan have not been extensively studied despite the primary and secondary hazards related to them. The regulations and restrictions to travel to and within Bhutan imposed by the government, as well as the extremely rugged terrain hinder the accessibility to remote slopes and valleys, both of which have resulted in lack of data and investigations. In this work, we aim at producing an inventory of large rock slope instabilities (> 1 million m3) across the high Himalaya of Bhutan, identifying types of failure, assessing the activity and analysing the distribution of landslides in combination with predisposing and preparatory factors, such as lithology, tectonic structures, hypsometry, deglaciation, fluvial erosive power and climate. At this stage, we rely on the information retrieved through satellite remote sensing data, i.e. medium and high resolution DEMs, optical images and space borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. An initial inventory was compiled based on the identification of geomorphological features associated with slope instabilities using the available Google Earth images. Moreover, we assessed the SAR data coverage and the expected geometrical distortions by assuming different sensors (ERS, Envisat, and ALOS Palsar-1). As we are mainly interested in detecting the surface deformation related to large unstable slopes by applying Differential SAR, we also computed the percentage of potentially

  5. Electricity from Wind for Off-Grid Applications in Bangladesh: A Techno-Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mustafizur Rahman

    2017-03-01

      Keywords: GHG emission, cost of electricity, off-grid, wind energy, electricity generation. Article History: Received October 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 26th 2017; Accepted February 4th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Rahman, M.M., Baky, M.A.H, and Islam, A.K.M.S. (2017 Electricity from Wind for Off-Grid Applications in Bangladesh: A Techno-Economic Assessment. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(1, 55-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.55-64

  6. Comparative environmental and economic assessment of production, use and recycling of aluminium cans: Bologna vs Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Princigallo, Raffaele; Visini, Davide; Bonoli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    in the integrated LCA -LCC analysis. The comparative analysis of aluminium cans production, use, collection and recycling in the two systems showed that the best option from an environmental point of view is also leading to higher costs and trade - offs need to be considered in the decision making process....... and Copenhagen. We performed a combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) analysis of the purchasing, production and wa ste management of beer aluminium cans, with the aim to compare the environmental and economic performances of the two systems and to identify potential misalignment...

  7. Environmental and economic assessment of a pilot stormwater infiltration system for flood prevention in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Anna; Sevigné Itoiz, Eva; Rojas-Gutierrez, Lorena Avelina; Barbassa, Ademir Paceli; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Green and grey stormwater management infrastructures, such as the filter, swale and infiltration trench (FST), can be used to prevent flooding events. The aim of this paper was to determine the environmental and economic impacts of a pilot FST that was built in São Carlos (Brazil) using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC). As a result, the components with the greatest contributions to the total impacts of the FST were the infiltration trench and the grass cover. The syste...

  8. Economic assessment of biodiesel production: Comparison of alkali and biocatalyst processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegannathan, Kenthorai Raman [Department of Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology and Health sciences, Karunya University, Coimbatore, 641114 (India); Eng-Seng, Chan; Ravindra, Pogaku [Centre of Materials and Minerals, School of Engineering and Information Technology, University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kotakinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    This study deals with the economic assessment of biodiesel production using three catalytic processes (1) alkali (2) soluble enzyme and (3) immobilized enzyme. All the processes were considered to be operated at batch mode with a production capacity of 10{sup 3} tonne. Biodiesel production cost using alkali catalyst process was found to be lowest ($ 1166.67/tonne) compared to soluble lipase catalyst ($ 7821.37/tonne) and immobilized lipase catalyst ($ 2414.63/tonne) process. The higher production cost was due to the higher cost of the enzyme and the higher reaction time of enzymatic process. However, reuse of immobilized catalyst decreased the production cost drastically unlike soluble enzyme catalyst. (author)

  9. Assessment of economic benefits and costs of marine managed areas in Hawaii, 1998 - 2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  10. Exploring sustainable technical alternatives for Dutch dairy systems by integrating agro-economic modelling and public preferences assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parra-López, C.; Groot, J.C.J.; Carmona-Torres, C.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical discussions on the joint consideration of multiple (economic, social and environmental) functions when assessing the sustainability of human actions are increasing. However few studies exist that integrate the social demand for multifunctional agriculture in the evaluation of the sustain

  11. Technical Report on Nuclear Accidents and other Major Accidents in Europe: an integrated economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lembrechts J; Slaper H; Pearce DW; Howarth A; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  12. Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in Hawaii 1998-2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  13. Integration of Microalgae-Based Bioenergy Production into a Petrochemical Complex: Techno-Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of modern society has resulted in an increased demand for energy, mainly from fossil fuels. The use of this source of energy has led to the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2 in the atmosphere. In this context, microalgae culturing may be an effective solution to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, since these microorganisms can capture CO2 and, simultaneously, produce bioenergy. This work consists of a techno-economic assessment of a microalgal production facility integrated in a petrochemical complex, in which established infrastructure allows efficient material and energy transport. Seven different scenarios were considered regarding photosynthetic, lipids extraction and anaerobic digestion efficiencies. This analysis has demonstrated six economically viable scenarios able to: (i reduce CO2 emissions from a thermoelectric power plant; (ii treat domestic wastewaters (which were used as culture medium; and (iii produce lipids and electrical and thermal energy. For a 100-ha facility, considering a photosynthetic efficiency of 3%, a lipids extraction efficiency of 75% and an anaerobic digestion efficiency of 45% (scenario 3, an economically viable process was obtained (net present value of 22.6 million euros, being effective in both CO2 removal (accounting for 1.1 × 104 t per year and energy production (annual energy produced was 1.6 × 107 kWh and annual lipids productivity was 1.9 × 103 m3.

  14. Quality Assessment of Economic Evaluations of Suicide and Self-Harm Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lizell B; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Eddleston, Michael Philip

    2017-01-01

    Background: Death following self-harm constitutes a major global public health challenge and there is an urgent need for governments to implement cost-effective, national suicide prevention strategies. Aim: To conduct a systematic review and quality appraisal of the economic evaluations of interv......Background: Death following self-harm constitutes a major global public health challenge and there is an urgent need for governments to implement cost-effective, national suicide prevention strategies. Aim: To conduct a systematic review and quality appraisal of the economic evaluations...... of interventions aimed at preventing suicidal behavior. Method: A systematic literature search was performed in several literature databases to identify relevant articles published from 2003 to 2016. Drummond’s 10-item appraisal tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results......: In total, 25 documents encompassing 30 economic evaluations were included in the review. Of the identified evaluations, 10 studies were found to be of poor quality, 14 were of average quality, and six studies were considered of good quality. The majority of evaluations found the interventions to be cost...

  15. Economic assessment and optimal operation of CSP systems with TES in California electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Alexander W.; Dyreson, Ana; Miller, Franklin; Zavala, Victor M.

    2017-06-01

    The economics and performance of concentrated power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) inherently depend on operating policies and the surrounding weather conditions and electricity markets. We present an integrated economic assessment framework to quantify the maximum possible revenues from simultaneous energy and ancillary services sales by CSP systems. The framework includes both discrete start-up/shutdown restrictions and detailed physical models. Analysis of coinci-dental historical market and meteorological data reveals provision of ancillary services increases market revenue 18% to 37% relative to energy-only participation. Surprisingly, only 53% to 62% of these revenues are available through sole participation in the day-ahead market, indicating significant opportunities at faster timescales. Motivated by water-usage concerns and permitting requirements, we also describe a new nighttime radiative-enhanced dry-cooling system with cold-side storage that consumes no water and offers higher effciencies than traditional air-cooled designs. Operation of this new system is complicated by the cold-side storage and inherent coupling between the cooling system and power plant, further motivating integrated economic analysis.

  16. Assessment of Economic Loss Caused by Agricultural Non-point Source Nutrient Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Liang-qian; CHEN Feng-hui

    2012-01-01

    Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we use the JOHNES export coefficient model to estimate the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load of agricultural planting, livestock and poultry breeding and rural living non-point source in 2009. Based on the protection cost method in environmental economics, we quantitatively assess the economic loss caused by these three types of non-point source nutrient loss. The results show that in TN non-point source load, the load of land for planting accounts for 57.48%, the load of rural living accounts for 30.22%, and the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 12.30%; in TP non-point source load, the load of rural living accounts for 46.18%, the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 29.00%, and the load of land for planting accounts for 24.82%. The economic loss arising from the agricultural non-point source nutrient loss is equivalent to 2.329 424 7 billion yuan per year (the loss from land for planting accounts for 55.46%; the loss from rural living accounts for 31.21%; the loss from livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 13.33%). It indicates that in order to reduce the loss arising from agricultural non-point source nutrient loss, we should pay attention to controlling the land for planting and rural living source.

  17. Water transfer and major environmental provisions of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act: A preliminary economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John B.

    1994-06-01

    Increasing block water pricing, water transfer, and wildlife refuge water supply provisions of the Central Valley Project (CVP) Improvement Act are analyzed in terms of likely farmer response and economic efficiency of these provisions. Based on a simplified partial equilibrium analysis, we estimate small, but significant water conservation savings due to pricing reform, the potential for substantial water transfers to non-CVP customers in severe drought years when the water price exceeds 110 per acre foot (1 acre foot equals 1.234 × 103 m3) and positive net benefits for implementation of the wildlife refuge water supply provisions. The high threshold water price is partly a result of requiring farmers to pay full cost on transferred water plus a surcharge of 25 per acre foot if the water is transferred to a non-CVP user. The act also sets an important precedent for water pricing reform, water transfer provisions, and environmental surcharges on water users that may find their way to other Bureau of Reclamation projects.

  18. Building a Complex Scorecard on the Basis of Assessment of Influence of Socio-economic Factors of Enterprise Development

    OpenAIRE

    Verbitska Tetiana V.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in building a complex scorecard used for assessment of influence of socio-economic factors of enterprise development. The article specifies such groups of socio-economic factors as factors of organisational and managerial impact; workers potential and their professional development; social protection of workers; labour protection and healthcare; and social infrastructure. Having analysed and compared concepts and approaches to assessment of enterprise activity, th...

  19. An Assessment of the Economic Potential of Offshore Wind in the United States from 2015 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-29

    This study describes an assessment of the spatial variation of levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and levelized avoided cost of energy to understand the economic viability of fixed-bottom and floating offshore wind technologies across major U.S. coastal areas between 2015 and 2030. In particular, this study offers insights into the available offshore wind resource by region at different levels of LCOE and an assessment of the economically viable resource capacity in the United States.

