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Sample records for preliminary dris norms

  1. Preliminary the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS Norms for Evaluating the Nutrient Status of Apple

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    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS is an important tool for increasing fruit yield and fruit quality. There are still no studies on the use of DRIS for nutritional diagnosis of the apple tree for China conditions. The objectives of this study were to establish norms for apple, to compare mean yield, leaf nutrient contents and variance of nutrient ratios of low- and high-yielding subpopulations. The study covered the apple producing areas of the Wei-bei Loess Plateau in the northwest of China, in 164 orchards selected for their high productivity and employment of excellent management techniques. The concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc were determined in leaf samples. The data were divided into high-yielding (>45 t/ha and low-yielding (<45 t/ha subpopulations and norms were computed using standard DRIS procedures and a preliminary DRIS norms for apple growing in the Wei-bei Loess Plateau are selected. These norms were developed with data from only one region, so data from future surveys and field trials may subsequently be used to enlarge the database allowing the refinement of model parameters. The results elucidate that the DRIS model for apple, developed in this study, is a diagnostic tool that may be used to predict if insufficiencies or imbalances in N, P, K Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn supplies are occurring in apple production area in the Wei-bei Loess Plateau, China and indeed elsewhere in the other apple production areas with similar c1imatic and soil conditions.

  2. Normas preliminares dris e faixas de suficiência para goiabeira 'Paluma' Preliminary dris norms and sufficiency range for 'Paluma' guava tree

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    Henrique Antunes de Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico nutricional a partir da análise do tecido foliar é um instrumento eficiente para detectar desequilíbrios e auxiliar no processo de recomendação de adubação. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre os índices DRIS e os teores foliares de nutrientes, estabelecer teores foliares adequados de nutrientes com o DRIS e validar normas DRIS para a goiabeira 'Paluma'. Avaliou-se um pomar comercial nas condições de cultivo do Estado de São Paulo, durante seis safras de produção de frutos, provenientes de ensaios de adubação orgânica e mineral, totalizando 168 amostras. A ordem dos nutrientes limitantes por falta em ordem decrescente foram: Fe>K>Mn>Ca>B>N>P>Cu>S>Mg>Zn, e limitantes por excesso em ordem decrescente foram: Cu>Fe>P>Mn=Mg>Zn>Ca>B>K>S>N. As faixas adequadas, provenientes dos índices DRIS, são: 18-21; 1,5-1,7; 15-17; 8-11; 1,8-2,5 e 2,5-2,9 (g kg-1 para os macronutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S, respectivamente, e 26-38; 5-57; 54-112; 53-101 e 13-126 (mg kg-1 para os micronutrientes B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, respectivamente. A produtividade das goiabeiras esteve associada ao estado nutricional.The nutritional diagnosis based on the analysis of leaf tissue is an efficient tool for detecting imbalances and help the process of fertilization recommendation. Thus, it was evaluated to establish preliminary DRIS norms, and to derive critical levels and sufficiency ranges of nutrients in the leaf tissue to Paluma guava cultivar in commercial orchards growing conditions in the State of São Paulo. It was evaluated six harvests of fruit production, from organic and mineral fertilizer, totaling 168 samples. The order of limiting nutrients for failure in descending order were: Fe> K> Mn> Ca> B> N> P> Cu> S> Mg> Zn, and limiting excess in descending order were: Cu> Fe> P> Mn = Mg> Zn> Ca> B> K> S> N. The tracks from the appropriate DRIS indices are: 18-21, 1.5 to 1.7, 15-17, 8-11, 1.8 to 2.5 and 2.5 to 2.9 (g kg-1 for the

  3. Obtaining preliminary DRIS norms and sufficiency ranges in banana of the prata subgroup, in the region of the Lower Jaguaribe, Ceará, Brazil = Obtenção de normas DRIS preliminares e faixas de suficiência para bananeira do subgrupo prata na região do Baixo Jaguaribe, CE, Brasil

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    Natanael Santiago Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the success of nutritional diagnosis, it is important that the nutritional evaluation of a plant be based on local data, with the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS being used as an alternative. The objective of this study was to establish preliminary DRIS norms for banana crops in the region of the Lower Jaguaribe, in the state of Ceará (CE, using a database of the results of foliar analysis. A total of 487 DRIS norms were generated for the region of the Lower Jaguaribe from 171 results of foliar analysis relating to the irrigation districts of Jaguaribe-Apodi (DIJA and Tabuleiro de Russas (DISTAR. Reference values were obtained from the dual relationship between nutrients, transformed by natural logarithm, and their mean values and standard deviations calculated. The frequency of results for a deficiency or excess of each nutrient was determined from the DRIS indices obtained. The specific DRIS norms for each site showed differences when compared to those generated from all the data. The diagnoses generated by the specific norms agreed by less than 60% in comparison to those obtained using reference norms from the literature. The DRIS norms obtained need to be validated using data from commercial production, as well as from fertilizer trials = Para o sucesso do diagnóstico nutricional é interessante que a avaliação nutricional das plantas seja fundamentada em dados locais e como alternativa tem sido utilizado o Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estabelecer normas DRIS preliminares para a cultura da banana na região do Baixo Jaguaribe, CE, com base em banco de dados com resultados de análise foliar. Foram geradas normas DRIS para a região do Baixo Jaguaribe a partir de 171 resultados de análises foliares relativas aos distritos de irrigação Jaguaribe-Apodi (DIJA e Tabuleiro de Russas (DISTAR, de um total de 487. Os valores de referência foram obtidos atrav

  4. Avaliação da universalidade das normas DRIS, M-DRIS e CND Evaluation of the universality of DRIS, M-DRIS, and CND norms

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    Gualter Guenther Costa da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de utilização de normas obtidas em determinado local, para diferentes condições de clima e solo, pode conferir aos métodos de diagnose do estado nutricional um caráter de universalidade. Neste sentido, por meio da aplicação dos métodos: Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS, DRIS modificado (M-DRIS e Diagnose da Composição Nutricional (CND em plantios florestais de Eucalyptus grandis, objetivou-se comparar a diagnose, aplicando-se os métodos, mediante normas específicas ou gerais, em localidades da região Centro-Leste do Estado de Minas Gerais, utilizando diferentes critérios de avaliação. Foram utilizados dados de produtividade e de teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg nas folhas, referentes a 993 talhões de Eucalyptus grandis plantados no espaçamento 3 x 2 m, com idades variando de 72 a 153 meses, e abrangendo seis localidades da região estudada. A universalidade das normas foi avaliada, comparando-se a freqüência de diagnoses concordantes (FDC do potencial de resposta à adubação (PRA, obtida mediante normas específicas ou gerais, considerando os seguintes critérios de avaliação: os nutrientes separadamente; desde todos (5 até nenhum nutriente (0; e apenas para o limitante primário por deficiência (p ou por excesso (n. O grau de universalidade das normas variou de acordo com o critério adotado para sua avaliação. Em virtude da ausência de universalidade das normas, é preferível a utilização de normas específicas em vez de normas gerais.The possibility of using norms obtained at a given site for different climate and soil conditions can confer the methods of diagnosis of nutritional status a universal character. In this sense, the methods Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS, modified DRIS (M-DRIS, and Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND were applied in Eucalyptus grandis plantations aiming at comparing the diagnosis established by the methods with either specific

  5. Norms establishment of the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS for nutritional diagnosis of sugarcane

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    Reis Junior Roberto dos Anjos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to establish DRIS norms for sugarcane crop, to compare mean yield, foliar nutrient contents and variance of nutrient ratios of low- and high-yielding groups and to compare mean values of nutrient ratios selected as the DRIS norms of low- and high-yielding groups. Leaf samples (analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Mn and Zn contents and respective yields were collected in 126 commercial sugarcane fields in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil and used to establish DRIS norms for sugarcane. Nearly all nutrient ratios selected as DRIS norms (77.8% showed statistical differences between mean values of the low- and high-yielding groups. These different nutritional balances between the low- and high-yielding groups indicate that the DRIS norms developed in this paper are reliable. The DRIS norms for micronutrients with high S²l /S²h ratio and low coefficient of variation found can provide more security to evaluate the micronutrient status of sugarcane.

  6. Establishment of DRIS norms for the nutritional diagnosis of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. clone RRIM 600 on the Eastern Plains of Colombia

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    Edinson Chacón-Pardo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS is an efficient method for evaluating the nutritional status of crops and was initially developed for rubber. In Colombia, the size of the rubber crop has grown significantly during the last decade, but recommendations do not yet exist for crop nutrition management at a local level. The aim of the present study wasto determine preliminary DRIS norms for rubber clone RRIM 600 under the conditions found on the Eastern Plains of Colombia. To this end, 78 leaf samples were collected, 19 of which were classified as high-yield, showing production above 2,690 kg ha-1, while the remaining 59 samples were classified as low-yield. The highest variance ratio and the value of R were used as criteria for selecting DRIS norms and were found to present differences, only coinciding for 32 of the studied ratios. The calculation of the DRIS indexes was carried outusing the determined norms; and K was found to be the element that most strongly limited production and showed the greatest probability of exhibiting a response upon exogenous application. Additionally, small quantities of Cu and S can generate imbalances that influence the yield of this clone

  7. Desenvolvimento de normas DRIS e CND e avaliação do estado nutricional da cultura do algodoeiro Development of dris and CND norms and evaluation of nutritional status of cotton

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    Ademar Pereira Serra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre os vários métodos de avaliação do estado nutricional das plantas, encontram-se o DRIS e o CND, os quais têm como objetivo, entre outros, ordenar a limitação dos nutrientes na planta. Este trabalho teve como finalidade o desenvolvimento de normas DRIS e CND e a comparação dos diagnósticos realizados por esses métodos, ao avaliar lavouras comerciais de algodão, no município de São Desidério (BA. A base de dados foi constituída pelos teores totais de nutrientes de 65 amostras de folha completa e pela produtividade de algodão em caroço oriundo de talhões com média de 120 ha. Para ajuste do método, a população foi dividida em duas classes: uma com produtividade acima de 4.250 kg ha-1 e outra com produtividade abaixo desta. As melhores respostas em termos de produtividade foram proporcionadas pelo K, Ca e Mn, tanto pelo método DRIS quanto pelo CND. Avaliando a frequência de diagnoses concordantes quanto ao potencial de resposta positivo à adubação, constatou-se que o N (70,8 % foi o nutriente em que se observou a menor concordância entre os dois métodos (DRIS e CND, no entanto, o método DRIS diagnosticou maior deficiência relativa para o N do que o CND. Quanto aos demais nutrientes avaliados, a frequência de diagnoses concordantes pelo potencial de resposta à adubação esteve em torno de 73,8 % para o Zn a 87,7 % para o P. Com o ajuste dos métodos DRIS e CND, chegou-se a diagnósticos semelhantes em relação ao estado nutricional da cultura do algodoeiro no oeste da Bahia.Among the different methods of assessing the nutritional status of plants, DRIS and CND have the main purpose of ranking the limiting nutrients. This study aimed to develop DRIS and CND norms and compare the diagnoses of these methods in evaluations of cotton cash crops in the region of São Desidério, state of Bahia, Brazil. The database consisted of the total nutrient content of 65 whole leaf samples and seed cotton yield of plots with an

  8. Estabelecimento e validação de normas DRIS para a cultura do algodão no centro-oeste do Brasil = DRIS norms for cotton growth in the center-west region of the Brazil

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    Marcos Antonio Camacho da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando estabelecer normas para o DRIS na cultura do algodão, um produto agrícola em franca expansão no território nacional e com significativa contribuição econômica no PIB brasileiro, o presente trabalho estudou lavouras comerciais de municípios do Norte do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul e Centro-Sul do Estado de Mato Grosso. Os resultados indicaram que a escolha da relação modifica a interpretação dos resultados, exceto quando é utilizada a metodologia proposta por Elwali e Gascho, pois, neste caso, os índices nutricionais convergem independentemente do método de escolha dasrelações. O método DRIS otimiza o gerenciamento das informações nutricionais do algodoeiro, e é possível detectar os nutrientes limitantes nas lavouras desta cultura. With the objective of establishing DRIS norms for cotton culture – an agricultural product in frank expansion in Brazil and with a significant contribution to that country’s GDP – the present work studied commercial crops of cities in Mato Grosso and MatoGrosso do Sul State, Brazil. The results indicated that the choice of ratio (A/B or B/A modifies the interpretation of the results, except when the methodology by Elwali e Gascho was used, because the nutritional index converge regardless of the ratio method chosen.The DRIS method optimizes the management of cotton nutritional data, identifying the limiting nutrients in this culture.

  9. Estabelecimento de normas dris para bananeira 'Prata Anã' (AAB sob irrigação Establishment of the dris norms for 'Prata Anã' banana (AAB under irrigation

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    José Tadeu Alves da Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estabelecer as normas DRIS (Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação para a bananeira 'Prata Anã' (AAB cultivada no semi-árido do Norte de Minas Gerais, sob irrigação. Foram selecionadas 58 áreas exploradas comercialmente com essa variedade. Em cada área foram coletadas amostras de folhas em três ciclos sucessivos de produção da bananeira na fase inicial de emissão do cacho, com exceção de seis áreas, nessas as coletas foram realizadas apenas em dois ciclos sucessivos, totalizando 168 amostras de folhas, as quais foram analisadas para determinação dos nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. Os cachos de banana, das plantas marcadas com tinta por ocasião da coleta de folhas, foram colhidos, despencados e pesados. As áreas foram divididas em populações de alta produtividade (PAP ( > 30 t ha-1 ano-1 e de baixa produtividade (PBP (The objective of this work was to establish the DRIS (diagnosis and recommendations integrated system norms for the 'Prata Anã' banana (AAB cultivated in the semi-arid of the North of Minas Gerais state under irrigation. A total of 58 areas commercially cultivated with 'Prata Anã' banana were selected. In each area, leaves samples were collected in three successive cycles of banana production in the initial phase of emission of the bunch, except for six areas, in which the collections were performed only in two successive cycles, totaling 168 leaves samples, which were analyzed for determination of the nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Banana's bunches of the plants marked with paint were harvested and weighted. The areas were divided in high-yielding population (HYP (>30 t ha-1 year-1 and in low-yielding population (LYP (< 30 t ha-1year-1. The results of the leaves analyses and yield of each area formed a database. The average, the variance and the variation coefficient for the relationship two to two among nutrients tenors were

  10. Estabelecimento de normas DRIS para o diagnóstico nutricional do coqueiro-anão verde na região Norte Fluminense Establishment of DRIS norms for green dwarf coconut tree in the north of the state of Rio de Janeiro for nutritional diagnostic purpose

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    Anselmo Lúcio dos Santos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziram-se ensaios para estabelecer normas DRIS e aplicá-las no diagnóstico nutricional do coqueiro-anão verde no Norte Fluminense. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em São João da Barra, no sítio São João, e em Quissamã, na fazenda Capivari, no período de março de 2000 a dezembro de 2001. O coqueiral do sítio São João, com seis anos de idade, com produtividade média de 227 ± 16 frutos planta-1 ano-1, foi amostrado a intervalos de 132 dias, durante dois anos, para estabelecer as normas DRIS, por apresentar as maiores produtividades. Na fazenda Capivari, por terem as plantas com menores produtividades, utilizou-se o DRIS para fazer a diagnose nutricional. As plantas da fazenda Capivari foram agrupadas em 4 categorias quanto ao número médio de frutos: 200 frutos planta-1 ano-1. A diagnose pelo DRIS indicou a seguinte ordem de limitação por deficiência: K > Ca > B, no coqueiral da fazenda Capivari. As classes de menor produtividade apresentaram índices DRIS de K e de B mais negativos que a classe de maior produtividade, havendo, também, um aparente desequilíbrio nutricional entre Ca e Mg.Field trials were conducted with the aim of establishing DRIS norms for green dwarf coconut in the North of the state of Rio de Janeiro as an alternative for the nutritional diagnosis of plants. Trials were conducted in the districts of São João da Barra, at São João farm and Quissamã, at Capivari farm, from March, 2000 to December, 2001. A high yielding crop at the São João farm, whose mean yield was 227 ± 16 fruits plant-1 year-1, had leaves samples taken at 132 days intervals during a two year period to establish DRIS norms. Lower yielding plants at the Capivari farm were nutritionally diagnosed by means of the generated DRIS norms. The plants to be diagnosed were divided into four yielding categories, 200 fruits plant-1 year-1. The diagnosis by means of DRIS indicated the following limitation order of deficiency: K> Ca> B, in the

  11. DRIS NORMS INTERPRETATION FOR PLANT TISSUE AND SOIL FOR "PÊRA" ORANGE IN THE GOIÁS STATE CENTRAL REGION NORMAS DRIS PARA INTERPRETAÇÃO DE ANÁLISES DE FOLHA E SOLO, EM LARANJEIRA PÊRA, NA REGIÃO CENTRAL DE GOIÁS

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    Ronaldo Veloso Naves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS is a method based on the average relations among nutrients and the respective variation coefficients, in a high yield population, establishing the DRIS norms. The study aimed to generate DRIS norms for nutritional diagnosis of the orange tree [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] cv. Pêra, grafted on Clove lemon tree, on the cerrado area, in the central region of Goiás State, Brazil. Leaf samples on fruit-bearing branches and soil samples were collected and the yield was estimated in commercial orchards at Inhumas, Goiânia, and Goianápolis municipalities, during the 2004/2005 growing season. The databank was made up of 303 analysis, where the proportion of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and B was analyzed, in the leaves, and OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and B in the soil. The norms were generated from a reference population with fruit yield above 22 t ha-1, and were compared with those available in the specialized literature. It was concluded that the DRIS norms for the region are different from those obtained for other sites. The results also showed that it is important the development of regional norms, instead of their universalization, for DRIS application.

    KEY-WORDS: Orange tree; DRIS norms; nutritional balance.

    O Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRISé um método em que são utilizadas relações médias entre os nutrientes e seus

  12. Nutritional Diagnosis for Apple by DRIS, CND and DOP

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    Min Xu; Jianing Zhang; Faqi Wu; Xudong Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study derived and compared norms for apple, using the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS), Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND) and deviation form optimum percentage (DOP) diagnose methods in the Weibei Loess Plateau, Shaanxi Province, China. A total of 68 leaf samples were collected from apple trees grown in Huangshan soils. The nutritional status was diagnosed by the DRIS, CND and DOP methods. The CND norms expressed as row-centered log ratios (mean±standard deviati...

  13. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS of soybean seed oil content

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    Alfredo Castamann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS can improve interpretations of leaf analysis to determine the nutrient status. Diagnoses by this method require DRIS norms, which are however not known for oil content of soybean seeds. The aims of this study were to establish and test the DRIS method for oil content of soybean seed (maturity group II cultivars. Soybean leaves (207 samples in the full flowering stage were analyzed for macro and micro-nutrients, and the DRIS was applied to assess the relationship between nutrient ratios and the seed oil content. Samples from experimental and farm field sites of the southernmost Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul (28° - 29° southern latitude; 52° -53° western longitude were assessed in two growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The DRIS norms related to seed oil content differed between the studied years. A unique DRIS norm was established for seed oil content higher than 18.68 % based on data of the 2007/2008 growing season. Higher DRIS indices of B, Ca, Mg and S were associated with a higher oil content, while the opposite was found for K, N and P. The DRIS can be used to evaluate the leaf nutrient status of soybean to improve the seed oil content of the crop.

  14. Nutritional Diagnosis for Apple by DRIS, CND and DOP

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    Min Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study derived and compared norms for apple, using the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS, Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND and deviation form optimum percentage (DOP diagnose methods in the Weibei Loess Plateau, Shaanxi Province, China. A total of 68 leaf samples were collected from apple trees grown in Huangshan soils. The nutritional status was diagnosed by the DRIS, CND and DOP methods. The CND norms expressed as row-centered log ratios (mean±standard deviation for d = 5 nutrients for the high-yield subpopulation (producing more than 46.67 t/ha were: VN*= 0.998±0.066, VP* = -1.499±0.124, VK* = -0.189±0.283, Vca* = 0.217±0.213, VMg* = -1.035±0.267, VR5 * = 1.508±0.144. The optimum ranges for leaf nutrient concentrations were: N = 27.23±1.79 g/kg, P = 2.26±0.32 g/kg, K = 8.63±2.50 g/kg, Ca = 12.73±2.66 g/kg, Mg = 3.71±1.12 g/kg, R5 = 45.44±3.95 g/kg. The regression relating CND to DRIS and DOP indices were significant linear. There was a multinomial regression equation between CND r2 and DRIS NBI, also between CND r2 and ∑DOP. This study showed that the differences in CND, DRIS and DOP approaches did not lead to large differences in identified deficiencies. So, CND may in practice still be the preferred approach since multivariate methods could be further explored to assess nutrient status in plants, but people can choose any approach they want use since they had the similar evaluation result.

  15. DRIS na avaliação do estado nutricional do arroz irrigado por inundação DRIS to evaluate nutritional status of flooded rice

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    Raquel Hermann Pötter Guindani

    2009-02-01

    concept of nutrient balance. The objective of this study was to establish a DRIS reference norm and nutritional standards for flooded rice. Results of foliar analysis and grain yield of 356 farms in different rice-producing regions in the 2005/2006 growing season were used. The leaf samples were collected at the flowering stage. High-yielding populations were selected based on the best correlation between the Index of Nutritional Balance (IBN and the maximum yield, which reached a more than 9.000 kg ha-1. The calculation of the DRIS functions and indexes was based on the original method of Beaufils. Results indicated that: the nutrient concentration was positively related with the respective DRIS indexes; the IBN correlated negatively with yield; the determination of the DRIS equilibrium point allowed the establishment of nutritional standards for flooded rice; and the DRIS method, using specific norms for the Rio Grande do Sul State, was efficient for a nutritional diagnosis of flooded rice.

  16. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS of soybean seed oil content Sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação (DRIS para diagnóstico do teor de óleo em grão de soja

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    Alfredo Castamann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS can improve interpretations of leaf analysis to determine the nutrient status. Diagnoses by this method require DRIS norms, which are however not known for oil content of soybean seeds. The aims of this study were to establish and test the DRIS method for oil content of soybean seed (maturity group II cultivars. Soybean leaves (207 samples in the full flowering stage were analyzed for macro and micro-nutrients, and the DRIS was applied to assess the relationship between nutrient ratios and the seed oil content. Samples from experimental and farm field sites of the southernmost Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul (28° - 29° southern latitude; 52° -53° western longitude were assessed in two growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The DRIS norms related to seed oil content differed between the studied years. A unique DRIS norm was established for seed oil content higher than 18.68 % based on data of the 2007/2008 growing season. Higher DRIS indices of B, Ca, Mg and S were associated with a higher oil content, while the opposite was found for K, N and P. The DRIS can be used to evaluate the leaf nutrient status of soybean to improve the seed oil content of the crop.O Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS pode melhorar a interpretação da análise foliar, contribuindo com a avaliação do estado nutricional. Para diagnósticos obtidos com esse método, é imprescindível que as normas DRIS sejam previamente estabelecidas, o que ainda não foi efetuado para o teor de óleo do grão de soja. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estabelecer as normas DRIS e avaliar esse método, em relação ao teor de óleo do grão de soja (cultivares do grupo II de maturação. Foram determinados os teores de macro e de micronutrientes de 207 amostras de folhas dessa cultura, coletadas no estádio do pleno florescimento, e avaliada a relação entre a razão dos nutrientes e o teor de óleo no

  17. Interpreting the WHOQOL-Bref: Preliminary Population Norms and Effect Sizes

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    Hawthorne, Graeme; Herrman, Helen; Murphy, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Since publication use of the WHOQOL-Bref has rapidly risen. However, as yet no population norms have been published as a reference point against which researchers can interpret their findings. This study provides preliminary population norms for this purpose. Randomly sampled community residents from two studies were pooled and used to examine the…

  18. Modelagem de funções no cálculo dos índices DRIS Modelling of functions in calculating DRIS indices

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    Paulo Guilherme Salvador Wadt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi modelar o fator k e as funções DRIS para a diagnose foliar de mangueiras cultivadas. Dez pomares comerciais, no estágio de produção, localizados no vale do Rio São Francisco, foram monitorados, mensalmente, durante dois anos, por meio da coleta de amostras foliares para determinação dos teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Mn, Zn e Cu. Os dados foram testados quanto à normalidade e as relações entre as concentrações dos nutrientes foram usadas para calcular as normas DRIS, obtendo-se média, variância e limites máximo e mínimo de cada relação dentro da população amostrada. Os nutrientes foram classificados como macronutrientes de resposta freqüente (MAF (N, P e K, macronutrientes de resposta rara (MAR (Ca e Mg; micronutrientes de resposta freqüente (MIF (B, Fe, Mn e Zn e, micronutrientes de resposta rara (MIR (Cu. Funções DRIS foram desenvolvidas para cada classe de nutrientes. O modelo desenvolvido expressa o balanço nutricional das plantas cultivadas ajustado a cada nutriente e reflete o comportamento biológico das plantas como resultado da variação da disponibilidade dos nutrientes.The objective of this work was to model DRIS functions and k factor on foliar diagnosis of mango crops. Ten commercial orchards, at yield stage, in the São Francisco River valley were monitored, monthly, during a two-year period, by means of collecting leaf samples to determine N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu concentrations. Data were tested for normality and bivariate relationships between nutrient concentrations were used to calculate DRIS norms. Mean, variance as well as minimum and maximum values were calculated for each relationship within the population. Nutrients were classified as follows: highly responsive macronutrients (HRMa (N, P and K; rarely responsive macronutrients (RRMa (Ca and Mg; highly responsive micronutrients (HRMi (B, Fe, Mn and Zn, and rarely responsive micronutrients (RRMi (Cu

  19. Nutritional diagnosis for eucalypt by DRIS, M-DRIS, and CND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Gualter Guenther Costa da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the nutritional status in eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. forests through vegetal tissue analyses what reflects water and nutrient flows in the system, and represents a complementary tool to soil analysis can be helpful to raise and maintain the forest productivity at high levels. This study compared the use of the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS, Modified-DRIS (M-DRIS, and Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND diagnose methods in eucalypt stands in Central-Eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Data of productivity and of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg leaf contents in 993 Eucalyptus grandis stands aging between 72 and 153 months, planted on six sites in 3 ´ 2 m spacing, were used. The nutritional status was diagnosed by the DRIS, M-DRIS, and CND methods, and validated by the chi-square (c² test applied to the nutrients diagnosed as primary limiting by deficiency. These three methods were compared to each other based on the diagnosis concordance frequency (DCF derived from the fertilization response potential (FRP by the criteria considering each nutrient separately; from all (5 to none (0; and only the primary limiting nutrients by either deficiency or excess. The diagnosis concordance level among the methods was procedure-dependent, and varied according to the nutrient concentration in trees.

  20. Potencial de resposta à adubação para N, P, K, Ca e Mg em cupuaçueiros avaliados por diferentes normas DRIS Response potential to fertilization response for N, P, K, Ca and Mg in cupuaçueiros evaluated by different DRIS standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rafael Machado Dias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de resposta à adubação é uma ferramenta utilizada para a interpretação dos valores dos índices DRIS, de forma que pode ser útil para verificar se diferentes grupos de normas resultam em diagnósticos distintos ou semelhantes entre si. Neste sentido, objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento do diagnóstico nutricional, submetidos a cinco grupos de normas DRIS. Para isto, amostras foliares de cupuaçueiros foram coletadas de pomares comerciais, cuja idade das plantas variou de 5 a 18 anos, sob monocultivo e sistemas agroflorestais (SAF's, obtendo-se para cada relação nutricional entre os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg, as normas DRIS bivariadas, as quais foram obtidas para o conjunto das populações monitoradas e para subpopulações específicas. As diferentes normas DRIS resultaram em diagnósticos semelhantes para N, P e Ca, enquanto que para K e Mg os diagnósticos produzidos distinguiram-se entre as normas resultando em desvios nutricionais.The response of potential fertilization is a tool used to interpret the values of DRIS indices, so that it may be useful to see if different groups of rules might result in different or similar diagnosis among themselves. In this sense, it we aimed to evaluate the performance of the nutritional diagnosis, submitted to five groups of DRIS norms. For this, leaf samples were collected from commercial cupuaçueiro orchards, whose plant ages ranged from 5 to 18, with cropping or agroforestry (SAF. For each relationship among the nutrition nutrients N, P, K, Ca and Mg, we obtained bivariate DRIS standards for all populations and monitored for specific subpopulations. The different standards resulted in DRIS diagnoses similar for N, P and Ca and distinct for Mg and K the produced diagnoses stood out among the norms resulting in nutritional deviations.

  1. Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt Test performance: a pilot study and preliminary norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Serap

    2007-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data for norms on the Bender-Gestalt Test for 253 children ages 5 yr., 5 mo. to 11 yr., 10 mo. in Turkey. The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System gave mean error scores of 4.2 (SD = 3.3) for girls and 3.6 (SD = 3.0) for boys. The mean error scores obtained by all age groups are presented and compared with other cross-cultural data. These scores decreased across age groups, supporting Bender's maturational hypothesis of the test. The present sample performed at a higher developmental level than the Koppitz normative sample for the 5- and 6-year age groups, while means for other age groups were similar to the original U.S. norms. That this pattern is supported in other cross-cultural studies is discussed as well as the importance of developing local norms for visual spatial tests.

  2. DRIS: concepts and applications on nutritional diagnosis in fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourão Filho Francisco de Assis Alves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition and fertilization are important factors in determining fruit yield and fruit quality. There are several methods for plant nutritional status diagnosis, among them, two are relevant and named as Sufficiency Range Approach (SRA and Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS. This research reports the main concepts and applications of DRIS in nutritional diagnosis of fruit crops, comparing it with current nutritional diagnosis methods, indicating advantages and disadvantages, and possible limitations to be investigated.

  3. Estado nutricional de mangueiras determinado pelos métodos DRIS e CND Nutritional status of mango determined by DRIS and CND methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas S. Politi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes procedimentos referentes do método do sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação podem influenciar a acurácia da diagnose foliar da mangueira. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar diagnósticos do estado nutricional da mangueira obtidos através de diferentes métodos de avaliação do estado nutricional, comparando-se relações multivariadas (método CND com relações bivariadas (método DRIS, ou seja, com variações quanto ao uso de normas específicas ou preliminares e à transformação logarítmica dos dados. Foram utilizados resultados de análises de teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes de 63 pomares de mangueira do Vale do Submédio São Francisco. Para a interpretação dos índices nutricionais através do critério do Potencial de Resposta à Adubação. Os métodos CND e DRIS, com e sem transformação logarítmica e se usando normas específicas ou preliminares, as quais apresentaram desempenho semelhante na avaliação do estado nutricional da mangueira no Submédio São Francisco. Nos pomares de manga do semiárido nordestino as deficiências de micronutrientes (Zn, Fe e Cu foram mais frequentes que a deficiência de macronutrientes.Different procedures for the integrated method of diagnosis and recommendation may influence the accuracy of foliar diagnosis of mango. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the diagnosis of nutritional status of mango obtained by different methods of assessing nutritional status, comparing multivariate relations (method CND with bivariate relationships (DRIS i.e., variations in the use of specific or preliminary standards and a logarithmic transformation of the data. The macro and micronutrient leaf analysis results of 63 mango orchards of Lower-middle São Francisco River Valley, Brazil, were used. To interpret nutritional status the Potential Response to Fertilization (PRA criteria was used. The CND and DRIS methods, with and without logarithmic

  4. The persistence of and resistance to social norms regarding the appropriate amount to Eat: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Justin R; Pliner, Patricia; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter

    2017-02-01

    We conducted a preliminary investigation on the resistance to, and persistence of, social influence regarding the appropriate amount to eat, defined in terms of eating an amount similar to that eaten by a confederate. Participants ate pizza both alone and in the presence of remote confederates presenting either a high or low eating norm. In the portion of the experiment examining resistance to social influence, participants given an initial opportunity to form a personal eating norm by eating alone for one session in the absence of social influence were no more resistant to low eating norms than were those who had no such opportunity; however, those who ate alone for two or three prior sessions did show resistance. For the high eating norm, it took three eating alone sessions to create resistance. In the portion of the experiment examining persistence of social influence, when participants ate alone following a session with norm-setting remote confederates, the effect of the social influence persisted. However, the persistence effect varied by norm and weakened over time. Participants modeled a low eating norm for only one additional session and the size of the effect was markedly weaker. By contrast, the high norm persisted for all of the remaining sessions. Thus, individuals' social influence histories can affect their eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Norms for the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system for Signal grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Cristiane Prezotto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS has been proved efficient as a method for nutritional diagnosis in several crops. However there is a lack of information on the use of DRIS for tropical forage grass. The aim of this paper was to establish norms for interpretation of results of analysis from recently expanded leaf laminae of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. (Signal grass, through the DRIS method. To establish DRIS norms, concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn and the relative production obtained in six experiments conducted in greenhouse using nutrient solution and silica as substrate were considered. DRIS indices were calculated using two criteria in order to choose the ratio order of nutrients: F value - ratio of variance for the relationships among nutrients between the reference group and the low productivity group; and R value - correlation coefficients between the productivity values and the relationship among the pairs of nutrients, and three forms of calculation for the functions of nutrients (methods of Beaufils, of Jones, and of Elwali & Gascho. The two criteria to choose the ratio order of nutrients selected different ratios between pairs of nutrients; the nutrient concentrations were positively and significantly correlated with the respective DRIS indices, except for N; and DRIS norms are useful for the nutritional diagnosis of the ten studied nutrients in leaf laminae of Signal grass.

  6. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  7. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...

  8. A facial expression image database and norm for Asian population: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Cho, Shu-ling; Horszowska, Katarzyna; Chen, Mei-Yen; Wu, Chia-Ching; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Yeh, Yi-Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2009-01-01

    We collected 6604 images of 30 models in eight types of facial expression: happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, fear, surprise, contempt and neutral. Among them, 406 most representative images from 12 models were rated by more than 200 human raters for perceived emotion category and intensity. Such large number of emotion categories, models and raters is sufficient for most serious expression recognition research both in psychology and in computer science. All the models and raters are of Asian background. Hence, this database can also be used when the culture background is a concern. In addition, 43 landmarks each of the 291 rated frontal view images were identified and recorded. This information should facilitate feature based research of facial expression. Overall, the diversity in images and richness in information should make our database and norm useful for a wide range of research.

  9. Testing and validation of DRIS for apple tree Calibração e validação do DRIS para macieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Ribeiro Nachtigall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate three procedures of the calculation of DRIS indices, as well as the efficiency of DRIS as a method for the interpretation of apple tree leaf analyses. This study uses data collected in apple producing areas of the Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina States, Brazil. The concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc were determined in the leaf samples. The validation of the DRIS method used results of an experiment of potassium fertilization. The DRIS indices were calculated using two criteria for the choice of the ratio order of nutrients (F value ratio of variance of the relationships among nutrients between the reference group and the low productivity group, and R value - correlation coefficients between the productivity and the relationship between pairs of nutrients and three forms of calculation of nutrient functions (methods of Beaufils, Jones and Elwali & Gascho. The Nutritional Balance Index (NBI presented negative correlation with the productivity in all combinations. The DRIS method described by Elwali & Gascho, using the F value, presented a performance similar to the criterion of sufficiency range, and it can be used for the interpretation of foliar analysis of apple trees, because it presents values of the nutritional balance index that indicates the nutritional status of the plants, and for the efficiency in the nutritional diagnosis of the crop.Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar três procedimentos de cálculo dos índices DRIS, bem como avaliar a eficiência do DRIS como método de interpretação de resultados de análises de folhas de plantas de macieira. O estudo foi realizado nas regiões produtoras de maçã do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina. Foram determinadas as concentrações de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, boro, cobre, ferro, manganês e zinco nas amostras de folhas. A validação do método DRIS utilizou

  10. The Theoretical Defects in DRIS and the Restructuring of a New Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian; LI Mei-gui

    2004-01-01

    There are two kinds of theoretical defects export in the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system(DRIS):the distribution of nutrient elements ratios with two normal distribution displays an abnormal distribution of positive skewness; there is a blind diagnostic area by DRIS on the occasion of the nutrient elements with equal ratios but without equal quantity.In the light of the quadratic form theory of multidimensional normal distribution and the view of balance of equal probability,the balance diagnosis and recommendationintegrated system(BDRIS)was developed in this paper,which is superior to DRIS and its diagnosis method is unified to critical value diagnosis.When the correlation matrix of nutrient elements R= I(identity matrix),i.e.,the effects of elements antagonism is disregarded,BDRIS will be simplified into the critical value diagnosis.In addition,the diagnosis program written in SAS language was also provided in this paper.

  11. NORMAS DE DIAGNOSTICO (DRIS) PARA LA FERTILIZACIÓN DE LAS PRADERAS PERMANENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Maria; Besga Salazar, Julia; Besga Salazar, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    El análisis foliar, bien a través del nivel crítico de nutrientes o de los rangos de suficiencia, ha sido ampliamente usado en el pasado para diagnosticar el estado nutritivo de los cultivos. Como solución para resolver los problemas asociados con estos dos sistemas, BEAUFILB desarrolló el Sistema Integrado de Diagnóstico y Recomendación (DRIS). Se han obtenido las normas DRIS para el trébol blanco a partir de una base de datos proveniente de resultados de experimentos de fertilización establ...

  12. ALTERNATIVAS DE APLICAÇÃO DO "DRIS" À CULTURA DE CAFÉ CONILON (Coffea canephora Pierre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadt Paulo Guilherme Salvador

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação (DRIS tem sido indicado como alternativa para a avaliação nutricional das plantas, em relação ao método tradicional de interpretação da concentração dos teores foliares pelo critério do nível crítico. Esse trabalho objetivou avaliar a aplicação de diferentes métodos do DRIS (de Jones, de Elwali & Gascho e de Rathfon & Burger em dados oriundos de lavouras comerciais cafeeiras, do estado do Espírito Santo, nos anos agrícolas de 1986/87, 1987/88 e 1988/89. Adicionalmente, avaliou-se a validade da adoção do teste F na seleção das relações para o cálculo desses índices. A adoção do teste F mostrou-se promissora, pois melhorou a capacidade do DRIS em discriminar as lavouras nutricionalmente balanceadas daquelas desbalanceadas. Quanto as diferentes fórmulas de cálculo dos índices DRIS, embora tenha havido diferenças elas, os diagnósticos tenderam a ser consistentes entre si, com pouca dependência quanto ao tipo de fórmula utilizada. Os resultados sugeriram, ainda, que o manejo da adubação nitrogenada foi adequado, pois observou-se que a maioria das lavouras não apresentaram deficiência de N; enquanto que, para P, Ca, B e K houve indicações de que esses nutrientes poderiam estar ocorrendo com maior número de casos como limitantes da produtividade cafeeira no estado do Espírito Santo.