  20. Managing water scarcity in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia.An economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar Lobato, Martha Isabel; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2014-05-01

    Key words: global change, water scarcity, river basin In Colombia, serious water conflicts began to emerge with the economic development in the 70ies and 80ies and the term "water scarcity" became a common word in this tropical country. Despite a mean annual runoff of 1840 mm, which classifies Colombia as a water rich country, shortfalls in fresh water availability have become a frequent event in the last two decades. One reason for the manifestation of water scarcity is the long-held perception of invulnerable water abundance, which has delayed technical and political developments to use water more efficiently. The Magdalena watershed is the most important and complex area in Colombia, because of its huge anthropogenic present, economic development and increasing environmental problems. This river basin has a total area of 273,459 km2, equivalent to 24% of the territory of the country. It is home to 79% of the country's population (32.5 million of inhabitants) and approximately 85% of Gross Domestic Product of Colombia is generated in this area. Since the economic development of the 1970s and 1980s, large changes in land cover and related environmental conditions have occurred in the Magdalena basin. These changes include deforestation, agricultural land expansion, soil degradation, lower groundwater and increased water pollution. To assess the consequences of geophysical alteration and economic development, we perform an integrated analysis of water demand, water supply, land use changes and possible water management strategies. The main objective of this study is to determine how global and local changes affect the balance between water supply and demand in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia, the consequences of different water pricing schemes, and the social benefits of public or private investments into various water management infrastructures. To achieve this goal, a constrained welfare maximization model has been developed. The General Algebraic Modeling

  1. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT MULTICRITERIAL ECONOMIC AND MATHEMATICAL MODELS COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGY GROWING CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyko V. I.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Production and processing of grains formed in the national economic system of the country a number of cereals-governmental sectors, such as grain production, grain elevator industry, flour, cereals and mixed fodder production, which constitute the grain complex country. The significance and role of the grain as a commodity in the state economy can not be overestimated. This product, is totally liquid, which has a constant, steady demand at any time of the year, in any region. Ongoing measures to increase grain production and improve its implementation did not have a complex character, therefore, insignificant effect on the efficiency of the industry and the competitiveness of grain production. The shortagecovered by imports.According to the characteristics of management in agriculture, it should be emphasized that the absence of objective and timely information at all stages of production of the plant-breeding, and as a result, non-optimal choice of technology of cultivation of agricultural crops, might result in the fact that the cost of labor and material resources increases significantly, the company does not receive profits, and sometimes suffers losses. When selecting cultivation technology for agricultural crops, an agronomist has a database of more than a hundred times-personal of alternative technologies for each crop. It is up to the decision-maker (DMP to find specific criteria to select the most suitable (for the owners and the climatic zone technology of cultivating for the culture. These circumstances explain the relevance of in-depth research of economic and mathematical models and methods of analysis and evaluation of the economic efficiency of technologies of cultivation agricultural crops. The article deals with the process of developing multicriteria economic-mathematical model of a comprehensive assessment of technology of cultivation of agricultural crops.

  2. Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.

    1998-10-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is the fourth threatened or endangered species to undergo a preliminary assessment for estimating potential risk from environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The assessments are being conducted as part of a three-year project to develop a habitat management plan for threatened and endangered species and species of concern at the Laboratory. For the preliminary assessment, estimated doses were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (HIs). This assessment included a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic chemicals) to 100 simulated nest sites located within flycatcher potential habitat. Sources of contaminant values were 10,000-ft{sup 2} grid cells within an Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU). This EEU was estimated around the potential habitat and was based on the maximum home range for the fly catcher identified in the scientific literature. The tools used included a custom FORTRAN program, ECORSK5, and a geographic information system. Food consumption and soil ingestion contaminant pathways were addressed in the assessment. Using a four-category risk evaluation, HI results indicate no appreciable impact is expected to the southwestern willow flycatcher. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, flycatcher habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain low levels of risk from contaminants.

  3. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surinder; Spiry, Irina; Wood, Benjamin; Hance, Dan; Chen, Wei; Kehmna, Mark; McDuffie, Dwayne

    2014-03-31

    This report presents system and economic analysis for a carbon-capture unit which uses an aminosilicone-based solvent for CO{sub 2} capture in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. The aminosilicone solvent is a 60/40 wt/wt mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) with tri-ethylene glycol (TEG) as a co-solvent. For comparison purposes, the report also shows results for a carbon-capture unit based on a conventional approach using mono-ethanol amine (MEA). The first year removal cost of CO{sub 2} for the aminosilicone-based carbon-capture process is $46.04/ton of CO2 as compared to $60.25/ton of CO{sub 2} when MEA is used. The aminosilicone-based process has <77% of the CAPEX of a system using MEA solvent. The lower CAPEX is due to several factors, including the higher working capacity of the aminosilicone solvent compared the MEA, which reduces the solvent flow rate required, reducing equipment sizes. If it is determined that carbon steel can be used in the rich-lean heat exchanger in the carbon capture unit, the first year removal cost of CO{sub 2} decreases to $44.12/ton. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a higher thermal stability than MEA, allowing desorption to be conducted at higher temperatures and pressures, decreasing the number of compressor stages needed. The aminosilicone-based solvent also has a lower vapor pressure, allowing the desorption to be conducted in a continuous-stirred tank reactor versus a more expensive packed column. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a lower heat capacity, which decreases the heat load on the desorber. In summary, the amino-silicone solvent has significant advantages over conventional systems using MEA.

  4. Trends And Economic Assessment Of Integration Processes At The Metal Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the integration process from the perspective of three dimensions that characterize the corresponding increase in the number and appearance of new relationships; strength, character, and stability of emerging communications; dynamics and the appropriate form of the process. In the article, trends of development of integration processes in metallurgy are identified, identification of five stages of development in Russian metal trading are justified. We propose a step by step way to implement the integration process, developed a methodical approach to assessing the feasibility of economic integration processes steel producers and steel traders, including three consecutive stages of its implementing respectively, the principles of reflexive control, entropy approach, the traditional assessment of mergers and acquisitions. The algorithm for the practical realization of the author’s approach, which allows to identify the optimal trajectory of the integration process as a series of horizontal and vertical integration steps is developed.

  5. Assessment of socio-economic potential of regions for placement of the logistic infrastructure objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nelevich Rakhmangulov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, at the regional markets, there is a disproportion between the growing demand for transportation and logistics services and the availability of facilities needed for their implementation, which is because the high logistics costs and does not meet the strategic objectives of the country to create a common economic space. The article describes the system of market factors that have the most significant influence on the distribution of logistics facilities. Study and evaluation of potential changes in the region of logistics facility disposition are proposed to perform using simulation techniques and statistical data analysis. The article presents the engineered multivariate statistical models that control the kind and effect of correlation between socio-economic development factors of regions, as well as a simulation model, which allows to assess the dynamics of these factors and predict demand for logistics infrastructure facilities. The choice of region (subject dislocation of the logistics center is proposed to realize by the developed technique based on the calculation of the integrated index that takes into account differences in the level of socio-economic and infrastructural development of the regions. This technique in conjunction with a simulation model is applicable to a variety of administrative and territorial levels (region, city and allows to take into account both the current demand in the logistics infrastructure and demand dynamics. The technique given in the article can be used to assess the level of attractiveness of the Russian Federation in the development of public and private investment projects for the development of logistics infrastructure

  6. Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Photovoltaic for Groundwater Extraction on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackley, Rob D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The overall goal of environmental remediation is to protect human health and the environment. Implementing renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) in groundwater extraction and pump-and-treat (P&T) systems may help minimize the environmental footprint of remediation efforts. The first step in considering solar PV for powering Hanford groundwater extraction is assessing the technical and economic feasibility and identifying potential target locations where implementation would be most successful. Accordingly, a techno-economic assessment of solar PV for Hanford groundwater extraction was completed in FY15. Multiple solar PV alternatives ranging in size from 1.2 to 22.4 kWp DC were evaluated and compared against traditional grid-powered systems. Results indicate that the degree to which solar PV alternatives are feasible is primarily a function of the distance of avoided power cable costs and the inclusion of an energy storage component. Standalone solar PV systems provide an energy source at the well and avoid the costs and logistics associated with running long lengths of expensive power cable to the well-head. When solar PV systems include a battery storage component, groundwater can be pumped continuously day and night in a year-round schedule. However, due to the high cost premium of the energy storage component, a fully solar-powered solution could not provide an economic direct replacement for line-powered pumping systems. As a result, the most ideal target locations for successful implementation of solar PV on the Hanford Site are remote or distant extraction wells where the primary remedial objective is contaminant mass removal (as opposed to hydraulic containment) and three-season (March through October) intermittent pumping is acceptable (e.g. remediation of hexavalent chromium in 200-UP-1).

  7. Economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Bakhshi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township and investigation of factors influencing it. Statistical population of this research consisted of all the greenhouse owners in Birjand (50 units. For economic assessment, the profitability index (TR/TC and discriminative analysis were used. Based on the TR/TC index and cluster analysis with –K mean method, the considered society was divided into two groups of successful and less-successful units. The median of this index was more than 1.49 in the successful group and less than1.49 in the other group. After dividing the groups by discriminative analysis, the variables distinguishing the groups were determined. Results showed that the most important variables which influence the TR/TC index and distinguish these two groups are amount of applied micronutrients, greenhouse area, number of irrigations, amount of the applied manure, educational-extension films, and visiting other greenhouse-owners’ activities.

  8. Assessing the techno-economics of modular hybrid solar thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Han; Chinnici, Alfonso; Dally, Bassam; Nathan, Graham

    2017-06-01

    A techno-economic assessment was performed on modular hybrid solar thermal (in particular, solar power tower) systems with combustion from natural gas as backup to provide a continuous supply of electricity. Two different configurations were compared, i.e. a Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC), in which the functions of a solar cavity receiver and a combustor are integrated into a single device, and a Solar Gas Hybrid (SGH), which is a reference hybrid solar thermal system with a standalone solar-only cavity receiver and a backup boiler. The techno-economic benefits were assessed by varying the size of the modular components, i.e. the heliostat field and the solar receivers. It was found that for modularization to be cost effective requires more than the increased learning from higher production of a larger number of smaller units, such as access to alternative, lower-cost manufacturing methods and/or the use of a low melting point Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) such as sodium to reduce parasitic losses. In particular, for a plant with 30 units of 1MWth modules, the Levelized Cost of Electricity is competitive compared with a single unit of 30MWth after ˜100 plants are installed for both the HSRC and SGH if the systems employ the use of sodium as the heat transfer fluid.

  9. Method for technical, economic and environmental assessment of advanced sludge processing routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanström, Magdalena; Bertanza, Giorgio; Bolzonella, David; Canato, Matteo; Collivignarelli, Carlo; Heimersson, Sara; Laera, Giuseppe; Mininni, Giuseppe; Peters, Greg; Tomei, Maria Concetta

    2014-01-01

    The legislative framework in force in Europe entails restrictive effluent standards for sensitive areas, and quite severe restrictions on the properties of residual sewage sludge, both for landfill disposal and for agricultural use. Several technologies and management strategies have been proposed and applied in wastewater treatment plants to minimise sludge production and contamination. However, their techno-economic and environmental performance has to be carefully evaluated. The ROUTES project, funded within the EU Seventh Framework programme, aims to find new routes for wastewater treatment and sludge management and thereby guide EU members in their future choices. Within this project, the authors have developed and applied a procedure for techno-economic-environmental assessment of new wastewater and sludge processing lines in comparison to reference plants. The reference plants are model conventional plants that experience different types of problems and the new plants are modified plants in which different innovative technologies have been added to solve these problems. The procedure involves a rating of selected technical issues, estimates of operating costs and an assessment of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective. This paper reports on the procedure and shows examples of results.

  10. [Contextual indicators to assess social determinants of health and the Spanish economic recession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-León, Andrés; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Mateo, Inmaculada; Arroyo-Borrell, Elena; Bartoll, Xavier; Bravo, María José; Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Renart, Gemma; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Saez, Marc; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Palència, Laia; López, María José; Saurina, Carme; Puig, Vanessa; Martín, Unai; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Serra Saurina, Laura; Sordo, Luis; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Ruiz, Miguel; Bernal, Mariola

    To provide indicators to assess the impact on health, its social determinants and health inequalities from a social context and the recent economic recession in Spain and its autonomous regions. Based on the Spanish conceptual framework for determinants of social inequalities in health, we identified indicators sequentially from key documents, Web of Science, and organisations with official statistics. The information collected resulted in a large directory of indicators which was reviewed by an expert panel. We then selected a set of these indicators according to geographical (availability of data according to autonomous regions) and temporal (from at least 2006 to 2012) criteria. We identified 203 contextual indicators related to social determinants of health and selected 96 (47%) based on the above criteria; 16% of the identified indicators did not satisfy the geographical criteria and 35% did not satisfy the temporal criteria. At least 80% of the indicators related to dependence and healthcare services were excluded. The final selection of indicators covered all areas for social determinants of health, and 62% of these were not available on the Internet. Around 40% of the indicators were extracted from sources related to the Spanish Statistics Institute. We have provided an extensive directory of contextual indicators on social determinants of health and a database to facilitate assessment of the impact of the economic recession on health and health inequalities in Spain and its autonomous regions. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  12. Macro-economic assessment of flood risk in Italy under current and future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Lorenzo; Koks, Elco; Mysiak, Jaroslav; Aerts, Jeroen; Standardi, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    This paper explores an integrated methodology for assessing direct and indirect costs of fluvial flooding to estimate current and future fluvial flood risk in Italy. Our methodology combines a Geographic Information System spatial approach, with a general economic equilibrium approach using a downscaled modified version of a Computable General Equilibrium model at NUTS2 scale. Given the level of uncertainty in the behavior of disaster-affected economies, the simulation considers a wide range of business recovery periods. We calculate expected annual losses for each NUTS2 region, and exceedence probability curves to determine probable maximum losses. Given a certain acceptable level of risk, we describe the conditions of flood protection and business recovery periods under which losses are contained within this limit. Because of the difference between direct costs, which are an overestimation of stock losses, and indirect costs, which represent the macro-economic effects, our results have different policy meanings. While the former is relevant for post-disaster recovery, the latter is more relevant for public policy issues, particularly for cost-benefit analysis and resilience assessment.

  13. Using climate analogues for assessing climate change economic impacts in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, S. [Centre National de Recherche Meteorologique, Toulouse (France); Hourcade, J.C. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement, 45bis Av de la Belle Gabrielle, F-94736 Nogent-sur-Marne (France); Ambrosi, P. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Paris (France)

    2007-05-15

    This paper aims at proposing a way to get round the intrinsic deadlocks of the economic assessment of climate change impacts (absence of consistent baseline scenario and of credible description of adaptation behaviours under uncertainty). First, we use climate scenarios from two models of the PRUDENCE project (HadRM3H and ARPEGE) to search for cities whose present climates can be considered as reasonable analogues of the future climates of 17 European cities. These analogues meet rather strict criteria in terms of monthly mean temperature, total annual precipitations and monthly mean precipitations. Second, we use these analogues as a heuristic tool to understand the main features of the adaptation required by climate change. The availability of two analogues for each city provides a useful estimate of the impact of uncertainty on the required adaptation efforts. Third, we carry out a cost assessment for various adaptation strategies, taking into account the cost of possible ill-adaptations due to wrong anticipations in a context of large uncertainty (from sunk-costs to lock-in in suboptimal adaptation choices). We demonstrate the gap between an enumerative approach under perfect expectation and a calculation accounting for uncertainty and spillover effects on economic growth.

  14. Preliminary assessment of bioengineered fringing shoreline reefs in Grand Isle and Breton Sound, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea

    2013-01-01

    postconstruction data are available. Data for the latter two sites thus reflect only the 2012 spring/summer seasons, which were further impacted by a direct hit by Hurricane Isaac in August 2012, which resulted in shoreward movement of approximately 14 percent of the bioengineered structures at Lake Fortuna. Given the shortened monitoring timeframe and significant differences in construction schedules, we were not able to provide a full postconstruction assessment of the sites or a full comparison of site success based on local site characteristics. Because many of the impacts that were identified for monitoring reflect long-term processes, results and data presented should be interpreted cautiously. Sustainable oyster reefs require recruitment, growth, and survival at a rate that keeps pace with mortality and shell disarticulation. Although one site failed to recruit (establishment plus survival > 50 millimeters [mm]) over two spawning seasons, two sites only had 6 months postconstruction data available for assessment. Although there are good data on the requirements for oyster growth, there is limited explicit information on the site-specific water quality, hydrodynamic, and biological interaction effects that may determine successful reef establishment. Furthermore, interannual variability can significantly affect reef establishment, and our shortened timeframe of sampling (less than one spawning season for two of the reefs; two spawning seasons for one reef), combined with a lack of prerestoration monitoring data, limit our ability to draw any conclusions about long-term reef sustainability. Bioengineered reefs are thought to provide some benefits to shoreline stabilization through their structure by immediately attenuating wave energies and directly reducing erosion rates at shorelines sheltered by the reefs but also by increasing sediment deposition behind the reefs. Preliminary data indicate differences in reef impact by site; given the short timeframe of postconstruction

  15. The reliability and validity of questionnaire for preliminary assessment of heat stress at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Dehghan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat stress is one of the most important consequences of occupational heat exposure in worldwide. Current heat stress indices are not suitable for heat strain screening in developing countries due to their inherent and applied limitations. The Aim of this study was design, validity and reliability of a questionnaire method entitled "Heat Strain Score Index" or HSSI for preliminary assessment of heat stress at workplace. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. This research included seven stages (i Item generation (ii Evaluation of content validity by 9 subjects of occupational health specialists and 30 occupational health providers (iii Reliability analysis was performed on 98 workers (iv Structure validity was conducted on 150 workers (v Test of the measurement model (vi Criteria validity on 122 worker and (vii classification of level thermal risk with ROC curves. Data were analyzed with SPSS-18 and AMOS-16 software. Results: In stage of item generation 40 items were identified. In Content Validity evaluation in the level of occupational health specialists, 27 items modified, 3 items were removed and 3 items added in evaluation by occupational health providers, 19 items modified. Internal consistency (α of items was 0.91. Exploratory factor analysis on items HSSI scale identified four subscales which explained 71.6% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence of model fits (GFI=0.991, RMSEA=0.036. Correlation between the HSSI score with aural temperature was 0.73.Cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity for upper green zone (no thermal strain were 13.5, 91% and 50%.whereas Cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity for lower red zone (thermal strain were 18, 86% and 73%. Conclusion: This study revealed HSSI scale includes 18 of measurable variables that high overlapped with WBGT index and others questionnaires. This scale demonstrated high reliability and validity

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Variable Speed Power Turbine Technology on Civil Tiltrotor Size and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Acree, Cecil W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nm at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper performs a preliminary assessment of variable-speed power turbine technology on LCTR2 sizing, while maintaining the same, advanced technology engine core. Six concepts were studied; an advanced, single-speed engine with a conventional power turbine layout (Advanced Conventional Engine, or ACE) using a multi-speed (shifting) gearbox. There were five variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) engine concepts, comprising a matrix of either three or four turbine stages, and fixed or variable guide vanes; plus a minimum weight, twostage, fixed-geometry VSPT. The ACE is the lightest engine, but requires a multi-speed (shifting) gearbox to maximize its fuel efficiency, whereas the VSPT concepts use a lighter, fixed-ratio gearbox. The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) design code was used to study the trades between rotor and engine efficiency and weight. Rotor performance was determined by Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II), and engine performance was estimated with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). Design trades for the ACE vs. VSPT are presented in terms of vehicle gross and empty weight, propulsion system weight and mission fuel burn for the civil mission. Because of its strong effect on gearbox weight and on both rotor and engine efficiency, rotor speed was chosen as the reference design variable for comparing design trades. Major study assumptions are presented and discussed. Impressive engine power-to-weight and fuel efficiency reduced vehicle sensitivity to propulsion system choice

  17. Status on the Development of a Modeling and Simulation Framework for the Economic Assessment of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard Doin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    An effort to design and build a modeling and simulation framework to assess the economic viability of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES) was undertaken in fiscal year 2015 (FY15). The purpose of this report is to document the various tasks associated with the development of such a framework and to provide a status on its progress. Several tasks have been accomplished. First, starting from a simulation strategy, a rigorous mathematical formulation has been achieved in which the economic optimization of a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System is presented as a constrained robust (under uncertainty) optimization problem. Some possible algorithms for the solution of the optimization problem are presented. A variation of the Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation algorithm has been implemented in RAVEN and preliminary tests have been performed. The development of the software infrastructure to support the simulation of the whole NHES has also moved forward. The coupling between RAVEN and an implementation of the Modelica language (OpenModelica) has been implemented, migrated under several operating systems and tested using an adapted model of a desalination plant. In particular, this exercise was focused on testing the coupling of the different code systems; testing parallel, computationally expensive simulations on the INL cluster; and providing a proof of concept for the possibility of using surrogate models to represent the different NHES subsystems. Another important step was the porting of the RAVEN code under the Windows™ operating system. This accomplishment makes RAVEN compatible with the development environment that is being used for dynamic simulation of NHES components. A very simplified model of a NHES on the electric market has been built in RAVEN to confirm expectations on the analysis capability of RAVEN to provide insight into system economics and to test the capability of RAVEN to identify limit surfaces even for stochastic constraints. This