  13. Interpretação de índices dris para a cultura do cupuaçu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Guilherme Salvador Wadt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade dos pomares de cupuaçu na Amazônia tem experimentado lento declínio, provavelmente devido à diminuição da fertilidade do solo, requerendo adubações. Na ausência de recomendações técnicas para quantificar a demanda por nutrientes por essa cultura, o uso do Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS pode representar uma alternativa para suprir essa necessidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os diagnósticos produzidos por diferentes fórmulas e critérios de interpretação dos índices DRIS em pomares de cupuaçu. Amostras foliares de 153 pomares foram analisadas para os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu e Fe e diagnosticadas por três fórmulas DRIS: Beaufils, Jones e Wadt e colaboradores. Na interpretação dos índices DRIS, utilizaram-se: o método DRIS Matéria Seca (M-DRIS, que separa os nutrientes em limitantes ou não limitantes, e o método do Potencial de Resposta à Adubação, o qual separa os nutrientes no estado nutricional de insuficientes, equilibrados ou em excesso. Foram também adotados níveis críticos para os teores dos nutrientes foliares em cupuaçueiros, oriundos da literatura. Os diagnósticos produzidos pelos diferentes critérios de interpretação dos índices DRIS não foram consistentes entre si ou em comparação com o método do nível crítico. A exceção foi a fórmula de Wadt e colaboradores que mostrou maior consistência entre os diagnósticos, independentemente do critério utilizado para sua interpretação. Os valores sugeridos para avaliação do estado nutricional pelo método do nível crítico não foram satisfatórios.

  14. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary...... assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  15. NORM management; Gerencia de NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Rocio dos

    2016-07-01

    In the chapter 9 concepts and examples for helping to solve the NORM question in the industries are presented. The challenge is to handle with radioactivity questions and many industries do not know that are producing radioactivity material besides having to learn and match the nuclear concepts and legislation with the conventional pollutants. The risks associated to NORM and a methodology to handle with the question are mentioned. The need for establishing responsibilities is also highlighted. Finally, a planning to manage NORM is suggested. The equation for determination os minerals activity and concentrates in secular equilibrium is annexed in A.

  16. NUTRITIONAL DIAGNOSIS FOR COTTON UNDER SAVANNAH BY USING THE DRIS AND SUFFICIENCY RANGES METHODS DIAGNOSE NUTRICIONAL PELOS MÉTODOS DRIS E FAIXAS DE CONCENTRAÇÃO PARA ALGODOEIRO CULTIVADO SOB CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alcanfor Ximenes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the fourth largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer in the world, however, it is predominantly cultivated under savannah soils, which present natural nutrients limitations. The objective of this study was to diagnose the nutritional factors that most limit high cotton yields, by using leaf analysis interpreted with the aid of the DRIS and sufficiency ranges techniques. So, forty-eight leaf samples were collected in a commercial area of Silvânia, Goiás State, Brazil. Ten cotton leaves were collected to a compound sample, at the full flowering stage (90 day after seeding. For interpreting the leaf analyses results, by using the DRIS technique, indexes for each nutrient from each sample were calculated, according to Alvarez & Leite (1992. For the sufficiency range interpretation, standard values were used. Both methods evaluated N, S, B, and Zn as the most limiting nutrients. The DRIS method showed higher sensibility for diagnosing nutritional deficiencies, especially for the B and Zn micronutrients.

    KEY-WORDS: Gossypium sp.; leaf analysis; DRIS index; nutritional status.

    O Brasil é o quarto maior exportador e o quinto maior produtor mundial de algodão. Entretanto, a cultura é produzida, predominantemente, em áreas sob solos de Cerrado, que apresentam limitações naturais de nutrientes. O objetivo do trabalho foi diagnosticar os fatores nutricionais mais limitantes à obtenção de altas produtividades, para a cultura do algodão, por meio de análises foliares interpretadas pelos métodos DRIS e Faixas de Concentração. Foram coletadas 48 amostras de folhas, em área comercial do município de Silvânia (GO. Coletaram-se 10 folhas do algodoeiro, para uma amostra composta, na época de florescimento pleno (90 dias após o plantio. Na interpretação dos

  17. VARIABILIDADE ESPACIAL DOS ÍNDICES DRIS DO NITROGÊNIO E DO POTÁSSIO NA CULTURA DO MAMOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lima de Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista a importância do N e do K no fomento do crescimento vegetativo e do estádio de florescimento do mamoeiro e de sua influencia no equilíbrio nutricional da lavoura  objetivou-se com esse estudo quantificar a variabilidade espacial dos índices DRIS do N e do K de mamoeiro produzido no norte capixaba e correlacionar linearmente e espacialmente seus valores com a produtividade e o índice de balanço nutricional da lavoura. O estudo foi realizado com dados de produtividade e de teores foliares (macronutrientes: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S; e micronutrientes: Zn e Mn. do pecíolo do mamoeiro de 129 pontos georreferenciados, de uma lavoura comercial de mamão, no município de São Mateus-ES. Esse teores foliares foram utilizados para calculo dos Índice DRIS e do índice de balanço nutricional (IBN. Os índices DRIS do N e do K apresentaram dependência espacial, ajustando-se aos modelos exponencial e esférico, respectivamente. Apenas o IDK apresentou correlação linear com a produtividade.

  18. STUDY OF TOURY'S THREE NORMS OF TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘星

    2008-01-01

    Norms can be expected to operate not only in transLation of all kinds,nut also at every stage in the translating event,and hence to be reflected on every level of its product.Gideon Toury's most famous research-Descriptive Translation Study introduces us three norms of translation-preliminary norms;initial norms;operational norms,which are of vital importance in the field of translation theory study.In this essay,the author illustrates them to Chinese readers.

  19. Evaluation of NORM concentration in water treatment of Pocos de Caldas municipality, MG, Brazil: preliminary results; Avaliacao da presenca de NORM no tratamento de agua do municipio de Pocos de Caldas: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Adriano Mota; Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: adrianomotaferreira@gmail.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    NORM is the acronym used to refer to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Besides being objects of study and monitoring such materials can be used as raw material or as by-products or waste of industrial activities. Oil and gas, mining and water treatment are examples of facilities that can handle NORM. In such cases, their concentration at significant levels from the perspective of environmental and occupational radiation protection may occur. This study aims to evaluate the presence of the natural radioactive {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in the treatment of city water elements Pocos de Caldas - MG (water, materials and waste). The study can serve as an indication of the necessity of a more detailed review in the locally and in the country on this radiological issue. (author)

  20. NORM regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  1. Sistema integrado de recomendación y diagnosis: una alternativa para la interpretación de resultados del análisis foliar en café Diagnosis and recommendation integrated systems (dris: an alternative for interpretation of results of foliar analysis in coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arboleda V. Celso

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de proveer otras alternativas de interpretación de resultados del análisis foliar en café, diferente a la tabla
    de contenido "normal", se aplicó la metodología SIRD (Sistema Integrado de Recomendación y Oiagnosis5 a la información proveniente de un experimento con N-P-K,
    factorial de 33 realizado en CENICAFE, Colombia. Los nutrimentos incluidos en el análisis foliar y su interpretación fueron N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe y B. Por primera vez, con fines de diaqnóstico , se obtuvo la tabla de normas SIRD para café con base en una producción de 2.750 Kg de c.p.s/ha que
    incluye 1036 análisis foliares, para un total de 28 relaciones binarias de cociente entre los 8 nutrimentos mencionados. SI RO presentó la interpretación de resultados del análisis
    foliar en forma más clara que los elaborados con la Tabla de Contenido "normal", pues agrupó en orden de importancia en las necesidades del cultivo, todos los elementos nutritivos estudiados. Los diagnósticos elaborados mediante SIRD fueron válidos, pues al seguir su recomendación se observó respuesta tanto en la composición interna de la planta como en la producción de café. El calcio, según el enfoque SIRD, se mostró como un elemento potencialmente limitante de la producción en la zona donde se analizó la validez del enfoque. La suma en valor absoluto de los indicadores SIRD, llamados Indice de Balance Nutricional, presentó correlación negativa y altamente significativa para los análisis foliares correspondientes a los meses de mayo.Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated Systems (DRIS norms were developed for the interpretation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and B contents of coffee (Coffea arabica L. leaves, obtained from a N-P-K factorial experiment at two different locations of the Colombian Coffee Zone. For diagnostic purposes of coffee nutrition this is the first time a DRIS norm is derived. The DRIS approach allows a better
    interpretation

  2. Diagnose nutricional para nitrogênio e potássio em bananeira por meio do sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação (DRIS e de níveis críticos The N and K diagnosis on banana plants using the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS and critical value approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ANTONIO JUNQUEIRA TEIXEIRA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de resultados de um experimento de campo com arranjo fatorial, no qual foi estudada a resposta à aplicação de N e K em bananeira, em dois ciclos de cultivo, avaliou-se o desempenho do diagnóstico nutricional para esses nutrientes, empregando-se o sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação (DRIS e o critério de níveis críticos (NC. As situações nas quais se diagnosticou deficiência, foram classificadas como positivas (+, aquelas cujo diagnóstico indicou suficiência, como negativas (-. Em função da resposta na produção de frutos à aplicação de N ou K, classificaram-se os diagnósticos como verdadeiros (V ou falsos (F, resultando nas quatro possibilidades V+, V-, F+ e F-. Em relação ao N, a eficiência (%V+ e %V- dos diagnósticos baseados em NC foi de 48%; com o DRIS, foi de 69%. Para K, a eficiência dos diagnósticos feitos a partir do DRIS e NC foi de 63%. A proporção de diagnósticos de deficiência que se confirmaram com respostas positivas à aplicação de N em relação aos falsos positivos (%V+¸%F+, foi de 1,50 para o DRIS e de 0,68 para NC. Para os diagnósticos de deficiência de K, essa proporção foi de 1,67 para DRIS e NC. A variação líquida no rendimento (48 casos decorrente da aplicação de N associada a diagnósticos corretos foi de 124 t ha¹ para o DRIS e de 20 t ha¹ para NC. Para K, essa variação foi de 70 t ha¹ para o DRIS e NC.The Performance of DRIS and critical value approach (CVA diagnostics were evaluated based on leaf analysis from a field experiment on a factorial design to study the yield response of banana to N and K applications during two crop seasons. The situations identified as deficient were classified as positives (+ and those diagnosed as sufficient, were classified as negatives (-. According to the response on yield due the application of N or K, the diagnostics were classified as true (V or false (F. Four combinations were possible: V+, V-, F+ and F-. The

  3. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    and shopping. Also the frequency of the four behaviours was measured. The revised taxonomy has content, discriminant, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The most internalized of the new norm constructs, integrated norms, is most strongly correlated with conventional......  The concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. An extension and a refinement of the norm taxonomy are therefore suggested, distinguishing between two types of personal norms: introjected and integrated norms. A preliminary assessment of the taxonomy...

  4. Determinação de faixas normais de nutrientes no algodoeiro pelos métodos ChM, CND e Dris Determination of normal nutrient ranges for cotton by the ChM, CND and DRIS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira Serra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso de métodos de diagnoses para determinação de faixas normais de nutrientes é uma prática eficiente por ser desenvolvida em regiões específicas, não sendo extrapolada para as demais regiões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a determinação de faixas normais de nutrientes para o algodoeiro, mediante a utilização dos métodos Chance Matemática (ChM, Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS e Diagnose da Composição Nutricional (CND. Foi realizado em lavouras comerciais de algodão, no ano agrícola de 2004/2005, no município de São Desidério (BA. Utilizaram-se como base de dados os teores totais de nutrientes de 65 amostras de folha completa e a produtividade de algodão em caroço oriundo de talhões com média de 120 ha. Para ajuste do método, a população foi dividida em duas classes: uma com produtividade acima de 4.250 kg ha-1 e outra com produtividade abaixo desta . Os maiores valores de ChM para o N foram obtidos nas classes 3 e 5 (32,0 a 35,5 g kg-1. Esses valores concordam com os obtidos pelos métodos DRIS (32,7 a 35,4 g kg-1 e CND (32,8 a 35,4 g kg-1. Os maiores valores de ChM para obtenção de produtividades maiores que 4.250 kg ha-1 para o P foram observados na classe 3: entre 2,3 e 2,6 g kg-1. Com relação ao K, as classes que apresentaram os maiores valores de Chance Matemática foram 14,6 a 21,2 g kg-1. A utilização dos métodos DRIS, CND e ChM, em lavouras comerciais em geral, possibilitou a obtenção de menor amplitude da faixa normal dos nutrientes, em comparação com os valores obtidos pelos métodos convencionais, nível crítico e faixa de suficiência, encontrados na literatura.The use of diagnosis methods for the determination of normal nutrient ranges is efficient since it is region-specific, thus not always applicable to other regions. This study aimed to determine the optimum nutrient ranges for cotton based on the Best likelihood (ChM, Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated

  5. Estabelecimento de normas DRIS e diagnóstico nutricional do cafeeiro arábica na região noroeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Nutritional analysis of coffee plantations for establishing "DRIS" standards for the Northwest region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimmy Herllen Silveira Gomes Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico do estado nutricional de uma planta e/ou lavoura depende de valores de referência. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho estabelecer normas DRIS e realizar um diagnóstico nutricional das lavouras de café arábica na região Noroeste do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para realizar o diagnóstico, foram amostradas 125 lavouras; e, para estabelecer as normas, foram selecionadas 25 lavouras de café com produtividade superior a 40sacas/ha. Quantificou-se o número de lavouras em que os índices DRIS apresentaram-se mais negativos e mais positivos onde os nutrientes Ca, B, Zn e K foram os que mais se apresentaram como limitantes e onde o Fe e o Mn foram os nutrientes que ocorreram com maior freqüência com índices mais positivos, ou seja, em excesso.Reference - 'DRIS' - standards are essential for evaluation of the nutritional status of coffee plantations, and such standards are not yet available for the State of Rio de Janeiro. In this work, 125 well-conducted plantations had their nutritional status evaluated through foliar analysis. The results obtained for those 25 plantations with productivity above 40 60kg-bags per hectare were used for developing the "DRIS" standards. The nutrients calcium, borum, zinc and potassium seem limiting for the productivity, while iron and magnesium were found in excessive amounts.

  6. Expanding Norms for Narration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia J.

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses issues in determining normal development of narrative skills in school-age children and adolescents. It considers the purpose and use of norms in this area and research on currently available norms. It focuses on difficulties in compiling norms, including children's wide ability range and effects of situational variables,…

  7. Normed BCI-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jia-yin

    2011-01-01

    The notions of norm and distance in BCI-algebras are introduced,and some basic properties in normed BCI-algebras are given.It is obtained that the isomorphic(homomorphic)image and inverse image of a normed BCI-algebra are still normed BCI-algebras.The relations of normaled properties between BCI-algebra and Cartesian product of BCIalgebras are investigated.The limit notion of sequence of points in normed BCI-algebras is introduced,and its related properties are investigated.

  8. Linguistic Norm History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinov V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of norm and normative approach to the diachronic language study. It identifies specificity of the normative approach to linguistic means within various linguistic traditions and determines the main features of the linguistic norm. The author points out that specific norms appear at each stage of language development as the result of correlation of the existing language means.

  9. Valores de referência para macronutrientes em eucalipto obtidos pelos métodos DRIS e chance matemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. S. Wadt

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Informações de 1.213 árvores de plantios comerciais foram obtidas, entre os anos de 1988 a 1994, de híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, da Aracruz Celulose S.A., cultivados no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Os resultados da produtividade e concentração dos macronutrientes em quatro órgãos das árvores foram utilizados na obtenção dos valores de referência para a concentração dos nutrientes, pelos métodos da Chance Matemática e do DRIS. Empregou-se, no cálculo dos índices DRIS, a fórmula de Jones (1981, a divisão da população-base em estratos de idade e a seleção das relações entre os nutrientes pelo teste F. O nível crítico dos nutrientes foi atingido pelo DRIS por meio de dois critérios: pela concentração média dos nutrientes nos talhões nutricionalmente balanceados e produtivos (NCO e pelo critério gráfico (NCG. O primeiro critério mostrou-se mais promissor, inclusive em relação ao método da Chance Matemática, o qual foi adequado principalmente para a determinação de faixa ótima que poderia ser adotada como referência para o limite inferior e o superior de árvores com níveis adequados dos nutrientes.

  10. Establishment of DRIS indices and foliar nutrient levels for corn plants fertilized with various nitrogen doses and source materials associated with marine alga Lithothamnium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. B. Bernardes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate leaf nutrient status and to establish the rules of the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS in corn for different nitrogen doses and source materials associated with Lithothamnium. The experiment was carried out from December 2010 to February 2012 in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-split plots. The main plot treatments were nitrogen source materials (immediate release and controlled-release urea, the subplot treatments were doses of 60, 100 and 120 kg of N ha-1 and control (without N application, and the sub-sub plots were treatments with or without the use of Lithothamnium. The dose of Lithothamnium corresponded to 20% of the dose of urea. Calculations to establish the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS were made during the experiment. In the high-yield population the treatments with the highest nitrogen dose provided the highest grain yield. The use of the controlled-release source ensured greater nutritional balance of plants. No effect of Lithothamnium on improving the efficiency of urea applied via topdressing in corn was observed. According to the DRIS indices, in the high-yield population the nutrients showed deficiencies in the following descending order: Mg>Fe>Zn>S>B>Mn>P>Cu>Ca>K>N and excess: B>S>Fe>Ca>K>Zn>Mn>Cu>Mg>P>N. The low-yield population followed the following order: Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>N>B>P>S> Ca and excess: Zn>S>Cu>Mn>Ca>K> P>B>N>Mg>Fe.

  11. Socializing Democratic Norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flockhart, Trine

    The volume investigates how state socialization of the Euro-Atlantic constitutive norm set has taken place from a number of European and transatlantic international organizations into the 'New Europe'. The volume utilizes a new framework for norms transfer called 'Complex Socialization'....

  12. Quotient Normed Cones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oscar Valero

    2006-05-01

    Given a normed cone (, ) and a subcone , we construct and study the quotient normed cone $(X/Y,\\tilde{p})$ generated by . In particular we characterize the bicompleteness of $(X/Y,\\tilde{p})$ in terms of the bicompleteness of (, ), and prove that the dual quotient cone $((X/Y)^∗,\\|\\cdot\\|_{\\tilde{p},u})$ can be identified as a distinguished subcone of the dual cone $(X^∗,\\|\\cdot\\|_{\\tilde{p},u})$. Furthermore, some parts of the theory are presented in the general setting of the space $CL(X,Y)$ of all continuous linear mappings from a normed cone (, ) to a normed cone (, ), extending several well-known results related to open continuous linear mappings between normed linear spaces.

  13. RxNorm

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — RxNorm provides normalized names for clinical drugs and links its names to many of the drug vocabularies commonly used in pharmacy management and drug interaction...

  14. The uses of norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, M.P.; Arrott, M.; Balke, T.; Chopra, A.; Christiaanse, R.M.J.; Cranefield, S.; Dignum, F.; Eynard, D.; Farcas, E.; Fornare, N.; Gandon, F.; Governatori, G...; Dam, H.K.; Hulstijn, J.; Krueger, I.; Lam, H.P.; Meisinger, M.; Noriega, P.; Tony, B.; Savarimuthu, R.; Tadanki, K.; Verhagen, H.; Villata, S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a variety of applications of norms. These applications include governance in sociotechnical systems, data licensing and data collection, understanding software development teams, requirements engineering, assurance, natural resource allocation, wireless grids, autonomous vehicl

  15. Social norms and money

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Luís

    2000-01-01

    In an economy where there is no double coincidence of wants and without recordkeeping of past transactions, money is usually seen as the only mechanism that can support exchange. In this paper, we show that, as long as the population is finite and agents are sufficiently patient, a social norm establishing gift-exchange can substitute for money. Notwithstanding, for a given discount factor, the growth of the population size eventually leads to the breakdown of the social norm, ...

  16. Induced Norm Control Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time-invariant lin......This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time...

  17. Italian Word Association Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    Ricerche Istituto Nazionale I Psicologia , Roma Italy. A different, but not unrelated, approach is to use word association norms to study other types of... Psicologia , 1961 , 55, 1,13-155. Chiari, S. 11 comportamento associative nell’eta ovolutiva, Rivista di Psicologia , 1 96 1b , 55, 175-189. Cofer, C.N...and Russell, VI.A. Systematic changes in word association norms: 1910-1952. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 19C0, 60, 293-303. lilb Kurez, I

  18. Options for basing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) on chronic disease endpoints: report from a joint US-/Canadian-sponsored working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetley, Elizabeth A; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Greene-Finestone, Linda S; Garza, Cutberto; Ard, Jamy D; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Bier, Dennis M; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Harlan, William R; Hattis, Dale; King, Janet C; Krewski, Daniel; O'Connor, Deborah L; Prentice, Ross L; Rodricks, Joseph V; Wells, George A

    2017-01-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used in Canada and the United States in planning and assessing diets of apparently healthy individuals and population groups. The approaches used to establish DRIs on the basis of classical nutrient deficiencies and/or toxicities have worked well. However, it has proved to be more challenging to base DRI values on chronic disease endpoints; deviations from the traditional framework were often required, and in some cases, DRI values were not established for intakes that affected chronic disease outcomes despite evidence that supported a relation. The increasing proportions of elderly citizens, the growing prevalence of chronic diseases, and the persistently high prevalence of overweight and obesity, which predispose to chronic disease, highlight the importance of understanding the impact of nutrition on chronic disease prevention and control. A multidisciplinary working group sponsored by the Canadian and US government DRI steering committees met from November 2014 to April 2016 to identify options for addressing key scientific challenges encountered in the use of chronic disease endpoints to establish reference values. The working group focused on 3 key questions: 1) What are the important evidentiary challenges for selecting and using chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews, 2) what intake-response models can future DRI committees consider when using chronic disease endpoints, and 3) what are the arguments for and against continuing to include chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews? This report outlines the range of options identified by the working group for answering these key questions, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each option.

  19. Avaliação nutricional de feijoeiro irrigado pelos métodos CND, DRIS e faixas de suficiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do feijoeiro tem grande importância para o Estado de Goiás, Brasil. No entanto, informações relacionadas aos padrões nutricionais para condições irrigadas são carentes na região. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estabelecer padrões foliares, avaliar o estado nutricional do feijoeiro irrigado na região do Vale do Rio dos Bois, no Estado de Goiás, pelos métodos da faixa de suficiência (FS, da diagnose da composição nutricional (CND e do sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação (DRIS, bem como comparar os procedimentos de diagnóstico por meio de padrões nutricionais locais. Avaliaram-se a produtividade e a concentração foliar de 55 lavouras de feijoeiro na região do Vale do Rio dos Bois, entre 2010 e 2012. As amostras foram coletadas no estádio R5 (período de floração e analisadas quanto aos teores totais de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. As 55 amostras foram divididas em dois grupos, sendo o primeiro de baixa produtividade, com rendimento abaixo de 2.700 kg ha-1; e o segundo de alta produtividade, com rendimento igual ou acima de 2.700 kg ha-1, este último originando os padrões nutricionais. Normas CND e DRIS são mais indicadas para avaliação nutricional do feijoeiro irrigado comparativamente a FS estimada neste trabalho. Manganês, P e B são os elementos que mais limitam a produção nas lavouras de baixa produtividade na região do Vale do Rio dos Bois.

  20. Variation, structure and norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    that an evolutionary account can reintegrate the opposed fragments into a whole picture that puts each of them in their ‘ecological position’ with respect to each other. Empirical usage facts should be seen in the context of operational norms in relation to which actual linguistic choices represent adaptations...

  1. Linking Norms and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBreen, J.; Tosto, Di G.; Dignum, F.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a method of modelling the evolution of social norms in different cultural settings. We analyse the role of culture in shaping agents' normative reasoning and hence their behaviour. The general notion of 'value' is discussed from the perspective of the BDI framewo

  2. Linking Norms and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBreen, J.; Tosto, Di G.; Dignum, F.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a method of modelling the evolution of social norms in different cultural settings. We analyse the role of culture in shaping agents' normative reasoning and hence their behaviour. The general notion of 'value' is discussed from the perspective of the BDI

  3. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick;

    2002-01-01

    of deriving automatically a candidate norm with which to prove termination. Instead of deriving a single, complex norm function, it is sufficient to determine a collection of simpler norms, some combination of which, leads to a proof of termination. We propose that a collection of simple norms, one for each...... of the recursive data-types in the program, is often a suitable choice. We first demonstrate the power of combining norm functions and then the adequacy of combining norms based on regular types....

  4. The dominance of norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L. Rubin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to revisit the debate about rational choice theory from the legal cultural and historical perspectives. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in their historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of subjective and objective factors this determines the choice of the research methods systemicstructural formallegal and comparative. Results The first part of this chapter will explain the way in which people in societies different from our own were subject to other motivations in situations where selfinterest would tend to dominate in our society. The reasoning is based on three examples one drawn from the history of Ancient Rome one from the High Middle Ages of the European society and one from a contemporary nonWestern culture. The second part of the chapter analyzes the reason why material selfinterest maximizing became a dominant motivation in the modern Western society. The works on historical sociology attribute this development to Calvinism but this hypothesis suffers from some serious defects. In the article we prove that the modern sensibility resulted from much longeracting trends specifically secularization urbanization and commercialization. The final section of the chapter explores the relationship between the Westrsquos prevailing norm of selfinterest maximization and the particular norms that have been discussed in microeconomic theory. It argues that some of these norms are internal to the prevailing one and are thus explicable in terms of material selfinterest but that others reflect additional norms in the general society that exist alongside and sometimes in competition with the prevailing norm of selfinterest maximization. The historicallybased view that selfinterest maximizing is a prevailing norm rather than a human universal allows these other norms to be acknowledged in a plausible and realistic manner rather than being explained away by a

  5. Supremum norm differentiability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Leonard

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The points of Gateaux and Fréchet differentiability of the norm in C(T,E are obtained, where T is a locally compact Hausdorff space and E is a real Banach space. Applications of these results are given to the space ℓ∞(E of all bounded sequences in E and to the space B(ℓ1,E of all bounded linear operators from ℓ1 into E

  6. Tensor norms and operator ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Defant, A; Floret, K

    1992-01-01

    The three chapters of this book are entitled Basic Concepts, Tensor Norms, and Special Topics. The first may serve as part of an introductory course in Functional Analysis since it shows the powerful use of the projective and injective tensor norms, as well as the basics of the theory of operator ideals. The second chapter is the main part of the book: it presents the theory of tensor norms as designed by Grothendieck in the Resumé and deals with the relation between tensor norms and operator ideals. The last chapter deals with special questions. Each section is accompanied by a series of exer

  7. Distributed Controllers for Norm Enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, B.J.G.; Dastani, M.M.; Bulling, Nils

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on computational mechanisms that control the behavior of autonomous systems at runtime without necessarily restricting their autonomy. We build on existing approaches from runtime verification, control automata, and norm-based systems, and define norm-based controllers that

  8. On Minimal Norms on Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Mirzavaziri

    2007-01-01

    norms ‖⋅‖1 and ‖⋅‖2 on ℂn such that N(A=max{‖Ax‖2:‖x‖1=1, x∈ℂn} for all A∈ℳn. This may be regarded as an extension of a known result on characterization of minimal algebra norms.

  9. Distributed Controllers for Norm Enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, B.J.G.; Dastani, M.M.; Bulling, Nils

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on computational mechanisms that control the behavior of autonomous systems at runtime without necessarily restricting their autonomy. We build on existing approaches from runtime verification, control automata, and norm-based systems, and define norm-based controllers that enforc

  10. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  11. Consistency of trace norm minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Regularization by the sum of singular values, also referred to as the trace norm, is a popular technique for estimating low rank rectangular matrices. In this paper, we extend some of the consistency results of the Lasso to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for rank consistency of trace norm minimization with the square loss. We also provide an adaptive version that is rank consistent even when the necessary condition for the non adaptive version is not fulfilled.

  12. Civilsamfundets ABC: N for Norm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til N for Norm.......Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til N for Norm....

  13. Waardes as norme en as meta-norme/beginsels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Van Niekerk

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The fruitfulness and the necessity of the distinction between values and norms and as principles are investigated by way of the theory of political development, the legal philosophical issue surrounding natural law and positivism and the views of Habermas. In political developmental theory questions centring on value gained legitimate relevancy under the influ­ ence of the post-behaviorist approach. The quest for cultural universalia or values as principles became important in this sphere because it seems to be the only way to escape from the syndrome of modernity. Through the rejection of the oppositions and one-sidedness of legal positivism and natural law and with the aid of the distinction between values, norms and principles the productive contribution of this spurious dilemma is high­ lighted and a clearer delineation is given of the concepts legal develop­ ment and structural violence. In conclusion Habermas's distinction between norms and meta-norms is investigated critically and immanent contradictions in his views are pointed out. The central place which this issue has in his thought can be seen as a confirmation of the importance of this distinction. It is relevant for all the normative disciplines which - in contrast to the natural sciences - focus on the role of linguistic, social, ethical, legal and artistic norms valid for human societies.

  14. Perceived historical drinking norms and current drinking behavior: using the theory of normative social behavior as a framework for assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcioppolo, Nick; Jensen, Jakob D

    2012-01-01

    Social norms are sustained and disseminated, both implicitly and explicitly, through the act of communication. As a result, communication researchers have sought to classify and target normative perceptions to enact social change. In line with this research, the current study investigated whether perceptions of past normative behavior, referred to here as historical norms, were significantly related to current behavior. Using the theory of normative behavior as a guiding framework, two studies were conducted to assess whether college student drinking behavior was related to one of two perceived historical drinking norms measures: historical consumption norms (i.e., the perceived percentage of students who drank over time) and historical tradition norms (i.e., the perception of drinking as a university tradition). Study 1 revealed that although historical consumption norms was not directly related to drinking behavior, it moderated the effect of descriptive norms on drinking behavior (p = .03). A full assessment of the theory of normative social behavior was conducted in study 2 to determine whether perceived historical drinking norms influenced behavior above and beyond both descriptive and injunctive norms. Findings demonstrated that historical tradition norms were significantly related to drinking behavior (p = .001), and marginally moderated the relationship between descriptive norms and drinking behavior (p = .09). These findings offer preliminary evidence in support of measuring perceived historical drinking norms in future campaigns and interventions designed to reduce drinking behavior.

  15. Extremal norms of graphs and matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Nikiforov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years, the trace norm of graphs has been extensively studied under the name of graph energy. In this paper some of this research is extended to more general matrix norms, like the Schatten p-norms and the Ky Fan k-norms. Whenever possible the results are given both for graphs and general matrices.

  16. ON Lp-MATRICIALLY NORMED SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Turdebek N. Bekjan

    2005-01-01

    It is proved that there is only one Lp-matricially normed space of dimension 1 and that quotient spaces of Lp-matricially normed spaces are also Lp-matricially normed spaces. Some properties of Lp-matricially normed spaces are given.

  17. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  18. What's in a norm? Sources and processes of norm change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy

    2009-03-01

    This reply to the commentary by E. Staub and L. A. Pearlman (2009) revisits the field experimental results of E. L. Paluck (2009). It introduces further evidence and theoretical elaboration supporting Paluck's conclusion that exposure to a reconciliation-themed radio soap opera changed perceptions of social norms and behaviors, not beliefs. Experimental and longitudinal survey evidence reinforces the finding that the radio program affected socially shared perceptions of typical or prescribed behavior-that is, social norms. Specifically, measurements of perceptions of social norms called into question by Staub and Pearlman are shown to correlate with perceptions of public opinion and public, not private, behaviors. Although measurement issues and the mechanisms of the radio program's influence merit further testing, theory and evidence point to social interactions and emotional engagement, not individual education, as the likely mechanisms of change. The present exchange makes salient what is at stake in this debate: a model of change based on learning and personal beliefs versus a model based on group influence and social norms. These theoretical models recommend very different strategies for prejudice and conflict reduction. Future field experiments should attempt to adjudicate between these models by testing relevant policies in real-world settings.

  19. Weighted norm inequalities and indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Martín

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend and simplify several classical results on weighted norm inequalities for classical operators acting on rearrangement invariant spaces using the theory of indices. As an application we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for generalized Hardy type operators to be bounded on ?p(w, ?p,8(w, Gp(w and Gp,8(w.

  20. Thurston norm and cosmetic surgeries

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Two Dehn surgeries on a knot are called cosmetic if they yield homeomorphic manifolds. For a null-homologous knot with certain conditions on the Thurston norm of the ambient manifold, if the knot admits cosmetic surgeries, then the surgery coefficients are equal up to sign.

  1. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues the

  2. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  3. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  4. Change IS the New Norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are undergoing an evolution that is unprecedented since they were created. State and federal mandates, greater calls for accountability, and a stronger push for student success are causing community colleges to review and retool their campuses and their focus. In other words, change IS the new norm. It is time for community…

  5. APPROACH TO SMALL FAMILY NORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonibala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Idea of approach to maintain small family norm in the family and so to the society is the hope for almost all of the couples as the saying -"Small family is a happy family". And every couple always thinks and plan for a safer and better future.

  6. APPROACH TO SMALL FAMILY NORM

    OpenAIRE

    Nonibala

    2014-01-01

    The Idea of approach to maintain small family norm in the family and so to the society is the hope for almost all of the couples as the saying -"Small family is a happy family". And every couple always thinks and plan for a safer and better future.

  7. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues

  8. Faixas normais de nutrientes em cana-de-açúcar pelos métodos ChM, DRIS e CND e nível crítico pela distribuição normal reduzida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Ferreira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem diversos métodos para a interpretação da diagnose foliar; o nível crítico ou as faixas de suficiência descritas na literatura são os mais utilizados. Porém, o uso de métodos de determinação de faixas normais de nutrientes que contemplam regiões específicas (localidades aumenta a eficiência da interpretação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as faixas normais de nutrientes para a cultura da cana-de-açúcar, mediante a utilização dos métodos Chance Matemática (ChM, Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS e Diagnose da Composição Nutricional (CND, além do Nível Crítico determinado pelo método de distribuição normal reduzida. O trabalho foi realizado tomando-se como base dados relativos a teores de nutrientes em amostras foliares e de produtividade de lavouras comerciais de cana-de-açúcar, localizadas no município de Campos de Goytacazes, RJ. Com o método da ChM, foram obtidas faixas de suficiência semelhantes aos métodos DRIS e CND, para N, Ca, S e Mn, enquanto para P, K, Mg, Cu e Zn os valores obtidos pela ChM foram superiores. A utilização dos métodos ChM, DRIS e CND, em lavouras comerciais de cana-de-açúcar em geral, possibilitou a obtenção de menor amplitude da faixa normal dos nutrientes, em comparação com os valores alcançados pelos métodos nível crítico e faixa de suficiência.

  9. A norm knockout method on indirect reciprocity to reveal indispensable norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu; Uchida, Satoshi; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2017-03-01

    Although various norms for reciprocity-based cooperation have been suggested that are evolutionarily stable against invasion from free riders, the process of alternation of norms and the role of diversified norms remain unclear in the evolution of cooperation. We clarify the co-evolutionary dynamics of norms and cooperation in indirect reciprocity and also identify the indispensable norms for the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by the gene knockout method, a genetic engineering technique, we developed the norm knockout method and clarified the norms necessary for the establishment of cooperation. The results of numerical investigations revealed that the majority of norms gradually transitioned to tolerant norms after defectors are eliminated by strict norms. Furthermore, no cooperation emerges when specific norms that are intolerant to defectors are knocked out.

  10. Quality of decision making and group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    2001-06-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink.

  11. REACTIVATING NIGERIAN NORMS AND VALUES THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    religious education and Nigerian norms and values, which made society secured and safe. .... better, through the renewal of the inner most nature the norms and ... by sacred specialists and persons, sacred places and objects and religious ...

  12. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  13. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    into expectancy and professional norms, the study leads us to set up two assumptions about the existence of norms at the macro-strategic level that may impact on attitudes across members of different discourse communities within the legal domain. These norms, we believe, may be useful in legal translation...

  14. Quality of decision making and group norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T.; Spears, R.; Cihangir, S.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consen

  15. Organisational dynamics, social norms and information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamper, Ronald; Liu, Kecheng

    1994-01-01

    An organisation is defined as a system of social norms. The concept of a norm is the social analogue of the concept of an affordance which Gibson (1968) introduced to account for perception of the physical world. Their conjunction is a logic of Norms and Affordances, Norma, which serves as a meta-mo

  16. Norm Theory: Comparing Reality to Its Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel; Miller, Dale T.

    1986-01-01

    A theory of norms and normality is applied to some phenomena of emotional responses, social judgment, and conversations about causes. Norm theory is applied in analyses of enhanced emotional response to events that have abnormal causes, of generation of prediction from observations of behavior, and of the role of norms. (Author/LMO)

  17. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  18. Endogenous Effort Norms in Hierarchical Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tichem (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper studies how a three-layer hierarchical firm (principal-supervisor-agent) optimally creates effort norms for its employees. The key assumption is that effort norms are affected by the example of superiors. In equilibrium, norms are eroded as one moves down

  19. Remarks on the Operator Norm Localization Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianjin WANG

    2011-01-01

    The author studies the metric spaces with operator norm localization property. It is proved that the operator norm localization property is coarsely invariant and is preserved under certain infinite union. In the case of finitely generated groups, the operator norm localization property is also preserved under the direct limits.

  20. 'Global' norms and 'local' agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Gusic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the 'liberal democratic peace package' is received in post-conflict spaces. As such, it is part of a critical peace research agenda that raises critical questions concerning the quality of peace in many post-conflict societies. A close reading of the peace-building process...... in post-conflict Kosovo provides the backdrop for the theoretical discussion that identifies friction in norm diffusion processes and the different agencies that are generated through encounters between global norms and local practices. We unpack the interplay between the 'global' and the 'local......' in peacebuilding and, through the lens of friction, we reveal the diverse and unequal encounters that produce new power relations. By foregrounding agency, we theorise different agentive subjects in the post-conflict setting, and map local agency from various segments of society that may localise, co-opt or reject...