  18. Pilot scale biodiesel production from microbial oil of Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 using sugarcane juice: Performance in diesel engine and preliminary economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Dalmas Neto, Carlos José; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; da Costa, Eduardo Scopel Ferreira; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza

    2016-10-21

    A successful pilot-scale process for biodiesel production from microbial oil (Biooil) produced by Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 is presented. Using fed-batch strategy (1000L working volume), a lipid productivity of 0.44g/L.h was obtained using a low-cost medium composed by sugarcane juice and urea. The microbial oil was used for biodiesel production and its performance was evaluated in diesel engine tests, showing very good performance, especially for the blend B20 SCO, when operating at 2500rpm with lower pollutant emissions (CO2 - 220% less; CO - 7-fold less; NOX 50% less and no detectable HC emissions (blends of standard biofuel from soybean oil. A preliminary analysis showed that microbial biodiesel is economically competitive (US$ 0.76/L) when compared to the vegetable biodiesel (US$ 0.81/L). Besides, the yield of biodiesel from microbial oil is higher (4172L/ha of cultivated sugarcane) that represents 6.3-fold the yield of standard biodiesel (661L/ha of cultivated soybean). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Designing a socio-economic assessment method for integrative biomedical research: the Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Rainer; Stroetmann, Karl A; Stroetmann, Veli N; Viceconti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In integrative biomedical research, methods assessing the clinical or even socio-economic impact of more complex technologies such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-based tools for modelling and simulation of human physiology have rarely been applied. The EU funded Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human (VPHOP) research project, part of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) European initiative, will create a patient-specific hypermodel to predict the absolute risk of bone fracture much more accurately than predictions based on current clinical practice. The project has developed an innovative, multilevel generic methodological framework to assess the clinical and socio-economic impact of biocomputational models. The assessment framework consists of three components: a socio-economic cost benefit analysis, health economic analysis of care pathways, and disease cost simulation models. Through its holistic perspective, the method provides a tool to appraise the overall value of biocomputational models for society.

  20. Battery energy storage: A preliminary assessment of national benefits (the Gateway Benefits Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zaininger, H. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Hurwitch, J.; Badin, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of national benefits from electric utility applications of battery energy storage through the year 2010 are presented along with a discussion of the particular applications studied. The estimates in this report were based on planning information reported to DOE by electric utilities across the United States. Future studies are planned to refine these estimates as more application-specific information becomes available.

  1. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  2. Analysis of health economics assessment reports for pharmaceuticals in France – understanding the underlying philosophy of CEESP assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Mondher; Motrunich, Anastasiia; Millier, Aurélie; Rémuzat, Cécile; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno; Aballéa, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Despite the guidelines for Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (CEESP) submission having been available for nearly six years, the dossiers submitted continue to deviate from them, potentially impacting product prices. Objective: to review the reports published by CEESP, analyse deviations from the guidelines, and discuss their implications for the pricing and reimbursement process. Study design: CEESP reports published until January 2017 were reviewed, and deviations from the guidelines were extracted. The frequency of deviations was described by type of methodological concern (minor, important or major). Results: In 19 reports, we identified 243 methodological concerns, most often concerning modelling, measurement and valuation of health states and results presentation and sensitivity analyses; nearly 63% were minor, 33% were important and 4.5% were major. All reports included minor methodological concerns, and 17 (89%) included at least one important and/or major methodological concern. Global major methodological concerns completely invalidated the analysis in seven dossiers (37%). Conclusion: The CEESP submission dossiers fail to adhere to the guidelines, potentially invalidating the health economics analysis and resulting in pricing negotiations. As these negotiations tend to be unfavourable for the manufacturer, the industry should strive to improve the quality of the analyses submitted to CEESP. PMID:28804600

  3. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  4. 能源互联网环境下的信息经济学初探%A Preliminary Investigation on Information Economics in Energy Internet Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪琳娜; 文福拴; 尚金成; 何洋

    2016-01-01

    信息系统是能源互联网的重要组成部分,能源互联网环境下的信息经济学是相关的一个有待研究的重要问题。在此背景下,展望了信息经济学在能源互联网信息经济研究中的应用前景,并试图建立相关的研究框架。首先总结了国内外现有的对能源互联网比较典型的定义,在此基础上展望了能源互联网环境下信息系统的基本架构、功能和运行机制。之后,概述了信息经济学的一些主流理论与方法。最后,从信息价值增值、信息价值评估、信息增值服务模式、基于信息的博弈分析和机制设计等几个方面,探讨了能源互联网环境下信息经济学需要研究的问题。%Information system represents important part of energy internet, and related information economics in energy internet environment is an important topic to systematically investigate. Given this background, a preliminary investigation on information economics in energy internet environment is carried out with attempt of establishing a research framework. First, existing energy internet definitions are summarized, and on this basis a prospect on infrastructure, function and operation condition of information system in energy internet is presented. Subsequently, some well-established theories and methods of information economics are briefly clarified. Finally, some issues to be investigated are addressed, including information value-addition and evaluation, information value-addition service mode, information based game analysis and mechanism design.

  5. A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; King, Thomas F [ORNL

    2006-04-01

    operation in response to local or system operators. There are no known distributed energy asset owners currently receiving compensation for reactive power supply or capability. However, there are some cases where small generators on the generation and transmission side of electricity supply have been tested and have installed the capability to be dispatched for reactive power support. Several concerns need to be met for distributed energy to become widely integrated as a reactive power resource. The overall costs of retrofitting distributed energy devices to absorb or produce reactive power need to be reduced. There needs to be a mechanism in place for ISOs/RTOs to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where distributed energy resides. Novel compensation methods should be introduced to encourage the dispatch of dynamic resources close to areas with critical voltage issues. The next phase of this research will investigate in detail how different options of reactive power producing DE can compare both economically and functionally with shunt capacitor banks. Shunt capacitor banks, which are typically used for compensating reactive power consumption of loads on distribution systems, are very commonly used because they are very cost effective in terms of capital costs. However, capacitor banks can require extensive maintenance especially due to their exposure to lightning at the top of utility poles. Also, it can be problematic to find failed capacitor banks and their maintenance can be expensive, requiring crews and bucket trucks which often requires total replacement. Another shortcoming of capacitor banks is the fact that they usually have one size at a location (typically sized as 300, 600, 900 or 1200kVAr) and thus don't have variable range as do reactive power producing DE, and cannot respond to dynamic reactive power needs. Additional future work is to find a detailed methodology to identify the hidden benefit of DE for providing reactive power

  6. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Rasmussen, K.; Badger, Jake

    2010-01-01

    in the irrigated areas of the Niger inland delta that might be interesting from a renewable energy resource perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the role that renewable energy resources might play in the energy systems of Mali, given the spatio-temporal distribution of renewable energy resources. It is argued...... that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options.......This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing...

  7. Development and Application of Urban Landslide Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Reflecting Social and Economic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An urban landslide vulnerability assessment methodology is proposed with major focus on considering urban social and economic aspects. The proposed methodology was developed based on the landslide susceptibility maps that Korean Forest Service utilizes to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R (flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a regional scale, and then urban vulnerability is assessed by two categories: physical and socioeconomic aspect. The physical vulnerability is related to buildings that can be impacted by a landslide event. This study considered two popular building structure types, reinforced-concrete frame and nonreinforced-concrete frame, to assess the physical vulnerability. The socioeconomic vulnerability is considered a function of the resistant levels of the vulnerable people, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology, physical and socioeconomic vulnerability levels are analyzed for Seoul, Korea, using the suggested approach. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  8. A New Economic Assessment Index for the Impact of Climate Change on Grain Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community.This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional "yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)" or "yield impact of weather factor" to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore,the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China,and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  9. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  10. Economics within Social Studies: A Comparative Analysis of Student Performance on the 2012 Kansas History-Government Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplazes, Svetlana P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the overall level of student achievement on the 2012 Kansas History-Government Assessment in Grades 6, 8, and high school, with major emphasis on the subject area of economics. It explored four specific research questions in order to: (1) determine the level of student knowledge of assessed economic…

  11. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  12. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Attard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM for maize stover wax extraction was found to be €88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI and utility costs (CUT contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of €10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation. A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity had the greatest effect on the COM.

  13. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Thomas M.; McElroy, Con Robert; Hunt, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be €88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of €10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation) and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation). A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity) had the greatest effect on the COM. PMID:26263976

  14. Systematic comprehensive techno-economic assessment of solar cooling technologies using location-specific climate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtar, Marwan; Ali, Muhammad Tauha; Sgouridis, Sgouris; Armstrong, Peter; Chiesa, Matteo [Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Braeuniger, Simon; Afshari, Afshin [Masdar, Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-12-15

    A methodology for assessing solar cooling technologies is proposed. The method takes into account location specific boundary conditions such as the cooling demand time series, solar resource availability, climatic conditions, component cost and component performance characteristics. This methodology evaluates the techno-economic performance of the solar collector/chiller system. We demonstrate the method by systematic evaluation of 25 feasible combinations of solar energy collection and cooling technologies. The comparison includes solar thermal and solar electric cooling options and is extended to solar cooling through concentrated solar power plants. Solar cooling technologies are compared on an economic and overall system efficiency perspective. This analysis has implication for the importance of solar load fraction and storage size in the design of solar cooling systems. We also stress the importance of studying the relation between cooling demand and solar resource availability, it was found that overlooking this relation might lead to overestimations of the potential of a solar cooling system in the range of 22% to over 100% of the actual potential. (author)

  15. Assessment of Energy and Economic Effectiveness of Photovoltaic Systems Operating in a Dense Urban Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cellura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A methodology that permits testing the level of integration of the photovoltaic technology in urban areas is presented. The percentage of coverage of the electricity demand of grid-connected photovoltaic systems installed on the roofs of buildings were investigated in a district of the city of Palermo (Sicily. After classifying roofs according to their shape, orientation and pitch by means of satellite images provided by Google Earth, the ratio of the productivity of the PV systems and the consumption of electricity of the households was analysed. The results of the energy assessment have been screened considering the economic feasibility of grid-connected photovoltaic systems: the energy produced by the PV systems whose economic analysis showed disadvantageous values of NPV or IRR was rejected. As a result, it can be concluded that the size of the PV system that may be installed corresponding to the number of floors, and the consequent production of electricity, does not recover the costs for installation and maintenance of the system.

  16. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Thomas M; McElroy, Con Robert; Hunt, Andrew J

    2015-07-31

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be € 88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of € 10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation) and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation). A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity) had the greatest effect on the COM.