  1. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  2. Estabelecimento de normas DRIS para o algodoeiro com diferentes critérios de seleção da população de referência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira Serra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de critérios de seleção de populações de referência no estabelecimento de normas DRIS na cultura do algodoeiro. Criou-se um banco de dados com a produtividade e os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes, obtidos de talhões médios de 100 ha. Os critérios para o estabelecimento das subpopulações de alta produtividade foram talhões com: produtividade acima da média (4.380 kg ha-1; produtividade acima da média + 2/3 desvio-padrão (acima de 4.650 kg ha-1; produtividade acima da média + 1 desvio-padrão (acima de 4.785 kg ha-1; e produtividade acima da média + 4/3 desvio-padrão (acima de 4.920 kg ha-1. Os critérios de seleção da população de referência proporcionam baixa frequência de relações nutricionais concordantes, para cada norma DRIS avaliada. Independentemente do critério de seleção utilizado, os dados de produtividade média e o índice de balanço nutricional relacionam-se significativamente; e essa relação intensifica-se com o aumento no rigor do critério de inclusão de lavouras na população de referência.

  3. Principles and popularity: the interplay of moral norms and descriptive norms in the context of volunteerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan K; Masser, Barbara M

    2012-12-01

    Can a moral norm be manipulated and if so, how does a manipulated moral norm interact with a descriptive norm to impact on behavioural intentions? The present research addressed these questions in three studies. Study 1a and 1b demonstrated the validity of a manipulation designed to activate a moral norm for volunteer activity. In Study 2, activating a moral norm for volunteering strengthened intentions to volunteer and inhibited intentions to conform to a descriptive norm. Conceptual and applied implications of activating a moral norm are discussed. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  4. 诊断施肥综合法(DRIS)在渭北旱塬红富士苹果营养诊断中的应用%Application of DRIS in foliar nutrition diagnosis of Fuji apple trees in Weibei dryland of Shaanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海洋; 同延安; 路永莉; 高义民; 陈黎岭; 王少杰

    2013-01-01

    本研究通过提前叶片采样时期,运用诊断施肥综合法(DRIS)对不同产量水平红富士苹果进行了叶片矿质营养诊断,以期为早期红富士苹果营养诊断与科学施肥提供依据.测定诊断结果表明,渭北旱塬红富士苹果叶片N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Fe、Mn、Zn的适宜值分别为26.04±3.50 g·kg-1、2.84+0.74 g·kg-1、15.05±4.08 g·kg-1、14.25±3.04 g·kg-1、3.15±0.73 g·kg-1、12.69±3.14 mg· kg-1、262.87±82.05 mg·kg-1、96.33±33.35 mg·kg-1、23.57±10.13 mg·kg-1.选择的DRIS诊断参数中,除N/Zn、Cu/P、P/Zn、Ca/Zn、Mg/Zn和Cu/Zn外,30种表示形式的变异系数均表现出低产组(< 25 kg·tree-1)大于高产组(<25 kg·tree-1);高产组和低产组的养分不平衡指数(NII)分别为73和88.相对于高产组,低产组元素间关系更不平衡.总体而言,渭北旱塬区红富士苹果园除产量高于41.3kg· tree-需肥顺序排在第一位的元素为Cu外,其它均为P;需肥顺序排在第二位的元素高产为K,低产果园仅当产量低于10.2 kg·tree-1时为K,其余为Zn;而排在第三位的,高产均为Ca,低产均为Mg.%The diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS) method was adopted in foliar nutrition diagnosis to provide the basis for rational fertilization of Fuji apple trees in Weibei dryland. The results showed that the optimum concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in leaves of apple trees were 26.04 ± 3 .50 g · kg-1, 2.84±0.74 g·kg-1 15.05±4.08 g·kg-1, 14.25±3.04 g·kg-1 3.15±0.73 g·kg-1,12.69 ± 3.14 mg·kg-1, 262.87±82.05 mg·kg-1, 96.33 ±33.35 mg·kg-1 and 23.57 ± 10.13 mg·kg-1, respectively. Except for N/Zn, Cu/P, P/Zn, Ca/Zn, Mg/Zn and Cu/Zn, the coefficients of variation of the low-yield group ( 25 kg · tree-1) for the obtained 30 parameters. The nutrient imbalance index (NII) was 73 in the high-yield group and 88 in the low-yield group. The mineral nutrients were more unbalanced in the low-yield group

  5. Overview of NORM and activities by a NORM licensed permanent decontamination and waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirro, G.A. [Growth Resources, Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to handling NORM materials, and provides a description of a facility designed for the processing of NORM contaminated equipment. With regard to handling NORM materials the author discusses sources of NORM, problems, regulations and disposal options, potential hazards, safety equipment, and issues related to personnel protection. For the facility, the author discusses: description of the permanent facility; the operations of the facility; the license it has for handling specific radioactive material; operating and safety procedures; decontamination facilities on site; NORM waste processing capabilities; and offsite NORM services which are available.

  6. How do social norms influence prosocial development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Bailey R

    2017-08-12

    Humans are both highly prosocial and extremely sensitive to social norms, and some theories suggest that norms are necessary to account for uniquely human forms of prosocial behavior and cooperation. Understanding how norms influence prosocial behavior is thus essential if we are to describe the psychology and development of prosocial behavior. In this article I review recent research from across the social sciences that provides (1) a theoretical model of how norms influence prosocial behavior, (2) empirical support for the model based on studies with adults and children, and (3) predictions about the psychological mechanisms through which norms shape prosocial behavior. I conclude by discussing the need for future studies into how prosocial behavior develops through emerging interactions between culturally varying norms, social cognition, emotions, and potentially genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unitarily invariant norms related to factors

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Junsheng

    2007-01-01

    Let $\\M$ be a semi-finite von Neumann algebra and $\\J(\\M)$ be the set of operators in $\\M$ with finite range projections. In this paper we obtain a representation theorem for unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of semi-finite factors $\\M$ in terms of Ky Fan norms. As an application, we prove that the class of unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of a type ${\\rm II}\\sb \\infty$ (or type ${\\rm I}\\sb \\infty$) factor $\\M$ coincides with the class of symmetric gauge norms on $\\J(L^\\infty[0,\\infty))$ (or $\\J(l^\\infty(\

  8. Norms of Random Submatrices and Sparse Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-28

    usual Hilbert space operator norm; the `1 to `2 operator norm ‖·‖1→2 computes the maximum `2 norm of a column; and ‖·‖max returns the maximum absolute...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining...the spectral norm of a random column submatrix. Its proof is analogous with that of Theorem 3.2 but relies on a sharp noncommutative Khintchine

  9. A Characterization of Generalized Monotone Normed Cones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.ROMAGUERA; E.A.S(A)NCHEZ-P(E)REZ; O.VALERO

    2007-01-01

    Let C be a cone and consider a quasi-norm p defined on it. We study the structure of the couple (C, p) as a topological space in the case where the function p is also monotone. We characterize when the topology of a quasi-normed cone can be defined by means of a monotone norm. We also define and study the dual cone of a monotone normed cone and the monotone quotient of a general cone.We provide a decomposition theorem which allows us to write a cone as a direct sum of a monotone subcone that is isomorphic to the monotone quotient and other particular subcone.

  10. An Analysis of the English Translation of Xi JinPing:The Governance Of China-From The Perspective of Toury’s Translation Norms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Xi Jinping:The Governance of China is of great significance in asserting to the world the fundamental policies and state-craft of CPC. Its English translation is analyzed on the basis of Toury’s translation norm theory, which guide and regulate all the processes in the translation activities. Based on preliminary norms, initial norms and initial norms, factors influencing the choice of source text, the attitude of translators as well as the specific translation strategies in the translation activity are explored with detailed cases.

  11. Minimal projections with respect to various norms

    CERN Document Server

    Aksoy, Asuman Guven

    2010-01-01

    We will show that a theorem of Rudin \\cite{wr1}, \\cite{wr}, permits us to determine minimal projections not only with respect to the operator norm but with respect to quasi-norms in operators ideals and numerical radius in many concrete cases.

  12. FUZZY ALGEBRA IN TRIANGULAR NORM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓秋; 潘志

    1994-01-01

    Triangular norm is a powerful tool in the theory research and application development of fuzzy sets. In this paper, using the triangular norm, we introduce some concepts such as fuzzy algebra, fuzzy o algebra and fuzzy monotone class, and discuss the relations among them, obtaining the following main conclusions.

  13. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view...... that rarely has been recognised in the social dilemma literature. Social norms imply that people should manifest a prescribed behaviour or not manifest a proscribed behaviour. Furthermore, social norms are often guiding behaviour in specific contexts, and many times they need to be activated....... Such an activation process is often unconscious and once a norm has been activated, people tend to keep following the norm that has been primed. We wish to add to the social dilemma literature by suggesting what kinds of norms that are likely to be activated under different conditions such as oneshot vs. iterated...

  14. Topological Properties of Real Normed Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakasho Kazuhisa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize topological properties of real normed spaces. In the first part, open and closed, density, separability and sequence and its convergence are discussed. Then we argue properties of real normed subspace. Then we discuss linear functions between real normed speces. Several kinds of subspaces induced by linear functions such as kernel, image and inverse image are considered here. The fact that Lipschitz continuity operators preserve convergence of sequences is also refered here. Then we argue the condition when real normed subspaces become Banach’s spaces. We also formalize quotient vector space. In the last session, we argue the properties of the closure of real normed space. These formalizations are based on [19](p.3-41, [2] and [34](p.3-67.

  15. Sample Size Requirements for Traditional and Regression-Based Norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, H.E.M.; van der Ark, L.A.; Sijtsma, K.

    2016-01-01

    Test norms enable determining the position of an individual test taker in the group. The most frequently used approach to obtain test norms is traditional norming. Regression-based norming may be more efficient than traditional norming and is rapidly growing in popularity, but little is known about

  16. Relations for certain symmetric norms and anti-norms before and after partial trace

    CERN Document Server

    Rastegin, Alexey E

    2012-01-01

    Changes of some unitarily invariant norms and anti-norms under the operation of partial trace are examined. The norms considered form a two-parametric family, including both the Ky Fan and Schatten norms as particular cases. The obtained results concern operators acting on the tensor product of two finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. For any such operator, we obtain lower bounds on norms of its partial trace in terms of the corresponding dimensionality and norms of this operator. Similar inequalities, but in the opposite direction, are obtained for certain anti-norms of positive matrices. Applications of the results to generalized quantum entropies are discussed. We derive inequalities between the unified entropies of a composite quantum system and one of its subsystems, where the traced-out dimensionality is involved as well.

  17. The Norm___ and the Pathological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gotkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I read The Normal and the Pathological by French philosopher Georges Canguilhem for what it can offer disability theory. I examine how the field has already taken up the text but further, I argue for The Normal and the Pathological as a keystone of disability theory (currently taken up with curiously reserved energy. I start with a précis on the text before offering a condensed citation analysis of the book. In the latter part of the paper, I suggest how the monograph might inform current conversations and I offer possibilities for it to deepen and complicate core notions about disability, including the social model, norms, normalcy, and the normate. I conclude by suggesting that Canguilhem’s philosophical intervention can be understood as "propulsive atavism" – an excavation of medical epistemology in order to map and reconfigure its legacies – and I propose this as one methodological template for disability scholarship.

  18. -Boundedness and -Compactness in Finite Dimensional Probabilistic Normed Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reza Saadati; Massoud Amini

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that in a finite dimensional probabilistic normed space, every two probabilistic norms are equivalent and we study the notion of -compactness and -boundedness in probabilistic normed spaces.

  19. NORM -- The new kid on the block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estey, H.P. [Tiger Cleaning Systems, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The existence of radioactive materials in accumulations of scale and sludge in oil and gas production equipment is a relatively new issue. This developing issue first gained international attention in 1981 when significant radiation levels were detected on oil and gas production platforms in the North Sea; it didn`t become a domestic issue until 1986 when a similar situation was detected in a Mississippi pipe yard. Most published papers on the occurrence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas production equipment have been based on studies of NORM-related activities in the United Kingdom (North Sea NORM). This paper addresses the occurrences and regulation of NORM in the US oil and gas production industry as experienced, witnessed and/or observed by the author over the past four years.

  20. The consequences of the heterosexual norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Johansson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians may exclude people accidentally. This is so because there is a widespread use of classifications and subject headings reflecting the heterosexual norm. Critical classification theory tackles this norm for the reason that it affects the retrieval of gay literature. In order to allow a reconsideration of this exclusive practice in the LIS community I challenge two main questions: Firstly, how does the heterosexual norm appear in classification systems and subject headings lists? And secondly, what are the consequences of that practice for the retrieval of gay literature?This paper focuses on the professional practise in Swedish public libraries. If subject cataloguing prevents Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT finding their literatures, then Swedish public libraries are upholders of the exclusive heterosexual norm in society.

  1. Compilation of Pilot Cognitive Ability Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    has amassed a body of knowledge about many topics .87 Comprehension (Comp) Measures “ social acculturation ,” “ social intelligence,” and the...AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2012-0001 COMPILATION OF PILOT COGNITIVE ABILITY NORMS Raymond E. King U.S Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Compilation of Pilot Cognitive Ability Norms 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  2. L1-norm minimization for quaternion signals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiasong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong

    2012-01-01

    The l1-norm minimization problem plays an important role in the compressed sensing (CS) theory. We present in this letter an algorithm for solving the problem of l1-norm minimization for quaternion signals by converting it to second-order cone programming. An application example of the proposed algorithm is also given for practical guidelines of perfect recovery of quaternion signals. The proposed algorithm may find its potential application when CS theory meets the quaternion signal processing.

  3. Curriculum reform and the classroom norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Özmantar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Extended AbstractRationale of the study: Turkish curricula have been undergoing a massive change since 2005, especially at primary level. The new curricula set forth certain basic skills that every student at primary level needs to acquire; these skills are: critical and creative thinking, communication, questioning, problem solving, use of information communication technologies, initiation and use of Turkish language eloquently. However, research (Bingolbali et al., 2008; Ozmantar et al., 2008 shows that teachers working at this level experience difficulties in teaching such skills to the students. Hence, the need to help teachers for that matter is obvious. Having recognized this need, this study makes use of the notion of social classroom norms proposed by Cobb and his colleagues (Yackel and Cobb, 1996; Cobb et al., 1997 and suggests that teaching students such skills requires the establishment of certain classroom norms in line with the target skills. Classroom norms could be considered as tacit rules shaped by the interactions and dialogues amongst the agents in the classroom. The norms involve how students and teachers view themselves with regard to teaching and learning activities and what kinds of roles are assigned to the members of the classroom. Norms also reflect value judgements and determine what is important in a classroom regarding teaching and learning.The purpose of the study: This paper aims to demonstrate how the notion of social classroom norms can be used to enable the teachers to get students equipped with the basic skills (e.g. critical thinking and questioning skills that the new curricula set forth.Method: This is a qualitative study which involves document analysis. To determine the kind of classroom norms, official documents concerning the new curricula are subjected to the content analysis. Further to this, literature (Cobb et al., 1997; Tsai, 2004 & 2007 on classroom norms is examined and the norms developed and

  4. Adaptation and perceptual norms in color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A; Leonard, Deanne

    2008-11-01

    Many perceptual dimensions are thought to be represented relative to an average value or norm. Models of norm-based coding assume that the norm appears psychologically neutral because it reflects a neutral response in the underlying neural code. We tested this assumption in human color vision by asking how judgments of "white" are affected as neural responses are altered by adaptation. The adapting color was varied to determine the stimulus level that did not bias the observer's subjective white point. This level represents a response norm at the stages at which sensitivity is regulated by the adaptation, and we show that these response norms correspond to the perceptually neutral stimulus and that they can account for how the perception of white varies both across different observers and within the same observer at different locations in the visual field. We also show that individual differences in perceived white are reduced when observers are exposed to a common white adapting stimulus, suggesting that the perceptual differences are due in part to differences in how neural responses are normalized. These results suggest a close link between the norms for appearance and coding in color vision and illustrate a general paradigm for exploring this link in other perceptual domains.

  5. Infinity-Norm Sphere-Decoding

    CERN Document Server

    Seethaler, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    The most promising approaches for efficient detection in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems are based on sphere-decoding (SD). The conventional (and optimum) norm that is used to conduct the tree traversal step in SD is the l-two norm. It was, however, recently shown that using the l-infinity norm instead significantly reduces the VLSI implementation complexity of SD at only a marginal performance loss. These savings are due to a reduction in the length of the critical path and the silicon area of the circuit, but also, as observed previously through simulation results, a consequence of a reduction in the computational (algorithmic) complexity. The aim of this paper is an analytical performance and computational complexity analysis of l-infinity norm SD. For i.i.d. Rayleigh fading MIMO channels, we show that l-infinity norm SD achieves full diversity order with an asymptotic SNR gap, compared to l-two norm SD, that increases at most linearly in the number of receive antennas. Moreover, we ...

  6. How prescriptive norms influence causal inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest that prescriptive norms influence causal inferences. The cognitive mechanism underlying this finding is still under debate. We compare three competing theories: The culpable control model of blame argues that reasoners tend to exaggerate the causal influence of norm-violating agents, which should lead to relatively higher causal strength estimates for these agents. By contrast, the counterfactual reasoning account of causal selection assumes that norms do not alter the representation of the causal model, but rather later causal selection stages. According to this view, reasoners tend to preferentially consider counterfactual states of abnormal rather than normal factors, which leads to the choice of the abnormal factor in a causal selection task. A third view, the accountability hypothesis, claims that the effects of prescriptive norms are generated by the ambiguity of the causal test question. Asking whether an agent is a cause can be understood as a request to assess her causal contribution but also her moral accountability. According to this theory norm effects on causal selection are mediated by accountability judgments that are not only sensitive to the abnormality of behavior but also to mitigating factors, such as intentionality and knowledge of norms. Five experiments are presented that favor the accountability account over the two alternative theories.

  7. Curriculum reform and the classroom norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Sağlam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale of the study: Turkish curricula have been undergoing a massive change since 2005, especially at primary level. The new curricula set forth certain basic skills that every student at primary level needs to acquire; these skills are: critical and creative thinking, communication, questioning, problem solving, use of information communication technologies, initiation and use of Turkish language eloquently. However, research (Bingolbali et al., 2008; Ozmantar et al., 2008 shows that teachers working at this level experience difficulties in teaching such skills to the students. Hence, the need to help teachers for that matter is obvious. Having recognized this need, this study makes use of the notion of social classroom norms proposed by Cobb and his colleagues (Yackel and Cobb, 1996; Cobb et al., 1997 and suggests that teaching students such skills requires the establishment of certain classroom norms in line with the target skills. Classroom norms could be considered as tacit rules shaped by the interactions and dialogues amongst the agents in the classroom. The norms involve how students and teachers view themselves with regard to teaching and learning activities and what kinds of roles are assigned to the members of the classroom. Norms also reflect value judgements and determine what is important in a classroom regarding teaching and learning.The purpose of the study: This paper aims to demonstrate how the notion of social classroom norms can be used to enable the teachers to get students equipped with the basic skills (e.g. critical thinking and questioning skills that the new curricula set forth.Method: This is a qualitative study which involves document analysis. To determine the kind of classroom norms, official documents concerning the new curricula are subjected to the content analysis. Further to this, literature (Cobb et al., 1997; Tsai, 2004 & 2007 on classroom norms is examined and the norms developed and used in classrooms

  8. Eating by the Norm : The Influence of Social Norms on Young People's Eating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are social beings. Our identities are, for an important part, shaped by the different groups we belong to. Each social group has its own standards or norms for behavior, based upon what is considered good or correct behavior within that social group. Such socially shared norms are usually not

  9. Eating by the Norm : The Influence of Social Norms on Young People's Eating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318869705

    2014-01-01

    Humans are social beings. Our identities are, for an important part, shaped by the different groups we belong to. Each social group has its own standards or norms for behavior, based upon what is considered good or correct behavior within that social group. Such socially shared norms are usually not

  10. Global Norms: Towards Some Guidelines for Aggregating Personality Norms across Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses issues relating to the international use of personality inventories, especially those in which organizations make comparisons between people from differing cultures or countries or those with different languages. The focus is on the issue of norming and the use of national versus multinational norms. It is noted that…

  11. Biology, norms, and personality: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    af Klinteberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The focus concerns psychobiological risk factors in the development of antisocial behavior among male and female subjects. Using longitudinal data, violent and nonviolent criminal offences were studied in relation to childhood vulnerability indicators, norm-breaking behavior in adolescence, and to personality traits and biochemical measures in adult age. Subsequently, levels of norm-breaking behavior in adolescence were studied as related to personality and biochemical measures in adult age. Data were obtained from a representative group of 82 male and 87 female subjects as (1) teacher ratings of behavior at age 13, assumed to differentially reflect vulnerability to externalizing and internalizing psychosocial disturbances; (2) self-ratings of norm-breaking behaviors at age 15; (3) Karolinska Scales of Personality scores and biochemical measures at age 26-27 years, and (4) records for criminal offences up to age 40. In both the male and female groups, criminal offences during the life span were associated with childhood externalizing and adolescent norm-breaking behavior. Furthermore, in the male group, criminal and violent offences were associated with adult psychopathy-related personality traits and a biochemical indicator of psychosocial vulnerability; platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Among female subjects, criminal offenders displayed significantly lower MAO activity in comparison to noncriminals. High levels of norm-breaking behavior in adolescence were associated with adult high impulsiveness, low socialization, and low platelet MAO activity in both male and female subjects. The results of the analyses were used as a basis for some theoretical and methodological conclusions.

  12. Social norm perception in groups with outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannals, Jennifer E; Miller, Dale T

    2017-09-01

    Social outliers draw a lot of attention from those inside and outside their group and yet little is known about their impact on perceptions of their group as a whole. The present studies examine how outliers influence observers' summary perceptions of a group's behavior and inferences about the group's descriptive and prescriptive norms. Across 4 studies (N = 1,718) we examine how observers perceive descriptive and prescriptive social norms in groups containing outliers of varying degrees. We find consistent evidence that observers overweight outlying behavior when judging the descriptive and prescriptive norms, but overweight outliers less as they become more extreme, especially in perceptions of the prescriptive norm. We find this pattern across norms pertaining to punctuality (Studies 1-2 and 4) and clothing formality (Study 3) and for outliers who are both prescriptively and descriptively deviant (e.g., late arrivers), as well as for outliers who are only descriptive deviants (e.g., early arrivers). We further demonstrate that observers' perceptions of the group shift in the direction of moderate outliers. This occurs because observers anchor on the outlier's behavior and adjust their recollections of nonoutlying individuals, making their inferences about the group's average behavior more extreme. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  14. EQ-5D Portuguese population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N; Oppe, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The EQ-5D is a widely used preference-based measure. Normative data can be used as references to analyze the effects of healthcare, determine the burden of disease and enable regional or country comparisons. Population norms for the EQ-5D exist for other countries but have not been previously published for Portugal. The purpose of this study was to derive EQ-5D Portuguese population norms. The EQ-5D was applied by phone interview to a random sample of the Portuguese general population (n = 1,500) stratified by age, gender and region. The Portuguese value set was used to derive the EQ-5D index. Mean values were computed by gender and age groups, marital status, educational attainment, region and other variables to obtain the EQ-5D Portuguese norms. Health status declines with advancing age, and women reported worse health status than men. These results are similar to other EQ-5D population health studies. This study provides Portuguese population health-related quality of life data measured by the EQ-5D that can be used as population norms. These norms can be used to inform Portuguese policy makers, health care professionals and researchers in issues related to health care policy and planning and quantification of treatment effects on health status.

  15. Skewed norms under peer pressure: Formation and collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Michaeli, Moti; Spiro, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that peer pressure may lead to dynamic convergence to a norm that is skewed with respect to preferences in society, yet is endogenously upheld by the population. Moreover, a skewed norm will often be more sustainable than a representative norm. This may explain the skewness of various social and religious norms. By furthermore interpreting a norm as a political regime, we show that biased regimes can be sustained even without the existence of a powerful group with coherent in...

  16. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean &apos

  17. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  18. Linear System Identification via Atomic Norm Regularization

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Parikshit; Tang, Gongguo; Recht, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for linear system identification from noisy measurements. The proposed algorithm balances a data fidelity term with a norm induced by the set of single pole filters. We pose a convex optimization problem that approximately solves the atomic norm minimization problem and identifies the unknown system from noisy linear measurements. This problem can be solved efficiently with standard, freely available software. We provide rigorous statistical guarantees that explicitly bound the estimation error (in the H_2-norm) in terms of the stability radius, the Hankel singular values of the true system and the number of measurements. These results in turn yield complexity bounds and asymptotic consistency. We provide numerical experiments demonstrating the efficacy of our method for estimating linear systems from a variety of linear measurements.

  19. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view...... that rarely has been recognised in the social dilemma literature. Social norms imply that people should manifest a prescribed behaviour or not manifest a proscribed behaviour. Furthermore, social norms are often guiding behaviour in speciWc contexts, and many times they need to be activated......, though. Research has also identiWed various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor...

  20. Face recognition with L1-norm subspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritato, Federica; Liu, Ying; Colonnese, Stefania; Pados, Dimitris A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of representing individual faces by maximum L1-norm projection subspaces calculated from available face-image ensembles. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to image variations, disturbances, and rank selection. Face recognition becomes then the problem of associating a new unknown face image to the "closest," in some sense, L1 subspace in the database. In this work, we also introduce the concept of adaptively allocating the available number of principal components to different face image classes, subject to a given total number/budget of principal components. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  1. A New Replication Norm for Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne P LeBel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing concern regarding the replicability of findings in psychology, including a mounting number of prominent findings that have failed to replicate via high-powered independent replication attempts. In the face of this replicability “crisis of confidence”, several initiatives have been implemented to increase the reliability of empirical findings. In the current article, I propose a new replication norm that aims to further boost the dependability of findings in psychology. Paralleling the extant social norm that researchers should peer review about three times as many articles that they themselves publish per year, the new replication norm states that researchers should aim to independently replicate important findings in their own research areas in proportion to the number of original studies they themselves publish per year (e.g., a 4:1 original-to-replication studies ratio. I argue this simple approach could significantly advance our science by increasing the reliability and cumulative nature of our empirical knowledge base, accelerating our theoretical understanding of psychological phenomena, instilling a focus on quality rather than quantity, and by facilitating our transformation toward a research culture where executing and reporting independent direct replications is viewed as an ordinary part of the research process. To help promote the new norm, I delineate (1 how each of the major constituencies of the research process (i.e., funders, journals, professional societies, departments, and individual researchers can incentivize replications and promote the new norm and (2 any obstacles each constituency faces in supporting the new norm.

  2. Institutions, Social Norms, and Bargaining Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Stratton, VCU, Leslie

    We exploit time use data from Denmark and the United States to examine the impact institutions and social norms have on individuals’ bargaining power within a household, hypothesizing that the more generous social welfare system and more egalitarian social norms in Denmark will mitigate the impact...... standard economic power measures have upon couples’ time use. Further we posit that leisure time will be more sensitive to power considerations than housework time which may be more influenced by preferences regarding household public goods, to gendered notions of time use, and to censoring. Our results...

  3. On the Norm of Finite Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junxin Wang; Xiuyun Guo

    2007-01-01

    The norm N(G) of a group G is the intersection of normalizers of all the subgroups of G. Let G be a finite group, p a prime dividing the order of G, and P a Sylow p-subgroup of G. In this paper, it is proved that G is p-nilpotent if Ω1(P)≤N(NG(P)),and when p = 2, Ω2(P) = .Some applications of this result are given. Finally, a class of finite p-groups in which the index of the norm is exactly p is described.

  4. NORM contamination in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. (Peter Gray and Associates, Inc. (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on contamination of oil and gas facilities with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) which is now widespread. Some contamination may be sufficiently severe that maintenance and other personnel may be exposed to hazardous concentrations. Contamination with radium is common in oil-production facilities, whereas contamination with radon and radon decay products is more prevalent in natural-gas production and processing facilities. Although largely unregulated until recently, U.S. states, notably Louisiana and Texas, have or are enacting legislation to control NORM contamination in the petroleum industry.industry.

  5. MATNORM: Calculating NORM using composition matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruseth, Kamal L.

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of an entirely new set of formulas to calculate the CIPW norm. MATNORM does not involve any sophisticated programming skill and has been developed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas. These formulas are easy to understand and a mere knowledge of the if-then-else construct in MS-Excel is sufficient to implement the whole calculation scheme outlined below. The sequence of calculation used here differs from that of the standard CIPW norm calculation, but the results are very similar. The use of MS-Excel macro programming and other high-level programming languages has been deliberately avoided for simplicity.

  6. Evolutionary change in continuous reaction norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murren, Courtney J; Maclean, Heidi J; Diamond, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of reaction norms remains a major challenge in ecology and evolution. Investigating evolutionary divergence in reaction norm shapes between populations and closely related species is one approach to providing insights. Here we use a meta-analytic approach to compare...... or species. These results show that evolutionary divergence of curvature is common and should be considered an important aspect of plasticity, together with slope. Biological details about traits and environments, including cryptic variation expressed in novel environmental conditions, may be critical...

  7. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-09-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy.

  8. Entropy, Weil-Petersson norm and Gromov norm for surface automorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Sadayoshi

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to a theorem of Brock on comparison of Weil-Petersson norms and hyperbolic volumes of mapping tori for pseudo-Anosovs, we prove that the entropy of a surface automorphism in general has linear bounds in terms of Gromov norm of its mapping torus from below and in bounded geometry case from above. We also prove that the Weil-Petersson norm does the same from both sides in general. The proofs are in fact immediately derived from the theorem of Brock together with some other strong theorems and small observations.

  9. A moist "available enthalpy" norm: definition and comparison with existing "energy" norms

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Moist-air norms and inner-products are currently used in atmospheric science for computing dry or moist singular vectors and for determining forecast errors or sensitivity to observations based on tangent linear and adjoint models. A new moist-air norm is defined starting from old results published in Marquet (QJRMS 1993) and based on the "Available Enthalpy" approach, namely one of the Exergy function defined in general thermodynamics. Some interesting and promising impacts of this new "Available Enthalpy" norm are described in this brief version of a paper to be submitted to the QJRMS.

  10. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    , though. Research has also identiWed various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor...

  11. Mixed ultrasoft/norm-conserved pseudopotential scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt

    1996-01-01

    A variant of the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme, where the norm conservation is released for only one or a few angular channels, is presented. Within this scheme some difficulties of the truly ultrasoft pseudopotentials are overcome without sacrificing the pseudopotential softness. (...

  12. VARIOUS NOTIONS OF ORTHOGONALITY IN NORMED SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.B. OKELO; J.O. AGURE; P.O. OLECHE

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present various notions and aspects of orthogonality in normed spaces. Characterizations and generalizations of orthogonality are also consid-ered. Results on orthogonality of the range and the kernel of elementary operators and the operators implementing them also are given.

  13. Income, Cultural Norms and Purchases of Counterfeits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M. Lede (Madesta)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe conjecture that individual purchases of counterfeit products could be motivated by income and prices, but that another driver is cultural norms. To put the latter conjecture to an empirical test we make use of the unique situation of Surinamese people who live in Suriname and in the

  14. Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Richard T.

    1980-01-01

    Junior high students were tested to supply normative data supporting the Bender Gestalt. Subject's performance was not significantly related to sex or occupation of the family bread winner. These variables do not have to be controlled for in norming visual motor tests at the junior high level. (Author)

  15. Norming plans for the NIH Toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Jennifer L; Havlik, Richard; Cook, Karon F; Hays, Ron D; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Korper, Samuel P; Lai, Jin-Shei; Nord, Christine; Zill, Nicholas; Choi, Seung; Yost, Kathleen J; Ustsinovich, Vitali; Brouwers, Pim; Hoffman, Howard J; Gershon, Richard

    2013-03-12

    The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) is a comprehensive battery of brief assessment tools. The purpose of this article is to describe plans to establish normative reference values for the NIH Toolbox measures. A large sample will be obtained from the US population for the purpose of calculating normative values. The sample will be stratified by age (ages 3-85 years), sex, and language preference (English or Spanish) and have a total sample size of at least 4,205. The sample will include a minimum of 25-100 individuals in each targeted demographic and language subgroup. Norming methods will include poststratification adjustment calculated using iterative proportional fitting, also known as raking, so that the weighted sample will have the same distribution on key demographic variables as the US population described in the 2010 Census. As with any set of norms, users should be mindful of the reference population and make conclusions consistent with the limitations of normative sampling, since it is not a probability-based sample. However, the NIH Toolbox norming study has been designed to minimize bias and maximize representativeness and precision of estimates. The availability of a "toolbox" of normed measures will be an important foundation for addressing critical research questions in neurologic and behavioral health.

  16. Academic Dishonesty, Ethical Norms and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnerud, Gunnel; Rosander, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study is aimed to deduce which ethical norms and considerations are implicitly present in the students' answers when they are asked to define to what degree the presented actions in a questionnaire are acts of cheating. Data are analysed by factor analysis as well as qualitative analysis. The questions asked are: What characterises the items…

  17. Academic Dishonesty, Ethical Norms and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnerud, Gunnel; Rosander, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study is aimed to deduce which ethical norms and considerations are implicitly present in the students' answers when they are asked to define to what degree the presented actions in a questionnaire are acts of cheating. Data are analysed by factor analysis as well as qualitative analysis. The questions asked are: What characterises the items…

  18. Robust portfolio selection under norm uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the robust portfolio selection problem which has a data uncertainty described by the ( p , w $(p,w$ -norm in the objective function. We show that the robust formulation of this problem is equivalent to a linear optimization problem. Moreover, we present some numerical results concerning our robust portfolio selection problem.

  19. Generalized Norms Inequalities for Absolute Value Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Ali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we generalize some norms inequalities for sums, differences, and products of absolute value operators. Our results based on Minkowski type inequalities and generalized forms of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Some other related inequalities are also discussed.

  20. Computing the Matrix p-norm

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskara, Aditya

    2010-01-01

    A matrix is said to be positive if all its entries are >0. We consider n x n positive matrices where the ratio of the largest to smallest entry is at most N, for some parameter N. We show that for any p>1, the p-norm of the matrix, which is defined to be |A|_p = Max_x ||Ax||_p, where ||x||_p=1 can be computed to a factor of (1+$\\delta$) in time polynomial in $\\log(1/\\delta)$, N and the dimension of the matrix n. However, in the case of general $n$-dimensional matrices, for p>1, p != 2, we show that it is NP-hard to approximate the p-norm to within a factor if (1+n^{-c}), for any constant c>0. This implies, for instance, that it is hard to obtain a $(1+\\delta)$ approximation in time polynomial in n, $1/\\delta$. Finally, we observe that the p-norm is multiplicative under tensor products, and thus if we can approximate the $p$-norm to some constant in polynomial time, we can also approximate it to an arbitrarily small constant. Recently, Englert and Racke [ER] showed the existence of an O(log n)-competitive obli...

  1. Toleration and the Design of Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    One of the pressing challenges we face today-in a post-Westphalian order (emergence of the state as the modern, political information agent) and post-Bretton Woods world (emergence of non-state multiagent systems or MASs as "hyperhistorical" players in the global economy and politics)-is how to design the right kind of MAS that can take full advantage of the socio-economic and political progress made so far, while dealing successfully with the new global challenges that are undermining the best legacy of that very progress. This is the topic of the article. In it, I argue that (i) in order to design the right kind of MAS, we need to design the right kind of norms that constitute them; (ii) in order to design the right kind of constitutive norms, we need to identify and adopt the right kind of principles of normative design; (iii) toleration is one of those principles; (iv) unfortunately, its role as a foundation for the design of norms has been undermined by the "paradox of toleration"; (v) however, the paradox can be solved; (vi) so toleration can be re-instated as the right kind of foundational principle for the design of the right kind of norms that can constitute the right kind of MAS that can operate across cultures, societies and states, to help us to tackle the new global challenges facing us.

  2. Myth and Other Norms in World Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    This article uses the Thule Case at the Danish Supreme Court as an example of normativity in world society. Here norms, which may turn out to be important in world society could be myths of several kinds such as 'narrative normativity'. One myth may be that of (exclusive) sovereignty...

  3. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  4. Eating by the Norm : The Influence of Social Norms on Young People's Eating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Stok, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are social beings. Our identities are, for an important part, shaped by the different groups we belong to. Each social group has its own standards or norms for behavior, based upon what is considered good or correct behavior within that social group. Such socially shared norms are usually not made explicit, but become apparent through observing the behavior of group members and through understanding the expectations they have for how others in their social group should behave. The infl...

  5. Normes techniques, normes sociales, l'Internet sous contrôle chinois

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Technical norms, social norms, the chinese internet under contrololivier arifon 1, * 1 : resic (resic)* : auteur correspondantWith internet, the Chinese's government is coherent with its global project for the country. Since 1995, it has recommended a use of internet for the society and developed several forms of control. actually, four registers co exists: a technical control, a legal regulation, human measures on civil society and, more complex, a Chinese entrepreneu...

  6. Foliar nutrition diagnosis of Castanea mollissima by using Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System%“燕山早丰”板栗叶片 DRIS 营养诊断研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素娟; 李广会; 熊欢; 吕文君

    2014-01-01

    recommendation integrated system (DRIS).The results show that the optimum concentrations of N , P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and B in leaves of Castanea mollissima are (1.997 ±0.169)%, (0.130 ±0.012)%, (0.571 ±0.059)%, (1.295 ±0.112)%, (0.679 ±0.075)%, 685.875 ±76.159 mg/kg, 593.780 ±131.690 mg/kg, 12.726 ±1.507 mg/kg and 43.418 ±7.889 mg/kg.The suitable ranges of DRIS indices for N , P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and B are -2.267-1.894, -2.157-2.108, -2.080-2.450, -1.719-1.224, -3.960-2.962,-1.807-1.510, -3.002-4.079, -0.826-0.943 and -2.127-2.773.The chestnut orchards in different areas of Qianxi County have different orders of nutrition requirement , and the orchards in northwest and southwest parts of Qianxi County are in Mn nutrient deficiency .There is a significant negative correlation ( P <0.01 )between nutrition imbalance index ( NII ) and the yield .The results of correlation analysis indicate that positive correlations or negative correlations between different mineral elements in leaves are not significant in the middle of July , which suggests that the middle of July is the ideal time for topdressing for avoiding the fertilizer loss due to the antagonism of the elements .

  7. Professional Development of PMRI Teachers For Introducing Social Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu Ilma Indra Putri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports implementation results of designing a workshop for mathematics teacher in introducing classroom social norms. The participants are eight mathematics teachers in primary and junior secondary level. Teachers learned and did some activities about social norms during the workshop. First, they watched an example of learning videos about social norms. Then they discussed and shared in the group about their experiences in using social norms in the classroom. Finally, they made a commitment to try their knowledge about social norms in their classroom. This research used the design research method. Data were collected using videotaped, interview, and focus group discussion and were analyzed qualitatively. Results show that: (1 Teachers satisfied in following all activities relating to the social norms in the workshop. (2 Teachers realized that they had used some activities of social norms such as guiding students to communicate, asking questions and giving argumentation. (3 Teachers have more confidence to use social norms in their mathematics classroom

  8. Forfaitaire norm fosforgehalte in opfokzeug te laag : in het kort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    De forfaitaire norm voor het fosforgehalte in opfokzeugen, zoals gehanteerd door de Dienst Regelingen, is te laag voor de huidige zeugen en zou verhoogd moeten worden. De huidige norm is gebaseerd op gedateerd onderzoek.

  9. A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work.

  10. Adolescent Substance Use, Aggressive Behaviors, and Peer Context Behavioral Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Gommans, R.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There were 3 hypotheses. First, behavioral norms in both contexts affect individual behavior. Second, classroom norms have stronger effects on individual behavior than school norms. Third, classroom and s...

  11. Norms and Team Formation: Evidence from Research Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Garcia; Joshua Serman

    2015-01-01

    Scientific, artistic, and professional work is increasingly performed in groups. In this study, we seek to understand the extent to which norms influence the composition of such groups. In particular, we analyze the effect of the alphabetical norm in academic citations on the composition of research teams in economics. First, we present a model of endogenous team formation given the alphabetical norm and analyze the effect of the norm on the desirability of any two individuals to conduct a jo...

  12. Implications of customary norms and laws for implementing IWRM: findings from Pangani and Rufiji basins, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganga, Faustin P.; Kiwasila, Hilda L.; Juma, Ibrahim H.; Butterworth, John A.

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a WARFSA-funded study, whose objective is to facilitate the formulation of better policies and guidelines for implementing IWRM through a case study of local water conflicts. It is observed that, although the current water reforms in the country focus on the use of statutory legal systems to regulate the use of water resources, the country operates under a plural legal system. Apart from the statutory laws, diverse customary systems are relied upon in resolving water-related conflicts. Neglect of these norms and laws may have negative consequences for the majority of the villagers who rely on them. The paper presents some of the water-related conflicts in the study areas and the views of government authorities and river basin managers regarding customary norms and laws for water resource management. Also, the paper describes how different types of conflicts over water resources are handled through official legal channels.

  13. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  14. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  15. The norm implementation problem in normative multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossi, D.; Gabbay, D.; van der Torre, L.; Dastani, M.; Hindriks, K.V.; Meyer, J-J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The norm implementation problem consists in how to see to it that the agents in a system comply with the norms specified for that system by the system designer. It is part of the more general problem of how to synthesize or create norms for multi-agent systems, by, for example, highlighting the choi

  16. Extradyadic sex : The role of descriptive and injunctive norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Bakker, AB

    1995-01-01

    The willingness to engage in extradyadic sexual behavior was examined in relation to attitudes, descriptive norms (what others do or are willing to do), and injunctive norms (what others think one should do). Although in research on attitude-behavior relationships injunctive norms are usually assess

  17. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    How internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures are norms guiding environmentally desirable behavior? In two surveys (N = 206 and N = 200), subjective social norms and personal norms for a specific behavior (the purchase of organic food or recycling) as well as self...

  18. Practical Run-Time Norm Enforcement with Bounded Lookahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alechina, Natasha; Bulling, Nils; Dastani, Mehdi; Logan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Norms have been widely proposed as a means of coordinating and controlling the behaviour of agents in a multi-agent system. A key challenge in normative MAS is norm enforcement: how and when to restrict the agents’ behaviour in order to obtain a desirable outcome? Even if a norm can be enforced

  19. Growth, financial development, societal norms and legal institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Lensink, Robert; Sterken, Elmer

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses whether societal norms help to explain cross-country differences in financial development. We analyze whether societal norms in addition to legal institutions have an impact on financial development. We address the implications of the inclusion of societal norms for the analysis

  20. Effects of Group Norms on Children's Intentions to Bully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    A minimal group study examined the effect of peer group norms on children's direct and indirect bullying intentions. Prior to an inter-group drawing competition, children (N = 85) aged seven and nine years were assigned to a group that had a norm of out-group dislike or out-group liking. Results indicated that, regardless of group norms, the…

  1. An efficient algorithm for computing the H-infinity norm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, Madhu N.; Praagman, C.

    2011-01-01

    This technical note addresses the computation of the H-infinity norm by directly computing the isolated common zeros of two bivariate polynomials, unlike the iteration algorithm that is currently used to find the H-infinity norm. The proposed method to H-infinity norm calculation is compared with th

  2. Growth, financial development, societal norms and legal institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Lensink, Robert; Sterken, Elmer

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses whether societal norms help to explain cross-country differences in financial development. We analyze whether societal norms in addition to legal institutions have an impact on financial development. We address the implications of the inclusion of societal norms for the analysis

  3. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  4. Property (T) and exotic quantum group norms

    CERN Document Server

    Kyed, David

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the notion of property (T) we construct new examples of quantum group norms on the polynomial algebra of a compact quantum group, and provide criteria ensuring that these are not equal to neither the minimal nor the maximal norm. Along the way we generalize several classical operator algebraic characterizations of property (T) to the quantum group setting which unify recent approaches to property (T) for quantum groups with previous ones. The techniques developed furthermore provide tools to answer two open problems; firstly a question by B\\'edos, Murphy and Tuset about automatic continuity of the comultiplication and secondly a problem left open by Woronowicz regarding the structure of elements whose coproduct is a finite sum of simple tensors.

  5. Esquisse d’une philosophie des normes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ruby

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La demande vient de l’éditeur et il a eu raison de solliciter la remise en public des cinq articles rédigés, par Pierre Macherey, ce vieux dinosaure de la philosophie (cf. Macherey, 1998, sur Georges Canguilhem et Michel Foucault. Car la question brassée autant par ces auteurs que par les textes de Macherey ici présentés demeure actuelle 1  : qu’est-ce que vivre et vivre en société, sous des normes ? Pourquoi l’existence humaine est-elle confrontée à des normes ? D’où ...

  6. L1-norm packings from function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study some packings in a cube, namely, how to pack n points in a cube so as to maximize the minimal distance. The distance is induced by the L1-norm which is analogous to the Hamming distance in coding theory. Two constructions with reasonable parameters are obtained, by using some results from a function field including divisor class group, narrow ray class group, and so on. We also present some asymptotic results of the two packings.

  7. Lagrange, central norms, and quadratic Diophantine equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mollin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Diophantine equation of the form x2−Dy2=c, where c=±1,±2, and provide a generalization of results of Lagrange with elementary proofs using only basic properties of simple continued fractions. As a consequence, we achieve a completely general, simple, and elegant criterion for the central norm to be 2 in the simple continued fraction expansion of D.

  8. Gaskell’s Characters Challenging Gender Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Gillian M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates women characters of Elizabeth Gaskell0’s social novels set in England’s industrial era. While in some ways a traditional woman of her age, Gaskell assumes responsibility and nurture as a duty of men as well as women, and shows her powerful women escaping gender norms, making her worthy of more notice as a social critic than she often gains.

  9. Regulatory framework for NORM residues in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepin, S.; Dehandschutter, B.; Poffijn, A.; Sonck, M. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC), Rue Ravenstein 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    The Belgian radiation protection authority (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC) has published in March 2013 a decree regulating the acceptance of NORM residues by nonradioactive waste treatment facilities. This regulation is based on the concept of 'work activities involving natural radiation sources' in the sense of article 40 of the 96/29/EURATOM directive. The disposal or processing facilities which accept NORM residues with an activity concentration above a generic exemption level will be considered as 'work activities' and submitted to declaration according to the Belgian radiation protection regulations. On basis of this declaration, specific acceptance criteria for the different types of processing/ disposal of the residues (disposal on landfill, recycling into building materials, etc.) are imposed. FANC has drafted guidelines for these acceptance criteria. A methodological guide for the operators of the concerned facilities was also published. Moreover, sites where significant quantities of NORM residues are or have been disposed, are subjected to an environmental monitoring in the framework of the national program of radiological surveillance of FANC. FANC also introduced in its regulations the concept of anthropogenic radon-prone areas: e.g. former phosphogypsum stacks have been defined as anthropogenic radon-prone areas, which allows some form of regulatory control of these sites. (authors)

  10. An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

  11. L1TV Computes the Flat Norm for Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Morgan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that the recently introduced L1TV functional can be used to explicitly compute the flat norm for codimension one boundaries. Furthermore, using L1TV, we also obtain the flat norm decomposition. Conversely, using the flat norm as the precise generalization of L1TV functional, we obtain a method for denoising nonboundary or higher codimension sets. The flat norm decomposition of differences can made to depend on scale using the flat norm with scale which we define in direct analogy to the L1TV functional. We illustrate the results and implications with examples and figures.

  12. Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings.

  13. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors.

  14. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    consumers (N = 206). Each questionnaire contained standard items measuring subjective social and personal norms for the purchase of organic food, self-reported buying behaviour, and a "hard laddering" instrument probing reasons and motives for doing so. As expected, participants' means-end associations......This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  15. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    consumers (N = 206). Each questionnaire contained standard items measuring subjective social and personal norms for the purchase of organic food, self-reported buying behaviour, and a "hard laddering" instrument probing reasons and motives for doing so. As expected, participants' means-end associations......This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  16. Characterisation of NORM Contaminated Objects: Reliable and Efficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breddam, Kresten; Hou, Xiaolin; Koufakis, Markos

    The predominant contributors to the production of Technologically En-hanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) and NORM-waste in the Nordic countries are the on- and offshore oil and gas produc-ers. In oil and gas production processes, host rock formation water con-taining low...... concentrations of NORM is mixed with seawater containing high concentrations of sulphate. This leads to precipitation of NORM (Ra, Pb, Po)SO4, which is deposited as either scale or sludge in the production equipment. NORM contaminated pipes, tubes, pumps and tanks, etc. are therefore subject to radiological...... characterization in order to ensure safe reuse or recycling as well as safe NORM waste handling.The procedures and measurement techniques may significantly affect the amount of mate-rial that is categorized as NORM contaminated equipment and NORM waste. At present, different procedures are used for categorization...

  17. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason M; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  18. Finding approximately rank-one submatrices with the nuclear norm and l1 norm

    CERN Document Server

    Doan, Xuan Vinh

    2010-01-01

    We propose a convex optimization formulation with the nuclear norm and $\\ell_1$-norm to find a large approximately rank-one submatrix of a given nonnegative matrix. We develop optimality conditions for the formulation and characterize the properties of the optimal solutions. We establish conditions under which the optimal solution of the convex formulation has a specific sparse structure. Finally, we show that, under certain hypotheses, with high probability, the approach can recover the rank-one submatrix even when it is corrupted with random noise and inserted as a submatrix into a much larger random noise matrix.

  19. Flat norm decomposition of integral currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currents represent generalized surfaces studied in geometric measure theory. They range from relatively tame integral currents representing oriented compact manifolds with boundary and integer multiplicities, to arbitrary elements of the dual space of differential forms. The flat norm provides a natural distance in the space of currents, and works by decomposing a $d$-dimensional current into $d$- and (the boundary of $(d+1$-dimensional pieces in an optimal way.Given an integral current, can we expect its at norm decomposition to be integral as well? This is not known in general, except in the case of $d$-currents that are boundaries of $(d+1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$ (following results from a corresponding problem on the $L^1$ total variation ($L^1$TV of functionals. On the other hand, for a discretized at norm on a finite simplicial complex, the analogous statement holds even when the inputs are not boundaries. This simplicial version relies on the total unimodularity of the boundary matrix of the simplicial complex; a result distinct from the $L^1$TV approach.We develop an analysis framework that extends the result in the simplicial setting to one for $d$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$, provided a suitable triangulation result holds. In $\\mathbb{R}^2$, we use a triangulation result of Shewchuk (bounding both the size and location of small angles, and apply the framework to show that the discrete result implies the continuous result for $1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ .

  20. UK population norms for EQ-5D

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Kind; Geoffrey Hardman; Susan Macran

    1999-01-01

    This discussion paper presents data from the Department of Health funded Measurement and Valuation of Health survey conducted at the Centre for Health Economics in 1993. This was a nationally representative interview survey of 3395 men and women aged 18 or over living in the UK. Amongst other things, the survey collected information on health status using the EuroQol (EQ-5D) descriptive system. The data is presented as a series of tables of age/sex population norms for the EQ-5D, for both sel...

  1. CORPEX{reg_sign} NORM decontamination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azrak, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a commecial process which has been developed for application to the remediation of NORM deposits on metal parts or embedded in scales on such parts. The process employs a registered chemical process, involving non-RCRA regulated chemicals, which can remove fixed {sup 226,228}Radium, {sup 210}Lead, and {sup 210}Polonium. The author describes the capabilities of the chemical process which has been developed, the way it is offered to potential customers as a practical process, and numerous examples of its application in the field.

  2. Making Norms to Tackle Global Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that Intergovernmental Organisations (IGOs) can play a significant role in the processes of system transformation required by Grand Challenges. The reason is their potential to influence socio-technical regimes connected to policy areas in which they have authority. Supported...... public and private actors, IGOs implement and protect novel practices that reinforce the new norms, from legally binding agreements to the creation of new spaces for international collaboration. These processes are examined here in the field of global health, where outside pressure directed...

  3. Sample Size Requirements for Traditional and Regression-Based Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Hannah E M; van der Ark, L Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2016-04-01

    Test norms enable determining the position of an individual test taker in the group. The most frequently used approach to obtain test norms is traditional norming. Regression-based norming may be more efficient than traditional norming and is rapidly growing in popularity, but little is known about its technical properties. A simulation study was conducted to compare the sample size requirements for traditional and regression-based norming by examining the 95% interpercentile ranges for percentile estimates as a function of sample size, norming method, size of covariate effects on the test score, test length, and number of answer categories in an item. Provided the assumptions of the linear regression model hold in the data, for a subdivision of the total group into eight equal-size subgroups, we found that regression-based norming requires samples 2.5 to 5.5 times smaller than traditional norming. Sample size requirements are presented for each norming method, test length, and number of answer categories. We emphasize that additional research is needed to establish sample size requirements when the assumptions of the linear regression model are violated.

  4. Morality and Prosocial Behavior : The Role of Awareness, Responsibility, and Norms in the Norm Activation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships between variables included in the Norm Activation Model (NAM; S. H. Schwartz, 1977) of prosocial behavior. Specifically, they evaluated the strength of 2 commonly used interpretations of this model: the NAM as a mediator model and the NAM as a moderator model.

  5. Morality and Prosocial Behavior : The Role of Awareness, Responsibility, and Norms in the Norm Activation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships between variables included in the Norm Activation Model (NAM; S. H. Schwartz, 1977) of prosocial behavior. Specifically, they evaluated the strength of 2 commonly used interpretations of this model: the NAM as a mediator model and the NAM as a moderator model.

  6. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) with emphasis on NORM disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [Peter Gray and Associates, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Regulation of radioactive material can occur at the Federal, State, and sometimes local level. In addition to regulations at the federal and state level, there are guidelines and standards that do not carry the weight of law, yet are often referenced. Neither the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) categorically regulates NORM at this time. However, many of the existing regulations and guidelines for licensed radioactive material can be applied by states and other regulatory agencies to NORM. The primary regulations covering radioactive materials and exposures were promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) or 1954, as amended. NRC licenses and regulates civilian use of nuclear materials to protect public health and safety and the environment. NRC makes rules and sets standards for licensees and inspects the activities of licensees to insure that they do not violate safety rules. OSHA regulations for worker protection from exposures to radioactivity are contained in 29CFR1910.96. These standards are designed to protect workers from exposure to radiation in programs other than those regulated by OSHA. The Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act, with implementing regulations found in 40CFR192 were promulgated by the EPA for cleanup of uranium mill tailings. These standards are often used by states and other agencies in regulating cleanup of NORM. EPA is currently considering regulation of NORM on NRC and DOE facilities under 40CFR195.

  7. Norm and anti-norm inequalities for positive semi-definite matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Bourin, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Some subadditivity results involving symmetric (unitarily invariant) norms are obtained. For instance, if $g(t)=\\sum_{k=0}^m a_kt^k$ is a polynomial of degree $m$ with non-negative coefficients, then, for all positive operators $A,\\,B$ and all symmetric norms, $\\|g(A+B)\\|^{1/m} \\le \\|g(A)\\|^{1/m} + \\|g(B)\\|^{1/m}$. To give parallel superadditivity results, we investigate anti-norms, a class of functionals containing the Schatten $q$-norms for $q\\in(0,1]$ and $q<0$. The results are extensions of the Minkowski determinantal inequality. A few estimates for block-matrices are derived. For instance, let $f:[0,\\infty) \\to [0,\\infty)$ be concave and $p\\in(1,\\infty)$. If $f^p(t)$ is superadditive, then $Tr f(A) \\ge (\\sum_{i=1}^m f^p(a_{ii}))^{1/p}$ for all positive $m\\times m$ matrix $A=[a_{ij}]$. Furthermore, for the normalized trace $\\tau$, we consider functions $\\phi(t)$ and $f(t)$ for which the functional $A\\mapsto\\phi\\circ\\tau\\circ f(A)$ is convex or concave, and obtain a simple analytic criterion.

  8. Perceptual dehumanization of faces is activated by norm violations and facilitates norm enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Katrina M; Tetlock, Philip E

    2016-02-01

    This article uses methods drawn from perceptual psychology to answer a basic social psychological question: Do people process the faces of norm violators differently from those of others--and, if so, what is the functional significance? Seven studies suggest that people process these faces different and the differential processing makes it easier to punish norm violators. Studies 1 and 2 use a recognition-recall paradigm that manipulated facial-inversion and spatial frequency to show that people rely upon face-typical processing less when they perceive norm violators' faces. Study 3 uses a facial composite task to demonstrate that the effect is actor dependent, not action dependent, and to suggest that configural processing is the mechanism of perceptual change. Studies 4 and 5 use offset faces to show that configural processing is only attenuated when they belong to perpetrators who are culpable. Studies 6 and 7 show that people find it easier to punish inverted faces and harder to punish faces displayed in low spatial frequency. Taken together, these data suggest a bidirectional flow of causality between lower-order perceptual and higher-order cognitive processes in norm enforcement.

  9. Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruseth, Kamal L.

    2009-02-01

    A completely new set of formulas, based on matrix algebra, has been suggested for the calculation of the CIPW norm for igneous rocks to achieve highly consistent and accurate norms. The suggested sequence of derivation of the normative minerals greatly deviates from the sequence followed in the classical scheme. The formulas are presented in a form convenient for error-free implementation in computer programs. Accurate formulas along with the use of variable molecular weights for CaO and FeO; corrected formula weights for apatite, pyrite and fluorite; and suggested measures to avoid significant rounding off errors to achieve absolute match between the sum of the input weights of the oxides and the sum of the weights of the estimated normative minerals. Using an analogous procedure for determining the oxidation ratios of igneous rocks as used in the SINCLAS system of Verma et al (2002, 2003), the suggested calculation scheme exactly reproduces their results except for apatite for reasons explained in the text, but with a superior match between the totals for about 11,200 analyses representing rocks of a wide range of composition

  10. Wavefield separation by energy norm Born scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-08-17

    In Reflection Based Waveform Inversion, the gradient is computed by cross-correlating the direct and Born scattered wavefield with their adjoints applied to the data residuals. In this case, the transmitted part of the Born scattered wavefield produces high wavenumber artifacts, which would harm the convergence of the inversion process. We propose an efficient Energy Norm Born Scattering (ENBS) to attenuate the transmission components of the Born modeling, and allow it to produce only reflections. ENBS is derived from the adjoint of the Energy Norm (inverse scattering) imaging condition and in order to get deeper insights of how this method works, we show analytically that given an image, in which reflectivity is represented by a Dirac delta function, ENBS attenuates transmission energy perfectly. We use numerical examples to demonstrate that ENBS works in both the time and the frequency domain. We also show that in reflection waveform inversion (RWI) the wave path constructed by ENBS would be cleaner and free of high wavenumber artifacts associated with conventional Born scattering.

  11. Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal L Pruseth

    2009-02-01

    A completely new set of formulas,based on matrix algebra,has been suggested for the calculation of the CIPW norm for igneous rocks to achieve highly consistent and accurate norms.The suggested sequence of derivation of the normative minerals greatly deviates from the sequence followed in the classical scheme.The formulas are presented in a form convenient for error-free implementation in computer programs.Accurate formulas along with the use of variable molecular weights for CaO and FeO;corrected formula weights for apatite,pyrite and fluorite;and suggested measures to avoid significant rounding off errors to achieve absolute match between the sum of the input weights of the oxides and the sum of the weights of the estimated normative minerals.Using an analogous procedure for determining the oxidation ratios of igneous rocks as used in the SINCLAS system of Ver ma et al (2002,2003),the suggested calculation scheme exactly reproduces their results except for apatite for reasons explained in the text,but with a superior match between the totals for about 11,200 analyses representing rocks of a wide range of composition.

  12. How did Trade Norms Evolve in Scandinavia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    As the saying goes, “it takes years to build up trust and only seconds to destroy it.” In this paper, we argue that this is indeed the case when explaining trust formation in Scandinavia. Hence, in an attempt to explain why the Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in t...... and social trust accumulation. This result points to the importance of free trade today, especially in poor countries with low levels of economic development and high rates of non-literacy....... in the world today, we argue that one possible historical root of social trust may be the long-distance trade practices of the Viking age. To manage the risk of being cheated, trade between strangers in an oral world required a strong informal institution of trust-based trade norms out of necessity to deal......-literate. If a trader did not keep his word, social sanctioning by word of mouth was most likely the only method to discipline the cheater and prevent future free-rider behavior. The early rise of trust-based trade norms in Scandinavia is an overlooked factor in the region’s long-term socio-economic development...

  13. How Did Trade Norms Evolve in Scandinavia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    As the saying goes, “it takes years to build up trust and only seconds to destroy it.” In this paper, we argue that this is indeed the case when explaining trust formation in Scandinavia. Hence, in an attempt to explain why the Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in t...... trust accumulation. This result points to the importance of free trade today, especially in poor countries with low levels of economic development and high rates of non-literacy....... in the world today, we argue that one possible historical root of social trust may be long-distance trade practices of the Viking age. To manage the risk of being cheated, trade between strangers in an oral world required a strong informal institution of trust-based trade norms out of necessity to deal...... did not keep his word, social sanctioning by word of mouth was most likely the only method to discipline the cheater and prevent future free-rider behavior. The early rise of trust-based trade norms in Scandinavia is an overlooked factor in the region’s long-term socio-economic development and social...

  14. Submersible pumps: Energetic efficiency norm; Bombas sumergibles: norma de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R. A.; Buendia Dominguez, E. H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), has prepared a preliminary project of the norm of energy efficiency for submersible pumps. This document has complied with the necessary formalities for the emission of the norm. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the submersible pumps, the energy savings, as well as the economic evaluation that sustains the norm project, additionally pointing out the environmental impact that will bring along the implantation of the same. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), ha elaborado el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica para bombas sumergibles. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del analisis de las bombas sumergibles, los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicandose ademas el impacto ambiental que tendra la implantacion de la misma.

  15. Perceived behavioral alcohol norms predict drinking for college students while studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2009-11-01

    College students who study abroad may represent a subgroup at risk for increased drinking while living in foreign countries. The present study explores this idea as well as the extent to which students' pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad student drinking are related to actual drinking while abroad. Ninety-one students planning to study abroad completed an online survey of demographics, pre-abroad drinking behavior, perceptions of study-abroad student drinking behavior while abroad, and intentions to drink while abroad. Halfway into their study-abroad experience, participants completed a follow-up survey assessing drinking while abroad. Pre-abroad intentions of drinking and pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad drinking were associated with actual drinking while abroad. However, perceptions predicted actual drinking while abroad over and above intended drinking. In addition, although participants overall did not significantly increase their drinking while studying abroad, participants with higher pre-abroad perceived norms significantly increased their own drinking behavior while abroad. As in other samples of college students, perceived norms appear to be an important correlate of study-abroad student drinking behavior. Findings suggest that perceptions of study-abroad student-specific drinking predicted not only actual drinking while abroad but also increases in drinking from pre-abroad levels. Findings provide preliminary support for the idea that presenting prospective study-abroad students with accurate norms of study-abroad student-drinking behavior may help prevent increased or heavy drinking during this period.

  16. Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2012-10-01

    Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  17. A Generalized Mazur-Ulam Theorem for Fuzzy Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Font

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce fuzzy norm-preserving maps, which generalize the concept of fuzzy isometry. Based on the ideas from Vogt, 1973, and Väisälä, 2003, we provide the following generalized version of the Mazur-Ulam theorem in the fuzzy context: let X, Y be fuzzy normed spaces and let f:X→Y be a fuzzy norm-preserving surjection satisfying f(0=0. Then f is additive.

  18. Mathematical methods linear algebra normed spaces distributions integration

    CERN Document Server

    Korevaar, Jacob

    1968-01-01

    Mathematical Methods, Volume I: Linear Algebra, Normed Spaces, Distributions, Integration focuses on advanced mathematical tools used in applications and the basic concepts of algebra, normed spaces, integration, and distributions.The publication first offers information on algebraic theory of vector spaces and introduction to functional analysis. Discussions focus on linear transformations and functionals, rectangular matrices, systems of linear equations, eigenvalue problems, use of eigenvectors and generalized eigenvectors in the representation of linear operators, metric and normed vector

  19. On the p-norm joint spectral radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳立

    2003-01-01

    The p-norm joint spectral radius is defined by a bounded collection of square matrices with complex entries and of the same size. In the present paper the author investigates the p-norm joint spectral radius for integers. The method introduced in this paper yields some basic formulas for these spectral radii. The approach used in this paper provides a simple proof of Berger-Wang's relation concerning the ∞-norm joint spectral radius.

  20. On the p-norm joint spectral radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳立

    2003-01-01

    The p-norm joint spectral radius is defined by a bounded collection of square matrices with complex entries and of the same size. In the present paper the author investigates the p-norm joint spectral radius for integers. The method introduced in this paper yields some basic formulas for these spectral radii. The approach used in this paper provides a simple proof of Berger-Wang' s relation concerning the ∞-norm joint spectral radius.

  1. A common fixed point for operators in probabilistic normed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaemi, M.B. [Faculty of Mathematics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mghaemi@iust.ac.ir; Lafuerza-Guillen, Bernardo [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Almeria, Almeria (Spain)], E-mail: blafuerz@ual.es; Razani, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, I. Kh. International University, P.O. Box 34194-288, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: razani@ikiu.ac.ir

    2009-05-15

    Probabilistic Metric spaces was introduced by Karl Menger. Alsina, Schweizer and Sklar gave a general definition of probabilistic normed space based on the definition of Menger [Alsina C, Schweizer B, Sklar A. On the definition of a probabilistic normed spaces. Aequationes Math 1993;46:91-8]. Here, we consider the equicontinuity of a class of linear operators in probabilistic normed spaces and finally, a common fixed point theorem is proved. Application to quantum Mechanic is considered.0.

  2. Closed Graph and Open Mapping Theorems for Normed Cones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oscar Valero

    2008-05-01

    A quasi-normed cone is a pair (, ) such that is a (not necessarily cancellative) cone and is a quasi-norm on . The aim of this paper is to prove a closed graph and an open mapping type theorem for quasi-normed cones. This is done with the help of appropriate notions of completeness, continuity and openness that arise in a natural way from the setting of bitopological spaces.

  3. Muslim Legal Norms and the Integration of European Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Maleiha

    2009-01-01

    MUSMINE - Muslim Minorities in Europe This paper examines the potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within European liberal democracies. It focuses on areas of personal life such as family norms and ethics. The main argument of the paper is that in some areas - such as divorce or contract law - there is potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within mainstream political and legal institutions. The advantage of this strategy is that it can encourage M...

  4. Human rights – local value or universal norm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory Gutner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article argues for the universal character of human rights. It is demonstrated that they are not of specific value of Western culture but are a universal norm. This norm is valid not only for political practices but, first of all, for the morality and practice of argumentation. Human rights are strictly correlated with Kantian Categorical Imperative and can be substantiated by means of transcendental­pragmatic argument (K.­O. Apel. The difference between values and norms are also considered. It is demonstrated that values are always subjective and arbitrary meanwhile final justification is possible for norms.  

  5. Norms and customs: causally important or causally impotent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Todd

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that norms and customs, despite frequently being described as being causes of behavior in the social sciences and ordinary conversation, cannot really cause behavior. Terms like "norms" and the like seem to refer to philosophically disreputable disjunctive properties. More problematically, even if they do not, or even if there can be disjunctive properties after all, I argue that norms and customs still cannot cause behavior. The social sciences would be better off without referring to properties like norms and customs as if they could be causal.

  6. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PMRI TEACHERS FOR INTRODUCING SOCIAL NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu Ilma Indra Putri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports implementation results of designing a workshop for mathematics teacher in introducing classroom social norms. The participants are eight mathematics teachers in primary and junior secondary level. Teachers learned and did some activities about social norms during the workshop. First, they watched an example of learning videos about social norms. Then they discussed and shared in the group about their experiences in using social norms in the classroom. Finally, they made a commitment to try their knowledge about social norms in their classroom. This research used the design research method. Data were collected using videotaped, interview, and focus group discussion and were analyzed qualitatively. Results show that: (1 Teachers satisfied in following all activities relating to the social norms in the workshop. (2 Teachers realized that they had used some activities of social norms such as guiding students to communicate, asking questions and giving argumentation. (3 Teachers have more confidence to use social norms in their mathematics classroom.Keywords: Classroom Social Norms, Teacher’s Workshop, Design Research, PMRI DOI: dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.61.11

  7. CLEX: A cross-linguistic lexical norms database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rune Nørgaard; Dale, Philip; Bleses, Dorthe;

    2009-01-01

    Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words...... in production and comprehension and also early gestures and symbolic actions. These lexical norms have a wide range of uses in basic research, assessment and intervention. In addition, crosslinguistic comparisons of lexical development are greatly facilitated by the availability of norms from diverse languages...

  8. Differential calculus in normed linear spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjea, Kalyan

    2007-01-01

    This book presents Advanced Calculus from a geometric point of view: instead of dealing with partial derivatives of functions of several variables, the derivative of the function is treated as a linear transformation between normed linear spaces. Not only does this lead to a simplified and transparent exposition of "difficult" results like the Inverse and Implicit Function Theorems but also permits, without any extra effort, a discussion of the Differential Calculus of functions defined on infinite dimensional Hilbert or Banach spaces.The prerequisites demanded of the reader are modest: a sound understanding of convergence of sequences and series of real numbers, the continuity and differentiability properties of functions of a real variable and a little Linear Algebra should provide adequate background for understanding the book. The first two chapters cover much of the more advanced background material on Linear Algebra (like dual spaces, multilinear functions and tensor products.) Chapter 3 gives an ab ini...

  9. Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    , in some cases, all - professional users involved (judges, lawyers, prosecutors). As far as the non-Danish speaking users are concerned, it has, with one notable exception, unfortunately not been possible to obtain data from this group via questionnaires. As this type of data, however, is important...... behaviour, explore why the deviations in question occur, find out what happens if deviations are perceived as such by the other participants involved in the interpreted event. We will reconstruct the norms in question by examining interpreters' and (mainly) professional users' behaviour in the course...... deviations and sanctions in every case. By way of example: Several judges, who had given their consent to recordings of authentic data in connection with the research project, reported that they had experienced problems with insufficient language proficiency on the part of untrained interpreters speaking...

  10. Craniofacial anthropometric norms of Malaysian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngeow W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was done to establish the craniofacial anthropometric norms of the young adult (18- 25 years Malaysian Indian. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of convenient samples of 100 healthy volunteers, with equal number of female and male subjects who had no history of mixed racial-parentage. Twenty-two linear measurements were taken twice from 28 landmarks over six craniofacial regions. The methodology and evaluation of indices of the craniofacial region was adapted from Hajnis et al. Results: The minimum measurements are always contributed by the female Indian except for the nose height (n-sn, (left eye fissure length (ex-en, upper vermillion height (ls-sto, and lower vermillion height (sto-li. There is a gender difference in all the measurements except the (left eye fissure height (independent t-test; P < 0.05. The Malaysian Indians exhibit some North American White Caucasian (NAWC features in all regions. The cephalic index indicates a brachycephalic or relatively short wide head with a tendency towards mesocephaly. From the low nasal index, the Malaysian Indian female have a nose that is narrow or leptorrhin similar to the NAWCs. The lower value of the upper lip height to mouth width index in the Indian female indicates a relatively shorter upper lip height compared to the mouth width, also similar to the NAWC. Conclusion: This study establishes the craniofacial anthropometric norms of the Malaysian Indian over 22 parameters. Male in general has a significantly higher measurement than female. The Malaysian Indians do exhibit some NAWC features.

  11. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  12. Space Junk Norms: US Advantages in Creating a Debris Reducing Outer Space Norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    represented by the debate over space weaponization. Stephen Krasner defines norms as “standards of behavior defined in terms of rights and...designer of the 20 Stephen Clark, “Air Force Spaceplane is an Odd Bird with a Twisted Path...the Sea. New., rev. ed. Manchester: University Press, 1988. Clark, Stephen . “Air Force Spaceplane is an Odd Bird with a Twisted Path,” Space.com, 2

  13. Development of a methodology for doss assessment viewing the use of NORM on building materials; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para avaliacao de doses visando o uso de NORM em materiais de construcao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Fernando Costa de

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating the radiological impact on man of the residues of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) that potentially can be used for the construction of homes and roads. Residues of this type, which are being produced in great quantities by the Brazilian mining industry, are typically deposited in non-appropriated conditions such that they may have a long-time adverse impact on the environment, and hence on man. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the doses resulting from the use of NORM residues, thus allowing a preliminary analysis of the possibility to recycle the residues. The model was used to evaluate the external dose due gamma radiation, the dose to skin caused by beta radiation, and the internal dose due to inhalation of radon and its decay products. The model was verified by comparisons with results of other studies about doses due to gamma and beta radiation from finite and infinite radioactive sources, with relatively good agreement. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a comparison was made against experimental results for a house constructed in accordance with CNEN regulations using building materials containing NORM residues. Comparisons were made of the dose due to gamma radiation and the radon concentration in the internal environment. Finally, the methodology was used also to estimate the dose caused by gamma radiation from a road constructed in the state of Rondonia, Brazil, which made use of another NORM residue. (author)

  14. CLEX: A Cross-Linguistic Lexical Norms Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Rune Norgaard; Dale, Philip S.; Bleses, Dorthe; Fenson, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words in production and comprehension and also early…

  15. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  16. The best simultaneous approximation in linear 2-normed spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Acikgoz, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we shall investigate and analyse a new study on the best simultaneous approximation in the context of linear 2-normed spaces inspired by Elumalai and his coworkers in Elumalai. The basis of this investigation is to extend and refinement the definition of the classical aproximation, best approximation and some related concepts to linear 2-normed spaces.

  17. Grip and Pinch Strength Norms for Michigan Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Phillips M.S., OTRL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create a norm reference of current grip and pinch strength norms for working-age Michigan adults. This normative study included a convenience sample of 179 volunteers who were employees at car plants in South East Michigan or hospital sites in West Michigan. Participants’ ages ranged from between 20 and 62 years of age with a mean age of 49.15 years. There were 78 females (44% and 101 males (56%. Subjects were classified by gender and in the age categories of ages 20 to 49 years and ages 50-62 years. Grip and pinch strength norms were collected following the American Society of Hand Therapy protocol. The norms from these working adults were calculated with descriptive statistics for males and females in two age classifications: ages 20 to 49 and ages 50 to 62 years. Standard Errors (SE are better than the 1985 norms for both males and females ages 20 to 49 years. SEs are higher than the ages 20 to 49 years’ norms for the ages 50 to 62 years age categories in both males and females. These norms offer a point of comparison for clinicians to use for clients in Michigan who are ages 20 to 62 years and who have a goal to improve their grip strength. Clients’ grip and pinch strength could be compared to their age level or gender norms using the comparison for one standard deviation above, below, or at the means.

  18. Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

    2008-01-01

    Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

  19. Teaching the Sociocultural Norms of an Undergraduate Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Graeme; Denny, Heather; Watkins, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The importance of teaching second language learners the pragmatic norms of relevant communities of practice is widely recognised. Familiarisation with these norms is also an important aspect of socialisation for native speakers entering a new community of practice. This study focuses on pragmatic instruction of English as an additional language…

  20. The Subjectivity of the Translator and Socio-Cultural Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Denghua

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to probe into the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of the translator and socio-cultural norms. The socio-cultural norms inevitably regulate the translator's translating activity, as acceptability of the translated text is the primary concern of most translators. However, this does not mean that the…

  1. Gender Norms and Retaliatory Violence against Spouses and Acquaintances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…

  2. Utility of Inferential Norming with Smaller Sample Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2011-01-01

    We examined the utility of inferential norming using small samples drawn from the larger "Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition" (WISC-IV) standardization data set. The quality of the norms was estimated with multiple indexes such as polynomial curve fit, percentage of cases receiving the same score, average absolute…

  3. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    and shopping. Also the frequency of the four behaviours was measured. The revised taxonomy has content, discriminant, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The most internalized of the new norm constructs, integrated norms, is most strongly correlated with conventional...

  4. Norms and Varieties of English and TESOL Teacher Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Zhu, Lingyan; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The growing recognition of the plurality of English underlying the World Englishes (WE) paradigm has problematised the conventional second language acquisition (SLA) views of errors. If English use in emerging English-speaking contexts is to be judged by local norms, as argued by WE scholars, applying exocentric norms in these contexts can be…

  5. Parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Dhanesh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we define parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function and discuss their special cases and prove some properties similar to Kullback-Leibler information measure. From R-norm divergence measure new information measures have also been derived and their relations with different measures of entropy have been obtained and give its application in industrial engineering.