  17. Techno-economic and life-cycle assessment of an attached growth algal biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jay; Sims, Ronald C; Quinn, Jason C

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the sustainability of generating renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass from a rotating algal biofilm reactor. Pilot-scale growth studies and laboratory-scale HTL experiments were used to validate an engineering system model. The engineering system model served as the foundation to evaluate the economic feasibility and environmental impact of the system at full scale. Techno-economic results indicate that biomass feedstock costs dominated the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP), with a base case of $104.31per gallon. Life-cycle assessment results show a base-case global warming potential (GWP) of 80gCO2-eMJ(-1) and net energy ratio (NER) of 1.65 based on a well-to-product system boundary. Optimization of the system reduces MFSP, GWP and NER to $11.90Gal(-1), -44gCO2-eMJ(-1), and 0.33, respectively. The systems-level impacts of integrating algae cultivation with wastewater treatment were found to significantly reduce environmental impact. Sensitivity analysis showed that algal productivity most significantly affected fuel selling price, emphasizing the importance of optimizing biomass productivity.

  18. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  19. The integral indicator of socio-economic assessment in regard to resource-oriented territories development in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.

    2016-04-01

    Economic peculiarity of Russian resource-oriented territories are based on a focal type of industrial complex, differentiation of economies within a principle of mining and processing of natural resources. To improve the economic condition and integrate into the world innovative process is essential to solve the problem of eliminating the prevalence of resourse focus in the industrial economic structure that could ensure the overcoming of the existing spa- cial dissociation and market mechanisms development in innovative promotion. The monitoring system, involving the integral indicator of socioeconomic and territorial potential assessment, has suggested by the authors. The integral indicator could guarantee the objective evaluation of economic condition within a territory that is vital for the governmental authorities to design strategies providing the economic development of administrative territories.

  20. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appen, Jan von; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Momber, Ilan; Klapp, David; Scheven, Alexander von

    2011-05-01

    As power generation from variable distributed energy resources (DER) grows, energy flows in the network are changing, increasing the requirements for ancillary services, including voltage support. With the appropriate power converter, DER can provide ancillary services such as frequency control and voltage support. This paper outlines the economic potential of DERs coordinated in a microgrid to provide reactive power and voltage support at its point of common coupling. The DER Customer Adoption Model assesses the costs of providing reactive power, given local utility rules. Depending on the installed DER, the cost minimizing solution for supplying reactive power locally is chosen. Costs include the variable cost of the additional losses and the investment cost of appropriately over-sizing converters or purchasing capacitors. A case study of a large health care building in San Francisco is used to evaluate different revenue possibilities of creating an incentive for microgrids to provide reactive power.

  1. Uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis of techno-economic assessments for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zhenzhou, Lu; Zhiwen, Liu; Ningcong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    There are various uncertain parameters in the techno-economic assessments (TEAs) of biodiesel production, including capital cost, interest rate, feedstock price, maintenance rate, biodiesel conversion efficiency, glycerol price and operating cost. However, fewer studies focus on the influence of these parameters on TEAs. This paper investigated the effects of these parameters on the life cycle cost (LCC) and the unit cost (UC) in the TEAs of biodiesel production. The results show that LCC and UC exhibit variations when involving uncertain parameters. Based on the uncertainty analysis, three global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods are utilized to quantify the contribution of an individual uncertain parameter to LCC and UC. The GSA results reveal that the feedstock price and the interest rate produce considerable effects on the TEAs. These results can provide a useful guide for entrepreneurs when they plan plants.

  2. ECOLOGY-ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF NEW RECLAMATION METHOD FOR CURRENTLY WORKING TECHNOGENIC MASSIFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Strizhenok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant problems of the mining industry is the need to reduce the negative impact of technogenic massifs formed by wastes of extraction and processing of mineral raw materials. This problem has a significant meaning for currently used massifs, because traditional ways of reclamation are not suitable for them. The article describes the results of a scientific study on the development of the most efficient reclamation method for currently used technogenic massifs. Described in detail the main results of the field observations, methods and equipment of laboratory experiments conducted to determine agro-chemical properties of the soil and optimal composition of binder agent. The article also provides ecological and economic assessment of the proposed method of reclamation. The study was conducted on the example of the real technogenic massif, formed by wastes of phosphorus ore processing.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of Landslides Along the Florida River Downstream from Lemon Reservoir, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Ellis, William L.; Kibler, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Nearly two-dozen shallow landslides were active during spring 2005 on a hillside located along the east side of the Florida River about one kilometer downstream from Lemon Reservoir in La Plata County, southwestern Colorado. Landslides on the hillside directly threaten human safety, residential structures, a county roadway, utilities, and the Florida River, and indirectly threaten downstream areas and Lemon Dam. Most of the area where the landslides occurred was burned during the 2002 Missionary Ridge wildfire. We performed geologic mapping, subsurface exploration and sampling, radiocarbon dating, and shallow ground-water and ground-displacement monitoring to assess landslide activity. Active landslides during spring 2005 were as large as 35,000 m3 and confined to colluvium. Debris flows were mobilized from most of the landslides, were as large as 1,500 m3, and traveled as far as 250 m. Landslide activity was triggered by elevated ground-water pressures within the colluvium caused by infiltration of snowmelt. Landslide activity ceased as ground-water pressures dropped during the summer. Shallow landslides on the hillside appear to be much more likely following the Missionary Ridge fire because of the loss of tree root strength and evapotranspiration. We used monitoring data and observations to develop preliminary, approximate rainfall/snowmelt thresholds above which shallow landslide activity can be expected. Landslides triggered during spring 2005 occurred within a 1.97 x 107 m3 older landslide that extends, on average, about 40 m into bedrock. The south end of this older landslide appears to have experienced deep secondary landsliding. Radiocarbon dating of sediments at the head of the older landslide suggests that the landslide was active about 1,424-1,696 years ago. A relatively widespread wildfire may have preceded the older landslide, and the landslide may have occurred during a wetter time. The wetter climate and effects of the wildfire would likely have

  4. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS WITH EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS WITHIN THE REMARCA STUDY: PRELIMINARY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA have a high or very high cardiovascular risk (CVR before therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Objective: to evaluate the impact of antirheumatic therapy performed in accordance with the Treat-to-Target strategy on the progression of atherosclerosis and CVR in patients with early RA. Subjects and methods. This investigation enrolled 74 patients (72% women; median age, 56 years with early RA having moderate to high activity (median DAS28, 5.6 who had not previously received DMARDs and glucocorticoids (GCs. All patients were anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody-positive and 87% of the patients were rheumatoid factor-positive. All patients received methotrexate (MT subcutaneously with dose escalation up to 25–30 mg/week, in case of its inefficiency at 3 months a biological agent (BA was added. After 6 months, 39% of the patients achieved remission; 19% had low; 35 and 7% had moderate and high disease activity, respectively. The majority (n = 20 (69% who achieved remission received MT monotherapy; 9 (31% – MT + BA whereas among the patients who did not achieve remission 15 (33% and 30 (67% respectively. At baseline and after 6 months of treatment, traditional CVR factors were assessed in all patients, by determining the total coronary risk by the SCORE scale, including that modified by EULAR (mSCORE, carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA by duplex scanning data, coronary calcification (CC by multislice spiral computed tomography and by estimating the degree of CVR.Results and discussion. The rates of hypertension, overweight, abdominal obesity, low activity, smoking, and type 2 diabetes mellitus did not change significantly after 6 months. There were increases in the levels of total cholesterol by 7% (p < 0.05, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 9% (p<0.01, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 26% (p < 0.005, and body mass index (BMI by 1% (p < 0.01 and a decrease

  5. Physically-based Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Damage and Economic Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating damage and economic losses caused by tropical cyclones (TC) is a topic of considerable research interest in many scientific fields, including meteorology, structural and coastal engineering, and actuarial sciences. One approach is based on the empirical relationship between TC characteristics and loss data. Another is to model the physical mechanism of TC-induced damage. In this talk we discuss about the physically-based approach to predict TC damage and losses due to extreme wind and storm surge. We first present an integrated vulnerability model, which, for the first time, explicitly models the essential mechanisms causing wind damage to residential areas during storm passage, including windborne-debris impact and the pressure-debris interaction that may lead, in a chain reaction, to structural failures (Lin and Vanmarcke 2010; Lin et al. 2010a). This model can be used to predict the economic losses in a residential neighborhood (with hundreds of buildings) during a specific TC (Yau et al. 2011) or applied jointly with a TC risk model (e.g., Emanuel et al 2008) to estimate the expected losses over long time periods. Then we present a TC storm surge risk model that has been applied to New York City (Lin et al. 2010b; Lin et al. 2012; Aerts et al. 2012), Miami-Dade County, Florida (Klima et al. 2011), Galveston, Texas (Lickley, 2012), and other coastal areas around the world (e.g., Tampa, Florida; Persian Gulf; Darwin, Australia; Shanghai, China). These physically-based models are applicable to various coastal areas and have the capability to account for the change of the climate and coastal exposure over time. We also point out that, although made computationally efficient for risk assessment, these models are not suitable for regional or global analysis, which has been a focus of the empirically-based economic analysis (e.g., Hsiang and Narita 2012). A future research direction is to simplify the physically-based models, possibly through

  6. A systematic review of financial and economic assessments of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) prevention and mitigation activities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, Beate; Firth, Clair L; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Trauffler, Martine; Dzieciol, Monika; Hutter, Sabine E; Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Winter, Petra; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2017-02-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in major economic losses either directly through decreased productive performance in cattle herds or indirectly, such as through expenses for control programs. The aim of this systematic review was to review financial and/or economic assessment studies of prevention and/or mitigation activities of BVDV at national, regional and farm level worldwide. Once all predefined criteria had been met, 35 articles were included for this systematic review. Studies were analyzed with particular focus on the type of financially and/or economically-assessed prevention and/or mitigation activities. Due to the wide range of possible prevention and/or mitigation activities, these activities were grouped into five categories: i) control and/or eradication programs, ii) monitoring or surveillance, iii) prevention, iv) vaccination and v) individual culling, control and testing strategies. Additionally, the studies were analyzed according to economically-related variables such as efficiency, costs or benefits of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the applied financial and/or economic and statistical methods, the payers of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the assessed production systems, and the countries for which such evaluations are available. Financial and/or economic assessments performed in Europe were dominated by those from the United Kingdom, which assessed mostly vaccination strategies, and Norway which primarily carried out assessments in the area of control and eradication programs; whereas among non-European countries the United States carried out the majority of financial and/or economic assessments in the area of individual culling, control and testing. More than half of all studies provided an efficiency calculation of prevention and/or mitigation activities and demonstrated whether the inherent costs of implemented activities were or were not justified. The dairy sector was three times more likely to