  6. Negotiating Use, Norm and Authority in Online Language Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Antonio; Bonnin, Juan Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The acquisition of a particular language and its standard norms of use have been traditionally channeled through education, dictionaries and institutional publications, but more and more, the internet has become a recurrent platform to consult norms and rules, through different forms of electronically mediated communication in which language users…

  7. Gender Norms and Retaliatory Violence against Spouses and Acquaintances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…

  8. The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    2000-01-01

    The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication (CMC) was examined among students who used e-mail as part of a course. A network analysis of group structures revealed that (a) content and form of communication is normative, group norms defining communication patterns within groups, (

  9. Part-Time Work and Work Norms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielers, Rudi; Raven, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    We argue that in the Netherlands, due to the growth of part-time work, work norms have declined. The mechanism behind this norm change is in the changed organization of family life. The increased labour market participation of women has put the traditional organization of family life under pressure.

  10. Anatomy of zero-norm states in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chuan-Tsung; Lee, Jen-Chi; Yi-Yang

    2005-04-01

    We calculate and identify the counterparts of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string in two other quantization schemes of string theory, namely, the light-cone Del Giudice Di Vecchia Fubine zero-norm states and the off-shell Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) zero-norm states (with ghost) in the Witten string field theory (WSFT). In particular, special attention is paid to the interparticle zero-norm states in all quantization schemes. For the case of the off-shell BRST zero-norm states, we impose the no-ghost conditions and recover exactly two types of on-shell zero-norm states in the OCFQ string spectrum for the first few low-lying mass levels. We then show that off-shell gauge transformations of WSFT are identical to the on-shell stringy gauge symmetries generated by two types of zero-norm states in the generalized massive σ-model approach of string theory. The high-energy limit of these stringy gauge symmetries was recently used to calculate the proportionality constants, conjectured by Gross, among high-energy scattering amplitudes of different string states. Based on these zero-norm state calculations, we have thus related gauge symmetry of WSFT to the high-energy stringy symmetry of Gross.

  11. On fuzzy BCC-ideals over a t-norm

    OpenAIRE

    Dudek, W. A.; JUN, Y. B.

    2000-01-01

    Using a t-norm T, the notion of T-fuzzy BCC-ideals of BCC-algebras is introduced, and some of their properties are investigated. Connections between different types of fuzzy BCC-ideals induced by t-norms are described.

  12. The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    2000-01-01

    The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication (CMC) was examined among students who used e-mail as part of a course. A network analysis of group structures revealed that (a) content and form of communication is normative, group norms defining communication patterns within groups, (

  13. Using multiscale norms to quantify mixing and transport

    CERN Document Server

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Mixing is relevant to many areas of science and engineering, including the pharmaceutical and food industries, oceanography, atmospheric sciences, and civil engineering. In all these situations one goal is to quantify and often then to improve the degree of homogenisation of a substance being stirred, referred to as a passive scalar or tracer. A classical measure of mixing is the variance of the concentration of the scalar, which can be related to the $L^2$ norm of the concentration field. Recently other norms have been used to quantify mixing, in particular the mix-norm as well as negative Sobolev norms. These norms have the advantage that unlike variance they decay even in the absence of diffusion, and their decay corresponds to the flow being mixing in the sense of ergodic theory. General Sobolev norms weigh scalar gradients differently, and are known as multiscale norms for mixing. We review the applications of such norms to mixing and transport, and show how they can be used to optimise the stirring and ...

  14. Responsible Communication between the Judicial and Deontological Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Popa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Confronting with numerous problems related to moral judgment, the responsibility and irresponsibility in what concerns the vast domain of communication, we are interested in forming a correct and complete vision that crosses the judicial and deontological domain of the profession. The deontological norms are meant to guarantee, by their freely consented acceptance, the good fulfillment of the mission of the journalists, recognized as being indispensable for the god functioning of any human society. The laws do not expressly refer to the deontological norms, but these norms exist according to the law order and are necessary for its guarantee in this social context, which is chaotic from the point of view of the legislation in communication. The aspects analyzed here aremeant to indicate the manner in which passing from deontological norm to the judicial norm creates an external constraint for the communicator which brings more responsibility in view of avoiding the journalistic conflicts.

  15. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  16. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Silence and table manners: when environments activate norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Janneke F; Stapel, Diederik A; Lindenberg, Siegwart M

    2008-08-01

    Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e.g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e.g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there later") and when they are humanized with people or the remnants of their presence (e.g., a glass of wine on a table). Two studies show that goal-relevant environments and humanized environments raise the perceived importance of norms (Study 1) and the intention to conform to norms (Study 2). Interestingly, in both studies, these effects reach beyond norms related to the environments used in the studies.

  18. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-11-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development.

  19. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1...

  20. Norms and Interfirm Governance in Client-Architectural Firm Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to establish connections between governance structures, norms, and relationship types in architectural firm-client relationships. Due to the complex, intangible, knowledge intensive, and artistic nature of these professional services, both individual architectural project orders...... and relationships to clients are achieved by making credible promises (Løwendahl, 2000). This, in turn, requires profound understanding of existing norms and norms dynamics in architectural fields. An analytical framework of possible governance structures, possible relationship types, and norms is built...... conditions influence interfirm governance. Finally eight general hypothesis concerning the relationship between governance structures, norms, and relationship types in the professional services are presented on the basis of the analysis and related to existing theoretical contributions....

  1. FORMATION OF SOCIAL NORMS IN COMMUNICATING AGENTS WITH COGNITIVE FRAMEWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Hashimoto; Susumu Egashira

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with the process of formation of norms insocieties in which individuals act according to their own cognitive framework under communication. The individuals acquire information from others and interpret it. The way of individual's action is revised through changing the source of information and reforming the method of interpretation. Through the revising mechanisms, assemblages sharing cognitive frameworks are established. First individuals adopt the same source of information and then arrange the shared cognitive framework. The assemblages are considered as groups with common norms, since the same cognitive framework gives actions coherency. In the process of formation the two revising mechanisms function in turn. The intensity of interaction among individuals affects the period to build norms and the size of groups sharing the norms.The size develops under strong interaction but the period becomes long. The dependency of the average size of norms on the strength obeys a power law.

  2. Investigating Shared Norms in Multicultural Teams: Exploring How Team Member Scripts and Cognitive Adjustment Strategies Impact the Norm Formation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurrin, Daniel Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how shared norms are developed in the early phase of multicultural team (MCT) formation. The development of shared norms is recognized as critical to MCTs' contributions to organizations, and they are a result of the cognitive adjustment of the team members in recognition of their differences (Brandl…

  3. Investigating Shared Norms in Multicultural Teams: Exploring How Team Member Scripts and Cognitive Adjustment Strategies Impact the Norm Formation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurrin, Daniel Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how shared norms are developed in the early phase of multicultural team (MCT) formation. The development of shared norms is recognized as critical to MCTs' contributions to organizations, and they are a result of the cognitive adjustment of the team members in recognition of their differences (Brandl…

  4. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2016-02-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women's representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men.

  5. Cotation de fabrication avec les normes ISO

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmetti, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    La cotation ISO en production impose de nouvelles méthodologies pour élaborer les documents de maîtrise de la qualité géométrique des produits : les dessins de phase, du brut et d'états intermédiaires pour la conformité des pièces et les fiches de production, de réglage, de contrôle et de surveillance pour la conformité des moyens de production. Une méthode de transfert unidirectionnelle simple permet d'établir des dessins de phase en normes ISO et d'optimiser la répartition des tolérances à isocapabilité. Cette cotation est déclinée en cotation d'état intermédiaire, de production et de réglage. Une méthode tridimensionnelle est proposée pour prendre en compte les effets des défauts angulaires. Une maquette montre les fonctionnalités envisageables pour les futurs outils d'aides au tolérancement de fabrication au sein de la CFAO. De nombreux exercices illustrent les différentes démarches. Ce Manuel de tolérancement est principalement destiné aux préparateurs méthodes et aux c...

  6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INFORMAL NORMS OF URBAN COLORISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Alexandrowna Griber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was informal social norms of urban culture. The paper contains the detailed description of the experimental situation and the main steps of the field research, focused on the observance of informal social norms in the sphere of urban coloristics. The experiment was conducted in three districts of Smolensk (Russia – Leninskiy, Zadneprovskiy and Promyshlennyy. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of the results of the field research, including evaluation of reaction of participants (residents of multi-storied houses, breakers of informal norms of urban coloristics (experimenters and casual experiment witnesses (neighbors and passersby. In addition, the accuracy of results “forecasting”, done before the beginning of the experiment, is analyzed. The research was conducted using the methodology of breaking experiment that is one of the most provocative ways of studying informal norms in sociology and social psychology. The experiment allowed to draw a number of important conclusions. It showed that urban coloristics is regulated by strict informal norms, that are not noticed by citizens until a violation occurs. The power of informal norms is significantly underestimated by citizens, and their break causes a negative reaction and protest. The most important contribution to the study of informal norms of urban culture was the comparison of the reaction degree by men and women, by the residents of different districts (central, residential or blue-collar neighborhoods, by different age groups.

  7. Normed BCK-algebras%赋范BCK-代数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭家寅

    2011-01-01

    The notions of norm and distance in BCK-algebras are introduced, and some basic properties in normed BCK-algebras are given. It is obtained that the isomor- phic(homomorphic) image and inverse image of a normed BCK-algebra are still normed BCK-algebras. The relations of normed properties between BCK-algebra and Cartesian prod- uct of BCK-algebras are investigated. The limit notion of sequence of points in normed BCK-algebras is introduced, and its related properties are investigated, the relations between bounded normed BCK-algebras and fuzzy BCK-algebras are discussed.%引入了BCK-代数的范数与距离的概念,给出了赋范BCK-代数的一些基本性质,证明了赋范BCK-代数的同构(同态)像和原像仍是赋范BCK-代数,研究了BCK-代数与BCK-代数笛卡儿之间的赋范性质关系.并且引入了赋范BCK-代数的点列极限概念,研究了极限的相关性质.讨论了有界赋范BCK-代数的与模糊BCK-代数的关系.

  8. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  9. Anatomy of Zero-norm States in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, C T; Yang, Y; Chan, Chuan-Tsung; Lee, Jen-Chi; Yang, Yi

    2005-01-01

    We identify and calculate the counterparts of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantised (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string in two other quantization schemes of string theory, namely, the light-cone DDF zero-norm states and the off-shell BRST zero-norm states (with ghost) in the Witten string field theory (WSFT). In particular, special attentions are paid to the inter-particle zero-norm states in all quantization schemes. For the case of the off-shell BRST zero-norm states, we impose the no ghost conditions and exactly recover two types of on-shell zero-norm states in the OCFQ string spectrum for the first few low-lying mass levels. We then show that off-shell gauge transformations of WSFT are identical to the on-shell stringy gauge symmetries generated by two typse of zero-norm states in the generalized massive s-model approach of string theory. The high energy limit of these stringy gauge symmetries was recently used to fix the proportionality constants among high energy scattering amplitudes...

  10. A graph-based approach to auditing RxNorm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenreider, Olivier; Peters, Lee B

    2009-06-01

    RxNorm is a standardized nomenclature for clinical drug entities developed by the National Library of Medicine. In this paper, we audit relations in RxNorm for consistency and completeness through the systematic analysis of the graph of its concepts and relationships. The representation of multi-ingredient drugs is normalized in order to make it compatible with that of single-ingredient drugs. All meaningful paths between two nodes in the type graph are computed and instantiated. Alternate paths are automatically compared and manually inspected in case of inconsistency. The 115 meaningful paths identified in the type graph can be grouped into 28 groups with respect to start and end nodes. Of the 19 groups of alternate paths (i.e., with two or more paths) between the start and end nodes, 9 (47%) exhibit inconsistencies. Overall, 28 (24%) of the 115 paths are inconsistent with other alternate paths. A total of 348 inconsistencies were identified in the April 2008 version of RxNorm and reported to the RxNorm team, of which 215 (62%) had been corrected in the January 2009 version of RxNorm. The inconsistencies identified involve missing nodes (93), missing links (17), extraneous links (237) and one case of mix-up between two ingredients. Our auditing method proved effective in identifying a limited number of errors that had defeated the quality assurance mechanisms currently in place in the RxNorm production system. Some recommendations for the development of RxNorm are provided.

  11. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  12. Clinical ethics and values: how do norms evolve from practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta

    2013-02-01

    Bioethics laws in France have just undergone a revision process. The bioethics debate is often cast in terms of ethical principles and norms resisting emerging social and technological practices. This leads to the expression of confrontational attitudes based on widely differing interpretations of the same principles and values, and ultimately results in a deadlock. In this paper I would like to argue that focusing on values, as opposed to norms and principles, provides an interesting perspective on the evolution of norms. As Joseph Raz has convincingly argued, "life-building" values and practices are closely intertwined. Precisely because values have a more indeterminate meaning than norms, they can be cited as reasons for action by concerned stakeholders, and thus can help us understand how controversial practices, e.g. surrogate motherhood, can be justified. Finally, norms evolve when the interpretations of the relevant values shift and cause a change in the presumptions implicit in the norms. Thus, norms are not a prerequisite of the ethical solution of practical dilemmas, but rather the outcome of the decision-making process itself. Struggling to reach the right decision in controversial clinical ethics situations indirectly causes social and moral values to change and principles to be understood differently.

  13. Faixas normais de nutrientes pelos métodos ChM, DRIS e CND e nível crítico pelo método de distribuição normal reduzida para laranjeira-pera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Camacho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de métodos de diagnose nutricional para definição de teores ótimos e níveis críticos de nutrientes em tecidos vegetais tem se demonstrado promissora, desde que se conheçam suas limitações. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as faixas normais de nutrientes para a cultura da laranjeira-pera em uma população, utilizando os métodos Chance Matemática (ChM, Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS e Diagnose da Composição Nutricional (CND, além do Nível Crítico, pelo método de distribuição normal reduzida. O trabalho foi realizado no município de Bebedouro-SP, na Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro. Utilizaram-se como base de dados teores totais de nutrientes de 50 amostras foliares e a produtividade da laranjeira-pera, oriundas de um experimento cujo fator de avaliação foram doses de calcário aplicadas superficialmente. Para o N, maior valor de ChM foi obtido pela classe 2 (23,6 a 24,7 g kg-1, com valores semelhantes aos obtidos pelo DRIS (22,1 a 24,0 g kg-1 e CND (22,1 a 23,9 g kg-1. Os valores inferiores dessas faixas normais concordam com o do nível crítico alcançado (22,7 g kg-1, sendo este muito próximo do proposto pela literatura. Para os nutrientes P, K, Mg, Zn e B, as faixas normais e os níveis críticos não se assemelharam aos descritos na literatura. Em relação aos nutrientes Ca, Fe, Mn e Cu, seus valores de faixa normal e nível crítico aproximaram-se dos recomendados, possivelmente devido à maior variação em seus teores. A utilização dos métodos propostos, em uma população, foi mais adequada quando houve maior variação nos teores dos nutrientes, além de possibilitar menor amplitude aos valores de faixas normais, quando comparados aos da faixa de terras suficientes encontrados na literatura.

  14. Morality and prosocial behavior: the role of awareness, responsibility, and norms in the norm activation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda

    2009-08-01

    The authors examined the relationships between variables included in the Norm Activation Model (NAM; S. H. Schwartz, 1977) of prosocial behavior. Specifically, they evaluated the strength of 2 commonly used interpretations of this model: the NAM as a mediator model and the NAM as a moderator model. For the most part, 5 studies focusing on a variety of prosocial intentions and behavior support the NAM as a mediator model. Furthermore, these studies validate past research by showing that variables included in the NAM are powerful in explaining a diversity of prosocial intentions and behavior in the social and environmental contexts.

  15. Logical, algebraic, analytic and probabilistic aspects of triangular norms

    CERN Document Server

    Klement, Erich Peter

    2005-01-01

    This volume gives a state of the art of triangular norms which can be used for the generalization of several mathematical concepts, such as conjunction, metric, measure, etc. 16 chapters written by leading experts provide a state of the art overview of theory and applications of triangular norms and related operators in fuzzy logic, measure theory, probability theory, and probabilistic metric spaces.Key Features:- Complete state of the art of the importance of triangular norms in various mathematical fields- 16 self-contained chapters with extensive bibliographies cover both the theoretical ba

  16. Rapid matching algorithm for hyperspectral image based on norm sifting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Li; Yong Ma; Kun Liang; Yin Yu

    2012-01-01

    We propose a rapid spectral matching method by lowering number of comparisons,processing time can be saved.Firstly,1-norm is chosen as length measure of spectrum,and with this criterion,a 1-norm database is built.Secondly,a subspace is constructed from the whole reference library by retaining the references with the most similar 1-norm values.Finally,matching operations are performed in the subspace to obtain the match result.Simulations of geological mapping with ASTER spectral library show that the proposed method can significantly reduce processing time and enhance accuracy compared with traditional and dimension reduction methods.

  17. Aversion norm, replacing in the poem siab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Namdari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aversion norm or DE familiarization is a term that formalists it was first introduced. They believe that the work of art, not automatic and amazing things to see is that, because of things after a while, replication of us are normal, so do not see it. We poetic language, we are faced with a fundamental change in the relationship between signifier and signified, i.e. Familiar language, signifiers, signified by certain, but the poetic language signifier, the signified can be found in the pelvis, and the audience to understand the signified a new, hard falls, and the longer perceived to be, and where it refers to the discovery, after some hesitation, more enjoyable, the audience will have a special effect. 's poetic language, the beauty side implicated in emotional and motivational speaking, hiding the core meaning of the word, and indeed with the usual meaning and familiar DE familiarization, are shown. Beauty in ordinary language, they do not see, thus implying that subtle poet highlighting the special meaning of the word in ordinary language is different, the vocabulary word meanings change, and where it is meant to transform Familiar word, because the audience is emotionally motivated, it is more effective. The poet does not read words into their common name, but it so describes it as if for the first time we've seen. Word to describe him, sometimes uses the common name of its components, and metonymy create, and sometimes it does not use the common name of its components, but another word to call it, uses, and in fact the word it brings a different metaphor, and thus far is the common standard language, new language makes.

  18. From norms to macro-norms? The translation of classics seen in a global, diachronic framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Morini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Recently, Descriptive Translation Studies has been busying itself with single case studies rather than general surveys, with individual translations rather than normative tendencies. Ostensibly, this has been done in an attempt at avoiding the pitfalls of excessive ‘globalism’, and in order to shift the focus from the pressures exerted by society to the contributions given by translators, each according to his/her habitus. While recognizing the value of these ‘localizing’ studies, the present article argues that there is still scope within the discipline for developing universal concepts capable of connecting different forms of behaviour. Whenever the translation scholar aims at describing a field rather than an individual effort, it may be useful, and indeed necessary, to extend Toury’s concept of ‘translation norms’ both synchronically and diachronically. In the field of classical translation, in particular, the significance of single contributions may be lost if it is not seen in the context of international tendencies with deep historical roots – what the author proposes to call ‘macro-norms’.Keywords: Descriptive Translation Studies, classics, comparative literature, norms, macro-norms

  19. PREDICTORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ADOLESCENTS’ NORMS AGAINST TEENAGE PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    African American and Latino teenagers and communities are frequently assumed to have weaker norms against teenage pregnancy than whites. Despite their importance, adolescents’ norms about teenage pregnancy have not been measured or their correlates and consequences documented. This study examines individual-level and contextual variation in adolescents’ embarrassment at the prospect of a teenage pregnancy and its relationship with subsequent teenage pregnancy. Descriptive analyses find that norms vary by gender and individual- and neighborhood-level race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). In multivariate analyses, neighborhood-level racial/ethnic associations with embarrassment are explained by neighborhood-level SES. Embarrassment is associated with a lower likelihood of subsequent teenage pregnancy but does not mediate racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic influences, underscoring the importance of both norms and structural factors for understanding teenage fertility. PMID:21921969

  20. Smoothing-Norm Preconditioning for Regularizing Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg

    2006-01-01

    When GMRES (or a similar minimum-residual algorithm such as RRGMRES, MINRES, or MR-II) is applied to a discrete ill-posed problem with a square matrix, in some cases the iterates can be considered as regularized solutions. We show how to precondition these methods in such a way that the iterations...... take into account a smoothing norm for the solution. This technique is well established for CGLS, but it does not immediately carry over to minimum-residual methods when the smoothing norm is a seminorm or a Sobolev norm. We develop a new technique which works for any smoothing norm of the form $\\|L......\\,x\\|_2$ and which preserves symmetry if the coefficient matrix is symmetric. We also discuss the efficient implementation of our preconditioning technique, and we demonstrate its performance with numerical examples in one and two dimensions....

  1. An integrated moral obligation model for landowner conservation norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhananga, Amit K.; Davenport, Mae A.; Fulton, David C.; Maruyama, Geoffrey M.; Current, Dean

    2017-01-01

    This study applies an integrated moral obligation model to examine the role of environmental and cultural values, and beliefs in the activation of landowner conservation norms. Data for this study were collected through a self-administered survey of riparian landowners in two Minnesota watersheds: Sand Creek and Vermillion River watersheds. Study findings suggest that collectivistic and biospheric–altruistic values form the bases for the activation of personal norms. Further, beliefs about local responsibility and ability to act influence personal norms to protect water resources. Findings suggest that landowners’ personal norms of water conservation are more likely to be activated by conservation strategies that appeal to biospheric–altruistic and collectivistic values, emphasize adverse consequences of water pollution, highlight water resource protection as a local responsibility, and provide the resources needed to protect water resources.

  2. Expectation Values and Variance Based on Lp-Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livadiotis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This analysis introduces a generalization of the basic statistical concepts of expectation values and variance for non-Euclidean metrics induced by Lp-norms. The non-Euclidean Lp means are defined by exploiting the fundamental property of minimizing the Lp deviations that compose the Lp variance. These Lp expectation values embody a generic formal scheme of means characterization. Having the p-norm as a free parameter, both the Lp-normed expectation values and their variance are flexible to analyze new phenomena that cannot be described under the notions of classical statistics based on Euclidean norms. The new statistical approach provides insights into regression theory and Statistical Physics. Several illuminating examples are examined.

  3. BERGMAN TYPE OPERATOR ON MIXED NORM SPACES WITH APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RENGUANGBIN; SHIJIHUAI

    1997-01-01

    The authors investigate the conditions for the botmdedness of Bergman type operators Pa,t in mixed norm space Lp,q(μ) on the unit ball of Cn (n ≥ 1), and obtain a sufficient conditionand a necessary condition for general normal function μ, and a sufficient and necessary condition for μ(r)=(1-r2)α logβ(2(1-r)-1)(α>0,β≥0), This generalizes the result of Forelli-Rudin[3] on Bergman operator in Bergman space. As applications,a more natural method is given to compute the duality of the mixed norm space,solve the Gleason's problem for mixed norm space and obtain the characterization of mixed norm space in terms of partial derivatives.Moreover,it is proved that f∈L(0) ∞,q(μ) for holomorphic function f,1≤q≤∞.

  4. Norm Referenced and Criterion Based Measures with Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacTurk, Robert H.; Neisworth, John T.

    1978-01-01

    Seventeen handicapped and nonhandicapped preschool children were given both the norm referenced Gesell Developmental Schedules and the criterion based HICOMP progress measure on a quarterly (10 week) basis. (Author/SBH)

  5. Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Simon P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vixie, Kevin R [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Clawson, Keth [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Asaki, Thomas J [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Price, Brandon [WALLA WALLA UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

  6. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...

  7. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    have, however, indicated that these factors interact. Using interviews, surveys and registers, the paper investigated how professional norms, economic incentives and sector affected the behaviour of Danish dentists and physicians. It was found that when strong professional norms existed, economic......The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...... incentives were unimportant for both public and private employees. In contrast, when no firm professional norm applied, economic incentives affected behaviour. Controlling for different economic incentives, sector does not seem to affect the behaviour much. The results imply that the economic...

  8. NORMS PROMOTING CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Lesáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture plays an important role in supporting the creative processes, becauseit can promote or hinder innovation-enhancing norms. Innovative small and mediumenterprises tend to develop culture, which emphasize and reward values and norms thatsupport the generation and implementation of new ideas. Such a system encourageseveryone in enterprise to develop original and useful proposals. They promote innovativeways of solving problems and finding solutions. Over the years, researchers havedocumented a variety of norms that promote consistently creativity and innovation inorganizational settings. The aim of the article is to present the organizational culture,especially the innovation-enhancing norms, as important elements, that promote creativityand innovation in small and medium enterprises. The paper was elaborated a sa part ofVEGA project 1/0654/11 „Innovative Small and Medium Enterprises as a Part ofKnowledge-Based Economy in the SR“.

  9. La Norme, Les Registres et L'Apprentissage (ou les us et abus de la norme) (The Norm, Registers, and Learning [or the use and abuse of the norm])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Henri

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the relationship in language and specifically in French between the standard language norm, the various registers and styles available to native speakers of a given language, and second language learning. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  10. PREDICTORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ADOLESCENTS' NORMS AGAINST TEENAGE PREGNANCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    African American and Latino teenagers and communities are frequently assumed to have weaker norms against teenage pregnancy than whites. Despite their importance, adolescents' norms about teenage pregnancy have not been measured or their correlates and consequences documented. This study examines individual-level and contextual variation in adolescents' embarrassment at the prospect of a teenage pregnancy and its relationship with subsequent teenage pregnancy. Descriptive analyses find that norms vary by gender and individual- and neighborhood-level race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). In multivariate analyses, neighborhood-level racial/ethnic associations with embarrassment are explained by neighborhood-level SES. Embarrassment is associated with a lower likelihood of subsequent teenage pregnancy but does not mediate racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic influences, underscoring the importance of both norms and structural factors for understanding teenage fertility.

  11. Perceived Behavioral Alcohol Norms Predict Drinking for College Students While Studying Abroad*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: College students who study abroad may represent a subgroup at risk for increased drinking while living in foreign countries. The present study explores this idea as well as the extent to which students' pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad student drinking are related to actual drinking while abroad. Method: Ninety-one students planning to study abroad completed an online survey of demographics, pre-abroad drinking behavior, perceptions of study-abroad student drinking behavior while abroad, and intentions to drink while abroad. Halfway into their study-abroad experience, participants completed a follow-up survey assessing drinking while abroad. Results: Pre-abroad intentions of drinking and pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad drinking were associated with actual drinking while abroad. However, perceptions predicted actual drinking while abroad over and above intended drinking. In addition, although participants overall did not significantly increase their drinking while studying abroad, participants with higher pre-abroad perceived norms significantly increased their own drinking behavior while abroad. Conclusions: As in other samples of college students, perceived norms appear to be an important correlate of study-abroad student drinking behavior. Findings suggest that perceptions of study-abroad student-specific drinking predicted not only actual drinking while abroad but also increases in drinking from pre-abroad levels. Findings provide preliminary support for the idea that presenting prospective study-abroad students with accurate norms of study-abroad student-drinking behavior may help prevent increased or heavy drinking during this period. PMID:19895769

  12. Early marriage, social networks and the transmission of norms

    OpenAIRE

    Asadullah, Niaz; Wahhaj, Zaki

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether female early marriage is a conduit for the transmission of social norms, specifically norms relating to gender roles and rights within the household. We exploit differences in the age of onset of menarche between sisters as an exogenous source of variation in marriage age. This approach allows us to control for beliefs and attitudes that are transmitted from parents to children. We find that early marriage increases agreement with statements supportive of gender bias in...

  13. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-12-31

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  14. Prosocial norms and degree heterogeneity in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovářík, Jaromír; Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Cobo-Reyes, Ramón; Espinosa, María Paz; Jiménez, Natalia; Ponti, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    We provide empirical evidence to support the claims that social diversity promotes prosocial behavior. We elicit a real-life social network and its members' adherence to a social norm, namely inequity aversion. The data reveal a positive relationship between subjects' prosociality and several measures of centrality. This result is in line with the theoretical literature that relates the evolution of social norms to the structure of social interactions and argues that central individuals are crucial for the emergence of prosocial behavior.

  15. The Effects of Pacifist Norms of the Japanese Justice System

    OpenAIRE

    Zenn, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The reliance on pacifist norms in Japan may have left irreparable effects on the countrys ability to police organized crime. Japans pacifist culture is due in no small part to its tumultuous history, but to fully understand the impact these and other norms have on domestic police and legal institutions we need study the evolution of this societys criminal element over the last several decades and measure the effectiveness of the justice system in Japan. The major areas of research for this pr...

  16. Changing norms about gender inequality in education: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels-Hugo Blunch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While norms are important for educational attainment, especially in the developing world, there are relatively few studies on this topic. This paper, which explores attitudes toward gender equality in education among Bangladeshis, should therefore be of interest to both academics and policymakers. Objective: In this paper, we seek to identify which factors affect the norms regarding the education of girls and boys, as well as of women and men, across two cohorts of married women in Bangladesh. In particular, we look at the relative importance of an individual woman's own educational background and those of her spouse and other family members in shaping her attitudes toward gender equality in education. Methods: We analyze a rich household dataset for Bangladesh from the World Bank Survey on Gender Norms in Bangladesh, which was conducted in 2006. We use linear probability models to examine the determinants of gender education norms. We also decompose the intergenerational gender norms gap using the Oaxaca-Blinder composition (total and detailed, taking into account several technical issues related to the computation of standard errors and the use of dummy variables in detailed decompositions. Results: Education norms were found to differ substantially across cohorts, with women from the younger cohort expressing far more positive views than older female respondents regarding education for both girls and women. The effect of education on norms could be found among both the respondents and their husbands, as well as among the older women in the household. This suggests that educational norms are shared both within married couples and across generations. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the far-reaching changes in female education in Bangladesh have had equally far-reaching effects on the perceived value of education for girls relative to education for boys.

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TECHNICAL AND SOCIAL NORMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    In the article the relationship between system of technical and system of social norms in ecological project has been considered from constructivist standpoint in sociology of technology. For adequate solution of technological problem of enviromental pollution by hydrocarbons is necessary to define beside technical also system of social norms. Sociological analysis of accidents in transportation of hydrocarbons is suggested in purpose of clear definition of responsibilities of certain social ...

  18. NORMES & MONDIALISATION : QUESTIONNEMENTS SUR LA SUBSTANCE DE LA MUTINATIONALITE

    OpenAIRE

    Pesqueux, Yvon

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This communication is investigating the international substance of the company through the relations established between norms and globalization applied to multinational companies as well as local organizations confronted with the management of groups originating from different cultures. The norms are seen here in connection with the concept of culture.; Cette communication s'intéresse à la substance « internationale » de l'entreprise au travers de l'examen des relatio...

  19. Using Game Theory to Study the Evolution of Cultural Norms

    CERN Document Server

    De, Soham; Gelfand, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how to use evolutionary game theory (EGT) as a framework for studying how cultural dynamics and structural properties can influence the evolution of norms and behaviors within a society. We provide a brief tutorial on how EGT works, and discuss what kinds of insights it can provide. We then describe three published studies in which we have developed EGT models that help explain how structural and external conditions in a society affect the emergence of social norms.

  20. PREDICTORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ADOLESCENTS’ NORMS AGAINST TEENAGE PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    African American and Latino teenagers and communities are frequently assumed to have weaker norms against teenage pregnancy than whites. Despite their importance, adolescents’ norms about teenage pregnancy have not been measured or their correlates and consequences documented. This study examines individual-level and contextual variation in adolescents’ embarrassment at the prospect of a teenage pregnancy and its relationship with subsequent teenage pregnancy. Descriptive analyses find that n...

  1. Normalization Procedure for the Baptista Depression Scale - Adult Version (EBADEP-A: Transferring of Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Oliveira Gomes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the standardization of psychological instruments, that is, the construction of referential interpretations of a test, we can find different procedures performed both by Classical Test Theory and the Theory of Item Response. Especially in this case (IRT, we can admit a test as a norm, in order to use its standardization and transfer the cut-off point to another instrument. Based on this information, the present study aimed to provide a cutoff score for the Baptista Depression Scale - Adult Version (EBADEP-A through procedures of norms-transfer based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale (CES-D. The EBADEP-A presented good distribution and ability to discriminate depressive symptoms, and the sample, consisting of Brazilian College students, received a cutoff score of 32 points. It is emphasized that this is an exploratory and preliminary study, and it we suggest further analyzes to be performed with clinical samples for which results can be corroborated or confronted.

  2. Radiometric Mapping for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM Assessment in Mamuju, West Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Syaeful

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mamuju has been known to have high radiation dose rate which comes from NORM in rock and soil. Major concern is due to its location which is near inhabitant settlement area. Preliminary research has been done by environmental team which is limited to main access road only, while some remote area has left untouched. The purpose of the research is to delineate the location and distribution of thorium and uranium anomaly in Mamuju, and also to provide adequate information regarding the anomaly and high dose rate area to decision makers and stakeholders in neither local nor central government. Method applied is radiometric mapping using spectrometer RS-125 with NaI(Tl detector in the area of interest Geological Formation of Adang Volcanic, which is more than 800 square km in size. The radiometric mapping method is widely used in uranium/thorium exploration, and now has been added with the measurement of radiation dose rate which is appropriate to environmental surveys. The mapping has been successfully delineated the area of NORM or the area with thorium and uranium anomaly. Thorium and uranium anomaly are related with multi-geological-process resulting the increase of grade into several fold from its original state

  3. Are NORMs Accumulated in Filters of Drinking Water Facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, S.; Shin, W.; Park, M.; Han, J. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Han, W. S.; Chang, B. U.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is used as raw water to produce mineral drinking water through filtering processes in bottled water facilities. Although natural occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) exist in groundwater, accumulation of NORMs were rarely studied due to their low concentrations in groundwater. The goal of this study is to evaluate potential accumulation of NORMs in filters used at the drinking water facilities. Raw water and treated water after each filtering step, bottled water, and used filters were collected from a total of 13 bottled water facilities to analyze major dissolved ions and NORMs. Additionally, surface radioactive dose rate were measured at individual filter housings. The measured concentrations of NORMs in raw and treated water were quite low. However, the surface radioactivity dose rates dramatically increased around filter housing located at very first step regardless of filter type (i.e., activated carbon or membrane filter) in 4 out of 6 facilities. Some used filters showed approximately 20 times greater contents of Pb-210 than the Korean regulation level of 1 Bq g-1. Also, the concentrations of uranium and thorium were detected up to 75 µg g-1filter and 2 µg g-1filter, respectively, in 4 water facilities. These results implies potential accumulation of NORMs in filters used at bottled water facilities. Therefore, the filters need to be monitored during manufacturing processes of bottled water, and may be properly managed after use.

  4. Peer punishment promotes enforcement of bad social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Klaus; Gangadharan, Lata; Handfield, Toby; Thrasher, John

    2017-09-20

    Social norms are an important element in explaining how humans achieve very high levels of cooperative activity. It is widely observed that, when norms can be enforced by peer punishment, groups are able to resolve social dilemmas in prosocial, cooperative ways. Here we show that punishment can also encourage participation in destructive behaviours that are harmful to group welfare, and that this phenomenon is mediated by a social norm. In a variation of a public goods game, in which the return to investment is negative for both group and individual, we find that the opportunity to punish led to higher levels of contribution, thereby harming collective payoffs. A second experiment confirmed that, independently of whether punishment is available, a majority of subjects regard the efficient behaviour of non-contribution as socially inappropriate. The results show that simply providing a punishment opportunity does not guarantee that punishment will be used for socially beneficial ends, because the social norms that influence punishment behaviour may themselves be destructive.Punishment by peers can enforce social norms, such as contributing to a public good. Here, Abbink and colleagues show that individuals will enforce norms even when contributions reduce the net benefit of the group, resulting in the maintenance of wasteful contributions.

  5. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.

  6. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  7. An abbreviated tool for assessing feminine norm conformity: psychometric properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-12-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and validity of the CFNI-45 with data from 520 college women (55% White). Confirmatory factor analyses with data from this sample suggested acceptable fit for the posited 9-factor structure. Furthermore, analyses of measurement invariance indicated similar structural properties with members of socioculturally dominant (i.e., White) and nondominant (i.e., women of color) racial/ethnic status groups. Also, subscales of the CFNI-45 demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability coefficients, and correlations with convergent and discriminant validity indicators supported the validity of subscales scores. Overall, results offered support for the CFNI-45 as a multidimensional measure of women's conformity to feminine norms. The CFNI-45 can be used in research to facilitate evaluation of the theorized roles of conformity to feminine norms in women's mental health, vocational behavior, interpersonal relationships, and other domains. The CFNI-45 can be used in clinical practice to assess and attend to clients' conformity to feminine norms as is called for in the American Psychological Association's (2007) Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Girls and Women.

  8. Fractional norm regularization: learning with very few relevant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Ata

    2013-06-01

    Learning in the presence of a large number of irrelevant features is an important problem in high-dimensional tasks. Previous studies have shown that L1-norm regularization can be effective in such cases while L2-norm regularization is not. Furthermore, work in compressed sensing suggests that regularization by nonconvex (e.g., fractional) semi-norms may outperform L1-regularization. However, for classification it is largely unclear when this may or may not be the case. In addition, the nonconvex problem is harder to solve than the convex L1 problem. In this paper, we provide a more in-depth analysis to elucidate the potential advantages and pitfalls of nonconvex regularization in the context of logistic regression where the regularization term employs the family of Lq semi-norms. First, using results from the phenomenon of concentration of norms and distances in high dimensions, we gain intuition about the working of sparse estimation when the dimensionality is very high. Second, using the probably approximately correct (PAC)-Bayes methodology, we give a data-dependent bound on the generalization error of Lq-regularized logistic regression, which is applicable to any algorithm that implements this model, and may be used to predict its generalization behavior from the training set alone. Third, we demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by experiments and applications, where the PAC-Bayes bound is used to guide the choice of semi-norm in the regularization term. The results support the conclusion that the optimal choice of regularization depends on the relative fraction of relevant versus irrelevant features, and a fractional norm with a small exponent is most suitable when the fraction of relevant features is very small.

  9. Formal Difference Analysis and Unification on p-Norm Distribution Density Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhengcai; ZHU Jianjun; WANG Huaiyu

    2006-01-01

    The cause of the formal difference of p-norm distribution density functions is analyzed, two problems in the deduction of p-norm formulating are improved, and it is proved that two different forms of p-norm distribution density functions are equivalent. This work is useful for popularization and application of the p-norm theory to surveying and mapping.