  7. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a combined emission of just over 20Mt/y. According to the IEA, CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) can reduce the global CO2 emission until 2050 by 17%. A correct assessment of CCS needs to start with the storage potential. Prior to this study, only general estimates of the theoretical capacity of Austrian reservoirs were available, thus, up until now, the realistic potential for CCS technology has not been assessed. Both for policy and industry, an assessment of the matched capacity is required, which is the capacity that actually will be used in CCS projects. This hurdle can be taken by applying a recently developed methodology (Welkenhuysen et al., 2013). This policy support system (PSS) consists of two parts, PSS Explorer and PSS III simulator. In brief, the methodology is based on expert judgements of potential reservoirs. These assessments can provide the best available data, including the expert's experience and possibly confidential data, without disclosing specific data. The geo-techno-economic calculation scheme PSS Explorer uses the expert input to calculate for each individual reservoir an assessment of the practical capacity (as probability density functions), in function of an acceptable price for storage. This practical capacity can then be used by the techno-economic PSS III simulator to perform advanced source-sink matching until 2050 and thus provide the matched reservoir capacity. The analysed reservoirs are 7 active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs in Austria. The simulation of the electricity and iron & steel sector of Austria resulted in the estimation of the geological storage potential, taking into account geological, technological and

  8. Assessment of characteristics of patients with cholelithiasis from economically deprived rural Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Muhammad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gallstones have been regarded as one of the most expensive diseases in Gastroenterology, posing a great economic burden on developing nations. The majority of Pakistani people live in rural areas where healthcare facilities are not available or are very primitive. We aim to assess the characteristics among cholelithiasis patients from rural Karachi so that a prevention campaign can be launched in rural underprivileged settings to reduce the economic burden of this preventable disease. Method A total of 410 patients were included in the study after giving verbal consent as well as written consent. Variables such as age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, waist circumference, number of children, monthly family income, number of siblings, and number of family members, were considered in this questionnaire. All data was analysed by SPSS ver. 16.0. Mean and standard deviation (SD were calculated for continuous variables. Frequency and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Results Nearly 85.4% of the participants were female. The mean ± S.D. for age was 43.8 ± 9.59. Nearly 61% of the patients were illiterate. All of our patients were from low socioeconomic status and their mean salary ± S.D. was 6915 ± 1992 PKR (1 US $ = 90.37PKR. 75% of them were smokers with mean consumption ± S.D. of 7.5 ± 10 cigarettes per day. Fibre in diet was not used by 83.65% of patients. 40.2% were living in combined families. 61% were living in purchased homes. A positive history of diabetes mellitus was given by 45.1%, family history of cholelithiasis by 61% and history of hypertension by 31.7% of subjects. Soft drink consumption was given by 45.1% of patients; while only 8.5% used snacked daily. Tea was consumed by 95.1% of the subjects. Daily physical activity for 30 minutes was reported by only 13.4% of participants. Conclusion In conclusion, rural dwellers from low socioeconomic

  9. Assessment of characteristics of patients with cholelithiasis from economically deprived rural Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Rahimnajjad, Nasir Ali; Rahimnajjad, Muhammad Kazim; Khurshid, Madiha; Ahmed, Qazi Jalaluddin; Shahid, Syed Mariam; Khawar, Faiza; Najjar, Molham Mustafa

    2012-06-28

    Gallstones have been regarded as one of the most expensive diseases in Gastroenterology, posing a great economic burden on developing nations. The majority of Pakistani people live in rural areas where healthcare facilities are not available or are very primitive. We aim to assess the characteristics among cholelithiasis patients from rural Karachi so that a prevention campaign can be launched in rural underprivileged settings to reduce the economic burden of this preventable disease. A total of 410 patients were included in the study after giving verbal consent as well as written consent. Variables such as age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, waist circumference, number of children, monthly family income, number of siblings, and number of family members, were considered in this questionnaire. All data was analysed by SPSS ver. 16.0. Mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated for continuous variables. Frequency and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Nearly 85.4% of the participants were female. The mean ± S.D. for age was 43.8 ± 9.59. Nearly 61% of the patients were illiterate. All of our patients were from low socioeconomic status and their mean salary ± S.D. was 6915 ± 1992 PKR (1 US $ = 90.37PKR). 75% of them were smokers with mean consumption ± S.D. of 7.5 ± 10 cigarettes per day. Fibre in diet was not used by 83.65% of patients. 40.2% were living in combined families. 61% were living in purchased homes. A positive history of diabetes mellitus was given by 45.1%, family history of cholelithiasis by 61% and history of hypertension by 31.7% of subjects. Soft drink consumption was given by 45.1% of patients; while only 8.5% used snacked daily. Tea was consumed by 95.1% of the subjects. Daily physical activity for 30 minutes was reported by only 13.4% of participants. In conclusion, rural dwellers from low socioeconomic strata are neglected patients and illiteracy further adds fuel

  10. Life cycle and economic assessment of source-separated MSW collection with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ni, Mingjiang; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao

    2013-08-01

    In China, the continuously increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has resulted in an urgent need for changing the current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system based on mixed collection. A pilot program focusing on source-separated MSW collection was thus launched (2010) in Hangzhou, China, to lessen the related environmental loads. And greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Kyoto Protocol) are singled out in particular. This paper uses life cycle assessment modeling to evaluate the potential environmental improvement with regard to GHG emissions. The pre-existing MSWM system is assessed as baseline, while the source separation scenario is compared internally. Results show that 23 % GHG emissions can be decreased by source-separated collection compared with the base scenario. In addition, the use of composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) is suggested for further optimizing the management of food waste. 260.79, 82.21, and -86.21 thousand tonnes of GHG emissions are emitted from food waste landfill, composting, and AD, respectively, proving the emission reduction potential brought by advanced food waste treatment technologies. Realizing the fact, a modified MSWM system is proposed by taking AD as food waste substitution option, with additional 44 % GHG emissions saved than current source separation scenario. Moreover, a preliminary economic assessment is implemented. It is demonstrated that both source separation scenarios have a good cost reduction potential than mixed collection, with the proposed new system the most cost-effective one.

  11. Performance assessment methodology as applied to the Greater Confinement Disposal site: Preliminary results of the third performance iteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baer, T.A. [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy has contracted Sandia National Laboratories to conduct a performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility, Nevada. The performance assessment is an iterative process in which transport models are used to prioritize site characterization data collection. Then the data are used to refine the conceptual and performance assessment models. The results of the first two performance assessment iterations indicate that the site is likely to comply with the performance standards under the existing hydrologic conditions. The third performance iteration expands the conceptual model of the existing transport system to include possible future events and incorporates these processes in the performance assessment models. The processes included in the third performance assessment are climate change, bioturbation, plant uptake, erosion, upward advection, human intrusion and subsidence. The work completed to date incorporates the effects of bioturbation, erosion and subsidence in the performance assessment model. Preliminary analyses indicate that the development of relatively deep-rooting plant species at the site, which could occur due to climate change, irrigated farming or subsidence, poses the greatest threat to the site`s performance.

  12. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  13. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annique Smeding

    Full Text Available In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning, but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society. Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals, instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  14. Quantifying Groundwater Quality at a Regional Scale: Establishing a Foundation for Economic and Health Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, K.

    2015-12-01

    -metric exceeds 50,000 people in 10 study areas. On a statewide basis, the population metric is 2 million people (18% of 11 million equivalent-people). The proposed assessment approach is independent of scale, allows for consistent comparison across regions, and provides a foundation for subsequent economic or health assessments.

  15. Preliminary assessment of night vision goggles in airborne forest fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Sion; Craig, Greg; Erdos, Rob; Filiter, Don; Crowell, Bob; Macuda, Todd

    2007-04-01

    Helicopters are widely used in daytime forest fire suppression, conducting diverse tasks such as spotting, re-supply, medical evacuation and airborne delivery. However, they are not used at night for forest fire suppression operations. There would be many challenges when operating in the vicinity of forest fires at night, including scene obscuration from smoke and dynamic changes in lighting conditions. There is little data on the use of Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) for airborne forest fire suppression. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC), in collaboration with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR), performed a preliminary flight test to examine the use of NVGs while operating near forest fires. The study also simulated limited aspects of night time water bucketing. The preliminary observations from this study suggest that NVGs have potential to improve the safety and efficiency of airborne forest fire suppression, including forest fire perimeter mapping and take-off and landing in the vicinity of open fires. NVG operations at some distance from the fire pose minimal risk to flight, and provide an enhanced capability to identify areas of combustion at greater distances and accuracy. Closer to the fire, NVG flight becomes more risk intensive as a consequence of a reduction in visibility attributable to the adverse effects on NVG performance of the excess radiation and smoke emitted by the fire. The preliminary results of this study suggest that water bucketing at night is a difficult operation with elevated risk. Further research is necessary to clarify the operational limitations and implementation of these devices in forest fire suppression.

  16. Government use licenses in Thailand: an assessment of the health and economic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaisiri Kakanang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 2006 and 2008, Thailand's Ministry of Public Health (MOPH granted government use licenses for seven patented drugs in order to improve access to these essential treatments. The decision to grant the government use licenses was contentious both within and beyond the country. In particular, concerns were highlighted that the negative consequences might outweigh the expected benefits of the policy. This study conducted assessments of the health and economic implications of these government use licenses. Methods The health and health-related economic impacts were quantified in terms of i Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs gained and ii increased productivity in US dollars (USD as a result of the increased access to drugs. The study adopted a five-year timeframe for the assessment, commencing from the time of the grant of the government use licenses. Empirical evidence gathered from national databases was used to assess the changes in volume of exports after US Generalized System of Preferences (GSP withdrawal and level of foreign direct investment (FDI. Results As a result of the granting of the government use licenses, an additional 84,158 patients were estimated to have received access to the seven drugs over five years. Health gains from the use of the seven drugs compared to their best alternative accounted for 12,493 QALYs gained, which translates into quantifiable incremental benefits to society of USD132.4 million. The government use license on efavirenze was found to have the greatest benefit. In respect of the country's economy, the study found that Thailand's overall exports increased overtime, although exports of the three US GSP withdrawal products to the US did decline. There was also found to be no relationship between the government use licenses and the level of foreign investment over the period 2002 to 2008. Conclusions The public health benefits of the government use licenses were generally positive

  17. Fuel cells for automotive powertrains-A techno-economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Peter; Schmid, Stephan A.

    With the objective of identifying the hurdles currently preventing a widespread application of fuel cell technology in passenger cars an assessment of technical and economic parameters is carried out. Patent and publication analysis is used to assess current status of fuel cell technology regarding its position on technology life cycle. S-curve methodology leads to the conclusion that further scientific activity is to be expected but for today's low-temperature PEM fuel cell technology might level by 2015. Technical analysis identifies power density and platinum loading as parameters for which further improvements are necessary in order to satisfy future customer needs. A detailed cost evaluation suggests that in future for high production volumes (approx. 1 million vehicles cumulative) significantly lower costs for fuel cell stacks (12-40 kW -1) and systems (35-83 kW -1) will be viable. Reducing costs to such a level will have to be the main focus for upcoming research activities in order to make fuel cell driven road vehicles a competitive alternative.

  18. Life cycle assessment and economic analysis of a low concentrating photovoltaic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, G; Forni, M; Petito, F; Renno, C

    2016-10-01

    Many new photovoltaic (PV) applications, such as the concentrating PV (CPV) systems, are appearing on the market. The main characteristic of CPV systems is to concentrate sunlight on a receiver by means of optical devices and to decrease the solar cells area required. A low CPV (LCPV) system allows optimizing the PV effect with high increase of generated electric power as well as decrease of active surface area. In this paper, an economic analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a particular LCPV scheme is presented and its environmental impacts are compared with those of a PV traditional system. The LCA study was performed with the software tool SimaPro 8.0.2, using the Econinvent 3.1 database. A functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity produced was chosen. Carbon Footprint, Ecological Footprint and ReCiPe 2008 were the methods used to assess the environmental impacts of the LCPV plant compared with a corresponding traditional system. All the methods demonstrated the environmental convenience of the LCPV system. The innovative system allowed saving 16.9% of CO2 equivalent in comparison with the traditional PV plant. The environmental impacts saving was 17% in terms of Ecological Footprint, and, finally, 15.8% with the ReCiPe method.

  19. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Ch.E. [GE Nuclear Energy San Jose (United States)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  20. Cheating by Economics and Business Undergraduate Students: An Exploratory International Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Aurora A. C.; Rocha, Maria Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Today's economics and business students are expected to be our future business people and potentially the economic leaders and politicians of tomorrow. Thus, their beliefs and practices are liable to affect the definition of acceptable economics and business ethics. The empirical evaluation of the phenomenon of cheating in academia has almost…

  1. Treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a systematic review and economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Amy; McParlin, Catherine; Robson, Stephen C; Beyer, Fiona; Moloney, Eoin; Bryant, Andrew; Bradley, Jennifer; Muirhead, Colin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Norman, Justine; Simpson, Emma; Swallow, Brian; Yates, Laura; Vale, Luke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) Abstracts, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, British Nursing Index, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Conference Proceedings Index, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Economic Evaluations Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from inception to September 2014. References from studies and literature reviews identified were also examined. Obstetric Medicine was hand-searched, as were websites of relevant organisations. Costs came from NHS sources. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for effectiveness, and population-based case series for adverse events and fetal outcomes. Treatments: vitamins B6 and B12, ginger, acupressure/acupuncture, hypnotherapy, antiemetics, dopamine antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists, intravenous (i.v.) fluids, corticosteroids, enteral and parenteral feeding or other novel treatment. Two reviewers extracted data and quality assessed studies. Results were narratively synthesised; planned meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and incomplete reporting. A simple economic evaluation considered

  2. Research on Novel Algorithms for Smart Grid Reliability Assessment and Economic Dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenjin

    In this dissertation, several studies of electric power system reliability and economy assessment methods are presented. To be more precise, several algorithms in evaluating power system reliability and economy are studied. Furthermore, two novel algorithms are applied to this field and their simulation results are compared with conventional results. As the electrical power system develops towards extra high voltage, remote distance, large capacity and regional networking, the application of a number of new technique equipments and the electric market system have be gradually established, and the results caused by power cut has become more and more serious. The electrical power system needs the highest possible reliability due to its complication and security. In this dissertation the Boolean logic Driven Markov Process (BDMP) method is studied and applied to evaluate power system reliability. This approach has several benefits. It allows complex dynamic models to be defined, while maintaining its easy readability as conventional methods. This method has been applied to evaluate IEEE reliability test system. The simulation results obtained are close to IEEE experimental data which means that it could be used for future study of the system reliability. Besides reliability, modern power system is expected to be more economic. This dissertation presents a novel evolutionary algorithm named as quantum evolutionary membrane algorithm (QEPS), which combines the concept and theory of quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm and membrane computation, to solve the economic dispatch problem in renewable power system with on land and offshore wind farms. The case derived from real data is used for simulation tests. Another conventional evolutionary algorithm is also used to solve the same problem for comparison. The experimental results show that the proposed method is quick and accurate to obtain the optimal solution which is the minimum cost for electricity supplied by wind

  3. Assessment of the Economic Losses Resulting from Land Subsidence in Bandung Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, H. Z.; Gumilar, I.; Andreas, H.; Fukuda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Bandung Basin is a large intra-montane basin surrounded by volcanic highlands, in western Java, Indonesia, inhabited by more than seven million people. The basin, an area of about 2300 km2, is a highland plateau at approximately 650-700 m above sea level and is surrounded by up to 2400 m high Late Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic terrain. Based on the results of 9 GPS surveys conducted since 2000 up to 2011 it was shown that several locations in the Bandung Basin have experienced land subsidence, with an average rate of about -8 cm/year and can go up to about -23 cm/year in certain locations. A similar rate of subsidence was also detected by the InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) technique. In general, the impacts of land subsidence in Bandung basin could be seen in several forms, such as cracking of houses, permanent constructions and roads, changes in river canal and drain flow systems, wider expansion of flooding areas, and malfunction of drainage system. The tangible and intangible impacts of land subsidence cannot be underestimated. The primary environmental and economic effects of land subsidence phenomena can vary from negligible to severe depending on the present land-use nature of the affected area and the subsidence magnitude and coverage. The indirect effects of subsidence through aggravation of other hazards already present in the area are frequently more severe than the direct effects. In the case of Bandung basin, the increase in flooding coverage caused by continuing subsidence introduce more problems compared to other indirect effects of land subsidence. Land subsidence also Increases the maintenance costs for the affected buildings and infrastructure, and lowering the quality of living environment (e.g. health and sanitation condition) and ecosystem in the affected areas. Although not easy, quantitative assessment of economic losses resulting from land subsidence in Bandung basin has been carried out. Methodology and estimated

  4. Assessing conservation opportunity on private land: socio-economic, behavioral, and spatial dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Christopher M; Brown, Gregory

    2011-10-01

    This study presents a method for assessing conservation opportunity on private land based on landholders' socio-economic, behavioral, and farm characteristics. These characteristics include age, gender, education, level of off-farm income, farm size, proportion of remnant native vegetation on-farm, and ecological value of native vegetation on-farm. A sample of landholders who own greater than 2 ha of land in the South Australian Murray-Darling Basin region were sent a mail-based survey about their values and preferences for environmental management (N = 659, 52% response). Cross-tabulations and ANOVA statistical analysis techniques were used to compare the socio-economic attributes across three landholder classes: disengaged, moderately engaged, and highly engaged in native vegetation planting. Results indicate that highly engaged landholders were more likely to be female, formally educated, hobby farmers who managed small parcels of land and have high off-farm incomes, whereas disengaged landholders held significantly stronger farming connections (more farming experience, family have lived on the farm for more generations). Spatial analysis revealed area-specific differences in conservation opportunity and conservation priority. In some areas, properties of high ecological value were managed by highly engaged landholders, but nearby properties of high value were managed by moderately engaged or disengaged landholders. Environmental managers therefore cannot assume areas of high conservation priority will be areas of high conservation opportunity. At the regional scale, the potential for revegetation seems most promising within the moderately engaged landholder group considering the vast amount of land managed by this group in areas of high ecological value, particularly within the less represented Mallee and Coorong and Rangelands sub-regions. We suggest that incentive schemes which purchase conservation need to be targeted at disengaged landholders; mentoring

  5. Assessing the Potential of Economic-Geographical Position for Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan Petrovich Zemtsov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the review of the scientific literature, the category of economic-geographical position (EGP is formalized. The developed method of international and interregional EGP potential assessment is based on the use of gravity models; in the future, it can be widely used in regional studies to explore the benefits of the spatial location of objects (countries, regions, cities, etc.. These calculations for Russian regions have showed a significant spatial differentiation. The regions located near Moscow and St. Petersburg agglomerations have the maximum potential of interregional EGP, the potential decreases uniformly to the east. The maximum international EGP potential is concentrated in the regions on the coast of the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Sea of Japan. The potential of the Kaliningrad region is in 5.6 times higher than it is for the Tyva Republic. In addition, it is revealed a significant increase in the total EGP potential in the 2000s, and its shift to the southern regions of the Far East due to the growth of the Asia-Pacific economies. The regions with a high and low efficiency of EGP use are revealed. The results are used to identify the connections between the EGP potential and the indicators of socio-economic development. It is found that a favorable EGP is one of the factors for gross regional productgrowth, the growth of investment and foreign trade, migration growth and spread of new technologies. Formalizing EGP as a category allows to use it to predict the spatial changes in the socioeconomic development of Russia.

  6. Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

  7. Carbon felt and carbon fiber - A techno-economic assessment of felt electrodes for redox flow battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Carbon felt electrodes belong to the key components of redox flow batteries. The purpose of this techno-economic assessment is to uncover the production costs of PAN- and rayon-based carbon felt electrodes. Raw material costs, energy demand and the impact of processability of fiber and felt are considered. This innovative, interdisciplinary approach combines deep insights into technical, ecologic and economic aspects of carbon felt and carbon fiber production. Main results of the calculation model are mass balances, cumulative energy demands (CED) and the production costs of conventional and biogenic carbon felts supplemented by market assessments considering textile and carbon fibers.

  8. Nuclear Reactor Component Code CUPID-I: Numerical Scheme and Preliminary Assessment Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyoung Kyu; Jeong, Jae Jun; Park, Ik Kyu; Kim, Jong Tae; Yoon, Han Young

    2007-12-15

    A component scale thermal hydraulic analysis code, CUPID (Component Unstructured Program for Interfacial Dynamics), is being developed for the analysis of components of a nuclear reactor, such as reactor vessel, steam generator, containment, etc. It adopted three-dimensional, transient, two phase and three-field model. In order to develop the numerical schemes for the three-field model, various numerical schemes have been examined including the SMAC, semi-implicit ICE, SIMPLE, Row Scheme and so on. Among them, the ICE scheme for the three-field model was presented in the present report. The CUPID code is utilizing unstructured mesh for the simulation of complicated geometries of the nuclear reactor components. The conventional ICE scheme that was applied to RELAP5 and COBRA-TF, therefore, were modified for the application to the unstructured mesh. Preliminary calculations for the unstructured semi-implicit ICE scheme have been conducted for a verification of the numerical method from a qualitative point of view. The preliminary calculation results showed that the present numerical scheme is robust and efficient for the prediction of phase changes and flow transitions due to a boiling and a flashing. These calculation results also showed the strong coupling between the pressure and void fraction changes. Thus, it is believed that the semi-implicit ICE scheme can be utilized for transient two-phase flows in a component of a nuclear reactor.