  10. Effect of Manipulating Descriptive Norms and Positive Outcome Expectations on Physical Activity of University Students During Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Alyson J; Spink, Kevin S

    2017-06-01

    This experimental study examined the interaction between messages conveying different levels of descriptive norms and positive outcome expectations on university students' engagement in moderate and vigorous physical activity over an exam period. Using a pre-post design, university students entering a final examination period (N = 74) were randomly assigned to one of four message conditions, receiving a message motivating them to exercise over the exam period. Messages included both a descriptive norm (how many others reported being active during a previous exam period; high vs. low) and a positive outcome expectation (those who exercise during exams report better grades; high vs. low). The results from an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for baseline levels of daily physical activity, revealed a significant interaction. Post hoc analyses indicated that when the descriptive norm was high, those who received a high positive outcome expectation reported being more active during the exam period compared to those receiving the low positive outcome expectation. Results provide preliminary support for the idea that activity during an exam period can be positively influenced if individuals are presented with normative messages that (a) many others are being active during the exams and (b) many of those being active also are benefiting academically.

  11. OPERATOR NORM INEQUALITIES BETWEEN TENSOR UNFOLDINGS ON THE PARTITION LATTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaoyan; Duc, Khanh Dao; Fischer, Jonathan; Song, Yun S

    2017-05-01

    Interest in higher-order tensors has recently surged in data-intensive fields, with a wide range of applications including image processing, blind source separation, community detection, and feature extraction. A common paradigm in tensor-related algorithms advocates unfolding (or flattening) the tensor into a matrix and applying classical methods developed for matrices. Despite the popularity of such techniques, how the functional properties of a tensor changes upon unfolding is currently not well understood. In contrast to the body of existing work which has focused almost exclusively on matricizations, we here consider all possible unfoldings of an order-k tensor, which are in one-to-one correspondence with the set of partitions of {1, …, k}. We derive general inequalities between the l(p) -norms of arbitrary unfoldings defined on the partition lattice. In particular, we demonstrate how the spectral norm (p = 2) of a tensor is bounded by that of its unfoldings, and obtain an improved upper bound on the ratio of the Frobenius norm to the spectral norm of an arbitrary tensor. For specially-structured tensors satisfying a generalized definition of orthogonal decomposability, we prove that the spectral norm remains invariant under specific subsets of unfolding operations.

  12. K-Fuzzy赋范空间与WF-Fuzzy赋范空间%K-Fuzzy Normed Space and WF-Fuzzy Normed Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方锦暄; 郭翀琦

    2000-01-01

    The relations between the K-fuzzy norme d sp ace and the WF-fuzzy normed space are further considered.The Hausdorff K -fuzzy normed space and the WF-fuzzy normed space are essentially consis tent.%研究了K-fuzzy赋范空间与WF-fuzzy赋范空间之间的关系,证明了Hausdorff的K-fuzzy赋范空间与WF-fuzzy赋范空间本质上是一致的.

  13. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  14. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding.

  15. An embedding norm and the Lindqvist trigonometric functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Bennewitz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We shall calculate the operator norm $|T|_p$ of the Hardy operator $Tf = int_0^x f $, where $1le ple infty$. This operator is related to the Sobolev embedding operator from $W^{1,p}(0,1/mathbb{C}$ into $W^p(0,1/mathbb{C}$. For $1norm gives the operator norm $|T|_p$, is expressed in terms of the function $sin_p$ which is a generalization of the usual sine function and was introduced by Lindqvist [6]. Submitted September 12, 2002. Published October 9, 2002. Math Subject Classifications: 46E35, 33D05. Key Words: Sobolev embedding operator; Volterra operator.

  16. Difference equations in normed spaces stability and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Difference equations appear as natural descriptions of observed evolution phenomena because most measurements of time evolving variables are discrete. They also appear in the applications of discretization methods for differential, integral and integro-differential equations. The application of the theory of difference equations is rapidly increasing to various fields, such as numerical analysis, control theory, finite mathematics, and computer sciences. This book is devoted to linear and nonlinear difference equations in a normed space. The main methodology presented in this book is based on a combined use of recent norm estimates for operator-valued functions with the following methods and results: The freezing methodThe Liapunov type equationThe method of majorantsThe multiplicative representation of solutionsDeals systematically with difference equations in normed spaces Considers new classes of equations that could not be studied in the frameworks of ordinary and partial difference equationsDevelops ...

  17. Christelike norme en waardes in onderwys en opleiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter C. van Wyk

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the way Christian norms and values can be realised in the context of education and training. The article starts with a survey of the ways in which, in the previous political dispensation, Christian norms and values were incorporated in career training, in tertiary education and in the programmes of primary and secondary schools. Education and training, however, now have to operate in a new environment, which will be greatly determined by the Bill of Human Rights in the new constitution, the Reconstruction and Development Plan and the White Paper on Education and Training. After examining the implications of this new environment the article concludes by identifying opportunities for actively furthering Christian norms and values within the new environment of education and training in South Africa.

  18. Soft learning vector quantization and clustering algorithms based on non-Euclidean norms: single-norm algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayiannis, Nicolaos B; Randolph-Gips, Mary M

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the development of soft clustering and learning vector quantization (LVQ) algorithms that rely on a weighted norm to measure the distance between the feature vectors and their prototypes. The development of LVQ and clustering algorithms is based on the minimization of a reformulation function under the constraint that the generalized mean of the norm weights be constant. According to the proposed formulation, the norm weights can be computed from the data in an iterative fashion together with the prototypes. An error analysis provides some guidelines for selecting the parameter involved in the definition of the generalized mean in terms of the feature variances. The algorithms produced from this formulation are easy to implement and they are almost as fast as clustering algorithms relying on the Euclidean norm. An experimental evaluation on four data sets indicates that the proposed algorithms outperform consistently clustering algorithms relying on the Euclidean norm and they are strong competitors to non-Euclidean algorithms which are computationally more demanding.

  19. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 μSv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  20. The norm chronicles stories and numbers about danger

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelhalter, David

    2013-01-01

    Meet Norm. He's 31, 5'9"", just over 13 stone, and works a 39 hour week. He likes a drink, doesn't do enough exercise and occasionally treats himself to a bar of chocolate (milk). He's a pretty average kind of guy. In fact, he is the average guy in this clever and unusual take on statistical risk, chance, and how these two factors affect our everyday choices. Watch as Norm (who, like all average specimens, feels himself to be uniquely special), and his friends careful Prudence and reckless Kelvin, turns to statistics to help him in life's endless series of choices - should I fly or take the

  1. Image restoration by minimizing zero norm of wavelet frame coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chenglong; Dong, Bin; Hou, Likun; Shen, Zuowei; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Xue

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we propose two algorithms, namely the extrapolated proximal iterative hard thresholding (EPIHT) algorithm and the EPIHT algorithm with line-search, for solving the {{\\ell }}0-norm regularized wavelet frame balanced approach for image restoration. Under the theoretical framework of Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property, we show that the sequences generated by the two algorithms converge to a local minimizer with linear convergence rate. Moreover, extensive numerical experiments on sparse signal reconstruction and wavelet frame based image restoration problems including CT reconstruction, image deblur, demonstrate the improvement of {{\\ell }}0-norm based regularization models over some prevailing ones, as well as the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  2. The Fermat-Torricelli problem in normed planes and spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Horst; Weiss, Gunter

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the Fermat-Torricelli problem in d-dimensional real normed spaces or Minkowski spaces, mainly for d=2. Our approach is to study the Fermat-Torricelli locus in a geometric way. We present many new results, as well as give an exposition of known results that are scattered in various sources, with proofs for some of them. Together, these results can be considered to be a minitheory of the Fermat-Torricelli problem in Minkowski spaces and especially in Minkowski planes. This demonstrates that substantial results about locational problems valid for all norms can be found using a geometric approach.

  3. Following family or friends: Social norms in adolescent healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-01-01

    framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer......, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self...

  4. The L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J P; Dulá, J H

    2012-01-01

    We formalize an algorithm for solving the L(1)-norm best-fit hyperplane problem derived using first principles and geometric insights about L(1) projection and L(1) regression. The procedure follows from a new proof of global optimality and relies on the solution of a small number of linear programs. The procedure is implemented for validation and testing. This analysis of the L(1)-norm best-fit hyperplane problem makes the procedure accessible to applications in areas such as location theory, computer vision, and multivariate statistics.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TECHNICAL AND SOCIAL NORMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Lažnjak

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the relationship between system of technical and system of social norms in ecological project has been considered from constructivist standpoint in sociology of technology. For adequate solution of technological problem of enviromental pollution by hydrocarbons is necessary to define beside technical also system of social norms. Sociological analysis of accidents in transportation of hydrocarbons is suggested in purpose of clear definition of responsibilities of certain social actors and for modification of existing laws for enviromental protection (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Norm-Euclidean Galois fields and the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    McGown, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH), we show that the norm-Euclidean Galois cubic fields are exactly those with discriminant $\\Delta=7^2,9^2,13^2,19^2,61^2,67^2,103^2,109^2,127^2,157^2$. A large part of the proof is in establishing the following more general result: Let $K$ be a Galois number field of odd prime degree $\\ell$ and conductor $f$. Assume the GRH for $\\zeta_K(s)$. If $38(\\ell-1)^2(\\log f)^6\\log\\log fnorm-Euclidean.

  7. APPROXIMATE REPRESENTATION OF THE p_NORM DISTRIBUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In surveying data processing,we generally suppose that the observatio nal errors distribute normally.In this case the method of least squares can giv e the minimum variance unbiased estimation of the parameters.The method of leas t squares does not have the character of robustness,so the use of it will becom e unsuitable when a few measurements inheriting gross error mix with others.W e can use the robust estimating methods that can avoid the influence of gross er rors.With this kind of method there is no need to know the exact distr ibution of the o bservations.But it will cause other difficulties such as the hypothesis tes ting for estimated parameters when the sample size is not so big.For non_normal ly distributed measurements we can suppose they obey the p_norm distribution law.The p_norm distribution is a distributional class,which includes the mo st frequently used distributions such as the Laplace,Normal and Rectangular ones .This distribution is symmetric and has a kurtosis between 3 and -6/5 when p is larger than 1.Using p_norm distribution to describe the statistica l char acter of the errors,the only assumption is that the error distribution is a symm etric and unimodal curve. This method possesses the property of a kind of self_ad apting.But the density function of the p_norm distribution is so complex tha t it makes the theoretical analysis more difficult.And the troublesome calculati on also makes this method not suitable for practice.The research of this paper i ndicates that the p_norm distribution can be represented by the linear combi nation of Laplace distribution and normal distribution or by the linear combinat ion of normal distribution and rectangular distribution approximately.Which kind of representation will be taken is according to whether the parameter p is larger than 1 and less than 2 or p is larger than 2.The approximate d i stribution have the same first four order moments with the exact one.It mean s that approximate distribution

  8. MODERN SLAVERY IN INDONESIA: BETWEEN NORMS AND IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savira Dhanika Hardianti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People now in the 21st century are still sold like objects, forced to work for little or no pay and at the complete mercy of their 'employers'. The Global Slavery Index (GSI 2013 shows that there are estimated 29.8 million people are living in a modern slavery. In Indonesia there are 210,970 people living in slavery. Although Indonesia has some laws regulating about modern slavery that is included in Anti-Trafficking Law. This paper tries to figure the norms and the implementations in modern slavery practice. How the norms are implemented by the government and what are the obstacles to enforce the law.

  9. THE USE OF UPPERCASE AND LOWERCASE LETTERS: ACADEMIC NORM, CORPORATE NORM, USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Valeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses one of the relevant problems of modern Russian orthography, namely the use of uppercase and lowercase letters. It analyses main criteria, on which the rules of the selection of an uppercase or lowercase letter listed in modern spelling reference books and practical manuals (syntactic, morphological, word-formational, semantic, stylis tic are based. It is evident that, in spite of the availability of specialized dictionaries and reference literature, the requirement for information on this subject is apparently not entirely satisfied. The proof, besides a large number of mistakes, as well as questions from native speakers, is the appearance of local instructions, aimed at the full description of all the instances of an uppercase letter use in texts of certain genres and themes. These instructions suggest the co-existence of the academic standard and local or corporate norms of modern Russian spelling, with the second ones not only supplementing the first one, but sometimes coming into conflict with it. The analysis of the linguistic material reveals rivalry between the academic standard and corporate standards of an uppercase or a lowercase letter use.

  10. Mind over matter: internalization of the thinness norm as a moderator of responsiveness to norm misperception education in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutterperl, Jenny A; Sanderson, Catherine A

    2002-09-01

    The authors examine the effectiveness of norm misperception education in decreasing disordered eating. One hundred seven 1st-year college women completed questionnaires assessing their own and others' actual and ideal body size as well as their own disordered eating and were then randomly assigned to read either a norm misperception or a control brochure. Participants completed questionnaires immediately after reading the brochures and again 3 months later. Although there were no main effects of brochure condition at the follow-up, participants who primarily compared themselves with other college women and who read the norm misperception brochure had higher actual and ideal weight as well as less frequent disordered eating. The discussion focuses on the theoretical and applied implications of these findings.

  11. Using Peer Injunctive Norms to Predict Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Adam C; Aloise-Young, Patricia A

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated the importance of the perceived injunctive norm to predict early adolescent cigarette smoking intentions. A total of 271 6(th) graders completed a survey that included perceived prevalence of friend smoking (descriptive norm), perceptions of friends' disapproval of smoking (injunctive norm), and future smoking intentions. Participants also listed their five best friends, in which the actual injunctive norm was calculated. Results showed that smoking intentions were significantly correlated with the perceived injunctive norm but not with the actual injunctive norm. Secondly, the perceived injunctive norm predicted an additional 3.4% of variance in smoking intentions above and beyond the perceived descriptive norm. These results demonstrate the importance of the perceived injunctive norm in predicting early adolescent smoking intentions.

  12. Stable 1-Norm Error Minimization Based Linear Predictors for Speech Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacobello, Daniele; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm;

    2014-01-01

    In linear prediction of speech, the 1-norm error minimization criterion has been shown to provide a valid alternative to the 2-norm minimization criterion. However, unlike 2-norm minimization, 1-norm minimization does not guarantee the stability of the corresponding all-pole filter and can generate...... of the shift operator associated with the particular prediction problem considered. The second method uses the alternative Cauchy bound to impose a convex constraint on the predictor in the 1-norm error minimization. These methods are compared with two existing methods: the Burg method, based on the 1-norm...... minimization of the forward and backward prediction error, and the iteratively reweighted 2-norm minimization known to converge to the 1-norm minimization with an appropriate selection of weights. The evaluation gives proof of the effectiveness of the new methods, performing as well as unconstrained 1-norm...

  13. Ways of giving benefits in marriage: norm use, relationship satisfaction, and attachment-related variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Margaret S; Lemay, Edward P; Graham, Steven M; Pataki, Sherri P; Finkel, Eli J

    2010-07-01

    Couples reported on bases for giving support and on relationship satisfaction just prior to and approximately 2 years into marriage. Overall, a need-based, noncontingent (communal) norm was seen as ideal and was followed, and greater use of this norm was linked to higher relationship satisfaction. An exchange norm was seen as not ideal and was followed significantly less frequently than was a communal norm; by 2 years into marriage, greater use of an exchange norm was linked with lower satisfaction. Insecure attachment predicted greater adherence to an exchange norm. Idealization of and adherence to a communal norm dropped slightly across time. As idealization of a communal norm and own use and partner use of a communal norm decreased, people high in avoidance increased their use of an exchange norm, whereas people low in avoidance decreased their use of an exchange norm. Anxious individuals evidenced tighter links between norm use and marital satisfaction relative to nonanxious individuals. Overall, a picture of people valuing a communal norm and striving toward adherence to a communal norm emerged, with secure individuals doing so with more success and equanimity across time than insecure individuals.

  14. The role of social drinking motives in the relationship between social norms and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Andrew; Hasking, Penelope; Allen, Felicity

    2012-12-01

    Social norms are key predictors of college student drinking. Additionally, the social reasons for consumption (i.e. social drinking motives) are important to understanding drinking behaviour. This study investigated the effects of social norms and social motives on alcohol consumption. A total of 229 college students completed an online questionnaire assessing their drinking behaviour, social drinking motives and their perceived drinking social norms. Drinking social norms were assessed as descriptive norms (i.e. the individual's perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption), and injunctive norms (i.e. the individual's perceived approval of drinking by their peers). Additionally, injunctive norms were further separated into distal (socially distant peers) and proximal (socially close peers). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed descriptive norms, proximal injunctive norms and social motives all independently predicted alcohol consumption. Additionally, the relationship between proximal injunctive norms and consumption, and descriptive norms and consumption was mediated by social motives. Lastly, there was a significant three-way interaction between descriptive norms, distal injunctive norms and social motives on drinking. Consideration of both the individual factors and the complex interplay between social norms and social motives on alcohol consumption is necessary to further understand drinking behaviour, and to develop more effective alcohol harm-reduction strategies.

  15. CLEX: a cross-linguistic lexical norms database*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Rune Nørgaard; Dale, Philip S; Bleses, Dorthe; Fenson, Larry

    2010-03-01

    Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words in production and comprehension and also early gestures and symbolic actions. These lexical norms have a wide range of uses in basic research, assessment and intervention. In addition, cross-linguistic comparisons of lexical development are greatly facilitated by the availability of norms from diverse languages. This report describes the development of CLEX, a new web-based cross-linguistic database for lexical data from adaptations of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. CLEX provides tools for a range of analyses within and across languages. It is designed to incorporate additional language datasets easily, and to permit users to define mappings between lexical items in pairs of languages for more specific cross-linguistic comparisons.

  16. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Z.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Meyer, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis

  17. A conjecture on the norm of Lyapunov mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daizhan CHENG; Yahong ZHU; Hongsheng QI

    2009-01-01

    A conjecture that the norm of Lyapunov mapping LA equals to its restriction to the symmetric set,S,i.e.,‖LA‖ = ‖LA |s‖ was proposed in [1].In this paper,a method for numerical testing is provided first.Then,some recent progress on this conjecture is presented.

  18. Evaluating Theory-Based Evaluation: Information, Norms, and Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, W. Jake; Sisco, Melissa; Hill, Dawn; Malter, Frederic; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose

    2012-01-01

    Programmatic social interventions attempt to produce appropriate social-norm-guided behavior in an open environment. A marriage of applicable psychological theory, appropriate program evaluation theory, and outcome of evaluations of specific social interventions assures the acquisition of cumulative theory and the production of successful social…

  19. Optimal Hankel Norm Model Reduction by Truncation of Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, B.; Weiland, S.

    2000-01-01

    We show how optimal Hankel-norm approximations of dynamical systems allow for a straightforward interpretation in terms of system trajectories. It is shown that for discrete time single-input systems optimal reductions are obtained by cutting 'balanced trajectories', i.e., by disconnecting the past

  20. Locally uniformly convex norms in Banach spaces and their duals

    OpenAIRE

    Haydon, Richard

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that a Banach space with locally uniformly convex dual admits an equivalent norm which is itself locally uniformly convex. It follows that on any such space all continuous real-valued functions may be uniformly approximated by C^1 functions.

  1. Norm Formation, Social Conformity, and the Confederating Function of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Observed the ways in which norm formation and social conformity are engaged in the joke setting. Despite the "cautious" operational definition of the convergence concept, the basic finding of convergence nevertheless seems fairly absolute and pertinent to the individual's day-to-day social relations. (Author/BL)

  2. Soft tissue cephalometric norms in Iranian normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aghili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue analysis has been proposed by many authors as a reliable guide in treatment planning. Thus establishing population norms is an important issue in orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the mean values of some of the soft tissue facial traits in Iranian subjecsts as determined by Bergman. Lateral cephalograms of 120 Iranian subjects (60 males and 60 females in five age groups (n= 24 with well balanced face and normal occlusion were used.statistical analyses were done by means of unpaired student’s t-test and one way AOVA. The associations of variables with age and also with each other were assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The norms valuesfor Iranian subjects differ from those of Bergman in upper and lower lip thicknesses, facial profile angle and upper lip length (in males.sexual dimorphism was determined in lower facial height, upper lip length, upper lip thickness and lower lip thickness. All of the variables were significantly correlated with age except for facial profile angle. Iranian norms differ from those of other population which are usually used. Therefore, when planning a treatment for this population their own norms should be employed

  3. Structures of generalized 3-circular projections for symmetric norms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A B Abubaker; S Dutta

    2016-05-01

    Recently several authors investigated structures of generalized bi-circular projections in spaces where the descriptions of the group of surjective isometries are known. Following the same idea in this paper we give complete descriptions of generalized 3-circular projections for symmetric norms on ${\\mathbb C}^n$ and ${\\mathbb M}_{m \\times n}({\\mathbb C})$.

  4. Estimating Eigenvalue Moments via Schatten Norm Bounds on Semigroup Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, M. [Technical University of Clausthal, Institute of Mathematics (Germany)], E-mail: Hansmann@math.tu-clausthal.de

    2007-08-15

    We derive new bounds on the moments of the negative eigenvalues of a selfadjoint operator B. The moments of order {gamma}{<=}1 are estimated in terms of Schatten-norm bounds on the difference of the semigroups generated by B and a reference operator A which is assumed to be nonnegative and selfadjoint. The estimate in the case {gamma} = 1 is sharp.

  5. Integral spinor norms in dyadic local fields Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we give an alternative computation of integral spinor norms over dyadic local fields by using the Jordan decomposition of W-type.In particular,we emphasize the striking similarity between the theory over dyadic local fields and that over the local fields of characteristic 2.

  6. Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreier, S.S.; Heinrichs, N.; Alden, L.; Rapee, R.M.; Hofmann, S.G.; Chen, J.; Oh, K.Y.; Bogels, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs et al. [2006: Behav Res Ther 44:1187-1197] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collect

  7. Setting a social norm regarding food intake in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    People use other's food intake as a social norm indicating how much they are ‘allowed’ to eat. Ample experimental research showed the impact of peer modeling on food intake in adolescents and adults, whereas few studies focused on young children. This study used an innovative design in a

  8. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

  9. Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

  10. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

  11. Setting a social norm regarding food intake in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    People use other's food intake as a social norm indicating how much they are ‘allowed’ to eat. Ample experimental research showed the impact of peer modeling on food intake in adolescents and adults, whereas few studies focused on young children. This study used an innovative design in a naturalisti

  12. Challenging the Strength of the Anti-Mercenary Norm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan; Kinsey, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    capable of accounting for the same observations. From a theoretical perspective, more consideration needs to be given to international restrictions placed upon mercenaries that are the tangential expressions of more basic and pervasive international norms, namely those of state neutrality, the right...

  13. Cultural Norming in Schools in "Healthy" and "Unhealthy" Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jon C.; Pritchard, Ruie J.; Gunderson, Betsey H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines processes that personnel go through to assimilate the cultural norms of their schools. These processes are compared according to the teaching and learning environments of healthy, high achieving school districts and unhealthy, low achieving school districts. Specifically, this paper examines the "basket of crabs" effect, a…

  14. Adolescent substance use, aggressive behaviors, and peer context behavioral norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, R.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There

  15. Adolescent Substance Use, Aggressive Behaviors, and Peer Context Behavioral Norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, R.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There

  16. Ethical and Professional Norms in Community-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Welch, Bethany J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article Gerald Campano, María Paula Ghiso, and Bethany J. Welch explore the role of ethical and professional norms in community-based research, especially in fostering trust within contexts of cultural diversity, systemic inequity, and power asymmetry. The authors present and describe a set of guidelines for community-based research that…

  17. The Effect of Group Norms on Bystander Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Irwin A.

    1971-01-01

    Forty members of service and social groups were compared for intervention in a simulated emergency situation during the experimental discussion. Service group members were more likely to intervene than social group members, and intervention was made more probable when group norms were made salient in the discussion. (Author/SD)

  18. Children's Judgments of Inequitable Distributions That Conform to Gender Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether distributions by sex are judged to be unfair, children at ages 6, 8, and 10, and adults (N = 96), judged an authority distributing items to children by using different methods (i.e., randomly or by sex), types of items (i.e., related or unrelated to gender norms), and differences in the equivalency of the items (i.e.,…

  19. Cultural Norms Affect Oral Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ellen

    1997-01-01

    Students from different cultures follow differing norms for communication, affecting the classroom and students' grades. Such patterns are found in class discussions, question-and-answer sessions, small-group interactions (issues include cooperation, structure, competition, and gender), and formal class presentations. While no single teaching…

  20. Wagging the watchdog: law and the emergence of bioethical norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2002-01-01

    Bioethics offers an ideal vantage point to study how law and ethics affect the emergence of norms. Moral philosophy traditionally places itself in the role of prime mover, the normative force behind social, cultural and legislative change. But some bioethical norms, particularly those associated with emerging right-to-die norms in the mid 1960's and through the late 1980's, did not originate in this way. Instead, legal reasoning and judicial decision-making brought about rapid change in bioethical norms almost excluding moral philosophy in the process. Judicial decision-making has prompted legislation, molded public opinion, guided medical practice and shaped moral thinking. The reasons for this are not difficult to understand. Legal reasoning, usually in the form of risk management, replaces moral reasoning because it is cognitively more comfortable, rational and parsimonious. This process creates undue pressure on the judiciary to undertake tasks for which it may not be well trained, while at the same time offers a challenge to ethicists to advocate interdisciplinary, deliberative and public forums to attenuate the undue influence of the law.

  1. Interpretation of quantum mechanics with indefinite norm arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Strumia, Alessandro

    The Born postulate can be reduced to its deterministic content that only applies to eigenvectors of observables: the standard probabilistic interpretation of generic states then follows from algebraic properties of repeated measurements and states. Extending this reasoning suggests an interpretation of quantum mechanics generalized with indefinite quantum norm.

  2. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  3. Descriptive and injunctive norms of waterpipe smoking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L S; Brett, Emma I; Morgan, Taylor L; Lopez, Susanna V; Shaikh, Raees A; Leffingwell, Thad R; Wagener, Theodore L

    2017-09-18

    Smoking tobacco via a waterpipe (WP) is on the rise, particularly among college students. One reason for this may be normative perceptions of WP tobacco smoking (WTS) among this population. The current study examined the perceived and actual descriptive and injunctive norms of WTS among a college student sample. Participants were 894 college students enrolled at a large, Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of WTS frequency and quantity and perceived/actual descriptive and injunctive norms of WTS. Over one-third of the sample reported ever trying WTS, while only 2% reported current (past month) use. When comparing ever and never WP smokers, ever smokers reported greater perceived peer approval of WTS. Both males and females overestimated WTS frequency of same-sex students at their university. The current study is one of the first to investigate descriptive and injunctive norms of WTS among college students. Students who report WTS are more likely to overestimate descriptive norms of WTS among their peers, suggesting corrective normative feedback regarding actual use by peers may be an important target for WTS intervention among college students. Future research should investigate the temporal association between normative perceptions and WTS behaviors among college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Values and Norms of Proof for Mathematicians and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Paul Christian; Weber, Keith

    2017-01-01

    In this theoretical paper, we present a framework for conceptualizing proof in terms of mathematical values, as well as the norms that uphold those values. In particular, proofs adhere to the values of establishing a priori truth, employing decontextualized reasoning, increasing mathematical understanding, and maintaining consistent standards for…

  5. Carbon footprint mitigation on vacation : A norm activation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Espinosa, T.K.

    2015-01-01

    The norm activation theory and past research suggest that ecologically appropriate behaviors increase when individuals (a) ascribe personal responsibility (AR) to protect the environment and (b) are aware of the consequences (AC) of their actions. We examined the influence of AR and AC on ecological

  6. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  7. Public interest norms in European investment policy : A shattered hope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Through the Lisbon Treaty, the EU acquired exclusive competence over foreign direct investment (FDI). Hence, the EU began to form the EU Investment Policy, which, among other issues, attempts to regulate on Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). This article addresses the role of public interest norm

  8. Anisotropic norm-oriented mesh adaptation for a Poisson problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brèthes, Gautier; Dervieux, Alain

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel formulation for the mesh adaptation of the approximation of a Partial Differential Equation (PDE). The discussion is restricted to a Poisson problem. The proposed norm-oriented formulation extends the goal-oriented formulation since it is equation-based and uses an adjoint. At the same time, the norm-oriented formulation somewhat supersedes the goal-oriented one since it is basically a solution-convergent method. Indeed, goal-oriented methods rely on the reduction of the error in evaluating a chosen scalar output with the consequence that, as mesh size is increased (more degrees of freedom), only this output is proven to tend to its continuous analog while the solution field itself may not converge. A remarkable quality of goal-oriented metric-based adaptation is the mathematical formulation of the mesh adaptation problem under the form of the optimization, in the well-identified set of metrics, of a well-defined functional. In the new proposed formulation, we amplify this advantage. We search, in the same well-identified set of metrics, the minimum of a norm of the approximation error. The norm is prescribed by the user and the method allows addressing the case of multi-objective adaptation like, for example in aerodynamics, adaptating the mesh for drag, lift and moment in one shot. In this work, we consider the basic linear finite-element approximation and restrict our study to L2 norm in order to enjoy second-order convergence. Numerical examples for the Poisson problem are computed.

  9. Norm theory and the action-effect: The role of social norms in regret following action and inaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman, Gilad; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    The action-effect (Kahneman & Tversky, 1982) is one of the most widely cited and replicated effects in the regret literature, showing that negative outcomes are regretted more when they are a result of action compared to inaction. Building on theoretical arguments by norm theory (Kahneman & Miller,

  10. Pupil Norms or Norms for School Averages: Vintage Means of Test Interpretation or a Can of Worms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahozal, Edward C.

    The purposes of this study were to compare student, school, and group average distributions of two standardized tests, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and Stanford 7 Plus Achievement Test, and examine the American College Testing Programs college entrance examinations (Grades 11-12). In addition to the student-school norm comparisons, ratios…

  11. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  12. How norms work: self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy mediate the relation between descriptive social norms and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stok, F Marijn; Verkooijen, Kirsten T; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Wit, John B F; de Vet, Emely

    2014-07-01

    The current studies aim to show that descriptive social norms influence vegetable intake and to investigate three potentially underlying processes (self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy). In two studies, descriptive social norms regarding vegetable intake were manipulated (majority vs. minority norm). Study 1 investigated both the relation between baseline vegetable intake and self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy, as well as the effect of the norm manipulation on vegetable intake over a one-week period. Study 2 investigated potential mediation of the effect of the manipulation on vegetable intake intentions through self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy. Study 1 showed that the proposed mediators were related to a baseline measure of vegetable intake. Moreover, in participants identifying strongly with the norm referent group, majority norms led to higher vegetable consumption than minority norms. Study 2 showed that the direct effect of the social norm manipulation on vegetable intake intentions was partly mediated by self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy. These studies shed first light on processes underlying the effect of descriptive social norms on health behavior. A norm describing the behavior of a salient social group leads people to identify more with, have more positive attitudes toward, and feel more self-efficacious regarding that behavior. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. The Moderating Role of Close versus Distal Peer Injunctive Norms and Interdependent Self-Construal in the Effects of Descriptive Norms on College Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    2017-04-19

    Based on the theory of normative social behavior (Rimal & Real, 2005), this study examined the effects of descriptive norms, close versus distal peer injunctive norms, and interdependent self-construal on college students' intentions to consume alcohol. Results of a cross-sectional study conducted among U.S. college students (N = 581) found that descriptive norms, close, and distal peer injunctive norms had independent effects on college students' intentions to consume alcohol. Furthermore, close peer injunctive norms moderated the effects of descriptive norms on college students' intentions to consume alcohol and the interaction showed different patterns among students with a strong and weak interdependent self-construal. High levels of close peer injunctive norms weakened the relationship between descriptive norms and intentions to consume alcohol among students with a strong interdependent self-construal but strengthened the relationship between descriptive norms and intentions to consume alcohol among students with a weak interdependent self-construal. Implications of the findings for norms-based research and college drinking interventions are discussed.

  14. Designing Gender in Social Media: Unpacking Interaction Design as a Carrier of Social Norms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundmark, Sofia; Normark, Maria

    2014-01-01

    .... Of interest in the area of interaction design is people’s use of designed things, which also makes it relevant to relate interaction design to the social norms present in society, such as gendered norms...

  15. A Subspace Embedding Method in L2 Norm via Fast Cauchy Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a subspace embedding method via Fast Cauchy Transform (FCT in L2 norm. It is motivated by and complements the work of the subspace embedding method in Lp norm, for all p∈[1,∞] except p = 2, by K. L. Clarkson (ACM-SIAM, 2013. Unlike the traditionally used orthogonal basis in Johnson-Lindenstrauss (JL embedding, we employ the well-conditioned basis in L2 norm to obtain concentration property of FCT in L2 norm.

  16. Caste and Punishment : The Legacy of Caste Culture in Norm Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla Ruth; Kshetramade, Mayuresh; Fehr, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    Well-functioning groups enforce social norms that restrain opportunism, but the social structure of a society may encourage or inhibit norm enforcement. This paper studies how the exogenous assignment to different positions in an extreme social hierarchy - the caste system - affects individuals' willingness to punish violations of a cooperation norm. Although the analysis controls for indi...

  17. Browder's Fixed Point Theorem and Some Interesting Results in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We define and study Browder's fixed point theorem and relation between an intuitionistic fuzzy convex normed space and a strong intuitionistic fuzzy uniformly convex normed space. Also, we give an example to show that uniformly convex normed space does not imply strongly intuitionistic fuzzy uniformly convex.

  18. Young Children Enforce Social Norms Selectively Depending on the Violator's Group Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To become cooperative members of their cultural groups, developing children must follow their group's social norms. But young children are not just blind norm followers, they are also active norm enforcers, for example, protesting and correcting when someone plays a conventional game the "wrong" way. In two studies, we asked whether young children…

  19. European and American WAIS III Norms: Cross-National Differences in Performance Subtest Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2010-01-01

    For this study, European WAIS III performance subtest norms were compared to the original US norms. When European WAIS III raw scores were scored using US norms, the resulting perceptual organization index (POI) means were significantly higher than the processing speed index (PSI) means. The POI/PSI difference is roughly 5-10 points for the German…

  20. Regulatory fit effects for injunctive versus descriptive social norms: Evidence from the promotion of sustainable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.; Herpen, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers face marketing messages using social norms in many situations where different goals are dominant. This research examines moderating effects of regulatory focus for descriptive and injunctive norms in the promotion of sustainable products. More specifically, it shows that descriptive norms

  1. Deviancy from the Norms of Science: The Effects of Anomie and Alienation in the Academic Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A study applying anomie theory to behavior of college faculty, especially as alienation from the academic reward system results in deviation from professional norms of communality, disinterestedness, universalism, and organized skepticism, is reported. Implications for use of norms as interpretive devices, ambivalence of academics toward norms,…

  2. Effects of front-of-pack social norm messages on food choice and liking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Carvalho, Álvaro H.P.; Herpen, Van Erica

    2017-01-01

    Social norms refer to what most people do or approve of. Perceived social norms can influence food choice and intake behaviour. However, whether social norms can increase liking and taste perception of food products has not been studied so far. Across two studies, we investigated the impact of

  3. Do Descriptive Norms Solve Social Dilemmas? Conformity and Contributions in Collective Action Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Kyle; Simpson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Collective action researchers have focused on injunctive norms that specify approved behavior as a panacea for collective action problems. We investigate whether descriptive norms (similar behavior) can also solve these problems. We argue that descriptive norms generate social identification, which then sustains conformity to expectations.…

  4. Sharp Threshold Detection Based on Sup-norm Error rates in High-dimensional Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent; Caner, Mehmet; Kock, Anders Bredahl

    focused almost exclusively on estimation errors in stronger norms. We show that this sup-norm bound can be used to distinguish between zero and non-zero coefficients at a much finer scale than would have been possible using classical oracle inequalities. Thus, our sup-norm bound is tailored to consistent...

  5. Non-Traditional Socio-Mathematical Norms in Undergraduate Real Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Paul Christian

    2009-01-01

    This study builds upon the framework of classroom norms (Cobb, Wood, & Yackel, 1993) and socio-mathematical norms (Cobb & Yackel, 1996) to understand how non-traditional socio-mathematical norms influence student reasoning and transitions to advanced mathematical thinking in undergraduate real analysis. The research involves a qualitative…

  6. Deviancy from the Norms of Science: The Effects of Anomie and Alienation in the Academic Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A study applying anomie theory to behavior of college faculty, especially as alienation from the academic reward system results in deviation from professional norms of communality, disinterestedness, universalism, and organized skepticism, is reported. Implications for use of norms as interpretive devices, ambivalence of academics toward norms,…

  7. Driving Force to Socialize the International Norms of Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2011-01-01

    Human rights,as a great term and lofty goal,have unquestionably become a topic of mainstream talk in the present-day world.2 Such mainstream talk has been internalized into part of the social structure.The current international society is experiencing a profound reorganization and transition in values.All kinds of new interactions under the context of globalization have resulted in the development of the current norms of international human rights,which are constructed on the basis of law and ethics.Therefore,analyzing the dynamic factors of socialization that support the operation of human rights norms in international society has become increasingly important in today's mutually dependent society.

  8. Study on Support Vector Machine Based on 1-Norm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Mei-qin; HE Guo-ping; HAN Cong-ying; XUE Xin; SHI You-qun

    2006-01-01

    The model of optimization problem for Support Vector Machine(SVM) is provided, which based on the definitions of the dual norm and the distance between a point and its projection onto a given plane. The model of improved Support Vector Machine based on 1-norm (1 - SVM) is provided from the optimization problem, yet it is a discrete programming. With the smoothing technique and optimality knowledge, the discrete programming is changed into a continuous programming. Experimental results show that the algorithm is easy to implement and this method can select and suppress the problem features more efficiently.Illustrative examples show that the 1 - SVM deal with the linear or nonlinear classification well.

  9. The power of norms in the transposition of EU directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrova

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Transposition research provides an excellent opportunity to bring new data to bear on two of the most dominant theoretical approaches to European Union studies: rational choice institutionalism and sociological institutionalism. Yet the goal of comparable testing is hampered by the underspecified nature of the sociological perspective. This paper takes some steps towards identifying and operationalising a sociological explanation of the transposition of EU directives. Examining an array of alternatives, we single out an approach that focuses on the transmission of norms as a way to explain transposition delay and content changes, and on persuasion to help explain norm change over time. To probe the validity of our explanation, we apply it to a case study of the transposition of two anti-discrimination directives from 2000 in Slovakia. In short, our paper aims to move forward the search for a testable sociological framework in EU studies, while offering an operational approach to studying the process of transposing EU directives.