  9. Preliminary structural assessment of DEMO vacuum vessel against a vertical displacement event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozzillo, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.mozzillo@unina.it [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Tarallo, Andrea; Marzullo, Domenico [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Bachmann, Christian [EUROfusion PMU, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Di Gironimo, Giuseppe [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Mazzone, Giuseppe [Unità Tecnica Fusione - ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The paper focuses on a preliminary structural analysis of the current concept design of DEMO vacuum vessel. • The Vacuum Vessel was checked against the VDE in combinations with the weight force of all components that the vessel shall bear. • Different configurations for the vacuum vessel supports are considered, showing that the best solution is VV supported at the lower port. • The analyses evaluated the “P damage” according to RCC-MRx code. - Abstract: This paper focuses on a preliminary structural analysis of the current concept design of DEMO vacuum vessel (VV). The VV structure is checked against a vertical load due to a Vertical Displacement Event in combination with the weight force of all components that the main vessel shall bear. Different configurations for the supports are considered. Results show that the greatest safety margins are reached when the tokamak is supported through the lower ports rather than the equatorial ports, though all analyzed configurations are compliant with RCC-MRx design rules.

  10. Assessing the Quality of Medical Information Technology Economic Evaluations: Room for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Eric L.; Ortiz, Maqui; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Crosslin, David R.; Lobach, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Medical information systems are being recognized for their ability to improve patient outcomes. While standards for the economic evaluation of medical technologies were instituted in the mid-1990s, little is known about their application in medical information technology studies. In a review of medical information technology evaluation studies published between 1982 and 2002, we found that the volume and variety of economic evaluations had increased; however, investigators routinely omitted key cost or effectiveness elements in their designs, resulting in publications with incomplete, and potentially biased, economic findings. Of the studies that made economic claims, 23% did not report any economic data, 40% failed to include any effectiveness measures, and more than 50% used a case study or pre- post- test design. Thus, during a time when health economic study methods in general have experienced significant development, there is little evidence of similar progress in medical information technology economic evaluations. PMID:17238338

  11. Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and [sup 137]Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

  12. Development and preliminary evaluation of a music-based attention assessment for patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Lesiuk, Teresa L

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in attention are commonly seen in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). While visual attention assessment measurements have been rigorously developed and frequently used in cognitive neurorehabilitation, there is a paucity of auditory attention assessment measurements for patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to field test a researcher-developed Music-based Attention Assessment (MAA), a melodic contour identification test designed to assess three different types of attention (i.e., sustained attention, selective attention, and divided attention), for patients with TBI. Additionally, this study aimed to evaluate the readability and comprehensibility of the test items and to examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the scale and test items. Fifteen patients diagnosed with TBI completed 3 different series of tasks in which they were required to identify melodic contours. The resulting data showed that (a) test items in each of the 3 subtests were found to have an easy to moderate level of item difficulty and an acceptable to high level of item discrimination, and (b) the musical characteristics (i.e., contour, congruence, and pitch interference) were found to be associated with the level of item difficulty, and (c) the internal consistency of the MAA as computed by Cronbach's alpha was .95. Subsequent studies using a larger sample of typical participants, along with individuals with TBI, are needed to confirm construct validity and internal consistency of the MAA. In addition, the authors recommend examination of criterion validity of the MAA as correlated with current neuropsychological attention assessment measurements.

  13. Combined Sustainability Assessment and Techno-Economic Analysis for the Production of Biomass-Derived High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit

    2015-11-13

    Conversion technologies for biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are being actively developed. Converting biomass into advanced hydrocarbon fuels requires detailed assessments to help prioritize research; techno-economic analysis (TEA) is a long established tool used to assess feasibility and progress. TEA provides information needed to make informed judgments about the viability of any given conceptual conversion process; it is particularly useful to identify technical barriers and measure progress toward overcoming those barriers. Expansion of the cellulosic biofuels industry at the scale needed to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard goals is also expected to have environmental impacts. Hence, the success of the biofuels industry depends not only on economic viability, but also on environmental sustainability. A biorefinery process that is economically feasible but suffers from key sustainability drawbacks is not likely to represent a long-term solution to replace fossil-derived fuels. Overarching concerns like environmental sustainability need to be addressed for biofuels production. Combined TEA and environmental sustainability assessment of emerging pathways helps facilitate biorefinery designs that are both economically feasible and minimally impactful to the environment. This study focuses on environmental sustainability assessment and techno-economic analysis for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via gasification and methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates. Results from the conceptual process design with economic analysis, along with the quantification and assessment of the environmental sustainability, are presented and discussed. Sustainability metrics associated with the production of high-octane gasoline include carbon conversion efficiency, consumptive water use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy consumption, energy return on investment and net energy value.

  14. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  15. Self-Assessment of Word Knowledge with Graded Readers: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan-a-rom, Udorn

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated how second language (L2) learners self-assessed word knowledge on a page of text taken from a graded reader. The case study subjects were five Thai high school learners of English. They were asked to assess their word knowledge using a page of continuous text. Data gained through observation, interviews, self-assessment and…

  16. The socio-economic dimension of flood risk assessment: insights of KULTURisk framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Gain, Animesh; Mojtahed, Vahid; Balbi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The approaches for vulnerability and risk assessment have found different and often contrasting solutions by various schools of thought. The two most prominent communities in this field are: climate change adaptation (CCA), and disaster risk reduction (DRR). Although those communities have usually in common the aim of reducing socio-economic vulnerability and risk to natural hazards, they have usually referred to different definitions and conceptualizations. For example, the DRR community has always driven more emphasis on the concept of risk and vulnerability is considered as a physical/environmental input for the quantification of risk, while the CCA research stream, mainly under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), considered vulnerability as an output deriving from social conditions and processes such as adaptation or maladaptation. Recently, with the publication of the IPCC Special Report on extreme events and disasters (IPCC-SREX), the notions of vulnerability and risk are somehow integrated in order to jointly consider both climate change adaptation and disaster risk management. The IPCC-SREX indeed is expected to significantly contribute to find common language and methodological approaches across disciplines and, therefore, the opportunity emerges for proposing new operational solutions, consistent with the most recent evolution of concepts and terminology. Based on the development of the IPCC Report, the KULTURisk project developed an operational framework to support integrated assessment and decision support through the combination of contributions from diverse disciplinary knowledge, with emphasis on the social and economic dimensions. KIRAF (KULTURisk Integrated Risk Assessment Framework) is specifically aimed at comprehensively evaluate the benefits of risk mitigation measures with consideration of the dynamic context deriving from the consideration of climatic changes and their effects on natural disasters, within the

  17. ACADEMICS ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS WEB 2.0 ACTIVITIES. CASE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacurezanu Ramona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation is the way through which the universities demonstrate their own value, but also that of their graduates. Our present paper suggests a debate regarding the evaluation of students in economics in a web 2.0 world. More precisely, we are trying to offer an answer to the question: Do the students of economics have the necessary computer science abilities to learn and to be evaluated in a 2.0 web environment? The paper starts off with the presentation of fundamental principles of assessment and teaching done with Web 2.0 means and methods. The exemplifications are added to this structure as they had been presented in the specialized works of this domain. The paper then goes on to present the results of our prospective study. Through this prospective study we wanted to identify the attributes based on which we could create the next phases of our research into elaborating the behavior of the students as it is observed during the process of evaluation. This evaluation takes place in a world that is bombarded with synchronic and a-synchronic means of communication called according to acronyms such as web 2.0, 3.0 and maybe even 4.0. It is in this context that we consider that the main purpose of the present paper is to determine the state of being prepared/ unprepared characterizing the student in the use (acceptance of the evaluation and assessment of certain softs for socialization. In order to achieve our purpose, we have carried out a survey based on which we were intending to obtain the students’ level of perception regarding the evaluation system they are subjected to through web 2.0 means as well as their reaction to the web type of evaluation. The result we obtained demonstrated that the students are willing to participate at a declarative level, but they are not actually willing to be evaluated through web 2.0 means when it comes to practice. The end of the study is where we identified the need for a better means of informing and

  18. Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.;

    2006-01-01

    -economic scenarios that are consistent with climate change scenarios used in climate impact studies. Furthermore, the pairwise comparison approach developed by Saaty [Saaty, T.L., 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw Hill, New York] provides a useful tool for the quantification from narrative storylines......Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts...... on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...

  19. Assessment of China's economic loss resulting from the degradation of agricultural land in the end of 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang-hua; Chang, Ying; Ning, Da-tong

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is a consequence stemming from both natural processes and social economic activities. On the bases of analyzing general situation of agricultural land degradation in China, the monetary estimating methods such as market value method and shadow engineering method were used to quantitatively assess the economic loss resulting from land deterioration. Results showed that the economic loss in 1999 was 326.81 billion RMB Yuan, which accounted for 4.1% of GDP in the same year of China. If taking five items namely farmland conversion, soil erosion, salinization, decline in reservoir functions, and siltation in waterways and, comparing with that in 1992, the percentage of economic loss to GDP has increased by 1.5 in the only 7 years.

  20. A web-based team-oriented medical error communication assessment tool: development, preliminary reliability, validity, and user ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sara; Brock, Doug; Prouty, Carolyn D; Odegard, Peggy Soule; Shannon, Sarah E; Robins, Lynne; Boggs, Jim G; Clark, Fiona J; Gallagher, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams are not well suited for assessing communication skills. Standardized patient assessments are costly and patient and peer assessments are often biased. Web-based assessment using video content offers the possibility of reliable, valid, and cost-efficient means for measuring complex communication skills, including interprofessional communication. We report development of the Web-based Team-Oriented Medical Error Communication Assessment Tool, which uses videotaped cases for assessing skills in error disclosure and team communication. Steps in development included (a) defining communication behaviors, (b) creating scenarios, (c) developing scripts, (d) filming video with professional actors, and (e) writing assessment questions targeting team communication during planning and error disclosure. Using valid data from 78 participants in the intervention group, coefficient alpha estimates of internal consistency were calculated based on the Likert-scale questions and ranged from α=.79 to α=.89 for each set of 7 Likert-type discussion/planning items and from α=.70 to α=.86 for each set of 8 Likert-type disclosure items. The preliminary test-retest Pearson correlation based on the scores of the intervention group was r=.59 for discussion/planning and r=.25 for error disclosure sections, respectively. Content validity was established through reliance on empirically driven published principles of effective disclosure as well as integration of expert views across all aspects of the development process. In addition, data from 122 medicine and surgical physicians and nurses showed high ratings for video quality (4.3 of 5.0), acting (4.3), and case content (4.5). Web assessment of communication skills appears promising. Physicians and nurses across specialties respond favorably to the tool.