  10. The development of protocols and norms for sports vision evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. C. Buys

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find the most appropriate protocol to establish norms for the most important visual skills required by elite athletes in sports performance. One hundred and fifty eight elite athletes were tested and their visual skills categorized as being: superior, above average, average, ineffective or needs immediate attention. Two methods namely, the percentage method and the mean and standard deviation method were employed to find the most applicable way to establish these categories.  The results indicate that elite athletes perform very well for all the visual skills tested and that the norms thus established suggest the importance of these visual skills in sports performance.

  11. Thematic relatedness production norms for 100 object concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouravlev, Olessia; McRae, Ken

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of thematic relations is an area of increased interest in semantic memory research because it is crucial to many cognitive processes. One methodological issue that researchers face is how to identify pairs of thematically related concepts that are well-established in semantic memory for most people. In this article, we review existing methods of assessing thematic relatedness and provide thematic relatedness production norming data for 100 object concepts. In addition, 1,174 related concept pairs obtained from the production norms were classified as reflecting one of the five subtypes of relations: attributive, argument, coordinate, locative, and temporal. The database and methodology will be useful for researchers interested in the effects of thematic knowledge on language processing, analogical reasoning, similarity judgments, and memory. These data will also benefit researchers interested in investigating potential processing differences among the five types of semantic relations.

  12. The ethical consumer: Moral norms and packaging choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates whether the claim that environmental attitudes are based on moral reasoning is valid with regard to consumer buying attitudes, as it has been shown to be in other domains of consumer behaviour. It is proposed that two conditions make moral reasoning in the buying situation...... more likely: environmental concern and the absence of other highly involving characteristics. The paper presents a study of a case with these two characteristics: Danish consumers' choice of environment-friendly packaging. With regard to this case, the evidence supports the claim. A majority of Danish...... consumers have developed personal norms about choosing environment-friendly packaging and the personal norm is a significant predictor of their (self-reported) propensity to choose environment-friendly packaging in the supermarket (whereas perceived costs have no apparent influence on the choice...

  13. [Laboratory animals and official Mexican norms (NOM-062-ZOO-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aluja, Aline S

    2002-01-01

    This article concerns animal experimentation and official Mexican norm Nom 0062-Zoo-1999 entitled Technical specifications for the production, care and use of laboratory animals. The history of animal experimentation is briefly resumed. During the nineteenth century, doubts arose as to the right to expose animals to experimental procedures that frequently cause pain and suffering. The first law which protected animals against cruelty was passed in Great Britain in 1876; subsequently, other nations approved similar legislation. During the second part of the twentieth century, opposition to animal experimentation grew. Other groups, mainly scientists and pharmaceutical concerns, defended the right to use animals in research. New knowledge concerning the neurophysiology, cognitive capacity, and the animal faculty to experience pain is briefly mentioned. Guidelines on care and use of animals used in research published in several countries are listed. Finally, the recently published Mexican legislation (Norm) referring to production, care and use of laboratory animals is discussed and its benefits are stressed.

  14. Following family or friends: Social norms in adolescent healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical......, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self......-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family...

  15. Rationality of trace and norm L-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas-León, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    For a given l-adic sheaf F on the affine line A^1 over a finite field k (respectively on the torus G_m) and an positive integer r we define the r-th local trace L-function of F at a point t of k (resp. its local norm L-function at a non-zero t in k) and prove its rationality. This function gives information on the sum of the local Frobenius traces of F over the points of k_r (the extension of degree r of k) with trace t (resp. with norm t). These sums can in turn be used to estimate the number of rational points on curves or the absolute value of exponential sums which are invariant under a large group of translations or homotheties.

  16. Professional Norms and Categorization Practices among Danish Social Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    compare correspondences between professional norms and categorization practice to the regulative setting (sickness benefits or social welfare) to see whether this matters to the found relationships. The analysis shows a relationship between administrative reasoning and stereotyped categorization of social......What drives professionals working within a strong public regulative setting? This question has been given a lot of attention from different disciplinary perspectives among them public administration and political science. Here different aspects of what can be coined as “policy fidelity” has paved...... the way for an understanding of professionals as street-level bureaucrats whose working conditions first and foremost are characterized as cross pressured between policy goals, personal preferences, citizen pressure and professional norms (Lipsky 2010; Hupe & Hill; Winter 2008). However, more sociological...

  17. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated.

  18. “Missionary zeal of recent converts”: norms and norm entrepreneurs in the foreign policy of the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia 1989-2011

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The following dissertation discusses the role of norms and norm entrepreneurs in the foreign policy-making of the Czech Republic, Poland and Bratislava after the downfall of communism. In at attempt to unpack the mechanics and appliance of “soft power” in foreign policy practice in post-communist Central and Eastern Europe, it identifies conditions and analyzes processes via which norms come to play the role of intermediary variable in the articulation and enactment of national interest. Capi...

  19. A norm inequality for pairs of commuting positive semidefinite matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.

    2014-01-01

    For $k=1,\\ldots,K$, let $A_k$ and $B_k$ be positive semidefinite matrices such that, for each $k$, $A_k$ commutes with $B_k$. We show that, for any unitarily invariant norm, \\[ |||\\sum_{k=1}^K A_kB_k||| \\le ||| (\\sum_{k=1}^K A_k)\\;(\\sum_{k=1}^K B_k)|||. \\

  20. Équivalence et normes en traduction juridique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vaupot

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La traduction juridique est un processus complexe au cours duquel le traducteur doit prendre une série de décisions. En effet, il doit traduire les mots et le texte tout en laissant les normes inchangées. Sʼil sʼagit de traduire des normes juridiques, la traduction consiste à faire en sorte que le texte produise dans la langue cible les mêmes effets que dans la langue source. Ainsi, dans le présent article, nous tenterons de préciser en quoi la notion de norme intéresse la traduction juridique. Par ailleurs, la notion de norme implique inévitablement une théorie de lʼéquivalence. En effet, ce type de traduction exige des connaissances particulières dans le domaine juridique dans la langue source comme dans la langue cible. Aussi, partant dʼun corpus, nous nous demanderons si le traducteur linguiste observe les mêmes règles dʼéquivalence que le traducteur juriste. Rendent-ils à lʼidentique lʼidentité de sens quelles que soient les divergences de structures (grammaticales, stylistiques ou lexicales qui sʼétablissent entre les textes sources et cibles ? Partant du modèle de Toury concernant lʼactivité traduisante, nous lʼappliquerons aux traductions des textes juridiques, mettant ainsi en évidence les similitudes ou divergences entre traducteurs linguistes et traducteurs juristes.

  1. Acceptance and expectance: Cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Grønkjær

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption levels in Denmark are high with the risk of increased morbidity and mortality in the population. It is suggested that people's views of “normal” use of alcohol must be the platform for formulating effective alcohol education and prevention strategies. However, little is known about the cultural norms for alcohol use. The aim of this article is to examine the perceptions of cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark among different age groups and the similarities and differences between the groups, including examining how people construct and negotiate the cultural norms for drinking. Five focus group interviews were conducted with one group per the following age groups: 16–20; 21–34; 35–44; 45–64; and 65–82. These groups consisted of both men and women with five to six participants in each group (a total of 27. Thematic analysis was performed with the aim of developing themes that reflected the cultural norms for alcohol use. The unifying theme of this research was Danish people's acceptance and expectance of social drinking. Alcohol is widely accepted and associated with mutual expectations to drink, leading to identification of cultural influences and facilitation to drink. The social drinking context plays an important role in people's perceptions of the normality of drinking. This includes the selection of particular beverages, and regularly leads to consumption above the recommended levels for low risk to health. This calls for public health attention that promotes low risk drinking in the social context and aims to prevent and reduce serious alcohol-related harm and health problems across the population.

  2. Invariant and semi-invariant probabilistic normed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaemi, M.B. [School of Mathematics Iran, University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mghaemi@iust.ac.ir; Lafuerza-Guillen, B. [Departamento de Estadistica y Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, Almeria E-04120 (Spain)], E-mail: blafuerz@ual.es; Saiedinezhad, S. [School of Mathematics Iran, University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ssaiedinezhad@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    Probabilistic metric spaces were introduced by Karl Menger. Alsina, Schweizer and Sklar gave a general definition of probabilistic normed space based on the definition of Menger . We introduce the concept of semi-invariance among the PN spaces. In this paper we will find a sufficient condition for some PN spaces to be semi-invariant. We will show that PN spaces are normal spaces. Urysohn's lemma, and Tietze extension theorem for them are proved.

  3. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van 't Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason

    Are people strategically ignorant of the negative externalities their activities cause the environment? Herein we examine if people avoid costless information on those externalities and use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior. We develop a theoretical framework in which pe...... norm, namely the share of air travelers who buy carbon offsets. We find evidence that some people use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior—ignorance significantly decreases the probability of buying carbon offsets....

  4. Second language learners’ divergence from target language pragmatic norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Gomez-Laich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatic competence is an indispensable aspect of language ability in order for second and foreign language (L2/FL learners to understand and be understood in their interactions with both native and nonnative speakers of the target language. Without a proper understanding of the pragmatic rules in the target language, learners may run the risk of coming across as insensitive and rude. Several researchers (Bardovi-Harlig, 2001; Kasper & Rose, 2002 suggest that L2 pragmatics not only can be taught in the L2/FL classroom, but, more importantly, that explicit approaches that involve direct explanation of target pragmatic features are beneficial for learning pragmatics. Just as native speakers of a language acquire a “set of dispositions to act in certain ways, which generates cognitive and bodily practices in the individual” (Watts, 2003, p. 149, instructors can help learners to become aware of the pragmatic features that characterize the target language. Although the importance of explicit teaching of pragmatics is well recognized in the literature, learning norms and rules of pragmatics largely depends on learners’ subjectivity. Learners’ convergence or divergence from the L2 pragmatic norms, both consciously and out of awareness, sometimes depends on whether these norms fit their image of self and their L1 cultural identity. Since identity-related conflict can have significant consequences for the acquisition of second language pragmatics, failing to consider the centrality of learners’ identities will produce an inadequate understanding of SLA. This paper synthesizes studies that document the reasons why learners opt to remain foreign by resisting certain L2 practic-es. The following synthesis question was proposed: Why do language learners resist the pragmatic norms of the target language?

  5. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The uniqueness-of-norm problem for Calkin algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Skillicorn, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We examine the question of whether the Calkin algebra of a Banach space must have a unique complete algebra norm. We present a survey of known results, and make the observation that a recent Banach space construction of Argyros and Motakis (preprint, 2015) provides the first negative answer. The parallel question for the weak Calkin algebra also has a negative answer; we demonstrate this using a Banach space of Read (J. London Math. Soc. 1989).

  7. Maximum-entropy probability distributions under Lp-norm constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, S.

    1991-01-01

    Continuous probability density functions and discrete probability mass functions are tabulated which maximize the differential entropy or absolute entropy, respectively, among all probability distributions with a given L sub p norm (i.e., a given pth absolute moment when p is a finite integer) and unconstrained or constrained value set. Expressions for the maximum entropy are evaluated as functions of the L sub p norm. The most interesting results are obtained and plotted for unconstrained (real valued) continuous random variables and for integer valued discrete random variables. The maximum entropy expressions are obtained in closed form for unconstrained continuous random variables, and in this case there is a simple straight line relationship between the maximum differential entropy and the logarithm of the L sub p norm. Corresponding expressions for arbitrary discrete and constrained continuous random variables are given parametrically; closed form expressions are available only for special cases. However, simpler alternative bounds on the maximum entropy of integer valued discrete random variables are obtained by applying the differential entropy results to continuous random variables which approximate the integer valued random variables in a natural manner. All the results are presented in an integrated framework that includes continuous and discrete random variables, constraints on the permissible value set, and all possible values of p. Understanding such as this is useful in evaluating the performance of data compression schemes.

  8. Experience on tangent delta norms adopted for repaired generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, N.N.; Sood, D.K. [National Thermal Power Corp. (India)

    2005-07-01

    The repair techniques of the generators are very crucial for avoiding prolonged forced outages. The crucial decisions based on sound knowledge and judgement becomes essential in many cases. The unit under discussions had failed on account of flash over in the Exciter end overhang windings. The failure resulted in damaged to the stator bars as well as generator core. The damaged end packets of the stator core were replaced at site. The total winding bars were removed from stator core and damaged bars were replaced with new bars. The rest of the bars were tested for tangent delta tests for reuse. Acceptance norms of 0.6% tip up from 0.2pu to 0.6pu of rated stator voltage were adopted. Some of the bars outside the acceptable limits of tangent delta were shifted close to neutral so that the standard norms of tan delta are met. This was felt necessary because lead-time for procurement of new bars was more than six months. The above-adopted norms for tangent delta will be of much use for the operating utilities. The unit under discussions was of 67.5 MW operating at 50 Hz, 0.85 pf lag and had logged 66160.46 operating hours before failure. (author)

  9. Experience on tangent delta norms adopted for repaired generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, N.N.; Sood, D.K. [National Thermal Power Corp., (India)

    2005-07-01

    Since repair measures and techniques for generators are critical in avoiding prolonged forced outages, repair decisions must be based on sound knowledge and judgement. This paper describes a the failure of an electric generator unit which failed due to flashover in the Exciter end overhang windings. During inspection, early symptoms of slot partial discharge were observed along with degradation of the outer corona coatings of stator bars. The unit was commissioned in 1988 and had 67.5 MW generating capacity operating at 50 Hz, 0.85 pf lag and had logged 66160.46 operating hours before failure. The failure caused damage to the stator bars and to the generator core. The damaged end packets of the stator core were replaced at site. The winding bars were removed from the stator core and damaged bars were also replaced. The remainder were tested for tangent delta tests for reuse. Acceptance norms of 0.6 per cent tip up from 0.2 pu to 0.6 pu of rotor stator voltage were adopted. Some of the bars outside the acceptable limits of tangent delta were shifted close to neutral in order to meet the standard norms of tan delta. These adopted norms for tangent delta will be of particular use for the operating utilities. It was concluded that the most probable cause of failure was the continuous degradation of the winding insulation due to high overhang vibration causing electrical and mechanical stresses. 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. The power of talk: developing discriminatory group norms through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura G E; Postmes, Tom

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a negative societal stereotype (relative to individual rumination in Studies 1 and 3 and alternative discussions in Studies 2 and 3) increases intentions to engage in discrimination against the out-group target of the stereotype. This is mediated by the formation of an in-group norm which supports discrimination (Study 1) and the extent to which the discussion validates the stereotype (Study 2). A fourth study manipulated the extent to which consensus on the negative stereotype was reached through discussion. When the discussion ended in consensus, participants have greater intention to undertake collective action against the stereotyped out-group, mediated by a congruent in-group norm. These results provide evidence that the process by which discussion increases intergroup discrimination is via the formation of discriminatory local group norms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Nationalization of International Criminal Norm of Crime and Punishment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomeng LI

    2011-01-01

    1.OverviewThe issue for this paper is Korean situation of nationalization of international treaty that contains provisions of crime and punishment,It has come to be a very important issue,in that,through bilateral or multilateral agreement,international criminal norm regarding crime and punishment that often does not correspond to Korean criminal justice system,has been and will be implanted in it.Not every international norm that was introduced in Korean criminal justice system has been great.As everyone knows,because a criminal justice system,if it is abused,can easily violate a citizen's liberty and right,we should pay more attention to what is introduced in Korean criminal justice system,under the name of international cooperation and progressive norm of criminal justice policy.In short,the tactics for the benefit of state power lead to the creation of so-called a new system,to cope with new criminal phenomenon.

  12. An Adaptive Antenna Utilizing Minimum Norm and LCMV Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.E.Ahmed; TANZhanzhong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a new structure based on the minimum norm and Linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) algorithms to highly suppress the jammers to the Global positioning system (GPS) receiver. Minimum norm can assign a deep null blindly to the jammer direction, also it doesn't introduce any false nulls like other algorithms do. So combining it with LCMV algorithm give a structure capable of adjusting the weights of the antenna array in real time to respond to the signals coming from the desired directions while highly suppresses the jammers coming from the other directions. The simulations were performed for fixed and moving jammers. Two jammers are used one of power -100dBW, the other is-120dBW. The nulls depths attained by Minimum norm alone are 88.4dB for the strong jammer and 45dB for the weak one. The simulation indicates that the new structure can give deeper nulls to the jammers directions, more than 114dB nulls depths for both jammer when they come from fixed directions and about 103dB nulls depths when they come from moving directions. The new structure not only improves the nulls depths but also can control the nulls depths. In addition, it can control the antenna gain in the directions of the useful GPS Signals.

  13. In Search of Ecological Norms in Brand Personality Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Gorbaniuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine a structure of brand personality at an ecological level and to develop norms for positioning a particular brand in relation to other brands by means of brand personality scales. Methodology: We present the results of a study in which 1,642 participants aged 15 to 82 (mean 35.3; 51.9% females were involved. Each respondent marked three to four brands from different categories of goods and services on a 20-item adjectival list for measuring brand personality. As a result, 6,548 descriptions of 224 brands from 46 categories were collected. Findings: Our analyses show that the structure of the differences among brand personalities on the Polish market can be described in terms of four dimensions: competence, spontaneity, subtlety, and egoism. The established dimensions explain 85% of the variance. A distribution of the results within the scales applied served as a basis for establishing specifc norms for each of the four scales. Limitations: The norms established have a country-level character and are inclusively adequate and reliable for companies that purchase products and services on the Polish market. Originality: Our study presents a new, ecological approach to thinking about brands. Namely, it enables a more precise determination of the position of a certain brand in relation to many other competing brands and allows for a more effcient use of the potential for constructing brand personality.

  14. PERSONAL ATTITUDES, PERCEIVED SOCIAL NORMS, AND HEALTH RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS WITH CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Mussatto, Kathleen A.; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary Ellen; Lerand, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Methods 68 females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Results Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent’s current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Conclusions Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs. PMID:23524992

  15. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  16. A case study on the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jina; Song, Jinwoong

    2016-03-01

    The teaching and learning of science in school are influenced by various factors, including both individual factors, such as member beliefs, and social factors, such as the power structure of the class. To understand this complex context affected by various factors in schools, we investigated the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms in connection with these factors. By examining the developmental process of science classroom norms, we identified how the norms were realized, shared, and internalized among the members. We collected data through classroom observations and interviews focusing on two elementary science classrooms in Korea. From these data, factors influencing norm formation were extracted and developed as stories about norm establishment. The results indicate that every science classroom norm was established, shared, and internalized differently according to the values ingrained in the norms, the agent of norm formation, and the members' understanding about the norm itself. The desirable norms originating from values in science education, such as having an inquiring mind, were not established spontaneously by students, but were instead established through well-organized norm networks to encourage concrete practice. Educational implications were discussed in terms of the practice of school science inquiry, cultural studies, and value-oriented education.

  17. Robust inversion using biweight norm and its application to seismic inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jun

    2012-03-01

    In spite of some minor drawbacks such as nonuniqueness and higher computational cost, finding the least-absolute (l1 norm) error solution to solve an optimisation problem is mostly known to give a better answer than the classical least-squares (l2 norm) method. This is because the robust property of the median value is affected little by outlier values and the solution of the least l1 norm error corresponds to the solution of minimum median error. Several variants of the l1 norm such as the Huber norm and the Hybrid norm have the same robust properties as the l1 norm. The optimisation methods based on l1 norm obtain their robustness by reducing the influence of outliers significantly, although never ignoring it. Therefore, if the proportion of outliers increases, most of the methods based on l1 norm may begin to be affected by the outliers. In such a case, other types of robust measures such as Tukey's Biweight (Bisquare weight) norm, which excludes outliers in computing the misfit measure, could perform better. This paper describes the application of the Biweight norm using the IRLS (iteratively reweighted least-squares) method as a robust inversion and shows its possible improvement in robustness when dealing with data having many outliers.

  18. College cannabis use: the unique roles of social norms, motives, and expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D

    2013-09-01

    Given that the majority of college cannabis use occurs in social situations, descriptive norms (beliefs about others' use) and injunctive norms (others' approval of risky use) may be particularly relevant to cannabis-related behaviors. Yet, little research has examined the unique impact of these norms on one's own behaviors when accounting for the variance attributable to other relevant cognitive factors. The current study is the first known investigation of the unique impact of social norms, cannabis use motives, and cannabis effect expectancies on cannabis use. Data came from 223 (64.1% female) current cannabis-using undergraduates who completed an online questionnaire in exchange for psychology-course research credit. Descriptive norms regarding friends (not students in general) and injunctive norms (friends and parents) were related to cannabis use frequency. Descriptive norms (friends, not students in general) and injunctive norms (friends, not parents) were related to cannabis problems. Relevant norms, expectancies, and motives accounted for 66.8% of the variance in cannabis use frequency and 28.7% of the variance in cannabis problems. In multivariate analyses, descriptive norms (friends) accounted for the greatest amount of unique variance in cannabis use frequency, whereas coping motives accounted for the greatest amount of unique variance in cannabis-related problems. Descriptive norms (friends) and coping motives may be two cognitive vulnerability factors that could be particularly important targets for interventions.

  19. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  20. Young Children Understand the Role of Agreement in Establishing Arbitrary Norms-But Unanimity Is Key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F H; Rakoczy, Hannes; Mietzsch, Teresa; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human cultural groups value conformity to arbitrary norms (e.g., rituals, games) that are the result of collective "agreement." Ninety-six 3-year-olds had the opportunity to agree upon arbitrary norms with puppets. Results revealed that children normatively enforced these novel norms only on a deviator who had actually entered into the agreement (not on dissenting or ignorant individuals). Interestingly, any dissent during the norm-setting process (even if a majority of 90% preferred one course of action) prevented children from seeing a norm as established for anyone at all. These findings suggest that even young children understand something of the role of agreement in establishing mutually binding social norms, but that their notion of norm formation may be confined to conditions of unanimity. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Current Trends in the study of Gender Norms and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J.; Agnew-Brune, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Gender norms are recognized as one of the major social determinants of health and gender norms can have implications for an individual’s health behaviors. This paper reviews the recent advances in research on the role of gender norms on health behaviors most associated with morbidity and mortality. We find that (1) the study of gender norms and health behaviors is varied across different types of health behaviors, (2) research on masculinity and masculine norms appears to have taken on an increasing proportion of studies on the relationship between gender norms and health, and (3) we are seeing new and varied populations integrated into the study of gender norms and health behaviors. PMID:26075291

  2. Study on Developing Safety Infrastructure for Mineral Processing Waste (NORM Waste) and Contamination Monitoring at the TINT Rare Earth Research & Development Center, Khlong 5, Pathumthani, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaanant, N.; Kasemtanasak, V.; Pattanasub, A.; O-manee, A.; Khaweerat, S.; Pruantonsai, P.; Akharawutchayanon, T.; Nuanjan, P.; Punbut, S.; Srimork, P.; Prasertchiewchan, N.

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to prepare all technical and administrative actions leading to the release of the disused radiological facilities from regulatory control and safe management of radioactive waste. In the first phase, the study covers: the preliminary site characterization, waste characterization, the preparation for authorization of the foreseen strategy and activities. The first phase study shows that several areas of the TINT’s Rare Earth Research & Development Center are contaminated, such as the U/Th extraction, monazite processing and NORM residues storage.

  3. How Norms Work: Self-Identification, Attitude, and Self-Efficacy Mediate the Relation between Descriptive Social Norms and Vegetable Intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Wit, J.B.F.; Vet, de E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current studies aim to show that descriptive social norms influence vegetable intake and to investigate three potentially underlying processes (self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy). Methods: In two studies, descriptive social norms regarding vegetable intake were manipul

  4. On intrinsic geometry of surfaces in normed spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Burago, Dmitri; Ivanov, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    We prove three facts about intrinsic geometry of surfaces in a normed (Minkowski) space. When put together, these facts demonstrate a rather intriguing picture. We show that (1) geodesics on saddle surfaces (in a space of any dimension) behave as they are expected to: they have no conjugate points and thus minimize length in their homotopy class; (2) in contrast, every two-dimensional Finsler manifold can be locally embedded as a saddle surface in a 4-dimensional space; and (3) geodesics on c...

  5. Phase shift extraction algorithm based on Euclidean matrix norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Wang, Hankun; Zhang, Desi; Zhong, Liyun; Fan, Jinping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, the character of Euclidean matrix norm (EMN) of the intensity difference between phase-shifting interferograms, which changes in sinusoidal form with the phase shifts, is presented. Based on this character, an EMN phase shift extraction algorithm is proposed. Both the simulation calculation and experimental research show that the phase shifts with high precision can be determined with the proposed EMN algorithm easily. Importantly, the proposed EMN algorithm will supply a powerful tool for the rapid calibration of the phase shifts.

  6. Social norms and cooperation in real-life social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    types of normative beliefs make it difficult to test the interaction hypothesis. By using structural equation modelling with residual centering these problems are overcome and the interaction hypothesis is confirmed. The result is stable across three replications spanning a two-year period.......The hypothesis that injunctive and descriptive norms interact positively or synergistically to promote cooperation in social dilemmas is tested in the context of a survey study focusing on environmentally responsible behaviour. Measurement error and strong and positive correlations between the two...

  7. Corruption, Norm Violation and Decay in Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik

    The paper studies the interplay between corruption and social capital (measured as trust), using data from a lab experiment. Subjects play either a harassment bribery game or a strategically identical but differently framed ultimatum game, followed by a trust game. In a second experiment, the trust...... spillover effect of corruption on trust, but not vice-versa, and the effect increases with decrease in social appropriateness norm of the bribe demand; b) lower trust in the bribery game treatment is explained by lower expected return on trust; c) surprisingly, for both the bribery and the ultimatum game...

  8. Masculine ideology, norms, and HIV prevention among young Black men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Naomi M; Applewhite, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between masculine ideology, adherence to norms, and HIV prevention among young Black heterosexual and gay men on the campus of a historically Black college/university. The data from four focus groups and nine individual interviews (N = 35) were aggregated and two recurring themes emerged: sexual communication, and mate availability. Additional themes related to HIV prevention were stigma, protection, and testing. The importance of investigating masculinity with young men is highlighted and implications for professionals working with college students to prevent the transmission of HIV are included.

  9. p-Norm SDD tensors and eigenvalue localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilong Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a new class of nonsingular tensors (p-norm strictly diagonally dominant tensors, which is a subclass of strong H $\\mathcal{H}$ -tensors. As applications of the results, we give a new eigenvalue inclusion set, which is tighter than those provided by Li et al. (Linear Multilinear Algebra 64:727-736, 2016 in some case. Based on this set, we give a checkable sufficient condition for the positive (semidefiniteness of an even-order symmetric tensor.

  10. A localization property for facility location problems with arbitrary norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    In an earlier article (1983), the authors showed that, for facilities-location problems characterized by generalized distance norms and any even number of existing facilities, the optimal location of the new facility is at the intersection of the lines joining the pairs of facilities if these lines...... intersect at a single point. In this article the authors extend this concept to show that, for a more general class of problems, the optimal location is one of a set of points which is specified by the existing facilities...

  11. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van’t Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason. F.

    2014-01-01

    Are people strategically ignorant of the negative externalities their activities cause the environment? Herein we examine if people avoid costless information on those externalities and use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior. We develop a theoretical framework in which...... on their harm to the environment, and that they use ignorance as an excuse to engage in less pro-environmental behavior. It also predicts that the cost of ignorance increases if people can learn about the social norm from the information. We test the model predictions empirically using an experiment combined...

  12. Professional Norms and Categorization Practices among Danish Social Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    the way for an understanding of professionals as street-level bureaucrats whose working conditions first and foremost are characterized as cross pressured between policy goals, personal preferences, citizen pressure and professional norms (Lipsky 2010; Hupe & Hill; Winter 2008). However, more sociological...... clients. Based on this finding the paper contributes to the ongoing academic and political discussion about how and why it is a good idea to discipline professionals to be primarily loyal to the public regulative setting. The paper’s analysis suggests that simply adding more rules to the work conditions...

  13. Statistical Λ-Convergence in Probabilistic Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aldhaifallah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to understand the notion of Λ-convergence and to study the notion of probabilistic normed (PN spaces. The study has also aimed to define the statistical Λ-convergence and statistical Λ-Cauchy in PN-spaces. The concepts of these approaches have been defined by some examples, which have demonstrated the concepts of statistical Λ-convergence and statistical Λ-Cauchy in PN-spaces. Previous studies have also been used to understand similar terminologies and notations for the extraction of outcomes.

  14. A localization property for facility location problems with arbitrary norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    In an earlier article (1983), the authors showed that, for facilities-location problems characterized by generalized distance norms and any even number of existing facilities, the optimal location of the new facility is at the intersection of the lines joining the pairs of facilities if these lines...... intersect at a single point. In this article the authors extend this concept to show that, for a more general class of problems, the optimal location is one of a set of points which is specified by the existing facilities...

  15. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van 't Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason

    and an option to buy offsets for the flight’s carbon footprint. More than half (53 percent) of the subjects choose to ignore information on the carbon footprint alone before deciding their offset purchase, but ignorance significantly decreases (to 29 percent) when the information additionally reveals the social...... norm, namely the share of air travelers who buy carbon offsets. We find evidence that some people use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior—ignorance significantly decreases the probability of buying carbon offsets....

  16. Boosting safety behaviour: Descriptive norms encourage child booster seat usage amongst low involvement parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Jennifer; Whelan, Jodie; Pirouz, Dante M; Snowdon, Anne W

    2016-07-01

    Campaigns advocating behavioural changes often employ social norms as a motivating technique, favouring injunctive norms (what is typically approved or disapproved) over descriptive norms (what is typically done). Here, we investigate an upside to including descriptive norms in health and safety appeals. Because descriptive norms are easy to process and understand, they should provide a heuristic to guide behaviour in those individuals who lack the interest or motivation to reflect on the advocated behaviour more deeply. When those descriptive norms are positive - suggesting that what is done is consistent with what ought to be done - including them in campaigns should be particularly beneficial at influencing this low-involvement segment. We test this proposition via research examining booster seat use amongst parents with children of booster seat age, and find that incorporating positive descriptive norms into a related campaign is particularly impactful for parents who report low involvement in the topic of booster seat safety. Descriptive norms are easy to state and easy to understand, and our research suggests that these norms resonate with low involvement individuals. As a result, we recommend incorporating descriptive norms when possible into health and safety campaigns.

  17. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-12-15

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.

  18. The co-occurrence of self-observed norm-conforming behavior, reduction of zero observations and remaining measurement quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Norm-violating behavior is characterized by clear social norms which prescribe the non-occurrence of that behavior. From the theoretical framework of Allport it is derived that specifically norm-conformation is consistent, while violating norms is expected to be inconsistent and more circumstantial.

  19. The Social Norms of Suicidal and Self-Harming Behaviours in Scottish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Jody; Rasmussen, Susan; McAlaney, John

    2017-01-01

    Although the suicidal and self-harming behaviour of individuals is often associated with similar behaviours in people they know, little is known about the impact of perceived social norms on those behaviours. In a range of other behavioural domains (e.g., alcohol consumption, smoking, eating behaviours) perceived social norms have been found to strongly predict individuals’ engagement in those behaviours, although discrepancies often exist between perceived and reported norms. Interventions which align perceived norms more closely with reported norms have been effective in reducing damaging behaviours. The current study aimed to explore whether the Social Norms Approach is applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviours in adolescents. Participants were 456 pupils from five Scottish high-schools (53% female, mean age = 14.98 years), who completed anonymous, cross-sectional surveys examining reported and perceived norms around suicidal and self-harming behaviour. Friedman’s ANOVA with post-hoc Wilcoxen signed-ranks tests indicated that proximal groups were perceived as less likely to engage in or be permissive of suicidal and self-harming behaviours than participants’ reported themselves, whilst distal groups tended towards being perceived as more likely to do so. Binary logistic regression analyses identified a number of perceived norms associated with reported norms, with close friends’ norms positively associated with all outcome variables. The Social Norms Approach may be applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviour, but associations between perceived and reported norms and predictors of reported norms differ to those found in other behavioural domains. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are considered. PMID:28294999

  20. Following family or friends. Social norms in adolescent healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-03-01

    It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on their children's healthy eating should be reinforced.

  1. Weight bias internalization scale: psychometric properties and population norms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Internalizing the pervasive weight bias commonly directed towards individuals with overweight and obesity, co-occurs with increased psychopathology and impaired quality of life. This study sought to establish population norms and psychometric properties of the most widely used self-report questionnaire, the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS, in a representative community sample. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a survey of the German population, N = 1158 individuals with overweight and obesity were assessed with the WBIS and self-report measures for convergent validation. RESULTS: Item analysis revealed favorable item-total correlation of all but one WBIS item. With this item removed, item homogeneity and internal consistency were excellent. The one-factor structure of the WBIS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was shown through significant associations with measures of depressive and somatoform symptoms. The WBIS contributed to the explanation of variance in depressive and somatoform symptoms over and above body mass index. Higher WBIS scores were found in women than in men, in individuals with obesity than in individuals with overweight, and in those with lower education or income than those with higher education or income. Sex-specific norms were provided. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed good psychometric properties of the WBIS after removal of one item. Future research is warranted on further indicators of reliability and validity, for example, retest reliability, sensitivity to change, and prognostic validity.

  2. Training Lp norm multiple kernel learning in the primal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhizheng; Xia, Shixiong; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Some multiple kernel learning (MKL) models are usually solved by utilizing the alternating optimization method where one alternately solves SVMs in the dual and updates kernel weights. Since the dual and primal optimization can achieve the same aim, it is valuable in exploring how to perform Lp norm MKL in the primal. In this paper, we propose an Lp norm multiple kernel learning algorithm in the primal where we resort to the alternating optimization method: one cycle for solving SVMs in the primal by using the preconditioned conjugate gradient method and other cycle for learning the kernel weights. It is interesting to note that the kernel weights in our method can obtain analytical solutions. Most importantly, the proposed method is well suited for the manifold regularization framework in the primal since solving LapSVMs in the primal is much more effective than solving LapSVMs in the dual. In addition, we also carry out theoretical analysis for multiple kernel learning in the primal in terms of the empirical Rademacher complexity. It is found that optimizing the empirical Rademacher complexity may obtain a type of kernel weights. The experiments on some datasets are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Possible landscapes in norms: how are they designed and communicated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marques Zyngier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes are the result of transformations which occur in different time and space scales. When considering a wider time scale, landscapes are the result of applying norms of land use and occupancy, configuring punctual volumes which form, when added together, a complex whole. In a shorter time scale, urban interventions are transformations as precise as surgeries, stirred by entrepreneurism. Considering these observations about how formally planned landscapes are formed, a few questions are raised, motivating this investigation: can a community – which inhabits, observes and constructs in any given landscape – understand, accompany and approve a new spatial configuration, transformed by interventions and controls? Is it possible to contribute, in any way, towards urban managements, promoting the science behind proposals and possibilities within the norms which model a landscape? What is the state-of-the-art of these transformations, especially in the changes promoted by urban management resulting from legislations? From these initial inquiries, a main question sums up the aim of this paper: How the possibilities which involve a designed urban landscape are communicated? Therefore, it’s interesting to analyze case studies in order to elucidate this guiding question. Two territorial realities, as pilot areas, are going to aid this investigation, regarding their similarities and differences.

  4. Fixed-Order Mixed Norm Designs for Building Vibration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Calise, Anthony J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the use of H2, mu-synthesis, and mixed H2/mu methods to construct full order controllers and optimized controllers of fixed dimensions. The benchmark problem definition is first extended to include uncertainty within the controller bandwidth in the form of parametric uncertainty representative of uncertainty in the natural frequencies of the design model. The sensitivity of H2 design to unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainty is evaluated for a range of controller levels of authority. Next, mu-synthesis methods are applied to design full order compensators that are robust to both unmodeled dynamics and to parametric uncertainty. Finally, a set of mixed H2/mu compensators are designed which are optimized for a fixed compensator dimension. These mixed norm designs recover the H2 design performance levels while providing the same levels of robust stability as the mu designs. It is shown that designing with the mixed norm approach permits higher levels of controller authority for which the H2 designs are destabilizing. The benchmark problem is that of an active tendon system. The controller designs are all based on the use of acceleration feedback.

  5. Dynamic Networks of Human Homeostatic Control in Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica A. Sherman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has been undertaken to study the regional and common relationships between hemodynamic and metabolic parameters of human body functioning in individuals without clinical signs of pathology (in "norm". Indicators of hemodynamics and metabolism were obtained by catheterization in a variety of areas: LV, RV, RA, CS, Ao, fixed SS, IJV, SVC, right VH, renal vena, and PA. Correlation and factor analyses were conducted for the study of: 1 the relationship between biochemical parameters in the blood stream, 2 the relationship between hemodynamic parameters, 3 relationship between the hemodynamic and biochemical parameters. Due to the nature of the correlation analysis, the significant (p<0.05 relation signs (+, 0, - without regard to their power were considered. The obtained results in the study of brain blood flow, heart, liver, lungs, kidneys suggested the existence of the primary homeostatic control of the factors determining rheological and thrombogenic properties of blood; the regulation of brain gas exchange and intracranial venous pressure by the minimum level of pressure in the cerebral outflow pathway—the pressure in RA; the regulating relationships between blood flow in CS with blood flow in HV, RA, SS, and LV; and the existence of a synergistic complex of the relationships between the studied biochemical and hemodynamic characteristics that form the human homeostasis control matrix in norm.

  6. Efficient Sum-Based Hierarchical Smoothing Under \\ell_1-Norm

    CERN Document Server

    Benabbas, Siavosh; Oren, Joel; Ye, Yuli

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new regression problem which we call the Sum-Based Hierarchical Smoothing problem. Given a directed acyclic graph and a non-negative value, called target value, for each vertex in the graph, we wish to find non-negative values for the vertices satisfying a certain constraint while minimizing the distance of these assigned values and the target values in the lp-norm. The constraint is that the value assigned to each vertex should be no less than the sum of the values assigned to its children. We motivate this problem with applications in information retrieval and web mining. While our problem can be solved in polynomial time using linear programming, given the input size in these applications such a solution might be too slow. We mainly study the \\ell_1-norm case restricting the underlying graphs to rooted trees. For this case we provide an efficient algorithm, running in O(n^2) time. While the algorithm is purely combinatorial, its proof of correctness is an elegant use of linear programming du...

  7. Genetics of Growth Reaction Norms in Farmed Rainbow Trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panya Sae-Lim

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when the genetic correlation between ES and growth is nonzero. The aims of this study were to quantify additive genetic variance for ES of body weight (BW, defined as the slope of reaction norm across breeding environment (BE and production environment (PE, and to estimate the genetic correlation (rg(int, sl between BW and ES. To estimate heritable variance of ES, the coheritability of ES was derived using selection index theory. The BW records from 43,040 rainbow trout performing either in freshwater or seawater were analysed using a reaction norm model. High additive genetic variance for ES (9584 was observed, inferring that genetic changes in ES can be expected. The coheritability for ES was either -0.06 (intercept at PE or -0.08 (intercept at BE, suggesting that BW observation in either PE or BE results in low accuracy of selection for ES. Yet, the rg(int, sl was negative (-0.41 to -0.33 indicating that selection for BW in one environment is expected to result in more sensitive fish. To avoid an increase of ES while selecting for BW, it is possible to have equal genetic gain in BW in both environments so that ES is maintained stable.

  8. Genetics of Growth Reaction Norms in Farmed Rainbow Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Lim, Panya; Mulder, Han; Gjerde, Bjarne; Koskinen, Heikki; Lillehammer, Marie; Kause, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES) of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when the genetic correlation between ES and growth is nonzero. The aims of this study were to quantify additive genetic variance for ES of body weight (BW), defined as the slope of reaction norm across breeding environment (BE) and production environment (PE), and to estimate the genetic correlation (rg(int, sl)) between BW and ES. To estimate heritable variance of ES, the coheritability of ES was derived using selection index theory. The BW records from 43,040 rainbow trout performing either in freshwater or seawater were analysed using a reaction norm model. High additive genetic variance for ES (9584) was observed, inferring that genetic changes in ES can be expected. The coheritability for ES was either -0.06 (intercept at PE) or -0.08 (intercept at BE), suggesting that BW observation in either PE or BE results in low accuracy of selection for ES. Yet, the rg(int, sl) was negative (-0.41 to -0.33) indicating that selection for BW in one environment is expected to result in more sensitive fish. To avoid an increase of ES while selecting for BW, it is possible to have equal genetic gain in BW in both environments so that ES is maintained stable. PMID:26267268

  9. Intermediaries in Trust: Indirect Reciprocity, Incentives, and Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Any trust situation involves a certain amount of risk for trustors that trustees could abuse. In some cases, intermediaries exist who play a crucial role in the exchange by providing reputational information. To examine under what conditions intermediary opinion could have a positive impact on cooperation, we designed two experiments based on a modified version of the investment game where intermediaries rated the behaviour of trustees under various incentive schemes and different role structures. We found that intermediaries can increase trust if there is room for indirect reciprocity between the involved parties. We also found that the effect of monetary incentives and social norms cannot be clearly separable in these situations. If properly designed, monetary incentives for intermediaries can have a positive effect. On the one hand, when intermediary rewards are aligned with the trustor’s interest, investments and returns tend to increase. On the other hand, fixed monetary incentives perform less than any other incentive schemes and endogenous social norms in ensuring trust and fairness. These findings should make us reconsider the mantra of incentivization of social and public conventional policy.

  10. Peer-to-Peer Multimedia Sharing based on Social Norms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Empirical data shows that in the absence of incentives, a peer participating in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network wishes to free-riding. Most solutions for providing incentives in P2P networks are based on direct reciprocity, which are not appropriate for most P2P multimedia sharing networks due to the unique features exhibited by such networks: large populations of anonymous agents interacting infrequently, asymmetric interests of peers, network errors, and multiple concurrent transactions. In this paper, we design and rigorously analyze a new family of incentive protocols that utilizes indirect reciprocity which is based on the design of efficient social norms. In the proposed P2P protocols, the social norms consist of a social strategy, which represents the rule prescribing to the peers when they should or should not provide content to other peers, and a reputation scheme, which rewards or punishes peers depending on whether they comply or not with the social strategy. We first define the concept of a sustainab...

  11. Neural basis of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Bo; Yu, Rongjun; Zhou, Zhiheng; Zhang, Guoping; Jiang, Yushi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-12-01

    Humans are willing to punish norm violations even at a substantial personal cost. Using fMRI and a variant of the ultimatum game and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated how the brain differentially responds to fairness in loss and gain domains. Participants (responders) received offers from anonymous partners indicating a division of an amount of monetary gain or loss. If they accept, both get their shares according to the division; if they reject, both get nothing or lose the entire stake. We used a computational model to derive perceived fairness of offers and participant-specific inequity aversion. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to reject unfair offers in the loss (vs gain) domain. Neurally, the positive correlation between fairness and activation in ventral striatum was reduced, whereas the negative correlations between fairness and activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were enhanced in the loss domain. Moreover, rejection-related dorsal striatum activation was higher in the loss domain. Furthermore, the gain-loss domain modulates costly punishment only when unfair behavior was directed toward the participants and not when it was directed toward others. These findings provide neural and computational accounts of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity and advanced our understanding of the context-dependent nature of fairness preference.

  12. Evaluation of NORM residues in the Morro Redondo waterworks, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Michele C.F. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: michelecristinafp@yahoo.com.br; Rocha, Zildete [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica]. E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Most mineral resources present naturally occurring radioactive material known by the acronym NORM. Some of them, specially those geological material originated from igneous rock present elevated radionuclides concentration. The exploration of these materials may elevate human exposure to the natural ionizing radiation, by removing them from the natural compartment or by increasing the radionuclides concentration in products, by products and more frequently in the industrial residues, these are referred as TENORM Technologically Enhanced NORM. The residues of the waterworks, especially those of the iron and manganese remotion are expected to contain radioactivity concentration due to geological reasons. The paper evaluates the natural radionuclide concentration in the waste water sludge of the iron removing process carried out by the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) - Morro Redondo waterwork operated by Companhia de Saneamento de Minas Gerais - COPASA. Such waterwork supplies drink water for more than 200.000 people, inhabitants of the south part of Belo Horizonte and Nova Lima. The water is extracted from three rock source formations in the iron quadrangle of Minas Gerais, namely Cercadinho, Fechos and Mutuca. The sludges samples analysed have shown values around 300 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, in radiological point of view, the most important radionuclide. Values taken from literature were considered - 10.000 Bq kg{sup -1} are not rare, and the ones around 300 Bq kg{sup -1} are normal. (author)

  13. Future Educators’ Gender Norms, Sexuality, and Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leodoro J. Labrague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored gender-related norms, sexuality, and reproductive health among education students in a government university in Samar, Philippines. A descriptive-analytical design of study was adopted for this investigation and data were collected over a period of five months. Five hundred fifty (550 education students who were enrolled in the different year level completed the modified John Clelands’ Illustrative Questionnaire for Young People. Results indicated that 14.73% of the students reported having had early sexual experience where in 69.14 % had it unplanned. Among sexually active students, only 17.28% used contraception, with condoms and withdrawal as the most popular choices. Respondents were also found to have some misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS and STI’s. Result also showed that dating was still acceptable, however, the idea of abortion and sexual coercion were considered wrong. No significant differences in the knowledge about HIV/AIDS and STI’s and gender norms were found across year level. Findings suggest a greater need for education, support and advocacy relative to sexuality so as to create a more positive school environment conducive for holistic growth and development of all students. Thus, school administrators should improve/enhance existing policies and programs relative to reproductive health among college students of the University such as health promotion activities, sexuality education, counseling and alike.

  14. Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2016-06-20

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1,429 English words. The results revealed that 71 % of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigated. Although the significant correlations were not strong, results revealed that English word frequency was positively correlated with the number of alternative translations, whereas English word concreteness was negatively correlated with the number of translations. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the number of Chinese translations was predicted by word frequency and concreteness. Furthermore, an interaction between these predictors revealed that the number of translations was more affected by word frequency for more concrete words than for less concrete words. In addition, mixed-effects modelling showed that word frequency, concreteness and English language proficiency were all significant predictors of whether or not a dominant translation was provided. Finally, correlations between the word frequencies of English words and their Chinese dominant translations were higher for translation-unambiguous pairs than for translation-ambiguous pairs. The translation norms are made available in a database together with lexical information about the words, which will be a useful resource for researchers investigating Chinese-English bilingual language processing.

  15. An overview of Pennsylvania`s experience with NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusko, J.G. [Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Although Pennsylvania may be thought of as the state who brought you indoor radon, courtesy of a discovery of a residence with radon concentrations in excess of a few thousand picocuries per liter, this is not the states only claim to NORM fame. In the early years of the twentieth century, Pennsylvania was the largest producer of radium, utilizing its industrial base to produce large quantities of this {open_quotes}miracle cure{close_quotes} from ores mined in the West, and transported to a separation and purification facility in Western Pennsylvania. The company successfully held off foreign and political pressure, and generated large quantities of uranium tailings as well, until a fire one New Year`s Eve destroyed the separation plant, and the company faded from view. The tailings were remediated as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings, Remedial Action Project, on the only site east of the Mississippi River. This article goes on to discuss the states experiences with NORM in various projects, coming in contact with human populations from different sources.

  16. Subband Adaptive Filtering with l1-Norm Constraint for Sparse System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Seok Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach of the normalized subband adaptive filter (NSAF which directly exploits the sparsity condition of an underlying system for sparse system identification. The proposed NSAF integrates a weighted l1-norm constraint into the cost function of the NSAF algorithm. To get the optimum solution of the weighted l1-norm regularized cost function, a subgradient calculus is employed, resulting in a stochastic gradient based update recursion of the weighted l1-norm regularized NSAF. The choice of distinct weighted l1-norm regularization leads to two versions of the l1-norm regularized NSAF. Numerical results clearly indicate the superior convergence of the l1-norm regularized NSAFs over the classical NSAF especially when identifying a sparse system.

  17. The Group of Hamiltonian Homeomorphisms in the L^\\infty-norm

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Stefan C

    2007-01-01

    The group Hameo (M,\\omega) of Hamiltonian homeomorphisms of a connected symplectic manifold (M,\\omega) was defined and studied in [7] and further in [6]. In these papers, the authors consistently used the L^{(1,\\infty)}-Hofer norm (and not the L^\\infty-Hofer norm) on the space of Hamiltonian paths (see below for the definitions). A justification for this choice was given in [7]. In this article we study the L^\\infty-case. In view of the fact that the Hofer norm on the group Ham (M,\\omega) of Hamiltonian diffeomorphisms does not depend on the choice of the L^{(1,\\infty)}-norm vs. the L^\\infty-norm [9], Y.-G. Oh and D. McDuff (private communications) asked whether the two notions of Hamiltonian homeomorphisms arising from the different norms coincide. We will give an affirmative answer to this question in this paper.

  18. Attitude ambivalence, social norms, and behavioral intentions: Developing effective antitobacco persuasive communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Niedbala, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N = 152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use.

  19. Direct experience and the strength of the personal norm - behaviour relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2002-01-01

    norms on behavior, and (ii) direct experience is a stronger moderator in this case than in the attitude-behavior case. The case in question is the purchase of organic red wine. It is found that the outcome of consumers' choice between organic and non-organic wine depends on their personal (moral) norms......, after controlling for attitudes and subjective social norms. However, the influence of personal norms, though not of attitude, depends on whether the consumer has direct experience of buying organic red wine. Hence, both hypotheses are confirmed.......This study investigates whether the behavioral influence of personal norms with regard to repeated pro-social behavior depends on direct experience of this behavior. Based on previous norm and attitude research, it is hypothesized that (i) direct experience strengthens the influence of personal...

  20. Masculinity and HIV: Dimensions of Masculine Norms that Contribute to Men's HIV-Related Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; DiClemente, Ralph J; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have documented a relationship between masculine norms and men's HIV-related sexual behaviors, but intervening upon this relationship requires a nuanced understanding of the specific aspects of masculine norms that shape men's sexual behaviors. We integrate theories on masculinities with empirical HIV research to identify specific dimensions of masculine norms that influence men's HIV-related sexual behaviors. We identify three major dimensions of masculine norms that shape men's sexual behavior: (1) uncontrollable male sex drive, (2) capacity to perform sexually, and (3) power over others. While the existing literature does help explain the relationship between masculine norms and men's sexual behaviors several gaps remain including: a recognition of context-specific masculinities, an interrogation of the positive influences of masculinity, adoption of an intersectional approach, assessment of changes in norms and behaviors over time, and rigorous evaluations of gender-transformative approaches. Addressing these gaps in future research may optimize prevention efforts.

  1. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms.

  2. Longitudinal relationship between drinking with peers, descriptive norms, and adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Haynie, Denise; Farhat, Tilda; Wang, Jing

    2014-08-01

    Descriptive norms are consistently found to predict adolescent alcohol use but less is known about the factors that predict descriptive norms. The objective of this study is to test if drinking with peers predicts later alcohol consumption and if this relationship is mediated by a change in the descriptive norms of peer alcohol use. Data are from a nationally representative cohort of high school students surveyed in the 10th and 11th grade (N = 2,162). Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediation model of the relationship between drinking with peers (T1) on later alcohol use (T2) and mediation of the relationship by descriptive norms (T2). Descriptive norms significantly mediated the relationship between drinking with peers and alcohol use for both males and females with a somewhat larger effect for males compared to females. These results support a continued focus on the development and evaluation of interventions to alter descriptive norms of alcohol use.

  3. Direct experience and the strength of the personal norm - behaviour relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates whether the behavioral influence of personal norms with regard to repeated pro-social behavior depends on direct experience of this behavior. Based on previous norm and attitude research, it is hypothesized that (i) direct experience strengthens the influence of personal...... norms on behavior, and (ii) direct experience is a stronger moderator in this case than in the attitude-behavior case. The case in question is the purchase of organic red wine. It is found that the outcome of consumers' choice between organic and non-organic wine depends on their personal (moral) norms......, after controlling for attitudes and subjective social norms. However, the influence of personal norms, though not of attitude, depends on whether the consumer has direct experience of buying organic red wine. Hence, both hypotheses are confirmed....

  4. The N-Isometric Isomorphisms in Linear N-Normed C*-Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Gil PARK; Themistocles M. RASSIAS

    2006-01-01

    We prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of linear N-isometries in linear N-normed Banach modules over a unital C*-algebra. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate N-isometric C*-algebra isomorphisms between linear N-normed C*-algebras, N-isometric Poisson C*-algebra isomorphisms between linear N-normed Poisson C*-algebras, N-isometric Lie C*-algebra isomorphisms between linear N-normed Lie C*-algebras, N-isometric Poisson JC*-algebra isomorphisms between linear N-normed Poisson JC*-algebras, and N-isometric Lie JC*-algebra isomorphisms between linear N-normed Lie JC*-algebras.Moreover, we prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of their N-isometric homomorphisms.

  5. Stability of Various Functional Equations in Non-Archimedean Intuitionistic Fuzzy Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul Mohiuddine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We define and study the concept of non-Archimedean intuitionistic fuzzy normed space by using the idea of t-norm and t-conorm. Furthermore, by using the non-Archimedean intuitionistic fuzzy normed space, we investigate the stability of various functional equations. That is, we determine some stability results concerning the Cauchy, Jensen and its Pexiderized functional equations in the framework of non-Archimedean IFN spaces.

  6. Collaborative Filtering in a Non-Uniform World: Learning with the Weighted Trace Norm

    CERN Document Server

    Salakhutdinov, Ruslan

    2010-01-01

    We show that matrix completion with trace-norm regularization can be significantly hurt when entries of the matrix are sampled non-uniformly. We introduce a weighted version of the trace-norm regularizer that works well also with non-uniform sampling. Our experimental results demonstrate that the weighted trace-norm regularization indeed yields significant gains on the (highly non-uniformly sampled) Netflix dataset.

  7. The conflict aftermath-- a chance for democracy norm diffusion in post conflict peace building

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzke, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    Democratization in post-conflict situations is a major challenge, now and in the foreseeable future. Yet, the puzzle of why some of these attempts fail and others succeed is still unresolved. This thesis argues that post-conflict democratization by third parties is, at its core, a norm diffusion process. Successful democratization depends foremost on the acceptance and internalization of democratic norms by the target society. Knowledge of the norm diffusion concept, especially the influen...

  8. The relevance of moral norms in distinct relational contexts: Purity versus harm norms regulate self-directed actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, James A; Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to partition the space of morality have focused on the descriptive content of distinct moral domains (e.g., harm versus purity), or alternatively, the relationship between the perpetrator and victim of moral violations. Across three studies, we demonstrate that harm and purity norms are relevant in distinct relational contexts. Moral judgments of purity violations, compared to harm violations, are relatively more sensitive to the negative impact perpetrators have on themselves versus other victims (Study 1). This pattern replicates across a wide array of harm and purity violations varying in severity (Studies 2 and 3). Moreover, while perceptions of harm predict moral judgment consistently across relational contexts, perceptions of purity predict moral judgment more for self-directed actions, where perpetrators violate themselves, compared to dyadic actions, where perpetrators violate other victims (Study 3). Together, these studies reveal how an action's content and its relational context interact to influence moral judgment, providing novel insights into the adaptive functions of harm and purity norms.

  9. Prosocial Norms as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.; Law, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Prosocial norms like reciprocity, social responsibility, altruism, and volunteerism are ethical standards and beliefs that youth development programs often want to promote. This paper reviews evolutionary, social-cognitive, and developmental theories of prosocial development and analyzes how young people learn and adopt prosocial norms. The paper showed that very few current theories explicitly address the issue of how prosocial norms, in form of feelings of moral obligations, may be challenged by a norm of self-interest and social circumstances when prosocial acts are needed. It is necessary to develop theories which put prosocial norms as a central construct, and a new social cognitive theory of norm activation has the potential to help us understand how prosocial norms may be applied. This paper also highlights how little we know about young people perceiving and receiving prosocial norms and how influential of school policies and peer influence on the prosocial development. Lastly, while training of interpersonal competence (e.g., empathy, moral reasoning, etc.) was commonly used in the youth development, their effectiveness was not systematically evaluated. It will also be interesting to examine how computer and information technology or video games may be used in e-learning of prosocial norms. PMID:22666157

  10. The empirical study of norms is just what we are missing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achourioti, Theodora; Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Stenning, Keith

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that the goals people have when reasoning determine their own norms of reasoning. A radical descriptivism which avoids norms never worked for any science; nor can it work for the psychology of reasoning. Norms as we understand them are illustrated with examples from categorical syllogistic reasoning and the “new paradigm” of subjective probabilities. We argue that many formal systems are required for psychology: classical logic, non-monotonic logics, probability logics, relevance logic, and others. One of the hardest challenges is working out what goals reasoners have and choosing and tailoring the appropriate logics to model the norms those goals imply. PMID:25368590

  11. Prosocial norms as a positive youth development construct: a conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Andrew M H; Shek, Daniel T L; Law, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Prosocial norms like reciprocity, social responsibility, altruism, and volunteerism are ethical standards and beliefs that youth development programs often want to promote. This paper reviews evolutionary, social-cognitive, and developmental theories of prosocial development and analyzes how young people learn and adopt prosocial norms. The paper showed that very few current theories explicitly address the issue of how prosocial norms, in form of feelings of moral obligations, may be challenged by a norm of self-interest and social circumstances when prosocial acts are needed. It is necessary to develop theories which put prosocial norms as a central construct, and a new social cognitive theory of norm activation has the potential to help us understand how prosocial norms may be applied. This paper also highlights how little we know about young people perceiving and receiving prosocial norms and how influential of school policies and peer influence on the prosocial development. Lastly, while training of interpersonal competence (e.g., empathy, moral reasoning, etc.) was commonly used in the youth development, their effectiveness was not systematically evaluated. It will also be interesting to examine how computer and information technology or video games may be used in e-learning of prosocial norms.

  12. CHEBYSHEV WEIGHTED NORM LEAST-SQUARES SPECTRAL METHODS FOR THE ELLIPTIC PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Dong Kim; Byeong Chun Shin

    2006-01-01

    We develop and analyze a first-order system least-squares spectral method for the second-order elliptic boundary value problem with variable coefficients. We first analyze the Chebyshev weighted norm least-squares functional defined by the sum of the L2w-and H-1w,- norm of the residual equations and then we replace the negative norm by the discrete negative norm and analyze the discrete Chebyshev weighted least-squares method. The spectral convergence is derived for the proposed method. We also present various numerical experiments. The Legendre weighted least-squares method can be easily developed by following this paper.

  13. A towel less: social norms enhance pro-environmental behavior in hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Gerhard; Loew, Kristina; Steffgen, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that normative appeals to engage in environmentally friendly behavior were most effective when they were accompanied by a provincial norm (e.g., when norms matched individuals' immediate situational circumstances). Analyzing hotel guests' towel-use during their stay, the current study tests whether messages employing provincial norms were more effective in reducing towel-use than standard environmental messages. In line with previous findings, guests of two hotels used significantly fewer towels when provincial normative appeals--rather than standard environmental messages--were communicated. These findings corroborate to the body of research demonstrating the power of social norms on environmental behavior.

  14. Shifting more than the goal posts: developing classroom norms of inquiry-based learning in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie; Fielding-Wells, Jill

    2017-06-01

    The 3-year study described in this paper aims to create new knowledge about inquiry norms in primary mathematics classrooms. Mathematical inquiry addresses complex problems that contain ambiguities, yet classroom environments often do not adopt norms that promote curiosity, risk-taking and negotiation needed to productively engage with complex problems. Little is known about how teachers and students initiate, develop and maintain norms of mathematical inquiry in primary classrooms. The research question guiding this study is, "How do classroom norms develop that facilitate student learning in primary classrooms which practice mathematical inquiry?" The project will (1) analyse a video archive of inquiry lessons to identify signature practices that enhance productive classroom norms of mathematical inquiry and facilitate learning, (2) engage expert inquiry teachers to collaborate to identify and design strategies for assisting teachers to develop and sustain norms over time that are conducive to mathematical inquiry and (3) support and study teachers new to mathematical inquiry adopting these practices in their classrooms. Anticipated outcomes include identification and illustration of classroom norms of mathematical inquiry, signature practices linked to these norms and case studies of primary teachers' progressive development of classroom norms of mathematical inquiry and how they facilitate learning.

  15. Introducing a Bayesian Approach to Determining Degree of Fit With Existing Rorschach Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; McCullaugh, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a new methodological approach to investigate the degree of fit between an independent sample and 2 existing sets of norms. Specifically, with a new adaptation of a Bayesian method, we developed a user-friendly procedure to compare the mean values of a given sample to those of 2 different sets of Rorschach norms. To illustrate our technique, we used a small, U.S. community sample of 80 adults and tested whether it resembled more closely the standard Comprehensive System norms (CS 600; Exner, 2003), or a recently introduced, internationally based set of Rorschach norms (Meyer, Erdberg, & Shaffer, 2007 ). Strengths and limitations of this new statistical technique are discussed.

  16. The empirical study of norms is just what we are missing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora eAchourioti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the goals people have when reasoning determine their own norms of reasoning. A radical descriptivism which avoids norms never worked for any science; nor can it work for the psychology of reasoning. Norms as we understand them are illustrated with examples from categorical syllogistic reasoning and the `new paradigm' of subjective probabilities. We argue that many formal systems are required for psychology: classical logic, non-monotonic logics, probability logics, relevance logic, and others. One of the hardest challenges is working out what goals reasoners have and choosing and tailoring the appropriate logics to model the norms those goals imply.

  17. Fair play: social norm compliance failures in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Callaghan, Claire; Bertoux, Maxime; Irish, Muireann; Shine, James M; Wong, Stephanie; Spiliopoulos, Leonidas; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    .... Functional neuroimaging studies have investigated social norm compliance in healthy individuals, leading to the identification of a network of fronto-subcortical regions that underpins this ability...

  18. Prosocial Norms as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. H. Siu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosocial norms like reciprocity, social responsibility, altruism, and volunteerism are ethical standards and beliefs that youth development programs often want to promote. This paper reviews evolutionary, social-cognitive, and developmental theories of prosocial development and analyzes how young people learn and adopt prosocial norms. The paper showed that very few current theories explicitly address the issue of how prosocial norms, in form of feelings of moral obligations, may be challenged by a norm of self-interest and social circumstances when prosocial acts are needed. It is necessary to develop theories which put prosocial norms as a central construct, and a new social cognitive theory of norm activation has the potential to help us understand how prosocial norms may be applied. This paper also highlights how little we know about young people perceiving and receiving prosocial norms and how influential of school policies and peer influence on the prosocial development. Lastly, while training of interpersonal competence (e.g., empathy, moral reasoning, etc. was commonly used in the youth development, their effectiveness was not systematically evaluated. It will also be interesting to examine how computer and information technology or video games may be used in e-learning of prosocial norms.

  19. Les évolutions de la norme électrique

    CERN Document Server

    Gallauziaux, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Découvrez pièce par pièce les évolutions de la norme électrique (NF C 15-100 applicable depuis le 1er juin 2003), et les équipements minimaux requis : nombre de socles de prises de courant, emplacement des points d'éclairages, prises de communication... Sachez choisir les nouveaux dispositifs de protection des circuits, désormais obligatoires : les interrupteurs différentiels de type A, les dispositifs de coupure du fil pilote des chauffages électriques, le parafoudre... Ce qu'il faut savoir sur les nouvelles prises téléphoniques et le réseau de communication domestique pour accueillir les nouveaux services multimédias et de communication (téléphonie, TV, Internet...).

  20. NORME ET VARIATION DANS LES TRADUCTIONS DE CAMILLERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna BRIANTI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The great success of the contemporary Sicilian author Andrea Camilleri in Italy and abroad because of the numerous translations of his novels is mainly due to the originality of his language that mixes dialect, a Sicilian regional variety of his invention, and standard Italian with a whole range of registers. This study offers a contrastive analysis from a sociolinguistic and translation perspective on the way that diatopic, diaphasic and diastratic dimensions are anchored in the Italian and French cultural context through the study of the French translation of two his novels ( La stagione della caccia et Il ladro di merendine . The challenge of translating a language mixed with dialect offers concrete ways to explore the dichotomy between norm (or standard language and variation in Italy and France.

  1. Weighted Nuclear Norm Minimization Based Tongue Specular Reflection Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchao Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In computational tongue diagnosis, specular reflection is generally inevitable in tongue image acquisition, which has adverse impact on the feature extraction and tends to degrade the diagnosis performance. In this paper, we proposed a two-stage (i.e., the detection and inpainting pipeline approach to address this issue: (i by considering both highlight reflection and subreflection areas, a superpixel-based segmentation method was adopted for the detection of the specular reflection areas; (ii by extending the weighted nuclear norm minimization (WNNM model, a nonlocal inpainting method is proposed for specular reflection removal. Experimental results on synthetic and real images show that the proposed method is accurate in detecting the specular reflection areas and is effective in restoring tongue image with more natural texture information of tongue body.

  2. Generalised k-Steiner Tree Problems in Normed Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Brazil, Marcus; Swanepoel, Konrad J; Thomas, Doreen A

    2011-01-01

    The 1-Steiner tree problem, the problem of constructing a Steiner minimum tree containing at most one Steiner point, has been solved in the Euclidean plane by Georgakopoulos and Papadimitriou using plane subdivisions called oriented Dirichlet cell partitions. Their algorithm produces an optimal solution within $\\mathcal{O}(n^2)$ time. In this paper we generalise their approach in order to solve the $k$-Steiner tree problem, in which the Steiner minimum tree may contain up to $k$ Steiner points for a given constant $k$. We also extend their approach further to encompass arbitrary normed planes, and to solve a much wider class of problems, including the $k$-bottleneck Steiner tree problem and other generalised $k$-Steiner tree problems. We show that, for any fixed $k$, such problems can be solved in $\\mathcal{O}(n^{2k})$ time.

  3. Norm of Bethe Wave Function as a Determinant

    CERN Document Server

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2009-01-01

    This is a historical note. Bethe Ansatz solvable models are considered, for example XXZ Heisenberg anti-ferromagnet and Bose gas with delta interaction. Periodic boundary conditions lead to Bethe equation. The square of the norm of Bethe wave function is equal to a determinant of linearized system of Bethe equations (determinant of matrix of second derivatives of Yang action). The proof was first published in Communications in Mathematical Physics, vol 86, page 391 in l982. Also domain wall boundary conditions for 6 vertex model were discovered in the same paper [see Appendix D]. These play an important role for algebraic combinatorics: alternating sign matrices, domino tiling and plane partition. Many publications are devoted to six vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions.

  4. Italian norms for the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, V; Bellusci, A; Russo, P M

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents norms for an Italian translation of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C; Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Archival data on hypnosis research subjects recruited over a 10-year period of research on hypnosis were pooled, resulting in an aggregate sample of 356 participants (263 female and 93 male). Score distribution, item difficulty levels, and reliability of the SHSS:C were computed. Of this group, 218 subjects were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility approximately 3 weeks prior to administration of the SHSS:C. The remaining 138 subjects received only the SHSS:C. Results suggest that the Italian version of the SHSS:C is a reliable and valid measure.

  5. On Ideal Convergence of Double Sequences in Probabilistic Normed Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay KUMAR; Bernardo LAFUERZA-GUILL(E)N

    2012-01-01

    The notion of ideal convergence is a generalization of statistical convergence which has been intensively investigated in last few years.For an admissible ideal ∮ (∈) N × N,the aim of the present paper is to introduce the concepts of ∮-convergence and ∮*-convergence for double sequences on probabilistic normed spaces (PN spaces for short).We give some relations related to these notions and find condition on the ideal ∮ for which both the notions coincide.We also define ∮-Cauchy and ∮*-Cauchy double sequences on PN spaces and show that ∮-convergent double sequences are ∮-Cauchy on these spaces.We establish example which shows that our method of convergence for double sequences on PN spaces is more general.

  6. The Russian Orthodox Church as moral norm entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2016-04-02

    Conflicts over religious symbols in the public sphere, gay marriage, abortion or gender equality have shown their disruptive potential across many societies in the world. They have also become the subject of political and legal debates in international institutions. These conflicts emerge out of different worldviews and normative conceptions of the good, and they are frequently framed in terms of competing interpretations of human rights. One newcomer voice in conflicts over rights and values in the international sphere is the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), which in recent years has become an active promoter of 'traditional values' both inside Russia and internationally. This article studies the ideational prerequisites and dynamics of Russian Orthodox 'norm protagonism' in the international arena.

  7. Normes internationales de justice et globalisation de l'ethique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audard, Cathérine

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo procura mostrar que sem uma comunidade civil democratizante de justificação, em lugar do atual sistema internacional, as normas da justiça global não passam de uma ficção, uma mera expressão do imperialismo cultural e político, um instrumento de controle e dominação dos povos em escala mundial, segundo um modelo colonizador ampliado que torna as declarações dos direitos humanos inoperantes. The article seeks to show that without a civil, democratizing community of justification, replacing the current international system, the norms of global justice remain a fiction, a mere expression of cultural and political imperialism, an instrument of control and domination of the peoples worldwide, according to an enlarged colonizing model which render the declarations of human rights inoperative.

  8. Poultry welfare scenario in South America: norms and regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBTR Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare related issues have been intensely discussed in recent years as a consequence of changes in public attitudes and regulatory reforms that are taking place in many countries. A combination of public opinion pressure and trade policy has driven requirements for regulation and the World Trade Organization (WTO assigned the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE to develop guidelines that could be used as international standards. However, trade disputes related to animal welfare are not likely to be resolved under the auspices of OIE, and access to international markets may be questioned in a way that does not necessarily reflect attitudes to animal production in emerging economies, such as those in South America. This paper presents an overall view of basic welfare issues and points out specific items related to the present scenario of norms and regulations that are being implemented in South America, where the growing poultry industry is an important economic activity.

  9. L{sub p} norm approaches for estimating voltage flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inan, Aslan [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical-Electronics, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey); Bakroun, Maher [Antrim Crescent, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Heydt, Gerald T. [Fulton School of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2010-12-15

    It is important to accurately estimate instantaneous voltage flicker magnitudes and frequencies in order to correctly evaluate voltage fluctuations. Voltage flicker is a problem in electric power quality. Different approaches used to determine the magnitude of the voltage flicker have been presented: measurement methods generally use a flickermeter device. Simulation methods require a computer model of the disturbing load and the flickermeter. Calculation methods necessitate a simplified empirical formula. Estimation algorithms are based on the estimation of the voltage flicker components. In this paper, two models of voltage flicker are discussed: L{sub p} estimation algorithms utilizing L{sub 1}, L{sub 2} and L{sub {infinity}} norms are used to estimate the voltage magnitudes of the flicker signals as well as the fundamental voltage magnitude. The main result is that it is possible to design an L{sub p} estimator to identify flicker frequency and amplitude from time series measurements. (author)

  10. On nonlinear stability in various random normed spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadati Reza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we prove the nonlinear stability of the quartic functional equation 1 6 f ( x + 4 y + f ( 4 x - y = 3 0 6 9 f x + y 3 + f ( x + 2 y (1 + 1 3 6 f ( x - y - 1 3 9 4 f ( x + y + 4 2 5 f ( y - 1 5 3 0 f ( x (2 (3  in the setting of random normed spaces Furthermore, the interdisciplinary relation among the theory of random spaces, the theory of non-Archimedean space, the theory of fixed point theory, the theory of intuitionistic spaces and the theory of functional equations are also presented in the article.

  11. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  12. Descriptive drinking norms in Native American and non-Hispanic White college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Kylee J; Pearson, Matthew R; Venner, Kamilla L; Greenfield, Brenna L

    2017-09-01

    College students tend to overestimate how much their peers drink, which is associated with higher personal alcohol use. However, research has not yet examined if this phenomenon holds true among Native American (NA) college students. This study examined associations between descriptive norms and alcohol use/consequences in a sample of NA and non-Hispanic White (NHW) college students. NA (n=147, 78.6% female) and NHW (n=246, 67.8% female) undergraduates completed an online survey. NAs NHWs showed similar descriptive norms such that the "typical college student," "typical NA student," and "typical NHW student" were perceived to drink more than "best friends." "Best friends" descriptive norms (i.e., estimations of how many drinks per week were consumed by participants' best friends) were the most robust predictors of alcohol use/consequences. Effect size estimates of the associations between drinking norms and participants' alcohol use were consistently positive and ranged from r=0.25 to r=0.51 across the four reference groups. Negative binomial hurdle models revealed that all descriptive norms tended to predict drinking, and "best friends" drinking norms predicted alcohol consequences. Apart from one interaction effect, likely due to familywise error rate, these associations were not qualified by interactions with racial/ethnic group. We found similar patterns between NAs and NHWs both in the pattern of descriptive norms across reference groups and in the strength of associations between descriptive norms and alcohol use/consequences. Although these results suggest that descriptive norms operate similarly among NAs as other college students, additional research is needed to identify whether other norms (e.g., injunctive norms) operate similarly across NA and NHW students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Inventory evaluation and prognosis of NORM residues for the final disposal in a radioactive waste final repository. Final report; Bestandsaufnahme und Prognose von NORM-Rueckstaenden fuer die Endlagerung in einem Endlager fuer radioaktive Abfaelle. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettenhuber, E.; Gellermann, R.; Kahnwald, S.; Kunze, C.; Weiss, D.; Schulz, H.

    2014-11-15

    The report on the evaluation and prognosis of NORM residues for the final disposal covers the following issues: scope of the project; practice of release of NORM residues for utilization and disposal and its impact on the mass balance of NORM wastes; compilation of the amount of NORM residues with improbable clearance from radiation protection monitoring; identification of so far existing storage sites and interim storage possibilities and their capacities; NORM residues that are not released from radiation surveillance and need presumably the delivering to a radioactive waste repository; estimation of cost and evaluation of economic aspects for the options interim storage and final disposal; options for the final disposal of NORM wastes.

  14. Considerations on legislation, transportation and international trade of mineral commodities containing NORM; Consideracoes sobre legislacao, transporte e comercio internacional de commodities minerais contendo NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Borges, Flavia Luiza Soares; Villegas, Raul Alberto Sodre

    2016-07-01

    The radiation protection and transport procedures of the main importing countries of the Brazilian minerals, which are related to radioactive minerals are presented. The references and an overview about the safety procedures and guides, norms and regulations about NORM related to radiation limits for the public and personnel are also commented. The exemption values in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA recommendations and the legislation of the main importers of Brazilian mineral goods: China, Europe and Community and United States are introduced.

  15. Examining Conformity to Masculinity Norms as a Function of RIASEC Vocational Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, James R.; Perry, Justin C.; Coonerty-Femiano, Aimee; Catraio, Christine; Land, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined how college men's conformity to an array of masculinity norms varied as a function of their vocational interests to better understand the gendered context of men's vocational development. Three hundred ten mostly Caucasian and heterosexual college men completed the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory, and their answer to…

  16. Varieties of localization: international norms and the commodification of knowledge in India and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eimer, T.R.; Lütz, S.; Schüren, V.

    2016-01-01

    The legal implementation of internationally agreed norms on a domestic level gives momentum to a substantial reinterpretation. Based on this insight, this article develops an ideal-typology of possible ‘localization’ outcomes. Apart from a literal adoption of an international norm, we show that the

  17. Society of the Alone: Freedom, Privacy, and Utilitarianism as Dominant Norms in the SRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Joyce

    1975-01-01

    The social world of the aged SRO tenant is described and analyzed. Characteristic features include an impoverishment of social roles and relationships which result in a "world of strangers." Dominant norms of SRO life which preclude the establishment of intimacy are examined; these include prescriptive norms of privacy, freedom, and…

  18. Four Year-Olds Use Norm-Based Coding for Face Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Linda; Read, Ainsley; Rhodes, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    Norm-based coding, in which faces are coded as deviations from an average face, is an efficient way of coding visual patterns that share a common structure and must be distinguished by subtle variations that define individuals. Adults and school-aged children use norm-based coding for face identity but it is not yet known if pre-school aged…

  19. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  20. ICT in Preschool: Friend or Foe? The Significance of Norms in a Changing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Folkesson, Anne-Mari

    2012-01-01

    Societal change and prescriptions in curricula demand a change in educational practice. This can create conflicts between practitioners' usual practices (norms) and those prescribed by curricula. One example is the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into preschool practice. Hence, our aim is to analyse how norms are…